WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy consumption scenarios

  1. Pakistan energy consumption scenario and some alternate energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Pakistan with its energy-deficient resources is highly dependent on import-oriented energy affected the economy because of repeated energy price hike on international horizon. The energy consumption pattern in Pakistan comprises about two-third in commercial energy and one-third in non-commercial forms. Most of the country's energy requirements are met by oil, gas hydro power, coal, nuclear energy and thermal power. Pakistan meets it's commercial energy requirements indigenously up to 64%. The balance of deficit of 35-40% is met through import. The consumption of various agro-residues and wood as fuel also plays a vital role. The analysis shows that emphasis needs to be placed on new and renewable resources of energy besides adopting technologies for energy conservation. Renewable energy depends on energy income and constitutes the development process. The are several renewable energy options such as biogas technology, micro-hydro power generation, direct solar energy and biomass energy conservation etc. By improving the conservation techniques as designs of solar converters, pre treating the biomass fuel, increasing the effectiveness of carbonization and pyrolysis increases the energy production. (A.B.)

  2. Energy consumption in industry, 1990 - 2035 - Scenarios I to IV for various sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, W.; Ebert, O.; Weber, F.

    2006-12-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study with respect to industrial energy consumption which provided scenarios for future Swiss energy consumption. Four scenarios were elaborated: Continuation of present policy, increased co-operation between state and industry, more ambitious energy policy priorities and a scenario with even more ambitious goals - the so-called '2000 Watt Society'. For each of these scenarios several variants and a selection of sub-variants were defined, including increased prices, higher gross domestic product GDP, warmer climate and various carbon levies. The specific energy consumption of 16 different industrial sectors is examined and the effects of the various scenarios on several factors are considered. Data and results are presented in tabular and graphical form. Various measures that could influence energy consumption are listed and discussed, as are the modelling methods employed and the plausibility of the results obtained

  3. Fuel consumption from vehicles of China until 2030 in energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingyu; Tian Weili; Zheng Yingyue; Zhang Lili

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of fuel (gasoline and diesel) consumption for vehicles in China under different long-term energy policy scenarios is presented here. The fuel economy of different vehicle types is subject to variation of government regulations; hence the fuel consumption of passenger cars (PCs), light trucks (Lts), heavy trucks (Hts), buses and motor cycles (MCs) are calculated with respect to (i) the number of vehicles, (ii) distance traveled, and (iii) fuel economy. On the other hand, the consumption rate of alternative energy sources (i.e. ethanol, methanol, biomass-diesel and CNG) is not evaluated here. The number of vehicles is evaluated using the economic elastic coefficient method, relating to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) from 1997 to 2007. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system software is employed to develop a simple model to project fuel consumption in China until 2030 under these scenarios. Three energy consumption decrease scenarios are designed to estimate the reduction of fuel consumption: (i) 'business as usual' (BAU); (ii) 'advanced fuel economy' (AFE); and (iii) 'alternative energy replacement' (AER). It is shown that fuel consumption is predicted to reach 992.28 Mtoe (million tons oil equivalent) with the BAU scenario by 2030. In the AFE and AER scenarios, fuel consumption is predicted to be 734.68 and 600.36 Mtoe, respectively, by 2030. In the AER scenario, fuel consumption in 2030 will be reduced by 391.92 (39.50%) and 134.29 (18.28%) Mtoe in comparison to the BAU and AFE scenarios, respectively. In conclusion, our models indicate that the energy conservation policies introduced by governmental institutions are potentially viable, as long as they are effectively implemented.

  4. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-08-01

    While China's 11th Five Year Plan called for a reduction of energy intensity by 2010, whether and how the energy consumption trend can be changed in a short time has been hotly debated. This research intends to evaluate the impact of a variety of scenarios of GDP growth, energy elasticity and energy efficiency improvement on energy consumption in commercial buildings in China using a detailed China End-use Energy Model. China's official energy statistics have limited information on energy demand by end use. This is a particularly pertinent issue for building energy consumption. The authors have applied reasoned judgments, based on experience of working on Chinese efficiency standards and energy related programs, to present a realistic interpretation of the current energy data. The bottom-up approach allows detailed consideration of end use intensity, equipment efficiency, etc., thus facilitating assessment of potential impacts of specific policy and technology changes on building energy use. The results suggest that: (1) commercial energy consumption in China's current statistics is underestimated by about 44%, and the fuel mix is misleading; (2) energy efficiency improvements will not be sufficient to offset the strong increase in end-use penetration and intensity in commercial buildings; (3) energy intensity (particularly electricity) in commercial buildings will increase; (4) different GDP growth and elasticity scenarios could lead to a wide range of floor area growth trajectories , and therefore, significantly impact energy consumption in commercial buildings.

  5. The energy consumption of traffic 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in the traffic sector for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various energy levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. The areas examined include road, rail and air traffic as well as 'off-road' traffic. Infrastructure developments are commented on. The four scenarios are examined for various sensitivities including high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. Alternative fuels are looked at, as are further factors such as fuel tourism, pollutant emissions and costs. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report is completed with a comprehensive appendix

  6. The energy consumption of private households 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, P.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in Swiss private households for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  7. The energy consumption of the services and farming sectors 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebischer, B.; Catenazzi, G.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in the services sector and for farming for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, CO 2 levy, high prices and warmer climate. The models and methods used are examined and examples of their use are quoted. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  8. Experimental Energy Consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for Data Collection Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tuset-Peiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA and Distributed Queuing (DQ. We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  9. Experimental energy consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for data collection scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier

    2014-07-24

    Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  10. Rural energy survey and scenario analysis of village energy consumption: A case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, providing all citizens an access to modern forms of energy is among the central energy policy objectives, as the linkages between modern energy services and human development are widely recognized. This paper presents in a scenario analysis of rural energy consumption, how energy services in different sectors of a village economy contribute to the achievement of the UNDP Millennium Development Goals. In a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic, household energy demand and energy uses were surveyed immediately prior to the electrification of the village. Based on the situation preceding electrification of the village, the development of village electrification was studied by simulating the village energy system, accounting for all village energy uses but transportation. To study the potential development of electricity demand in the village, three scenarios were constructed using the LEAP model: 'residential demand', 'income generation' and 'public services'. Energy demand in each scenario was analyzed with reference to the Millennium Development Goals.

  11. Securing energy efficiency as a high priority. Scenarios for common appliance electricity consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foran, T. [Unit for Social and Environmental Research USER, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, P.O. Box 144, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Du Pont, P.T. [International Resources Group and Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, Bangkok (Thailand); Parinya, P. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Phumaraphand, N. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Between 1995 and 2008, Thailand's energy efficiency programs produced an estimated total of 8,369 GWh/year energy savings and 1,471 MW avoided peak power. Despite these impressive saving figures, relatively little future scenario analysis is available to policy makers. Before the 2008 global financial crisis, electricity planners forecasted 5-6% long-term increases in demand. We explored options for efficiency improvements in Thailand's residential sector, which consumes more than 20% of Thailand's total electricity consumption of 150 TWh/year. We constructed baseline and efficient scenarios for the period 2006-2026, for air conditioners, refrigerators, fans, rice cookers, and compact fluorescent light bulbs. We drew on an appliance database maintained by Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand's voluntary labeling program. For the five appliances modeled, the efficiency scenario results in total savings of 12% of baseline consumption after 10 years and 29% of baseline after 20 years. Approximately 80% of savings come from more stringent standards for air conditioners, including phasing out unregulated air conditioner sales within 6 years. Shifting appliance efficiency standards to current best-in-market levels within 6 years produces additional savings. We discuss institutional aspects of energy planning in Thailand that thus far have limited the consideration of energy efficiency as a high-priority resource.

  12. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation Scenarios of Mea Fah Luang University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laingoen Onn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, quantity of the educational institutes building shared one fourth of commercial building. Among the energy consumption and conservation in the building in Thailand are mostly study in typical office and resident building. Mea Fah Luang University (MFU was selected to represent the educational institutes building where located in the northern part of Thailand. The average temperature in the northern is lower than other parts of Thailand. This study was firstly collected the data about quantity and behaviour of energy consumption in MFU based on the energy audit handbook. Although MFU is located in the northern of Thailand. The highest energy consumption is in the part of air condition. When the energy efficiency appliances and energy conservation building are implemented, the cost of energy will be saved around 15,867,960 Baht. Furthermore, the greenhouse gas emission is also reduced about 72.01 kg CO2, equivalent/m2/year.

  13. Modelling long term energy consumption of French residential sector - improving behavioral realism and simulating ambitious scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibe, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to integrate components of an economic model of the behaviors of households in a technological model of French residential sector energy consumption dynamics and to analyze the consequences of this integration on the results of long-term residential energy consumption simulations (2030-2050). The results of this work highlight significant differences between the actual household space heating energy consumptions and those estimated by engineering models. These differences are largely due to the elasticity of thermal comfort demand to thermal comfort price. Our improved model makes it possible to conjointly integrate the concepts of price elasticity and rebound effect (the increase in energy service level following an improvement in energy performance of the equipment providing the service) in a daily behavior model. Regarding space heating consumption, the consequences of this behavioral adaptation - combined with some technical defects - are a significant reduction of the technical and behavioral energy saving potentials (while effective daily use of energy is generally lower than predicted by engineering models) at a national level. This implies that mid and long-term national energy policy targets (a 38% drop in primary energy consumption by 2020 and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by a factor of 4 by 2050 compared to the 1990 level) will be harder to reach than previously expected for the residential sector. These results also imply that a strong reduction in carbon emissions cannot be achieved solely through the diffusion of efficient technologies and energy conservation behavior but also requires to significantly lower the average carbon content of residential space heating energy through the generalized use of wood energy. The second issue addressed in this thesis is the influence of the resolution of a techno-economic model (i.e. its ability to represent the various values that a variable can have within the modeled system) on its

  14. [Synergistic emission reduction of chief air pollutants and greenhouse gases-based on scenario simulations of energy consumptions in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan-bo; Li, Wei

    2013-05-01

    It is one of the common targets and important tasks for energy management and environmental control of Beijing to improve urban air quality while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, based on the interim and long term developmental planning and energy structure of the city, three energy consumption scenarios in low, moderate and high restrictions were designed by taking the potential energy saving policies and environmental targets into account. The long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model was employed to predict and evaluate reduction effects of the chief air pollutants and GHG during 2010 to 2020 under the three given scenarios. The results showed that if urban energy consumption system was optimized or adjusted by exercising energy saving and emission reduction and pollution control measures, the predicted energy uses will be reduced by 10 to 30 million tons of coal equivalents by 2020. Under the two energy scenarios with moderate and high restrictions, the anticipated emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, VOC and GHG will be respectively reduced to 71 to 100.2, 159.2 to 218.7, 89.8 to 133.8, 51.4 to 96.0, 56.4 to 74.8 and 148 200 to 164 700 thousand tons. Correspondingly, when compared with the low-restriction scenario, the reducing rate will be 53% to 67% , 50% to 64% , 33% to 55% , 25% to 60% , 41% to 55% and 26% to 34% respectively. Furthermore, based on a study of synergistic emission reduction of the air pollutants and GHG, it was proposed that the adjustment and control of energy consumptions shall be intensively developed in the three sectors of industry, transportation and services. In this way the synergistic reduction of the emissions of chief air pollutants and GHG will be achieved; meanwhile the pressures of energy demands may be deliberately relieved.

  15. Future scenarios for energy consumption and carbon emissions due to demographic transitions in Chinese households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Biying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Kei, Gomi; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2018-02-01

    Population dynamics has been acknowledged as a key concern for projecting future emissions, partly because of the huge uncertainties related to human behaviour. However, the heterogeneous shifts of human behaviour in the process of demographic transition are not well explored when scrutinizing the impacts of population dynamics on carbon emissions. Here, we expand the existing population-economy-environment analytical structure to address the above limitations by representing the trend of demographic transitions to small-family and ageing society. We specifically accommodate for inter- and intra-life-stage variations in time allocation and consumption in the population rather than assuming a representative household, and take a less developed province, Sichuan, in China as the empirical context. Our results show that the demographic shift to small and ageing households will boost energy consumption and carbon emissions, driven by the joint variations in time-use and consumption patterns. Furthermore, biased pictures of changing emissions will emerge if the time effect is disregarded.

  16. ASSESSMENT AND DECISION MAKING SCENARIO OF CARBON EMISSION IN SUGAR INDUSTRY BASED ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAIRUL SALEH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to assess and create some scenarios in the sugar industry, which aimed to decrease the production of CO2 emissions in PT Madubaru. In this research, the assessment of CO2 emission is based on the energy consumption used in supply chain activities during the production period in 2014. The problem faced in this research is the used of energy for transportation and production in a complex condition. Thus, simulation modeling based on system dynamic has been proposed to build the assessment model and create a scenario. The result shows that PT Madubaru produces around 174,246,500 kg in 171 days or during the production period in 2014. It means that the amount of CO2 emission in a day is around 1,018,985 kg. Two scenarios haves been developeded in order to reduce CO2 emissions. First, changing the old type boiler with the new one by increasing 155% fuel efficiency. This scenario is proven to reduce the amount of CO2 by 44% or become 98,800,400 kg. Second, eliminating the use of lorry which reduce the 0.2% of CO2 emission or equal to 387,600 kg.

  17. Italian energy scenarios comparative evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaldi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews some representative scenarios of the evolution of the Italian primary energy consumption, updated recently. After an overview of the main macroeconomics assumptions the scenario results are cross checked at sectorial level, with a brief discussion of the underlining data and energy intensity trends. The emissions of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x resulting from the considered scenarios are also reported and discussed [it

  18. Italian energy scenarios: Markal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Energy scenarios carried out through formal models comply with scientific criteria such as internal coherence and transparency. Besides, Markal methodology allows a good understanding of the complex nature of the energy system. The business-as-usual scenario carried out through the Markal-Italy model shows that structural changes occurring in end-use sectors will continue to drive up energy consumption, in spite of the slow economic growth and the quite high energy prices [it

  19. The Kra Isthmus Canal: A New Strategic Solution for China's Energy Consumption Scenario?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheng Yong; Lee, Jason Wai Chow

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual study that examines the viability of the construction of the Kra Isthmus within the context of the five dimensions of megaproject success of Sovacool and Cooper (The governance of energy megaprojects: politics, hubris, and energy security, 2013)—social (governance), technological (systems), democratic (politics), externalities (economics, ecology), and risks assessments (accountability), and its possible impact on China's strategic energy supply chain. One of the objectives of this study is also to discuss the current impacts, perceived benefits, and risks of China's dependence on its multinational and transnational pipelines. China could see the construction of Kra Canal as an alternative option for its strategic sourcing activities especially crude oil and gas at much lower costs. The megaproject would become a passageway that connects the Indian Ocean, Andaman Sea, and the Gulf of Siam at the choke point of Isthmus region in Thailand. However, this megaproject could also trigger the internal conflicts of Thailand, and affect the ASEAN countries' political and economic relationships.

  20. The Kra Isthmus Canal: A New Strategic Solution for China's Energy Consumption Scenario?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheng Yong; Lee, Jason Wai Chow

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual study that examines the viability of the construction of the Kra Isthmus within the context of the five dimensions of megaproject success of Sovacool and Cooper (The governance of energy megaprojects: politics, hubris, and energy security, 2013)-social (governance), technological (systems), democratic (politics), externalities (economics, ecology), and risks assessments (accountability), and its possible impact on China's strategic energy supply chain. One of the objectives of this study is also to discuss the current impacts, perceived benefits, and risks of China's dependence on its multinational and transnational pipelines. China could see the construction of Kra Canal as an alternative option for its strategic sourcing activities especially crude oil and gas at much lower costs. The megaproject would become a passageway that connects the Indian Ocean, Andaman Sea, and the Gulf of Siam at the choke point of Isthmus region in Thailand. However, this megaproject could also trigger the internal conflicts of Thailand, and affect the ASEAN countries' political and economic relationships.

  1. Interpreting energy scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gokul; Edmonds, James

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative scenarios from energy-economic models inform decision-making about uncertain futures. Now, research shows the different ways these scenarios are subsequently used by users not involved in their initial development. In the absence of clear guidance from modellers, users may place too much or too little confidence in scenario assumptions and results.

  2. Global energy context: future scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    After a brief analysis of the history of global energy consumption, this paper discusses a plausible scenario of energy needs and related carbon emissions for the rest of the century. The global outlook and the probable evolution of several factors that impact on energy policy considerations - even on the local scale - demonstrate the great complexity and planetary dimension of the problems, as well as the almost certain sterility of out-of-context domestic energy-policy measures [it

  3. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  4. Scenarios for the transportation sector's energy consumption in Denmark. Focus on road transport. Documentation report; Scenarier for transportsektorens energiforbrug i Danmark. Med fokus paa vejtransporten. Dokumentationsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hethey, J.; Kofoed-Wiuff, A.; Lindboe, H.H.

    2011-05-15

    The purpose of this project was to make a number of predictions of how the Danish energy consumption for transport purposes may evolve until 2035. The analyses include the total energy consumption for passenger and freight transport and transportation-related energy consumption in the production industry. Air and maritime transport and freight trains are not considered in the analyses. Five scenarios have been calculated, including a reference scenario, three technology scenarios (efficiency, electric vehicle, a biofuel scenario), and a combined scenario. For all scenarios, the development of fuel consumption is calculated and CO{sub 2} emissions both locally and totally are presented. The analyses show that the total energy consumption and total CO{sub 2} emission had a peak in 2007, after which the already registered decrease is likely to continue. This continued decline happens in spite of continued growth in transport services, primarily due to the assumed and expected development of more fuel-efficient cars. (ln)

  5. Towards greener data centres, 2012-2015. Trends in energy consumptions, renewable energy and CO2 emissions in various scenarios; Vergroenen datacenters 2012-2015. Ontwikkeling van energiegebruik, hiernieuwbare energie en CO2-emissies bij verschillende scenario's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afman, M.R.; Wielders, L.M.L.; De Buck, A.

    2012-03-15

    CE Delft has conducted a study on the potential for reducing the CO2 emissions of Dutch data centres. It was carried out for the development organisation Hivos, which is appealing to these centres to make an active effort to reduce their energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The study estimates the total power consumption of Dutch data centres at 1.6 TWh, equivalent to the consumption of 450,000 households. In a business-as-usual scenario consumption is predicted to rise substantially, to 2.1 TWh in 2015, equivalent to the consumption of 600,000 households and 2% of aggregate Dutch consumption. There is plenty of scope for the data centre industry to operate more sustainably and reduce its CO2 emissions: (1) a pivotal first step is to reduce energy consumption by improving energy efficiency. The City of Amsterdam now has energy efficiency standards in place for data centres, and if these were to hold for centres outside Amsterdam, too, a 20% reduction is energy consumption could be achieved, equivalent to the consumption of 85,000 households. Since many of the measures concerned are already cost-effective, numerous steps are already being taken in this direction; (2) the most effective way to improve the sustainability profile with respect to energy use is for data centres to invest in more renewable energy capacity, either themselves or in collaboration with other parties, passing on additional costs to customers. This will not only lead to a real decline in CO2 emissions, but also send out a clear signal. Simply purchasing 'green power' on the market, while being a far cheaper option, does not lead to cuts in carbon emissions. There is less green power available with an environmental 'Milieukeur' certificate and besides helping make consumers more environmentally aware it can also have an indirect political effect. A quite different option that does lead to carbon cuts is to offset emissions by funding renewable energy projects, in the

  6. Projection of U.S. forest sector carbon sequestration under U.S. and global timber market and wood energy consumption scenarios, 2010-2060

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a modeling framework to examine change over time in U.S. forest sector carbon inventory (in U.S. timberland tree biomass and harvested wood products) for alternative projections of U.S. and global timber markets, including wood energy consumption, based on established IPCC/RPA scenarios. Results indicated that the U.S. forest sector’s projected...

  7. The UFE Prospective scenarios for energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After an overview of the French energy consumption in 2011 (final energy consumption, distribution of CO 2 emissions related to energy consumption), this Power Point presentation proposes graphs and figures illustrating UFE's prospective scenarios for energy demand. The objective is to foresee energy demand in 2050, to study the impact of possible actions on energy demand, and to assess the impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses relate to demographic evolution, economic growth, energy intensity evolution, energy efficiency, and use transfers. Factors of evolution of energy demand are discussed: relationship between demography and energy consumption, new uses of electricity (notably with TICs), relationship between energy intensity and economic growth. Actions on demand are discussed. The results of different scenarios of technical evolution are presented

  8. ANCRE scenarios for energy transition. Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, Nathalie; Des Courtils, Nicolas; Hache, Emmanuel; Liegeard, Alban; Lorne, Daphne; Duplan, Jean-Luc; Kalaydjian, Francois; Heintze, Eric; Tilagone, Richard; Henriot, Stephane; Forti, Laurent; Barthelemy, Pascal; Merlen, Elisabeth; Criqui, Patrick; Mathy, Sandrine; Menanteau, Philippe; Devezeaux De Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Avril, Sophie; Cavata, Christian; Le Duigou, Alain; Le Net, Elisabeth; Marcucci-Demeure, Jeanne; Safa, Henri; Topper, Benjamin; Touboul, Francoise; Carre, Franck; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Charbit, Francoise; Mermilliod, Nicole; Mermilliod, Nicole; Le Net, Elisabeth; Teissier, Olivier; Charrue, Herve; Colonna, Paul; Legrand, Jack; Vidal, Olivier; Goffe, Bruno; Mueller, Alex; Flamant, Gilles; Allard, Francis; Most, Jean-Michel; Matarasso, Pierre; Brault, Pascal; Lemoine, Lionel; Achard, Jean-Luc; Uster, Guillaume; Delsey, Jean; Lucchese, Paul; Tadrist, Lounes; Hadjsaid, Nouredine

    2014-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the energy system by presenting the determining factors of energy demand and of CO 2 emissions per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and biomass), by analysing energy systems and CO 2 emissions (energy sources, energy vectors, networks and storage, energy and CO 2 assessment for France), and by describing the guidelines of the scenarios proposed by ANCRE. The three main scenarios are characterized by a stronger sobriety, an electricity-based de-carbonation (with a variant based on nuclear and renewable energies), and diversified vectors. They are notably compared to a trend-based reference scenario. Results are discussed in terms of energy consumption (primary and final energy, consumption by the different sectors), of energy production and CO 2 emissions. Scenarios are assessed in terms of economic, environmental and societal, political and strategic criteria. Some consequences for research topics and funding are identified

  9. Life-cycle analysis of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption in the 2016 MYPP algal biofuel scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Edward [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pegallapati, Ambica K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coleman, Andre [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Sue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Multi-year Program Plan (MYPP) describes the bioenergy objectives pursued by BETO, the strategies for achieving those objectives, the current state of technology (SOT), and a number of design cases that explore cost and operational performance required to advance the SOT towards middle and long term goals (MYPP, 2016). Two options for converting algae to biofuel intermediates were considered in the MYPP, namely algal biofuel production via lipid extraction and algal biofuel production by thermal processing. The first option, lipid extraction, is represented by the Combined Algae Processing (CAP) pathway in which algae are hydrolyzed in a weak acid pretreatment step. The treated slurry is fermented for ethanol production from sugars. The fermentation stillage contains most of the lipids from the original biomass, which are recovered through wet solvent extraction. The process residuals after lipid extraction, which contain much of the original mass of amino acids and proteins, are directed to anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production and recycle of N and P nutrients. The second option, thermal processing, comprises direct hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of the wet biomass, separation of aqueous, gas, and oil phases, and treatment of the aqueous phase with catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) to produce biogas and to recover N and P nutrients. The present report describes a life cycle analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the CAP and HTL options for the three scenarios just described. Water use is also reported. Water use during algal biofuel production comes from evaporation during cultivation, discharge to bleed streams to control pond salinity (“blowdown”), and from use during preprocessing and upgrading. For scenarios considered to date, most water use was from evaporation and, secondarily, from bleed streams. Other use was relatively small at the level of

  10. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  11. Energy Consumption Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption Database The California Energy Commission has created this on-line database for informal reporting ) classifications. The database also provides easy downloading of energy consumption data into Microsoft Excel (XLSX

  12. Scenario Development for Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Farsang, Andrea; Jégou, Francois

    Over the last few decades, considerable changes in food consumption – such as eating habits, dietary changes, availability and accessability of food – have taken place. These are mainly due to an increase in productivity of the food sector, a greater diversity in product choices and a decrease in...... public procurement 3. shorter distance and closer relations between producers and consumers 4. community gardens and urban gardening 5. food trade placed in local squares 6. energy conscious and efficient food consumption....

  13. Global geothermal energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, A.; Pandey, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    To resolve the energy crisis efforts have been made in exploring and utilizing nonconventional energy resources since last few decades. Geothermal energy is one such energy resource. Fossil fuels are the earth's energy capital like money deposited in bank years ago. The energy to build this energy came mainly from the sun. Steam geysers and hot water springs are other manifestations of geothermal energy. Most of the 17 countries that today harness geothermal energy have simply tapped such resources where they occur. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  14. The energy consumption of private households 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV; Der Energieverbrauch der Privaten Haushalte, 1990 - 2035. Ergebnisse der Szenarien I bis IV und der zugehoerigen Sensitivitaeten BIP hoch, Preise hoch und Klima waermer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, P.

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in Swiss private households for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  15. Life-Cycle Analysis of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Water Consumption in the 2016 MYPP Algal Biofuel Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Edward; Pegallapati, Ambica; Davis, Ryan; Markham, Jennifer; Coleman, Andre; Jones, Sue; Wigmosta, Mark; Zhu, Yunhua

    2016-06-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Multi-year Program Plan (MYPP) describes the bioenergy objectives pursued by BETO, the strategies for achieving those objectives, the current state of technology (SOT), and a number of design cases that explore cost and operational performance required to advance the SOT towards middle and long term goals (MYPP, 2016). Two options for converting algae to biofuel intermediates were considered in the MYPP, namely algal biofuel production via lipid extraction and algal biofuel production by thermal processing. The first option, lipid extraction, is represented by the Combined Algae Processing (CAP) pathway in which algae are hydrolyzed in a weak acid pretreatment step. The treated slurry is fermented for ethanol production from sugars. The fermentation stillage contains most of the lipids from the original biomass, which are recovered through wet solvent extraction. The process residuals after lipid extraction, which contain much of the original mass of amino acids and proteins, are directed to anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production and recycle of N and P nutrients. The second option, thermal processing, comprises direct hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of the wet biomass, separation of aqueous, gas, and oil phases, and treatment of the aqueous phase with catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) to produce biogas and to recover N and P nutrients.

  16. Energy scenarios for New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G. S.; Ellis, M. J.; Scott, G. C.; Wood, J. R.

    1977-10-15

    Three energy scenarios have been formulated for New Zealand. They concentrate on those aspects of society which have a direct bearing on energy, emphasizing three important issues: major shifts in society's values in relation to material wealth, pollution, and resources. The scenarios make assumptions that certain overall social conditions would prevail so that all decisions of government, the private sector, and individuals would be governed by the requirement to conform to the scenario theme in a way not possible under existing social and political conditions. The 3 scenarios are known as Continuation, Low New Zealand Pollution, and Limited Growth.

  17. Energy consumption and energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on energy consumption and energy prices related to a number of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) lands covering the period 1951-1990. The information sources are described and the development of energy consumption and prices in Denmark are illustrated in relation to these other countries. The energy intensity (the relation between energy consumption and the gross national product) is dealt with. Here it is possible to follow development during the whole post-war period. It is generally understood that Denmark saved large amounts of energy after 1973-74 but, taken over the whole post-war period, savings and decline in energy-gross national product relations are less dramatic compared to conditions in other OECD countries. Energy coefficients or elasticities show the relative rise in consumption compared to the relative rise in gross national product (growth rate). This is shown to be typically unstable and an eventual connection with the amount of energy price increase and/or the growth rate of the national economy is considered. Results of Granger causuality tests on energy consumption, national income and energy prices are presented. Effective energy prices were very low in Denmark up to 1970 when they suddenly began to increase. Since the oil crisis Denmark's energy consumption has fallen whereas the other countries have used rather more energy than before. Effective promotion of energy savings must be seen in relation to the fact that the 1970 basis level of energy consumption and intensity was unusually high. The high effective energy prices have also encouraged energy savings in Denmark. (AB)

  18. Energy scenarios: a prospective outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, Thierry; Claustre, Raphael; Charru, Madeleine; Sukov, Stephane; Marignac, Yves; Fink, Meike; Bibas, Ruben; Le Saux, Gildas

    2011-01-01

    A set of articles discusses the use of energy scenarios: how useful they can be to describe a possible future and even to gather the involved actors, how they have been used in France in the past (for planning or prediction purposes, with sometimes some over-assessed or contradictory results, without considering any decline of nuclear energy, or by setting an impossible equation in the case of the Grenelle de l'Environnement), how the scenario framework impacts its content (depending on the approach type: standard, optimization, bottom-up, top-down, or hybrid). It also discusses the issue of choice of hypotheses on growth-based and de-growth-based scenarios, outlines how energy saving is a key for a sustainable evolution. Two German scenarios regarding electricity production (centralisation or decentralisation) and French regional scenarios for Nord-Pas-de-Calais are then briefly discussed

  19. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  20. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California. Predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berkeley, Pam M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Through mass-balance modeling of various ventilation scenarios that might satisfy the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedure, we estimate indoor concentrations of contaminants of concern (COCs) in California “big box” stores, compare estimates to available thresholds, and for selected scenarios estimate differences in energy consumption. Findings are intended to inform decisions on adding performance-based approaches to ventilation rate (VR) standards for commercial buildings. Using multi-zone mass-balance models and available contaminant source rates, we estimated concentrations of 34 COCs for multiple ventilation scenarios: VRmin (0.04 cfm/ft2 ), VRmax (0.24 cfm/ft2 ), and VRmid (0.14 cfm/ft2 ). We compared COC concentrations with available health, olfactory, and irritant thresholds. We estimated building energy consumption at different VRs using a previously developed EnergyPlus model. VRmax did control all contaminants adequately, but VRmin did not, and VRmid did so only marginally. Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources both showed promise. Higher VRs increased indoor concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. Lowering VRs in big box stores in California from VRmax to VRmid would reduce total energy use by an estimated 6.6% and energy costs by 2.5%. Reducing the required VRs in California’s big box stores could reduce energy use and costs, but poses challenges for health and comfort of occupants. Source removal, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reduced VRs, and even at current recommended VRs. Also, alternative ventilation strategies taking climate and season into account in ventilation schedules may provide greater energy cost savings than constant ventilation rates, while improving IAQ.

  1. Using energy scenarios to explore alternative energy pathways in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca; Koomey, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops and analyzes four energy scenarios for California that are both exploratory and quantitative. The business-as-usual scenario represents a pathway guided by outcomes and expectations emerging from California's energy crisis. Three alternative scenarios represent contexts where clean energy plays a greater role in California's energy system: Split Public is driven by local and individual activities; Golden State gives importance to integrated state planning; Patriotic Energy represents a national drive to increase energy independence. Future energy consumption, composition of electricity generation, energy diversity, and greenhouse gas emissions are analyzed for each scenario through 2035. Energy savings, renewable energy, and transportation activities are identified as promising opportunities for achieving alternative energy pathways in California. A combined approach that brings together individual and community activities with state and national policies leads to the largest energy savings, increases in energy diversity, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Critical challenges in California's energy pathway over the next decades identified by the scenario analysis include dominance of the transportation sector, dependence on fossil fuels, emissions of greenhouse gases, accounting for electricity imports, and diversity of the electricity sector. The paper concludes with a set of policy lessons revealed from the California energy scenarios

  2. Interactive energy consumption visualization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available in an office building environment. The main goal is to highlight high consumptions patterns, estimate costs and savings, and recommend energy saving strategies. In its useful nature, the dashboard can provide valuable information for further programs tied...

  3. Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Graus, Wina H J; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes

  4. Scenarios of future energy intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present scenarios of potential change in energy intensities in the OECD countries and in the Soviet Union. These scenarios are meant to illustrate how intensities might evolve over the next 20 years given different conditions with respect to energy prices, energy-efficiency policies, and other key factors. Changes in intensity will also be affected by the rates of growth and stock turnover in each sector. They have not tried to forecast how activity levels and structure will evolve. However, the OECD scenarios assume a world in which GDP averages growth in the 2-3%/year range, with some differences among countries. For the Soviet Union, the degree and pace of intensity decline will be highly dependent on the success of the transition to a market economy; each scenario explicitly envisions a different degree of success. They have not constructed comparable scenarios for the developing countries. The scenarios presented in this chapter do not predict what will happen in the future. They believe, however, that they illustrate a plausible set of outcomes if energy prices, policies, programs, and other factors evolve as described in each case. With higher energy prices and vigorous policies and programs, intensities in the OECD countries in 2010 could be nearly 50% less on average than the level where trends seem to be point. In the former Soviet Union, a combination of rapid, successful economic reform and extra effort to improve energy efficiency might result in average intensity being nearly 40% less than in a slow reform case. And in the LDCs, a mixture of sound policies, programs, and energy pricing reform could also lead to intensities being far lower than they would be otherwise. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  5. Shell energy scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Shell developed two scenarios that describe alternative ways the energy future may develop. In the first scenario (Scramble) policymakers pay little attention to more efficient energy use until supplies are tight. Likewise, greenhouse gas emissions are not seriously addressed until there are major climate shocks. In the second scenario (Blueprints) growing local actions begin to address the challenges of economic development, energy security and environmental pollution. A price is applied to a critical mass of emissions giving a huge stimulus to the development of clean energy technologies, such as carbon dioxide capture and storage, and energy efficiency measures. The result is far lower carbon dioxide emissions. Both these scenarios can help Shell to test their strategy against a range of possible developments over the long-term. However, according to Shell, the Blueprints' outcomes offer the best hope for a sustainable future, whether or not they arise exactly in the way described. However, with the right combination of policy, technology and commitment from governments, industry and society globally, Shell believes it can be realized. But achieving the targets will not be easy, and time is short. Clear thinking, huge investment, and effective leadership are required

  6. Mediterranean energy transition: 2040 scenario. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Guarrera, Lisa; Karbuz, Sohbet; Menichetti, Emanuela; Lescoeur, Bruno; El Agrebi, Hassen; Harrouch, Hamdi; Campana, Dominique; Greaume, Francois; Bedes, Christelle; Bolinches, Christine; Meraud, Thierry; Tappero, Denis; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Lechevin, Bruno; Abaach, Hassan; Damasiotis, Markos; Darras, Marc; Hajjaji, Mourad; Keramane, Abdenour; Khalfallah, Ezzedine; Mourtada, Adel; Osman, Nejib

    2016-06-01

    The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that

  7. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  8. Energy catastrophes and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of energy catastrophes in the production of energy serves to make estimation of the true social costs of energy production difficult. As a result, there is a distinct possibility that the private marginal cost curve of energy producers lies to the left or right of the true cost curve. If so, social welfare will not be maximized, and underconsumption or overconsumption of fuels will exist. The occurrence of energy catastrophes and observance of the market reaction to these occurrences indicates that overconsumption of energy has been the case in the past. Postulations as to market reactions to further energy catastrophes lead to the presumption that energy consumption levels remain above those that are socially optimal

  9. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  10. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  11. The IIASA'83 scenario of energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for natural gas as a major source of energy supply are good. Spurred by the energy crises of the 'seventies, recent exploration for gas resources as well as technological advances in deep drilling have enhanced the picture of gas as a plentiful fossil resource. Technological improvements in transporting gas over large distances, as piped gas and as a liquid, suggest the strong possibility of gas as an important commodity in energy trade. In addition, gas is a high quality and relatively clean fuel, which is especially attractive in today's world of environmental concern for pollution emissions from energy combustion. Such developments led to the design of the IIASA'83 Scenario of Energy Development, which explored the techno-economic feasibility of the expanded use of gas in energy systems. The work drew on the findings of the IIASA global energy analysis, documented in 'Energy in a Finite World'. All countries of the world were covered in the quantitative analysis, grouped regionally by similarity in energy resources and economic structure and not necessarily on the basis of geographic proximity. The period studied was necessarily the next half century, from 1980 to 2030, in view of the inertia in technological and economic systems and this constraint on the development of energy infrastructures. Global primary energy consumption increases some twofold from 10 TW.a/a to 21.9 TW.a/a over the next 50 years, while economic output globally grows some threefold. The breakdown of global primary energy consumption indicates an absolute increase in the use of all primary energy sources over the study period, with fossil fuels continuing to supply the lion's share of primary energy. The buildup of non-fossil energy sources to global supply levels by 2030 is likely to be constrained by the high capital investments required at a period of modest economic growth and by the sociopolitical controversy surrounding the use of some of these technologies. (author)

  12. Sustainable energy-economic-environmental scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-31

    IIASA's Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Project has proposed a quantitative 'working definition' of sustainable development E3 (energy-economic-environmental) scenarios. ECS has proposed four criteria for sustainability: economic growth is sustained throughout the time horizon; socioeconomic inequity among world regions is reduced over the 21st century; reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio for exhaustible primary energy resources do not decline; and long-term environmental stress is mitigated. Using these criteria, 40 long-term E3 scenarios generated by ECS models were reviewed and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions drawn were: slow population growth or stabilization of global population appears to be prerequisite for sustainable development; economic growth alone does not guarantee a sustainable future; carbon intensities of total primary energy must decrease faster than the historical trend; strategies for fossil fuel consumption must aim at non-decreasing R/P ratios; and carbon emissions must be near or below today's levels at the end of this century. The analysis of sustainable development scenarios is an important step towards formulating long-term strategies aimed at climate stabilization. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Assessing water consumption in extreme diet scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    Most of the food for humanity comes from agriculture. Producing it requires enormous resources, and the projected population growth will further increase the stress on the environment. A number of strategies have been suggested to make food production sustainable. One of them, changing the human diet, has been shown to have a considerable potential in reducing use of resources, including water. Using water footprint methodology, our results show that moving to a mostly plant-based diet or a more conservative diet change combined with halving food losses would reduce the number of people living under water scarcity by hundreds of millions. Alternatively, it would enable producing sufficient, healthy food supply for a much larger population. Questions are still remaining, though. While water footprints alone have been criticised for only concentrating on water volumes and not the impacts of consumption, with proper attention to existing resources and the ecological relevance of using them, the water footprints allow straightforward analysis of limited modifications to food systems. On the other hand, large changes to the demand of each of the crops as well as shifts in ratios between plant- and animal-based foodstuffs alter some of the underlying assumptions, which are based on the current production. We present concepts to try to tackle the dynamics involved with diet change. Specifically, we discuss and present results related to: 1) Effects of changes in the areas used for production of a crop on its marginal water footprint 2) Use of non-food grade crop production as feed 3) Use of feed from co-production systems

  14. Geothermal energy in the world energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the world energy consumption between 1960 and 1984 from primary energy sources (coal, natural gas, oil, hydropower, nuclear energy) and the same in percentages from 1925. This highlights the diminishing role of coal and the increased consumption of gas and oil. The latter has stabilized around 42% of the total after the drop in demand resulting from the oil crisis of 1973. The world energy consumption has then been divided into industrialized and developing countries. It appears that the latter, with a population equal to 68% of the total world population, consumed 23% of the world energy in 1982. Furthermore, the consumption figures show that the demand for domestic energy is much smaller in developing countries, and it is well-known that domestic energy consumed is one of the parameters used to assess standard of living. The total installed electric capacity throughout the world is then reported, divided between developed and developing countries, showing that the latter consumed 11% of all the electricity generated in the world in 1981. The world installed electric power of geothermal origin at the end of 1985 is shown, along with estimates for 1990. Geothermal energy represents 0.2% of the world electric power. This is obviously a small figure and indicates that geothermal energy plays a minor role on the world energy scene. However, if we distinguish between industrialized and developing countries, we can observe that, with their currently limited electrical consumption but good geothermal prospects, the developing countries could achieve quite a significant contribution to their total electric energy from that of geothermal origin, increasing at the moment from 3 to 19%. Finally, a comparison is made between electricity generating costs of different sources, showing that geothermal energy is competitive. A table illustrates the world evolution in installed geothermal capacity from 1950 to 1985. The non-electric uses of geothermal energy

  15. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Effect of energy taxes on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The energy consumption and taxation in Norway is described in addition to some of the consequences of this taxation on the energy market. Modelling of energy demand is dealt with. It is concluded that the influence of energy taxation on energy consumption is dependent on market conditions for individual energy products. This thesis is elaborated. (AB)

  17. Energy scenarios for Colombia: process and content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ricardo A. [National Univ. of Colombia, Escuela de Geosciencias y Medio Ambiente, Medellin (Colombia); Vesga, Daniel R.A. [Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, Bogota (Colombia); Cadena, Angela I. [Los Andes Univ., School of Engineering, Bogota (Colombia); Boman, Ulf [Kairos Future AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsen, Erik [Cass Business School, London (United Kingdom); Dyner, Isaac [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Energy Inst., Medellin (Colombia)

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the approach undertaken, and the four energy scenarios that have been developed, to support long term energy policy in Colombia. The scenarios were constructed with emphasis on maximum interaction between stakeholders in the Colombian energy sector. The process directly involved over 120 people. The scenarios were developed as strategic support tools for the Energy and Mining Planning Unit (UPME), which is the Colombian institution in charge of developing the country's energy strategies and National Energy Policy. The methodology employed is presented, followed by a detailed description of each of the four scenarios. (Author)

  18. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate...... Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy...

  19. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  20. Energy consumption and conservation, evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-04-01

    The energy consumption is increasing of more than 1% each year. It is necessary to slow down this growth and much better to inverse it. Observing the main consumption posts, energy saving is possible at short dated for the residential sector and medium and long dated for the transports and the industry. Anyway the individual behaviors are essential. The author presents the situation for each posts, providing data on the energy consumption and saving and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  1. The Greenpeace 2013 scenario for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, Cyrille; Teske, Sven

    2013-01-01

    After a synthesis of the Greenpeace scenario for energy transition, this report presents the French current energy landscape: structure of the energy system, greenhouse gas emissions and nuclear risks, main social and economic challenges, and search for a political ambition (from the Grenelle de l'Environnement to the current debate on energy). Then, after having outlined that energy transition must be decided now, the report presents the scenario hypotheses: studies used to develop the scenario, macro-economic and technical-economic hypotheses. The scenario is then presented in terms of possible trajectory, of energy demand (global evolution per sector), of energy production (electricity, heat, mobility), and of CO 2 assessment and nuclear wastes. Scenarios are compared in social and economic terms, more particularly in terms of investments in electricity and heat production systems, of electricity production costs and electricity bill, of energy independence, and of jobs in the electricity and heat sectors

  2. Energy scenarios for Colombia - Environmental Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ricardo A; Vesga A, Daniel R; Boman, Ulf

    2000-01-01

    The planning unit of the Colombian ministry of energy -UPME -has done an energy scenario project for Colombia with a 20-year horizon (vision year 2020) in this project the scenario methodology was used in a systemic way involving a great number of local and international energy experts. As a result four energy scenarios were designed and in all of them the possible evolution of all energy was analyzed. In this article a description of the used methodology is presented with the developed scenarios. Also a discussion of the long-range future environmental considerations in the energy sector, taking into account the developed scenarios, is presented. Finally some conclusions and recommendations are presented

  3. Energy consumption assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K S

    1975-01-01

    The why, what, and how-to aspects of energy audits for industrial plants, and the application of energy accounting methods to a chemical plant in order to assess energy conservation possibilities are discussed. (LCL)

  4. Energy consumption projection of Nepal: An econometric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Østergaard, Poul A.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    In energy dependent economies, energy consumption is often linked with the growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Energy intensity, defined herewith, as the ratio of the total primary energy consumption (TPE) to the GDP, is a useful concept for understanding the relation between energy demand...... and economic development. The scope of this article is to assess the future primary energy consumption of Nepal, and the projection is carried out along with the formulation of simple linear logarithmic energy consumption models. This initiates with a hypothesis that energy consumption is dependent...... with the national macro-economic parameters. To test the hypothesis, nexus between energy consumption and possible determinant variables are examined. Status of energy consumption between the period of 1996 and 2009, and for the same period, growth of economic parameters are assessed. Three scenarios are developed...

  5. Coupling model of energy consumption with changes in environmental utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongming; Jim, C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between metropolis energy consumption and environmental utility changes by a proposed Environmental Utility of Energy Consumption (EUEC) model. Based on the dynamic equilibrium of input–output economics theory, it considers three simulation scenarios: fixed-technology, technological-innovation, and green-building effect. It is applied to analyse Hong Kong in 1980–2007. Continual increase in energy consumption with rapid economic growth degraded environmental utility. First, energy consumption at fixed-technology was determined by economic outcome. In 1990, it reached a critical balanced state when energy consumption was 22×10 9 kWh. Before 1990 (x 1 9 kWh), rise in energy consumption improved both economic development and environmental utility. After 1990 (x 1 >22×10 9 kWh), expansion of energy consumption facilitated socio-economic development but suppressed environmental benefits. Second, technological-innovation strongly influenced energy demand and improved environmental benefits. The balanced state remained in 1999 when energy consumption reached 32.33×10 9 kWh. Technological-innovation dampened energy consumption by 12.99%, exceeding the fixed-technology condition. Finally, green buildings reduced energy consumption by an average of 17.5% in 1990–2007. They contributed significantly to energy saving, and buffered temperature fluctuations between external and internal environment. The case investigations verified the efficiency of the EUEC model, which can effectively evaluate the interplay of energy consumption and environmental quality. - Highlights: ► We explore relationships between metropolis energy consumption and environmental utility. ► An Environmental Utility of Energy Consumption (EUEC) model is proposed. ► Technological innovation mitigates energy consumption impacts on environmental quality. ► Technological innovation decreases demand of energy consumption more than fixed technology scenario

  6. Exploring energy consumption and demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ying; Xia, Yan

    2012-01-01

    China has been experiencing industrialization and urbanization since reform and opening of its economy in 1978. Energy consumption in the country has featured issues such as a coal-dominated energy mix, low energy efficiency and high emissions. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the factors driving the increase in energy consumption in the past two decades and estimate the potential for decreasing energy demands in the future. In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to identify how these factors impact changes in energy intensity. A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in a BAU scenario and an alternative scenario. The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. Energy demand in China will continue to increase at a rapid rate if the economy develops as in the past decades, and is projected to reach 4.7 billion tce in 2020. However, the huge potential for a decrease cannot be neglected, since growth could be better by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements. The total energy demand could be less than 4.0 billion tce in 2020. -- Highlights: ► In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to China’s energy intensity change. ► A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in China. ► The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. ► Energy demand in China will reach 4.7 billion ton in 2020 if the economy develops as in the past decades. ► There is a huge potential for a decrease of energy demand by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements.

  7. 1999 world energy consumption (ENERDATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given a compilation of detailed statistical tables on various aspects of world energy production and consumption over the years 1994 to 1999. The present tables indicate the production, trade and consumption of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, oil products, natural gas, coal, lignite, electric power; the energy balance for the year 1999; the total energy consumption in European Union, Western Europe, North America, Japan and Pacific, CIS and Central Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East and Africa for the years 1994 to 1999. The CO 2 emissions for these countries are also given. These data are an extraction of the energy statistics yearbook, ENERDATA, June 2000. They are commented by Mr J.M. Martin. According to ENERDATA, the 1999 world energy consumption stagnates. (O.M.)

  8. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  9. Elasticity of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, M.

    2004-01-01

    Insight is given into the price elasticities of several energy carriers. Next, attention is paid to the impact of the discussion on changes of the Regulating Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) in the Netherlands [nl

  10. Electro-generating renewable energies: which potential by 2025/2030? The Ademe's scenario: is its treatment of the electric mix credible for the treatment of the intermittency of renewable energies, is its cost acceptable, are its consumption predictions realistic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, Hubert; Nifenecker, Herve; Perves, Jean Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes a critical point of view on the scenario developed by the ADEME on the potential of electricity production by renewable energies by 2025/2030. According to this scenario, nuclear power is divided by two and the fleet of intermittent renewable energies (wind and photovoltaic) is multiplied by seven. This report assesses the investments costs associated with this intermittent fleet and with a necessary adaptation of the high voltage and distribution grids. It also outlines that massive imports of energy could be necessary when the production of these renewable sources is at its low point. It notices that stopping half of the nuclear fleet will entail a loss of revenues which will not take benefit of a reduction of greenhouse gas

  11. Energy consumption trends in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinis, A.; Miskinis, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes some problems related to integration into EU, current state of the Lithuania economy and energy sector and changes in energy consumption during transition period. It provides and analysis of the main indicators of energy consumption, such as the ratio of primary energy consumption to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), primary and final energy intensity and others based on estimates of Purchasing Power Parity. The paper also discusses problems arising at evaluation of economical and energy indices for the countries in transition and compares them with those existing in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe and in Western countries. It shows uneven tendencies of energy intensity occurring under transitions in Lithuania and other Baltic States. (author)

  12. The energy consumption of traffic 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV; Der Energieverbrauch des Verkehrs 1990 - 2035. Ergebnisse der Szenarien I bis IV und der zugehoerigen Sensitivitaeten 'BIP hoch', 'Preise hoch' und 'Klima waermer'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in the traffic sector for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various energy levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. The areas examined include road, rail and air traffic as well as 'off-road' traffic. Infrastructure developments are commented on. The four scenarios are examined for various sensitivities including high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. Alternative fuels are looked at, as are further factors such as fuel tourism, pollutant emissions and costs. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report is completed with a comprehensive appendix

  13. Energy scenarios for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauerman, V.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has adopted a scenario approach in developing its energy outlook to 2025. These scenarios can be used in developing strategies to optimize opportunities and avoid the dangers that often accompany the more deterministic approach to forecasting. The scenarios are not predictions, but are instead feasible outcomes for the future. They encompass 5 major areas of uncertainty for the world energy market through 2025 that impact energy demand and fuel mix. These include the economy, technology, energy policy, resource availability, and market structure. The drivers for the energy scenarios are the environment, demography, economics, culture geopolitics and technology. The paper referred to the world energy market, the OECD energy markets, the non-OECD energy markets and the FSU energy markets under 3 energy scenarios including: (1) the material world in which the new economy drives the global economy, (2) a very dark Orwellian world in which there is a rise in terrorism and a breakdown in international cooperation, and (3) a utopia in which the major powers become increasingly serious about achieving sustainable development. 22 refs., 48 figs

  14. Energy consumption trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Abidin; Yalcintas, Melek

    2010-01-01

    This study begins with a review of energy consumption by end-use sector in Hawaii. Then, the energy generated from renewable energy sources is analyzed between 1991 and 2006. The results show that while geothermal is a considerable source of renewable energy on the Island of Hawaii (also known as Big Island), fossil fuel is the main energy source in the State of Hawaii. The energy intensity index for the State of Hawaii is then calculated by dividing energy consumption per capita by the income per capita. The calculated energy intensity index reveals that energy consumption is directly controlled by per capita income. The results also indicate that the energy intensity index increases over time despite positive developments in energy efficient technologies. In the second part of the paper, the effect of the tourism industry on energy usage in the State of Hawaii is analyzed. The results show that tourism volume, measured in terms of tourist arrival numbers, does not change the energy consumption directly. However, a change in tourism volume does affect per capita income within a few months to a year. In the last part of the study, the energy efficiency index of Hawaii is compared with consumption averages for the US, California and the most energy efficient country in Europe, Denmark. The comparison shows that Hawaii lags behind California and Denmark in terms of energy efficiency. The comparison also shows that an increase in energy efficiency corresponds to an increase in per capita income across the board, which is in agreement with a recent report published by the American Physical Society.

  15. Energy Consumption Management in Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the basic issues in low power design is presented, including techniques for the analysis of energy consumption in the early design phase of analog and digital circuits. The concept of energy complexity will be introduced in conjunction with techniques for parameterized energy management.

  16. Agriculture energy prospective by 2030: scenarios and action patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and comments the main results of a work-group focused on the evolution of agriculture in France in relationship with the new energetic context. Four scenarios have been defined, corresponding to different energetic, but also social, political and economic contexts by 2030. The first one corresponds to a severe energy crisis with an emergence of regional governance. The second one corresponds to a high volatility of energy prices, an increased easing of restrictions on trade, and a decrease of public supports and subsidies for agriculture. The third one corresponds to a strong reduction of the use of phyto-sanitary products in agriculture, a continuous urban sprawl, and the prevalence of road transport. The fourth one corresponds to agriculture respectful of the environment and a good management of energy consumption. Direct and indirect energy consumptions are assessed for the four scenarios. Some general and operational objectives are thus identified

  17. Energy scenario - environmental concerns and some options for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.; Saradhi, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    There is a strong link between energy consumption, particularly in the form of electricity, and economic well being. The substantial increase in energy consumption in the coming decades is expected to be driven principally by the developing world. However it is also well recognized that care should be taken to ensure that the increased energy consumption should not be at the cost of the environment. Of particular concern is the Green House Gas emissions. Reduction of GHGs will call for careful planning and appropriate choice of the energy mix. The expected Global/Indian energy scenario in the coming decades, the associated GHG emissions and some possible options to limit them are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  18. The industrial energy consumption in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 1999 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 1999 based on each group of branches and energy category, the energy consumption in 1997 for each group of branches and the percentage distribution on energy category, and the fuel and energy consumption of motor vehicles in 1999 based on each group of branches. (SM)

  19. Household energy consumption attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P

    1976-05-01

    This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.

  20. Elaborating SRES scenarios for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Alan; Riahi, Keywan; Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is identifying mid-century economic targets for nuclear energy. The first step is to describe what the mid-century energy market might look like: the major competitors for nuclear energy, what products are in demand, how much of each, where is growth greatest, and so forth. The mechanism for systematically describing the future market is scenario building. The starting point is the scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. SRES developed four narrative story lines, each representing a different coherent set of demographic, social, economic, technological, and environmental developments. For each story line several different scenarios were developed by six international modelling teams, resulting in 40 scenarios grouped in the 4 story lines. For three of the story lines this paper uses a single marker scenario representative of central tendencies within the scenario family. For the fourth story line the authors chose the scenario that assumes that advances in non-fossil technologies - renewable, nuclear, and high-efficiency conservation technologies - make them most cost-competitive. (BA)

  1. The energy consumption of the services and farming sectors 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV; Der Energieverbrauch der Dienstleistungen und der Landwirtschaft, 1990 - 2035. Ergebnisse der Szenarien I bis IV und der zugehoerigen Sensitivitaeten BIP hoch, Preise hoch und Klima waermer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, B.; Catenazzi, G.

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in the services sector and for farming for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, CO{sub 2} levy, high prices and warmer climate. The models and methods used are examined and examples of their use are quoted. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  2. Agriculture energy prospective by 2030: scenarios and action patterns; Prospective Agriculture Energie 2030: scenarios et pistes d'action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents and comments the main results of a work-group focused on the evolution of agriculture in France in relationship with the new energetic context. Four scenarios have been defined, corresponding to different energetic, but also social, political and economic contexts by 2030. The first one corresponds to a severe energy crisis with an emergence of regional governance. The second one corresponds to a high volatility of energy prices, an increased easing of restrictions on trade, and a decrease of public supports and subsidies for agriculture. The third one corresponds to a strong reduction of the use of phyto-sanitary products in agriculture, a continuous urban sprawl, and the prevalence of road transport. The fourth one corresponds to agriculture respectful of the environment and a good management of energy consumption. Direct and indirect energy consumptions are assessed for the four scenarios. Some general and operational objectives are thus identified

  3. Scenarios Analysis of the Energies’ Consumption and Carbon Emissions in China Based on a Dynamic CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanying Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development trends and variation characteristics of China’s economy, energy consumption and carbon emissions from 2007 to 2030, and the impacts on China’s economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon emissions under the carbon tax policy scenarios, based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model. The results show that during the simulation period, China’s economy will keep a relatively high growth rate, but the growth rate will slow down under the benchmark scenario. The energy consumption intensity and the carbon emissions intensity per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP will continually decrease. The energy consumption structure and industrial structure will gradually optimize. With the economic growth, the total energy consumption will constantly increase, and the carbon dioxide emissions are still large, and the situation of energy-saving and emission-reduction is still serious. The carbon tax is very important for energy-saving and emission-reduction and energy consumption structure optimization, and the effect of the carbon tax on GDP is small. If the carbon tax could be levied and the enterprise income tax could be reduced at the same time, the dual goals of reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions and increasing the GDP growth can be achieved. Improving the technical progress level of clean power while implementing a carbon tax policy is very meaningful to optimize energy consumption structure and reduce the carbon emissions, but it has some offsetting effect to reduce energy consumption.

  4. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  5. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  6. Greenhouse energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2009-01-01

    Depending on location and luck, natural gas rates have gone from less that CAN$ 3.00 to more than CAN$ 20.00/gigajoule (Gj). Natural gas rates are currently around CAN$ 13.00/Gj, although industry "analysts" predict an increase. A gigajoule is equivalent to the energy released by the combustion of approximately 30 L (8 gal) of gasoline. It is also equivalent...

  7. Simulation Tool For Energy Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Michael; Mynderup, Henrik; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote adoption of smart grid with the general public it is necessary to be able to visualize the benefits of a smart home. Software tools that model the effects can help significantly with this. However, only little work has been done in the area of simulating and visualizing...... the energy consumption in smart homes. This paper presents a prototype simulation tool that allows graphical modeling of a home. Based on the modeled homes the user is able to simulate the energy consumptions and compare scenarios. The simulations are based on dynamic weather and energy price data as well...... as well as appliances and other electrical components used in the modeled homes....

  8. Future nuclear energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Van Heek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy is back on the agenda worldwide. In order to prepare for the next decades and to set priorities in nuclear R and D and investment, market share scenarios are evaluated. This allows to identify the triggers which influence the market penetration of future nuclear reactor technologies. To this purpose, scenarios for a future nuclear reactor park in Europe have been analysed applying an integrated dynamic process modelling technique. Various market share scenarios for nuclear energy are derived including sub-variants with regard to the intra-nuclear options taken, e.g. introduction date of Gen-III (i.e. EPR) and Gen-IV (i.e. SCWR, HTR, FR) reactors, level of reprocessing, and so forth. The assessment was undertaken using the DANESS code which allows to provide a complete picture of mass-flow and economics of the various nuclear energy system scenarios. The analyses show that the future European nuclear park will exist of combinations of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors. This mix will always consist of a set of reactor types each having its specific strengths. Furthermore, the analyses highlight the triggers influencing the choice between different nuclear energy deployment scenarios. In addition, a dynamic assessment is made with regard to manpower requirements for the construction of a future nuclear fleet in the different scenarios. (authors)

  9. Scenarios for a urban energy transition. Actors, regulations, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debizet, Gilles; Blanco, Sylvie; Buclet, Nicolas; Forest, Fabrice; Gauthier, Caroline; La Branche, Stephane; Menanteau, Philippe; Schneuwly, Patrice; Tabourdeau, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Cities concentrate populations, consumptions, levers of actions, and are places of various experiments for energy transition. This book aims at giving an overview of possible scenarios of development of renewable energies in urban context. It is based on interviews of actors of the energy, building and urban planning sectors by researchers in town planning, management, technology, political and economic sciences. The authors examine what would occur if large companies would manage entire quarters, if local authorities would supervise production and supply, if the State would take control of all fields of action again, or if consumer cooperatives would exchange energy and pool productions. In its different chapters, the book presents four scenarios of energy coordination in urban context by 2040, discuss energy transition in urban spaces, discuss the perspectives of evolution towards more autonomous cities and quarters from an energetic point of view, and discuss business models and urban energetic innovations

  10. Global risks from energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Hippel, F.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion of some of the global risks associated with current and frequently proposed future levels of consumption of energy from oil, coal, fission, fusion, and renewable sources points out the the dangers are serious and relatively near term. These include world war over Persian Gulf oil, climate change due to the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the accelerated proliferation of nuclear weapons, and competition between food and energy for land and water. The author urges placing a greater emphasis on how we use energy and how to reduce energy waste. At the levels of consumption which economically justified levels of energy efficiency could bring about, enough flexibility could develop in our choice of a future energy-supply mix to dramatically reduce the associated global risks. 47 references, 3 figures

  11. Assessing the Sustainability of EU Timber Consumption Trends: Comparing Consumption Scenarios with a Safe Operating Space Scenario for Global and EU Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan O’Brien

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for wood to meet EU renewable energy targets has increasingly come under scrutiny for potentially increasing EU import dependence and inducing land use change abroad, with associated impacts on the climate and biodiversity. This article builds on research accounting for levels of primary timber consumption—e.g., toward forest footprints—and developing reference values for benchmarking sustainability—e.g., toward land use targets—in order to improve systemic monitoring of timber and forest use. Specifically, it looks at future trends to assess how current EU policy may impact forests at an EU and global scale. Future demand scenarios are based on projections derived and adapted from the literature to depict developments under different scenario assumptions. Results reveal that by 2030, EU consumption levels on a per capita basis are estimated to be increasingly disproportionate compared to the rest of the world. EU consumption scenarios based on meeting around a 40% share of the EU renewable energy targets with timber would overshoot both the EU and global reference value range for sustainable supply capacities in 2030. Overall, findings support literature pointing to an increased risk of problem shifting relating to both how much and where timber needed for meeting renewable energy targets is sourced. It is argued that a sustainable level of timber consumption should be characterized by balance between supply (what the forest can provide on a sustainable basis and demand (how much is used on a per capita basis, considering the concept of fair shares. To this end, future research should close data gaps, increase methodological robustness and address the socio-political legitimacy of the safe operating space concept towards targets in the future. A re-use of timber within the economy should be supported to increase supply options.

  12. DGEMP-OE (2008) Energy Baseline Scenario. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    the CAS scenarios relies primarily on 2000 data, despite the existence of sufficiently complete statistics through to 2005. The DGEMP on the other hand used a study by the BIPE (Office for Economic Information and Forecasting) provided by the SESP, the Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning's economic statistics and forecasting department. On the basis of the study's macro-economic projections of the French economy to 2020, the DGEMP was able to re-evaluate the prospects for activity in the industrial and tertiary sectors. In several respects (e.g. supply security, CO 2 emissions, energy efficiency), the baseline scenario proposed here is clearly not a scenario conducive to satisfying French energy policy objectives. This is not a surprising conclusion in that it implies the need to implement new policies and measures in addition to those already in place or approved. In particular, this scenario would lead to importing 66 billion cubic meters of gas (59 Mtoe) in 2020 and 78 billion cubic meters (70 Mtoe) in 2030, compared with the present 44 billion cubic meters. In addition to the resulting CO 2 emissions, the near doubling of gas imports would pose a twofold problem as to the geographic origin of the gas imported (under appropriate supply contracts) and the infrastructure (LNG terminals, gas pipelines) required to transport it. Finally, the baseline scenario is of course a long way from achieving the Community targets, whether for CO 2 emissions, projected to rise continually until 2020 and then even faster until 2030 (due to transport and electric power generation), or for the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. In that regard, the share of renewable energy in 'enlarged' final energy consumption, as it is described in the 'energy and climate change package', would grow to 13.4% in 2020 (versus 23% in the Commission's burden sharing proposal) and to 13.7% in 2030, compared with the 10.3% share observed in 2006

  13. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  14. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO 2 emission trends for Iran over 2000–2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO 2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985 million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO 2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO 2 emission outlines. - Highlights: • Creation of an energy consumption model using system dynamics. • The effect of different policies on energy consumption and emission reductions. • An ascending trend for the environmental costs caused by CO 2 emissions is observed. • An urgent need for energy saving and emission reductions in Iran.

  15. EnerFuture: Long Term Energy Scenarios 'Understanding our energy future'. Key graphs and analysis, Enerdata - Global Energy Forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Enerdata analyses 4 future energy scenarios accounting for 2 economic growth assumptions combined with 2 alternative carbon emission mitigation policies. In this study, a series of analyses supported by graphs assess the energy consumption and intensity forecasts in emerging and developed markets. In particular, one analysis is dedicated to energies competition, including gas, coal and renewable energies. (authors)

  16. Efficient renewable energy scenarios study for Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Graham

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the possible evolution of Victorian energy markets over the 1998-2030 period from technical, economic and environmental perspectives. The focus is on the technical and economic potential over the study period for renewable energy and energy efficiency to increase their share of energy markets, through their economic competitiveness with the non-renewables of oil, gas and fossil fulled electricity. The study identifies a range of energy options that have a lower impact on carbon dioxide emissions that current projections for the Victorian energy sector, together with the savings in energy, dollars and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition the macroeconomic implications of the energy paths are estimated. Specifically it examines a scenario (R-efficient renewable) where energy efficiency and renewable energy sources realise their estimated economic potential to displace non-renewable energy over the 1988-2030 period. In addition, a scenario (T-Toronto) is examined where energy markets are pushed somewhat harder, but again on an economic basis, so that what is called the Toronto target of reducing 1988 carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 20 per cent by 2005 is attained. It is concluded that over the next forty years there is substantial economic potential in Victoria for significant gains from energy efficiency in all sectors - residential, commercial, industrial and transport - and contributions from renewable energy both in those sectors and in electricity generations. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Changing practices of energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Skjølsvold, Tomas Moe

    2017-01-01

    to produce hydrogen for transport use), whereas others emphasise the role of individual consumers. The latter approach is dominant within the smart grid vision. In this paper, we explore implications of smart grid technologies in households for the everyday practices related to electricity consumption...... (microgeneration) influence the everyday practices? What kind of influence does the combination of PVs with other “smart” energy technologies have on everyday practices and electricity consumption patterns? A specific focus is on the time patterns of households’ energy consumption. The analysis is based...... settlement scheme (hourly versus annual net metering) and the trial context play a role. Also, the study finds a broader interest in increasing the level of self-sufficiency through combining PVs with home batteries. Finally, the paper discusses a distinct (male) gendering in relation to who is most actively...

  18. The industrial energy consumption in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 2001 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 2001 based on each group of branches and energy category, and the emission of CO 2 . (LN)

  19. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Italian energy scenarios comparative evaluations; Scenari energetici italiani a confronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contaldi, Mario [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici-APAT, Roma (Italy)

    2005-09-15

    This paper reviews some representative scenarios of the evolution of the Italian primary energy consumption, updated recently. After an overview of the main macroeconomics assumptions the scenario results are cross checked at sectorial level, with a brief discussion of the underlining data and energy intensity trends. The emissions of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} resulting from the considered scenarios are also reported and discussed. [Italian] Questo articolo riporta alcuni dei piu rappresentativi ed aggiornati scenari di evoluzione dei consumi energetici primari italiani. Dopo un esame delle principali variabili macroeconomiche i risultati degli scenari sono esaminati a livello di settore, con una breve discussione delle principali variabili utilizzate. Infine sono state anche esaminate le emissioni di CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} e NO{sub x} risultanti dai diversi scenari e le possibili conseguenze sul piano normativo.

  1. Energy scenarios for hydrogen production in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    The hydrogen is a clean and very efficient fuel, its combustion does not produce gases of greenhouse effect, ozone precursors and residual acids. Also the hydrogen produced by friendly energy sources with the environment like nuclear energy could help to solve the global problems that it confronts the energy at present time. Presently work fuel cycles of hydrogen production technologies in Mexico are judged, by means of a structured methodology in the concept of sustainable development in its social, economic and environmental dimensions. The methodology is divided in three scenarios: base, Outlook 2030 and capture of CO 2 . The first scenario makes reference to cycles analysis in a current context for Mexico, the second taking in account the demand projections reported by the IAEA in its report Outlook and the third scenario, capture of CO 2 , the technologies are analyzed supposing a reduction in capture costs of 75%. Each scenario also has four cases (base, social, environmental and economic) by means of which the cycles are analyzed in the dimensions of sustainable development. For scenarios base and capture, results show that combination nuclear energy- reformed of gas it is the best alternative for cases base and economic. For social case, the evaluated better technology is the hydraulics, and for environmental case, the best option is represented by the regenerative thermochemistry cycles. The scenario Outlook 2030 show a favorable tendency of growth of renewable sources, being the aeolian energy the best technology evaluated in the cases base and environmental, the hydraulics technology in the social case and in the economic case the reformed of natural gas that uses nuclear heat. (Author)

  2. Sustainable energy prices and growth. Comparing macroeconomic and backcasting scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Hoejer, Mattias

    2007-01-01

    How do results from the sustainability research world of backcasting relate to the macroeconomic scenarios used for policy evaluation and planning? The answer is that they do not, mostly - they come from different scientific traditions and are not used in the same contexts. Yet they often deal with the same issues. We believe that much can be gained by bringing the two systems of thinking together. This paper is a first attempt to do so, by making qualitative comparisons between different scenarios and highlighting benefits and limitations to each of them. Why are the pictures we get of the energy future so different if we use a macroeconomic model from when using a backcasting approach based on sustainable energy use? It is evident that the methods for producing those two kinds of scenarios differ a lot, but the main reason behind the different results are found in the starting points rather than in the methods. Baseline assumptions are quite different, as well as the interpretations and importance attached to signals about the future. In this paper, it is discussed how those two types of scenarios differ and how they approach issues such as energy prices and growth. The discussion is based on a comparison between Swedish economic and sustainability scenarios. The economic scenarios aim at being forecasts of the future and are used as decision support for long-term policies. But are the assumptions in the economic scenarios reasonable? The sustainability scenarios are explicitly normative backcasting scenarios. They do not take the issue of growth and consumption fully into account. Could they be developed in this respect? The comparison between the scenarios is also used to look closer at the issue of energy prices in a society with sustainable energy use. One of the questions raised is if a low energy society calls for high energy prices. Moreover, the effects of tradable permits versus energy taxes is analysed in the context of how energy use could be kept low

  3. Energy consumption and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  4. RESGen: Renewable Energy Scenario Generation Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    studies remains. Consequently, our aim here is to propose an open-source platform for space-time probabilistic forecasting of renewable energy generation (wind and solar power). This document covers both methodological and implementation aspects, to be seen as a companion document for the open......-source scenario generation platform. It can generate predictive densities, trajectories and space-time interdependencies for renewable energy generation. The underlying model works as a post-processing of point forecasts. For illustration, two setups are considered: the case of day-ahead forecasts to be issued......Space-time scenarios of renewable power generation are increasingly used as input to decision-making in operational problems. They may also be used in planning studies to account for the inherent uncertainty in operations. Similarly using scenarios to derive chance-constraints or robust...

  5. Forecast of the energy final consumption for Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P.E.F. de; Bechtlufft, P.C.T.; Araujo, M.E.A.; Vasconcelos, E.C.; Las Casas, H.B. de; Monteiro, M.A.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is included among the activities of the Energy Planning of Minas Gerais State and presents a forecast of the energy final consumption for the State up to year 2010. Two Scenarios are presented involving brazilian economy's evolution, the State's demography and its sectors: residential, services, transportation, agriculture and cattle-breeding and industry. Finally, it shows two forecast on energy final consumption for Minas Gerais State. (author)

  6. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan

    2010-01-01

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India.

  7. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India. (author)

  8. Transportation energy scenario analysis technical report No. 1: examination of four existing scenarios. [Projections for 1985, 1995, 2010, and 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, M. J.; LaBelle, S. J.; Millar, M.; Walbridge, E. W.

    1978-03-01

    This project aims to provide the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) with a long-range forecasting framework in which to evaluate potential changes to the U.S. Transportation system. This initial report examines four existing, but diverse, 50-year scenarios of the future. It describes the scenarios and summarizes the changes in the major transportation system variables that would occur through the year 2025 in each scenario. Projections of variables of interest to TEC are explored, including passenger or ton miles and energy consumption. Each is reported for 1985, 1995, 2010, and 2025 under four scenarios: success, moderate economic growth, energy crisis, and transformation. The philosophy of this project is that the transportation system must support future lifestyles; by examining potential future lifestyles the required transportation system changes can be deduced. The project: (a) develops a set of scenarios that span likely futures; (b) describes the lifestyles in each scenario in order; (c) determines the characteristics of the transportation system supporting those lifestyles; (d) indicates transportation technologies and policies necessary in that system; and (e) derives the energy characteristics of that system. The implications of the four existing scenarios are examined with emphasis on current TEC electric-vehicle development. This preliminary investigation will be followed by detailed-scenario building (modifying existing scenarios or developing new ones) and generation of lifestyles and transportation system demands under each of the scenarios. This work will be reported in October 1978.

  9. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  10. The industrial energy consumption in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The statistics present the industry's energy consumption and composition, and the development from 1973 to 2003. In this period the composition of the energy consumption has changed considerably: a decrease in the consumption of liquid fuels and an increase in the consumption of natural gas and electric power. The energy consumption in the Danish industry decreased with almost 9 % from 2001 to 2003. This relatively large decrease was mainly due to the closing down of a steel factory. In the wood industry the energy consumption decreased with 36 % from 2001 to 2003, while the energy consumption in the electronics industry increased. (ln)

  11. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  12. Energy consumption of sport halls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The energy consumption of Finland's sports halls (ball games halls, ice hockey halls and swimming halls) represent approximately 1% of that of the country's whole building stock. In the light of the facts revealed by the energy study the potential energy saving rate in sports halls is 15-25%. The total savings would be something like FIM 30-40 million per annum, of which about a half would be achieved without energy-economic investments only by changing utilization habits and by automatic control measures. The energy-economic investments are for the most part connected with ventilation and their repayment period is from one to five years. On the basis of the energy study the following specific consumption are presented as target values: swimming halls: heat (kWh/m*H3/a)100, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)35, water (l/m*H3/a)1000 icehockey halls (warm): heat (kWh/m*H3/a)25, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)15, water (l/m*H3/a)200, ball games halls (multi-purpose halls): heat (kWh/m*H3/a)30, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)25, water (l/m*H3/a)130. In the study the following points proved to be the central areas of energy saving in sports halls: 1. Flexible regulation of the temperature in sports spaces on the basis of the sport in question. 2. The ventilation of swimming halls should be adjusted in such a way that the humidity of the hall air would comply with the limit humidity curve determined by the quality of structures and the temperature of the outdoor air. 3. An ice skating hall is an establishment producing condensing energy from 8 to 9 months a year worth of approx. 100.000-150.000 Finnmarks. The development of the recovery of condensing energy has become more important. 4. The ventilation of ball games halls may account for over 50% of the energy consumption of the whole building. Therefore special attention should be paid to the optimatization of ventilation as a whole.

  13. The world energy consumption in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Enerdata 2005 data, this analysis presents the situation of the world energy consumption in 2005, the electric power consumption per region and production per source, the consumption increase for each energy source and the petroleum and gas consumption increase. (A.L.B.)

  14. Modelling Electrical Energy Consumption in Automotive Paint Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviandri, Muchamad; Safiee, Aidil Shafiza Bin

    2018-03-01

    Industry players are seeking ways to reduce operational cost to sustain in a challenging economic trend. One key aspect is an energy cost reduction. However, implementing energy reduction strategy often struggle with obstructions, which slow down their realization and implementation. Discrete event simulation method is an approach actively discussed in current research trend to overcome such obstructions because of its flexibility and comprehensiveness. Meanwhile, in automotive industry, paint shop is considered the most energy consumer area which is reported consuming about 50%-70% of overall automotive plant consumption. Hence, this project aims at providing a tool to model and simulate energy consumption at paint shop area by conducting a case study at XYZ Company, one of the automotive companies located at Pekan, Pahang. The simulation model was developed using Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software version 13. From the simulation result, the model was accurately within ±5% for energy consumption and ±15% for maximum demand after validation with real system. Two different energy saving scenarios were tested. Scenario 1 was based on production scheduling approach under low demand situation which results energy saving up to 30% on the consumption. Meanwhile scenario 2 was based on substituting high power compressor with the lower power compressor. The results were energy consumption saving of approximately 1.42% and maximum demand reduction about 1.27%. This approach would help managers and engineers to justify worthiness of investment for implementing the reduction strategies.

  15. Peak energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiahai; Xu, Yan; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Changhong; Xiong, Minpeng; Guo, Jingsheng

    2014-01-01

    China is in the processes of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Based on the Kaya identity, this paper proposes an analytical framework for various energy scenarios that explicitly simulates China's economic development, with a prospective consideration on the impacts of urbanization and income distribution. With the framework, China's 2050 energy consumption and associated CO 2 reduction scenarios are constructed. Main findings are: (1) energy consumption will peak at 5200–5400 million tons coal equivalent (Mtce) in 2035–2040; (2) CO 2 emissions will peak at 9200–9400 million tons (Mt) in 2030–2035, whilst it can be potentially reduced by 200–300 Mt; (3) China's per capita energy consumption and per capita CO 2 emission are projected to peak at 4 tce and 6.8 t respectively in 2020–2030, soon after China steps into the high income group. - Highlights: • A framework for modeling China's energy and CO 2 emissions is proposed. • Scenarios are constructed based on various assumptions on the driving forces. • Energy consumption will peak in 2035–2040 at 5200–5400 Mtce. • CO 2 emissions will peak in 2030–2035 at about 9300 Mt and be cut by 300 Mt in a cleaner energy path. • Energy consumption and CO 2 emissions per capita will peak soon after China steps into the high income group

  16. World Energy Scenarios: Composing energy futures to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Christoph; Whitney, Rob; Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Rose, Karl; Rieser, Dan A.; Al-Qahtani, Ayed; Thomas, Philip; Turton, Hal; Densing, Martin; Panos, Evangelos; Volkart, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    The World Energy Scenarios: Composing energy futures to 2050 is the result of a three-year study conducted by over 60 experts from nearly 30 countries, with modelling provided by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The report assesses two contrasting policy scenarios, the more consumer driven Jazz scenario and the more voter-driven Symphony scenario with a key differentiator being the ability of countries to pass through the Doha Climate Gateway. The WEC scenarios use an explorative approach to assess what is actually happening in the world now, to help gauge what will happen in the future and the real impact of today's choices on tomorrow's energy landscape. Rather than telling policy-makers and senior energy leaders what to do in order to achieve a specific policy goal, the WEC's World Energy Scenarios allow them to test the key assumptions that decision-makers decide to better shape the energy of tomorrow This document includes the French and English versions of the executive summary and the English version of the full report

  17. Energy consumption 2005 with Danish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption in the Danish industries decreased with 4% from 2003 to 2005. The consumption of liquid fuels and district heat decreased with 27% and 21%, respectively. The consumption of solid fuels increased with 13%. The aim of the statistics is to elucidate the industry's energy consumption and its composition. The statistics present the development in the industry from 1973 to 2005, in which period the composition of the energy consumption has changed significantly. Especially, consumption of liquid fuels has decreased and consumption of gas and electricity has increased. (ln)

  18. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  19. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  20. Impacts of high energy prices on long-term energy-economic scenarios for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, V.; Markewitz, P. [Research Center Juelich, Inst. of Energy Res., Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation, Juelich (Germany); Horn, M. [DIW Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, C.; Graichen, V.; Harthan, R.O.; Repenning, J. [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Prices of oil and other fossil fuels on global markets have reached a high level in recent years. These levels were not able to be reproduced on the basis of scenarios and prognoses that were published in the past. New scenarios, based on higher energy price trajectories, have appeared only recently. The future role of various energy carriers and technologies in energy-economic scenarios will greatly depend on the level of energy prices. Therefore, an analysis of the impact of high energy prices on long-term scenarios for Germany was undertaken. Based on a reference scenario with moderate prices, a series of consistent high price scenarios for primary and secondary energy carriers were developed. Two scenarios with (i) continuously rising price trajectories and (ii) a price shock with a price peak during the period 2010-15 and a subsequent decline to the reference level are analysed. Two types of models have been applied in the analysis. The IKARUS energy systems optimisation model covers the whole of the German energy system from primary energy supply down to the end-use sectors. Key results in both high price scenarios include a replacement of natural gas by hard coal and renewable energy sources in electricity and heat generation. Backstop technologies like coal liquefaction begin to play a role under such conditions. Up to 10% of final energy consumption is saved in the end-use sectors, with the residential and transport sector being the greatest contributors. Even without additional restrictions, CO{sub 2} emissions significantly drop in comparison to the reference scenario. The ELIAS electricity investment analysis model focuses on the power sector. In the reference scenario with current allocation rules in the emissions trading scheme, the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease relatively steadily. The development is characterised by the phaseout of nuclear energy which is counterweighted by the increase of renewable. In the high price scenario, the CO{sub 2

  1. Kyoto Protocol Objectives in Croatia Energy Planning: Nuclear Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.; Juretic, F.; Zeljko, M.

    2002-01-01

    Croatia as an Annex I country of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and a country that has pledged in the Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce its greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 5% from the pre-transition level by the budget period 2008-12, will have to envisage a new energy strategy. Compared to the energy consumption collapse in some transitional countries like Russia and Ukraine, Croatia has passed through a relatively limited long term reduction of GHG emissions since 1990 because of higher efficiency of its pre-transition economy. It is expected that in case of business as usual scenario it will breach the Kyoto target in 2003 since the demand for energy will be high, especially as the income continues to rise, particularly in domestic use for heating, for transport and for electricity generation. Several scenarios of developing energy system are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions. The energy sector that will most probably be the most influenced by the UNFCCC objectives is electricity generation. Several scenarios are compared. The cost-effective scenario expects a mixture of coal and gas fired power plants to be built to satisfy the new demand and to replace the old power plants that are being decommissioned. More Kyoto friendly scenario envisages the construction of mostly nuclear power plants in the future, while decommissioning the old ones as planned, and is compared to the others from the GHG emissions point of view. The conclusion is that by measures tackling only electricity generation it will not be possible to keep GHG emission under the Kyoto target level, but that choosing the nuclear option might reduce significantly the cost of compliance. (author)

  2. Emissions reduction scenarios in the Argentinean Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolás; Nadal, Gustavo; Lallana, Francisco; Falzon, James; Calvin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the LEAP, TIAM-ECN, and GCAM models were applied to evaluate the impact of a variety of climate change control policies (including carbon pricing and emission constraints relative to a base year) on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, electricity sector development, and CO_2 emission savings of the energy sector in Argentina over the 2010–2050 period. The LEAP model results indicate that if Argentina fully implements the most feasible mitigation measures currently under consideration by official bodies and key academic institutions on energy supply and demand, such as the ProBiomass program, a cumulative incremental economic cost of 22.8 billion US$(2005) to 2050 is expected, resulting in a 16% reduction in GHG emissions compared to a business-as-usual scenario. These measures also bring economic co-benefits, such as a reduction of energy imports improving the balance of trade. A Low CO_2 price scenario in LEAP results in the replacement of coal by nuclear and wind energy in electricity expansion. A High CO_2 price leverages additional investments in hydropower. By way of cross-model comparison with the TIAM-ECN and GCAM global integrated assessment models, significant variation in projected emissions reductions in the carbon price scenarios was observed, which illustrates the inherent uncertainties associated with such long-term projections. These models predict approximately 37% and 94% reductions under the High CO_2 price scenario, respectively. By comparison, the LEAP model, using an approach based on the assessment of a limited set of mitigation options, predicts an 11.3% reduction. The main reasons for this difference include varying assumptions about technology cost and availability, CO_2 storage capacity, and the ability to import bioenergy. An emission cap scenario (2050 emissions 20% lower than 2010 emissions) is feasible by including such measures as CCS and Bio CCS, but at a significant cost. In terms of technology

  3. South Korean energy scenarios show how nuclear power can reduce future energy and environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is an important case study for understanding the future role of nuclear power in countries with on-going economic growth, and limited renewable energy resources. We compared quantitatively the sustainability of two ‘future-mapping’ exercises (the ‘Governmental’ scenario, which relies on fossil fuels, and the Greenpeace scenario, which emphasises renewable energy and excludes nuclear power). The comparison was based on a range of environmental and technological perspectives, and contrasted against two additional nuclear scenarios that instead envisage a dominant role for nuclear energy. Sustainability metrics included energy costs, external costs (greenhouse-gas emissions, air pollutants, land transformation, water consumption and discharge, and safety) and additional costs. The nuclear-centred scenarios yielded the lowest total cost per unit of final energy consumption by 2050 ($14.37 GJ −1 ), whereas the Greenpeace scenario has the highest ($25.36 GJ −1 ). We used probabilistic simulations based on multi-factor distributional sampling of impact and cost metrics to estimate the overlapping likelihoods among scenarios to understand the effect of parameter uncertainty on the integrated recommendations. Our simulation modelling implies that, despite inherent uncertainties, pursuing a large-scale expansion of nuclear-power capacity offers the most sustainable pathway for South Korea, and that adopting a nuclear-free pathway will be more costly and produce more greenhouse-gas emissions. - Highlights: • Nuclear power has a key role to play in mitigating greenhouse-gas emissions. • The Greenpeace scenario has higher total external cost than the nuclear scenarios. • The nuclear-centred scenarios offer the most sustainable option for South Korea. • The similar conclusions are likely to apply to other Asian countries

  4. Hydrogen energy network start-up scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingartner, S.; Ellerbrock, H.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogen is widely discussed as future fuel and energy storage medium either to replace conventional fuels for automobiles, aircrafts and ships or to avoid the necessity of bulky battery systems for electricity storage, especially in connection with solar power systems. These discussions however started more than 25 years ago and up to now hydrogen has failed to achieve a major break-through towards wider application as energy storage medium in civil markets. The main reason is that other fuels are cheaper and very well implemented in our daily life. A study has been performed at Deutsche Aerospace in order to evaluate the boundary conditions, either political or economical, which would give hydrogen the necessary push, i.e. advantage over conventional fuels. The main goal of this study was to identify critical influence factors and specific start-up scenarios which would allow an economical and practically realistic use of hydrogen as fuel and energy medium in certain niche markets outside the space industry. Method and major results of this study are presented in detail in the paper. Certain niche markets could be identified, where with little initial governmental support, either by funding, tax laws or legislation, hydrogen can compete with conventional fuels. This however requires a scenario where a lot of small actions have to be taken by a high variety of institutions and industries which today are not interconnected with each other, i.e. it requires a new cooperative and proactive network between e.g. energy utilities, car industries, those who have a sound experience with hydrogen (space industry, chemical industry) and last, but certainly not the least, the government. Based on the developed scenario precise recommendations are drawn as conclusions

  5. Energy scenarios for European passenger transport in the year 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Nijkamp, P. [Systems and Control Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Marine Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)] Smokers, R.T.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In this paper four energy scenarios for West-European passenger transport are developed. To start with, the present transport system as a baseline case is described and analysed. Next, for each scenario it is outlined how the passenger transport system may look like in terms of the use of various existing and future transport technologies and the corresponding modal split. Based on this information, expected energy consumption features of the various transport modes are described, data on the present fuel supply and electricity generation system are provided, and estimations of the future energy system are given. Then, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with the future passenger transport systems are calculated and these impacts are compared with the current system. The conclusion is that a large-scale reduction of CO2 emissions is possible in several ways, but that each option will cause many problems because drastic policy measures will have to be introduced, which may affect economic growth and the lifestyles of individuals. 4 figs., 11 tabs., 22 refs.

  6. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, Roberta de Carvalho; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  7. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, Roberta de Carvalho; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: praroberta@uol.com.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  8. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO 2 emission trends for Iran over 2000-2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO 2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO 2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO 2 emission outlines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L G

    1972-10-01

    A mathematical model relating Gross National Product (GNP) per capita to useful energy consumed per capita is demonstrated to predict the shift in this relationship actually experienced in the U.K. and the U.S. over a period of years. World GNP growths in the recent past are used to forecast GNP growth to the year 2030 and also (via the model) the necessary fuel consumption for such growth; likewise, potential production of fossil fuels (exclusive of tar sands and oil shale) is shown to 2030, based on two different assumptions about total world reserves. Fossil fuel ceases to meet world requirements for energy at some time between 1985 and 1995. The most likely candidate for filling the gap is nuclear power.

  10. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  11. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  12. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  13. Energy consumption in France's industry. Conjuncture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Energy consumption in the industry represents today 1/5 of France's end-use energy consumption. Gas and electricity are the most consumed and represent 2/3 of the overall. The 5 most energy consuming industries are the following: paper and cardboard industry, food industry, rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products industry, metallurgy and chemical industry. The reduction of the industry's energy consumption is explained by the decline of production, but above all by the energy efficiency improvement of the sector. Technological innovations in production means have indeed led to reduce energy consumption

  14. Renewable energy scenario in India: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Ganguly, Sourav; Das, Ayanangshu; Sen, Joyjeet; Dey, Sourav

    2016-10-01

    Majority of the power generation in India is carried out by conventional energy sources, coal and fossil fuels being the primary ones, which contribute heavily to greenhouse gas emission and global warming. The Indian power sector is witnessing a revolution as excitement grips the nation about harnessing electricity from various renewable energy sources. Electricity generation from renewable sources is increasingly recognized to play an important role for the achievement of a variety of primary and secondary energy policy goals, such as improved diversity and security of energy supply, reduction of local pollutant and global greenhouse gas emissions, regional and rural development, and exploitation of opportunities for fostering social cohesion, value addition and employment generation at the local and regional level. This focuses the solution of the energy crisis on judicious utilization of abundant the renewable energy resources, such as biomass, solar, wind, geothermal and ocean tidal energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy scenario of India as well as extrapolates the future developments keeping in view the consumption, production and supply of power. Research, development, production and demonstration have been carried out enthusiastically in India to find a feasible solution to the perennial problem of power shortage for the past three decades. India has obtained application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors too. There are ample opportunities with favorable geology and geography with huge customer base and widening gap between demand and supply. Technological advancement, suitable regulatory policies, tax rebates, efficiency improvement in consequence to R&D efforts are the few pathways to energy and environment conservation and it will ensure that these large, clean resource bases are exploited as quickly and cost effectively as possible. This paper gives an overview of the potential renewable energy resources

  15. Does trade liberalization effect energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, Gairuzazmi M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of trade liberalization on the environment can be directly linked to energy consumption, because energy consumption and production are the underlying cause of most pollutants that harm the environment. The descriptive statistics show that average annual growth of energy consumption per capita after trade liberalization varies among countries; hence it is a possibility that the effect of trade liberalization is conditional on factors other than liberalization per se. The regression results show that trade liberalization per se does not affect the growth of energy consumption of the developing countries analyzed, but its interaction with capital per labor reduces the growth of energy consumption as capital per labor increases. However, the effect is only significant after a certain minimum threshold level capital per labor is reached. On the other hand, economic growth increases energy consumption and its effect is not conditioned on trade liberalization. These two different effects mean that, with regards to energy consumption, countries at a higher level of economic development are more likely to reap the benefit of liberalization relative to less developed countries. - Research highlights: ► This paper examines the effect of trade liberalization on energy consumption. ► Developed countries are more likely to reap the benefit of trade liberalization. ► Growth of energy consumption after trade liberalization varies among countries. ► Interaction of capital per labor with liberalization reduces energy consumption.

  16. Energy-environment scenarios for Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M. [Stockholm Environment Inst. Boston, MA (United States); Diallo, S.; Sokona, Y. [Environment and Development in the Third World, Dakar (Senegal)

    1994-06-01

    This paper explores the energy and environmental dimensions of proposed energy strategies for Senegal. We do so using a quantitative analytical framework, and begin to explore how useful such numerical methods can be in an African context. Based on past studies and the environmental database system, we develop a set of emission factors for use in Senegal. Finally, we address ways to integrate the often unquantifiable environmental and economics cost and benefits for environmentally informed decision making. In summary, we find that polices intended to promote the substitution of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for charcoal in households can actually reduce greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to the improvement of more important near-term environmental problems. At the same time, the impacts of LPG substitution on increasing the oil import bill is relatively small when compared to other petroleum product usage.Improving end-use energy efficiency also shows promise, suggesting that new demand-side initiatives are needed. Overall, the integrated energy-environment scenario approach can reveal combined policy impacts that might otherwise be missed in a single project or policy approach. 13 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Development and sustainability issues - energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakodkar, Anil

    2000-01-01

    The 20th century has seen an unprecedented rise in the rate of consumption of material and energy resources. These patterns of growth and consumption have caused enormous strains on the available natural resources and the environment. Further, the benefits of available natural resources have been shared in a highly inequitable manner with a small fraction of mankind using up a large fraction of resources to a level that environmental concerns have become a global matter and are threatening to jeopardize the development of the larger fraction of humanity on grounds of global sustainability. While it has been seen that major achievements in almost all areas of human endeavour in recent times, enabling improvements in quality of life and better control over environmental degradation, there is a new challenge now of sustainability of the development process for the majority of human population. The environment with its large inertia, flexibility and stabilising mechanisms has so far some how copped up at least on a global scale with the unprecedented consumption. However, the recent trends indicate that most of the environment related cycles may not be able to take the continued abuse without disastrous global consequences. Piloting and sustaining the legitimate development of societies particularly those which are left far behind in the march towards better quality of life has, therefore, become a matter which needs very urgent consideration and action. There is thus a strong need for charting of a well deliberated goal oriented action plan with a vision that ensures due attention to the interests of all sections of society on the basis of their justifiable needs

  18. Consumptive water footprint and virtual water trade scenarios for China - With a focus on crop production, consumption and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-09-01

    The study assesses green and blue water footprints (WFs) and virtual water (VW) trade in China under alternative scenarios for 2030 and 2050, with a focus on crop production, consumption and trade. We consider five driving factors of change: climate, harvested crop area, technology, diet, and population. Four scenarios (S1-S4) are constructed by making use of three of IPCC's shared socio-economic pathways (SSP1-SSP3) and two of IPCC's representative concentration pathways (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5) and taking 2005 as the baseline year. Results show that, across the four scenarios and for most crops, the green and blue WFs per tonne will decrease compared to the baseline year, due to the projected crop yield increase, which is driven by the higher precipitation and CO2 concentration under the two RCPs and the foreseen uptake of better technology. The WF per capita related to food consumption decreases in all scenarios. Changing to the less-meat diet can generate a reduction in the WF of food consumption of 44% by 2050. In all scenarios, as a result of the projected increase in crop yields and thus overall growth in crop production, China will reverse its role from net VW importer to net VW exporter. However, China will remain a big net VW importer related to soybean, which accounts for 5% of the WF of Chinese food consumption (in S1) by 2050. All scenarios show that China could attain a high degree of food self-sufficiency while simultaneously reducing water consumption in agriculture. However, the premise of realizing the presented scenarios is smart water and cropland management, effective and coherent policies on water, agriculture and infrastructure, and, as in scenario S1, a shift to a diet containing less meat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA's energy models

  20. State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  1. Household pathway selection of energy consumption during urbanization process in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Ouyang, Xiaoling; Cai, Hongbo; Luo, Zhichao; Li, Aijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy consumption patterns have long-term impacts on energy demand. • We explore determinants and structure of household energy consumption. • Tobit and OLS models are adopted to explore factors influencing energy expenditure. • Residential energy consumption in 2030 is evaluated using scenario analysis. - Abstract: China’s growing energy demand is driven by urbanization. Facing the problem of energy scarcity, residential energy consumption is a crucial area of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Household energy consumption patterns, which are characterized by effects of “path lock-in”, have long-term impacts on China’s energy demand. Based on the survey data, this paper explores factors that influence household energy consumption and analyzes the structure of residential energy consumption in China. Based on the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA), this paper applies the Tobit and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) models to investigate impacts of variables of “the tiered pricing for household electricity (TPHE)”, “solar energy usage”, “automobile ownership”, “rural or urban areas”, “household income” and “city scale” on the residential energy expenditure. In addition, household energy consumption is estimated under different scenarios including improving the utilization of solar energy, rise in energy prices and the increase in automobile ownership. Residential energy consumption in 2030 is evaluated by simulating different models for urban development. Policy recommendations are suggested for China’s urban development strategy, new energy development and household pathway selection of energy consumption

  2. Scenario-based roadmapping assessing nuclear technology development paths for future nuclear energy system scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Roelofs, Ferry; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy may play a significant role in a future sustainable energy mix. The transition from today's nuclear energy system towards a future more sustainable nuclear energy system will be dictated by technology availability, energy market competitiveness and capability to achieve sustainability through the nuclear fuel cycle. Various scenarios have been investigated worldwide each with a diverse set of assumptions on the timing and characteristics of new nuclear energy systems. Scenario-based roadmapping combines the dynamic scenario-analysis of nuclear energy systems' futures with the technology roadmap information published and analysed in various technology assessment reports though integrated within the nuclear technology roadmap Nuclear-Roadmap.net. The advantages of this combination is to allow mutual improvement of scenario analysis and nuclear technology roadmapping providing a higher degree of confidence in the assessment of nuclear energy system futures. This paper provides a description of scenario-based roadmapping based on DANESS and Nuclear-Roadmap.net. (author)

  3. Scenario Analysis of Natural Gas Consumption in China Based on Wavelet Neural Network Optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyun Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas consumption has increased with an average annual growth rate of about 10% between 2012 and 2017. Total natural gas consumption accounted for 6.4% of consumed primary energy resources in 2016, up from 5.4% in 2012, making China the world’s third-largest gas user. Therefore, accurately predicting natural gas consumption has become very important for market participants to organize indigenous production, foreign supply contracts and infrastructures in a better way. This paper first presents the main factors affecting China’s natural gas consumption, and then proposes a hybrid forecasting model by combining the particle swarm optimization algorithm and wavelet neural network (PSO-WNN. In PSO-WNN model, the initial weights and wavelet parameters are optimized using PSO algorithm and updated through a dynamic learning rate to improve the training speed, forecasting precision and reduce fluctuation of WNN. The experimental results show the superiority of the proposed model compared with ANN and WNN based models. Then, this study conducts the scenario analysis of the natural gas consumption from 2017 to 2025 in China based on three scenarios, namely low scenario, reference scenario and high scenario, and the results illustrate that the China’s natural gas consumption is going to be 342.70, 358.27, 366.42 million tce (“standard” tons coal equivalent in 2020, and 407.01, 437.95, 461.38 million tce in 2025 under the low, reference and high scenarios, respectively. Finally, this paper provides some policy suggestions on natural gas exploration and development, infrastructure construction and technical innovations to promote a sustainable development of China’s natural gas industry.

  4. Biomass Scenario Model | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Scenario Model Biomass Scenario Model The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique range of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks into biofuels. Over the past 25 years, the corn ethanol plant matter (lignocellulosic biomass) to fermentable sugars for the production of fuel ethanol

  5. Environmental Externalities of Geological Carbon Sequestration Effects on Energy Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekens, K.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2004-03-01

    Geological carbon sequestration seems one of the promising options to address, in the near term, the global problem of climate change, since carbon sequestration technologies are in principle available today and their costs are expected to be affordable. Whereas extensive technological and economic feasibility studies rightly point out the large potential of this 'clean fossil fuel' option, relatively little attention has been paid so far to the detrimental environmental externalities that the sequestering of CO2 underground could entail. This paper assesses what the relevance might be of including these external effects in long-term energy planning and scenario analyses. Our main conclusion is that, while these effects are generally likely to be relatively small, carbon sequestration externalities do matter and influence the nature of future world energy supply and consumption. More importantly, since geological carbon storage (depending on the method employed) may in some cases have substantial external impacts, in terms of both environmental damage and health risks, it is recommended that extensive studies are performed to quantify these effects. This article addresses three main questions: (1) What may energy supply look like if one accounts for large-scale CO2 sequestration in the construction of long-term energy and climate change scenarios; (2) Suppose one hypothesizes a quantification of the external environmental costs of CO2 sequestration, how do then these supposed costs affect the evolution of the energy system during the 21st century; (3) Does it matter for these scenarios whether carbon sequestration damage costs are charged directly to consumers or, instead, to electricity producers?

  6. Transport energy demand in Andorra. Assessing private car futures through sensitivity and scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travesset-Baro, Oriol; Gallachóir, Brian P.Ó.; Jover, Eric; Rosas-Casals, Marti

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model which estimates current car fleet energy consumption in Andorra and forecasts such consumption as a reference scenario. The base-year model is built through a bottom-up methodology using vehicle registration and technical inspection data. The model forecasts energy consumption up to 2050, taking into account the fleet structure, the car survival profile, trends in activity of the various car categories, and the fuel price and income elasticities that affect car stock and total fleet activity. It provides an initial estimate of private car energy demand in Andorra and charts a baseline scenario that describes a hypothetical future based on historical trends. A local sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most sensitive input parameters and study the effect of its variability. In addition, the scenario analysis explores the most uncertain future aspects which can cause important variability in the results with respect to the Reference scenario and provides a broad estimate of potential energy savings related to different policy strategies. - Highlights: •A private car energy model is built using aggregated available data. •Andorra's current car fleet energy consumption is estimated and forecasted to 2050. •Potential energy savings have been estimated using sensitivity and scenario analysis.

  7. World Energy Scenarios 2050: Impact of the Energy Governance Models to the Future of the European Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, E.

    2014-01-01

    World Energy Council has explored the impact of two extreme governance models of energy sector to the global economic and climate developments. Scenario 'Jazz' describes the world, where investments in the energy markets are made by the companies on the purely economic basis. Scenario 'Symphony' describes the world, where decisions about the energy investments are made by the governments. It appears that in case of Scenario 'Jazz' we would reach lower energy prices, but it would also bring along higher and wider consumption of energy, and much higher environmental impact. In case of Scenario 'Symphony' energy prices would be somewhat higher, but environmental and energy efficiency would deliver better results, and there will be more energy-poor people around the world. It can also be observed, that resulting energy mixes of these two scenarios are very different. When Scenario 'Jazz' would leave the share of fossil fuels nearly to the current levels, then Scenario 'Symphony' supports strongly development of Solar and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Sequestration Technologies. The modelling was also made separately for different regions of the world, the results for Europe can be observed from the report as well. This provides a fruit for thought about the role of the governments in the implementation of the EU 2030 Energy and Climate Strategy. The presentation would describe shortly the methodology of the study, clarifies the assumptions of the scenarios and highlights the main outcomes of the study in for the world and for European energy sector. (author).

  8. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  9. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA's energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included

  10. Nuclear power for energy security - Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    India has been witnessing an impressive growth in GDP in the face of several challenges including the fact that India has a population of over 1.2 billion. In order to provide and maintain a comfortable standard of living to our large population, as well as to sustain the national economic growth, it is essential to have a matching growth in the availability of energy. One such indicator is per capita electricity consumption, and for India, it is about 700 kWh which is far below that of the OECD countries (∼8000 kWh). Furthermore, India's population is expected to rise to about 1.5 billion by 2050. A per capita use of about 5000 kWh energy in the form of electricity every year would be needed for achieving a state of reasonably high development. This will require an installed electricity generation capacity exceeding 1300 GWe, which is slightly more than six times the existing installed electricity generation capacity of 210 GWe in India. Despite the fact that at present India is the fifth largest electricity generating country, India has to increase total electricity generation to almost 10 times the present generation level (about 875 billion kWh). It is against this backdrop, that we cannot afford to ignore any source of energy production including the nuclear option, since no single source alone, or not even a combination of only a couple of sources, can ever meet the entire energy needs of our country in a reliable and sustainable manner. (author)

  11. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  12. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA's energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs

  13. Future energy demand in Laos. Scenario alternatives for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkanen, J.; Kouphokham, K.; Panula-Ontto, J. [and others

    2012-07-01

    Energy production in Laos is still dominated by traditional fuels. Fuelwood in the main source of energy and most of the energy is consumed at households for cooking. Increase in the number of cars and motorbikes is rapidly increasing the use of imported petroleum products. Electrification is one of the central targets of the Lao government. The electrification rate has increased fast in Laos and in the year 2010 over 70 % households had electricity supply. The target is to have 90 % access to electricity by the year 2020. The World Bank regards the electrification of Lao PDR to be a success story. This paper deals with the present and future energy consumption in Laos. First the historical trends of energy use in different sectors are analysed. The future scenarios are constructed using LaoLinda model. Four different future alternative development paths are analysed using the model results. The energy use data source for the analysis is from the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Lao PDR. Economic and other data is from the Department of Statistics of Lao PDR.

  14. vNet Zero Energy for Radio Base Stations- Balearic Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabater, Pere; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Pol, Andreu Moia

    2016-01-01

    The Balearic Islands have one of the best telecommunications infrastructures in Spain, with more than 1500 Radio Base Stations (RBS) covering a total surface of 4.991,66 km². This archipelago has high energy consumption, with high CO2 emissions, due to an electrical energy production system mainly...... based on coal and fossil fuels which is not an environmentally sustainable scenario. The aim of this study is to identify the processes that would reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, designing a target scenario featuring "zero CO2 emissions" and "100% renewable energies" in RBS....... The energy costs, CO2 emissions and data traffic data used for the study are generated by a sample of RBS from the Balearic Islands. The results are shown in terms of energy performance for a normal and net zero emissions scenarios....

  15. The Relationship Between Energy Consumption and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As evidenced from the study, causality runs from energy consumption to economic growth. Energy consumption in Nigeria is mainly based on the use of fossil fuels which is non-renewable. Therefore, in order to actualize its vision of becoming one of the 20th largest economies in the World by the year 2020, government ...

  16. Environmental degradation, energy consumption, population growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the result, there is no evidence of unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions and energy consumption to economic growth and strong unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth to population growth was found. The long run and short run estimates ...

  17. Calculations of energy consumption in ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreslins, Andris; Ramata, Anna [Riga Technical University (Latvia)], e-mail: kreslins@rbf.rtu.lv, email: Anna.Ramata@rtu.lv

    2011-07-01

    Energy cost is an important economic factor in the food industry production process. With the rising price of energy, a reduction in energy consumption would greatly impact production and the end product. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for optimizing energy consumption. A comparison between a traditional ventilation system and a mechanical system was carried out; the necessary enthalpy for heating the air supply and thermal energy consumption were calculated and compared for both systems during the heating season, from October to April, using climatological data for Latvia. Results showed that energy savings of 46% to 87% can be achieved by applying the methodology in the design of industrial buildings; in addition, a well-designed ventilation system increases the workers' productivity. This study presented a methodology which can optimize energy consumption in the food industry sector.

  18. Global energy scenarios, climate change and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2003-01-01

    Energy scenarios provide a framework for exploring future energy perspectives, including various combinations of technology options and their implications. Many scenarios in the literature illustrate how energy system developments may affect global change. Examples are the new emissions scenarios by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the energy scenarios by the World Energy Assessment (WEA). Some of these scenarios describe energy futures that are compatible with sustainable development goals; such as improved energy efficiencies and the adoption of advanced energy supply technologies. Sustainable development scenarios are also characterized by low environmental impacts (at local, regional and global scales) and equitable allocation of resources and wealth. They can help explore different transitions toward sustainable development paths and alternative energy perspectives in general. The considerable differences in expected total energy requirements among the scenarios reflect the varying approaches used to address the need for energy services in the future and demonstrate effects of different policy frameworks, changes in human behavior and investments in the future, as well as alternative unfolding of the main scenario driving forces such as demographic transitions, economic development and technological change. Increases in research, development and deployment efforts for new energy technologies are a prerequisite for achieving further social and economic development in the world. Significant technological advances will be required, as well as incremental improvements in conventional energy technologies. In general, significant policy and behavioral changes will be needed during the next few decades to achieve more sustainable development paths and mitigate climate change toward the end of the century. (au)

  19. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  20. Modeling and analysis of long-term energy scenarios for sustainable strategies of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senshaw, Dereje Azemraw

    2014-04-15

    from 1,313 PJ in 2010. Nevertheless, the energy intensity is expected to decrease gradually across the three scenarios, from 65MJ/$ in base year (2010) to 22, 20 and 13 MJ/$ in 2050 for BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 respectively. Importantly, under Scenario 2, the energy intensity will decrease with an average annual rate of 3,9%. Certainly, Scenario 2 has the largest capability of energy savings. The per capita primary energy consumption in Scenario 2 is the highest (at annual rate of 4.1%) and followed by Scenario 1 (3.3%) over the period. With respect to energy intensity, energy diversity and per capita consumption, BAU scenario shows is the least preferred option with highest risks related to security and diversity of supply. In Scenario 2, the proportion of oil consumption will decrease to 7.4%, i.e., lower than the values of 17.72% and 11.5% for the BAU and Scenario 1, respectively. The demand for non-conventional renewables is expected to increase significantly in all three scenarios from around 1% in 2010, to 11% 23% and 36.6% for the BAU scenario, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 respectively over the period of 2010-2050. Overall, under Scenario 2, the degree of diversification in the total energy requirement would increase and gradually will become environmentally friendly in Ethiopia, with rapid growth in the use of alternative clean energy. The absolute CO{sub 2} emissions under the three scenarios from 2010 to 2050 will slightly increase due to the stronger economic development, which still stay within the limits of an ambitious climate change mitigation policy. Nevertheless, Scenario 2 has the lowest CO{sub 2} emission intensity, followed by the Scenario 1 and BAU scenarios. By 2050 the CO{sub 2} emissions intensities of BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 will reach 0.1, 0.08 and 0.05 kg CO{sub 2} per US$ of GDP, respectively. Overall, the results of analysis demonstrate that the alternative scenarios (Scenario 1 and Scenario 2) would result in a sustainable energy

  1. Modeling and analysis of long-term energy scenarios for sustainable strategies of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senshaw, Dereje Azemraw

    2014-04-01

    1,313 PJ in 2010. Nevertheless, the energy intensity is expected to decrease gradually across the three scenarios, from 65MJ/$ in base year (2010) to 22, 20 and 13 MJ/$ in 2050 for BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 respectively. Importantly, under Scenario 2, the energy intensity will decrease with an average annual rate of 3,9%. Certainly, Scenario 2 has the largest capability of energy savings. The per capita primary energy consumption in Scenario 2 is the highest (at annual rate of 4.1%) and followed by Scenario 1 (3.3%) over the period. With respect to energy intensity, energy diversity and per capita consumption, BAU scenario shows is the least preferred option with highest risks related to security and diversity of supply. In Scenario 2, the proportion of oil consumption will decrease to 7.4%, i.e., lower than the values of 17.72% and 11.5% for the BAU and Scenario 1, respectively. The demand for non-conventional renewables is expected to increase significantly in all three scenarios from around 1% in 2010, to 11% 23% and 36.6% for the BAU scenario, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 respectively over the period of 2010-2050. Overall, under Scenario 2, the degree of diversification in the total energy requirement would increase and gradually will become environmentally friendly in Ethiopia, with rapid growth in the use of alternative clean energy. The absolute CO 2 emissions under the three scenarios from 2010 to 2050 will slightly increase due to the stronger economic development, which still stay within the limits of an ambitious climate change mitigation policy. Nevertheless, Scenario 2 has the lowest CO 2 emission intensity, followed by the Scenario 1 and BAU scenarios. By 2050 the CO 2 emissions intensities of BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 will reach 0.1, 0.08 and 0.05 kg CO 2 per US$ of GDP, respectively. Overall, the results of analysis demonstrate that the alternative scenarios (Scenario 1 and Scenario 2) would result in a sustainable energy transitions that

  2. Development of Optimal Stressor Scenarios for New Operational Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    OPTIMAL STRESSOR SCENARIOS FOR NEW OPERATIONAL ENERGY SYSTEMS by Geoffrey E. Fastabend December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Alejandro S... ENERGY SYSTEMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey E. Fastabend 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School...developed and tested simulation model for operational energy related systems in order to develop better stressor scenarios for acceptance testing

  3. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large

  4. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  5. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  6. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  7. Simulation of embedded systems for energy consumption estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafond, S.

    2009-07-01

    Technology developments in semiconductor fabrication along with a rapid expansion of the market for portable devices, such as PDAs and mobile phones, make the energy consumption of embedded systems a major problem. Indeed the need to provide an increasing number of computational intensive applications and at the same time to maximize the battery life of portable devices can be seen as incompatible trends. System simulation is a flexible and convenient method for analyzinging and exploring the performance of a system or sub-system. At the same time, the increasing use of computational intensive applications strengthens the need to maximize the battery life of portable devices. As a consequence, the simulation of embedded systems for energy consumption estimation is becoming essential in order to study and explore the influence of system design choices on the system energy consumption. The original publications presented in the second part of this thesis propose several frameworks for evaluating the effects of particular system and software architectures on the system energy consumption. From a software point of view Java and C based applications are studied, and from a hardware perspective systems using general purpose processor and heterogeneous platforms with dedicated hardware accelerators are analyzed. Papers 1 and 2 present a framework for estimating the energy consumption of an embedded Java Virtual Machine and show how an accurate energy consumption model of Java opcodes can be obtained. Paper 3 evaluates the cost-effectiveness of Forward Error Correction algorithms in terms of energy consumption and demonstrates that a substantial energy saving is achievable in a DVB-H receiver when a FEC algorithm is used for file downloading scenarios. Paper 4 and 5 present the simulation of heterogeneous platforms and point out the drawback of different mechanisms used to synchronize a hardware accelerator used as a peripheral device. Paper 6 shows that the use of a multi

  8. Energy consumptions of households in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denjean, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    Based on results of a survey, this publication comments data presented under the form of tables and graphs and related to the energy consumption by French households during 2012. It addresses expenses and consumptions for individual housing and for a flat in collective building, analyses the energy consumption with respect to surface in the case of individual housing, discusses the influence of dwelling age on consumption, the influence of geographical location in France, the influence o the residence status (owner or renter), and the influence of dwelling occupation (hours per day), and the distribution of the type of consumed energy (electricity, gas, oil, LPG, wood, other) and the money spent on these different energies. The type of energy is also related to the residence status, to the housing type (house or flat), to the flat surface, to the housing type and age, to the geographical location

  9. 2050 pathway to an active renewable energy scenario for Jiangsu province

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    emphasis on improving its energy efficiency and utilizing its renewable resources in the future. This paper presents the integrated energy pathway for Jiangsu during its social and economic transformation until 2050. EnergyPLAN is the chosen energy system analysis tool, since it accounts for all sectors...... of the energy system that needs to be considered when integrating large-scale renewable energy. A Current Policy Scenario (CPS) based on current energy policies and an Ambitious Policy Scenario (APS) based on large-scale integration of renewable energy and ambitious measures of energy efficiency improvement......In 2009, Jiangsu province of China supplied 99.6 percent of its total energy consumption with fossil fuels, of which 82 percent was imported from other provinces and countries. With rising energy demand, frequent energy shortages, and increasing pollution, it is essential for Jiangsu to put more...

  10. The relationship among energy prices and energy consumption in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chaoqing; Liu, Sifeng; Wu, Junlong

    2010-01-01

    The pricing mechanism for energy is not in line with the international standards, because the energy prices are controlled by the government partly or completely in China. Chinese government made a lot of efforts to improve the pricing mechanism for energy. The relations between Chinese energy prices and energy consumption are the foundations to reform the mechanism. In this paper, the relations between Chinese energy consumption and energy prices are researched by cointegration equations, impulse response functions, granger causality and variance decomposition. The cointegration relations among energy prices, energy consumption and economic outputs show that higher energy price will decrease energy consumption in Chinese industrial sectors but will not reduce the economic output in the long run. The cointegration relation between energy price and household energy consumption shows that higher energy price will decrease household energy consumption in the long run and increase it in the short run. So Chinese government should deepen the reform of pricing mechanism for energy, and increase the energy prices reasonably to save energy. (author)

  11. Social costs of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmeyer, O.

    1988-01-01

    This study systematically compares the external costs and benefits of different electricity generating technologies. It covers environmental and employment effects, the depletion of natural resources, and public subsidies. Electricity production based on fossil fuels and nuclear energy compared with electricity production based on wind energy and photovoltaic systems. The study shows that wind and photovoltaic solar energy induce far less social costs than conventionally generated electricity. The impact of excluding social costs on the competitive position of the different energy technologies is analyzed. It is shown that the allocation process is seriously distorted resulting in sub-optimal investment decisions concerning competing energy technologies. This exclusion of social costs can delay the introduction of renewable energy sources by more than ten years and results in considerable losses to society. (orig./HSCH) With 17 figs., 24 tabs

  12. 2005 primary energy consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    According to preliminar calculations by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Working Party on Energy Balances, AGEB), the consumption of an aggregate 486 million TCE of primary energy resources in Germany last year was 1.3% below the level of the year before. Energy consumption was influenced by both the high level of prices and the development of the economy. Hardly any influence was attributable to the level of temperatures, which was largely unchanged compared to the figure of the year before. Oil consumption in 2005 in Germany dropped by nearly 2% to 174.8 million TCE. On the whole, oil with its 36% share in the energy balance remained by far the most important energy resource in Germany. Natural gas consumption of 110.4 million TCE was at the level of the year before. Its share in the primary energy balance rose slightly to 22.7%. Hard coal, because of lower use in power plants and the decline in iron making, showed a 4.6% drop in consumption to 62.8 million TCE. In this way, hard coal contributed 13% to total energy consumption. Lignite consumption dropped by 3.2% to 54.4 million TCE as a result of lower deliveries to power plants. Its 11.2% share in the total consumption of primary energy continued to make lignite the most important domestic energy resource. More than 90% of the lignite produced is used for electricity generation. The contribution to primary energy consumption of nuclear power dropped by more than 2% to 60.7 million TCE. Hydroelectric plants and wind power plants increased their contribution by 3.6%. The contribution to primary energy consumption made by all renewable energy resources rose to 4.6%. AGEB evaluates statistics of all areas of the power economy on the basis of standard criteria in order to combine these data in a comprehensive picture. Since 1994, the energy balances for Germany have been compiled by DIW on behalf of AGEB. (orig.)

  13. LTE UE Energy Saving by Applying Carrier Aggregation in a HetNet Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Wang, Hua; Mogensen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    In this work it is examined if downlink Carrier Aggregation (CA) can be used to save UE energy. A dual-receiver LTE release 10 UE is compared with a single-receiver LTE release 8 UE. The models are based on scaling of an existing LTE release 8 UE power model. The energy consumption of the UEs...... is examined in a Heterogeneous Network scenario consisting of macro and small cells. The unexpected conclusion is that CA UEs can save energy, compared to LTE release 8 UEs, if they, depending on cell load, experience a throughput gain of 20%. However if the UE throughput is unaltered the energy consumption...

  14. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  15. Energy sources consumption: end uses, efficiency and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This document analyzes the impact of the choices made by all actors, from the energy producers to the process and infrastructure designers and the end users, in the evolution of energy consumptions. Some very little improvements made in the energy efficiency of appliances can become equivalent to the production of several oil fields or power plants at the world scale. More efficient energy uses will not replace the additional productions but they must be considered together to be compared. The energy files are first analyzed as a whole in order to show the hidden field of energy choices. In this framework, users, designers and fitters have to face very different choices because they consider efficiency improvements under different aspects: scientifical, technical, economical and social (public information and habits). These differences in efficiency uses have a time and spatial impact on the growth of energy consumption. The economical and social factors influence the collective way to consume energy and are expressed by the energy intensity of the economic activity. The last part of this document analyzes the influence of this notion on the world energy consumption scenarios at the 2050 prospects. (J.S.)

  16. Scenarios for Benefits Analysis of Energy Research, Development,Demonstration and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-09-07

    For at least the last decade, evaluation of the benefits of research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RD3) by the U.S. Department of Energy has been conducted using deterministic forecasts that unrealistically presume we can precisely foresee our future 10, 25,or even 50 years hence. This effort tries, in a modest way, to begin a process of recognition that the reality of our energy future is rather one rife with uncertainty. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is used by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) and Fossil Energy (FE) for their RD3 benefits evaluation. In order to begin scoping out the uncertainty in these deterministic forecasts, EE and FE designed two futures that differ significantly from the basic NEMS forecast. A High Fuel Price Scenario and a Carbon Cap Scenario were envisioned to forecast alternative futures and the associated benefits. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) implemented these scenarios into its version of NEMS,NEMS-LBNL, in late 2004, and the Energy Information Agency created six scenarios for FE in early 2005. The creation and implementation of the EE-FE scenarios are explained in this report. Both a Carbon Cap Scenario and a High Fuel Price Scenarios were implemented into the NEMS-LBNL. EIA subsequently modeled similar scenarios using NEMS. While the EIA and LBNL implementations were in some ways rather different, their forecasts do not significantly diverge. Compared to the Reference Scenario, the High Fuel Price Scenario reduces energy consumption by 4 percent in 2025, while in the EIA fuel price scenario (known as Scenario 4) reduction from its corresponding reference scenario (known as Scenario 0) in 2025 is marginal. Nonetheless, the 4 percent demand reduction does not lead to other cascading effects that would significantly differentiate the two scenarios. The LBNL and EIA carbon scenarios were mostly identical. The only major

  17. Flexible Energy Consumption in Smart House's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    2012-01-01

    the consumer have to use the energy when it is available. The main electrical energy consumer in a modern society is buildings and private homes. The amount of electrical energy used in this sector is about 70% of the total electricity consumption. Because of that buildings and private homes has to play...... an automatic and inteligente house control system that maximize the consumption exibility based on the energy users behavior with out aection the living comfort. This behavior is of course dierent from household to household, because of that it is nessasary include an adaptive behavior prediction system...

  18. Energy consumption for shortcuts to adiabaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrontegui, E.; Lizuain, I.; González-Resines, S.; Tobalina, A.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Kosloff, R.; Muga, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Shortcuts to adiabaticity let a system reach the results of a slow adiabatic process in a shorter time. We propose to quantify the "energy cost" of the shortcut by the energy consumption of the system enlarged by including the control device. A mechanical model where the dynamics of the system and control device can be explicitly described illustrates that a broad range of possible values for the consumption is possible, including zero (above the adiabatic energy increment) when friction is negligible and the energy given away as negative power is stored and reused by perfect regenerative braking.

  19. Energy consumption characteristics of Guatemalan households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Moscoso, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The sectoral consumption pattern in Guatemala has shown that the residential sector is the major energy consumer. It accounts for 68.9 per cent of total consumption, followed by the transportation sector with 16.6 per cent, and the industrial sector with 9.3 per cent. Because of the importance of the household sector in the national energy balance, the Energy Planning Project carried out a nationwide household survey in 1985 to estimate energy-use patterns. This paper focusses on the findings from the analysis of the 2,500 forms completed during that survey. 4 figs, 1 tab

  20. Energy consumption and conservation in food retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Ge, Y.; Hadawey, A.; Marriott, D.

    2011-01-01

    The total annual CO 2 emissions associated with the energy consumption of the major retail food outlets in the UK amount to around 4.0 MtCO 2 . The energy consumption and emissions from supermarkets varies widely and can depend on many factors such as the type and size of the store, business and merchandising practices and refrigeration and environmental control systems used. This paper provides energy consumption data of a sample of 2570 retail food stores from a number of major retail food chains in the UK. The sample covers all major store categories from convenience stores to hypermarkets and includes approximately 30% of the total number of stores in the UK having a net sales area more than 280 m 2 . The data show a wide variability of energy intensity even within stores of the same retail chain. A power law can be used to describe the variation of the average electrical energy intensity of the stores in the sample with sales area. If the electrical intensity of the stores above the average is reduced to the average by energy conservation measures, annual energy savings of the order of 10% or 840 GWh can be achieved representing 355,000 tonnes annual reduction in CO 2 emissions. The paper also discusses the major energy consuming processes in retail food stores and identifies opportunities for energy savings. - Research highlights: → Energy consumption by supermarkets in the UK is significant and a wide variability exists between stores of similar size. → Energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption of individual stores to the average can produce a0% energy savings. → Significant opportunities for energy savings exist from the integration of HVAC and refrigeration equipment.

  1. Quantification of variables that affect energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Facility energy consumption is the summation of a number of contributory factors, caused by equipment that uses energy in response to demands placed by the user and according to its particular design. While energy efficiency improvements usually concentrate on individual parts or systems, overall energy consumption is analyzed by examining the use of specific fuels. Because independent variables effect the consumption of these fuels, accurate comparisons of a facility's energy consumption for time-measured periods must include these effects. In many cases, it is possible to determine and quantify the effects of one or more of the independent variables through a statistically valid regression analysis of the data. The regression model can be linear, or be dependent on other functions such as powers, time lead or lag, or exponential. The most common model is linear, but other dependencies are often encountered. Regression analyses are not difficult to accomplish, and are included as one of the tools in most spreadsheet software. The analyses provide the energy manager with a means to better understand the energy consumption of his/her facility

  2. Energy transition: from national scenarios to European policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims at seeing how an analysis of national scenarios of energy transition may contribute to the elaboration of European energy and climate policies. The author first identifies the characteristics of energy scenarios, and the relationship between a scenario considered as an object on the one hand, and a vision for the long term on the other hand. She proposes an analysis framework which enables a comparative analysis of scenarios in order to identify stakes and challenges for the future European policy. In the second part, the author presents three examples (Germany, United Kingdom and France) and discusses their political context and adopted scenarios. After an overview of existing European energy and climate policies, the results of the analysis are given for two specific sectors: transports and electricity

  3. Energy consumption in fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, P

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present publication is to limit energy used to aerate the anaerobic fermentation processes. In yeast production the aeration process consumes the greatest part of the total energy required. A mathematical model, based on literature data, is presented for a yeast fermenter. the effect of various aeration and raw product strategies can be calculated. Simulation of yeast fermentation proves it to be independent of oxygen transport. However interaction between flow conditions and biological kinetics (glucose effect) is a limiting factor. With many feeding point the use of enegy for aeration (mixing) can be reduced to 1/3 of the present one.

  4. The role of fusion power in energy scenarios. Proposed method and review of existing scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P; Ybema, J.R.; Seebregts, A.J.

    1998-04-01

    The European Commission wishes more insight in the potential role of fusion energy in the second half of the 21st century. Therefore, several scenario studies are carried out in the so-called macro-task Long Term Scenarios to investigate the potential role of fusion power in the energy system. The main contribution of ECN to the macro-task is to perform a long term energy scenario study for Western Europe with special focus on the role of fusion power. This interim report gives some methodological considerations for such an analysis. A discussion is given on the problems related to the long time horizon of the scenario study such as the forecast of technological innovations, the selection of appropriate discount rates and the links with climate change. Key parameters which are expected to have large effects on the role and cost-effectiveness are discussed in general terms. The key parameters to be varied include level and structure of energy demand, availability and prices of fossil energy, CO2 reduction policy, discount rates, cost and potential of renewable energy sources, availability of fission power and CO2 capture and disposal and the cost and the maximum rate of market growth of fusion power. The scenario calculations are to be performed later in the project with the help of an existing cost minimisation model of the Western European energy system. This MARKAL model is briefly introduced. The results of the model calculations are expected to make clear under which combinations of scenario parameters fusion power is needed and how large the expected financial benefits will be. The present interim report also gives an evaluation of existing energy scenarios with respect to the role of fusion power. 18 refs

  5. A cultural model of household energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzenhiser, Loren

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the development of demand-side research, from an early interest in conservation behavior to a later focus on physical, economic, psychological and social models of energy consumption. Unfortunately, none of these models account satisfactorily for measured energy consumption in the residential sector. Growing interest in the end-uses of energy (e.g. in support of load forecasting, demand-side management and least-cost utility planning), increasing international studies of energy use, and continuing work in the energy and lifestyles research tradition now support an emerging cultural perspective on household energy use. The ecological foundations of the cultural model and its applications in energy research are discussed, along with some of the analytic consequences of this approach. (author)

  6. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND REAL GDP IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Naji Meidani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important production factors and one of the most urgent final products, energy has a special position in the growth and development of the country. This paper examines the causal relationship between Real GDP and energy consumption in various economic sectors including (household and commercial, industry, transportation and agriculture sectors for Iran during 1967–2010 using the time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method. Moreover, an error correction model is also estimated so that the results of these two methods are compared. We found a strong unidirectional causality from energy consumption in industry sector to real gross domestic product. Energy consumption in industry sector can observably promote the development of economy.

  7. Deciding the Future: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This WEC study is bottom-up regional view of our energy future focusing on policies to ensure energy sustainability. Experts from five regions and all energy domains worked together to produce four different scenarios to predict how differing levels of cooperation and government involvement would affect the energy future of the world.

  8. monthly energy consumption forecasting using wavelet analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Monthly energy forecasts help heavy consumers of electric power to prepare adequate budget to pay their electricity bills and also draw the attention of management and stakeholders to electric- ity consumption levels so that energy efficiency measures are put in place to reduce cost. In this paper, a wavelet ...

  9. Tables of energies consumption in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    This short paper presents the evolution of the energy consumption by sector (industry, domestic, tertiary industry, transports, agriculture and all sectors together), since 1973. It gives an abstract of a more complete book: tableaux des consommations d'energie en France; edition 1999. (A.L.B.)

  10. Canada's energy future : reference case and scenarios to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Energy is essential to the comfort and economic prosperity of Canadians. This report highlighted some of the issues that Canada faces with respect to its energy future. The report focused on emerging trends in energy supply and demand, and examined various energy futures that may be available to Canadians up to the year 2030. Three different scenarios were presented: (1) a continuing trends scenario; (2) a triple E scenario in which economic, environmental and energy objectives are balanced; and (3) a fortified islands scenario in which security concerns were coupled with international unrest and protectionist governments. The report determined that energy demand will remain a function of population and economic growth. Automobiles will continue to rely on fossil fuels. Energy efficiency will improve in relation to the effectiveness of government policies, and a move towards natural gas alternatives will occur. However, fossil fuels will remain a dominant source of energy supply. Oil sands production grew in all 3 of the evaluated scenarios. It is expected that total natural gas production will decline and imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) will increase. In all 3 scenarios greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increased or only slightly declined. A full spectrum of GHG mitigation strategies will need to be implemented so that Canada can meet its target of a 20 per cent reduction in GHGs by 2020. It was concluded that effective policies are needed to optimize Canada's multiple objectives of economic growth, environment sustainability, and development of energy resources. 6 tabs., 118 figs

  11. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  12. Improving energy consumption structure: A comprehensive assessment of fossil energy subsidies reform in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Li Hong

    2011-01-01

    Fossil energy subsidies reform would be an effective way to improve the energy consumption structure; however, the reform needs to be assessed comprehensively beforehand as it would exert uncertain impacts on economy, society and environment. In this paper, we use price-gap approach to estimate the fossil energy subsidies of China, then establish CGE model that contains pollutant emissions accounts and CO 2 emissions account to stimulate the fossil energy subsidies reform under different scenarios, and the environmental economic analysis concept is introduced to monetize the pollutant reduction benefits. Furthermore, we analyze the possibility and scope of improving the energy consumption structure from the perspective of technical and economic analysis. Analytical results show that the energy consumption structure could be improved by different extent by removing coal or oil subsidies, while the economic and social indexes will be influenced distinctively. Meanwhile, the effects of cutting coal subsidies are more feasible than that of cutting oil subsidies overall. It is recommended to implement fossil energy subsidies gradually, cut the coal first and then cut oil subsidies successively. - Research highlights: → This paper estimates the scale of fossil energy subsidies of China in 2007 with price-gap approach. → We establish a Social Accounting Matrix and a CGE model extended with pollutant accounts. → We simulate the impacts of removing or cutting subsidies under three different scenarios. → We discuss the possibility and potential of improving energy consumption structure.

  13. World Energy Scenarios to 2050: the Europe Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeda, E.

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this paper is an overview of the Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 study objectives, with emphasis on The Report for the Europe Region. The study is focused on achievement of the 3A's global energy goal (Accessibility, Availability, and Acceptability) by using various policy scenarios. The heart of the study will therefore be Policy Scenarios postulated within the context of two dimensions of government policy uncertainty. One with the dimension indicating whether the world is heading towards increased globalism and co-operation between governments and/or business and industry, or more towards bilateralism and nationalism outside global governance institutions. As outcomes, there is particularly described each of the four predicted scenarios: L'Europe des Patries, Fortress Europe, Confident Europe and Trailer Europe considering five main common indicators: political context, energy security, market forces/competition, environment/climate change, and energy mix/energy technology.(author)

  14. Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies: Wave Energy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, wave energy conversion could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that, due to a lack of technical certainty, many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood,. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based assessment to the emerging hydrokinetic technology sector in order to evaluate the potential impact of these technologies on the marine environment and navigation constraints. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental effects and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential range of technical attributes and potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders on the critical issues that need to be addressed. By identifying and addressing navigational and environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development, serious mistakes that could potentially derail industry-wide development can be avoided. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two

  15. Technology versus demand regulation - strategic modelling of transport, land use and energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenbichler, Paul C.; Shepherd, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Scarcity of oil supply is seen as one of the biggest future threats to our society. The recently finished EU-funded research project STEPs (Scenarios for the Transport System and Energy Supply and their Potential Effects) had the objective to develop, compare and assess possible scenarios for the transport system and the energy supply of the future taking into account the effects on the environment as well as economic and social viability. Two energy supply scenarios, one with and one without scarcity of oil supply, form the basis of STEPs. Furthermore two different policies are suggested to tackle the problem of scarcity of oil: a technology driven strategy and a demand regulation based strategy. This paper presents the application of these scenarios and strategies to the strategic Systems Dynamics model MARS (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator) covering the metropolitan area of Edinburgh. Scenario indicators like car ownership, fleet composition and fuel resource costs were provided by the European model ASTRA and the world energy market model POLES. The first part of the paper summarises the scenarios and strategies in detail. The second part describes briefly some basics of Systems Dynamics as well as the main mechanisms underlying the model MARS. Finally the results of the scenario simulations are presented. The main outcome is that a demand regulation policy is more effective in reducing the consumption of non-renewable energy resources than a technology driven policy

  16. NSON-DK energy system scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Traber, Thure

    with a strong recovering of coal and crude oil prices, and a pronounced increase of CO2 prices from 2020. For the countries around the North Sea that are considered, the evolution of electricity demand is projected to be strongly impacted by aggressive energy efficiency policies that lead in total to stagnating...... of the century and replacing these capacities essentially with natural gas power plants. In Belgium, and Germany nuclear power plants are expected to be phased-out by 2035, with Sweden following this policy by 2050. Moreover, the economic outlook for nuclear in the other countries is also weak mainly due...... to pronounced competition from fluctuating renewable energies. In regard to wind energy, for Denmark it is suggested that onshore installations are not increased significantly after 2030. By contrast, a major increase in offshore wind energy is assumed. Corresponding with these offshore and onshore wind power...

  17. Energy and environment scenarios for Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, M.; Diallo, S.; Sokona, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the energy and environmental dimensions of several proposed energy strategies for Senegal are explored. An analytical framework to compare the energy and measurable environmental impacts of a set of scenarious is developed, and the limitations of the quantitative approach are discussed. It is found that policies to promote substitution of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for charcoal use in households may actually reduce greenhouse gas emission, while also improving more important near-term environmental problems. Substitution of LPG for charcoal would not necessarily lead to a significant increase in Senegal's oil import bill, since other petroleum product usage will continue to dominate. Despite past industrial sector initiatives, considerable potential for energy efficiency investment remains, and presents additional opportunities for minimizing environmental impacts. (author). 33 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Energy Threshold Hypothesis for Household Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar

    2017-01-01

    A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.

  19. Cities and Energy Consumption: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cities and energy consumption has been of great interest for the scientific community for over twenty years. Most of the energy consumption, indeed, occurs in cities because of the high concentration of human activities. Thus, cities are responsible for a big share of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2. However, the debate on this topic is still open, mainly because of the heterogeneity of published studies in the selection, definition and measurement of the urban features influencing energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as well as in the choice of the energy sectors to be considered, in the territorial scale of analysis, and in the geographical distribution of the sample. Therefore, the goal of this research is to systematize and compare the approach, methodology and results of the relevant literature on the relationship between cities and energy consumption over the last twenty years. Furthermore, this critical review identifies the knowledge gap between what is known and what is still under debate and, based on that, it proposes a conceptual framework that will help to outline a new direction for future research and support local policy makers in the definition of strategies and actions that can effectively reduce urban energy use and CO2 emissions.

  20. Phasing out nuclear in Germany: scenarios of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopf, Brigitte; Pahle, Michael; Kondziella, Hendrik; Goetz, Mario; Bruckner, Thomas; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Stark, Hans; Rittelmeyer, Yann-Sven; Wissmann, Nele; Vitasse, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    After the German decision taken in 2011 to phase out nuclear, the authors analyse different scenarios of energy transition, and study the consequences of this phasing out in terms of energy needs provided by fossil fuel plants, of electricity price for households and for industries, and of CO 2 emissions. Independently from the development of renewable energies, the different effects of gas and coal plants replacing nuclear energy have been calculated and compared, and other possible scenarios have been explored. The author also discuss requirements in terms of governance for grid development, for a coordinated European policy of energy and climate, and for transparency and scientific follow-up

  1. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  2. The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra-Santin, O.; Itard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance

  3. Energy consumption for different greenhouse constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djevic, M.; Dimitrijevic, A. [Department for Agricultural Engineering, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade (RS)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper the influence of greenhouse construction on energy efficiency in winter lettuce production was estimated for four different double plastic covered greenhouses in Serbia region. Plastic coverings were introduced in this region as a mean of making the plant production more energy efficient. Additionally, as a means of lowering energy consumption, tunnel structures were proposed. In order to see whether the greenhouse structure influences energy consumption, four different double plastic covered greenhouses. Two tunnel types, 9 x 58 m and 8 x 25 m, one gutter-connected structure and multi-span plastic covered greenhouse. The gutter-connected structure was 2 x 7 m wide and 39 m long while the multi-span structure was 20 x 6.4 m wide and 42 m long. On the basis of lettuce production output and the energy input, specific energy input, energy output-input ratio and energy productivity were estimated. Results show that the lowest energy consumption was obtained for multi-span greenhouse, 9.76 MJ/m{sup 2}. The highest energy consumption was obtained in tunnel, 9 x 58 m, 13.93 MJ/m{sup 2}. The highest value for output-input ratio was calculated for multi-span greenhouse (0.29), followed by gutter-connected greenhouse (0.21), tunnel 9 x 58 m (0.17) and tunnel, 8 x 25 m (0.15). Results also show that energy productivity can be higher if multi-span greenhouse structures are used. (author)

  4. Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    part of the climate change is due to emission of CO2 from the use of fossil fuels. For simplicity, this paper focuses on CO2 emission from fossil fuels, but CO2 from deforestation as well as methane (CH4), laughing gas (N2O) and a number of industrial greenhouse gases should be included in a more......, 2009) lacked sufficient concrete commitments for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) after 2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Human activities in their present form are strongly dependent on the supply of energy. A dominant part of the global energy supply is based on fossil fuels and a dominant...

  5. Energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in Iran, 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaei, Maryam [Department of Banking and Finance, Multimedia University (Malaysia); Bekri, Mahmoud [Economic and Statistic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission trends for Iran over 2000–2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO{sub 2} emissions in 2025 will reach 985 million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO{sub 2} emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO{sub 2} emission outlines. - Highlights: • Creation of an energy consumption model using system dynamics. • The effect of different policies on energy consumption and emission reductions. • An ascending trend for the environmental costs caused by CO{sub 2} emissions is observed. • An urgent need for energy saving and emission reductions in Iran.

  6. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  7. DGEMP-OE (2008) Energy Baseline Scenario. Synthesis report; Scenario energetique de reference DGEMP-OE(2008). Rapport de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    ;reference' at national level. - Finally, the MEDEE energy demand model applied in the CAS scenarios relies primarily on 2000 data, despite the existence of sufficiently complete statistics through to 2005. The DGEMP on the other hand used a study by the BIPE (Office for Economic Information and Forecasting) provided by the SESP, the Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning's economic statistics and forecasting department. On the basis of the study's macro-economic projections of the French economy to 2020, the DGEMP was able to re-evaluate the prospects for activity in the industrial and tertiary sectors. In several respects (e.g. supply security, CO{sub 2} emissions, energy efficiency), the baseline scenario proposed here is clearly not a scenario conducive to satisfying French energy policy objectives. This is not a surprising conclusion in that it implies the need to implement new policies and measures in addition to those already in place or approved. In particular, this scenario would lead to importing 66 billion cubic meters of gas (59 Mtoe) in 2020 and 78 billion cubic meters (70 Mtoe) in 2030, compared with the present 44 billion cubic meters. In addition to the resulting CO{sub 2} emissions, the near doubling of gas imports would pose a twofold problem as to the geographic origin of the gas imported (under appropriate supply contracts) and the infrastructure (LNG terminals, gas pipelines) required to transport it. Finally, the baseline scenario is of course a long way from achieving the Community targets, whether for CO{sub 2} emissions, projected to rise continually until 2020 and then even faster until 2030 (due to transport and electric power generation), or for the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. In that regard, the share of renewable energy in 'enlarged' final energy consumption, as it is described in the 'energy and climate change package', would grow to 13.4% in 2020 (versus 23% in the

  8. Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems for Future Urban Energy Retrofitting Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lombardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing concern about sustainable urban energy development taking into account national priorities of each city. Many cities have started to define future strategies and plans to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban energy scenarios involve the consideration of a wide range of conflicting criteria, both socio-economic and environmental ones. Moreover, decision-makers (DMs require proper tools that can support their choices in a context of multiple stakeholders and a long-term perspective. In this context, Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS are often used in order to define and analyze urban scenarios since they support the comparison of different solutions, based on a combination of multiple factors. The main problem, in relation to urban energy retrofitting scenarios, is the lack of appropriate knowledge and evaluation criteria. The latter are crucial for delivering and assessing urban energy scenarios through a MC-SDSS tool. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and test two different methods for the definition and ranking of the evaluation criteria. More specifically, the paper presents an on-going research study related to the development of a MC-SDSS tool able to identify and evaluate alternative energy urban scenarios in a long-term period perspective. This study refers to two Smart City and Communities research projects, namely: DIMMER (District Information Modeling and Management for Energy Reduction and EEB (Zero Energy Buildings in Smart Urban Districts.

  9. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This paper presented the results of a survey on 2004 energy consumption data for commercial and institutional establishments in Canada. The objective of the survey was to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions seeking to gain greater energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Data were published by energy source and region. Energy intensity data were presented by region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio which included accounting for weather conditions, age of buildings and energy sources. It was observed that commercial and institutional establishments consumed nearly 945 million gigajoules in 2004. The wholesale trade and warehousing sector used the highest amount of energy, accounting for 17 per cent of all commercial and institutional energy use. The education sector accounted for 16 per cent of energy use, while the office sector accounted for 14 per cent. The energy intensity rate of hospitals in Canada was the highest of all sectors and subsectors, due to their nearly constant use of lighting and medical equipment. Retail trade accounted for the largest share of establishments at 26 per cent of all establishments, followed by offices with 22 per cent. Education accounted for the largest percentage of floor area. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Scenario analysis of energy-based low-carbon development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Hao, Fanghua; Meng, Wei; Fu, Jiafeng

    2014-08-01

    China's increasing energy consumption and coal-dominant energy structure have contributed not only to severe environmental pollution, but also to global climate change. This article begins with a brief review of China's primary energy use and associated environmental problems and health risks. To analyze the potential of China's transition to low-carbon development, three scenarios are constructed to simulate energy demand and CO₂ emission trends in China up to 2050 by using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model. Simulation results show that with the assumption of an average annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 6.45%, total primary energy demand is expected to increase by 63.4%, 48.8% and 12.2% under the Business as Usual (BaU), Carbon Reduction (CR) and Integrated Low Carbon Economy (ILCE) scenarios in 2050 from the 2009 levels. Total energy-related CO₂ emissions will increase from 6.7 billiontons in 2009 to 9.5, 11, 11.6 and 11.2 billiontons; 8.2, 9.2, 9.6 and 9 billiontons; 7.1, 7.4, 7.2 and 6.4 billiontons in 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 under the BaU, CR and ILCE scenarios, respectively. Total CO₂ emission will drop by 19.6% and 42.9% under the CR and ILCE scenarios in 2050, compared with the BaU scenario. To realize a substantial cut in energy consumption and carbon emissions, China needs to make a long-term low-carbon development strategy targeting further improvement of energy efficiency, optimization of energy structure, deployment of clean coal technology and use of market-based economic instruments like energy/carbon taxation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A Meta Model for Domestic Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.,J SREEKANTH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of energy consumption particularly in micro level is of vital importance in terms of energy planning and also implementation of any Clean Development Mechanism (CDM activities that has become the order of the world today. It may be difficult to model household energy consumption using conventional methods such as time series forecasting due to many influencing factors. This paper presents a step wise regression model for forecasting domestic energy consumption based on micro level household survey data collected from Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The analysis of the data reveals significant influence of socio-economic, demographic, geographic, and family attributes upon total household energy requirements. While a wide variation in the pattern of energy requirements across the domestic sector belonging to different expenditure classes, per capita income level can be identified as the most important explanatory variable influencing variation in energy requirements. The models developed also demonstrates the influence of per capita land area, residential area among the higher income group while average age and literacy forms significant variables among the lower income group.

  12. 2050 pathway to an active renewable energy scenario for Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lixuan; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Möller, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, Jiangsu province of China supplied 99.6 percent of its total energy consumption with fossil fuels, of which 82 percent was imported from other provinces and countries. With rising energy demand, frequent energy shortages, and increasing pollution, it is essential for Jiangsu to put more emphasis on improving its energy efficiency and utilizing its renewable resources in the future. This paper presents the integrated energy pathway for Jiangsu during its social and economic transformation until 2050. EnergyPLAN is the chosen energy system analysis tool, since it accounts for all sectors of the energy system that needs to be considered when integrating large-scale renewable energy. A current policy scenario (CPS) based on current energy policies and an ambitious policy scenario (APS) based on large-scale integration of renewable energy and ambitious measures of energy efficiency improvement are proposed. The two energy pathways are modeled and compared in terms of technology combination, non-fossil fuel shares of primary energy supply, socioeconomic costs, and CO 2 emissions. The insights from these pathways can provide valuable input for Jiangsu's future energy policies. - Highlights: ► An integrated energy pathway is designed for Jiangsu province by 2050. ► A current policy scenario and an ambitious policy scenario are modeled and assessed. ► The ambitious policy scenario can help stabilize CO 2 emissions and achieve better economy. ► The next 5–10 years would be a key period for Jiangsu's energy system transition. ► Several policy suggestions have been proposed.

  13. Energy Consumption of Fast Ferries in Danish Domestic Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Steen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark.......Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark....

  14. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances...

  15. Understanding energy consumption: Beyond technology and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, H.; Shove, E.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes two years of efforts among a cross-disciplinary group of senior researchers to bring social and cultural perspectives to modeling of household energy consumption. The work has been organized by the Center for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva. The researchers represent both the physical and social sciences, several institutions and a number of countries. The initiative was based on an acknowledgement of the failure of technical and economic models to explain consumption or more importantly, how consumption patterns change. Technical and economic models most often either ignore social and cultural issues or reduce them to parameters of other variables. An important objective for the Geneva Group has been to engage modelers and social scientists in a dialogue which brings social and cultural context to the fore. The process reveals interesting insights into the frictions of cross-disciplinary interaction and the emergence of new perspectives. Various classical modeling approaches have been discussed and rejected. Gradually, a framework has emerged which says something about the appropriate institutions and actors which contribute to consumption patterns; about how they are related; and finally about how the interinstitutional relationships and the consumption patterns themselves change. A key point of convergence is that a complete understanding of energy end-use will not be possible from an analysis directed at the point of end use alone. The analysis must incorporate what happens inside institutions like manufacturers, retailers, and public policy organizations as well as how those organizations interact with consumers, including media and advertising. Progress towards a better understanding of energy consumption requires a greater engagement of social scientists with these heretofore little explored actors an relationships.

  16. Nuclear power in future energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that even when the renewable energy sources like solar, biogas and biomass are developed to the maximum feasible extent, they will only be able to sustain a marginal level of economic activity. In India demand for coal is expected to rise at some 6% per annum and that for oil at about 4% per annum. It is doubtful whether the coal production can be raised to meet the demand of 2000 million tonnes of coal by the turn of century. Steadily increasing cost of oil will make it difficult to procure the necessary quota of oil. The only way, therefore, for large-scale increase in electricity generation is to use nuclear energy. At present, it accounts for only 3% of the electricity produced in the country. It is shown that with implementation of a proper nuclear programme, 10,000 MW of nuclear power representing 15% of electricity produced by the year 2000 can be produced. Safety aspect of nuclear power is discussed and it is mentioned that scare on these grounds is not justifiable. Need for a national consensus on this issue is emphasised. (M.G.B.)

  17. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  18. Computer Profile of School Facilities Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Felix E.

    This document outlines a computerized management tool designed to enable building managers to identify energy consumption as related to types and uses of school facilities for the purpose of evaluating and managing the operation, maintenance, modification, and planning of new facilities. Specifically, it is expected that the statistics generated…

  19. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  20. The 2 oC scenario-A sustainable world energy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Simon, Sonja; Graus, Wina; Teske, Sven; Zervos, Arthouros; Schaefer, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    A target-oriented scenario of future energy demand and supply is developed in a backcasting process. The main target is to reduce global CO 2 emissions to around 10 Gt/a in 2050, thus limiting global average temperature increase to 2 o C and preventing dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. A 10-region energy system model is used for simulating global energy supply strategies. A review of sector and region-specific energy efficiency measures resulted in the specification of a global energy demand scenario incorporating strong energy efficiency measures. The corresponding supply scenario has been developed in an iterative process in close cooperation with stakeholders and regional counterparts from academia, NGOs and the renewable energy industry. The 2 o C scenario shows that renewable energy could provide as much as half of the world's energy needs by 2050. Developing countries can virtually stabilise their CO 2 emissions, while at the same time increasing energy consumption through economic growth. OECD countries will be able to reduce their emissions by up to 80%

  1. A system dynamics analysis of energy consumption and corrective policies in Iranian iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Nastaran; Seifi, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Iron and steel industry is the most energy intensive industrial sector in Iran. Long time subsidized energy has led to low energy efficiency in this industry. The sudden subsidy reform of energy prices in Iran is expected to have a great impact on steel production and energy consumption. A system dynamics model is presented in this paper to analyze steel demand, production and energy consumption in an integrated framework. A co-flow structure is used to show how subsidy reform affects energy consumption in the long run. The main focus of this paper is on direct and indirect natural gas consumption in the steel industry. Scrap based Electric Arc Furnace technology has been evaluated as an energy efficient way for steel making. The energy consumption in steel industry is estimated under various steel production and export scenarios while taking into account new energy prices to see the outlook of possible energy demand in steel industry over next 20 years. For example it is shown that under reference production scenario, potential reduction in gas consumption forced by complete removal of energy subsidy and utilizing scrap could lead to 85 billion cubic meters of gas saving over the next 20 years. -- Highlights: ► We develop a system dynamics model to analyze steel demand, production and energy consumption in Iran. ► Various scenarios have been simulated to see the energy demand of Iranian steel industry over the next 20 years. ► A co-flow structure is used to show how subsidy reform would affect energy consumption in the long run. ► A co-flow structure has been built into the SD model to formulate consumers' behavior in response to energy prices. ► Scrap based Electric Arc Furnace technology has been evaluated as an energy efficient alternative for steel making.

  2. Continuing growth for world energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The World Energy Outlook of the global energy markets from 1971 to 2020, recently released by the International Energy Agency, is summarised. Covering demand, supply and energy prices, it provides an in-depth review of oil, gas, coal, biomass and power generation. With projections for all energy sectors, it offers a valuable insight into the development of the international energy business. The projections cover all world regions, including industrial and developing countries, and provide a comprehensive view of the main developments and issues affecting demand and supply on a global basis. The Outlook's projections have been derived from a 'reference scenario' that assumes global economic growth of more than 3% per annum, but a slowdown in population growth. Fossil-fuel prices are generally assumed to remain flat throughout the first decade of the projection period (to 2020), with oil and gas prices increasing after 2010 in response to the supply-side pressures. The scenario takes account of a range of major new policies and measures adopted in OECD countries, many of which relate to commitments under the Kyoto Protocol enacted or announced up to mid-2000. Despite the policies and measures in the OECD countries, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions will increase, averaging 2.1% per annum to 2020. This amounts to 60% increase between 1997 and 2020. Fast-growing developing countries heavily contributing to increase in carbon dioxide, as they do in global energy demand

  3. Energy technology perspectives - scenarios and strategies to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-03

    At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G8 leaders confronted questions of energy security and supply and lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions and decided to act with resolve and urgency. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. Energy Technology Perspectives is a response to the G8 request. This work demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO{sub 2} emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power. 110 figs., 4 annexes.

  4. Energy technology perspectives: scenarios and strategies to 2050 [Russian version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G8 leaders confronted questions of energy security and supply and lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions and decided to act with resolve and urgency. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. Energy Technology Perspectives is a response to the G8 request. This work demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO{sub 2} emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power. 110 figs., 4 annexes.

  5. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  6. The Effects of Domestic Energy Consumption on Urban Development Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saryazdi, M. D.; Homaei, N.; Arjmand, A.

    2018-05-01

    In developed countries, people have learned to follow efficient consumption patterns, while in developing countries, such as Iran, these patterns are not well executed. A large amount of energy is almost consumed in buildings and houses and though the consumption patterns varies in different societies, various energy policies are required to meet the consumption challenges. So far, several papers and more than ten case studies have worked on the relationship between domestic energy consumption and urban development, however these researches did not analyzed the impact of energy consumption on urban development. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the interactions between the energy consumption and urban development by using system dynamics as the most widely used methods for complex problems. The proposed approach demonstrates the interactions using causal loop and flow diagrams and finally, suitable strategies will be proposed for urban development through simulations of different scenarios.

  7. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 2, scenarios I to IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, A.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the four scenarios concerning future developments in Swiss energy supply policy. The four complex scenarios include variants entitled 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. These scenarios deal with the development of energy demand and electricity offerings in Switzerland for the period 1990 to 2035. They are reviewed in the light of various sensitivity factors. These sensitivity factors include a high GDP, oil prices of 50 US-dollars per barrel and a warmer climate. The report presents the results of the model calculations made. First of all, the report takes a look at the motivation and aims behind the work and discusses the modelling methods, system limits and conventions used and the possibilities offered by the perspectives as well as the limits encountered. The four scenarios are then presented and discussed in detail. Implementation variants in the private, services, industrial and traffic sectors are discussed and various electricity supply variants are presented, as are the associated environmental issues involved. The scenarios are compared with each other and pricing and security of supply issues are discussed. Finally, a short synopsis of the scenarios is presented and decision criteria are discussed as are implementation instruments. Ethical dilemmas and the risks involved are noted

  8. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  9. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  10. Energy Management Systems to Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oriti, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY An energy management system comprises an electrical energy storage element such as a battery, renewable electrical energy sources such as solar and wind, a digital signal processing controller and a solid state power converter to interface the elements together. This hardware demonstration in the lab at the Naval Postgraduate School will focus on solid state power conversion methods to improve the reliability and efficiency of electrical energy consumption by Navy facilit...

  11. Fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil carbon effects, of producing agriculture and forestry feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina E. Canter; Zhangcai Qin; Hao Cai; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Wang; D. Andrew Scott

    2017-01-01

    The GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption associated with producing potential biomass sup­ply in the select BT16 scenarios include emissions and energy consumption from biomass production, harvest/collection, transport, and pre-processing activities to the reactor throat. Emissions associated with energy, fertilizers, and...

  12. The use of physical indicators for industrial energy demand scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2007-01-01

    Scientific information on the size and nature of the threat of climate change is needed by politicians in order to weight their decisions. Computerised models are extremely useful tools to quantify the long-term effects of current policies. This paper describes a new modelling approach that allows formulation of industrial energy demand projections consistent with the assumptions for scenario drivers such as GDP and population. In the model, a level of industrial production is used as a key variable, and we define it in physical units, rather than in monetary units. The aim of this research is to increase insights that come with long-term energy demand scenarios. This research clearly shows that physical indicators provide additional insights in scenario analysis. The use of physical indicators instead of monetary indicators seems to affect the energy scenarios significantly. The differences with monetary indicators are larger in developing regions than in OECD regions. We conclude that an integrated energy and materials approach reveals developments that are hardly visible using a monetary approach. Moreover, this research shows the potential and benefits of the use of physical indicators for scenario development. (author)

  13. Energy utilities and environment-related energy services in the year 2008. Scenario study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    Insight is given into of the developments in the sector energy distribution companies and the consequences for the demand for energy services. Next, an overview is given of which energy services should be developed to meet the changed needs of the market. Three scenarios have been set up and are discussed in this brochure: (1) a Steady State scenario (unchanged policy of energy distribution companies); (2) Alliance scenario (strategic cooperation between energy distribution companies and retailers and installation businesses); and (3) Autonomous Development scenario (energy distribution companies develop and offer new services)

  14. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  15. 2014 Navajo Nation Energy and Water Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Suzanne L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Woods, Sam [Navajo Transitional Energy Company, Farmington, NM (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Navajo Nation is the home of the largest land-based Indian reservation in the U.S., covering more than twenty-seven thousand square miles. The land in the southwestern U.S. holds an abundance of natural resources, which are intimately integrated in the history, economy, and growth of the Navajo tribe. This report aims to wholly visualize the Navajo Nation’s resources and energy and water consumption using quantitative data and systems engineering analysis. The energy and water flow chart visualizations provide structured information for tribal leaders, policymakers, and educators around energy and water system discussions, technology development opportunities, and policy decisions. The analysis of both energy and water is a first step to visualizing the interconnectedness and complexities of the energy-water-food nexus of the nation. The goal of this energy analysis was to first estimate coal resource consumption because of the considerable impact coal has on the Navajo economy, recently as much as $26 million per year in coal royalties.

  16. Data mining, mining data : energy consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, S. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Most modern mining operations are accumulating large amounts of data on production and business processes. Data, however, provides value only if it can be translated into information that appropriate users can utilize. This paper emphasized that a new technological focus should emerge, notably how to concentrate data into information; analyze information sufficiently to become knowledge; and, act on that knowledge. Researchers at the Mining Information Systems and Operations Management (MISOM) laboratory at the University of Arizona have created a method to transform data into action. The data-to-action approach was exercised in the development of an energy consumption model (ECM), in partnership with a major US-based copper mining company, 2 software companies, and the MISOM laboratory. The approach begins by integrating several key data sources using data warehousing techniques, and increasing the existing level of integration and data cleaning. An online analytical processing (OLAP) cube was also created to investigate the data and identify a subset of several million records. Data mining algorithms were applied using the information that was isolated by the OLAP cube. The data mining results showed that traditional cost drivers of energy consumption are poor predictors. A comparison was made between traditional methods of predicting energy consumption and the prediction formed using data mining. Traditionally, in the mines for which data were available, monthly averages of tons and distance are used to predict diesel fuel consumption. However, this article showed that new information technology can be used to incorporate many more variables into the budgeting process, resulting in more accurate predictions. The ECM helped mine planners improve the prediction of energy use through more data integration, measure development, and workflow analysis. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Energy Awareness Displays - Prototype for personalised energy consumption feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Storm, Jeroen; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Storm, J., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012). Energy Awareness Displays - Prototype for personalised energy consumption feedback. In A. Ravencroft, S. Lindstaedt, C. D. Kloos, & D. Hernández-Leo (Eds.), 21st Century Learning for 21st Century Skills - 7th European Conference on Technology

  18. Energy scenarios for the nordic region towards 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidje, Audun

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes the assumptions, methodology and main results of the MARKAL analysis of options for a sustainable energy future in the Nordic region. The work is based on the Nordic MARKAL model, which has been modified such that it may be used to analyse a large number of scenarios, typically 500 to 5000. The scenarios are developed by analysis a set of strategies and uncertainties. All these strategies and uncertainties are combined such that we generate in total 1 152 scenarios. The main purpose of generating a large number of scenarios was to facilitate for multi-criteria trade-off analysis. Overall results from this analysis show that large reductions of CO{sub 2} emissions are possible at CO{sub 2} cost below 50 EUR/t CO{sub 2} (author)

  19. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, V.; Markandya, A.; Vicini, G.

    2007-01-01

    This policy compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level. (author)

  20. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Gracceva, Francesco; Markandya, Anil; Vicini, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level

  1. Energy saving and consumption reducing evaluation of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiu; Han, Miaomiao

    2018-03-01

    At present, energy saving and consumption reduction require energy saving and consumption reduction measures for thermal power plant, establishing an evaluation system for energy conservation and consumption reduction is instructive for the whole energy saving work of thermal power plant. By analysing the existing evaluation system of energy conservation and consumption reduction, this paper points out that in addition to the technical indicators of power plant, market activities should also be introduced in the evaluation of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant. Ttherefore, a new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction is set up and the example power plant is calculated in this paper. Rresults show that after introducing the new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction, the energy saving effect of the power plant can be judged more comprehensively, so as to better guide the work of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant.

  2. Energy savings in drastic climate change policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoard, Stephane; Wiesenthal, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a climate change policy scenario compatible with long-term sustainable objectives set at EU level (6th Environment Action Plan). By setting ambitious targets for GHG emissions reduction by 2030, this normative scenario relies on market-based instruments and flexible mechanisms. The integrated policy that is simulated (i.e. addressing energy, transport, agriculture and environmental impacts) constitutes a key outlook for the next 5-year report of the European Environment Agency (EEA). This scenario highlights what it would take to drastically curb EU GHG emissions and how much it might cost. The findings show that such a 'deep reduction' climate policy could work as a powerful catalyst for (1) substantial energy savings, and (2) promoting sustainable energy systems in the long term. The implications of this policy lever on the energy system are many-fold indeed, e.g. a substantial limitation of total energy demand or significant shifts towards energy and environment-friendly technologies on the supply side. Clear and transparent price signals, which are associated with market-based instruments, appear to be a key factor ensuring sufficient visibility for capital investment in energy efficient and environment-friendly options. Finally it is suggested that market-based policy options, which are prone to lead to win-win situations and are of particular interest from an integrated policy-making perspective, would also significantly benefit from an enhanced energy policy framework

  3. Oil pipeline energy consumption and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of energy consumption and efficiency of oil pipelines in the US in 1978. It is based on a simulation of the actual movement of oil on a very detailed representation of the pipeline network, and it uses engineering equations to calculate the energy that pipeline pumps must have exerted on the oil to move it in this manner. The efficiencies of pumps and drivers are estimated so as to arrive at the amount of energy consumed at pumping stations. The throughput in each pipeline segment is estimated by distributing each pipeline company's reported oil movements over its segments in proportions predicted by regression equations that show typical throughput and throughput capacity as functions of pipe diameter. The form of the equations is justified by a generalized cost-engineering study of pipelining, and their parameters are estimated using new techniques developed for the purpose. A simplified model of flow scheduling is chosen on the basis of actual energy use data obtained from a few companies. The study yields energy consumption and intensiveness estimates for crude oil trunk lines, crude oil gathering lines and oil products lines, for the nation as well as by state and by pipe diameter. It characterizes the efficiency of typical pipelines of various diameters operating at capacity. Ancillary results include estimates of oil movements by state and by diameter and approximate pipeline capacity utilization nationwide.

  4. Managing environmental aspects resulting from energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Human health and environmental impacts of fossil fuel energy consumptions are examined and the ongoing effort to align energy management plans with sustainable development strategies and environmental management systems is described. Human health impacts are manifested in mortality rates, hospital admissions, visits to emergency rooms and physicians' offices, reduced physical performance, increase in the use of medications, impaired pulmonary function and a variety of lesser (or less perceptible) effects. Environmental impacts are demonstrated through climatic change, increase in greenhouse gas emissions, increase in smog, acid rain, and soil, groundwater and surface water contamination. The importance of commitment, integrated planning, measurement and evaluation, periodic review and improvement and documentation in aligning energy and environmental management plans are highlighted, along with the need for behavioral and operational changes, the creation of employee awareness and training, and the adoption of green procurement and life cycle costing. Adoption of the ISO 14000 approach to managing energy consumption is also seen as an important step in the direction of integrated energy and environmental management and sustainable development

  5. Energy scenario analysis Enova-IFE; Energiscenarioanalyser Enova-IFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2009-11-15

    Institute for Energy Technology has made a projection of energy use in stationary sector of Norway up to 2050 and by the use of the Norwegian MARKAL model analyzed various scenarios. Total increase demand in stationary sectors by 6 TWh, or 4% to 2020 and by 29 TWh or 16% for 2050, which increase primarily comes in the buildings. Scenarios are analyzed to show the long-term potential given the various operating parameters. An important scenario that is analyzed, the fulfillment of renewable directive. In 2005, the renewable share in Norway about 61%. In the analysis it is assumed that the renewable share to be 75% as of 2020. Implementation of energy efficiency will have a crucial role to increase the renewable share, and efficiency contributes with 26 TWh in the base scenario. What percentage of energy efficiency measures are really implemented will have a great impact on how much renewable electricity to be produced, or how much more bio-energy that must be used, in order to achieve the goal of renewable directive. (AG)

  6. Modeling and optimization of HVAC energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Li, Mingyang; Tang, Fan [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 - 1527 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A data-driven approach for minimization of the energy to air condition a typical office-type facility is presented. Eight data-mining algorithms are applied to model the nonlinear relationship among energy consumption, control settings (supply air temperature and supply air static pressure), and a set of uncontrollable parameters. The multiple-linear perceptron (MLP) ensemble outperforms other models tested in this research, and therefore it is selected to model a chiller, a pump, a fan, and a reheat device. These four models are integrated into an energy optimization model with two decision variables, the setpoint of the supply air temperature and the static pressure in the air handling unit. The model is solved with a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The optimization results have demonstrated the total energy consumed by the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system is reduced by over 7%. (author)

  7. Energy consumption and income. A semiparametric panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Van, Phu [BETA, CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, 61 avenue de la Foret Noire, F-67085 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-05-15

    This paper proposes a semiparametric analysis for the study of the relationship between energy consumption per capita and income per capita for an international panel dataset. It shows little evidence for the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for energy consumption. Energy consumption increases with income for a majority of countries and then stabilizes for very high income countries. Neither changes in energy structure nor macroeconomic cycle/technological change have significant effect on energy consumption. (author)

  8. Energy Consumption Forecasting for University Sector Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable energy forecasting helps managers to prepare future budgets for their buildings. Therefore, a simple, easier, less time consuming and reliable forecasting model which could be used for different types of buildings is desired. In this paper, we have presented a forecasting model based on five years of real data sets for one dependent variable (the daily electricity consumption and six explanatory variables (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, weekday index and building type. A single mathematical equation for forecasting daily electricity usage of university buildings has been developed using the Multiple Regression (MR technique. Data of two such buildings, located at the Southwark Campus of London South Bank University in London, have been used for this study. The predicted test results of MR model are examined and judged against real electricity consumption data of both buildings for year 2011. The results demonstrate that out of six explanatory variables, three variables; surrounding temperature, weekday index and building type have significant influence on buildings energy consumption. The results of this model are associated with a Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE of 12% for the administrative building and 13% for the academic building. Finally, some limitations of this study have also been discussed.

  9. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  10. Energy consumption and stocks of energy-converting artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladh, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The development of total energy consumption is important in a world with limited resources. It is the result of two basic tendencies working in opposite directions: growth in number and in use (such as more cars and driving more) and improvements in energy efficiency (such as more fuel-efficient engines). Since the 1970s growth of energy consumption has slowed down in Sweden. This means that increasing supply has been counteracted by measures improving overall energy efficiency to a larger degree than before. How can long-term development in energy consumption be analysed? This paper proposes a focus on stocks of energy-converting artefacts as a tool for such analyses. In order to show the fruitfulness of this approach, historical data on cars, dwellings and lamps in Sweden are used. Results from the cases in this paper show considerable gains of efficiency in fuel consumption in private cars and heating efficiency in multi-dwelling houses. Demographic factors are important for the outcome. The approach seems to promise a way to analyse energy efficiency that captures both promoting and counteracting factors at both the micro and macro level. - Highlights: ► Growth of energy consumption slowed down in the 1970s, a break in the long-run trend. ► Balance between growth and efficiency factors changes over time and areas of use. ► Savings in heating were not taken back, while those for cars were. ► Focus on stocks of artefacts is a promising tool for analyses. ► Incremental changes within existing stocks can be as big as radical changes.

  11. Evaluating options for sustainable energy mixes in South Korea using scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2013-01-01

    To mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, coal-fired electricity infrastructure needs to be replaced by low-carbon electricity generation options. Here we examine a range of possible alternative scenarios for sustainable electricity generation in South Korea, considering both physical and economic limits of current technologies. The results show that South Korea cannot achieve a 100% renewable energy mix and requires at least 55 GW of backup capacity. Given that constraint, we modelled seven scenarios: (i) the present condition, (ii) the First National Electricity Plan configuration, (iii) renewable energy (including 5 GW photovoltaic) with fuel cells or (iv) natural gas backup, (v) maximum renewable energy (including 75 GW photovoltaic) with natural gas, (vi) maximum nuclear power, and (vii) nuclear power with natural gas. We then quantify levelised cost of electricity, energy security, greenhouse gas emissions, fresh water consumption, heated water discharge, land transformation, air pollutant emissions, radioactive waste disposal, solid waste disposal and safety issues for each modelled mix. Our analysis shows that the maximum nuclear power scenario yields the fewest overall negative impacts, and the maximum renewable energy scenario with fuel cells would have the highest negative impacts. - Highlights: ► Due to physical limits of renewable sources, renewable energy cannot provide total electricity consumption in South Korea. ► A massive expansion of solar power will act to save only a small amount of backup fuel at greatly increased costs. ► A huge supply of natural gas capacity is essential, due to the absence of feasible large-scale energy storage. ► A pathway to maximize renewable energy causes more environmental and economic disadvantages than the status quo. ► Maximizing nuclear power is the most sustainable option for South Korea

  12. Energy consumption of mobile communication systems; Energieverbrauch der mobilen Kommunikation - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliano, A.; Hufschmid, M.

    2008-02-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on a research project that was concerned with the energy consumption of the infrastructure necessary to provide mobile communication services. The measurement and analysis of the energy consumption of the infrastructure was an essential part of this research project. Furthermore, future scenarios and their impact on energy consumption are discussed. The results of the research work are presented and the correlation between power requirements and the data traffic encountered at GSM and UMTS base stations is analysed. Furthermore, measurements that were conducted to determine the power consumption of different network elements are discussed. Finally, alternatives for further action and recommendations for improvements in the energy consumption of such installations are formulated.

  13. Needs for Flexibility in Energy Systems Caused by the Increasing Share of Variable Renewable Energy Generation in 2020, 2030 and 2050 Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Maule, Petr

    scenarios are the baseline scenarios from3. Variable renewable energy generation is analysed using the CorWind tool developed at DTU Wind Energya. In addition to analysing VRE generation, the variability of net load (electricity consumption subtracted by VRE generation) is analysed. Compared to 2014...... consumption). However, there is always some probability that the aggregate VRE generation is zero, so the highest possible net load is determined by peak consumption. This may raise questions considering the incentives to hold enough other generation capacity to meet the rare peak net load. Compared...... to the hourly ramp rates in consumption, the increasing VRE generation increases the ramp rates in the aggregate net load only moderately in the future scenarios; STD of the net load ramp rate in 2050 is expected to be 14% higher than in 2014. However, while ramp rates in consumption happen usually at well...

  14. Effects of stochastic energy prices on long-term energy-economic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, Volker; Martinsen, Dag; Wagner, Hermann-Josef

    2007-01-01

    In view of the currently observed energy prices, recent price scenarios, which have been very moderate until 2004, also tend to favor high future energy prices. Having a large impact on energy-economic scenarios, we incorporate uncertain energy prices into an energy systems model by including a stochastic risk function. Energy systems models are frequently used to aid scenario analysis in energy-related studies. The impact of uncertain energy prices on the supply structures and the interaction with measures in the demand sectors is the focus of the present paper. For the illustration of the methodological approach, scenarios for four EU countries are presented. Including the stochastic risk function, elements of high energy price scenarios can be found in scenarios with a moderate future development of energy prices. In contrast to scenarios with stochastic investment costs for a limited number of technologies, the inclusion of stochastic energy prices directly affects all parts of the energy system. Robust elements of hedging strategies include increasing utilization of domestic energy carriers, the use of CHP and district heat and the application of additional energy-saving measures in the end-use sectors. Region-specific technology portfolios, i.e., different hedging options, can cause growing energy exchange between the regions in comparison with the deterministic case. (author)

  15. European Climate - Energy Security Nexus. A model based scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we have provided an overview of the climate-security nexus in the European sector through a model based scenario analysis with POLES model. The analysis underline that under stringent climate policies, Europe take advantage of a double dividend in its capacity to develop a new cleaner energy model and in lower vulnerability to potential shocks on the international energy markets. (authors)

  16. Minimum energy consumption process synthesis for energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-Ping, Jia [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fang, Wang; Shu-Guang, Xiang; Xin-Sun, Tan; Fang-Yu, Han [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China)

    2008-05-15

    The paper presents a synthesis strategy for the chemical processes with energy saving. The concept of minimum energy consumption process (MECP) is proposed. Three characteristics of MECP are introduced, including thermodynamic minimum energy demand, energy consumption efficiency and integration degree. These characteristics are evaluated according to quantitative thermodynamic analysis and qualitative knowledge rules. The procedure of synthesis strategy is proposed to support the generation of MECP alternatives, which combine flowsheet integration and heat integration. The cases studies will focus on how integration degrees of a process affect the energy-saving results. The separation sequences of the hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) process and ethanol distillation process as case studies are used to illustrate. (author)

  17. Trade and energy consumption in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 30 years many economies have experienced large increases in economic trade, income and energy consumption. This brings up an interesting question. How do increases in trade affect energy consumption? This study uses panel cointegration data estimation techniques to examine the impact of trade on energy consumption in a sample of 8 Middle Eastern countries covering the period 1980 to 2007. Short-run dynamics show Granger causality from exports to energy consumption, and a bi-directional feedback relationship between imports and energy consumption. Long run elasticities estimated from FMOLS show that a 1% increase in per capita exports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.11% while a one percent increase in per capita imports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.04%. These results are important in establishing that increased trade affects energy demand in the Middle East in both the short and long-run. This has implications for energy policy and environmental policy. - Research Highlights: → Trade affects energy consumption in Middle Eastern economies. → Short-run causality runs from exports to energy consumption. → There is a short-run feedback relationship between energy consumption and imports. → In the long-run a 1% increase in per capita exports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.11%. → In the long-run a 1% increase in per capita imports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.04%.

  18. Green smartphone GPUs: Optimizing energy consumption using GPUFreq scaling governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    and alternatives in controlling the power consumption and performance of their GPUs. We implemented and evaluated our model on a smartphone GPU and measured the energy performance using an external power monitor. The results show that the energy consumption

  19. Thermal comfort and building energy consumption implications – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Yan, Haiyan; Lam, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We review studies of thermal comfort and discuss building energy use implications. • Adaptive comfort models tend to have a wider comfort temperature range. • Higher indoor temperatures would lead to fewer cooling systems and less energy use. • Socio-economic study and post-occupancy evaluation of built environment is desirable. • Important to consider future climate scenarios in heating, cooling and power schemes. - Abstract: Buildings account for about 40% of the global energy consumption and contribute over 30% of the CO 2 emissions. A large proportion of this energy is used for thermal comfort in buildings. This paper reviews thermal comfort research work and discusses the implications for building energy efficiency. Predicted mean vote works well in air-conditioned spaces but not naturally ventilated buildings, whereas adaptive models tend to have a broader comfort temperature ranges. Higher indoor temperatures in summertime conditions would lead to less prevalence of cooling systems as well as less cooling requirements. Raising summer set point temperature has good energy saving potential, in that it can be applied to both new and existing buildings. Further research and development work conducive to a better understanding of thermal comfort and energy conservation in buildings have been identified and discussed. These include (i) social-economic and cultural studies in general and post-occupancy evaluation of the built environment and the corresponding energy use in particular, and (ii) consideration of future climate scenarios in the analysis of co- and tri-generation schemes for HVAC applications, fuel mix and the associated energy planning/distribution systems in response to the expected changes in heating and cooling requirements due to climate change

  20. Motivating sustainable energy consumption in the home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.A.; Greenberg, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed social motivations related to household energy conservation. The aim of the study was to explore how technology can be designed and used in the home to encourage sustainable energy use. The basic techniques used to motivate sustainable energy action included behaviour change techniques; information techniques; positive motivational techniques; and coercive motivational techniques. The psychological theories used in the study included cognitive dissonance as a means of reminding people of the inconsistency of their attitudes towards energy and their behaviour, and utility theory as a means of determining personal motivations for energy conservation. The study showed that people are more motivated to act when presented with personalized information and monetary losses as opposed to monetary gain. Social value orientation and self-reflection motivations were also considered. The study showed that pro-social orientation can be used in the form of ambient displays located in public areas of the home. Self-reflection can be encouraged by allowing family members to annotate visualizations containing a history of their energy consumption data. Results of the study will be used to design actual feedback visualizations of energy use. 18 refs.

  1. Forecast and analysis of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption for global energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Jin, Lu; Shen, Si

    2018-02-01

    In the background of building global energy internet, it has both theoretical and realistic significance for forecasting and analysing the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption. This paper firstly analysed the influencing factors of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy and then used combination method to forecast and analyse the global proportion of electric energy. And then, construct the cointegration model for the proportion of electric energy by using influence factor such as electricity price index, GDP, economic structure, energy use efficiency and total population level. At last, this paper got prediction map of the proportion of electric energy by using the combination-forecasting model based on multiple linear regression method, trend analysis method, and variance-covariance method. This map describes the development trend of the proportion of electric energy in 2017-2050 and the proportion of electric energy in 2050 was analysed in detail using scenario analysis.

  2. Energy access: Revelations from energy consumption patterns in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Leena; Goswami, Anandajit; Diljun, Gaurang Meher; Chaudhury, Saswata

    2012-01-01

    After decades of research on the subject of energy poverty and access and its impact on human development, the issue has finally gained global attention and commitment through the UN Secretary General's initiative on Sustainable Energy for All. However, the issue of what constitutes energy access and how such access can be supported by efficient subsidies remains a key question that does not have simple answers. At what point along the energy consumption and income spectrum does the energy access problem cease to be one of public policy, thereby letting the market take over? Using data from an extensive survey carried out by the Government of India, this paper highlights the complexities and inadequacies of using a normative consumption based approach to determine the scope and scale of interventions required. Factoring in the environmental and social pillars of sustainable development when defining access to modern energy forms would also significantly inform the level of effort involved in meeting the goal of energy access to all. - Highlights: ► Simple head count measures are inadequate to estimate the energy access challenge. ► The income and energy poor populations in a country need not completely overlap. ► Modern energy service delivery mechanisms, ensuring quality, essential for outcomes. ► Need to create enabling environment that empowers making of desired energy choices.

  3. Analysis of Energy Consumption for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Bit-Meter-per-Joule Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J. L.

    2002-04-01

    In this article, we present a system-level characterization of the energy consumption for sensor network application scenarios. We compute a power efficiency metric -- average watt-per-meter -- for each radio transmission and extend this local metric to find the global energy consumption. This analysis shows how overall energy consumption varies with transceiver characteristics, node density, data traffic distribution, and base-station location.

  4. A renewable energy and hydrogen scenario for northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2008-01-01

    renewable energy supply system is demonstrated with the use of the seasonal reservoir-based hydrocomponents in the northern parts of the region. The outcome of the competition between biofuels and hydrogen in the transportation sector is dependent on the development of viable fuel cells and on efficient......A scenario based entirely on renewable energy with possible use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is constructed for a group of North European countries. Temporal simulation of the demand-supply matching is carried out for various system configurations. The role of hydrogen technologies for energy...... of energy trade between the countries, due to the different endowments of different countries with particular renewable energy sources, and to the particular benefit that intermittent energy sources, such as wind and solar, can derive from exchange of power. The establishment of a smoothly functioning...

  5. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  6. Energy consumption maps for quaternary distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Castro, F.I.; Ramírez-Vallejo, N.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Thermally coupled distillation columns represent a very interesting option for the intensification of distillation systems in order to reduce the energy consumption, and, as a consequence, the environmental impact of the separation process. Several thermally coupled distillation schemes can......, for a given mixture, depends on the nature of the mixture, usually quantified for ternary mixtures through the ease of separation index (ESI), and also on the feed composition. As can be noticed, the size of the design and optimization problem increases when these variables are considered in the generation...

  7. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of

  8. Energy consumption and Growth of renewable energies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunie, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese government's ability to shift the energy structure towards renewable energies is now a world stake. The high weight of coal takes the economy into unsustainable growth, both at local level (SO 2 emissions) and at a global level (CO 2 emissions). But the extensive goods accumulation strategy at a pace in the region of 10% per year, prevents renewable energy sources from gaining a growing share of total consumption. On the contrary, the exponential increase in needs makes an ever-growing use of coal quite inescapable. This articles discusses the driving forces behind the energy sector and explores the high potential or renewable resources in China. (author)

  9. Scenario simulation based assessment of subsurface energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.; Dahmke, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy production from renewable sources such as solar or wind power is characterized by temporally varying power supply. The politically intended transition towards renewable energies in Germany („Energiewende") hence requires the installation of energy storage technologies to compensate for the fluctuating production. In this context, subsurface energy storage represents a viable option due to large potential storage capacities and the wide prevalence of suited geological formations. Technologies for subsurface energy storage comprise cavern or deep porous media storage of synthetic hydrogen or methane from electrolysis and methanization, or compressed air, as well as heat storage in shallow or moderately deep porous formations. Pressure build-up, fluid displacement or temperature changes induced by such operations may affect local and regional groundwater flow, geomechanical behavior, groundwater geochemistry and microbiology. Moreover, subsurface energy storage may interact and possibly be in conflict with other "uses" like drinking water abstraction or ecological goods and functions. An utilization of the subsurface for energy storage therefore requires an adequate system and process understanding for the evaluation and assessment of possible impacts of specific storage operations on other types of subsurface use, the affected environment and protected entities. This contribution presents the framework of the ANGUS+ project, in which tools and methods are developed for these types of assessments. Synthetic but still realistic scenarios of geological energy storage are derived and parameterized for representative North German storage sites by data acquisition and evaluation, and experimental work. Coupled numerical hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and reactive transport (THMC) simulation tools are developed and applied to simulate the energy storage and subsurface usage scenarios, which are analyzed for an assessment and generalization of the imposed THMC

  10. Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Kumar, Akash; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2018-03-01

    Impact of second-generation ethanol (2G) use in transportation sector mainly depends upon energy efficiency of entire production process. The objective of present study was to determine energy efficiency of a potential lignocellulosic feedstock; wheat straw and its conversion into cellulosic ethanol in Indian scenario. Energy efficiency was determined by calculating Net energy ratio (NER), i.e. ratio of output energy obtained by ethanol and input energy used in ethanol production. Energy consumption and generation at each step is calculated briefly (11,837.35 MJ/ha during Indian dwarf irrigated variety of wheat crop production and 7.1148 MJ/kg straw during ethanol production stage). Total energy consumption is calculated as 8.2988 MJ/kg straw whereas energy generation from ethanol is 15.082 MJ/kg straw; resulting into NER > 1. Major portion of agricultural energy input is contributed by diesel and fertilisers whereas refining process of wheat straw feedstock to ethanol and by-products require mainly in the form of steam and electricity. On an average, 1671.8 kg water free ethanol, 930 kg lignin rich biomass (for combustion), and 561 kg C5-molasses (for fodder) per hectare are produced. Findings of this study, net energy ratio (1.81) and figure of merit (14.8028 MJ/nil kg carbon) proves wheat straw as highest energy efficient lignocellulosic feedstock for the country.

  11. Forecast of oil price and consumption in the short term under three scenarios: Parabolic, linear and chaotic behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, F.; Ludovisi, D.; Cerritelli, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the evolution of price and consumption of oil in the last decades to construct a relationship between them. Then the work considers three possible scenarios of oil price: parabolic, linear and chaotic behaviour, to predict the evolution of price and consumption of oil up to December 2003

  12. Experience 2030. Four scenarios for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, P.; Breunesse, L.; Duijm, K.; Van Empel, F.; Van Erp, J.; Van Huffelen, A.; Veenstra, J.; Visser, H.; Sicking, C.; Bloemendaal, R.

    2003-01-01

    In four days several experts in the field of energy participated in a brainstorm session to discuss the future and the consequences for our energy supply and demand, energy sources and technology. In this book four scenarios are presented: (1) Voluntary Simplicity, characterized by austerity and solidarity; (2) Hyper Individualism, characterized by competitive activities for as much prosperity as possible; (3) Haves and Have-nots, based on geopolitical instability and a strong technological development, resulting even beyond a wider gap between rich and poor; and (4) Tribal Society, dominated by fear, distrust and less prosperity [nl

  13. Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Soba, Marta; Maas, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We cannot predict the future with certainty, but we know that it is influenced by our current actions, and that these in turn are influenced by our expectations. This is why future scenarios have existed from the dawn of civilization and have been used for developing military, political and economic

  14. Scenarios for energy forecasting: papers of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Energy planning is important for every developed country and therefore also for South Africa. However, during 1984 it was felt by interested parties that the work in this field should be coordinated through mutual discussion. With this in mind a 'Task Team for Energy Forecasting' was formed with the task to generate acceptable forecasts of the energy set-up in South Africa. Knowledge of the relationship between energy and variables such as the economy and the population is necessary to the Task Team. However, the Task Team also needs some insight into the future paths of such variables if it has to generate energy forecasts. It is the purpose of this symposium to improve this insight through having experts in all relevant fields to set out and develop their possible future scenarios independently of energy forecasting

  15. Scenario sketches for Nordic H{sub 2} Energy introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, E.A. [FOI Defence Analysis, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-12-01

    This report departs from a set of external scenarios setting the context for a Nordic H2 energy introduction, and a set of H2 related socio-technical visions, amended and assessed by an expert workshop (Stockholm, August 2003). Based on this it attempts to outline a Nordic policy strategy aiming at as internationally leading a position in H2 energy as reasonable under different external conditions. Then this putative policy commitment is set against the nine context scenarios (three alternative stage-setting developments in the 2003-15 time frame and for each of these three alternative, more specifically energy-relevant developments for 2015-30). The result is that the prospects for H2 energy introduction differ widely across future developments. However, a policy strategy that combines RTD centres of excellence and large-scale socio-technical experimentation (e.g., demos and pilots) with polices that stimulate entrepreneurs to exploit niche markets and technology foresight and the like, not least to achieve bottom-up coordination. While strong policy interventions for H2 energy are conceivable under certain sets of external conditions, more typically it will have to win out in some type of competition. Therefore it is important that energy innovation policies be reasonably unbiased with respect to different energy forms rather than trying to prematurely pick winners. (au)

  16. The analysis of the impacts of energy consumption on environment and public health in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    The emission parameters and expose-response functions of some pollutants, such as sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM10), were introduced to calculate the emission caused by energy consumption in various sectors and regions in China under different scenarios. The impacts of economic growth, population, and technology progress on energy consumption and on the environment were also analyzed. Finally, the economic value of public health damage caused by the changes of pollutants' concentration related to energy consumption under various scenarios, different regions and sectors in China was analyzed. The results show that the PM-10 and SO 2 emissions and consequent health damage will increase significantly in the next 12 years. Thus, energy efficiency, population, economy, and urbanization are the main factors to be considered in this system.

  17. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon

    2014-01-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO 2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement. - Highlights: • We assessed long-term impacts of building codes and climate policy using GCAM. • Building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22%. • The impacts of codes on building energy use vary by climate region and sub-sector

  18. Aggregate Energy Consumption and Sectoral Output in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... 2005); or from economic growth to aggregate energy consumption (Binh,. 2011; Yoo and Kim, ... in order identify sectors of the economy that are energy dependent and also to avoid energy ..... in Indonesia. Energy Policy ...

  19. Welfare implication of reforming energy consumption subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, Michèle; Mirzapour, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Reforming energy consumption subsidies, in particular for fossil fuels, has been frequently referred to as a quick-win policy to enhance environmental mitigation. In addition, the removal of such subsidies may release a sizeable portion of a country's national budget for use on more productive targets. One of the most recognized challenges of such reform is “selling” the new energy prices to citizens, particularly those with a more fragile purchasing power. Several empirical and technical studies have prescribed that the reform might be supported by a direct compensation mechanism in order to ensure feasibility. This is what was done during the recent energy subsidy reform in Iran. However, the compensation mechanism implemented in Iran's reform was successful at the beginning, but did not proceed as expected. This has raised questions about the feasibility and sustainability of the direct compensation mechanism, and even of the reform policy itself. In this paper, we consider a stylized model where direct compensation is the instrument proposed to restore consumers’ utility against increased energy prices. We find that, when prices of Other Goods are affected by the announced reform policy, the feasibility of a subsidy reform critically depends on the value of certain parameters: the initial subsidization rate, the share of energy in the consumers’ bundle, and the energy portion of price of Other Goods. - Highlights: • A model of energy subsidy reform with direct compensation is proposed. • Feasibility of the reform is related to three key parameters. • An illustrative example using data from the recent Iranian reform is discussed.

  20. Understanding change and continuity in residential energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    of material consumer goods in practice theory. Case studies on household energy consumption are used as an empirical basis for these discussions. Looking at household energy consumption through the theoretical lens of practice theory necessitates discussion on whether energy consumption should be viewed......Practice theory has recently emerged within consumer studies as a promising approach that shifts focus from the individual consumer towards the collective aspects of consumption and from spectacular and conspicuous dimensions of consumption towards routine and mundane aspects of consumption...

  1. Influences Energy Consumption has on Green GDP Growth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongxian, Xie

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the relationship between China’s total energy consumption growth and GGDP growth based on the data of 1997-2016. With path analysis employed, the direct and indirect influence on GGDP growth rate exerted by several energy consumption ratios as well as the relationship among them is explored. Furtherly, the author determines how much each of these ratios contributes to GGDP. This research suggests that proportion of natural gas consumption and that of other energy consumption are the two major drivers of GGDP growth, while coal and oil consumption proportion inhibits GGDP Growth. Specifically, increasing the proportion of natural gas consumption contributes the most to GGDP growth.

  2. Energy and the Presidential elections: deciphering reports and scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Yves; Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard; Ruedinger, Andreas; Marquet, Andre; Zerbib, Jean-Claude; Quetel, Ghislain; Guillemette, Andre

    2012-03-01

    After a comment of the Fukushima accident and its implications for nuclear energy, this issue proposes a critical review of various reports and scenarios on energy perspectives: a report by the ASN on 'Complementary safety assessments' (critical analysis of these assessments, weaknesses of the ASN analysis), a report by the French Court of Audit or 'Cour des Comptes' (past, current and future expenses, assets), the Commission Energies 2050 study (on the Europeans and world energy context, on the future on the French energy mix), a study by the French Union of Electricity (Electricity 2030: which choices for France?), a note by the CEA on the assessment of phasing out nuclear. Additional contributions propose a discussion of costs and conditions of phasing out nuclear, and a presentation of La Hague pools (their design, their management, their ability to withstand earthquakes, their other safety criteria)

  3. Divisia amount and price index for energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    In connection with the calculation of total energy consumption related to aggregation of the individual fuel's combustion values, an alternative to Btu aggregation (combustion value measurement), designated the ''Divisia index'', is presented. This represents an economic measure for energy consumption. The Divisia index is demonstrated in relation to total national energy consumption and total energy consumption within the Danish housing sector and also with regard to the estimation of price and income elasticity within energy demand. It is only possible to utilize the Divisia index in relation to the last 20 years, which is the period where energy consumption has stagnated. The question of possible irreversible effects on energy consumption caused by large variations in energy prices is discussed. It is suggested that the reaction to a fall in prices is different and less significant than is the case with price rises. In the long term, results point at a reasonably high price elasticity within energy demand. (AB) (22 refs.)

  4. Innovative method of RES integration into the regional energy development scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevas, Valentinas; Biekša, Kestutis; Murauskaitė, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Scarcity or abundance of energy resources usually depends on physical and geographical conditions in the region. However, the energy flow in the region also depends on the efficient use of energy resources, the consumption rate of energy and the possibility to use local renewable and non-renewable energy resources. Production, distribution and the use of energy resources in the region are the challenges for central and local government, business and social service, customers and other stakeholders. Development of regional energy economy should be optimized according to the available energy flow in the region using a network system analysis method, which provides solutions for developing sustainable energy economy models. The network system analysis method enables to optimize the use of local and renewable resources at the regional level and reveals available local energy resources. An efficient use of available regional resources and the use of renewable energy sources (RES) should be the main goals for the development of regional energy system. RES can compete with traditional fossil fuel with the condition that all hidden aspects are revealed. The network system analysis method enables to indicate energy flows in the region as well as indicate pros and cons of using renewable energy technologies. - Highlights: • RES integration into the regional energy development scenarios is done. • Innovative process network system (PNS) analysis method is used. • PNS method is used to optimize the use of local and renewable resources. • Analysis of energy flow in region using PNS method is done

  5. Renewable Energy Generation in India: Present Scenario and Future Prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Singh, Bharat; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is necessary for the sustainable development of any country due to depleting fossil fuel level, climbing fossil fuel prices across the world and more recently pressure for reduction emission level. In India, several schemes and policies are launched...... by the government to support the use of RES to achieve energy security and self-sufficiency. This paper discusses the present scenario and future prospects of RES in India. Various schemes such as financial assistance, tax holiday etc for promoting RESs development and utilization are also discussed. The present...

  6. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane; Menyah, Kojo

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.

  7. Energy drink consumption and marketing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Nicholas; van Walbeek, Corné; Maboshe, Mashekwa; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-12-01

    Energy drinks are a fast-growing class of beverage containing high levels of caffeine and sugar. Advertising and marketing have been key to their growth in South Africa. This paper documents trends in energy drink consumption and energy drink advertising, and examines the relationship between exposure to energy drink advertising and consumption. Logistic regressions were estimated of categories of energy drink consumption on individual characteristics, as well as exposure to energy drink advertising. Exposure to advertising is measured by reported viewing of channels high in energy drink advertising. Energy drink consumption in South Africa is higher among younger, wealthier males. Spending on energy drink advertising is mostly focused on television. Targeted channels include youth, sports and general interest channels. Viewers of channels targeted by energy drink advertisers have higher odds of any and moderate levels of energy drinks consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy Savings through Site Renewal in an HSPA/LTE Network Evolution Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben

    Mobile network operators are committing themselves to reduce the energy consumption of their networks. However, the expected growth in traffic and the upgrades required to sustain this growth pose a serious question on whether these targets are achievable. Through a case study, this paper looks a...... to just 12%. In some cases, when a less aggressive traffic growth is assumed, the energy savings are enough to balance any increase in energy. In a best case scenario, where all sites are replaced when new equipment is available, energy savings close to 40% are achievable....... at how the energy consumption of a mobile network is likely to develop over a period of nine years, considering the evolution of an existing HSPA layer into a multi-layered (HSPA+LTE) network. Besides, this study also considers four different equipment versions released throughout the years, which...... are introduced in the network based on a replacement strategy. In addition, the two most modern sites are assumed to be configured with remote radio head. In comparison to the reference case which leads to an increase in energy consumption of almost 200%, considering these site upgrades can limit the increase...

  9. The Comfortable Home and Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates relations between notions of comfort and notions of home, aiming at a better understanding of residential comfort and the related energy consumption. Residential comfort is examined through a practice-theoretical lens and as something that appears in between the social...... and material structures of a home. The approach considers different elements of comfort in homemaking practices, such as the body, materials and social meanings. The paper examines how conceptions of comfort and homeliness interrelate through homemaking practices and thereby redefine comfort within a framework...... of the home and social practices. This implies focus on “the comfortable home” as made up of homemaking practices that include knowhow, sensations and social norms. The empirical basis comprises interviews and visual data from a field study on detached housing on the outskirts of a Danish city. The paper...

  10. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  11. Large scale scenario analysis of future low carbon energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaleye, Olaitan; Baker, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we use a multi-model framework to examine a set of possible future energy scenarios resulting from R&D investments in Solar, Nuclear, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Bio-fuels, Bio-electricity, and Batteries for Electric Transportation. Based on a global scenario analysis, we examine the impact on the economy of advancement in energy technologies, considering both individual technologies and the interactions between pairs of technologies, with a focus on the role of uncertainty. Nuclear and CCS have the most impact on abatement costs, with CCS mostly important at high levels of abatement. We show that CCS and Bio-electricity are complements, while most of the other energy technology pairs are substitutes. We also examine for stochastic dominance between R&D portfolios: given the uncertainty in R&D outcomes, we examine which portfolios would be preferred by all decision-makers, regardless of their attitude toward risk. We observe that portfolios with CCS tend to stochastically dominate those without CCS; and portfolios lacking CCS and Nuclear tend to be stochastically dominated by others. We find that the dominance of CCS becomes even stronger as uncertainty in climate damages increases. Finally, we show that there is significant value in carefully choosing a portfolio, as relatively small portfolios can dominate large portfolios. - Highlights: • We examine future energy scenarios in the face of R&D and climate uncertainty. • We examine the impact of advancement in energy technologies and pairs of technologies. • CCS complements Bio-electricity while most technology pairs are substitutes. • R&D portfolios without CCS are stochastically dominated by portfolios with CCS. • Higher damage uncertainty favors R&D development of CCS and Bio-electricity

  12. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsani, Stela Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  13. Some scenarios of CO2 emission from the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liik, O.; Landsberg, M.

    1996-01-01

    After Estonia regained its independence, planning of energy policy became topical. Since 1989, several expert groups have worked on the urgent problems and developments of Estonia's power engineering. Comprehensive energy system planning by mathematical modeling was accomplished in 1994. Then Tallinn Technical University acquired the MARKAL model from the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK). The influence of air pollution constraints on energy system development was first investigated in 1995. At the end of 1995, under the U.S. Country Studies Program, a detailed analysis of future CO 2 emissions and their reduction options began. During 1990-1993, energy demand lowered due to economic decline and sharp rise in the fuel and energy prices as well as a decrease in electricity exports, has resulting in 50% reduction of CO 2 emissions. For the same reasons, Estonia has been able to meet the requirements set in the agreements on SO 2 and NO x emissions with no special measures or costs. To meet the rigid ing SO 2 restrictions and growing energy consumption in the future, Estonia must invest in abatement and in new clean and efficient oil-shale combustion technology. Along with the old oil-shale plants closing and electricity consumption growing, other fuels will be used. The increase in energy demand then should not be fast due to constantly rising prices and efficient energy use. Measures to reduce SO 2 , and NO x emissions will also reduce CO 2 . In MARKAL runs the 1990 level of CO 2 emissions will be exceeded only along with high demand growth and absence of emissions control. Restricted availability of imported fuels and nuclear power or enabling electricity import can change the results significantly. The results discussed here can also change because the data base is being improved (such as detailed description of energy networks, description of demand-side technologies, accounting of energy conservation measures, addition of

  14. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This... consumption, but instead calculate the energy use rate (kWh/100 lbs Ice) by dividing the energy consumed...

  15. Energy and greenhouse-gas emissions in irrigated agriculture of SE (southeast) Spain. Effects of alternative water supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Gorriz, B.; Soto-García, M.; Martínez-Alvarez, V.

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is leading to a water resources decrease in the Mediterranean basin, where future farming resilience depends on incorporating alternative water sources and improving water-energy use efficiency. This paper assesses water and energy consumption when natural water sources are partially replaced by desalinated sea water. Initially, energy consumption, water supply and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions were recorded for the current farming practices in SE (southeast) Spain. The results of our study indicate that citrus orchards have the lowest energy consumption and GHG emissions. Annual vegetables were the least energy efficient crops. Subsequently, two alternative water supply scenarios were analysed, in which the reduction of natural water resources associated to climate change was compensated with desalinated sea water. The use of 16.8% of desalinated seawater would increase energy consumption by 32.4% and GHG emissions by 19.6%, whereas for the use of 26.5% of desalinated seawater such increases would amount to 50.0% and 30.3%, respectively. Therefore maintaining irrigated agriculture in water-stressed regions by incorporating high energy demanding non-traditional water sources could negatively contribute to combat global warming. - Highlights: • Water supply, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in irrigated agriculture are very connected. • The use of desalinated sea water will increase the energy consumption, and GHG emissions will rise. • The use of non-traditional water resources enhances global warming processes. • Citrus orchards are the less sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios. • Artichoke is the most sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios

  16. Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Abreu, S.L.; Pereira, E.B.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m 2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m 2 /day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ► Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ► Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ► Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ► The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

  17. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  18. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Hertwich, Edgar G; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO 2 -eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO 2 -eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120–140 Tg CO 2 -eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power. (letter)

  19. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  20. Wood energy x 2 - Scenario for the development of wood energy use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This study for the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscapes (SAEFL) and the Swiss wood-energy association (Holzenergie Schweiz) presents the results of a scenario-study that examined if, and under what conditions, doubling the use of wood energy in Switzerland could help reach carbon dioxide reduction targets. Two scenarios are presented that are based on high and low rates of growth for the number of automatic wood-chipping or pellets-fired installations. For both scenarios, figures are presented on the amount of wood used and the heating energy generated. The political and financial prerequisites for the scenarios are discussed and other boundary conditions are defined. The report draws conclusions from the study of the two scenarios and summarises the political action deemed necessary

  1. The modelling of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok

    2014-01-01

    within a time frame of two hours and approx. 7% of the electricity demand can be moved within a time frame of 24 hours. The system benefit at the assessed amount of flexible demand is limited however. Results from the other analysis indicate that in order to have a significant impact on the energy system...... performance, more than a quarter of the classic electricity demand would need to be flexible within a month, which is highly unlikely to happen. For the investigation of the energy system model, EnergyPLAN, which is used for two scenario analyses, two questions are asked; “what is the value of future...... for the important but uncertain areas biomass and flexible demand are performed. Thirdly, modelling-related issues are investigated with a focus on the effect of future forecasting assumption and differences between a predefined priority order and order determined by given efficiencies and constraints...

  2. Energy consumption patterns. A theoretical analysis; Energieverbrauchsverhalten. Eine theoretische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandrich, D.

    2006-07-01

    The author questions the methodological and methodical foundations of energy consumption research and attempts a theory of energy consumption patterns on the basis of psychology, opening up a quite new perspective that has been neglected so far. Energy policy and energy marketing are two fields of applications which are getting more important in these times of increasing prices of energy resources, high public awareness of environmental issues, and deregulated energy markets. (orig.)

  3. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  4. The net employment impact of energy transition in France: An input-output analysis of the 'negaWatt' scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We study the impact on employment in France of the implementation of the energy transition scenario built by negaWatt (2011), which provides a massive development of energy savings (through measures of sufficiency and energy efficiency) and renewable energy between 2012 and 2050. Compared to 2010, this scenario results in a halving of CO 2 emissions from energy sources in France in 2030 and a division by 16 in 2050, without capture and storage of CO 2 , without implementation of new nuclear power plant and closing existing plants after 40 years of operation at maximum. We calculate the effect on employment of the implementation of this scenario compared to a baseline scenario that extends recent developments and considers the policies already decided. The method used to calculate the effect on employment of each scenario is to calculate the cost of the main technical and organizational options used, to allocate these costs among the 118 branches of the French economy and multiply these costs by the employment content of each branch. The latter is estimated by input-output analysis, which enables the recording of jobs generated by the production of all inputs. One of two scenarios being more expensive than the other, one must take into account the negative effect on employment of funding such costs. For this, it is assumed that this additional cost is borne by households and that they decrease their consumption accordingly by the same amount. This avoids biasing the results in favour of the most expensive scenario. The implementation of negaWatt scenario leads to a positive effect on employment, on the order of 240 000 full-time equivalent jobs in 2020 and 630,000 in 2030. We study the sensitivity of results to assumptions on prices of imported energy, the evolution of labour productivity, the distribution of costs between households and governments, and finally the consumption-savings decision. The effect on employment is largely positive in all cases. (author)

  5. uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption of flash devices is important for two reasons. First, energy is emerging as a key metric for data management systems. It is thus important to understand how we can reason about the energy consumption of flash devices beyond their approximate aggregate...... consumption (low power consumption in idle mode, average Watt consumption from the data sheets). Second, when measured at a sufficiently fine granularity, the energy consumption of a given device might complement the performance characteristics derived from its response time profile. Indeed, background work...... which is not directly observable with a response time profile appears clearly when energy is used as a metric. In this paper, we discuss the results from the {uFLIP} benchmark applied to four different {SSD} devices using both response time and energy as metric....

  6. Changes in cotton gin energy consumption apportioned by ten functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The public is concerned about air quality and sustainability. Cotton producers, gin owners and plant managers are concerned about rising energy prices. Both have an interest in cotton gin energy consumption trends. Changes in cotton gins’ energy consumption over the past fifty years, a period of ...

  7. Energy: The consumption will increase in 50% until year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The energetic consumption will increase about 30% until year 2010. The article presents forecasting of International Energy Agency. Analyzing costs, consumption and demand, the IEA studies the different energy. Sources and their development: Natural gas (big increasing), Natural energy (decreasing), Carbon (stability). Finally recommendations of IEA are presented

  8. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, UNISA 0003 (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment. (author)

  9. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment.

  10. Quantification model for energy consumption in edification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercader, Mª P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in this paper focuses on the generation of a model for the quantification of energy consumption in building. This is to be done through one of the most relevant environmental impact indicators associated with weight per m2 of construction, as well as the energy consumption resulting from the manufacturing process of materials used in building construction. The practical application of the proposed model on different buildings typologies in Seville, will provide information regarding the building materials, the subsystems and the most relevant construction elements. Hence, we will be able to observe the impact the built surface has on the environment. The results obtained aim to reference the scientific community, providing quantitative data comparable to other types of buildings and geographical areas. Furthermore, it may also allow the analysis and the characterization of feasible solutions to reduce the environmental impact generated by the different materials, subsystems and construction elements commonly used in the different building types defined in this study.

    La investigación realizada en el presente trabajo plantea la generación de un modelo de cuantificación del consumo energético en edificación, a través de uno de los indicadores de impacto ambiental más relevantes asociados al peso por m2 de construcción, el consumo energético derivado del proceso de fabricación de los materiales de construcción empleados en edificación. La aplicación práctica del modelo propuesto sobre diferentes tipologías edificatorias en Sevilla aportará información respecto a los materiales de construcción, subsistemas y elementos constructivos más impactantes, permitiendo visualizar la influencia que presenta la superficie construida en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado. Los resultados obtenidos pretenden servir de referencia a la comunidad científica, aportando datos num

  11. Global climate-oriented building energy use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D. Danny

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which global fuel use in buildings could be reduced, and the growth in global electricity use in buildings limited, by applying stringent (factor of 3–4) improvements to recent building codes for new buildings worldwide and large (factor of 2–3) reductions in the energy use of existing buildings through renovations. The analysis is carried out for 10 different socio-economic regions of the world, taking into account existing building stock and energy intensities in each region and projected changes in population and income, which in most parts of the world will drive large increases in building floor area. A stock turnover model is applied to project changes in heating, cooling, service hot water (SHW) and non-thermal electricity demand with various rates of improvement in standards for new and renovated buildings, and various rates of renovation and demolition of existing buildings. For a scenario in which population peaks at about 9 billion and global average per capita GDP increases to twice the 2010 value by 2100, the global fuel demand could be reduced by a factor of four while limiting maximum annual electricity demand to twice the 2010 value. - Highlights: • A detailed model for generating global scenarios of building energy use is presented. • Drivers of increasing energy use are population and per capita GDP in 10 regions. • Heating, cooling and ventilation energy uses are projected using a stock turnover model. • Global building fuel demand could decrease by 60–80% by 2100 relative to 2010. • Global building electricity demand could be limited to a 100–200% increase

  12. Development of German energy consumption: A deterministic study of energy-relevant customer groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, M.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed study of the characteristic features of group-specific energy consumption was conducted (identification of the factors determining energy consumption of the productive sector, private households and private mobility demand). The question of who shall determine energy consumption in the future is analysed. This question is answered in a demand-specific study of consumption patterns and -effects. (orig./UA) [de

  13. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feihong; Li, Hongjun; Gong, Xiangwu; Liu, Quan; Wang, Jingchao

    2015-01-01

    A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation. PMID:26404292

  14. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  15. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feihong; Li, Hongjun; Gong, Xiangwu; Liu, Quan; Wang, Jingchao

    2015-09-03

    A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  16. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  17. An Energy and Application Scenario Aware Active RFID Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Björn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication protocol used is a key issue in order to make the most of the advantages of active RFID technologies. In this paper we introduce a carrier sense medium access data communication protocol that dynamically adjusts its back-off algorithm to best suit the actual application at hand. Based on a simulation study of the effect on tag energy cost, read-out delay, and message throughput incurred by some typical back-off algorithms in a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance active RFID protocol, we conclude that by dynamic tuning of the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, tag energy consumption and read-out delay can be significantly lowered. We show that it is possible to decrease the energy consumption per tag payload delivery with more than 10 times, resulting in a 50% increase in tag battery lifetime. We also discuss the advantage of being able to predict the number of tags present at the RFID-reader as well as ways of doing it.

  18. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design... Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1The Design Energy Consumption shall be calculated by modeling the Proposed Design using the same methods...

  19. Habit formation and consumption of energy for heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask if consumption of energy for space heating by households is habit forming. A model of intertemporal consumption allocation allowing for habit-forming preferences is estimated on a register-based panel data set with high quality information about consumption of natural gas...... for a sample of Danish households. Results indicate that preferences are weakly habit forming...

  20. Modeling the Greek energy system: Scenarios of clean energy use and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roinioti, Argiro; Koroneos, Christopher; Wangensteen, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    The Greek energy system is one of the most carbon intensive energy systems in Europe. Hydrocarbons and solid fuels (lignite) cover over 80% of the final energy demand. The main objective of this work is to build energy scenarios for the future – with a focus on the electricity production system – and explore how these scenarios are reflected in economic, environmental terms and in terms of energy efficiency. The main tool which is used in the scenario analysis is LEAP (Long range Energy Alternatives Planning System). The scenarios are essentially the result of developing “storylines” driven by the uncertainties which cannot be controlled by the analysts or decision makers, and technical and non-technical options the analyst or decision maker may choose from. A set of uncertainties is considered as a possible future or storyline, and one or more options can be selected as a possible strategy. The combination of a storyline and a specific strategy gives a scenario. The main uncertainties for the Greek energy system are identified and various technical options are explored. Rather than using a model which leads to optimum strategies from a set of alternatives, the model in use will apply different strategies. - Highlights: ► A demand-driven approach was used to build energy scenarios for the Greek interconnected system. ► Each Scenario consists of a possible future and a strategy. ► High RES penetration will decrease CO 2 emissions but it will also increase capital cost. ► Carbon intensity is reduced in all the scenarios.

  1. CEESA 100% Renewable Energy Transport Scenarios towards 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik

    the availability of sustainable resources. The results indicate that electricity should be prioritised as much as is economically possible in the transport sector, which is primarily for cars and rail. Other modes, such as trucks, ships, and aeroplanes will require fuels with a high energy density. Replacing oil...... in these modes with existing biofuels is likely to result in an over-consumption of biomass, thus resulting in an unsustainable solution. In this study, new electrofuel pathways are created outlining how electricity can be combined with biomass to create new fuels for these modes. The amount of electrofuel...

  2. Evaluation of scenarios for energy systems. Potentials, limits and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Daniel Kurt Josef

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to previous approaches in connection with the energy transition, the dissertation leads to a change of perspective towards social consideration. Previous scenario studies focused on technical feasibility as well as individual cost and environmental aspects, as shown in the pre-analysis. Society plays a secondary role in this case. Instead of being taken into account in the prior decision-making process, time and effort are often invested in the downstream conviction of the population only after that. The approach pursued in the work consistently focuses on incorporating social preferences and barriers into the decision-making process in advance, so that decisions themselves have lasting validity. Representative telephone surveys are used to determine the preferences of the population on the one hand and the limits of acceptance in the form of willingness to pay on the other hand. Only then are scenario calculations carried out in order to be able to quantitatively evaluate energy policy options for action. In the subsequent comparison of social barriers and model results, however, the limits of this approach are also made clear: a desired action option from the perspective of the population (here the brown coal exit) can also fail because of political and legal barriers. [de

  3. Widening the scope? How intermediary actors can shape energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maneschi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with energy consumption in the residential sector and with the implementation of measures to reduce it. While most research dealing with energy consumption has targeted factors and drivers at the individual user level, more recent works have highlighted collective aspects...... of (energy) consumption, both to explain the resilience of consumption patterns and to identify leverage points for the reduction of energy use. One understudied aspect of this discussion is the way “intermediary” actors – those actors who are neither policy makers, nor users, nor energy providers...... – influence energy consumption. This paper presents a review of the literature on intermediaries, providing an overview of their roles and contextualizing their functions in energy efficiency improvements. The review shows how the concept of intermediaries has been used in research dealing with innovation...

  4. Analysis of a Residential Building Energy Consumption Demand Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the energy consumption demand of residential buildings, this paper first discusses the status and shortcomings of current domestic energy consumption models. Then it proposes and develops a residential building energy consumption demand model based on a back propagation (BP neural network model. After that, taking residential buildings in Chongqing (P.R. China as an example, 16 energy consumption indicators are introduced as characteristics of the residential buildings in Chongqing. The index system of the BP neutral network prediction model is established and the multi-factorial BP neural network prediction model of Chongqing residential building energy consumption is developed using the Cshap language, based on the SQL server 2005 platform. The results obtained by applying the model in Chongqing are in good agreement with actual ones. In addition, the model provides corresponding approximate data by taking into account the potential energy structure adjustments and relevant energy policy regulations.

  5. Intelligent Cooperative MAC Protocol for Balancing Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Liu, K.; Huang, B.; Liu, F.

    To extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, we proposed an intelligent balanced energy consumption cooperative MAC protocol (IBEC-CMAC) based on the multi-node cooperative transmission model. The protocol has priority to access high-quality channels for reducing energy consumption of each transmission. It can also balance the energy consumption among cooperative nodes by using high residual energy nodes instead of excessively consuming some node's energy. Simulation results show that IBEC-CMAC can obtain longer network lifetime and higher energy utilization than direct transmission.

  6. Energy in Ghana: The dominance of transport in petroleum consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeasi, K.

    1991-01-01

    The sustained provision of energy has long been recognized as one of the essential prerequisites for a country's socio-economic development. Until recently, a country's aggregate energy consumption was equated with its relative economic and developmental well-being, represented by the close correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita consumption of commercial energy. Although events of recent years, principally the swinging increases in petroleum prices and measures taken to improve the efficiency of energy use, have loosened the parallel equation of GDP with energy consumption, yet the position of energy as the bedrock of a country's development remains unshaken. 4 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  7. Mathematical modeling of the energy consumption of heated swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bel, C.; Millette, J. [LTE Shawinigan, Shawinigan, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A mathematical model was developed to estimate the water temperature of a residential swimming pool. The model can compare 2 different situations and, if local climatic conditions are known, it can accurately predict energy costs of the pool relative to the total energy consumption of the house. When used with the appropriate energy transfer coefficient and weather file, the model can estimate the water temperature of a residential swimming pool having specific characteristics, such as in-ground, above-ground, heated or non-heated. The model is suitable for determining residential loads. It can be applied to different pool types and sizes, for different water heating scenarios and different climatic regions. Data obtained from the monitoring of water temperature and electricity use of 57 residential swimming pools was used to validate the model. In addition, 5 above-ground pools were installed on the property of LTE Shawinigan to allow for a more detailed study of the parameters involved in the thermal balance of a pool. The mathematical model, based on a global heat transfer coefficient, can determine the effect of a solar blanket and the effect of water volume. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  8. U. K. surface passenger transport sector. Energy consumption and policy options for conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, D; Monteath, I G; Lawler, K A

    1978-12-01

    Forecasts of U.K. energy consumption in this sector for four future scenarios based on different economic growth rates, energy prices, and energy conservation policies, show that by the year 2000, private transport will probably account for 76-94% of total energy consumption in surface passenger transport. A 33% increase in the average miles-per-gallon fuel consumption through technological improvements in private vehicles, conversion of private vehicles to diesel oil, additional fuel taxation equivalent to 25 or 50% fuel price increase, a 10% reduction in average car engine size (encouraged by taxation), and changes in public transport technology offer energy savings of about 20, 5-10, 6.3 or 12.5, 2-4, and 2%, respectively. There is considerable uncertainty about the outcome of these options.

  9. Model for calculating regional energy use, industrial production and greenhouse gas emissions for evaluating global climate scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, H.J.M. de; Olivier, J.G.J.; Wijngaart, R.A. van den; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Toet, A.M.C.

    1994-01-01

    In the integrated IMAGE 2.0 model the 'Energy-Industry System' is implemented as a set of models to develop global scenarios for energy use and industrial processes and for the related emissions of greenhouse gases on a region specific basis. The Energy-Economy model computes total energy use, with a focus on final energy consumption in end-use sectors, based on economic activity levels and the energy conservation potential (end-use approach). The Industrial Production and Consumption model computes the future levels of activities other than energy use, which lead to greenhouse gas emissions, based on relations with activities defined in the Energy-Economy model. These two models are complemented by two emissions models, to compute the associated emissions by using emission factors per compound and per activity defined. For investigating energy conservation and emissions control strategy scenarios various techno-economic coefficients in the model can be modified. In this paper the methodology and implementation of the 'Energy-Industry System' models is described as well as results from their testing against data for the period 1970-1990. In addition, the application of the models is presented for a specific scenario calculation. Future extensions of the models are in preparation. 59 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs

  10. Long-term scenarios for sustainable energy use in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischedick, M.; Nitsch, J.; Lechtenboehmer, S.; Hanke, T.; Barthel, C.; Jungbluth, C.; Assmann, D.; Brueggen, T. vor der; Trieb, F.; Nast, M.; Langniss, O.; Brischke, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The study was able to show, and explain vividly through scenarios describing change processes, that a sustainable use of energy (aimed, among other things, at reducing CO 2 emissions by 80% by 2050 compared with 1990 levels) is technically feasible, economically viable, compatible with farther-reaching objectives of energy policy (e.g. supply security), and does not, in spite of the substantial need for change, present the players involved with any insurmountable problems but, rather, constitutes both a challenge and an opportunity. Such a development is possible only if the efforts launched to give momentum to the increased use of renewable energy sources are continued consistently, the impending need for replacement and renewal within the generation system is consistently utilised for increasing efficiency and a reorientation mainly towards combined heat and power production, and energy saving is made a new focal point of energy policy. Furthermore, with regard to long-term infrastructure requirements (decentralisation, new fuels), the necessary decisions must be prepared at an early stage and sufficiently robust lines of development must be identified and followed. (orig.) [de

  11. Elevators and energy consumption; Ascenseurs et consommation d`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caron, J.M.

    1997-03-01

    The mechanical design of elevators in buildings was reviewed and energy consumption of the different designs was evaluated. Although elevators seldom represent more than 2 or 3 per cent of a building`s energy budget, they can consume up to 150 kWh per day. Hydraulic elevators are commonly installed in small buildings with five or less floors. These elevators generally suffer from poor energy efficiency because they are not counterbalanced and are powered by powerful motors to overcome the considerable friction of the pistons in the hydraulic pumps. One advantage however of this design is that they descend under their own weight without any energy. Traction elevators are used in higher buildings where faster elevating speeds are required. These systems have counterweights to offset the average weight of the cabin. However, in these elevators, energy is required for lifting or lowering whenever the cabin and counterweight are not perfectly balanced. New developments in variable-speed drives for electric motors can allow for energy savings in elevators. In addition, the replacement of old electromechanical relay control systems by microprocessor-based circuits can result in substantial savings.

  12. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions considering Aging and Climate Change in Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Park, C.; Park, J. H.; Jung, T. Y.; Lee, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate change, particularly that of rising temperatures, are being observed across the globe and are expected to further increase. To counter this phenomenon, numerous nations are focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because energy demand management is considered as a key factor in emissions reduction, it is necessary to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in relation to climate change. Further, because South Korea is the world's fastest nation to become aged, demographics have also become instrumental in the accurate estimation of energy demands and emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in the residential sectors of South Korea with regard to climate change and aging to build more accurate strategies for energy demand management and emissions reduction goals. This study, which was stablished with 2010 and 2050 as the base and target years, respectively, was divided into a two-step process. The first step evaluated the effects of aging and climate change on energy demand, and the second estimated future energy use and GHG emissions through projected scenarios. First, aging characteristics and climate change factors were analyzed by using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis and the application of historical data. In the analysis of changes in energy use, the effects of activity, structure, and intensity were considered; the degrees of contribution were derived from each effect in addition to their relations to energy demand. Second, two types of scenarios were stablished based on this analysis. The aging scenarios are business as usual and future characteristics scenarios, and were used in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emissions were estimated by using a combination of scenarios. The results of these scenarios show an increase in energy consumption

  13. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...... that there are great differences in fuel consumption between fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same......) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals that there are great differences in fuel consumption between...

  14. Long-term scenarios for global energy demand and supply. Four global greenhouse mitigation scenarios. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.; Meibom, P.; Kuemmel, B.

    1999-01-01

    The scenario method is used to investigate energy demand and supply systems for the 21st century. A geographical information system (GIS) is employed to assess the spatial match between supply and demand, and the robustness of the scenario against changes in assumptions is discussed, for scenarios using fossil fuels without carbon dioxide emissions, nuclear fuels with reduced accident and proliferation risks, and renewable energy from local and from more centralised installations: The year 2050 demand scenario is based on a very high goal satisfaction in all regions of the world, for the middle UN population projection. All energy efficiency measures that are technically ready and economic today are assumed in effect by year 2050. An increased fraction of total activities are assumed to occur in non-material sectors. Technical, economic and implementation issues are discussed, including the resilience to changes in particularly demand assumptions and the type of framework that would allow energy policy to employ any of (or a mix of) the scenario options. Results are presented as average energy flows per unit of land area. This geographically based presentation method gives additional insights, particularly for the dispersed renewable energy systems, but in all cases it allows to identify the need for energy transmission and trade between regions, and to display it in a visually suggestive fashion. The scenarios are examples of greenhouse mitigation scenarios, all characterised by near-zero emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. All are more expensive than the present system, but only if the cost of the negative impacts from the current system is neglected. As options for global energy policy during the next decades, the clean fossil and the renewable energy options (possibly in combination) are the only realistic ones, because the safe nuclear option requires research and development that most likely will take longer time, if it can at all be carried

  15. Long-term scenarios for global energy demand and supply. Four global greenhouse mitigation scenarios. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B; Meibom, P [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Kuemmel, B [Royal Agricultural and Veterinary Univ., Tastrup (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The scenario method is used to investigate energy demand and supply systems for the 21st century. A geographical information system (GIS) is employed to assess the spatial match between supply and demand, and the robustness of the scenario against changes in assumptions is discussed, for scenarios using fossil fuels without carbon dioxide emissions, nuclear fuels with reduced accident and proliferation risks, and renewable energy from local and from more centralised installations: The year 2050 demand scenario is based on a very high goal satisfaction in all regions of the world, for the middle UN population projection. All energy efficiency measures that are technically ready and economic today are assumed in effect by year 2050. An increased fraction of total activities are assumed to occur in non-material sectors. Technical, economic and implementation issues are discussed, including the resilience to changes in particularly demand assumptions and the type of framework that would allow energy policy to employ any of (or a mix of) the scenario options. Results are presented as average energy flows per unit of land area. This geographically based presentation method gives additional insights, particularly for the dispersed renewable energy systems, but in all cases it allows to identify the need for energy transmission and trade between regions, and to display it in a visually suggestive fashion. The scenarios are examples of greenhouse mitigation scenarios, all characterised by near-zero emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. All are more expensive than the present system, but only if the cost of the negative impacts from the current system is neglected. As options for global energy policy during the next decades, the clean fossil and the renewable energy options (possibly in combination) are the only realistic ones, because the safe nuclear option requires research and development that most likely will take longer time, if it can at all be carried

  16. Rogeaulito: a world energy scenario modeling tool for transparent energy system thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo eBenichou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  17. Rogeaulito: A World Energy Scenario Modeling Tool for Transparent Energy System Thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benichou, Léo; Mayr, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic, and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  18. Rogeaulito: A World Energy Scenario Modeling Tool for Transparent Energy System Thinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benichou, Léo, E-mail: leo.benichou@theshiftproject.org [The Shift Project, Paris (France); Mayr, Sebastian, E-mail: communication@theshiftproject.org [Paris School of International Affairs, Sciences Po., Paris (France)

    2014-01-13

    Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic, and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  19. The digital society: A scenario for the energy transition by 2072

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maizi, Nadia; Assoumou, Edi; Le Gallic, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This forward-looking exercise focuses on the energy transition and the compatibility of a society where digital technology has been deployed with France's goal of 'carbon neutrality' by 2072. If we are not careful, climate programs might be compromised owing to the energy needed for information and communications technology. On the supply side, what digital techniques and objects are being designed to address climate problems? On the demand side, what lifestyle trends will this technology trigger in a 'digital society', and what impact will they have on energy consumption? Beyond the results of the scenario imagined herein, it is worthwhile examining a range of decision-making tools for laying out the pathways we would like to take

  20. Uncertainty of Energy Consumption Assessment of Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Simonsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the influence of energy reduction initiatives, to determine the expected annual cost, to calculate life cycle cost, emission impact, etc. it is crucial to be able to assess the energy consumption reasonably accurate. The present work undertakes a theoretical and empirical study...... of the uncertainty of energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is compared with the measured energy consumption. Furthermore, the uncertainty is determined by means of stochastic modelling based on input...... to correspond reasonably well; however, it is also found that significant differences may occur between calculated and measured energy consumption due to the spread and due to the fact that the result can only be determined with a certain probability. It is found that occupants' behaviour is the major...

  1. Quantification of Uncertainty in Predicting Building Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Traditional building energy consumption calculation methods are characterised by rough approaches providing approximate figures with high and unknown levels of uncertainty. Lack of reliable energy resources and increasing concerns about climate change call for improved predictive tools. A new...... approach for the prediction of building energy consumption is presented. The approach quantifies the uncertainty of building energy consumption by means of stochastic differential equations. The approach is applied to a general heat balance for an arbitrary number of loads and zones in a building...... for the dynamic thermal behaviour of buildings. However, for air flow and energy consumption it is found to be much more significant due to less “damping”. Probabilistic methods establish a new approach to the prediction of building energy consumption, enabling designers to include stochastic parameters like...

  2. Introduction of Renewable Energy Certificate in the Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Mohit; Jha, Rakesh

    2009-01-01

    Generation deficit in India is in the range of 9% and the scenario is expected to get grimmer in the context of high growth rate of the country. With peak power shortage as high as 15.2% (Source: Annual report FY08, MoP) the nation needs to harness all forms of generation including renewables, which currently has a meager share of 8% of the total generation in the country at present. Shooting price of crude oil reaching up to $135 (May 2008) per barrel along with increasing awareness and concerns about environment, the stage seems to be set for an increased mix of Renewable Energy (RE) into the overall energy requirement in the country. Keeping the concern for environment and energy security for the country in mind, government of India has been putting emphasis on promotion of renewable energy sources. Central and state government policies have always been instrumental in the propagation of capacity additions in renewable energy power. One of the main aims of these policies has been on increasing the private sector participation in this sector. In the pre-reform period, the state governments took policy decisions regarding financial incentives, buy-back tariff and other measures targeting investment in renewable energy. However, the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) are now responsible for many of these tasks. SERCs have come up with a host of initiatives, inline with their functions laid down in the Electricity Act 2003, to increase the share of renewable energy inside their respective States. Despite the efforts of SERCs, large potential of renewable energy generation remains untapped. There is lack of clarity on how to promote renewable energy generation inside states which are not having significant renewable energy generation potential. This paper explores the way in which SERCs can introduce measures to further promote renewable energy generation inside the country. We discuss in detail the framework to promote renewable energy through a

  3. An overview of energy consumption of the globalized world economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.M.; Chen, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    For the globalized world economy with intensive international trade, an overview of energy consumption is presented by an embodied energy analysis to track both direct and indirect energy uses based on a systems input-output simulation. In 2004, the total amounts of energy embodied in household consumption, government consumption, and investment are 7749, 874, and 2009 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent), respectively. The United States is shown as the world's biggest embodied energy importer (683 Mtoe) and embodied energy surplus receiver (290 Mtoe), in contrast to China as the biggest exporter (662 Mtoe) and deficit receiver (274 Mtoe). Energy embodied in consumption per capita varies from 0.05 (Uganda) to 19.54 toe (Rest of North America). Based on a forecast for 2005-2035, China is to replace the United States as the world's leading embodied energy consumer in 2027, when its per capita energy consumption will be one quarter of that of the United States. - Highlights: → We present an overview of global energy profile in terms of embodied energy. → The US and China are top embodied energy consumers as well as traders in 2004. → Equality issue is studied by analyzing per capita embodied energy consumption. → The US remains to be the leading energy consumer until replaced by China in 2027.

  4. Energy-saving decomposition and power consumption forecast: The case of liaoning province in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.X.; Zhao, Y.S.; Wang, Y.J. [School of Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Zhu Xin Zhuang, Bei Nong Lu No. 2, Changping District, Beijing (China); Zhang, S.L. [Finance Department, Nanning Power Supply Bureau, Xingguang Street No. 43, Nanning, Guangxi Autonomous Region (China); Li, F.R. [University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    To achieve sustainable development of the society, the People's Republic of China (PRC) proposed in its 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development Program a shift in energy-saving target of decreasing energy intensity by 20% in 2010 compared with that of 2005. Liaoning province is one of the oldest industrial bases in China. Policymakers are often confronted with problems relating to adjustment in the development pattern as a means to secure steady economic growth. The power industry is a fundamental energy industry; it plays an important role in realizing of energy-saving targets. Based on the input-output model, this paper sets extensive, planning and 20% energy-saving scenarios in order to analyze energy-saving and power consumption situations for Liaoning by 2010. Through extensive simulations, the levels of energy-saving and power demand under different scenarios are obtained. Results from the analysis show that under the premises of adjusting the ratio of investment and consumption, optimizing products structure, and improving energy use efficiency, it is possible to achieve the proposed energy-saving target. Liaoning's power consumption can maintain a stable growth trend in the future. The percentage of electricity to the total energy use can also increase to 16% in 2010. (author)

  5. Developing Renewable Energy: Comparative Scenarios and Public Policy Perspectives from some Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cecilia Lardizabal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The energy matrix of Latin American and the Caribbean countries has one of the largest renewable energy components when compared to other regions of the world. Nonetheless, by 2009 nearly three-quarters of its structure corresponded to fossil fuels, with most of the countries being net importers of these fuels. This situation marks the region´s dependence on the effects of changes in energy commodities. Therefore, the opportunity lies in higher use of renewable energy sources that contribute to the country´s energy security and represent significant environmental benefits. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of current energy scenarios of six Latin American countries (Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador and Chile in order to evaluate the policies, programs and strategies implemented in the search for greater participation of renewable energy. Considering the importance of the water-energy nexus that could serve to promote renewables under conditions of water scarcity, a qualitative data comparison was accomplished, considering energy consumption, CO2 emissions, GDP and water withdrawals per country. The authors conclude that, despite technological and financial constraints, all the involved countries are moving towards the substitution of a fossil fuel based matrix to a renewable one. This process could be seen as a result of clear policies and strategies that have been set, which include (but are not limited to price regulations setting, preferential prices to electricity generated through renewable energy technologies and incentives formulated to encourage the production of biofuels.

  6. Z-burst scenario for the highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2002-10-01

    The origin of highest energy cosmic rays is yet unknown. An appealing possibility is the so-called Z-burst scenario, in which a large fraction of these cosmic rays are decay products of Z bosons produced in the scattering of ultrahigh energy neutrinos on cosmological relic neutrinos. The comparison between the observed and predicted spectra constrains the mass of the heaviest neutrino. The required neutrino mass is fairly robust against variations of the presently unknown quantities, such as the amount of relic neutrino clustering, the universal photon radio background and the extragalactic magnetic field. Considering different possibilities for the ordinary cosmic rays the required neutrino masses are determined. In the most plausible case that the ordinary cosmic rays are of extragalactic origin and the universal radio background is strong enough to suppress high energy photons, the required neutrino mass is 0.08 eV ≤ m ν ≤ 0.40 eV. The required ultrahigh energy neutrino flux should be detected in the near future by experiments such as AMANDA, RICE or the Pierre Auger Observatory. (orig.)

  7. The world energy consumption in 2001. Statistical yearbook ENERDATA 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Statistical data on the world energy consumption are given to illustrate the following situation in 2001: the deceleration of the world economic growth and the high prices of oil slowed down the progression of the energy consumption: 0,7 % in 2001; stagnation of the gas and oil consumption and strong progression for coal and electricity in 2001; the deceleration for gas marks a strong inflection compared to the past trends. (A.L.B.)

  8. Danish Sector Guide for Calculation of the Actual Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    , the innovation network for sustainable construction, InnoBYG started work on a Danish sector guide for the calculation of actual energy consumption in relation to upgrading of buildings. The focus was to make a common guide for energy calculations that can be used by consultants performing calculations...... consumption compared with the estimated energy demand by calculation. The paper concludes that the result of an energy calculation should not be given as a single figure but rather as a spread between the best and worst case for the assumed conditions. Finally, a brief update on current actions is given...... related to the sector guide for calculation of actual energy consumption. Keywords – Energy calculations, actual energy consumption, energy perfomance...

  9. PARADOX OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY CONSUMPTION: LEAN OR PROFLIGACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Safina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of alternative energy resources is conventionally considered as an implement of lean management, main target of which is use of renewable (in terms of exhaustibility energy resources. However, when it comes to actual consumption of alternative energy resources, the contradiction is arisen between , the caused need of economy of non-renewable energy resources and rational environmental management and "providence" which is caused by cost reduction of energy consumption. What is the factual providence, how substantial is the dilemma between environmental friendliness and cost effectiveness in matters of energy savings, what is the significance of alternative energy consumption in countries with different economic types, what should balanced solution in energy mentioned issues are contemplated in current article.

  10. Prediction of electric energy consumption in Cuba for the period 2000-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodirguez, B

    1999-01-01

    This paper consists on a prediction of the growth in electric energy consumption in Cuba, for the period 2000-2015 and with respect to 1990, it also considers the specific features of the National Electroenergetic System. Validated Guidelines in accordance with the Delphi method, which incorporates the basis characteristics considered by international programs for these predictions, were used for this purpose. From the analysis of the behaviour in power consumption of the different consumers and of the expected changes in them according to the expected scenarios, a prediction on the growth in the demand of electric energy is made

  11. Online prediction of battery electric vehicle energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiquan; Besselink, Igo; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The energy consumption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) depends on a number of factors, such as vehicle characteristics, driving behavior, route information, traffic states and weather conditions. The variance of these factors and the correlation among each other make the energy consumption

  12. Contact configuration and energy consumption in spinal cord stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Cecilia Cecilia Clementine; Hilgerink, M.P.; Buschman, H.P.J.; Holsheimer, J.; Vander Sloten, Jos; Verdonck, Pascal; Nyssen, Marc; Haueisen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that, in contrast to an increase of the number of anodes which reduces energy consumption per pulse, an increase of the number of cathodes raises the energy consumption. Materials and Methods: Patients with an Itrel 3 Pulse Generator and a Pisces Quad quadripolar

  13. Low-energy-consumption hybrid lasers for silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Ran, Qijiang; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Physics and characteristics of a hybrid vertical-cavity laser that can be an on-chip Si light source with high speed and low energy consumption are discussed.......Physics and characteristics of a hybrid vertical-cavity laser that can be an on-chip Si light source with high speed and low energy consumption are discussed....

  14. Nuclear energy consumption, oil consumption and economic growth in G-6 countries: Bootstrap panel causality test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hsiao-Ping; Chang Tsangyao

    2012-01-01

    This study applies bootstrap panel Granger causality to test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth using data from G-6 countries over the period of 1971–2010. Both nuclear and oil consumption data are used in this study. Regarding the nuclear consumption-economic growth nexus, nuclear consumption causes economic growth in Japan, the UK, and the US; economic growth causes nuclear consumption in the US; nuclear consumption and economic growth show no causal relation in Canada, France and Germany. Regarding oil consumption-economic growth nexus, we find that there is one-way causality from economic growth to oil consumption only in the US, and that oil consumption does not Granger cause economic growth in G-6 countries except Germany and Japan. Our results have important policy implications for the G-6 countries within the context of economic development. - Highlights: ► Bootstrap panel Granger causality test whether energy consumption promotes economic growth. ► Data from G-6 countries for both nuclear and oil consumption data are used. ► Results have important policy implications within the context of economic development.

  15. Informatics Solution for Energy Efficiency Improvement and Consumption Management of Householders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica Oprea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although in 2012 the European Union (EU has promoted energy efficiency in order to ensure a gradual 20% reduction of energy consumption by 2020, its targets related to energy efficiency have increased and extended to new time horizons. Therefore, in 2016, a new proposal for 2030 of energy efficiency target of 30% has been agreed. However, during the last years, even if the electricity consumption by households decreased in the EU-28, the largest expansion was recorded in Romania. Taking into account that the projected consumption peak is increasing and energy consumption management for residential activities is an important measure for energy efficiency improvement since its ratio from total consumption can be around 25–30%, in this paper, we propose an informatics solution that assists both electricity suppliers/grid operators and consumers. It includes three models for electricity consumption optimization, profiles, clustering and forecast. By this solution, the daily operation of appliances can be optimized and scheduled to minimize the consumption peak and reduce the stress on the grid. For optimization purpose, we propose three algorithms for shifting the operation of the programmable appliances from peak to off-peak hours. This approach enables the supplier to apply attractive time-of-use tariffs due to the fact that by flattening the consumption peak, it becomes more predictable, and thus improves the strategies on the electricity markets. According to the results of the optimization process, we compare the proposed algorithms emphasizing the benefits. For building consumption profiles, we develop a clustering algorithm based on self-organizing maps. By running the algorithm for three scenarios, well-delimited profiles are obtained. As for the consumption forecast, highly accurate feedforward artificial neural networks algorithm with backpropagation is implemented. Finally, we test these algorithms using several datasets showing their

  16. Intelligent analysis of energy consumption in school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raatikainen, Mika; Skön, Jukka-Pekka; Leiviskä, Kauko; Kolehmainen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity and heating energy consumptions of six school buildings were compared. • Complex multivariate data was analysed using modern computational methods. • Variation in electricity consumption cost is considerably low between study schools. • District heating variation is very slight in two new study schools. • District heating cost describes energy efficiency and state of building automation. - Abstract: Even though industry consumes nearly half of total energy production, the relative share of total energy consumption related to heating and operating buildings is growing constantly. The motivation for this study was to reveal the differences in electricity use and district heating consumption in school buildings of various ages during the working day and also during the night when human-based consumption is low. The overall aim of this study is to compare the energy (electricity and heating) consumption of six school buildings in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. The selected school buildings were built in different decades, and their ventilation and building automation systems are also inconsistent. The hourly energy consumption data was received from Kuopion Energia, the local energy supply company. In this paper, the results of data analysis on the energy consumption in these school buildings are presented. Preliminary results show that, generally speaking, new school buildings are more energy-efficient than older ones. However, concerning energy efficiency, two very new schools were exceptional because ventilation was on day and night in order to dry the building materials in the constructions. The novelty of this study is that it makes use of hourly smart metering consumption data on electricity and district heating, using modern computational methods to analyse complex multivariate data in order to increase knowledge of the buildings’ consumption profiles and energy efficiency.

  17. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...... that there are great differences in the fuel consumption between fisheries targeting ground or shellfish and those targeting pelagic or industrial fish....

  18. Integrating the views and perceptions of UK energy professionals in future energy scenarios to inform policymakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkes, Gareth; Spataru, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Institute (EI) developed its first Energy Barometer survey in 2015 which aims to understand professionals’ views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. Following the survey, 79% of UK energy professionals believe their sector is not effectively communicating with the public. This suggests there is an urgent need to better understand how to use surveys in a more methodological way. Developed in conjunction with the EI, this paper presents the Energy Barometer survey methodology and results to achieve a better understanding of UK energy professionals’ current perceptions and future priorities. The paper makes two contributions to enhance the UK's energy debate. First, it provides the first results in a longitudinal assessment of energy professionals’ views of energy policy issues and discusses the implications for future policymaking. Second, it identifies opportunities for Energy Barometer findings to feed into scenarios development. A comparison with other studies was undertaken. It has been shown that the views of professionals working across the sector are aligned with decentralised approaches to decarbonisation. In particular, professionals expect action from policymakers to coordinate, engage with and encourage investment in energy efficiency. - Highlights: • 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. • Aiming to better understand views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. • A comparison of the methodology and results with other studies was undertaken. • Considers contributions of results to energy system scenario development. • Identifies particular need for increased energy efficiency investment.

  19. A panel study of nuclear energy consumption and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth for sixteen countries within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1980-2005. Pedroni's (1999, 2004) heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, nuclear energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model finds bidirectional causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short-run while unidirectional causality from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in the long-run. Thus, the results provide support for the feedback hypothesis associated with the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth.

  20. Comparing long term energy scenarios; Scenari energetici di lungo termine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems. [Italian] Viene presentato un confronto degli scenari energetici di lungo termine formulati dalle agenzie internazionali e dai maggiori analisti del settore con particolare riferimento alla evoluzione di specifici parametri quali sviluppo demografico, domanda e offerta di energia, risorse energetiche, sviluppo tecnologico, emissioni e relativi cambiamenti climatici. L'evoluzione e l'interdipendenza dei singoli aspetti vengono analizzate al fine di individuare la possibile evenienza di crisi o turbolenze dei mercati energetici indotte da carenza di risorse o da problemi ambientali.

  1. Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Natural Gas-Based Distributed Generation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the life-cycle analysis (LCA method to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG distributed generation (DG projects in China. We took the China Resources Snow Breweries (CRSB NG DG project in Sichuan province of China as a base scenario and compared its life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions performance against five further scenarios. We found the CRSB DG project (all energy input is NG can reduce GHG emissions by 22%, but increase energy consumption by 12% relative to the scenario, using coal combined with grid electricity as an energy input. The LCA also indicated that the CRSB project can save 24% of energy and reduce GHG emissions by 48% relative to the all-coal scenario. The studied NG-based DG project presents major GHG emissions reduction advantages over the traditional centralized energy system. Moreover, this reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions can be expanded if the extra electricity from the DG project can be supplied to the public grid. The action of combining renewable energy into the NG DG system can also strengthen the dual merit of energy conservation and GHG emissions reduction. The marginal CO2 abatement cost of the studied project is about 51 USD/ton CO2 equivalent, which is relatively low. Policymakers are recommended to support NG DG technology development and application in China and globally to boost NG utilization and control GHG emissions.

  2. Solar energy scenarios in Brazil. Part two: Photovoltaics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Ruether, R.; Pereira, E.B.; Abreu, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some energy scenarios for photovoltaic applications in Brazil engendered by using SWERA database in order to demonstrate its potential for feasibility analysis and application in the energy planning for electricity generation. It discusses two major different markets: hybrid PV-Diesel installations in mini-grids of the off-grid Brazilian electricity system in the Amazon region, and grid-connected PV in urban areas of the interconnected Brazilian electricity system. The potential for using PV is huge, and can be estimated in tens to hundreds of MWp in the Amazon region alone, even if only a fraction of the existing Diesel-fired plants with a total installed capacity of over 620 MVA would fit to run in an optimum Diesel/PV mix. Most of the major cities in Brazil present greater electricity demand in summertime with the demand peak happening in the daytime period. This energy profile match the actual solar resource assessment provided by SWERA Data Archive, enabling grid-connected PV systems to provide an important contribution to the utility's capacity

  3. Residential energy consumption: A convergence analysis across Chinese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.; Aller, Carlos; Ordóñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The process of urbanization and the raise of living standards in China have led an increasing trend in the patterns of residential consumption. Projections for the population growth rate in urban areas do not paint a very optimistic picture for energy conservation policies. In addition, the concentration of economic activities around coastal areas calls for new prospects to be formulated for energy policy. In this context, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, we analyse the effect of the urbanization process of the Chinese economy in terms of the long-run patterns of residential energy consumption at national level. By using the concept of club convergence, we examine whether electricity and coal consumption in rural and urban areas converge to the same long-run equilibrium or whether in fact they diverge. Second, the impact of the regional concentration of the economic activity on energy consumption patterns is also assessed by source of energy across Chinese regions from 1995 to 2011. Our results suggest that the process of urbanization has led to coal being replaced by electricity in urban residential energy consumption. In rural areas, the evidence is mixed. The club convergence analysis confirms that rural and urban residential energy consumption converge to different steady-states. At the regional level, we also confirm the effect of the regional concentration of economic activity on residential energy consumption. The existence of these regional clusters converging to different equilibrium levels is indicative of the need of regional-tailored set of energy policies in China.

  4. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey : summary report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecteau, V.; Hulan, I.; McNabb, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-06-15

    A survey was conducted on the energy consumption of Canada's commercial and institutional sectors. The primary purpose was to improve the understanding of various aspects of energy consumption in these sector and to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions that seek to achieve greater energy efficiency and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Energy intensity data was presented by energy source and region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and, accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio. In 2005, the commercial and institutional establishments consumed 1.04 billion gigajoules, nearly double the annual consumption of all private households in Ontario. The total energy intensity was 1.54 GJ per square metre. The lowest energy rating was found in social assistance establishments, while the highest energy rating was in food services and drinking places, followed by hospitals. Quebec and the Atlantic provinces had the lowest energy intensity levels, while the Prairie provinces had the highest energy intensity rate. The survey included data on the age of establishments; the energy sources used for space heating cooling and water heating; establishment spending on energy consumption; and, the use of auxiliary equipment. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karina; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Larsen, Finn Breinholt

    2015-01-01

    -demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults (16-24 years) in Denmark. Methods The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink...... and the potential explanatory factors of interest. Results In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly...

  6. Energy consumption and economic growth. Assessing the evidence from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondroyiannis, George; Lolos, Sarantis; Papapetrou, Evangelia

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed light into the empirical relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, for Greece (1960-1996) employing the vector error-correction model estimation. The vector specification includes energy consumption, real GDP and price developments, the latter taken to represent a measure of economic efficiency. The empirical evidence suggests that there is a long-run relationship between the three variables, supporting the endogeneity of energy consumption and real output. These findings have important policy implications, since the adoption of suitable structural policies aiming at improving economic efficiency can induce energy conservation without impeding economic growth

  7. Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur [Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey 06531 (Turkey); Sari, Ramazan [Department of Economics, Abant Izzet Baysal University Bolu, Turkey 14280 (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Rawls College of Business Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model. We find that income does not Granger cause carbon emissions in the US in the long run, but energy use does. Hence, income growth by itself may not become a solution to environmental problems. (author)

  8. Intermediate steps towards the 2000 W society in Switzerland: An energy-economic scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Thorsten F.; Kypreos, Socrates; Barreto, Leonardo; Wokaun, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In the future, sustainable development under the umbrella of the 2000 W society could be of major interest. Could the target of the 2000 W society, i.e. a primary energy per capita (PEC) consumption of 2000 W, be realized until 2050? Various combinations of PEC and CO 2 targets are tested, and the additional costs to be paid by the society are estimated. The assessment is carried out with the Swiss MARKAL model, a bottom-up energy-system model projecting future technology investments for Switzerland. The analysis reveals that the 2000 W society should be seen as a long-term goal. For all contemplated scenarios, a PEC consumption of 3500 W per capita (w/cap) is feasible in the year 2050. However, strong PEC consumption targets can reduce CO 2 emissions to an equivalent of 5% per decade at maximum. For stronger CO 2 emission reduction goals, corresponding targets must be formulated explicitly. At an oil price of 75 US$ 2000 /bbl in 2050, the additional (cumulative, discounted) costs to reach a 10% CO 2 reduction per decade combined with a 3500 W per capita target amount to about 40 billion US$ 2000 . On the contrary, to reach pure CO 2 reduction targets is drastically cheaper, challenging the vision of the 2000 W society

  9. Optimal Energy Consumption Analysis of Natural Gas Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent. PMID:24955410

  10. EnerFuture Energy Scenarios to 2035 'Understanding our Energy Future'. Key graphs and analysis, Enerdata - Global Energy Forecasting - February 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The EnerFuture service provides projections to 2035 of energy supply and demand across the world, powered by the POLES model, to help you with what to expect in the energy industry in the mid-term. Our energy forecasting team have developed three key energy scenarios (Balance, Emergence and Renaissance) to illustrate possible futures. Balance scenario: Balance provides an outlook of the energy system up to 2035 based on current policies and trends. Sustained growth of China and other emerging countries is a powerful driver of global energy demand, but confirmed energy policy commitments in several regions play a key role in controlling the pace of growth. However, non-coordinated policies result in soaring CO_2 emissions across the world and energy prices rise. Emergence scenario: This scenario explores the implications of more stringent climate policies, with more ambitious efforts on energy efficiency, initiatives to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and a real emergence of renewable technologies. Europe goes beyond its -20% targets by 2020, and the OECD and emerging countries meet their Copenhagen objectives. Following this, a new green deal is launched to reduce world emissions by a factor of 2 by 2050. Renaissance scenario: With strong efforts in the exploitation and production of unconventional oil and gas resources, the world encounters a fossil fuels renaissance with the appearance of new key actors and ultimately new geopolitical configurations changing the energy independence of several countries. For climate efforts, this new paradigm leads to progressively weaker policies. Further analysis and key findings are available here: - Increasing economic activity and wealth drives energy consumption, in a balance between energy prices and innovation; - As Non-OECD exceeds OECD oil demand, massive financial flows underlie the shifts in global oil trade; - Optimistic resource assumptions and moderate production costs would lead to an oil production Renaissance

  11. Renewable energy consumption and income in emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2009-01-01

    Increased economic growth and demand for energy in emerging economies is creating an opportunity for these countries to increase their usage of renewable energy. This paper presents and estimates two empirical models of renewable energy consumption and income for a panel of emerging economies. Panel cointegration estimates show that increases in real per capita income have a positive and statistically significant impact on per capita renewable energy consumption. In the long term, a 1% increase in real income per capita increases the consumption of renewable energy per capita in emerging economies by approximately 3.5%. Long-term renewable energy per capita consumption price elasticity estimates are approximately equal to -0.70.

  12. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, A.; Briffaerts, K.; Engels, L.

    2011-01-01

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: → The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. → Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. → A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. → Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  13. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, A., E-mail: amaryllis.audenaert@artesis.be [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Department of Environment, Technology and Technology Management, University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 13, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Briffaerts, K. [Unit Transition Energy and Environment, VITO NV, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Engels, L. [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: > The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. > Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. > A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. > Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  14. A novel cost based model for energy consumption in cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horri, A; Dastghaibyfard, Gh

    2015-01-01

    Cloud data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy. To support green cloud computing, providers also need to minimize cloud infrastructure energy consumption while conducting the QoS. In this study, for cloud environments an energy consumption model is proposed for time-shared policy in virtualization layer. The cost and energy usage of time-shared policy were modeled in the CloudSim simulator based upon the results obtained from the real system and then proposed model was evaluated by different scenarios. In the proposed model, the cache interference costs were considered. These costs were based upon the size of data. The proposed model was implemented in the CloudSim simulator and the related simulation results indicate that the energy consumption may be considerable and that it can vary with different parameters such as the quantum parameter, data size, and the number of VMs on a host. Measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. Also, measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment.

  15. Scenarios of socio-economic and energy development of the country up to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanov, P.

    1990-01-01

    The scenarios description is given as the first stage of a procedure of an energy-economy interrelations dynamics study, the other two stages being the formulation and the analysis of the development variants. The scenarios reflect quantitatively the policies and the international conditions for the socio-economic, energy demand and energy supply developments of the country. Two economic development scenarios ('high' - official macroeconomic views and 'low' - economic restructuring and decrease of energy intensity) hierarchically preside over the two corresponding energy demand scenarios of different technological evolutions ('traditional' and 'energy efficiency' oriented one) in the industry, the transport and the domestic and services sectors. Four energy supply system scenarios follow, corresponding to different approaches in the development of the energy conversion technologies and energy carriers, thus constituting a scenario tree of the studies. 16 refs., 2 figs., 7 tab., 1 ann. (R.Ts.)

  16. On the relationship between GDP and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarsono, B.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of a coupling between the growth in GDP and the growth in energy consumption is reviewed and its importance is discussed. The usefulness of a GDP energy consumption relationship for energy projections is investigated with particular reference to the case of Indonesia. A particular form of such a relationship is obtained for Indonesia with income elasticity decreasing as a function of time and its use is compared with other results. (author)

  17. On the determinants of renewable energy consumption: International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Omri; Duc Khuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, renewable energy sources have emerged as an important component of world energy consumption. Little is however known about the determinants of renewable energy consumption. This article tackles this issue for a global panel consisting of 64 countries over the period 1990-2011 by using a dynamic system- GMM panel model. We also consider three homogeneous subpanels which are constructed based on the income level of sample countries (high-, middle-, and low-income subpanels). ...

  18. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  19. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  20. Potential reduction of energy consumption in public university library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noranai, Z.; Azman, ADF

    2017-09-01

    Efficient electrical energy usage has been recognized as one of the important factor to reduce cost of electrical energy consumption. Various parties have been emphasized about the importance of using electrical energy efficiently. Inefficient usage of electrical energy usage lead to biggest factor increasing of administration cost in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. With this in view, a project the investigate potential reduction electrical energy consumption in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia was carried out. In this project, a case study involving electrical energy consumption of Perpustakaan Tunku Tun Aminah was conducted. The scopes of this project are to identify energy consumption in selected building and to find the factors that contributing to wastage of electrical energy. The MS1525:2001, Malaysian Standard - Code of practice on energy efficiency and use of renewable energy for non-residential buildings was used as reference. From the result, 4 saving measure had been proposed which is change type of the lamp, install sensor, decrease the number of lamp and improve shading coefficient on glass. This saving measure is suggested to improve the efficiency of electrical energy consumption. Improve of human behaviour toward saving energy measure can reduce 10% from the total of saving cost while on building technical measure can reduce 90% from total saving cost.

  1. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Petraglia, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six BSs (Base Transceiver Stations) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy. - Highlights: • Energy consumption and environmental parameters of a base transceiver system have been monitored. • Energy consumption is related to the air conditioning functions and to the load of telephone traffic. • Energy saving can be obtained by careful choice of cooling parameters and by turn off BS transceivers. • Energy saving parameters can be estimated by a simulation Monte Carlo method

  2. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C., E-mail: comlanvi-jude.eggoh@univ-orleans.fr [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Bangake, Chrysost [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Artois and Laboratoire EQUIPPE, Lille 1, FSES, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Rault, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Toulouse Business School (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. - Highlights: > We assess the energy consumption and economic growth nexus in 21 African countries. > There exists a long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. > This result is robust to cross-country dependence and for structural breaks. > Our findings finally support the feedback hypothesis of bidirectional causality.

  3. Modeling future U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in wood energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew D. Kramp; Kenneth E. Skog; Do-il Yoo; V. Alaric Sample

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to modeling U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in domestic wood energy consumption under hypothetical future U.S. wood biomass energy policy scenarios. The U.S. Forest Products Module (USFPM) was created to enhance the modeling of the U.S. forest sector within the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM), providing a...

  4. Consumption of fuels and energy in the coking industry and ways of reducing consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, Yu.S.; Tsel' ik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V. (Khar' kovskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheski Institut (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    Coking plants in the USSR consume 4,000 million kWh electric energy, 100 million GJ heat energy and 35,000 million m{sup 3} gaseous fuels per year. Structure of energy consumption is the following: 68% gaseous fuels, 24% steam and 8% electric energy. Processes of coal preparation, crushing, mixing, coking and quenching are analyzed from the point of view of energy consumption. The following methods for reducing energy consumption are discussed: using the FM-25 flotation machines for flotation of coking coal slurries, briquetting the whole coal charge for coking, optimization of air supply rates for combustion of gases used for coke oven heating, use of control systems for coke oven heating considering coal charge density, waste heat utilization from quenching. 4 refs.

  5. Scenario Testing of the Energy and Environmental Performance of “The Glasgow House”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Sharpe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a 12-month study of two prototype low energy dwellings built for Glasgow Housing Association (GHA. The houses are intended for mainstream and social tenure within Glasgow and contain a range of energy reducing features including one house with a thermally heavy clay block wall and one house using a conventional timber frame and both houses have sunspaces, Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery (MVHR, solar thermal system and low energy lighting. The dwellings have been subject to an innovative monitoring strategy by MEARU, whereby test occupants (students recruited from the School of Architecture have been asked to inhabit the buildings for six two-week periods using occupancy ‘scripts’ that determine their internal behaviour. The scenarios thus simulate varying patterns of occupancy in both houses simultaneously and the performance of the houses can then been compared. Indications are that although the clay block house had a poorer thermal performance, it did have other qualitative advantages, and consumption differences could be eliminated by exploiting the thermal mass. The performance of the active systems, including the MVHR system, was found to be problematic, and specific scenarios were undertaken to explore the implications of this.

  6. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  7. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give

  8. Evaluation of energy consumption of treating nitrate-contaminated groundwater by bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconet, Daniele; Zou, Shiqiang; Capodaglio, Andrea G; He, Zhen

    2018-09-15

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a mounting concern for drinking water production due to its healthy and ecological effects. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are a promising method for energy efficient nitrate removal, but its energy consumption has not been well understood. Herein, we conducted a preliminary analysis of energy consumption based on both literature information and multiple assumptions. Four scenarios were created for the purpose of analysis based on two treatment approaches, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and controlled biocathodic denitrification (CBD), under either in situ or ex situ deployment. The results show a specific energy consumption based on the mass of NO 3 - -N removed (SEC N ) of 0.341 and 1.602 kWh kg NO 3 - -N -1 obtained from in situ and ex situ treatments with MFCs, respectively; the main contributor was the extraction of the anolyte (100%) in the former and pumping the groundwater (74.8%) for the latter. In the case of CBD treatment, the energy consumption by power supply outcompeted all the other energy items (over 85% in all cases), and a total SEC N of 19.028 and 10.003 kWh kg NO 3 - -N -1 were obtained for in situ and ex situ treatments, respectively. The increase in the water table depth (from 10 to 30 m) and the decrease of the nitrate concentration (from 25 to 15 mg NO 3 - -N) would lead to a rise in energy consumption in the ex situ treatment. Although some data might be premature due to the lack of sufficient information in available literature, the results could provide an initial picture of energy consumption by BES-based groundwater treatment and encourage further thinking and analysis of energy consumption (and production). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic energy distribution and consumption in a microgrid Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    Energy management of a small scale electrical microgrid is investigated. The microgrid comprises residential houses with local renewable generation, consumption and storage units. The microgrid has the possibility of connection to the electricity grid as well to compensate energy decit of local...... power producers. The nal objective is to full the microgrid's energy demands mainly from the local electricity producers. The other objective is to manage power consumption such that the consumption cost is minimum for individual households. In this study, a hierarchical controller composed of three...... levels is proposed. Each layer from bottom to top focus on individual energy consuming units, individual buildings, and the microgrid respectively. At the middle layer, a model predictive controller is formulated to schedule the building's energy consumption using potential load exibilities. The top...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF AN APARTMENT POSITIONING ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela PRADA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of the highly topical subject of global warming and energy conservation. The article contains parametric studies of energy consumption and CO² emissions for an apartment located in a block of flats, depending on its location. It was studied the energy consumption of an apartment having different cardinal orientations in the same building and of an apartment with the same position inside the building but located in different climatic zones. The case studies show the difference between the energy consumption of an apartment depending on its position, thus resulting in a few general directions for their heat insulation, so that the specific energy consumption of the apartment is below 100 kWh/m² year.

  11. Energy consumption of the households 1960-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.; Engsted, T.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1960s energy consumption of Danish households increased relatively fast, but the oil price shocks of the 1970s and subsequent energy policy changes reversed this development towards stagnation in energy consumption in the recent decades. Using time series data covering the period 1960-1996 the final energy consumption of the residential sector is analysed in the framework of co-integration and error-correction modelling. The long run income and price elasticities are found to be 1.17 and -0.85, respectively, but in the short run energy prices seem to influence consumption less as only income and the weather conditions appear significantly in the short run dynamics of the estimated error-correction model. (au)

  12. Energy consumption and quality of man's life. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In Chapter 1 a dependence of public life quality showings from energy consumption value is proved. Priority of fuel-energetic complex development is grounded as well. Specific features of Kazakhstan power engineering during its integration into world economics are given. Problems of liberalization of power engineering economy are illustrated. Dependences between assessments of human potential and energy consumption level in the world and Kazakhstan are given in tabular form. In Kazakhstan under relatively stable education level index an energy consumption reduction was resulted to gross national product decrease on via capita

  13. Atmospheric and geological CO2 damage costs in energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekens, K.E.L.; Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2006-05-01

    Geological carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is currently seriously considered for addressing, in the near term, the problem of climate change. CCS technology is available today and is expected to become an increasingly affordable CO2 abatement alternative. Whereas the rapidly growing scientific literature on CCS as well as experimental and commercial practice demonstrate the technological and economic feasibility of implementing this clean fossil fuel option on a large scale, relatively little attention has been paid so far to the risks and environmental externalities of geological storage of CO2. This paper assesses the effects of including CCS damage costs in a long-term energy scenario analysis for Europe. An external cost sensitivity analysis is performed with a bottom-up energy technology model that accounts not only for CCS technologies but also for their external costs. Our main conclusion is that in a business-as-usual scenario (i.e. without climate change intervention or externality internalisation), CCS technologies are likely to be deployed at least to some extent, mainly in the power generation sector, given the economic benefits of opportunities such as enhanced coal bed methane, oil and gas recovery. Under a strict climate (CO2 emissions) constraint, CCS technologies are deployed massively. With the simultaneous introduction of both CO2 and CCS taxation in the power sector, designed to internalise the external atmospheric and geological effects of CO2 emissions and storage, respectively, we find that CCS will only be developed if the climate change damage costs are at least of the order of 100 euro/t CO2 or the CO2 storage damage costs not more than a few euro/t CO2. When the internalised climate change damage costs are as high as 67 euro/t CO2, the expensive application of CCS to biomass-fuelled power plants (with negative net CO2 emissions) proves the most effective CCS alternative to reduce CO2 emissions, rather than CCS applied to fossil

  14. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  15. Sector review of UK higher education energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Ian; Ogbonna, Anthony; Altan, Hasim

    2008-01-01

    The UK education and education-related services are said to be one of the fastest-growing export earners in recent years and are known to have had significant impacts at the micro- and macro-levels of the UK. This review looks at energy consumption of this fast growing sector. It concentrates on the energy consumption patterns of the funded higher education institutions in the UK. The findings indicate energy consumption in the sector has been on the increase in the 6 years up to 2006; rising by about 2.7% above the 2001 consumption levels. This increase is, however, not evenly spread across the entire sector. The high energy-consuming institutions appear to be increasing their net consumption, relative to other institutions. Gross internal area, staff and research student full-time equivalent were found to have highest correlation with energy consumption across the sector and may be used as proxy indicators for energy consumption as well as the targets of interventions

  16. Energy consumption quota of public buildings based on statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Xin Yajuan; Tong Dingding

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of building energy consumption quota as a comprehensive indicator used to evaluate the actual energy consumption level is an important measure for promoting the development of building energy efficiency. This paper focused on the determination method of the quota, and firstly introduced the procedure of establishing energy consumption quota of public buildings including four important parts: collecting data, classifying and calculating EUIs, standardizing EUIs, determining the measure method of central tendency. The paper also illustrated the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation based on the samples of 10 commercial buildings and 19 hotel buildings. According to the analysis of the frequency distribution of standardized EUIs of sample buildings and combining the characteristics of each measure method of central tendency, comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is selected to be the best method for determining the energy consumption quota of public buildings. Finally the paper gave some policy proposals on energy consumption quota to help achieve the goal of further energy conservation. - Highlights: ► We introduce the procedure of determining energy consumption quota (ECQ). ► We illustrate the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation of samples. ► Measures of central tendency are brought into determine the ECQ. ► Comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is the best method for ECQ. ► Punitive or incentive measures for ECQ are proposed.

  17. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaif, Maryam M; Alobed, Ghufran J J; Alaam, Noor A A; Alderrazi, Abdulla N; Awdhalla, Muyssar S; Vaithinathan, Asokan G

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink (ED) consumption is becoming increasingly popular among young Bahrainis, who may be unaware of the health risks associated with ED consumption. To date, there have been few publications on the consumption of ED in Bahrain, particularly among adolescents. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature on energy drink consumption practices of Bahraini adolescents. Data were collected using a previously established European Food Safety Authority questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a convenience sample of 262 Bahraini students aged 10 to 18 years. Most participants consumed energy drinks 2 to 3 times per week and consumed two or more cans at a time. Eighty percent of partcipants preferred energy drinks with sugar. Participants in the older age group and higher educational level consumed more ED. The majority (57%) consumed ED at home with friends as part of socialization. Notably, 60% of the parents of the respondents have not consumed energy drinks. Prominent reasons for consumption of energy drinks included: taste (40%), energy (30%), stay awake (13%), augment concentration (4%), and enhance sports performance (6%). Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  18. Electricity consumption in holiday cottages. Projections and scenarios; Elforbrug i sommerhuse. Fremskrivning og scenarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Frits M.; Christensen, Morten; Jensen, Ole Michael; Kofoed, N.U.; Morthorst, P.E.

    2006-07-01

    Relative to the amount of electricity consumed by households, the consumption in holiday cottages is minor. In Denmark however, the past development in electricity consumption in holiday cottages differs significantly from the general trend in household electricity consumption. While the electricity consumption per household has been almost constant since the 1990s, the consumption per holiday cottage has increased 40 %. In addition, many new holiday cottages have been built and since 1990 the total electricity consumption has increased by 55 %. To find the reason for the increasing electricity consumption and to estimate the future demand of electricity for holiday cottages, a multidisciplinary study combining top-down and bottom-up estimations was carried out. In the top-town estimation, econometrics on aggregated data and general past trends analyses were combined. Dealing with statistics of time-series for the total electricity consumption in a number of holiday cottages, it was possible to interpret the past trends and to extrapolate the actual consumption for the year 2005 to the annual consumption in 2015. (BA)

  19. Energy saving and CO2 mitigation through restructuring Jordan's transportation sector: The diesel passenger cars scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.; Akash, B.; Abu-Nada, E.

    2007-01-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for 37% of the total final energy consumption in Jordan, with passenger cars taking a share of 57% in this sector. Improvement of the energy efficiency of the transportation sector can help in alleviating socio-economic pressures resulting from the inflating fuel bill and in lowering the relatively high CO 2 emission intensity. Current legislations mandate that all passenger cars operating in Jordan are to be powered with spark ignition engines using gasoline fuel. This paper examines potential benefits that can be achieved through the introduction of diesel cars to the passenger cars market in Jordan. Three scenarios are suggested for implementation and investigated with a forecasting model on the basis of local and global trends over the period 2007-2027. It is demonstrated that introducing diesel passenger cars can slow down the growth of energy consumption in the transportation sector resulting in significant savings in the national fuel bill. It is also shown that this is an effective and feasible option for cutting down CO 2 emissions

  20. Energy consumption in smelting reduction (SR) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Paulo Santos; Salierno, Giovanni Felice; Fang, Jue; Mankhand, Tilak R.; Assis, Carlos Frederico Campos de

    2010-01-01

    In contrast, conventional processes use coke and hematite/sinter in the blast furnace, in SR processes, other alternative fuels and iron ore sources, like charcoal and fine iron ores, can be used to produce sponge iron. The use of these alternative sources, by SR processes, can reduce environmental impacts and lower production costs. At first, the concepts of the theoretical gas utilization ratio, the smelting heat of the iron ore and the effective calorific value of coal were introduced. Then, the reason for gas utilization ratio and its performance in the shaft as a reducer in the smelting process are discussed and calculated. The relationship between coal consumption and iron ore reduction in the fluidized bed are also discussed. Finally, the influence of post-combustion on coal consumption in an iron bath furnace are calculated and discussed. (author)

  1. Modeling Aggregate Hourly Energy Consumption in a Regional Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kipping

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sound estimates of future heat and electricity demand with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed for energy system planning, grid design, and evaluating demand-side management options and polices on regional and national levels. In this study, smart meter data on electricity consumption in buildings are combined with cross-sectional building information to model hourly electricity consumption within the household and service sectors on a regional basis in Norway. The same modeling approach is applied to model aggregate hourly district heat consumption in three different consumer groups located in Oslo. A comparison of modeled and metered hourly energy consumption shows that hourly variations and aggregate consumption per county and year are reproduced well by the models. However, for some smaller regions, modeled annual electricity consumption is over- or underestimated by more than 20%. Our results indicate that the presented method is useful for modeling the current and future hourly energy consumption of a regional building stock, but that larger and more detailed training datasets are required to improve the models, and more detailed building stock statistics on regional level are needed to generate useful estimates on aggregate regional energy consumption.

  2. Scenarios for an energy policy concept of the German Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagl, Stephan; Fuersch, Michaela; Paulus, Moritz; Richter, Jan; Trueby, Johannes; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    In this article we demonstrate how challenging greenhouse gas reduction targets of up to 95% until 2050 can be achieved in the German electricity sector. In the analysis, we focus on the main requirements to reach such challenging targets. To account for interdependencies between the electricity market and the rest of the economy, different models were used to account for feedback loops with all other sectors. We include scenarios with different runtimes and retrofit costs for existing nuclear plants to determine the effects of a prolongation of nuclear power plants in Germany. Key findings for the electricity sector include the importance of a European-wide coordinated electricity grid extension and the exploitation of regional comparative cost effects for renewable sites. Due to political restrictions, nuclear energy will not be available in Germany in 2050. However, the nuclear life time extension has a positive impact on end consumer electricity prices as well as economic growth in the medium term, if retrofit costs do not exceed certain limits. (orig.)

  3. Pittsburgh 2013 Energy Baseline: Consumption, Trends & Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarka, Thomas J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); James III, Robert E. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Withum, Jeffrey A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Plowman, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Shih, Chung Yan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) are working in conjunction with the City of Pittsburgh (City) to transform how energy is produced, transported, and consumed in the City. This transformation will rely on 21st Century Energy Infrastructure designs, which leverage advanced technology and design techniques to modernize energy infrastructure, create new business models and markets, and expand technology research and development opportunities. Achieving this vision will require developing solutions that are unique to the City: its climate, topography, energy needs, resources, and existing infrastructure.a In this way, the City will demonstrate what the American “City of the Future” looks like, with all its attendant environmental, economic, and job-creation benefits. It will also serve as a template for other cities seeking to reinvent their energy systems.

  4. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  5. Dividing by four CO2 releases due to energy: the Negatep scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Negatep scenario aims at dividing CO 2 releases by 4, which means, more or less, dividing the consumption of fossil energies by the same factor, in order to comply with the French 2005 energy act. After a description of the situation in 2006, of trends, and a recall of the objectives defined by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' regarding energy savings and renewable energies, the authors show that reaching such a reduction requires to: decrease to nearly zero oil and gas in the residential and tertiary sectors, reduce significantly the use of oil in the transport sector, reduce significantly the use of fossil fuels in industry, increase massively the share of electricity in the energy mix, maintain the share of nuclear in the electricity generation and, as long as the storage of electricity is not developed, limit the share of intermittent energies to a level compatible with that of gas turbines. The study shows that the proposed measures can fulfill the objectives for 2020 proposed by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement'

  6. Output, renewable energy consumption and trade in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Aïssa, Mohamed Safouane; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2014-01-01

    We use panel cointegration techniques to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in a sample of 11 African countries covering the period 1980–2008. The results from panel error correction model reveal that there is evidence of a bidirectional causality between output and exports and between output and imports in both the short and long-run. However, in the short-run, there is no evidence of causality between output and renewable energy consumption and between trade (exports or imports) and renewable energy consumption. Also, in the long-run, there is no causality running from output or trade to renewable energy. In the long-run, our estimations show that renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant and positive impact on output. Our energy policy recommendations are that national authorities should design appropriate fiscal incentives to encourage the use of renewable energies, create more regional economic integration for renewable energy technologies, and encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output. - Highlights: • We examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in African countries. • There is a bidirectional causality between output and trade in both the short and long-run. • In the short-run, there is no causality between renewable energy consumption and trade or output. • In the long-run, renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant positive impact on output. • African authorities should encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output

  7. A methodology for the data energy regional consumption consistency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Silva, Ennio Peres da

    1999-01-01

    The article introduces a methodology for data energy regional consumption consistency analysis. The work was going based on recent studies accomplished by several cited authors and boarded Brazilian matrices and Brazilian energetics regional balances. The results are compared and analyzed

  8. Psychological strategies to reduce energy consumption: project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L J; Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1979-06-30

    This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychological theory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related attitudes. The best (and only consistent) attitudinal predictor of residents' actual energy consumption was their attitude about thermal comfort. A number of other attitudes that could conceivably have been related to consumption, such as attitudes about the reality of the crisis, were not found to be related to consumption. Another major focus of the project was on the effectiveness of feedback (that is, giving residents information about their energy use) as an aid to residents' conservation efforts. A series of experiments demonstrated that frequent, credible energy-consumption feedback, coupled with encouragement to adopt a reasonable but difficult energy-conservation goal, could facilitate conservation. However, these studies also demonstrated that residents could not be given just any kind of information about their energy use as feedback and that even proper feedback would not lead to conservation in all households. Conditions that are crucial for the success of feedback as a conservation aid are discussed. Other studies conducted by the project looked at the effect on energy consumption of (1) a device to reduce air-conditioning waste by signalling when it is cool outside, (2) an automatic multi-setback thermostat, and (3) utility companies' average payment plans. A survey of residents' knowledge of their energy use also was conducted. 23 references.

  9. Minimizing energy consumption of accelerators and storage ring facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion of energy usage falls naturally into three parts. The first is a review of what the problem is, the second is a description of steps that can be taken to conserve energy at existing facilities, and the third is a review of the implications of energy consumption on future facilities

  10. Moisture buffering phenomenon and its impact on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Qin, Menghao; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    buffering on building energy consumption in different climate conditions is assessed by using numerical simulations. The results show that the potential energy saving rate could be up to 25–30% when using proper hygroscopic materials in the test building in temperate climates and semi-arid climates. Finally......, the relationship between MBV and potential energy saving rate is also discussed....

  11. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  12. Energy Resources Consumption Minimization in Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balastov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the energy savings analysis during operation of buildings, provides the heat balance of residential premises, considers options for energy-efficient solutions for hot water supply systems in buildings. As technical facilities that allow the use of secondary heat sources and solar energy, there are also considered the systems with heat recovery of “gray” wastewater, heat pumps, solar collectors and photoelectric converters.

  13. Tables of energy consumptions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This work presents in a detailed way important data about the evolution of energy in France during the last twenty years. for the totality of economic sectors, then for each of them ( industry, residential, transports and agriculture sector), this analysis brings to light the part that each form of energy takes to the supply of the French market, the importance of equipment parks and the energy economies that have been realized. (N.C.)

  14. Future waste treatment and energy systems – examples of joint scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Münster, M.; Finnveden, G.; Wenzel, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Approach for use of scenarios dealing with both waste management and energy issues. • Overall scenarios for the common project and sub-scenarios in parts of the project. • Combining different types of scenarios to the tools of different disciplines. • Use of explorative external scenarios based on marginals for consequential LCA. - Abstract: Development and use of scenarios for large interdisciplinary projects is a complicated task. This article provides practical examples of how it has been carried out in two projects addressing waste management and energy issues respectively. Based on experiences from the two projects, recommendations are made for an approach concerning development of scenarios in projects dealing with both waste management and energy issues. Recommendations are given to develop and use overall scenarios for the project and leave room for sub-scenarios in parts of the project. Combining different types of scenarios is recommended, too, in order to adapt to the methods and tools of different disciplines, such as developing predictive scenarios with general equilibrium tools and analysing explorative scenarios with energy system analysis tools. Furthermore, as marginals identified in differing future background systems determine the outcomes of consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs), it is considered advisable to develop and use explorative external scenarios based on possible marginals as a framework for consequential LCAs. This approach is illustrated using an on-going Danish research project

  15. Forecasting of the energy consumption; Zamke prognoziranja potrosnje energije

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Z [Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    Urged by earlier continuous failures in forecasting the consumption of energy in the world, essentially characterized by megalomania, the author presents his views on causes of such occurrences. Fundamental cause is considered - logic of a circle - insensitive to social and economic effects on the humanity in general and particularly to the energy consumption. Besides, a lethal influence of voluntarism has been specially studied as well. (author). 13 refs.

  16. Simulation of Energy Consumption and Emissions from Rail Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    . The calculation procedure is evaluated with respect to resolution of operation conditions, and then evaluated by comparison with experimental data for a variety of passenger and goods trains. The results indicate that the energy consumption from modeling approach is valid to better that 10% for known operating...... characteristics. Emissions are calculated from the energy consumption using average fuel based emissions factors and electrical production emissions factors....

  17. Occupants Influence on the Energy Consumption of Danish Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    This report is one of the results from the project “Occupants influence on the energy consumption of Danish domestic buildings – Phase 1”, which is partly funded by EUDP (Journalnr.: 64009-0248, Programområde: Energieffektivisering) The report provides state-of-the-art reviews within the various...... disciplines represented in the project by the project members, which all represent areas that relate to the title on occupants influence on the energy consumption....

  18. Price sensitivity of residential energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbakken, R.

    1999-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to test the stability of the results of a model which focus on the relationship between the choice of heating equipment and the residential energy consumption. The results for the income and energy price variables are of special interest. Stability in the time dimension is tested by applying the model on micro data for each of the years 1993-1995. The parameter estimates are stable within a 95% confidence interval. However, the estimated impact of the energy price variable on energy consumption was considerably weaker in 1994 than in 1993 and 1995. The results for two different income groups in the pooled data set are also subject to stability testing. The energy price sensitivity in residential energy consumption is found to be higher for high-income households than for low-income households. 19 refs

  19. The impacts of China’s household consumption expenditure patterns on energy demand and carbon emissions towards 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru; Fujimori, Shinichiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how China’s household consumption patterns over the period 2005–2050 influence the total energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in two baseline scenarios, and how it influences carbon prices as well as the economic cost in the corresponding carbon mitigation scenarios. To this end we first put forward two possible household consumption expenditure patterns up to 2050 using the Working–Leser model, taking into account total expenditure increase and urbanization. For comparison, both expenditure patterns are then incorporated in a hybrid recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The results reveal that as income level increases in the coming decades, the direct and indirect household energy requirements and CO 2 emissions would rise drastically. When household expenditure shifts from material products and transport to service-oriented goods, around 21,000 mtce of primary energy and 45 billion tons of CO 2 emissions would be saved over the 45-year period from 2005 to 2050. Moreover, carbon prices in the dematerialized mitigation scenario would fall by 13% in 2050, thus reducing the economic cost. - Highlights: ► Propose two household expenditure patterns considering income rise and urbanization. ► Much energy and CO 2 emissions would be saved in low-carbon consumption scenario. ► Carbon prices would reduce a lot in low-carbon consumption scenario.

  20. Total energy consumption in Finland increased by one percent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timonen, L.

    2000-01-01

    The total energy consumption in Finland increased by less than a percent in 1999. The total energy consumption in 1999 was 1310 PJ corresponding to about 31 million toe. The electric power consumption increased moderately by 1.6%, which is less than the growth of the gross national product (3.5%). The final consumption of energy grew even less, only by 0.5%. Import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. The import of electric power was due to the availability of low-priced electric power on the Nordic electricity markets. Nuclear power generation increased by 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increment of the nuclear power generation increased because of the increased output capacity and good operability of the power plants. Wind power production doubles, but the share of it in the total energy consumption is only about 0.01%. The peat consumption decreased by 12% and the consumption of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrease in production of hydroelectric power was compensated by an increase import of electric power. The consumption of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas remained nearly the same as in 1998. The gasoline consumption, however, decreased, but the consumption of diesel oil increased due to the increased road transport. The share of the fossil fuels was nearly half of the total energy consumption. The consumption of renewable energy sources remained nearly the same, in 23% if the share of peat is excluded, and in 30% if the share of peat is included. Wood-based fuels are the most significant type of renewable fuels. The share of them in 1999 was over 80% of the total usage of the renewable energy sources. The carbon dioxide emissions in Finland decreased in 1999 by 1.0 million tons. The total carbon dioxide emissions were 56 million tons. The decrease was mainly due to the decrease of the peat consumption. The final consumption of energy increased by 0.5%, being hence about 1019 PJ. Industry is the main consumer of energy

  1. Calculating energy and labor impacts of capital readjustments due to changes in personal consumption. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleszkun, A.R.

    1979-05-01

    Previous work on the energy and labor impacts of energy-consumption policies has included the effect of respending of money saved, but not the capital implications of this respending. Here the capital effects are fully accounted for, and turn out to be negligible for a specified conservation scenario and a specified capital expansion model (..delta..C = kC). The robustness of this conclusion is discussed. The implication is that inclusion of only the respending effect is adequate for calculating energy and labor impacts and provides an accuracy to within +- 1% of the total impacts. Operationally, this result obviates the requirement for detailed and expensive calculations.

  2. Conference on new consumption and commercialization models for photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freier, Karin; Fontaine, Pierre; Mayer, Joerg; Jimenez, Julien; Richard, Pascal; Vogtmann, Michael; Schaefer, Felix; Martin, Nicolas; Buis, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on new consumption and commercialization models for photovoltaic energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the new economic models for solar energy producers while the photovoltaic industry has to face a progressive reduction of feed-in tariffs and of other incentive mechanisms. Beside the legal and economic aspects, technical questions around energy storage and integration of photovoltaic production to the grid were also addressed. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Stimulating self-consumption and direct selling within the EEG (Karin Freier); 2 - Development of PV self-consumption in France (Pierre Fontaine); 3 - experience from applying the new support program for solar energy storage systems (Joerg Mayer); 4 - Call for solar photovoltaic projects for own consumption in Aquitaine region (Julien Jimenez); 5 - SMA Flexible Storage System - New version of the Sunny Island inverter for smart photovoltaic energy storage (Pascal Richard); 6 - PV Own Consumption in industry and commerce - examples und Operating Concepts (Michael Vogtmann); 7 - Supplying tenants in multiple-family housing with solar power in the 'Neue Heimat' project (Felix Schaefer); 8 - How to manage PV-storage self-consumption from a grid point of view? (Nicolas Martin); 9 - Closing talk (Sabine Buis)

  3. Energy Consumption Management of Virtual Cloud Computing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin

    2017-11-01

    For energy consumption management research on virtual cloud computing platforms, energy consumption management of virtual computers and cloud computing platform should be understood deeper. Only in this way can problems faced by energy consumption management be solved. In solving problems, the key to solutions points to data centers with high energy consumption, so people are in great need to use a new scientific technique. Virtualization technology and cloud computing have become powerful tools in people’s real life, work and production because they have strong strength and many advantages. Virtualization technology and cloud computing now is in a rapid developing trend. It has very high resource utilization rate. In this way, the presence of virtualization and cloud computing technologies is very necessary in the constantly developing information age. This paper has summarized, explained and further analyzed energy consumption management questions of the virtual cloud computing platform. It eventually gives people a clearer understanding of energy consumption management of virtual cloud computing platform and brings more help to various aspects of people’s live, work and son on.

  4. Deep learning for estimating building energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    To improve the design of the electricity infrastructure and the efficient deployment of distributed and renewable energy sources, a new paradigm for the energy supply chain is emerging, leading to the development of smart grids. There is a need to add intelligence at all levels in the grid, acting

  5. Water consumption in the energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    or biofuels. Hydropower is based on water in rivers or reservoirs. Feedstock production for biofuels may depend on water for irrigation. On the other hand, energy is necessary for pumping of ground- and surface water, for water treatment as well as for transport and distribution of water to end......-users. The waste water is often returned to the environment after energy requiring waste water management.......Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil...

  6. Use of Danish Heat Atlas and energy system models for exploring renewable energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2013-01-01

    networks in relation with significant heat saving measures that are capital intensive infrastructure investments require highly detailed decision - support tools. The Heat Atlas for Denmark provides a highly detailed database and includes heat demand and possible heat savings for about 2.5 million...... buildings with associated costs included. Energy systems modelling tools that incorporate economic, environmental, energy and engineering analysis of future energy systems are considered crucial for quantitative assessment of transitional scenarios towards future milestones, such as (i) EU 2020 goals...... of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing share of renewable energy and improving energy efficiency and (ii) Denmark’s 2050 goals of covering entire energy supply by renewable energy. Optimization and simulation energy system models are currently used in Denmark. The present paper tends to provide...

  7. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  8. Scenario analysis of the new energy policy for Taiwan's electricity sector until 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fung-Fei; Chou, Seng-Cho; Lu, Tai-Ken

    2013-01-01

    For this study, we constructed the following three case scenarios based on the Taiwanese government's energy policy: a normal scenario, the 2008 “Sustainable Energy Policy Convention” scenario, and the 2011 “New Energy Policy” scenario. We then employed a long-term Generation Expansion Planning (GEP) optimization model to compare the three case scenarios' energy mix for power generation for the next å15 years to further explore their possible impact on the electricity sector. The results provide a reference for forming future energy policies and developing strategic responses. - Highlights: • We constructed three case scenarios based on the Taiwan government's energy policy. • We employed a long-term Generation Expansion Planning optimization model. • A significant gap exists between the carbon reduction target and baseline. • The carbon reduction target requires a holistic resolution needed taking seriously

  9. A 'business-as-usual' energy scenario for France at the 2020 vista

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.

    2000-01-01

    A 'business-as-usual' energy scenario is the most probable scenario where the energy demand follows the trends of the past and where no new energy policy is implemented. This work is a complement to the three contrasted energy scenarios built in 1998 by the 'Energy 2010-2020' prospective group of the French general commission of national development. The scenario built in this study is only a reference which allows the measure the efforts made to reach political goals. The main conclusion of this scenario is the increase of the CO 2 emissions under the double effect of the economic growth and of the cessation of the nuclear program which becomes non-competitive with respect to the gas prices and actualization rates retained in the scenario. The main constraint of the energy future is incontestably the necessary fight against the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  10. Specific energy consumption in microwave drying of garlic cloves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.P. [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan (India); Prasad, Suresh [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The convective and microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves was carried out in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The specific energy consumption involved in the two drying processes was estimated from the energy supplied to the various components of the dryer during the drying period. The specific energy consumption was computed by dividing the total energy supplied by amount of water removed during the drying process. The specific energy consumption in convective drying of garlic cloves at 70{sup o}C temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was estimated as 85.45MJ/kg of water evaporated. The increase in air velocity increased the energy consumption. The specific energy consumption at 40W of microwave power output, 70{sup o}C air temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was 26.32MJ/kg of water removed, resulting in about a 70% energy saving as compared to convective drying processes. The drying time increased with increase in air velocity in microwave-convective drying process; a trend reverse to what was observed in convective drying process of garlic cloves. (author)

  11. Scenario comparisons of gasification technology using energy life cycle assessment for bioenergy recovery from rice straw in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shie, J.L.; Lee, C.H.; Chen, C.S.; Lin, K.L.; Chang, C.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy balances of potential gasification technology and limitation boundary are evaluated. • The transportation and pre-treatment are the greatest parts of energy use. • Every technology process has positive energy benefits at all on-site pre-treatment cases. • The optimal ranges of transportation distance and treatment capacity are suggested. • The optimal technology from the tendency model is addressed. - Abstract: This study uses different scenarios to evaluate, by means of energy life-cycle assessments (ELCAs), the energy balance of potential gasification technology and limitation boundaries in Taiwan. Rice straw is chosen as the target material in this study because it is the most significant agriculture waste in Taiwan. Energy products include syngas (CO + H 2 ), methane, carbon dioxide and carbon black residue. The scenarios simulate capacities of 50,000–200,000 tons/year. The distances of collection and transportation are calculated by a circular area 50–100 km in diameter. Also, the on-site and off-site pretreatments of rice straw are evaluated. For this optimum scenario case, the average of the total input energy for the assessed systems is about 15.9% of the average output energy; the value of the net energy balance (NEB) is 0.841. Every technological process has positive energy benefits at all on-site scenario cases. As the capacity is increased, the energy consumption required for transportation increases and the values of the energy indicators decrease. According to the limitation boundaries from the tendency model at on-site cases, the suggested transportation distance and treatment capacity are below 114.72 km and 251,533 tons/year, respectively, while the energy return on investment (EROI) value is greater than 1

  12. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the

  13. Scenario analysis of energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction potentials to ratchet up Japanese mitigation target in 2030 in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Takako; Kuramochi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses to what extent CO_2 emissions from electricity in the residential sector can be further reduced in Japan beyond its post-2020 mitigation target (known as “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)”). The paper examines the reduction potential of electricity demand and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector by conducting a scenario analysis. Electricity consumption scenarios are set up using a time-series regression model, and used to forecast the electricity consumption patterns to 2030. The scenario analysis also includes scenarios that reduce electricity consumption through enhanced energy efficiency and energy saving measures. The obtained results show that Japan can reduce electricity consumption and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector in 2030 more than the Japanese post-2020 mitigation target indicates. At the maximum, the electricity consumption could be reduced by 35 TWh, which contributes to 55.4 MtCO_2 of emissions reduction in 2030 compared to 2013 if the voluntarily targeted CO_2 intensity of electricity is achieved. The result implies that Japan has the potential to ratchet up post-2020 mitigation targets discussed under the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). - Highlights: • Further reduction of electricity consumption is possible beyond Japan's post-2020 mitigation target. • Energy saving efforts by households and incentives to reduce electricity demands are required. • Improvement of CO_2 intensity from electricity is a key factor in the reduction of CO_2 emissions.

  14. Proceedings of 15th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Jelavic, B.

    2006-01-01

    Energy perspectives are in the focus of the whole energy community. Facing te growing needs for energy, limits to reserves, terrorist of war threats, and climate changes is the main driver in searching for long-term solutions which would make energy development less uncertain and less risky. Technological development is one of the answers to energy problems, but it is not the only one. Enhancing energy efficiency is a social challenge that goes beyond technology problem. Equally, accepting locations for construction of energy facilities is also a social challenge, because, together with other social challenges, may give am answer how to develop stable energy industry. Energy security is synergy of various factors: energy market, infrastructure which facilitates good connectivity, diversification of resources, enhanced use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency, and it is important to stress that the only secure energy systems are well-balanced ones. World Energy Council initiated the global study Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 with the aim to overview the future energy at global and regional levels

  15. Proceedings of 15th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granic, G; Jelavic, B

    2006-07-01

    Energy perspectives are in the focus of the whole energy community. Facing te growing needs for energy, limits to reserves, terrorist of war threats, and climate changes is the main driver in searching for long-term solutions which would make energy development less uncertain and less risky. Technological development is one of the answers to energy problems, but it is not the only one. Enhancing energy efficiency is a social challenge that goes beyond technology problem. Equally, accepting locations for construction of energy facilities is also a social challenge, because, together with other social challenges, may give am answer how to develop stable energy industry. Energy security is synergy of various factors: energy market, infrastructure which facilitates good connectivity, diversification of resources, enhanced use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency, and it is important to stress that the only secure energy systems are well-balanced ones. World Energy Council initiated the global study Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 with the aim to overview the future energy at global and regional levels.

  16. Energy consumption and information transmission in model neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrealdea, Francisco J.; Sarasola, Cecilia; D'Anjou, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with the problem of whether biological computation optimizes energy use in the way neurons communicate. By assigning an electrical energy function to a Hindmarsh-Rose neuron we are able to find its average energy consumption when it reacts to incoming signals sent by another neuron coupled to it by an electrical synapse. We find that there are values of the coupling strength at which the ratio of mutual information to energy consumption is maximum and, therefore, communicating at these coupling values would be energetically the most efficient option.

  17. Energy consumption and information transmission in model neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrealdea, Francisco J. [Department of Computer Science, University of the Basque Country, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)], E-mail: francisco.torrealdea@ehu.es; Sarasola, Cecilia [Department of Physics of Materials, University of the Basque Country, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); D' Anjou, Alicia [Department of Computer Science, University of the Basque Country, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    This work deals with the problem of whether biological computation optimizes energy use in the way neurons communicate. By assigning an electrical energy function to a Hindmarsh-Rose neuron we are able to find its average energy consumption when it reacts to incoming signals sent by another neuron coupled to it by an electrical synapse. We find that there are values of the coupling strength at which the ratio of mutual information to energy consumption is maximum and, therefore, communicating at these coupling values would be energetically the most efficient option.

  18. Energy consumption and energy R and D in OECD: Perspectives from oil prices and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Wong, Siang; Chia, Wai-Mun; Chang, Youngho

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the short-run and long-run elasticities of various types of energy consumption and energy R and D to changes in oil prices and income of the 20 OECD countries over the period of 1980–2010 using the Nerlove partial adjustment model (NPAM). We find negative income elasticity for coal consumption but positive income elasticity for oil and gas consumption suggesting the importance of economic growth in encouraging the usage of cleaner energy from coal to oil and gas. By introducing time dummies into the regressions, we show that climatic mitigation policies are able to promote the usage of cleaner energies. Through the dynamic linkages between energy consumption and energy R and D, we find that fossil fuel consumption promotes fossil fuel R and D and fossil fuel R and D in turn drives its own consumption. Renewable energy R and D which is more responsive to economic growth reduces fossil fuel consumption and hence fossil fuel R and D. - Highlights: • Economic growth encourages the use of cleaner forms of energy. • Economic growth promotes renewable energy R and D. • Subsidies for renewable energy R and D promote renewable energy consumption. • Fossil fuel R and D promotes fossil fuel consumption in countries with oil reserves. • Oil consumption reduces significantly with higher oil prices

  19. Energy consumption of chemical uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, T.; Takeda, K.; Obanawa, H.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative study of chemical separation energy for enriching uranium-235 by the redox chromatography was conducted. Isotope exchange reactions between U 4+ -UO 2 2+ ions in the enrichment column are maintained by the redox reactions. The chemical separation energy is ultimately supplied by hydrogen and oxygen gas for regenerating redox agents. The redox energy for the isotope separation is theoretically predicted as a function of the dynamic enrichment factor observed in the chromatographic development of uranium adsorption band. Thermodynamic treatments of the equilibrium reactions implies and inverse redox reaction which can be enhanced by the chemical potential of the ion-exchange reaction of oxidant. Experimental results showed 30 to 90% recovery of the redox energy by the inverse reaction. These results will devise a simplified redox chromatography process where a number of columns in one module is reduced

  20. Is there a water–energy nexus in electricity generation? Long-term scenarios for the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, Frank; Fisher, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Water is required for energy supply, and energy is required for water supply, creating problems as demand for both resources grows. We analyze this “water–energy nexus” as it affects long-run electricity planning in the western United States. We develop four scenarios assuming: no new constraints; limits on carbon emissions; limits on water use; and combined carbon and water limits. We evaluate these scenarios through 2100 under a range of carbon and water prices. The carbon-reducing scenarios become cost-effective at carbon prices of about $50–$70 per ton of CO 2 , moderately high but plausible within the century. In contrast, the water-conserving scenarios are not cost-effective until water prices reach thousands of dollars per acre-foot, well beyond foreseeable levels. This is due in part to the modest available water savings: our most and least water-intensive scenarios differ by less than 1% of the region's water consumption. Under our assumptions, Western electricity generation could be reshaped by the cost of carbon emissions, but not by the cost of water, over the course of this century. Both climate change and water scarcity are of critical importance, but only in the former is electricity generation central to the problem and its solutions. - Highlights: • We model long-run electricity supply and demand for the western United States. • We evaluate the costs of carbon-reducing and water-conserving scenarios. • Carbon-reducing scenarios become cost-effective at carbon prices of $50–70 per ton CO 2 . • Water-conserving scenarios are only cost-effective above $4000/acre-foot of water. • Electricity planning is central to climate policy, but much less so to water planning

  1. Low energy consumption vortex wave flow membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Weilong; Hu, Xiaohong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Youshan

    2017-11-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption and membrane fouling of the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a kind of low energy consumption vortex wave flow MBR was exploited based on the combination of biofilm process and membrane filtration process, as well as the vortex wave flow technique. The experimental results showed that the vortex wave flow state in the membrane module could be formed when the Reynolds number (Re) of liquid was adjusted between 450 and 1,050, and the membrane flux declined more slowly in the vortex wave flow state than those in the laminar flow state and turbulent flow state. The MBR system was used to treat domestic wastewater under the condition of vortex wave flow state for 30 days. The results showed that the removal efficiency for CODcr and NH 3 -N was 82% and 98% respectively, and the permeate quality met the requirement of 'Water quality standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption (GB/T 18920-2002)'. Analysis of the energy consumption of the MBR showed that the average energy consumption was 1.90 ± 0.55 kWh/m 3 (permeate), which was only two thirds of conventional MBR energy consumption.

  2. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  3. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO 2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO 2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  4. The energy consumption of control systems; Het energiegebruik van regelinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gulik, A.R.; De Wildt, M.G. [Grontmij Nederland, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Control systems for e.g. indoor climate and illumination are essential in modern building services, and useful for comfort or energy conservation. Energy conservation is of course an important aim, but what is the energy consumption of the control systems? Is the consumption higher than the savings? This question was subject of a comprehensive study, with measurements and simulation calculations. It can be concluded that the energy consumption of control installation for spaces is substantial [Dutch] Regelinstallaties voor bijvoorbeeld klimaatregeling, verlichtingsregeling en domotica zijn niet meer weg te denken uit de moderne installatietechniek, of ze nu dienen voor comfort, gemak of energiebesparing. Maar hoeveel energie gebruiken deze installaties eigenlijk? Voor ontwerpers blijkt dit helemaal geen issue te zijn terwijl adviseurs, installateurs en zelfs fabrikanten zeggen hiervan geen idee te hebben. Door metingen en het gebruik van berekeningsmodellen is vastgesteld wat het energiegebruik van regelinstallaties op jaarbasis is. Dit blijkt substantieel te zijn, maar er zijn mogelijkheden om het gebruik te reduceren.

  5. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  6. Wireless network interface energy consumption implications of popular streaming formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Surendar

    2001-12-01

    With the proliferation of mobile streaming multimedia, available battery capacity constrains the end-user experience. Since streaming applications tend to be long running, wireless network interface card's (WNIC) energy consumption is particularly an acute problem. In this work, we explore the WNIC energy consumption implications of popular multimedia streaming formats from Microsoft (Windows media), Real (Real media) and Apple (Quick Time). We investigate the energy consumption under varying stream bandwidth and network loss rates. We also explore history-based client-side strategies to reduce the energy consumed by transitioning the WNICs to a lower power consuming sleep state. We show that Microsoft media tends to transmit packets at regular intervals; streams optimized for 28.8 Kbps can save over 80% in energy consumption with 2% data loss. A high bandwidth stream (768 Kbps) can still save 57% in energy consumption with less than 0.3% data loss. For high bandwidth streams, Microsoft media exploits network-level packet fragmentation, which can lead to excessive packet loss (and wasted energy) in a lossy network. Real stream packets tend to be sent closer to each other, especially at higher bandwidths. Quicktime packets sometimes arrive in quick succession; most likely an application level fragmentation mechanism. Such packets are harder to predict at the network level without understanding the packet semantics.

  7. An investigation on energy consumption trend in Japan. Transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2005-08-01

    Although energy consumption in the industry sector has almost been stable, energy consumption in the transportation (passenger and freight) sector has increased much after the oil crisis. The increase of energy consumption in the passenger sector can be attributed to the increase in transportation by private passenger vehicles; while the increase in the freight sector was due to the modal shift to trucks. Among transportation methods, automobiles, i.e. passenger vehicles and trucks, are now dominant in terms of energy consumption and also in terms of amount of transportation. Therefore implementing energy conservation measures relating to automobiles is very important in order to suppress the energy consumption in the transportation sector. This report summarizes the results of investigation on energy conservation measures, especially relevant to automobiles. It was found from the investigation that most promising and effective technologies or measures are promoting market penetration of vehicles satisfying ''top runner standard'', development and employment of hybrid vehicles, and introduction of vehicles with ''idling-stop'' systems. (author)

  8. Analysis on Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment in Kunming, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchi Hu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to investigate and analyze the actual conditions of the urban residential energy consumption, and hence to ascertain what will be the important factors that influence the annual energy consumption in Kunming, which has a mild climate. The questionnaire surveys reveal building characteristics, housing appliances, household characteristics, indoor thermal environment and aspects of life style, during winter and summer seasons. The questionnaire analyses show that only 5% of the investigated households have air conditioning, and 12% have heating appliances. Most households use solar energy as a water heater energy source because the sunshine hours in Kunming are long. The energy consumption analyses show that the average annual energy consumption of households in Kunming reached 12.2 GJ, and cooking accounted for 5.3 GJ, which is the largest part. Most of the time in summer, the outdoor temperature is lower than living room and bedroom temperatures; thus, natural ventilation is a useful cooling method for households in Kunming. The absolute humidity in summer is about 11 g/kg, while in winter it is about 5 g/kg. The influence factor analyses show that building construction year, water heater type and annual income are important influential factors on annual energy consumption.

  9. The energy consumption in the ceramic tile industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciacco, Eduardo F.S.; Rocha, Jose R.; Coutinho, Aparecido R.

    2017-01-01

    The ceramic industry occupies a prominent place in the Brazilian industrial context, representing about 1.0% in the GDP composition. On the other hand, it represent about 1.9% of all energy consumed in the country, and 5.8% of the energy consumed in the Brazilian industrial sector in 2014. Regarding the power consumption by the ceramic industry, most is derived from renewable sources (firewood), followed by use of fossil fuels, mainly natural gas (NG). This study was conducted to quantify the energy consumption in the production of ceramic tiles (CT), by means of experimental data obtained directly in the industry and at every step of the manufacturing process. The step of firing and sintering has the highest energy consumption, with approximately 56% of the total energy consumed. In sequence, have the atomization steps with 30% and the drying with 14%, of total energy consumption in the production of ceramic tiles, arising from the use of NG. In addition, it showed that the production of ceramic tiles by wet process has energy consumption four times the dry production process, due to the atomization step.

  10. Feasibility study on the potential of development of renewable energies for the ZAC de l'Horloge in Romainville. Study of opportunities in renewable energies and definition of energy supply scenarios. Analysis and comparison of energy supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    A first report proposes an overview of available renewable energy sources (geothermal, solar, and wind energy, green electricity, methanization, wood energy, waste water valorisation, connection to an existing heat network). For each of them, it presents a resource assessment, a discussion of constraints, or, should the occasion occur an overview of local providers (for wood), or an assessment of different options (small and large wind energy installations). It also presents demands made by existing sites on the studied area and at its neighbourhood. Energy supply scenarios are briefly defined. The second report proposes an analysis and a comparison of these scenarios. After a presentation of hypotheses and methodology, scenarios are presented in terms of energy needs, energy production and its relationship with the performance of positive energy buildings, adequacy with resource. Beside a reference scenario, these scenarios are named Dogger, Biomass, Wood, Clustered sectors. Comparison is performed in terms of energetic, economic and environmental assessments

  11. Online-based energy auditing and incentive mechanisms to reduce domestic energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lossin, Felix; Staake, Thorsten; Fleisch, Elgar

    2014-01-01

    Domestic energy consumption accounts for about 20-30% of total energy use in western countries [1], [2]. On the level of single households, however, energy consumption tends to vary greatly. This is particularly due to differences regarding behavior and decisions made by individuals. For example, heating and ventilation behavior, the intensity of the use of electrical appliances and hot water, as well as home insulation and weatherization provisions affect total energy consumption. Therefore,...

  12. Hydrogen energy in changing environmental scenario: Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo Hudson, M. Sterlin; Dubey, P.K.; Pukazhselvan, D.; Pandey, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Raghubanshi, Himanshu; Shahi, Rohit R.; Srivastava, O.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with how the Hydrogen Energy may play a crucial role in taking care of the environmental scenario/climate change. The R and D efforts, at the Hydrogen Energy Center, Banaras Hindu University have been described and discussed to elucidate that hydrogen is the best option for taking care of the environmental/climate changes. All three important ingredients for hydrogen economy, i.e., production, storage and application of hydrogen have been dealt with. As regards hydrogen production, solar routes consisting of photoelectrochemical electrolysis of water have been described and discussed. Nanostructured TiO 2 films used as photoanodes have been synthesized through hydrolysis of Ti[OCH(CH 3 ) 2 ] 4 . Modular designs of TiO 2 photoelectrode-based PEC cells have been fabricated to get high hydrogen production rate (∝10.35 lh -1 m -2 ). However, hydrogen storage is a key issue in the success and realization of hydrogen technology and economy. Metal hydrides are the promising candidates due to their safety advantage with high volume efficient storage capacity for on-board applications. As regards storage, we have discussed the storage of hydrogen in intermetallics as well as lightweight complex hydride systems. For intermetallic systems, we have dealt with material tailoring of LaNi 5 through Fe substitution. The La(Ni l-x Fe x ) 5 (x = 0.16) has been found to yield a high storage capacity of ∝2.40 wt%. We have also discussed how CNT admixing helps to improve the hydrogen desorption rate of NaAlH 4 . CNT (8 mol%) admixed NaAlH 4 is found to be optimum for faster desorption (∝3.3 wt% H 2 within 2 h). From an applications point of view, we have focused on the use of hydrogen (stored in intermetallic La-Ni-Fe system) as fuel for Internal Combustion (IC) engine-based vehicular transport, particularly two and three-wheelers. It is shown that hydrogen used as a fuel is the most effective alternative fuel for circumventing climate change. (author)

  13. Energy perspectives of the France by 2020-2050. Energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the working group was to realize quantitative approaches of the french energy system by 2020-2050 supporting the reflexions of the Energy Commission. The presented scenario are not prevision of the future. They just allow, in function of the hypothesis and the models used, to establish an approach of the consequences in term of the final energy demand. Two simulation tools were used and described in the chapter 3: Medpro-Poles and Markal-Times. The scenario are analyzed in the chapters 4 and 5. Results allow to see how the proposed measures are sufficient to reach in France the main objectives proposed by the european union. (A.L.B.)

  14. Scenarios of energy sobriety and societal transformations. When lifestyle and society changes mean energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    By using prospective energy scenarios, the objective of this study performed in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region is to quantify energy savings induced by possible public policies or by lifestyle changes, and then to use the obtained results as tools of support to public decision, and means to make people aware of the end of an abundant and cheap oil, of the potential of solar energy, and of the benefits of energy sobriety. Four scenarios are thus defined. The first one concerns food habits, and corresponds to a more biological production, seasonal and less transformed foodstuffs, more vegetal plates, and reduced distances between producers and consumers. The second one concerns material goods: evolution towards more mutualization, re-use, and durability of products, and a reduced usage of equipment. The third one concerns buildings: the end of individual equipment and of always increasing surfaces, a modulated comfort depending on the room, and more collective organisations. The last scenario concerns displacements: less frequent displacements, shorter distances, use of soft modes, smaller vehicles, and energy saving in the use of vehicles

  15. Macro-economic and energy scenarios for Japan through the long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, Shuichi

    1986-03-01

    As one of studies and systems analyses on the role of VHTR and process heat utilization in future energy systems, long-term macro economic and energy scenarios of Japan until the year 2030 have been generated. This paper presents,; 1) the outline of the long-term macro econometric model and the energy system dynamics model by which these scenarios were generated, 2) back grounds and prospects on future societies of Japan and exogeneous assumptions for calculations, and 3) macro energy and economic scenarios generated. Reflecting the present economic prospects, these scenarios are seemed to be of extremely low-growth type, however, the role of VHTR and its energy systems could be prospected clealy to play a large and important role within these scenario regions. Basic philosophies of scenario generations are also mentioned in this paper. (author)

  16. Production, consumption and research on solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Lascurain-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Serrano-Lopez, Antonio Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of scientific publications on solar energy was conducted to determine whether public interest in the subject is mirrored by more intense research in the area. To this end, the research published by Spain and Germany, the two EU countries with the highest installed photovoltaic capacity......, was analyzed based on Web of Science data. The results show that: solar output has risen substantially; solar research has a greater impact (measured in terms of citations) than publications on other renewables such as wind power; scientific production on solar energy is high in Germany and Spain, which...... intense. The main conclusion is the divergence in Germany and Spain between solar energy demand/output growth, being exponential, and the growth of research papers on the subject, which is linear...

  17. An Energy Consumption Study for a Malaysian University

    OpenAIRE

    Fu E. Tang

    2012-01-01

    The increase in energy demand has raised concerns over adverse impacts on the environment from energy generation. It is important to understand the status of energy consumption for institutions such as Curtin Sarawak to ensure the sustainability of energy usage, and also to reduce its costs. In this study, a preliminary audit framework was developed and was conducted around the Malaysian campus to obtain information such as the number and specifications of electrical appl...

  18. Concerned consumption. Global warming changing household domestication of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Margrethe; Godbolt, Åsne Lund; Sørensen, Knut H.; Ryghaug, Marianne; Karlstrøm, Henrik; Næss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses possible effects of the growing focus on global warming on households’ domestication of energy and the dynamics of energy consumption by comparing data pertaining to the domestication of energy within Norwegian households from two time periods: first, 1991–1995, when climate change was given little public attention, and, second, 2006–2009, after climate change became a major public concern. In the first period, we observed that the domestication of energy resulted in an energy culture emphasizing comfort and convenience with respect to everyday life and the abundant supply of clean hydropower. In the second period, this culture seemed to have changed, making households more concerned about their energy consumption. Consumption of energy was linked to climate change, and many interviewees claimed to save energy. However, the dominant expectation was still to be able to manage everyday life in a convenient and comfortable way. Thus, climate change concerns produced some but not very radical changes in the practical domestication of energy, including energy saving. A main effect was feelings of guilt, tempered by arguments regarding why change is difficult and complaints about political inaction. Thus, public engagement with climate change issues may facilitate energy efficiency policy but to succeed, wider climate policy measures seem to be needed. - Highlights: • Increased climate change focus has affected household domestication of energy. • The changes produced concerns about energy consumption. • Some energy saving activities were reported. • Household energy cultures are less stable than anticipated. • Suggests wider climate policy measures to motivate for energy efficiency.

  19. Estimating Energy Consumption of Transport Modes in China Using DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of transport requirements in China will incur increasing transport energy demands and associated environmental pressures. In this paper, we employ a generalized data envelopment analysis (DEA to evaluate the relative energy efficiency of rail, road, aviation and water transport from 1971 to 2011 by considering the energy input and passenger-kilometers (PKM and freight ton-kilometers (TKM outputs. The results show that the optimal energy efficiencies observed in 2011 are for rail and water transport, with the opposite observed for the energy efficiencies of aviation and road transport. In addition, we extend the DEA model to estimate future transport energy consumption in China. If each transport mode in 2020 is optimized throughout the observed period, the national transport energy consumption in 2020 will reach 497,701 kilotons coal equivalent (ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 5.7%. Assuming that efficiency improvements occur in this period, the estimated national transport energy consumption in 2020 will be 443,126 ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 4.4%, which is still higher than that of the national total energy consumption (3.8%.

  20. Realisable scenarios for a future electricity supply based 100% on renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czisch, G.; Giebel, G.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the resource and climate problems, it seems obvious that we must transform our energy system into one using only renewable energies. But questions arise how such a system should be structured, which techniques should be used and, of course, how costly it might be. These questions were the focus of a study which investigated the cost optimum of a future renewable electricity supply for Europe and its closer Asian and African neighbourhood. The resulting scenarios are based on a broad data basis of the electricity consumption and for renewable energies. A linear optimisation determines the best system configuration and temporal dispatch of all components. The outcome of the scenarios can be considered as being a scientific breakthrough since it proves that a totally renewable electricity supply is possible even with current technology and at the same time is affordable for our national economies. In the conservative base case scenario, wind power would dominate the production spread over the better wind areas within the whole supply area, connected with the demand centres via HVDC transmission. The transmission system, furthermore, powerfully integrates the existing storage hydropower to provide for backup co-equally assisted by biomass power and supported by solar thermal electricity. The main results of the different scenarios can be summarized as follows: 1) A totally renewable electricity supply for Europe and its neighbourhood is possible and affordable. 2) Electricity import from non-European neighbour countries can be a very valuable and substantial component of a future supply. 3) Smoothing effects by the use of sources at locations in different climate zones improve the security of the supply and reduce the costs. 4) A large-scale co-operation of many different countries opens up for the possibility to combine the goals of development policy and climate politics in a multilateral win-win strategy. To aid implementation, an international extension

  1. Energy consumptions per sector; Les consommations d'energie par secteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document presents the energy consumption data of France per energy type and sector of use in the form of tables and graphics for the last decade and sometimes before: 1 - residential and tertiary sector: energy consumption per energy source, energy consumption per use (coal, heavy and domestic fuels, natural gas, LPG (butane, propane), electricity), comparison of the share of each energy source between 1973 and 2003, 20 years of space heating data in main dwellings (1982-2002), district heating networks from 1987 to 1997; 2 - transportation sector: fuel consumption of individual cars in France (1990-2003, 1990-2002, 1990-2001, 1987-1999), some indicators about the energy consumption in transports in France (2000-2001); 3 - industry sector: consumption of fuel substitutes in the cement industry in 2001, importance and limitations. (J.S.)

  2. Future waste treatment and energy systems – examples of joint scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Finnveden, G.; Wenzel, H.

    2013-01-01

    of scenarios is recommended, too, in order to adapt to the methods and tools of different disciplines, such as developing predictive scenarios with general equilibrium tools and analysing explorative scenarios with energy system analysis tools. Furthermore, as marginals identified in differing future......Development and use of scenarios for large interdisciplinary projects is a complicated task. This article provides practical examples of how it has been carried out in two projects addressing waste management and energy issues respectively. Based on experiences from the two projects......, recommendations are made for an approach concerning development of scenarios in projects dealing with both waste management and energy issues. Recommendations are given to develop and use overall scenarios for the project and leave room for sub-scenarios in parts of the project. Combining different types...

  3. Present and future energy consumption for passenger transportation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, M.; Wolffram, U.

    1981-01-01

    Passenger transportation in Germany was investigated in order to determine real energy consumption. For typical passengers, energy consumption for overland travel and charter flights was studied. The energy needed for air traffic was compared with that for transportation overland (railway, car, bus), taking into account transportation to the airport or railway station. Transportation makes up about 17% of German primary energy consumption, i.e., road traffic 14%, railway traffic 1.6%, and air traffic 1%. Specific energy consumption (overland travel) of intercity trains, airplanes and cars is in the proportion 1.0 to 3.7 to 4.0 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 2.4 to 3.1 by the year 2000. For holiday trips, specific energy consumption for bus, train, car and airplane travel is in the proportion 1.0 to 1.4 to 3.6 to 3.4 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 1.4 to 2.5 to 2.9 by 2000. (ESA)

  4. Circadian rhythm of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuck, Marlene; Levandovski, Rosa; Harb, Ana; Quiles, Caroline; Hidalgo, Maria Paz

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous and intermittent methods of enteral nutrition (EN) administration on circadian rhythm. Thirty-four individuals, aged between 52 and 80 years, were fed through a nasoenteric tube. Fifteen individuals received a continuous infusion for 24 hours/d, and 19 received an intermittent infusion in comparable quantities, every 4 hours from 8:00 to 20:00. In each patient, 4 indirect calorimetric measurements were carried out over 24 hours (A: 7:30, B: 10:30, C: 14:30, and D: 21:30) for 3 days. Energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were significantly higher in the intermittent group than in the continuous group (1782 ± 862 vs 1478 ± 817 kcal/24 hours, P = .05; 257 125 vs 212 117 ml/min, P = .048, respectively). The intermittent group had higher levels of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption at all the measured time points compared with the continuous group. energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in both groups were significantly different throughout the day for 3 days. There is circadian rhythm variation of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption with continuous and intermittent infusion for EN. This suggests that only one indirect daily calorimetric measurement is not able to show the patient's true needs. Energy expenditure is higher at night with both food administration methods. Moreover, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption are higher with the intermittent administration method at all times.

  5. Global Energy Scenarios to 2040. Understanding our energy future - 2016 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The energy world is in rapid evolution, driven in particular by policy developments (like the INDCs agreed at COP-21) but also economic, geopolitical, technological as well as social considerations. Enerdata regularly produces scenario based energy outlooks to analyze and forecast the supply and demand of energy commodities, energy prices, as well as the impact of climate change and energy policies on energy markets and their consequences for the energy industry. After the COP-21 in Paris, Enerdata has again done such an exercise. The Ener-Blue scenario provides an outlook of energy systems up to 2040 based on the achievement of the 2030 targets defined in the INDCs as announced at the COP-21. Ener-Green explores the implications of more stringent energy and climate policies to limit the global temperature increase at around 1.5-2 deg. C by the end of the century. Finally, Ener-Brown describes a world with abundant fossil fuel resource and durably low energy prices, affecting the entire energy system over a long period. These different scenarios explore the consequences on energy supply and demand, energy mix, energy prices by fuel and region, as well as the implications on climate issues. In the Ener-Blue scenario, the future energy mix remains dominated by fossil fuels, but INDCs planned policies regarding climate mitigation, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources lead to a diversification towards other sources of energy. Among others, the EU successfully achieves its triple objective of its climate and energy package, while China and India expand their renewable capacities to achieve their renewable targets. Within this international context of climate coordinated policies, CO_2 emission growth slows down. However, the efforts defined in INDCs are not ambitious enough to limit the increase of the average global temperature to 2 deg. C in 2050, but these efforts are compatible with 3-4 deg. C objective. In the Ener-Green scenario, there is a clear

  6. Energy Efficient Smartphones: Minimizing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone GPUs using DVFS Governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.

    2013-01-01

    , they are significantly adding an overhead on the limited energy of the battery. This thesis aims at enhancing the energy efficiency of modern smartphones and increasing their battery life by minimizing the energy consumption of smartphones Graphical Processing Unit (GPU

  7. Convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among ASEAN countries over the period 1971 to 2011 using the panel KPSS stationarity test and panel Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root test. The results for the panel stationarity and unit root tests with structural breaks find support for energy convergence in ASEAN. - Highlights: • We test for convergence in energy consumption per capita among the ASEAN nations. • Univariate conventional unit root tests provide mixed evidence of convergence. • Panel unit root tests with structural breaks support convergence hypothesis

  8. The method of planning the energy consumption for electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russkov, O. V.; Saradgishvili, S. E.

    2017-10-01

    The limitations of existing forecast models are defined. The offered method is based on game theory, probabilities theory and forecasting the energy prices relations. New method is the basis for planning the uneven energy consumption of industrial enterprise. Ecological side of the offered method is disclosed. The program module performed the algorithm of the method is described. Positive method tests at the industrial enterprise are shown. The offered method allows optimizing the difference between planned and factual consumption of energy every hour of a day. The conclusion about applicability of the method for addressing economic and ecological challenges is made.

  9. Methods for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Up until recently, very little consideration has been given towards reducing the energy consumption of the networks supporting mobile communication. This has now become an important issue since with the predicted boost in traffic, network operators are required to upgrade and extend their networks......, increasing also their overall energy consumption. However, traffic analysis shows that during a 24 hour period, the volume of carried traffic varies continuously, with the network operating anywhere close to its full capacity for very short periods of time. The problem is that during hours of low network...... traffic the energy consumption remains high. This article proposes two major solutions for mitigating this problem. In the first case, an energy saving between 14% and 36% is observed by allowing the network to dynamically optimize its available capacity based on the traffic being carried. In the second...

  10. Energy Consumption Information Services for Smart Home Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzer, Michael; Fensel, Anna

    We investigate services giving users an adequate insight on his or her energy consumption habits in order to optimize it in the long run. The explored energy awareness services are addressed to inhabitants of smart homes, equipped with smart meters, advanced communication facilities, sensors and actuators. To analyze the potential of such services, a game at a social network Facebook has been designed and implemented, and the information about players' responses and interactions within the game environment has been collected and analyzed. The players have had their virtual home energy usage visualized in different ways, and had to optimize the energy consumption basing on their own perceptions of the consumption information. Evaluations reveal, in particular, that users are specifically responsive to information shown as a real-time graph and as costs in Euro, and are able to produce and share with each other policies for managing their smart home environments.

  11. Consumption Behavior Analytics-Aided Energy Forecasting and Dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jiang, Huaiguang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Kaiqing [University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Zhang, Jun Jason [University of Denver

    2017-08-17

    For decades, electricity customers have been treated as mere recipients of electricity in vertically integrated power systems. However, as customers have widely adopted distributed energy resources and other forms of customer participation in active dispatch (such as demand response) have taken shape, the value of mining knowledge from customer behavior patterns and using it for power system operation is increasing. Further, the variability of renewable energy resources has been considered a liability to the grid. However, electricity consumption has shown the same level of variability and uncertainty, and this is sometimes overlooked. This article investigates data analytics and forecasting methods to identify correlations between electricity consumption behavior and distributed photovoltaic (PV) output. The forecasting results feed into a predictive energy management system that optimizes energy consumption in the near future to balance customer demand and power system needs.

  12. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  13. Engineering tools for complex task of reducing energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Reduction of energy consumption in buildings while ensuring a good indoor environment is a very challenging and difficult engineering task. For this we need tools which are based on an integral approach of the building, control systems, occupants and outdoor environment. A building energy simulation

  14. Electrode contact configuration and energy consumption in spinal cord stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Cecilia Cecilia Clementine; de Vos, Cecile C.; Hilgerink, Marjolein P.; Buschman, Hendrik P.J.; Buschman, H.P.J.; Holsheimer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To test the hypothesis that in spinal cord stimulation, in contrast to an increase of the number of anodes which reduces energy consumption per pulse, an increase of the number of cathodes raises the energy per pulse. Methods. Patients with an Itrel 3 pulse generator and a Pisces Quad

  15. Energy consumption performance analysis of electrical mitad at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Injera baking electrical mitad is the most energy-consuming device in every household in Ethiopia. This research presents a detail engineering study on the energy-consumption performance of existing electrical mitad in Mekelle city. The research work considered thirty-one electrical mitad from different workshops in ...

  16. China's energy consumption: A perspective from Divisia aggregation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Hua; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    China's total energy consumption, according to the official data, decreased impressively during 1997-1998 and increased sharply during 2003-2007, which in turn resulted in energy intensity fluctuation. Many literatures explained this ''unusual phenomenon'' from the perspectives of technical change, economic structure shifting and statistical data quality. They measured aggregate energy in thermal units by using linear summation approaches. In this paper, from the perspectives of heterogeneity and imperfect substitutability among diverse energy types, we further examine China's aggregate energy consumption by using Divisia (Sato-Vartia) approach. The results show that China's aggregate energy consumption and intensity fluctuated slightly less than values calculated by using conventional linear approaches, and the ''unusual phenomenon'' is partly explained. It also implies that China's energy intensity changes in 2006-2007 are slightly more optimistic than those officially reported, and the official communique of provincial energy intensity reduction achievements are partly bias. Some provincial achievement are underestimated or overestimated on some provinces. Our empirical results are also helpful to further research, such as energy-economic modeling, energy price elasticity, and elasticity of substitution among capital-labor-energy-material (KLEM). The difficulties or defects when using Divisia approach are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Energy balance of forage consumption by phyllophagous insects: optimization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tarasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of optimal food consumption by phytophagous insects proposed, in which the metabolic costs are presented in the form of two components – the cost of food utilization and costs for proper metabolism of the individuals. Two measures were introduced – the «price» of food conversion and the «price» of biomass synthesis of individuals to assess the effectiveness of food consumption by caterpillars. The proposed approach to the description of food consumption by insects provides the exact solutions of the equation of energy balance of food consumption and determining the effectiveness of consumption and the risk of death of the individual. Experiments on larvae’s feeding in laboratory conditions were carried out to verify the model. Caterpillars of Aporia crataegi L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae were the research subjects. Supply­demand balance, calculated value of the environmental price of consumption and efficiency of food consumption for each individual were determined from experimental data. It was found that the fertility of the female does not depend on the weight of food consumed by it, but is linearly dependent on the food consumption efficiency index. The greater the efficiency of food consumption by an individual, the higher its fertility. The data obtained in the course of experiments on the feeding caterpillars Aporia crataegi were compared with the data presented in the works of other authors and counted in the proposed model of consumption. Calculations allowed estimation of the critical value of food conversion price below which the energy balance is negative and the existence of an individual is not possible.

  18. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions, examination of the conditions of exoneration and attenuation for the energy uses in the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulinet, M.

    2000-05-01

    This document examines the conditions for a broadening of the general tax on polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions in order to reinforce the fight against greenhouse effect and to better master the energy consumption. It analyses the characteristics of each energy source with respect to the principle of a taxation of the consumptions. Finally, several scenarios are analyzed to show the advantage and drawbacks of such a system. A first evaluation and a preliminary tariffing are given. (J.S.)

  19. Urban Systems and Energy Consumptions: A Critical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available City transformations are also due to the development of new energy sources, which have influenced economy and lifestyles, as well as the physical and functional organization of urban systems. Cities are the key place where it is need to act for the achievement of strategic environmental objectives, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions and energy saving. The hard resolution of these challenges depends on several factors: their multidimensional nature, the change of the economic and settlement development model, and also the complexity of the relationships between the elements that constitute the urban systems and that affect energy consumption. According to this awareness the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory financed by PON 04A2_00120 R & C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015 has been developed: it is aimed at supporting local authorities in the development of strategies for the reduction of energy consumption through actions designed to change behavior (in terms of use and energy consumption and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment and infrastructure. With the goal of describing some of the results of the methodological phase of this project, this paper proposes a review of the major studies on the issue of energy consumption at the urban scale in the first section; in the second section the outcomes of the first phase of the development of the comprehension/interpretive model related to the identification of the set of physical/environmental variables at urban scale, that most affect the energy consumption, are described; the third makes a critical review of the reference scientific literature, characterised by a too sectoral approach, compared to the complexity of the topic.

  20. Estimating the rebound effect in US manufacturing energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The energy price shocks of the 1970s are usually assumed to have increased the search for new energy saving technologies where eventual gains in energy efficiencies will reduce the real per unit price of energy services and hence, the consumption of energy will rise and partially offset the initial reduction in the usage of energy sources. This is the 'rebound effect', which is estimated for the US manufacturing sector using time series data applying the dynamic OLS method (DOLS). When allowing for asymmetric price effects the rebound effect is found to be approximately 24% for the US manufacturing sector

  1. A comparison of the newest scenarios for energy supply in Switzerland and their results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schucan, T.H.

    1984-09-01

    The author defines an energy scenario and considers several such scenarios for Switzerland. A presentation of perspectives is given, followed by an analysis of the scenario. Remarks are made on the energy economy and on the environmental loading (specific emissions for heat pumps and block heat power stations, total emission for the year 2020 and radiation loading for people and plants in Switzerland). (A.N.K.)

  2. URBAN FEATURES AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in discovering the human effects on the environment and energy consumption in recent decades. It is estimated that the share of energy consumed in transportation and housing systems are around 20 and 30 percent of total energy consumption respectively. Furthermore, the residential greenhouse emissions depend on urban form and structure. This paper explores the effects of urban features on residential energy consumption at neighborhood level using data collected through household questionnaire (n=140. Two residential districts in metropolitan Shiraz, south of Iran, were selected as case study areas. Different features of two areas were compared including building density, typology, housing location, parcel size, floor area and construction materials. Ordinary linear regression was used to discover the impact of explanatory variables on energy consumption. It was found that some physical variables such as parcel size, setback and number of floors played significant roles in explaining the variances exist in energy use level. The results can be used by governmental agencies to modify land use policies and subdivision rules in hope of saving energy and achieving a sustainable community.

  3. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebede, Ellene; Kagochi, John; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2010-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  4. Reducing consumption of electric current and energy carriers. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppo, A.S.; Gruzdev, Yu.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates the energy conservation program developed by the Giproshakht research institute is evaluated. The program was used in the Afanas'evo hydraulic mine in the Tulaugol association (with annual coal output of 2.1 Mt). Energy conservation program consisted of 2 groups of tasks: reducing energy consumption of the mine, and reducing energy consumption during the maximum demand hours in the morning and evening. The following methods were used: reducing idle running of chain and belt conveyors, separate draining of mine water free of dust and rock particles (reducing range of water cleaning), use of automatic control systems for mine blowers, automatic control of the system for coal drying, more efficient use of coal and materials transport in the mine. Energy demand of the mine during peak demand hours was reduced by adjusting fluctuations of energy consumption of the mine to fluctuations of energy demand in the power system of the area, e.g. by reducing mine draining in the morning and evening and operating at full capacity during the time of reduced energy demand. Using the energy conservation measures economized 4,324,300 kWh electric energy annually.

  5. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebede, Ellene [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 210 Campbell, Hall, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Kagochi, John [School of Business Administration, University of Houston-Victoria, 3007, N. Ben Wilson, Victoria, 77901 (United States); Jolly, Curtis M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, 212 Comer, Hall Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  6. Energy: An endless story. The history of the energy issue and changing scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuermer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Two oil crises and the reactor accident at Chernobyl have had a profound effect on the population in the USSR and its awareness of environmental issues and hazards. The contribution explains the energy policy and scenarios and the changes undergone in the USSR, the COMECON countries, in the Middle East and in the Persian Gulf, in the Pacific Ocean area, in the North Sea area, and in the USA, also pointing out consequences for the current situation. (DG) [de

  7. Study on energy consumption of adapters and battery chargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, J.K.; Couvee, J.D.J.

    2001-04-01

    Under the authority of the Dutch Energy Agency 'Novem' industrial design and engineering office NewProducts has performed an inventory study on the energy consumption of adapters and battery chargers. Besides the energy aspects, various aspects of the adapters and chargers have been discussed: The products are classified in categories based on type of the appliance and function of the adapter; The proportions of the Dutch market of adapters and chargers and the players on this market are discussed in brief; The relevant technical background, especially with respect to the energy consumption is discussed. In general there are two types of adapters, linear and switch mode; Product specifications collected from several manufacturers are presented; To fill up the lack of data some measurements have been made of which the results are presented. Together with the product specifications this gives an overview of the performances of adapters and chargers; During the study several ideas and new developments have been found for reducing energy consumption. A remarkable conclusion is that there is no or not much attention from manufacturers or consumers for energy consumption of adapters or no-load power consumption, although there are some initiatives for reduction, e.g. the Code of Conduct on Efficiency of External Power Supplies of the European Union. Lots of linear adapters are still sold and in use, although the efficiency of the switch mode adapters is a lot better. The problem is the higher price. The switch mode adapters are being sold together with sophisticated electronic appliances. Most of the other initiatives and solutions to reduce the no-load energy consumption and improve the efficiency are also technical

  8. Household energy consumption and consumer electronics: The case of television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, Tracey

    2008-01-01