WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy constrained resource

  1. Stochastic Resource Allocation for Energy-Constrained Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachs DanielGrobe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery-powered wireless systems running media applications have tight constraints on energy, CPU, and network capacity, and therefore require the careful allocation of these limited resources to maximize the system's performance while avoiding resource overruns. Usually, resource-allocation problems are solved using standard knapsack-solving techniques. However, when allocating conservable resources like energy (which unlike CPU and network remain available for later use if they are not used immediately knapsack solutions suffer from excessive computational complexity, leading to the use of suboptimal heuristics. We show that use of Lagrangian optimization provides a fast, elegant, and, for convex problems, optimal solution to the allocation of energy across applications as they enter and leave the system, even if the exact sequence and timing of their entrances and exits is not known. This permits significant increases in achieved utility compared to heuristics in common use. As our framework requires only a stochastic description of future workloads, and not a full schedule, we also significantly expand the scope of systems that can be optimized.

  2. Location constrained resource interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed issues related to wind integration from the perspective of the California Independent System Operator (ISO). Issues related to transmission, reliability, and forecasting were reviewed. Renewable energy sources currently used by the ISO were listed, and details of a new transmission financing plan designed to address the location constraints of renewable energy sources and provide for new transmission infrastructure was presented. The financing mechanism will be financed by participating transmission owners through revenue requirements. New transmission interconnections will include network facilities and generator tie-lines. Tariff revisions have also been implemented to recover the costs of new facilities and generators. The new transmission project will permit wholesale transmission access to areas where there are significant energy resources that are not transportable. A rate impact cap of 15 per cent will be imposed on transmission owners to mitigate short-term costs to ratepayers. The presentation also outlined energy resource area designation plans, renewable energy forecasts, and new wind technologies. Ramping issues were also discussed. It was concluded that the ISO expects to ensure that 20 per cent of its energy will be derived from renewable energy sources. tabs., figs

  3. MIROS: A Hybrid Real-Time Energy-Efficient Operating System for the Resource-Constrained Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Operating system (OS technology is significant for the proliferation of the wireless sensor network (WSN. With an outstanding OS; the constrained WSN resources (processor; memory and energy can be utilized efficiently. Moreover; the user application development can be served soundly. In this article; a new hybrid; real-time; memory-efficient; energy-efficient; user-friendly and fault-tolerant WSN OS MIROS is designed and implemented. MIROS implements the hybrid scheduler and the dynamic memory allocator. Real-time scheduling can thus be achieved with low memory consumption. In addition; it implements a mid-layer software EMIDE (Efficient Mid-layer Software for User-Friendly Application Development Environment to decouple the WSN application from the low-level system. The application programming process can consequently be simplified and the application reprogramming performance improved. Moreover; it combines both the software and the multi-core hardware techniques to conserve the energy resources; improve the node reliability; as well as achieve a new debugging method. To evaluate the performance of MIROS; it is compared with the other WSN OSes (TinyOS; Contiki; SOS; openWSN and mantisOS from different OS concerns. The final evaluation results prove that MIROS is suitable to be used even on the tight resource-constrained WSN nodes. It can support the real-time WSN applications. Furthermore; it is energy efficient; user friendly and fault tolerant.

  4. Memory and Energy Optimization Strategies for Multithreaded Operating System on the Resource-Constrained Wireless Sensor Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory and energy optimization strategies are essential for the resource-constrained wireless sensor network (WSN nodes. In this article, a new memory-optimized and energy-optimized multithreaded WSN operating system (OS LiveOS is designed and implemented. Memory cost of LiveOS is optimized by using the stack-shifting hybrid scheduling approach. Different from the traditional multithreaded OS in which thread stacks are allocated statically by the pre-reservation, thread stacks in LiveOS are allocated dynamically by using the stack-shifting technique. As a result, memory waste problems caused by the static pre-reservation can be avoided. In addition to the stack-shifting dynamic allocation approach, the hybrid scheduling mechanism which can decrease both the thread scheduling overhead and the thread stack number is also implemented in LiveOS. With these mechanisms, the stack memory cost of LiveOS can be reduced more than 50% if compared to that of a traditional multithreaded OS. Not is memory cost optimized, but also the energy cost is optimized in LiveOS, and this is achieved by using the multi-core “context aware” and multi-core “power-off/wakeup” energy conservation approaches. By using these approaches, energy cost of LiveOS can be reduced more than 30% when compared to the single-core WSN system. Memory and energy optimization strategies in LiveOS not only prolong the lifetime of WSN nodes, but also make the multithreaded OS feasible to run on the memory-constrained WSN nodes.

  5. Communication Schemes with Constrained Reordering of Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovski, Petar; Utkovski, Zoran; Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe

    2013-01-01

    reordering of the labelled user resources (packets, channels) in an existing, primary system. However, the degrees of freedom of the reordering are constrained by the operation of the primary system. The second scenario is related to communication systems with energy harvesting, where the transmitted signals...... pertaining to the communication model when the resources that can be reordered have binary values. The capacity result is valid under arbitrary error model in which errors in each resource (packet) occur independently. Inspired by the information—theoretic analysis, we have shown how to design practical...

  6. Library Support for Resource Constrained Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Laust; Karlsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Accelerators, and other resource constrained systems, are increasingly being used in computer systems. Accelerators provide power efficient performance and often provide a shared memory model. However, it is a challenge to map feature rich APIs, such as OpenMP, to resource constrained systems...

  7. Resource Management in Constrained Dynamic Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jinwoo

    Resource management is considered in this dissertation for systems with limited resources, possibly combined with other system constraints, in unpredictably dynamic environments. Resources may represent fuel, power, capabilities, energy, and so on. Resource management is important for many practical systems; usually, resources are limited, and their use must be optimized. Furthermore, systems are often constrained, and constraints must be satisfied for safe operation. Simplistic resource management can result in poor use of resources and failure of the system. Furthermore, many real-world situations involve dynamic environments. Many traditional problems are formulated based on the assumptions of given probabilities or perfect knowledge of future events. However, in many cases, the future is completely unknown, and information on or probabilities about future events are not available. In other words, we operate in unpredictably dynamic situations. Thus, a method is needed to handle dynamic situations without knowledge of the future, but few formal methods have been developed to address them. Thus, the goal is to design resource management methods for constrained systems, with limited resources, in unpredictably dynamic environments. To this end, resource management is organized hierarchically into two levels: 1) planning, and 2) control. In the planning level, the set of tasks to be performed is scheduled based on limited resources to maximize resource usage in unpredictably dynamic environments. In the control level, the system controller is designed to follow the schedule by considering all the system constraints for safe and efficient operation. Consequently, this dissertation is mainly divided into two parts: 1) planning level design, based on finite state machines, and 2) control level methods, based on model predictive control. We define a recomposable restricted finite state machine to handle limited resource situations and unpredictably dynamic environments

  8. Stochastic Security and Risk-Constrained Scheduling for an Autonomous Microgrid with Demand Response and Renewable Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Rashidizadeh-Kermani, Homa; Najafi, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources and the development of advanced information give rise to questions on how responsive loads can be managed to optimise the use of resources and assets. In this context, demand response as a way for modifying the consumption pattern of...

  9. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  10. Scheduling of resource-constrained projects

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Project management has become a widespread instrument enabling organizations to efficiently master the challenges of steadily shortening product life cycles, global markets and decreasing profit margins. With projects increasing in size and complexity, their planning and control represents one of the most crucial management tasks. This is especially true for scheduling, which is concerned with establishing execution dates for the sub-activities to be performed in order to complete the project. The ability to manage projects where resources must be allocated between concurrent projects or even sub-activities of a single project requires the use of commercial project management software packages. However, the results yielded by the solution procedures included are often rather unsatisfactory. Scheduling of Resource-Constrained Projects develops more efficient procedures, which can easily be integrated into software packages by incorporated programming languages, and thus should be of great interest for practiti...

  11. Time-constrained project scheduling with adjacent resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann L.; Kok, A.L.; Paulus, J.J.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a decomposition method for the Time-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (TCPSP) with Adjacent Resources. For adjacent resources the resource units are ordered and the units assigned to a job have to be adjacent. On top of that, adjacent resources are not required by single jobs, but by

  12. Time-constrained project scheduling with adjacent resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann L.; Kok, A.L.; Paulus, J.J.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    We develop a decomposition method for the Time-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (TCPSP) with adjacent resources. For adjacent resources the resource units are ordered and the units assigned to a job have to be adjacent. On top of that, adjacent resources are not required by single jobs, but by

  13. "Resource-constrained innovation" : Classification and implications for multinational firms

    OpenAIRE

    Zeschky, Marco; Winterhalter, Stephan; Gassmann, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments show that it is no longer enough to serve high-margin markets with high-tech products but that firms must also be able to serve resource-constrained markets with products that deliver high value at ultra-low costs. Resource-constrained consumers are often found in the lower part of the economic pyramid and do not only exist in emerging but also in developed markets. This article discusses the different types of resource-constrained innovations-cost, good-enough, frugal, an...

  14. Bandwidth Management in Resource Constrained Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    multiple Internet resources when multiple Internet resources share a single IP ( Faris & Villeneuve, 2008). 14 Figure 3 DNS Tampering (After Murdoch...archived_content/people/edelman/ip-sharing/ Faris , R., & Villeneuve, N. (2008). Measuring global Internet filtering. In R. Deibert, J. Palfrey, R

  15. Maxillofacial prostheses challenges in resource constrained regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Sophia; Bibb, Richard J; Martin, Simon J

    2017-10-24

    This study reviewed the current state of maxillofacial rehabilitation in resource-limited nations. A rigorous literature review was undertaken using several technical and clinical databases using a variety of key words pertinent to maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation and resource-limited areas. In addition, interviews were conducted with researchers, clinicians and prosthetists that had direct experience of volunteering or working in resource-limited countries. Results from the review and interviews suggest rehabilitating patients in resource-limited countries remains challenging and efforts to improve the situation requires a multifactorial approach. In conclusion, public health awareness programmes to reduce the causation of injuries and bespoke maxillofacial prosthetics training programmes to suit these countries, as opposed to attempting to replicate Western training programmes. It is also possible that usage of locally sourced and cheaper materials and the use of low-cost technologies could greatly improve maxillofacial rehabilitation efforts in these localities. Implications for Rehabilitation More information and support needs to be provided to maxillofacial defect/injuries patients and to their families or guardians in a culturally sensitive manner by governments. The health needs, economic and psychological needs of the patients need to be taken into account during the rehabilitation process by clinicians and healthcare organizations. The possibility of developing training programs to suit these resource limited countries and not necessarily follow conventional fabrication methods must be looked into further by educational entities.

  16. Querying Uncertain Data in Resource Constrained Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Meliou, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Sensor networks are progressively becoming a standard in applications that require the monitoring of physical phenomena. Measurements like temperature, humidity, light, and acceleration are gathered at various locations and can be used to extract information on the phenomenon observed. Sensor networks are naturally distributed, and they display strong resource restrictions. Moreover, the gathered data comes in various degrees of uncertainty, due to noisy and dropped measurements, interference...

  17. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  18. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  19. Mature Basin Development Portfolio Management in a Resource Constrained Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandhane, J. M.; Udo, S. D.

    2002-01-01

    Nigerian Petroleum industry is constantly faced with management of resource constraints stemming from capital and operating budget, availability of skilled manpower, capacity of an existing surface facility, size of well assets, amount of soft and hard information, etceteras. Constrained capital forces the industry to rank subsurface resource and potential before proceeding with preparation of development scenarios. Availability of skilled manpower limits scope of integrated reservoir studies. Level of information forces technical and management to find low-risk development alternative in a limited time. Volume of either oil or natural gas or water or combination of them may be constrained due to design limits of the existing facility, or an external OPEC quota, requires high portfolio management skills.The first part of the paper statistically analyses development portfolio of a mature basin for (a) subsurface resources volume, (b) developed and undeveloped and undeveloped volumes, (c) sweating of wells, and (d) facility assets. The analysis presented conclusively demonstrates that the 80/20 is active in the statistical sample. The 80/20 refers to 80% of the effect coming from the 20% of the cause. The second part of the paper deals with how 80/20 could be applied to manage portfolio for a given set of constraints. Three application examples are discussed. Feedback on implementation of them resulting in focussed resource management with handsome rewards is documented.The statistical analysis and application examples from a mature basin form a way forward for a development portfolio management in an resource constrained environment

  20. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  1. Constrained information maximization by free energy minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Ryotaro

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we introduce free energy-based methods to constrain mutual information maximization, developed to realize competitive learning. The new method is introduced to simplify the computational procedures of mutual information and to improve the fidelity of representation and to stabilize learning. First, the free energy is effective in simplifying the computation procedures of mutual information because we need not directly compute mutual information, which needs heavy computation, but only deals with partition functions. With partition functions, computational complexity is significantly reduced. Second, fidelity to input patterns can be improved because training errors between input patterns and connection weights are implicitly incorporated. This means that mutual information is maximized under the constraint of the errors between input patterns and connection weights. Finally, learning can be stabilized in our approach. One of the problems of the free energy approach is that learning processes should be carefully controlled to keep its stability. The present paper shows that the conventional computational techniques in the field of self-organizing maps are really effective in controlling the processes. In particular, minimum information production learning can be used further to stabilize learning by decreasing information obtained at each learning step as much as possible. Thus, we can expect that our new method can be used to increase mutual information between competitive units and input patterns without decreasing errors between input patterns and connection weights and with stabilized learning processes. We applied the free energy-based models to the well-known Iris problem and a student survey, and succeeded in improving the performance in terms of classification rates. In addition, the minimum information production learning turned out to be effective in stabilizing learning.

  2. Stroke in a resource-constrained hospital in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Stenumg?rd, P?l Sigurd; Rakotondranaivo, Miadana Joshua; Sletvold, Olav; Follestad, Turid; Ellekj?r, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke is reported as the most frequent cause of in-hospital death in Madagascar. However, no descriptive data on hospitalized stroke patients in the country have been published. In the present study, we sought to investigate the feasibility of collecting data on stroke patients in a resource-constrained hospital in Madagascar. We also aimed to characterize patients hospitalized with stroke. Methods We registered socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, and early out...

  3. Role of targeted policies in mainstreaming renewable energy in a resource constrained electricity system: A case study of Karnataka electricity system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrutha, A.A.; Balachandra, P.; Mathirajan, M.

    2017-01-01

    India is aggressively pursuing its renewable energy capacity expansion goals. Targeted policies such as Feed-in Tariff (FIT), Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) and Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are introduced to stimulate renewable energy capacity expansion as well as generation. Currently, Indian power utilities treat RPO targets as a cost-burden, and therefore there is prevalence of non-compliance. Even other policies, such as FIT and RECs, in their present form, have failed to influence increase in renewable electricity supply. This has lead us to raise an important question whether these policies are adequate for building a cost-effective renewable energy-based low carbon electricity system for India. In this paper, we discuss the impact of above targeted policies in increasing the share of renewable electricity generation in the case of Karnataka State Electricity System. Various scenarios are developed and analysed using mixed-integer programming model to study the impacts. The results suggest that optimally managed FIT and REC schemes can provide opportunities for utilities to benefit from reduced costs. Overall, the above policies are inadequate, and introduction of market-based incentives, which expand the scope of trading in renewable energy certificates, are essential to achieve the desired objectives. - Highlights: • Analysing impacts of targeted energy policies in increasing renewable electricity share. • Scenario analyses are used to study impact on costs, targets, shortages and compliance. • Current policies are inadequate to ensure renewable energy utilization beyond targets. • Policies are necessary to incentivise compliance and penalise non-compliance.

  4. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav V. Sampangi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG, and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  5. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampangi, Raghav V; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2015-09-15

    Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  6. Node Discovery and Interpretation in Unstructured Resource-Constrained Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gechev, Miroslav; Kasabova, Slavyana; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2014-01-01

    A main characteristic of the Internet of Things networks is the large number of resource-constrained nodes, which, however, are required to perform reliable and fast data exchange; often of critical nature; over highly unpredictable and dynamic connections and network topologies. Reducing...... the number of message exchanges and retransmission of data, while guaranteeing the lifetime of the data session duration as per service requirements are vital for enabling scenarios such as smart home, intelligent transportation systems, eHealth, etc. This paper proposes a novel theoretical model...

  7. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  8. Georgia: natural energy resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chomakhidze, Demur

    2007-01-01

    This article examines Georgia's natural fuel and energy resources (FER), both conventional (hydropower, oil, gas, coal) and non-conventional (alternative). Special attention is paid to hydropower and to alternative energy sources. The author assesses the current level of their development in the republic.

  9. Stroke in a resource-constrained hospital in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenumgård, Pål Sigurd; Rakotondranaivo, Miadana Joshua; Sletvold, Olav; Follestad, Turid; Ellekjær, Hanne

    2017-07-24

    Stroke is reported as the most frequent cause of in-hospital death in Madagascar. However, no descriptive data on hospitalized stroke patients in the country have been published. In the present study, we sought to investigate the feasibility of collecting data on stroke patients in a resource-constrained hospital in Madagascar. We also aimed to characterize patients hospitalized with stroke. We registered socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, and early outcomes of patients admitted for stroke between 23 September 2014 and 3 December 2014. We used several validated scales for the evaluation. Stroke severity was measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), disability by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and function by the Barthel Index (BI). We studied 30 patients. Sixteen were males. The median age was 62.5 years (IQR 58-67). The NIHSS and mRS were completed for all of the patients, and BI was used for the survivors. Three patients received a computed tomography (CT) brain scan. The access to laboratory investigations was limited. Electrocardiographs (ECGs) were not performed. The median NIHSS score was 16.5 (IQR 10-35). The in-hospital stroke mortality was 30%. At discharge, the median mRS score was 5 (IQR 4-6), and the median BI score was 45 (IQR 0-72.5). Although the access to brain imaging and supporting investigations was deficient, this small-scale study suggests that it is feasible to collect essential data on stroke patients in a resource-constrained hospital in Madagascar. Such data should be useful for improving stroke services and planning further research. The hospitalized stroke patients had severe symptoms. The in-hospital stroke mortality was high. At discharge, the disability category was high, and functional status low.

  10. Infertility in resource-constrained settings: moving towards amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Kirkman, Maggie

    2013-02-01

    It is often presumed that infertility is not a problem in resource-poor areas where fertility rates are high. This is challenged by consistent evidence that the consequences of childlessness are very severe in low-income countries, particularly for women. In these settings, childless women are frequently stigmatized, isolated, ostracized, disinherited and neglected by the family and local community. This may result in physical and psychological abuse, polygamy and even suicide. Attitudes among people in high-income countries towards provision of infertility care in low-income countries have mostly been either dismissive or indifferent as it is argued that scarce healthcare resources should be directed towards reducing fertility and restricting population growth. However, recognition of the plight of infertile couples in low-income settings is growing. One of the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals was for universal access to reproductive health care by 2015, and WHO has recommended that infertility be considered a global health problem and stated the need for adaptation of assisted reproductive technology in low-resource countries. This paper challenges the construct that infertility is not a serious problem in resource-constrained settings and argues that there is a need for infertility care, including affordable assisted reproduction treatment, in these settings. It is often presumed that infertility is not a problem in densely populated, resource-poor areas where fertility rates are high. This presumption is challenged by consistent evidence that the consequences of childlessness are very severe in low-income countries, particularly for women. In these settings, childless women are frequently stigmatized, isolated, ostracized, disinherited and neglected by the family and local community. This may result in physical and psychological abuse, polygamy and even suicide. Because many families in low-income countries depend on children for economic survival

  11. A Multiagent Evolutionary Algorithm for the Resource-Constrained Project Portfolio Selection and Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi Shou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiagent evolutionary algorithm is proposed to solve the resource-constrained project portfolio selection and scheduling problem. The proposed algorithm has a dual level structure. In the upper level a set of agents make decisions to select appropriate project portfolios. Each agent selects its project portfolio independently. The neighborhood competition operator and self-learning operator are designed to improve the agent’s energy, that is, the portfolio profit. In the lower level the selected projects are scheduled simultaneously and completion times are computed to estimate the expected portfolio profit. A priority rule-based heuristic is used by each agent to solve the multiproject scheduling problem. A set of instances were generated systematically from the widely used Patterson set. Computational experiments confirmed that the proposed evolutionary algorithm is effective for the resource-constrained project portfolio selection and scheduling problem.

  12. Drilling for energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Drilling is integral to the exploration, development, and production of most energy resources. Oil and natural gas, which are dependent on drilling technology, together account for about 77% of the energy sources consumed in the US. Thus, the limitations of current drilling technology also restrict the rate at which new energy supplies can be found, extracted, and brought to the marketplace. The purpose of the study reported was to examine current drilling technology, suggest areas where additional research and development (R and D) might significantly increase drilling rates and capabilities, and suggest a strategy for improving drilling technology. An overview is provided of the US drilling industry. The drilling equipment and techniques now used for finding and recovering oil, natural gas, coal, shale oil, nuclear fuels, and geothermal energy are described. Although by no means exhaustive, these descriptions provide the background necessary to adequately understand the problems inherent in attempts to increase instantaneous and overall drilling rates.

  13. Energy and other resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenqvist, I.Th.

    It is pointed out that inorganic mineral raw materials, usually called ores, do not form a separate geological class, with a strictly defined limit in quantity. The raw materials are in fact present in continuously variable concentrations and amounts with differing geographical distribution. It is only the richest occurrences which are regarded as resources and exploited. The cone concept of available material is presented, where the amount of material available increases as the work invested is increased, but the profitable ore is represented only by the apex of the cone. In applying this idea to fossil fuels the concept must be modified to a 'pear', since the energy invested in retrieving the fuel must not exceed the energy content of the fuel. Renewable energy sources are also discussed, and it is pointed out that geothermal energy should not be regarded as renewable. It is pointed out, too, that, unless breeder reactors are introduced, the fossil fuel resources will give more energy than uranium, and probably cheaper. (JIW)Ψ

  14. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO 2 , to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  15. Fast Energy Minimization of large Polymers Using Constrained Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd D. Plantenga

    1998-10-01

    A new computational technique is described that uses distance constraints to calculate empirical potential energy minima of partially rigid molecules. A constrained minimuzation algorithm that works entirely in Cartesian coordinates is used. The algorithm does not obey the constraints until convergence, a feature that reduces ill-conditioning and allows constrained local minima to be computed more quickly than unconstrained minima. Computational speedup exceeds the 3-fold factor commonly obtained in constained molecular dynamics simulations, where the constraints must be strictly obeyed at all times.

  16. Assessment of rural energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity

  17. Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF) is a working laboratory for interconnection and systems integration testing. This state-of-the-art facility...

  18. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  19. Economic Assessment of Network-Constrained Transactive Energy for Managing Flexible Demand in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Xue, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of distributed energy resources such as electric vehicles and heat pumps connected to power systems raises operational challenges to the network operator, for example, introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level if their operations...... method in the system, given the high penetration of distributed energy resources. This paper firstly describes the NCTE-based distribution system that introduces a new interacting scheme for actors at the distribution system level. Then, technical modeling and economic interpretation of the NCTE...... are not properly coordinated. Coordination and control of a large number of distributed energy resources requires innovative approaches. In this paper, we follow up on a recently proposed network-constrained transactive energy (NCTE) method for scheduling of electric vehicles and heat pumps within a retailer...

  20. 2007 Survey of Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC study is a unique comprehensive compilation of global energy resources. Complementing the BP Statistical Review and the World Energy Outlook, it details 16 key energy resources with the latest data provided by 96 WEC Member Committees worldwide. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, NGOs, industry, academia and the finance community. This 21st edition is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy.

  1. Regional renewable energy and resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Hon Loong; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of the energy potential in biomass in a specific geographical region is frequently constrained by high production costs and the amount of land required per unit of energy generated. In addition, the distributed nature of the biomass resource and its normally low energy density may result in large transportation costs. Biomass also requires large land areas to collect and process the incoming solar radiation before the energy can be harvested. Previously published works on regional energy clustering (REC) and the Regional Resources Management Composite Curve, RRMCC (in this paper shortened to RMC), have been extended in this paper to tackle simultaneously the issues of the biomass supply chain, transportation, and land use. The RMC is a tool for supporting decision making in regional resource management. It provides a complete view of energy and land availability in a region, displaying their trade-offs in a single plot. The extension presented in this work has been developed in two steps. The first step presents the Regional Energy Cascade Analysis, which estimates the energy target within regional supply chains and provides the result for energy exchange flows between zones, the quantity of energy required to be imported/exported, and the locations of the demands. In the second step, the initial results are analysed against potential measures for improving the energy and land use targets by using the RMC and a set of rules for its manipulation. The presented method provides the option to assess the priorities: either to produce and sell the surplus energy on the fuel market or use the land for other purposes such as food production. This extended approach is illustrated with a comprehensive case study demonstrating that with the RMC application it is possible to maximise the land use and to maximise the biofuel production for the requested energy demand. (author)

  2. WG-8: A Lightweight Stream Cipher for Resource-Constrained Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight cryptographic primitives are essential for securing pervasive embedded devices like RFID tags, smart cards, and wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, we present a lightweight stream cipher WG-8, which is tailored from the well-known Welch-Gong (WG stream cipher family, for resource-constrained devices. WG-8 inherits the good randomness and cryptographic properties of the WG stream cipher family and is resistant to the most common attacks against stream ciphers. The software implementations of the WG-8 stream cipher on two popular low-power microcontrollers as well as the extensive comparison with other lightweight cryptography implementations highlight that in the context of securing lightweight embedded applications WG-8 has favorable performance and low energy consumption.

  3. Energy and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This book presents data and other information for those who desire an understanding of the relationship between water and energy development. The book is not a tract for a grand plan. It does not present solutions. Many of the issues, especially regarding conflict over water allocations and use, are controlled and reconciled at the state level. This report draws together some of the physical and institutional data useful for identifying and understanding water issues which rise in regard to the various aspects of energy development. Three basic water-energy areas are considered in this report: water quality, water supply, and their institutional framework. Water consumption by energy was three percent of the nation's total consumption in 1975, not a large proportion. It is projected to increase to six percent by 2000. Water consumption rates by the energy technologies addressed in this document are tabulated. Water pollutant loadings expected from these technologies are summarized. Finally, a summary of water-related legislation which have particular ramifications in regard to the production of energy is presented

  4. ENERGY RESOURCES CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, Virginia

    1979-11-01

    First I will give a short history of this Center which has had three names and three moves (and one more in the offing) in three years. Then I will tell you about the accomplishments made in the past year. And last, I will discuss what has been learned and what is planned for the future. The Energy and Environment Information Center (EEIC), as it was first known, was organized in August 1975 in San Francisco as a cooperative venture by the Federal Energy Administration (FEA), Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These three agencies planned this effort to assist the public in obtaining information about energy and the environmental aspects of energy. The Public Affairs Offices of FEA, ERDA and EPA initiated the idea of the Center. One member from each agency worked at the Center, with assistance from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Information Research Group (LBL IRG) and with on-site help from the EPA Library. The Center was set up in a corner of the EPA Library. FEA and ERDA each contributed one staff member on a rotating basis to cover the daily operation of the Center and money for books and periodicals. EPA contributed space, staff time for ordering, processing and indexing publications, and additional money for acquisitions. The LBL Information Research Group received funds from ERDA on a 189 FY 1976 research project to assist in the development of the Center as a model for future energy centers.

  5. Worker flexibility in a parallel dual resource constrained job shop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, H.; Slomp, J.; Molleman, E.; van der Zee, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate cross-training policies in a dual resource constraint (DRC) parallel job shop where new part types are frequently introduced into the system. Each new part type introduction induces the need for workers to go through a learning curve. A cross-training policy relates to

  6. Constraining viscous dark energy models with the latest cosmological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Yan, Yang-Jie; Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-10-15

    Based on the assumption that the dark energy possessing bulk viscosity is homogeneously and isotropically permeated in the universe, we propose three new viscous dark energy (VDE) models to characterize the accelerating universe. By constraining these three models with the latest cosmological observations, we find that they just deviate very slightly from the standard cosmological model and can alleviate effectively the current H{sub 0} tension between the local observation by the Hubble Space Telescope and the global measurement by the Planck Satellite. Interestingly, we conclude that a spatially flat universe in our VDE model with cosmic curvature is still supported by current data, and the scale invariant primordial power spectrum is strongly excluded at least at the 5.5σ confidence level in the three VDE models as the Planck result. We also give the 95% upper limits of the typical bulk viscosity parameter η in the three VDE scenarios. (orig.)

  7. Traversable geometric dark energy wormholes constrained by astrophysical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-he [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, State Key Lab of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, we introduce the astrophysical observations into the wormhole research. We investigate the evolution behavior of the dark energy equation of state parameter ω by constraining the dark energy model, so that we can determine in which stage of the universe wormholes can exist by using the condition ω < -1. As a concrete instance, we study the Ricci dark energy (RDE) traversable wormholes constrained by astrophysical observations. Particularly, we find from Fig. 5 of this work, when the effective equation of state parameter ω{sub X} < -1 (or z < 0.109), i.e., the null energy condition (NEC) is violated clearly, the wormholes will exist (open). Subsequently, six specific solutions of statically and spherically symmetric traversable wormhole supported by the RDE fluids are obtained. Except for the case of a constant redshift function, where the solution is not only asymptotically flat but also traversable, the five remaining solutions are all non-asymptotically flat, therefore, the exotic matter from the RDE fluids is spatially distributed in the vicinity of the throat. Furthermore, we analyze the physical characteristics and properties of the RDE traversable wormholes. It is worth noting that, using the astrophysical observations, we obtain the constraints on the parameters of the RDE model, explore the types of exotic RDE fluids in different stages of the universe, limit the number of available models for wormhole research, reduce theoretically the number of the wormholes corresponding to different parameters for the RDE model, and provide a clearer picture for wormhole investigations from the new perspective of observational cosmology. (orig.)

  8. Energy Resource Planning. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miclescu, T.; Domschke, W.; Bazacliu, G.; Dumbrava, V.

    1996-01-01

    For a thermal power plants system, the primary energy resources cost constitutes a significant percentage of the total system operational cost. Therefore a small percentage saving in primary energy resource allocation cost for a long term, often turns out to be a significant monetary value. In recent years, with a rapidly changing fuel supply situation, including the impact of energy policies changing, this area has become extremely sensitive. Natural gas availability has been restricted in many areas, coal production and transportation cost have risen while productivity has decreased, oil imports have increased and refinery capacity failed to meet demand. The paper presents a mathematical model and a practical procedure to solve the primary energy resource allocation. The objectives is to minimise the total energy cost over the planning period subject to constraints with regards to primary energy resource, transportation and energy consumption. Various aspects of the proposed approach are discussed, and its application to a power system is illustrated.(author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  9. Energy transfer and constrained simulations in isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Javier

    1993-01-01

    The defining characteristic of turbulent flows is their ability to dissipate energy, even in the limit of zero viscosity. The Euler equations, if constrained in such a way that the velocity derivatives remain bounded, conserve energy. But when they arise as the limit of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, when the Reynolds number goes to infinity, there is persuasive empirical evidence that the gradients become singular as just the right function of Re for the dissipation to remain non-zero and to approach a well defined limit. It is generally believed that this limiting value of the dissipation is a property of the Euler equations themselves, independent of the particular dissipative mechanism involved, and that it can be normalized with the large scale properties of the turbulent flow (e.g. the kinetic energy per unit volume u'(exp 2)/2, and the integral scale L) without reference to the Reynolds number or to other dissipative quantities. This is usually taken to imply that the low wave number end of the energy spectrum, far from the dissipative range, is also independent of the particular mechanism chosen to dispose of the energy transfer. In the following sections, we present some numerical experiments on the effect of substituting different dissipation models into the truncated Euler equations. We will see that the effect is mainly felt in the 'near dissipation' range of the energy spectrum, but that this range can be quite wide in some cases, contaminating a substantial range of wave numbers. In the process, we will develop a 'practical' approximation to the subgrid energy transfer in isotropic turbulence, and we will gain insight into the structure of the nonlinear interactions among turbulent scales of comparable size, and into the nature of energy backscatter. Some considerations on future research directions are offered at the end.

  10. Reinforcement Learning for Constrained Energy Trading Games With Incomplete Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiwei; Huang, Tingwen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Chen, Guo

    2017-10-01

    This paper considers the problem of designing adaptive learning algorithms to seek the Nash equilibrium (NE) of the constrained energy trading game among individually strategic players with incomplete information. In this game, each player uses the learning automaton scheme to generate the action probability distribution based on his/her private information for maximizing his own averaged utility. It is shown that if one of admissible mixed-strategies converges to the NE with probability one, then the averaged utility and trading quantity almost surely converge to their expected ones, respectively. For the given discontinuous pricing function, the utility function has already been proved to be upper semicontinuous and payoff secure which guarantee the existence of the mixed-strategy NE. By the strict diagonal concavity of the regularized Lagrange function, the uniqueness of NE is also guaranteed. Finally, an adaptive learning algorithm is provided to generate the strategy probability distribution for seeking the mixed-strategy NE.

  11. Titan TTCN-3 Based Test Framework for Resource Constrained Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushev Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication systems more and more become part of our daily live. Especially with the Internet of Things (IoT the overall connectivity increases rapidly since everyday objects become part of the global network. For this purpose several new wireless protocols have arisen, whereas 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks can be seen as one of the most important protocols within this sector. Originally designed on top of the IEEE802.15.4 standard it is a subject to various adaptions that will allow to use 6LoWPAN over different technologies; e.g. DECT Ultra Low Energy (ULE. Although this high connectivity offers a lot of new possibilities, there are several requirements and pitfalls coming along with such new systems. With an increasing number of connected devices the interoperability between different providers is one of the biggest challenges, which makes it necessary to verify the functionality and stability of the devices and the network. Therefore testing becomes one of the key components that decides on success or failure of such a system. Although there are several protocol implementations commonly available; e.g., for IoT based systems, there is still a lack of according tools and environments as well as for functional and conformance testing. This article describes the architecture and functioning of the proposed test framework based on Testing and Test Control Notation Version 3 (TTCN-3 for 6LoWPAN over ULE networks.

  12. Constraining Agricultural Irrigation Surface Energy Budget Feedbacks in Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufforth, M. E.; Desai, A. R.; Suyker, A.

    2017-12-01

    The expansion and modernization of irrigation increased the relevance of knowing the effects it has on regional weather and climate feedbacks. We conducted a set of observationally-constrained simulations determining the result irrigation exhibits on the surface energy budget, the atmospheric boundary layer, and regional precipitation feedbacks. Eddy covariance flux tower observations were analyzed from two irrigated and one rain-fed corn/soybean rotation sites located near Mead, Nebraska. The evaluated time period covered the summer growing months of June, July, and August (JJA) during the years when corn grew at all three sites. As a product of higher continuous surface moisture availability, the irrigated crops had significantly higher amounts of energy partitioned towards latent heating than the non-irrigated site. The daily average peak of latent heating at the rain-fed site occurred before the irrigated sites and was approximately 45 W/m2 lower. Land surface models were evaluated on their ability to reproduce these effects, including those used in numerical weather prediction and those used in agricultural carbon cycle projection. Model structure, mechanisms, and parameters that best represent irrigation-surface energy impacts will be compared and discussed.

  13. On energy efficient power allocation for power-constrained systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the energy efficiency (EE) has become an important factor when designing new wireless communication systems. Due to economic and environmental challenges, new trends and efforts are oriented toward “green” communication especially for energy-constrained applications such as wireless sensors network and cognitive radio. To this end, we analyze the power allocation scheme that maximizes the EE defined as rate over the total power including circuit power. We derive an explicit expression of the optimal power with instantaneous channel gain based on EE criterion. We show that the relation between the EE and the spectral efficiency (SE) when the optimal power is adopted is strictly increasing in contrast with the SE-EE trade-off discussed in the literature. We also solve a non-convex problem and compute explicitly the optimal power for ergodic EE under either a peak or an average power constraint. When the instantaneous channel is not available, we provide the optimal power equation and compute simple sub-optimal power. In the numerical results, we show that the sup-optimal solution is very close to the optimal solution. In addition, we show that the absence of the channel state information (CSI) only affects the EE and the SE performances at high power regime compared to the full CSI case.

  14. HotpathVM: An Effective JIT for Resource-constrained Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Franz, Michael; Probst, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We present a just-in-time compiler for a Java VM that is small enough to fit on resource-constrained devices, yet surprisingly effective. Our system dynamically identifies traces of frequently executed bytecode instructions (which may span several basic blocks across several methods) and compiles...

  15. Cross-training workers in dual resource constrained systems with heterogeneous processing times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, J. A. C.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the effect of cross-training workers in Dual Resource Constrained (DRC) systems with machines having different mean processing times. By means of queuing and simulation analysis, we show that the detrimental effects of pooling (cross-training) previously found in single

  16. Point-of-care diagnostic tools : Selection, evaluation and implementation in resource-constrained settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosack, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    In recent year’s point-of-care diagnostic tools especially for the three main killer diseases HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria have been emerging on the market. This thesis examines the selection, evaluation and implementation of point-of-care diagnostic tools for use in resource-constrained

  17. Managing pressures ulcers in a resource constrained situation: A holistic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Dam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing pressure ulcers remain a challenge and call for a multidisciplinary team approach to care. Even more daunting is the management of such patients in remote locations and in resource constrained situations. The management of pressure sores in a patient with progressive muscular atrophy has been discussed using resources that were locally available, accessible, and affordable. Community participation was encouraged. A holistic approach to care was adopted.

  18. Evaluation of Reliability in Risk-Constrained Scheduling of Autonomous Microgrids with Demand Response and Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    is presented to maximize the expected profit of a microgrid operator under uncertainties of renewable resources, demand load and electricity price. In the proposed model, the trade-off between maximizing the operator’s expected profit and the risk of getting low profits in undesired scenarios is modeled......Uncertain natures of the renewable energy resources and consumers’ participation in demand response (DR) programs have introduced new challenges to the energy and reserve scheduling of microgrids, particularly in the autonomous mode. In this paper, a risk-constrained stochastic framework...... by using conditional value at risk (CVaR) method. The influence of consumers’ participation in DR programs and their emergency load shedding for different values of lost load (VOLL) are then investigated on the expected profit of operator, CVaR, expected energy not served (EENS) and scheduled reserves...

  19. Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    This is a presentation on interconnection of distributed energy resources, including the relationships between different aspects of interconnection, best practices and lessons learned from different areas of the U.S., and an update on technical advances and standards for interconnection.

  20. Constraining the interacting dark energy models from weak gravity conjecture and recent observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ximing; Wang Bin; Pan Nana; Gong Yungui

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effectiveness of the weak gravity conjecture in constraining the dark energy by comparing with observations. For general dark energy models with plausible phenomenological interactions between dark sectors, we find that although the weak gravity conjecture can constrain the dark energy, the constraint is looser than that from the observations.

  1. The effect of constrained communication and limited information in governing a common resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Janssen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Allowing resource users to communicate in behavioural experiments on commons dilemmas increases the level of cooperation. In actual common pool resource dilemmas in the real world, communication is costly, which is an important detail missing from most typical experiments. We conducted experiments where participants must give up harvesting opportunities to communicate. The constrained communication treatment is compared with the effect of limited information about the state of the resource and the actions of the other participants. We find that despite making communication costly, performance of groups improves in all treatments with communication. We also find that constraining communication has a more significant effect than limiting information on the performance of groups.

  2. A field theory description of constrained energy-dissipation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandzhavidze, I.D.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    A field theory description of dissipation processes constrained by a high-symmetry group is given. The formalism is presented in the example of the multiple-hadron production processes, where the transition to the thermodynamic equilibrium results from the kinetic energy of colliding particles dissipating into hadron masses. The dynamics of these processes is restricted because the constraints responsible for the colour charge confinement must be taken into account. We develop a more general S-matrix formulation of the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium dissipative processes and find a necessary and sufficient condition for the validity of this description; this condition is similar to the correlation relaxation condition, which, according to Bogolyubov, must apply as the system approaches equilibrium. This situation must physically occur in processes with an extremely high multiplicity, at least if the hadron mass is nonzero. We also describe a new strong-coupling perturbation scheme, which is useful for taking symmetry restrictions on the dynamics of dissipation processes into account. We review the literature devoted to this problem

  3. Economic Assessment of Network-Constrained Transactive Energy for Managing Flexible Demand in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of distributed energy resources such as electric vehicles and heat pumps connected to power systems raises operational challenges to the network operator, for example, introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level if their operations are not properly coordinated. Coordination and control of a large number of distributed energy resources requires innovative approaches. In this paper, we follow up on a recently proposed network-constrained transactive energy (NCTE method for scheduling of electric vehicles and heat pumps within a retailer’s aggregation at distribution system level. We extend this method with: (1 a new modeling technique that allows the resulting congestion price to be directly interpreted as a locational marginal pricing in the system; (2 an explicit analysis of the benefits and costs of different actors when using the NCTE method in the system, given the high penetration of distributed energy resources. This paper firstly describes the NCTE-based distribution system that introduces a new interacting scheme for actors at the distribution system level. Then, technical modeling and economic interpretation of the NCTE-based distribution system are described. Finally, we show the benefits and costs of different actors within the NCTE-based distribution system.

  4. Light, nutrients, and food-chain length constrain planktonic energy transfer efficiency across multiple trophic levels

    OpenAIRE

    Dickman, Elizabeth M.; Newell, Jennifer M.; González, María J.; Vanni, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of energy transfer through food chains [food chain efficiency (FCE)] is an important ecosystem function. It has been hypothesized that FCE across multiple trophic levels is constrained by the efficiency at which herbivores use plant energy, which depends on plant nutritional quality. Furthermore, the number of trophic levels may also constrain FCE, because herbivores are less efficient in using plant production when they are constrained by carnivores. These hypotheses have not ...

  5. LiteNet: Lightweight Neural Network for Detecting Arrhythmias at Resource-Constrained Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ziyang; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Cao, Yangjie; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2018-04-17

    By running applications and services closer to the user, edge processing provides many advantages, such as short response time and reduced network traffic. Deep-learning based algorithms provide significantly better performances than traditional algorithms in many fields but demand more resources, such as higher computational power and more memory. Hence, designing deep learning algorithms that are more suitable for resource-constrained mobile devices is vital. In this paper, we build a lightweight neural network, termed LiteNet which uses a deep learning algorithm design to diagnose arrhythmias, as an example to show how we design deep learning schemes for resource-constrained mobile devices. Compare to other deep learning models with an equivalent accuracy, LiteNet has several advantages. It requires less memory, incurs lower computational cost, and is more feasible for deployment on resource-constrained mobile devices. It can be trained faster than other neural network algorithms and requires less communication across different processing units during distributed training. It uses filters of heterogeneous size in a convolutional layer, which contributes to the generation of various feature maps. The algorithm was tested using the MIT-BIH electrocardiogram (ECG) arrhythmia database; the results showed that LiteNet outperforms comparable schemes in diagnosing arrhythmias, and in its feasibility for use at the mobile devices.

  6. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-02-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  7. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  8. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  9. The Combinatorial Multi-Mode Resource Constrained Multi-Project Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Pinha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the formulation and solution of the Combinatorial Multi-Mode Resource Constrained Multi-Project Scheduling Problem. The focus of the proposed method is not on finding a single optimal solution, instead on presenting multiple feasible solutions, with cost and duration information to the project manager. The motivation for developing such an approach is due in part to practical situations where the definition of optimal changes on a regular basis. The proposed approach empowers the project manager to determine what is optimal, on a given day, under the current constraints, such as, change of priorities, lack of skilled worker. The proposed method utilizes a simulation approach to determine feasible solutions, under the current constraints. Resources can be non-consumable, consumable, or doubly constrained. The paper also presents a real-life case study dealing with scheduling of ship repair activities.

  10. Analysis of multi cloud storage applications for resource constrained mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage, which can be a surrogate for all physical hardware storage devices, is a term which gives a reflection of an enormous advancement in engineering (Hung et al., 2012. However, there are many issues that need to be handled when accessing cloud storage on resource constrained mobile devices due to inherent limitations of mobile devices as limited storage capacity, processing power and battery backup (Yeo et al., 2014. There are many multi cloud storage applications available, which handle issues faced by single cloud storage applications. In this paper, we are providing analysis of different multi cloud storage applications developed for resource constrained mobile devices to check their performance on the basis of parameters as battery consumption, CPU usage, data usage and time consumed by using mobile phone device Sony Xperia ZL (smart phone on WiFi network. Lastly, conclusion and open research challenges in these multi cloud storage apps are discussed.

  11. High-level Programming and Symbolic Reasoning on IoT Resource Constrained Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sal vatore Gaglio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While the vision of Internet of Things (IoT is rather inspiring, its practical implementation remains challenging. Conventional programming approaches prove unsuitable to provide IoT resource constrained devices with the distributed processing capabilities required to implement intelligent, autonomic, and self-organizing behaviors. In our previous work, we had already proposed an alternative programming methodology for such systems that is characterized by high-level programming and symbolic expressions evaluation, and developed a lightweight middleware to support it. Our approach allows for interactive programming of deployed nodes, and it is based on the simple but e ective paradigm of executable code exchange among nodes. In this paper, we show how our methodology can be used to provide IoT resource constrained devices with reasoning abilities by implementing a Fuzzy Logic symbolic extension on deployed nodes at runtime.

  12. A study of the Bienstock-Zuckerberg algorithm, Applications in Mining and Resource Constrained Project Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Espinoza, Daniel; Goycoolea, Marcos; Moreno, Eduardo; Queyranne, Maurice; Rivera, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    We study a Lagrangian decomposition algorithm recently proposed by Dan Bienstock and Mark Zuckerberg for solving the LP relaxation of a class of open pit mine project scheduling problems. In this study we show that the Bienstock-Zuckerberg (BZ) algorithm can be used to solve LP relaxations corresponding to a much broader class of scheduling problems, including the well-known Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP), and multi-modal variants of the RCPSP that consider batch proc...

  13. Sustainable development and energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steeg, H.

    2000-01-01

    (a) The paper describes the substance and content of sustainability as well as the elements, which determine the objective. Sustainability is high on national and international political agendas. The objective is of a long term nature. The focus of the paper is on hydrocarbon emissions (CO 2 ); (b) International approaches and policies are addressed such as the Climate change convention and the Kyoto protocol. The burden for change on the energy sector to achieve sustainability is very large in particular for OECD countries and those of central and Eastern Europe. Scepticism is expresses whether the goals of the protocol and be reached within the foreseen timeframe although governments and industry are active in improving sustainability; (c) Future Trends of demand and supply examines briefly the growth in primary energy demand as well as the reserve situation for oil, gas and coal. Renewable energy resources are also assessed in regard to their future potential, which is not sufficient to replace hydrocarbons soon. Nuclear power although not emitting CO 2 is faced with grave acceptability reactions. Nevertheless sustainability is not threatened by lack of resources; (d) Energy efficiency and new technologies are examined vis-a-vis their contribution to sustainability as well as a warning to overestimate soon results for market penetration; (e) The impact of liberalization of energy sectors play an important role. The message is not to revert back to command and control economies but rather use the driving force of competition. It does not mean to renounce government energy policies but to change their radius to more market oriented approaches; (f) Conclusions centre on the plea that all options should be available without emotional and politicized prejudices. (author)

  14. Sustainable development and energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steeg, H

    2002-01-01

    (a) The paper describes the substance and content of sustainability as well as the elements, which determine the objective. Sustainability is high on national and international political agendas. The objective is of a long term nature. The focus of the paper is on hydrocarbon emissions (CO 2 ); (b) International approaches and policies are addressed such as the climate change convention and the Kyoto protocol. The burden for change on the energy sector to achieve sustainability is very large in particular for OECD countries and those of central and Eastern Europe. Scepticism is expresses whether the goals of the protocol and be reached within the foreseen timeframe although governments and industry are active in improving sustainability; (c) Future trends of demand and supply examines briefly the growth in primary energy demand as well as the reserve situation for oil, gas and coal. Renewable energy resources are also assessed in regard to their future potential, which is not sufficient to replace hydrocarbons soon. Nuclear power although not emitting CO 2 is faced with grave acceptability reactions. Nevertheless sustainability is not threatened by lack of resources; (d) Energy efficiency and new technologies are examined vis-a-vis their contribution to sustainability as well as a warning to overestimate soon results for market penetration; (e) The impact of liberalization of energy sectors play an important role. The message is not to revert back to command and control economies but rather use the driving force of competition. It does not mean to renounce government energy policies but to change their radius to more market oriented approaches; (f) Conclusions centre on the plea that all options should be available without emotional and politicized prejudices. (author)

  15. Resource area environment/energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document comprises a detailed analysis of the business economics of resources related to energy and the environment. Non-domestic and domestic conditions influencing the business economics of this subject area, its infrastructure, problems and future perspectives are dealt with. Tables (amongst other forms of information) indicate the turnover, exports, and numbers of involved employees, workplaces and firms involved in supply, general production, consultancy and production connected with the building sector. The energy sector is the most significant in this respect, giving 30,000 employed (18% in state institutions), a turnover of 63 billion Danish kroner, and with an export of 16 billion Danish kroner. The environmental sector employs 15,000 (29% in the public sector), the total turnover is 20 billion Danish kroner and of this 3 billion Danish kroner is related to export. Many firms are relatively small. A number of firms could compete internationally and this number is growing. (AB) (79 refs.)

  16. Performance evaluation of Grain family and Espresso ciphers for applications on resource constrained devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhrajyoti Deb

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A secure stream cipher is an effective security solution for applications running on resource-constrained devices. The Grain family of stream ciphers (Grain v1, Grain-128, and Grain-128a is a family of stream ciphers designed for low-end devices. Similarly, Espresso is a lightweight stream cipher that was developed recently for 5G wireless mobile communication. The randomness of the keystream produced by a stream cipher is a good indicator of its security strength. In this study, we have analyzed the randomness properties of the keystreams produced by both the Grain Family and Espresso ciphers using the statistical packages DieHarder and NIST STS. We also analyzed their performances in two constrained devices (ATmega328P and ESP8266 based on three attainable parameters, namely computation time, memory, and power consumption.

  17. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; McCarthy, E.

    2001-03-06

    This report contains the results of a wind resource analysis and mapping study for the Philippine archipelago. The study's objective was to identify potential wind resource areas and quantify the value of those resources within those areas. The wind resource maps and other wind resource characteristic information will be used to identify prospective areas for wind-energy applications.

  18. Fossil energy resources and availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellmer, F.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffkunde, Hannover (Germany); Barthel, F.; Hiller, K.

    2000-07-01

    World-wide consumption of hydrocarbons, coal and uranium presently amounts to about 13 Gt coal equivalent (tce) or c. 9 Gt oil equivalent (toe). According to predictions of the World Energy Council in 1998 world energy consumption will increase to around 17 to 19 Gtce in 2050. The present demand is meet to c. 45% by crude oil, c. 27% by coal, c. 21% by natural gas, and c. 7% by nuclear fuel. It is assumed that in the future the global consumption pattern will not change in principle, however regional variations may evolve. Especially renewable energy may increase its share from its present low percentage and the future role of nuclear power may decrease in certain areas. Assuming a 'business as usual' scenario of the global energy consumption demand for crude oil would increase from presently c. 3.8 Gtoe annually to c. 5 Gtoe in 2010 and possibly to 6 Gtoe in 2020. Global coal consumption is expected to rise from 3.3 Gtce to c. 4 Gtce in 2010 and natural gas from 2.3 G m{sup 3} to around 4 G m{sup 3} in the said period. The future contribution of nuclear power is uncertain due to low public acceptance in several countries. Therefore uranium demand may increase from presently 61,500 tU annually to 73,000 tU in 2010 or may decrease to about 60,000 tU. The present and future availability of the individual energy resources will be examined. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of the Applicability of HTML5 for Mobile Applications in Resource-Constrained Edge Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation of the Applicability of HTML5 for Mobile Applications in Resource- Constrained Edge Environments Bryan Yan Grace A. Lewis July...i Table of Contents Abstract vii 1 Introduction 1 2 Background 2 2.1 Edge Applications 2 2.2 HTML5 Mobile Applications 3 2.3 Web Application...Bridging Frameworks 3 3 Initial Evaluation: HTML5 5 3.1 Geolocation 6 3.2 Wi-Fi Communication 6 3.3 Bluetooth Communication 9 3.4 Background

  20. A Comparative Study for Orthogonal Subspace Projection and Constrained Energy Minimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Du, Qian; Ren, Hsuan; Chang, Chein-I

    2003-01-01

    ...: orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) and constrained energy minimization (CEM). It is shown that they are closely related and essentially equivalent provided that the noise is white with large SNR...

  1. Robot-Beacon Distributed Range-Only SLAM for Resource-Constrained Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Arturo; Martínez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Ollero, Anibal

    2017-04-20

    This work deals with robot-sensor network cooperation where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for Range-Only (RO) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). Most existing RO-SLAM techniques consider beacons as passive devices disregarding the sensing, computational and communication capabilities with which they are actually endowed. SLAM is a resource-demanding task. Besides the technological constraints of the robot and beacons, many applications impose further resource consumption limitations. This paper presents a scalable distributed RO-SLAM scheme for resource-constrained operation. It is capable of exploiting robot-beacon cooperation in order to improve SLAM accuracy while meeting a given resource consumption bound expressed as the maximum number of measurements that are integrated in SLAM per iteration. The proposed scheme combines a Sparse Extended Information Filter (SEIF) SLAM method, in which each beacon gathers and integrates robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements, and a distributed information-driven measurement allocation tool that dynamically selects the measurements that are integrated in SLAM, balancing uncertainty improvement and resource consumption. The scheme adopts a robot-beacon distributed approach in which each beacon participates in the selection, gathering and integration in SLAM of robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements, resulting in significant estimation accuracies, resource-consumption efficiency and scalability. It has been integrated in an octorotor Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) and evaluated in 3D SLAM outdoor experiments. The experimental results obtained show its performance and robustness and evidence its advantages over existing methods.

  2. Energy Efficient Resource Management in Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient computing has recently become hot research area. Many works have been carried out on conserving energy, but considering energy efficiency in grid computing is few. This paper proposes energy efficient resource management in mobile grid. The objective of energy efficient resource management in mobile grid is to maximize the utility of the mobile grid which is denoted as the sum of grid application utility. The utility function models benefits of application and system. By using nonlinear optimization theory, energy efficient resource management in mobile grid can be formulated as multi objective optimization problem. In order to derive a distributed algorithm to solve global optimization problem in mobile grid, we decompose the problem into the sub problems. The proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm decomposes the optimization problem via iterative method. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulations are conducted to compare proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm with other energy aware scheduling algorithm.

  3. Pre-emptive resource-constrained multimode project scheduling using genetic algorithm: A dynamic forward approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Delgoshaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The issue resource over-allocating is a big concern for project engineers in the process of scheduling project activities. Resource over-allocating drawback is frequently seen after scheduling of a project in practice which causes a schedule to be useless. Modifying an over-allocated schedule is very complicated and needs a lot of efforts and time. In this paper, a new and fast tracking method is proposed to schedule large scale projects which can help project engineers to schedule the project rapidly and with more confidence. Design/methodology/approach: In this article, a forward approach for maximizing net present value (NPV in multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem while assuming discounted positive cash flows (MRCPSP-DCF is proposed. The progress payment method is used and all resources are considered as pre-emptible. The proposed approach maximizes NPV using unscheduled resources through resource calendar in forward mode. For this purpose, a Genetic Algorithm is applied to solve. Findings: The findings show that the proposed method is an effective way to maximize NPV in MRCPSP-DCF problems while activity splitting is allowed. The proposed algorithm is very fast and can schedule experimental cases with 1000 variables and 100 resources in few seconds. The results are then compared with branch and bound method and simulated annealing algorithm and it is found the proposed genetic algorithm can provide results with better quality. Then algorithm is then applied for scheduling a hospital in practice. Originality/value: The method can be used alone or as a macro in Microsoft Office Project® Software to schedule MRCPSP-DCF problems or to modify resource over-allocated activities after scheduling a project. This can help project engineers to schedule project activities rapidly with more accuracy in practice.

  4. AMANDA Observations Constrain the Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halzen, Francis; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    A number of experimental techniques are currently being deployed in an effort to make the first detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos. To accomplish this goal, techniques using radio and acoustic detectors are being developed, which are optimally designed for studying neutrinos with energies in the PeV-EeV range and above. Data from the AMANDA experiment, in contrast, has been used to place limits on the cosmic neutrino flux at less extreme energies (up to {approx}10 PeV). In this letter, we show that by adopting a different analysis strategy, optimized for much higher energy neutrinos, the same AMANDA data can be used to place a limit competitive with radio techniques at EeV energies. We also discuss the sensitivity of the IceCube experiment, in various stages of deployment, to ultra-high energy neutrinos.

  5. EU Energy Policy in a Supply-constrained World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.; Van der Linde, C.

    2008-10-01

    Energy is quickly becoming an issue of integration and disintegration of the EU and will perhaps turn out to be the ultimate litmus test of political and economic unity in the EU, as energy issues are increasingly intertwined with wider security issues on the continent. Very often, economic issues are elevated to the political-strategic level, serving a different agenda than merely contributing to the energy policy agenda of the EU. The challenges to the EU and its member states in the energy sector are many: some issues are part of the wider geopolitical and geo-economic agenda, but some are also the product of the new EU that emerged after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The enlargement with member states that are asymmetrically dependent on oil and gas supplies mainly from Russia has further emphasised the growth of structural energy import dependency. Moreover, the new member states did not have the benefit of introducing the energy 'acquis', i.e. liberalisation, in a period of ample supply and relatively low prices. From 2004 onwards, energy has become tighter and more politicised. It was these developments that also uncovered the calculated risk of the old member states to embark on liberalisation without putting a crisis management policy into place. With the increasing worries about the security of supply and the asymmetric exposure of Eastern Europe to a single supplier, energy security issues also began to dominate the internal policy debates both in energy and in external relations. The new developments require the EU member states to consider how and to what extent their external energy policies should also be merged into a more EU-wide approach, if they can agree on the common risks that need to be averted and the common benefits gained, and if and how a crisis mechanism for fuels other than oil is needed to manage the perceived increased security of supply risks. Moreover, they should also consider the internal market design they set out to implement and

  6. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-07-01

    This wind energy resource atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in the country of Armenia. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. The maps portray the wind resource with high-resolution (1-km2) grids of wind power density at 50-m above ground. The wind maps were created at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using a computerized wind mapping system that uses Geographic Information System (GIS) software.

  7. Constraining the Runaway Dilaton and Quintessential Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ishwaree P.; Trowland, Holly

    Dark energy is some of the weirdest and most mysterious stuff in the universe that tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. Two commonly known forms of dark energy are the cosmological constant, a constant energy density filling space homogeneously, and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli whose energy density can vary with time. We explore one particular model for dynamic dark energy: quintessence driven by a scalar dilaton field. We propose an ansatz for the form of the dilaton field, |ϕ(a)|mP ≡ α1 ln t + α2tn = α ln a + βa2ζ, where a is the scale factor and α and ζ are parameters of the model. This phenomenological ansatz for ϕ can be motivated by generic solutions of a scalar dilaton field in many effective string theory and string-inspired gravity models in four dimensions. Most of the earlier discussions in the literature correspond to the choice that ζ = 0 so that ϕ(t) ∝ ln t or ϕ(t) ∝ ln a(t). Using a compilation of current data including type Ia supernovae, we impose observational constraints on the slope parameters like α and ζ and then discuss the relation of our results to analytical constraints on various cosmological parameters, including the dark energy equation of state. Some useful constraints are imposed on model parameters like α and ζ as well as on the dark energy/dark matter couplings using results from structure formation. The constraints of this model are shown to encompass the cosmological constant limit within 1σ error bars.

  8. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Cybersecurity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Danish [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-11-08

    This presentation covers the work that Sandia National Laboratories and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are doing for distributed energy resource cybersecurity standards, prepared for NREL's Annual Cybersecurity & Resilience Workshop on October 9-10, 2017.

  9. Energy Efficiency Resources to Support State Energy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-06-01

    An early step for most energy efficiency planning is to identify and quantify energy savings opportunities, and then to understand how to access this potential. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offers resources that can help with both of these steps. This fact sheet presents those resources. The resources are also available on the DOE State and Local Solution Center on the "Energy Efficiency: Savings Opportunities and Benefits" page: https://energy.gov/eere/slsc/energy-efficiency-savings-opportunities-and-benefits.

  10. Constraining the density dependence of the symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, W.G.; Zhang, Y.; Coupland, D.; Danielewicz, P; Famiano, M.; Li, Z.; Tsang, B.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The density dependence of the symmetry energy plays an important role in nuclear masses, fission barriers, collective excitations, and neutron skin thicknesses of neutron-rich nuclei. It also governs many properties of the neutron stars such as their radii, the thickness of their inner crusts, phase transitions in the stellar interior, seismic activity, and cooling rates. Experiments are beginning to provide constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities. This talk will review the measurements and some of the constraints that have been obtained so far. (author)

  11. SmartFix: Indoor Locating Optimization Algorithm for Energy-Constrained Wearable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor localization technology based on Wi-Fi has long been a hot research topic in the past decade. Despite numerous solutions, new challenges have arisen along with the trend of smart home and wearable computing. For example, power efficiency needs to be significantly improved for resource-constrained wearable devices, such as smart watch and wristband. For a Wi-Fi-based locating system, most of the energy consumption can be attributed to real-time radio scan; however, simply reducing radio data collection will cause a serious loss of locating accuracy because of unstable Wi-Fi signals. In this paper, we present SmartFix, an optimization algorithm for indoor locating based on Wi-Fi RSS. SmartFix utilizes user motion features, extracts characteristic value from history trajectory, and corrects deviation caused by unstable Wi-Fi signals. We implemented a prototype of SmartFix both on Moto 360 2nd-generation Smartwatch and on HTC One Smartphone. We conducted experiments both in a large open area and in an office hall. Experiment results demonstrate that average locating error is less than 2 meters for more than 80% cases, and energy consumption is only 30% of Wi-Fi fingerprinting method under the same experiment circumstances.

  12. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A. [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  13. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Oaxaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  14. The renewable energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Lingova, S.; Trifonova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results from the joint study between the National Laboratory of Renewable Energy Resources of USA and the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (BG). The geographical distribution of solar and wind energy potential in Bulgaria as well as inventory of biomass is studied. Calculation of total, available and reserve solar and wind resources is performed. Comparative data on all kind of renewable energy resources in Bulgaria are presented. The evaluation of economically accessible resources and feasibility of implementation of specific technologies is given. 7 refs., 1 tab

  15. Gravity resonance spectroscopy constrains dark energy and dark matter scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, T; Cronenberg, G; Burgdörfer, J; Chizhova, L A; Geltenbort, P; Ivanov, A N; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Rotter, S; Saul, H; Schmidt, U; Abele, H

    2014-04-18

    We report on precision resonance spectroscopy measurements of quantum states of ultracold neutrons confined above the surface of a horizontal mirror by the gravity potential of Earth. Resonant transitions between several of the lowest quantum states are observed for the first time. These measurements demonstrate that Newton's inverse square law of gravity is understood at micron distances on an energy scale of 10-14  eV. At this level of precision, we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravitylike interaction. In particular, a dark energy chameleon field is excluded for values of the coupling constant β>5.8×108 at 95% confidence level (C.L.), and an attractive (repulsive) dark matter axionlike spin-mass coupling is excluded for the coupling strength gsgp>3.7×10-16 (5.3×10-16) at a Yukawa length of λ=20  μm (95% C.L.).

  16. Energy-aware stochastic scheduler for batch of precedence-constrained jobs on heterogeneous computing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, Mohammad; Raza, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    The problem of optimal scheduling of precedence-constrained jobs as well as finding the Pareto-optimal sets for multi objective scheduling problem have been proven to be nondeterministic polynomial time (NP)-complete. The growing consumption of energy has compelled the researchers to consider energy consumption as an important parameter along with other parameters in multi-objective scheduling problem. Accordingly, many energy-aware precedence-constraints scheduling algorithms have been reported in the literature. Most of the algorithms have a limitation of treating this problem as a single objective optimization problem modelling with deterministic execution times rather than stochastic execution times. This work proposes energy-aware stochastic scheduler to schedule the batch of precedence-constrained jobs on dynamic voltage frequency scaling-enabled processors in order to optimize the energy consumption and the turnaround time. The execution and inter-communication times are stochastic which are drawn from independent probability distributions. A novel encoding for batch of precedence-constrained jobs, stochastic turnaround time and energy models are also proposed. Experimental results show that, compared with other algorithms, the proposed scheduler offers reduced turnaround time and reduced energy consumption. - Highlights: • This paper reports stochastic scheduler for energy management of data centres. • Novel encoding, turnaround time and energy consumption models are proposed. • Clark's equations are used to compute the turnaround time and energy consumption. • The proposed scheduler offers reduced turnaround time as well as energy consumption.

  17. Substitute energy resource policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umehara, Katsuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Japan depends 88% of energy resources and 99.8% of petroleum on imports. The solution of energy problems is now made internationally. As the means for Japan, there are the substitution of other resources for petroleum and its promotion. However, this involves the considerable funds for the development and utilization, which must be borne by the people in the form of tax. For governmental financing, a special account must be set up for the particular purpose. In the research and development of new energy resources, new institution is required. The following matters are described: petroleum shortage coming even in 1980s, the international need of substitute energy development, the need for establishing measures for substitute energy resources, acquisition of the funds, special-account governmental financing, and an institute of new energy development. (author)

  18. Intelligent Sampling of Hazardous Particle Populations in Resource-Constrained Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, J. P.; Quinn, J. M.; Starks, M. J.; Johnston, W. R.

    2017-10-01

    Sampling of anomaly-causing space environment drivers is necessary for both real-time operations and satellite design efforts, and optimizing measurement sampling helps minimize resource demands. Relating these measurements to spacecraft anomalies requires the ability to resolve spatial and temporal variability in the energetic charged particle hazard of interest. Here we describe a method for sampling particle fluxes informed by magnetospheric phenomenology so that, along a given trajectory, the variations from both temporal dynamics and spatial structure are adequately captured while minimizing oversampling. We describe the coordinates, sampling method, and specific regions and parameters employed. We compare resulting sampling cadences with data from spacecraft spanning the regions of interest during a geomagnetically active period, showing that the algorithm retains the gross features necessary to characterize environmental impacts on space systems in diverse orbital regimes while greatly reducing the amount of sampling required. This enables sufficient environmental specification within a resource-constrained context, such as limited telemetry bandwidth, processing requirements, and timeliness.

  19. Multiobjective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling with a Time-Varying Number of Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abello, Manuel Blanco

    2014-01-01

    In resource-constrained project scheduling (RCPS) problems, ongoing tasks are restricted to utilizing a fixed number of resources. This paper investigates a dynamic version of the RCPS problem where the number of tasks varies in time. Our previous work investigated a technique called mapping of task IDs for centroid-based approach with random immigrants (McBAR) that was used to solve the dynamic problem. However, the solution-searching ability of McBAR was investigated over only a few instances of the dynamic problem. As a consequence, only a small number of characteristics of McBAR, under the dynamics of the RCPS problem, were found. Further, only a few techniques were compared to McBAR with respect to its solution-searching ability for solving the dynamic problem. In this paper, (a) the significance of the subalgorithms of McBAR is investigated by comparing McBAR to several other techniques; and (b) the scope of investigation in the previous work is extended. In particular, McBAR is compared to a technique called, Estimation Distribution Algorithm (EDA). As with McBAR, EDA is applied to solve the dynamic problem, an application that is unique in the literature. PMID:24883398

  20. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  1. International energy efficiency and renewable energy resources on the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Meyer, R.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A variety of sources of information on energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies are available on the Internet`s World Wide Web. These resources are sponsored and maintained by a myriad of organizations across the country and world. One expeditious way to access these resources is by using the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN). This network is a user-friendly computer link to Internet based information on energy conservation and renewable energy technologies and techniques. Numerous international sources of information can be accessed through EREN including the International Energy Agency`s Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET) and the Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE). CADDET`s Register of demonstrated energy technologies provides an extensive guide to energy efficient and renewable energy technologies, and GREENTIE`s Directory of supplier information helps users access technology providers and experts.

  2. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  3. Energy requirement of some energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.F.; Hemming, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    The energy requirements for the sources of energy under examination are expressed as the fraction of total energy consumed in the production of a unit of gross output. Clearly there are vast differences between the energy requirements of these sources of fuels. Using energy analysis it is possible to indicate points of futility where no net energy is produced (i.e. Xsub(f) = 1). For North Sea oil fields using current technology, this appears to occur at a field size of 100,000-200,000 tons of recoverable reserves of oil. For oil shales exploited using above-ground retorting, the outer limit is at a grade of about 5 gal/ton. For uranium ores used to fuel a burner reactor, the cut-off grade was found to be of the order of 20 ppm. However, it should be remembered that at Xsub(f) = 1, there is no net output and the price of the fuel would be infinite. Because of payments to labour and capital, the upper limit of economic viability may well occur at values of Xsub(f) from 0.1 to 0.2. Thus uranium ores of a grade of 100 ppm U 3 O 8 or less may not be ecomically viable using current burner reactors and this in turn implies an upper bound for the total thermal reactor capacity. For oil shales exploited using above-ground retorting and room-and-pillar mining 15-20 gal/ton shale may represent the upper limit of economic viability, depending on the efficiency that can be achieved in a commercial-scale retort

  4. An inexact stochastic-fuzzy jointed chance-constrained programming for regional energy system management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengping; Huang, Guohe; Li, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Environmental problems associated with socio-economic development have been a growing concern facing many regional and/or national authorities. However, effective planning may encounter difficulties since uncertainties existing in a number of impact factors and pollution-related processes are often not well acknowledged and reflected. Combining chance-constrained programming and fuzzy credibility-constrained programming with interval parameters and stochastic programming, this study advances an inexact stochastic-fuzzy jointed chance-constrained programming method for planning regional economic and environmental systems under multiple uncertainties presented as intervals, fuzzy sets and probability distributions. The developed method has been applied to a case of long-term energy management system with multiple energy resources and three communities. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are controlled and capacity expansion is scheduled. The results can help to identify desired alternatives for planning regional development strategies, where compromised schemes are provided under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental protection under multiple uncertainties.

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening in Resource-Constrained Countries: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchika; Gupta, Sanjay; Mehrotra, Ravi; Sodhani, Pushpa

    2017-06-25

    Cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem affecting large numbers of women in many developing countries. Limitations of various screening modalities and the lack of ready availability of a cost-effective point-of-care screening tool have hindered the efficient implementation of population-based screening programs in these settings. It has not proved possible for many countries to adopt cytology as a screening modality due to inadequate infrastructure and trained manpower. However, recent developments, notably design and testing of a low-cost HPV test kit and initiatives by countries like India in developing and putting into operation a framework for large-scale screening of women, have raised hopes that cervical cancer control may be possible even in resource-constrained locations. With the advent of HPV vaccination, primary prevention of cervical cancer also seems a distinct possibility. However, wide availability and acceptability of vaccination is still an unresolved issue for developing countries. The possible future effects of vaccination on test characteristics of various screening strategies also need to be evaluated. This review gathers information on the current status of cervical cancer screening with a special focus on low resource settings. It revisits the strengths and limitations of the available screening modalities for cervical cancer viz. cytology, visual methods and HPV testing, in the context of their applicability in developing countries. In addition, the role of newer HPV-detection methods, for instance DNA, RNA and protein-based techniques, in triage of screen-positive women is discussed. The contemporary issue of impact of HPV vaccination on cervical cancer screening is also addressed briefly. The main highlight of the review is the reference to ‘operational framework guidelines’ for population-based cervical cancer screening, which have recently been formulated and are in the process of being implemented in India. The

  6. Teachers Environmental Resource Unit: Energy and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Problems associated with energy production and power are studied in this teacher's guide to better understand the impact of man's energy production on the environment, how he consumes energy, and in what quantities. The resource unit is intended to provide the teacher with basic information that will aid classroom review of these problems. Topics…

  7. Distributed energy resources scheduling considering real-time resources forecast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.; Sousa, T.; Ramos, S.

    2014-01-01

    grids and considering day-ahead, hour-ahead and realtime time horizons. This method considers that energy resources are managed by a VPP which establishes contracts with their owners. The full AC power flow calculation included in the model takes into account network constraints. In this paper......, distribution function errors are used to simulate variations between time horizons, and to measure the performance of the proposed methodology. A 33-bus distribution network with large number of distributed resources is used....

  8. Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

    2013-11-01

    Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

  9. Moon Prospective Energy and Material Resources

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration.   In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon’s prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative optio...

  10. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Southeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2002-11-01

    This wind energy resource atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in two regions of southeast China. The first region is the coastal area stretching from northern Fujian south to eastern Guangdong and extending approximately 100 km inland. The second region is centered on the Poyang Lake area in northern Jiangxi. This region also includes parts of two other provinces-Anhui and Hubei-and extends from near Anqing in Anhui south to near Nanchang in Jiangxi. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. We created the high-resolution (1-km2) maps in 1998 using a computerized wind resource mapping system developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The mapping system uses software known as a Geographical Information System (GIS).

  11. Light, nutrients, and food-chain length constrain planktonic energy transfer efficiency across multiple trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Elizabeth M; Newell, Jennifer M; González, María J; Vanni, Michael J

    2008-11-25

    The efficiency of energy transfer through food chains [food chain efficiency (FCE)] is an important ecosystem function. It has been hypothesized that FCE across multiple trophic levels is constrained by the efficiency at which herbivores use plant energy, which depends on plant nutritional quality. Furthermore, the number of trophic levels may also constrain FCE, because herbivores are less efficient in using plant production when they are constrained by carnivores. These hypotheses have not been tested experimentally in food chains with 3 or more trophic levels. In a field experiment manipulating light, nutrients, and food-chain length, we show that FCE is constrained by algal food quality and food-chain length. FCE across 3 trophic levels (phytoplankton to carnivorous fish) was highest under low light and high nutrients, where algal quality was best as indicated by taxonomic composition and nutrient stoichiometry. In 3-level systems, FCE was constrained by the efficiency at which both herbivores and carnivores converted food into production; a strong nutrient effect on carnivore efficiency suggests a carryover effect of algal quality across 3 trophic levels. Energy transfer efficiency from algae to herbivores was also higher in 2-level systems (without carnivores) than in 3-level systems. Our results support the hypothesis that FCE is strongly constrained by light, nutrients, and food-chain length and suggest that carryover effects across multiple trophic levels are important. Because many environmental perturbations affect light, nutrients, and food-chain length, and many ecological services are mediated by FCE, it will be important to apply these findings to various ecosystem types.

  12. Renewable energy resources in Serbia and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Larisa; Ermakov, Vadim; Čajka, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Energy Policy of the Republic of Serbia and Russia is entirely based on the principles of sustainable development and the Kyoto Protocol. This paper reviews in details the characteristics of energy policy in Serbia and Russia and provides examples of certain kinds of energy. Serbia and Russia are rich in renewable energy resources. The explorations of mineral and thermal mineral water sources carried out in Serbia have shown high quality mineral waters that can be used for medical purposes. M...

  13. Renewable Energy Resources: Solutions to Nigeria power and energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladan-Haruna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Power and energy, with particularly electricity remains the pivot of economical and social development of any country. In view of this fact, a research on how renewable energy resources can solve Nigeria power and energy needs was carried out. It has identified main issues such as inconsistence government policies, corruptions and lack of fund hindering the development of renewable and power sectors for sustainable energy supply. The capacity of alternative energy resources and technology [hydropower, wind power, biomass, photovoltaic (solar), and geothermal power] to solve Nigerian energy crisis cannot be over-emphasized as some countries of the world who have no petroleum resources, utilizes other alternatives or options to solves their power and energy requirement. This paper reviews the prospects, challenges and solutions to Nigeria energy needs using renewable sources for development as it boost industrialization and create job opportunities

  14. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  15. Building sustainable organizational capacity to deliver HIV programs in resource-constrained settings: stakeholder perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2008, the US government mandated that HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs funded by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR should shift from US-based international partners (IPs to registered locally owned organizations (local partners, or LPs. The US Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA developed the Clinical Assessment for Systems Strengthening (ClASS framework for technical assistance in resource-constrained settings. The ClASS framework involves all stakeholders in the identification of LPs’ strengths and needs for technical assistance. Objective: This article examines the role of ClASS in building capacity of LPs that can endure and adapt to changing financial and policy environments. Design: All stakeholders (n=68 in Kenya, Zambia, and Nigeria who had participated in the ClASS from LPs and IPs, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and, in Nigeria, HIV/AIDS treatment facilities (TFs were interviewed individually or in groups (n=42 using an open-ended interview guide. Thematic analysis revealed stakeholder perspectives on ClASS-initiated changes and their sustainability. Results: Local organizations were motivated to make changes in internal operations with the ClASS approach, PEPFAR's competitive funding climate, organizational goals, and desired patient health outcomes. Local organizations drew on internal resources and, if needed, technical assistance from IPs. Reportedly, ClASS-initiated changes and remedial action plans made LPs more competitive for PEPFAR funding. LPs also attributed their successful funding applications to their preexisting systems and reputation. Bureaucracy, complex and competing tasks, and staff attrition impeded progress toward the desired changes. Although CDC continues to provide technical assistance through IPs, declining PEPFAR funds threaten the consolidation of gains, smooth program transition, and continuity of treatment services

  16. Building sustainable organizational capacity to deliver HIV programs in resource-constrained settings: stakeholder perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjali; Chiliade, Philippe; Reyes, E. Michael; Thomas, Kate K.; Collens, Stephen R.; Morales, José Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2008, the US government mandated that HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs funded by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) should shift from US-based international partners (IPs) to registered locally owned organizations (local partners, or LPs). The US Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) developed the Clinical Assessment for Systems Strengthening (ClASS) framework for technical assistance in resource-constrained settings. The ClASS framework involves all stakeholders in the identification of LPs’ strengths and needs for technical assistance. Objective This article examines the role of ClASS in building capacity of LPs that can endure and adapt to changing financial and policy environments. Design All stakeholders (n=68) in Kenya, Zambia, and Nigeria who had participated in the ClASS from LPs and IPs, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and, in Nigeria, HIV/AIDS treatment facilities (TFs) were interviewed individually or in groups (n=42) using an open-ended interview guide. Thematic analysis revealed stakeholder perspectives on ClASS-initiated changes and their sustainability. Results Local organizations were motivated to make changes in internal operations with the ClASS approach, PEPFAR's competitive funding climate, organizational goals, and desired patient health outcomes. Local organizations drew on internal resources and, if needed, technical assistance from IPs. Reportedly, ClASS-initiated changes and remedial action plans made LPs more competitive for PEPFAR funding. LPs also attributed their successful funding applications to their preexisting systems and reputation. Bureaucracy, complex and competing tasks, and staff attrition impeded progress toward the desired changes. Although CDC continues to provide technical assistance through IPs, declining PEPFAR funds threaten the consolidation of gains, smooth program transition, and continuity of treatment services. Conclusions The well

  17. A HYBRID HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING THE RESOURCE CONSTRAINED PROJECT SCHEDULING PROBLEM (RCPSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rivera

    Full Text Available The Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP is a problem of great interest for the scientific community because it belongs to the class of NP-Hard problems and no methods are known that can solve it accurately in polynomial processing times. For this reason heuristic methods are used to solve it in an efficient way though there is no guarantee that an optimal solution can be obtained. This research presents a hybrid heuristic search algorithm to solve the RCPSP efficiently, combining elements of the heuristic Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP, Scatter Search and Justification. The efficiency obtained is measured taking into account the presence of the new elements added to the GRASP algorithm taken as base: Justification and Scatter Search. The algorithms are evaluated using three data bases of instances of the problem: 480 instances of 30 activities, 480 of 60, and 600 of 120 activities respectively, taken from the library PSPLIB available online. The solutions obtained by the developed algorithm for the instances of 30, 60 and 120 are compared with results obtained by other researchers at international level, where a prominent place is obtained, according to Chen (2011.

  18. Diagnosis and outcome of birth asphyxia in resource constrained health care set up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, S.; Shah, S.A.; Mehmood, S.; Shahzad, S.; Munir, M.; Mushtaq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine morbidity and mortality of neonates with low APGAR score in a resource constrained health care set up. Study Design: Prospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in combined military hospital Attock, from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015. Material and Methods: All term neonates with 37 completed weeks of gestation and APGAR score less than 7 were included in the study. APGAR score was calculated by an attending pediatrician, gynecologist or trained female nurse at 0 and 5 minutes. In Neonatal Intensive Care Unit [NICU] the babies were daily examined by pediatrician. Outcome was documented in term of morbidity i.e. fits and mortality i.e. death of babies. Results: Total number of neonates included in the study were 85 of which 55 (65%) were males and 30 (35%) were females. Of the total neonates 65 (76%) were discharged in satisfactory conditions and 20 (24%) expired during stay in the hospital. The mean APGAR score of newborns was 4.98 +- 0.98 at 5 minutes. During stay in hospital 46 (54%) were diagnosed to have hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy 2 (HIE2), those diagnosed with HIE3 were 5 (6%) and the rest 14 (16%) with HIE1. Conclusion: Low APGAR score is an important cause of admission to NICU. Low APGAR score was found associated with increased risk of fits in neonates and one of the most important cause of mortality in our set up. (author)

  19. Resource-constrained project scheduling problem: review of past and recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Habibi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The project scheduling problem is both practically and theoretically of paramount importance. From the practical perspective, improvement of project scheduling as a critical part of project management process can lead to successful project completion and significantly decrease of the relevant costs. From the theoretical perspective, project scheduling is regarded as one of the in-teresting optimization issues, which has attracted the attention of many researchers in the area of operations research. Therefore, the project scheduling issue has been significantly evaluated over time and has been developed from various aspects. In this research, the topics related to Re-source-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP are reviewed, recent developments in this field are evaluated, and the results are presented for future studies. In this regard, first, the standard problem of RCPSP is expressed and related developments are presented from four as-pects of resources, characteristics of activities, type of objective functions, and availability level of information. Following that, details about 216 articles conducted on RCPSP during 1980-2017 are expressed. At the end, in line with the statistics obtained from the evaluation of previ-ous articles, suggestions are made for the future studies in order to help the development of new issues in this area.

  20. Mobile learning in resource-constrained environments: a case study of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Linxen, Sebastian; Gröhbiel, Urs; Jha, Anil Kumar; Burg, Günter

    2013-05-01

    The achievement of the millennium development goals may be facilitated by the use of information and communication technology in medical and health education. This study intended to explore the use and impact of educational technology in medical education in resource-constrained environments. A multiple case study was conducted in two Nepalese teaching hospitals. The data were analysed using activity theory as an analytical basis. There was little evidence for formal e-learning, but the findings indicate that students and residents adopted mobile technologies, such as mobile phones and small laptops, as cultural tools for surprisingly rich 'informal' learning in a very short time. These tools allowed learners to enhance (a) situated learning, by immediately connecting virtual information sources to their situated experiences; (b) cross-contextual learning by documenting situated experiences in the form of images and videos and re-using the material for later reflection and discussion and (c) engagement with educational content in social network communities. By placing the students and residents at the centre of the new learning activities, this development has begun to affect the overall educational system. Leveraging these tools is closely linked to the development of broad media literacy, including awareness of ethical and privacy issues.

  1. Integral Images: Efficient Algorithms for Their Computation and Storage in Resource-Constrained Embedded Vision Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Shoaib; Clark, Adrian F; Naveed ur Rehman; McDonald-Maier, Klaus D

    2015-07-10

    The integral image, an intermediate image representation, has found extensive use in multi-scale local feature detection algorithms, such as Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF), allowing fast computation of rectangular features at constant speed, independent of filter size. For resource-constrained real-time embedded vision systems, computation and storage of integral image presents several design challenges due to strict timing and hardware limitations. Although calculation of the integral image only consists of simple addition operations, the total number of operations is large owing to the generally large size of image data. Recursive equations allow substantial decrease in the number of operations but require calculation in a serial fashion. This paper presents two new hardware algorithms that are based on the decomposition of these recursive equations, allowing calculation of up to four integral image values in a row-parallel way without significantly increasing the number of operations. An efficient design strategy is also proposed for a parallel integral image computation unit to reduce the size of the required internal memory (nearly 35% for common HD video). Addressing the storage problem of integral image in embedded vision systems, the paper presents two algorithms which allow substantial decrease (at least 44.44%) in the memory requirements. Finally, the paper provides a case study that highlights the utility of the proposed architectures in embedded vision systems.

  2. Integral Images: Efficient Algorithms for Their Computation and Storage in Resource-Constrained Embedded Vision Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ehsan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integral image, an intermediate image representation, has found extensive use in multi-scale local feature detection algorithms, such as Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF, allowing fast computation of rectangular features at constant speed, independent of filter size. For resource-constrained real-time embedded vision systems, computation and storage of integral image presents several design challenges due to strict timing and hardware limitations. Although calculation of the integral image only consists of simple addition operations, the total number of operations is large owing to the generally large size of image data. Recursive equations allow substantial decrease in the number of operations but require calculation in a serial fashion. This paper presents two new hardware algorithms that are based on the decomposition of these recursive equations, allowing calculation of up to four integral image values in a row-parallel way without significantly increasing the number of operations. An efficient design strategy is also proposed for a parallel integral image computation unit to reduce the size of the required internal memory (nearly 35% for common HD video. Addressing the storage problem of integral image in embedded vision systems, the paper presents two algorithms which allow substantial decrease (at least 44.44% in the memory requirements. Finally, the paper provides a case study that highlights the utility of the proposed architectures in embedded vision systems.

  3. Self-Similarity Superresolution for Resource-Constrained Image Sensor Node in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks, in combination with image sensors, open up a grand sensing application field. It is a challenging problem to recover a high resolution (HR image from its low resolution (LR counterpart, especially for low-cost resource-constrained image sensors with limited resolution. Sparse representation-based techniques have been developed recently and increasingly to solve this ill-posed inverse problem. Most of these solutions are based on an external dictionary learned from huge image gallery, consequently needing tremendous iteration and long time to match. In this paper, we explore the self-similarity inside the image itself, and propose a new combined self-similarity superresolution (SR solution, with low computation cost and high recover performance. In the self-similarity image super resolution model (SSIR, a small size sparse dictionary is learned from the image itself by the methods such as KSVD. The most similar patch is searched and specially combined during the sparse regulation iteration. Detailed information, such as edge sharpness, is preserved more faithfully and clearly. Experiment results confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of this double self-learning method in the image super resolution.

  4. Constraining Glacial Runoff Contributions to Water Resources in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia using Environmental Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Warming temperatures in recent decades have contributed to substantial reductions in glaciers in many mountain regions around the globe, including the South American Andes. Melting of these glaciers taps water resources accumulated in past climates, and the diminishing ice marks a decrease in a nonrenewable water source that begs the question: how will future water supplies be impacted by climate change. Water resource management and climate adaptation efforts can be informed by knowledge of the extent to which glaciers contribute to seasonal streamflows, but remote locations and scant monitoring often limit this quantification. In Bolivia, more than two million people draw water from watersheds fed, in part, by glaciers. The amount to which these glaciers contribute to the water supply, however, is not well constrained. We apply elemental and isotopic tracers in an end-member mixing model to quantify glacial runoff contributions to local water supplies. We present oxygen and deuterium isotopes and major anion concentrations (sulfate and chloride) of shallow groundwater, streams, reservoirs, small arroyos, and glacial runoff. Isotopic and anion mixing models suggest between 45-67% of the water measured in high altitude streams originated from within the glacial footprint during the 2011 wet season, while glacial runoff contributed about 42-53% of the water in reservoirs in the 2012 dry season. Data also show that shallow groundwater is connected to glacial-fed streams. Any future decrease in glacial runoff may contribute to a reduction in surface water supplies and lower groundwater levels downstream, perhaps below the depth of hand-dug wells common in rural communities.

  5. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Albuquerque, NM; Clark, Nancy H [Corrales, NM; Boyes, John D [Albuquerque, NM; Ranade, Satishkumar J [Las Cruces, NM

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  6. Hydrogen energy from renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To asses the economic viability of an integrated energy production system, a multi-stage cash flow analysis framework is utilized. This framework relies on standard cash flow models using an electronic spreadsheet program (Lotus 1-2-3) as the modeling environment. The purpose of the program is to evaluate the life-cycle economics of the various component technologies using common assumptions about the economic and financial environment in which these would operate. A schematic diagram of the multi-stage model is shown in the entire integrated production system. The details of the financial model are explained below. In its most complex form, the integrated system consists of three production stages. The first is the production of electricity. At this first stage, the model can and does accommodate any type of production technology, e.g., wind energy conversion systems, solar thermal devices, and geothermal electricity. The second stage of the model is the production of hydrogen using a specific assumed production methodology. In this case, it is a high-temperature electrolysis facility using production and economic characteristics data provided by the Florida Solar Energy Center. The third stage of the model represents the production of methanol assuming a biomass gasifier technology with operating and economic characteristics data based on studied by Fluor and Southern California Edison. At each stage of the model, there are three components: a data input portion that is used to define the techno-economic characteristics of the technology; the cash flow analysis based on financial assumptions; and an output summary section that reports the economic characteristics of the technology

  7. E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frehywot Seble

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC, and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles, India (14, Egypt (10 and South Africa (10. While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58% reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles of which computer-assisted learning (CAL comprised the majority (45 articles. Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles, web-based learning (14 articles, and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles. Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities

  8. E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehywot, Seble; Vovides, Yianna; Talib, Zohray; Mikhail, Nadia; Ross, Heather; Wohltjen, Hannah; Bedada, Selam; Korhumel, Kristine; Koumare, Abdel Karim; Scott, James

    2013-02-04

    In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators "AND" and "OR" to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. E-learning in medical education is a means to an end

  9. E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. Conclusions E

  10. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  11. Optimization of constrained layer damping for strain energy minimization of vibrating pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Lakkam1

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An optimization study for brake squeals aims to minimize the strain energy of vibrating pads with constrained layerdamping. To achieve this, using finite element method and experiments were operated and assumed-coupling mode methodwas used to solve it. The integrated global strain energy of the pad over a frequency range of interesting mode was calculated.Parametric studies were then performed to identify those dominant parameters on the vibration response of the damped pad.Moreover, the proposed methodology was employed to search for the optimum of the position/geometry of the constrainedlayer damping patch. Optimal solutions are given and discussed for different cases where the strain energy of the pad over afrequency range is covering the first bending mode and with the inclusion of the restriction of minimum damping materialutilization. As a result, the integrated strain energy is then performed to identify and optimize the position and geometry of thedamping shim. The optimization of the constrained layer damping for strain energy minimization of vibrating pads depend onthe position of the shape of the damping patch. These data can guide to specify the position of the constrained layer dampingpatch under pressure conditions.

  12. Context- and Template-Based Compression for Efficient Management of Data Models in Resource-Constrained Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Jorge Berzosa; Montón, Luis Gardeazabal; Rodriguez, Roberto Cortiñas

    2017-08-01

    The Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) paradigm is based on the deployment of interconnected heterogeneous devices and systems, so interoperability is at the heart of any CPS architecture design. In this sense, the adoption of standard and generic data formats for data representation and communication, e.g., XML or JSON, effectively addresses the interoperability problem among heterogeneous systems. Nevertheless, the verbosity of those standard data formats usually demands system resources that might suppose an overload for the resource-constrained devices that are typically deployed in CPS. In this work we present Context- and Template-based Compression (CTC), a data compression approach targeted to resource-constrained devices, which allows reducing the resources needed to transmit, store and process data models. Additionally, we provide a benchmark evaluation and comparison with current implementations of the Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) processor, which is promoted by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and it is the most prominent XML compression mechanism nowadays. Interestingly, the results from the evaluation show that CTC outperforms EXI implementations in terms of memory usage and speed, keeping similar compression rates. As a conclusion, CTC is shown to be a good candidate for managing standard data model representation formats in CPS composed of resource-constrained devices.

  13. Energy losses in thermally cycled optical fibers constrained in small bend radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guild, Eric; Morelli, Gregg

    2012-09-23

    High energy laser pulses were fired into a 365μm diameter fiber optic cable constrained in small radii of curvature bends, resulting in a catastrophic failure. Q-switched laser pulses from a flashlamp pumped, Nd:YAG laser were injected into the cables, and the spatial intensity profile at the exit face of the fiber was observed using an infrared camera. The transmission of the radiation through the tight radii resulted in an asymmetric intensity profile with one half of the fiber core having a higher peak-to-average energy distribution. Prior to testing, the cables were thermally conditioned while constrained in the small radii of curvature bends. Single-bend, double-bend, and U-shaped eometries were tested to characterize various cable routing scenarios.

  14. Constrained Quadratic Programming and Neurodynamics-Based Solver for Energy Optimization of Biped Walking Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of biped robots is always trapped by their high energy consumption. This paper makes a contribution by optimizing the joint torques to decrease the energy consumption without changing the biped gaits. In this work, a constrained quadratic programming (QP problem for energy optimization is formulated. A neurodynamics-based solver is presented to solve the QP problem. Differing from the existing literatures, the proposed neurodynamics-based energy optimization (NEO strategy minimizes the energy consumption and guarantees the following three important constraints simultaneously: (i the force-moment equilibrium equation of biped robots, (ii frictions applied by each leg on the ground to hold the biped robot without slippage and tipping over, and (iii physical limits of the motors. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed strategy is effective for energy-efficient biped walking.

  15. World energy resources. International Geohydroscience and Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    World Energy Resources is an explanatory energy survey of the countries and major regions of the world, their geographic and economic settings, and significant inter-relationships. This book attempts to combine several interacting energy themes that encompass a historical development, energy issues and forecasts, economic geography, environmental programs, and world energy use. The main thrust of this book -World Energy Resources - is based on principles of energy science, applied geology, geophysics, and other environmental sciences as they relate to the exploration, exploitation, and production of resources in this country and throughout the world. This work is an analysis of the United States (USA) and world oil, gas, coal, and alternative energy resources and their associated issues, forecasts, and related policy. This book could not have been attempted without a broad geological exposure and international geographic awareness. Much information is scattered among federal and state agencies, schools, and other institutions, and this book has attempted to combine some of the vast information base. This attempt can only skim the information surface at best, but its regional and topical coverage is broad in scope. Part I introduces conventional energy resources and their historical developments, and includes chapters 1 to 7. The basic concepts and supporting facts on energy sources are presented here for the general education of energy analysts, policy makers, and scientists that desire a brief review of advanced technologies and history. Part II includes chapters 8 to 14 and provides discussions of the renewable energy sources and the available alternative energy sources and technologies to oil, gas, coal, and nuclear sources. Part III includes chapters 15 to 20 and provides an analysis of United States energy markets and forecasts through the first quarter of the 21st century, while including some world energy data. Widely-used energy forecasting models are

  16. Peat - The sustainable energy resource in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In Finland the level of energy consumption for heating, transportation and industry is higher than in many other European countries. This is due to the northern position of the country and also to the fact that Finland is sparsely inhabited. Peat is one of the Finnish domestic energy resources. This brochure provides a compact package of background information on fuel peat. All the data presented concerning the production and use of peat, employment, investments in the peat industry, emission levels resulting from the production and use of peat, new combustion technologies and peatland resources, have been collected from documents and other sources that are accessible to the general public

  17. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  18. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  19. Hawai‘i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-09-30

    HNEI has conducted research to address a number of issues important to move Hawai‘i to greater use of intermittent renewable and distributed energy resource (DER) technologies in order to facilitate greater use of Hawai‘i's indigenous renewable energy resources. Efforts have been concentrated on the Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and O‘ahu, focusing in three areas of endeavor: 1) Energy Modeling and Scenario Analysis (previously called Energy Road mapping); 2) Research, Development, and Validation of Renewable DER and Microgrid Technologies; and 3) Analysis and Policy. These efforts focused on analysis of the island energy systems and development of specific candidate technologies for future insertion into an integrated energy system, which would lead to a more robust transmission and distribution system in the state of Hawai‘i and eventually elsewhere in the nation.

  20. Arctic Energy Resources: Security and Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnston

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available n recent years, there has been considerable interest in the Arctic as a source for resources, as a potential zone for commercial shipping, and as a region that might experience conflict due to its strategic importance. With regards to energy resources, some studies suggest that the region contains upwards of 13 percent of global undiscovered oil, 30 percent of undiscovered gas, and multiples more of gas hydrates. The decreasing amount and duration of Arctic ice cover suggests that extraction of these resources will be increasingly commercially viable. Arctic and non-arctic states wish to benefit from the region's resources and the potential circum-polar navigation possibilities. This has led to concerns about the environmental risks of these operations as well as the fear that competition between states for resources might result in conflict. Unresolved offshore boundaries between the Arctic states exacerbate these fears. Yet, the risk of conflict seems overstated considering the bilateral and multilateral steps undertaken by the Arctic states to resolve contentious issues. This article will examine the potential impact of Arctic energy resources on global security as well as the regional environment and examine the actions of concerned states to promote their interests in the region.

  1. Wood-energy in Europe: resources, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defaye, S.

    1999-01-01

    A voluntaristic policy for the development of wood fuel would contribute to save energy and to protect the environment. Different strategies of development exist at the European scale as demonstrated by a recent report ordered by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME). This paper gives a synthesis of this report. It deals successively with: the European wood resources (the northern and continental forests, the mountain and bocage regions, the Mediterranean forests); the 3 main resources: forest exploitation, wood transformation, recycling of waste wood; the different economical status of wood resources; the place of wood-fuel in the economy: estimation, complementarity of industrial and energy uses; technological files and perspectives of development: collection, transport, conditioning, fuel production and supply, technologies of energy production from wood (domestic heating, collective heating, cogeneration and mixed wood-coal combustion); future markets; strategy of development: forestry and agriculture, management, producers, environmental aspects, afforestation of abandoned lands, employment...; policies of European, national and regional authorities: political and financial help, regulations and standardizations, financial helps and fiscal policy, inter-region cooperation and R and D, advice and communication; contribution of wood-fuel to the energy supply of Europe. (J.S.)

  2. Energy analysis applied to uranium resource estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that fuel prices and ore costs are interdependent, and that in estimating ore costs (involving the cost of fuels used to mine and process the uranium) it is necessary to take into account the total use of energy by the entire fuel system, through the technique of energy analysis. The subject is discussed, and illustrated with diagrams, under the following heads: estimate of how total workable resources would depend on production costs; sensitivity of nuclear electricity prices to ore costs; variation of net energy requirement with ore grade for a typical PWR reactor design; variation of average fundamental cost of nuclear electricity with ore grade; variation of cumulative uranium resources with current maximum ore costs. (U.K.)

  3. Biomass energy - Definitions, resources and transformation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damien, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is today considered as a new renewable energy source, and thus, has entered a regulatory framework aiming at encouraging its development for CO 2 pollution abatement. This book addresses the constraints, both natural and technological, of the exploitation of the biomass resource, and then the economical and regulatory aspects of this industry. This second edition provides a complement about the plants used and the new R and D progresses made in this domain. Content: 1 - Definitions and general considerations: natural organic products, regulatory and standardized definitions, energy aspects of biomass fuels; 2 - Resources: energy production dedicated crops, biomass by-products, biomass from wastes; 3 - Biomass to energy transformation processes: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, torrefaction, methanation, alcoholic fermentation, landfill biogas, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol synthesis, trans-esterification, synthetic natural gas production, bio-hydrogen production; 4 - Biofuels: solid fuels, solid automotive biofuels, gaseous biofuels, liquid biofuels, comparative efficiency; 5 - Situation of biomass energy: regulations, impact on non-energy purpose biomass, advantages and drawbacks

  4. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Abdollahy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building. Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.

  5. Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets in a Cabon-Constrained Electricity Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-31

    The benchmark goal that drives the report is to achieve a 20 percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Colorado's electricity sector below 2005 levels by 2020. We refer to this as the '20 x 20 goal.' In discussing how to meet this goal, the report concentrates particularly on the role of utility-scale renewable energy and high-voltage transmission. An underlying recognition is that any proposed actions must not interfere with electric system reliability and should minimize financial impacts on customers and utilities. The report also describes the goals of Colorado's New Energy Economy5 - identified here, in summary, as the integration of energy, environment, and economic policies that leads to an increased quality of life in Colorado. We recognize that a wide array of options are under constant consideration by professionals in the electric industry, and the regulatory community. Many options are under discussion on this topic, and the costs and benefits of the options are inherently difficult to quantify. Accordingly, this report should not be viewed as a blueprint with specific recommendations for the timing, siting, and sizing of generating plants and high-voltage transmission lines. We convened the project with the goal of supplying information inputs for consideration by the state's electric utilities, legislators, regulators, and others as we work creatively to shape our electricity sector in a carbon-constrained world. The report addresses various issues that were raised in the Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets report, also known as the SB07-91 Report. That report was produced by the Senate Bill 2007-91 Renewable Resource Generation Development Areas Task Force and presented to the Colorado General Assembly in 2007. The SB07-91 Report provided the Governor, the General Assembly, and the people of Colorado with an assessment of the capability of Colorado's utility-scale renewable

  6. Biomass a fast growing energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    Biomass as an energy resource is as versatile as the biodiversity suggests. The global net primary production, NPP, describes the annual growth of biomass on land and in the seas. This paper focuses on biomass grown on land. A recent estimate for the NPP on land is 120 billion tons of dry matter. How much of this biomass are available for energy purposes? The potential contribution of wood fuel and energy plants from sustainable production is limited to some 5% of NPP, i.e. 6 Bt. One third of the potential is energy forests and energy plantations which at present are not economic. One third is used in rural areas as traditional fuel. The remaining third would be available for modern biomass energy conversion. Biomass is assigned an expanding role as a new resource in the world's energy balance. The EU has set a target of doubling the share of renewable energy sources by 2010. For biomass the target is even more ambitious. The challenge for biomass utilization lies in improving the technology for traditional usage and expanding the role into other areas like power production and transportation fuel. Various technologies for biomass utilization are available among those are combustion, gasification, and liquefaction. Researchers have a grand vision in which the chemical elements in the hydrocarbon molecules of biomass are separated and reformed to yield new tailored fuels and form the basis for a new world economy. The vision of a new energy system based on fresh and fossilized biomass to be engineered into an environmentally friendly and sustainable fuel is a conceivable technical reality. One reason for replacing exhaustible fossil fuels with biomass is to reduce carbon emissions. The most efficient carbon dioxide emission reduction comes from replacing brown coal in a steam-electric unit, due to the efficiency of the thermal cycle and the high carbon intensity of the coal. The smallest emission reduction comes from substituting natural gas. (BA)

  7. Energy, natural resources and environmental economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Endre [Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration (NHH), Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Accounting, Auditing and Law; Bjoerndal, Mette; Roennqvist, Mikael (eds.) [Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration (NHH), Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Finance and Management Science; Pardalos, Panos M. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Industrial and Systems Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The book consists of a collection of articles (survey and research) describing the area of energy, natural resources and environmental economics. The contents of the book is divided into four sections. The first part considers petroleum and natural gas applications, taking up topics ranging from the management of incomes and reserves to market modeling and value chain optimization. The second and most extensive part studies applications from electricity markets, including analyses of marked prices, risk management, various optimization problems, electricity market design and regulation. The third part describes different applications in logistics and management of natural resources. Finally, the fourth part covers more general problems and methods arising within the area. The volume contains many examples from Nordic countries where there is knowledge and experience in managing natural resources. (orig.)

  8. Bulgarian geothermal energy resources - state and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramatikov, P.S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dept. of Physical Engineering, South West Univ. `Neofit Rilsky`, Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    As special attention is paid to geothermal energy because the geothermal sources are distributed all over the territory of Bulgaria. Governmental incentives for initiating national action programs for energy efficiency, new renewable sources and the environment as well as educational activities are particularly important. The energy sector, as any other sector of the national economy, is currently undergoing considerable changes on its way to market relations, primarily connected to determining the role of the state as well as the form of ownership. The state energy policy is based on a long - term energy strategy complying with the natural conditions of the country, the expected macro - economic development, the geopolitical situation and regional development of energy cooperation with neighboring and closely situated countries. Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of thermal and electric energy. This is even more relevant for Bulgaria with small fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted and the environment notably polluted. Concerning local renewable sources of thermal energy and electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, also to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (orig./AKF)

  9. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  10. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V.

    1996-01-01

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs

  11. Resource Allocation of Security-Critical Tasks with Statistically Guaranteed Energy Constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Ke; Ma, Yue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in resource allocation for energy constrained and security-critical embedded systems. Tasks in such systems need to be successfully executed under certain energy budget and be robust against serious security threatens. Different to former energy minimal scheduling...... problem, we introduce a new optimization problem for a set of tasks with energy constraint and multiple security choices. We present a dynamic programming based approximation algorithm to minimize the security risk of the system while statistically guaranteeing energy consumption constraints for given...

  12. Energy resource management in smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kartheepan; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2012-01-01

    Smart grids are characterized by a dynamic nature in which distributed energy resources (DER's) changes internal states and availability over time. Distributed Energy Resources (DER's) and the distributed control system will thus be required to automatically configure itself to this dynamic...... behavior. This paper1 addresses communication and control challenges to achieve a plug'n'play type of DER management. A use case with Electric Vehicles is considered because of its high dynamic behavior in smart grid. In particular, the problem of making correct decisions on which controller out of many......, an EV shall be operated by will be addressed. This is not an isolated control problem, but for reliable decisions also requires to take into account characteristics of the involved networks in combination with the dynamics of the decision information at the controllers. In the paper we propose...

  13. World Energy Resources and New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of civilisation is linked inextricably with growing demand for electricity. Thus, the still-rapid increase in the level of utilisation of natural resources, including fossil fuels, leaves it more and more urgent that conventional energy technologies and the potential of the renewable energy sources be made subject to re-evaluation. It is estimated that last 200 years have seen use made of more than 50% of the available natural resources. Equally, if economic forecasts prove accurate, for at least several more decades, oil, natural gas and coal will go on being the basic primary energy sources. The alternative solution represented by nuclear energy remains a cause of considerable public concern, while the potential for use to be made of renewable energy sources is seen to be very much dependent on local environmental conditions. For this reason, it is necessary to emphasise the impact of research that focuses on the further sharpening-up of energy efficiency, as well as actions aimed at increasing society's awareness of the relevant issues. The history of recent centuries has shown that rapid economic and social transformation followed on from the industrial and technological revolutions, which is to say revolutions made possible by the development of power-supply technologies. While the 19th century was "the age of steam" or of coal, and the 20th century the era of oil and gas, the question now concerns the name that will at some point come to be associated with the 21st century. In this paper, the subjects of discussion are primary energy consumption and energy resources, though three international projects on the global scale are also presented, i.e. ITER, Hydrates and DESERTEC. These projects demonstrate new scientific and technical possibilities, though it is unlikely that commercialisation would prove feasible before 2050. Research should thus be focused on raising energy efficiency. The development of high-efficiency technologies that

  14. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  15. Feasibility Assessment of a Fine-Grained Access Control Model on Resource Constrained Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Mikel Uriarte Itzazelaia; Jasone Astorga; Eduardo Jacob; Maider Huarte; Pedro Romaña

    2018-01-01

    Upcoming smart scenarios enabled by the Internet of Things (IoT) envision smart objects that provide services that can adapt to user behavior or be managed to achieve greater productivity. In such environments, smart things are inexpensive and, therefore, constrained devices. However, they are also critical components because of the importance of the information that they provide. Given this, strong security is a requirement, but not all security mechanisms in general and access control model...

  16. Energy - Resources, technologies and power issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucchi, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    For a better understanding of complex relationships between States, enterprises and international bodies, the author proposes a detailed analysis of power issues which structure the energy sector at the world level. He first considers the energy policy of a country as a result of an arbitration between three main concerns (access to energy, energy security, and struggle against climate change) which are differently addressed depending on consumption and production profiles of the country, and on its geographic and political characteristics. The author then proposes a synthetic overview of this landscape by analysing the history of exploitation of different energy sources (oil, coal, gas, uranium) and by proposing a regional analysis of resources. In the next part, he addresses various aspects of energy transports (bottlenecks of sea transport, trans-national grids, geopolitical restructuring of pipelines in front of the development of new LNG terminals). Then, for different regions, he describes the various modes of energy consumption, and challenges related to the transformation of this consumption due to the emergence of renewable energies. He analyses and discusses international mechanisms which underlie energy markets, and power issues which govern them. He shows that nuclear and renewable energies in fact strengthen the dependence on strategic materials and on technological companies. A chapter proposes an analysis of relationships between three prevailing actors in the elaboration of energy policies (enterprises, State and civil society) with their reciprocal influences, moments of collaboration, and information exchange or withholding. The last chapter addresses the study of power rivalries in the elaboration of policies for the struggle against climate change, and proposes a critical review of international organisations which square them

  17. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  18. Energy Security Analysis: The case of constrained oil supply for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, James; Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Deane, J.P.; Bazilian, Morgan; Gallachóir, Brian Ó

    2014-01-01

    Ireland imports 88% of its energy requirements. Oil makes up 59% of total final energy consumption (TFC). Import dependency, low fuel diversity and volatile prices leave Ireland vulnerable in terms of energy security. This work models energy security scenarios for Ireland using long term macroeconomic forecasts to 2050, with oil production and price scenarios from the International Monetary Fund, within the Irish TIMES energy systems model. The analysis focuses on developing a least cost optimum energy system for Ireland under scenarios of constrained oil supply (0.8% annual import growth, and –2% annual import decline) and subsequent sustained long term price shocks to oil and gas imports. The results point to gas becoming the dominant fuel source for Ireland, at 54% total final energy consumption in 2020, supplanting oil from reference projections of 57% to 10.8% TFC. In 2012, the cost of net oil imports stood at €3.6 billion (2.26% GDP). The modelled high oil and gas price scenarios show an additional annual cost in comparison to a reference of between €2.9bn and €7.5bn by 2020 (1.9–4.9% of GDP) to choose to develop a least cost energy system. Investment and ramifications for energy security are discussed. - Highlights: • We investigate energy security within a techno-economic model of Ireland to 2050. • We impose scenarios constraints of volume and price derived from IMF forecasting. • Continued high oil prices lead to natural gas supplanting oil at 54% TFC by 2020. • Declining oil production induces additional energy system costs of 7.9% GDP by 2020. • High oil and gas prices are likely to strain existing Irish gas import infrastructure

  19. Lightweight cryptography for constrained devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alippi, Cesare; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight cryptography is a rapidly evolving research field that responds to the request for security in resource constrained devices. This need arises from crucial pervasive IT applications, such as those based on RFID tags where cost and energy constraints drastically limit the solution...... complexity, with the consequence that traditional cryptography solutions become too costly to be implemented. In this paper, we survey design strategies and techniques suitable for implementing security primitives in constrained devices....

  20. Doing more with less: Teacher professional learning communities in resource-constrained primary schools in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Tanja C; Hannum, Emily C

    2009-01-01

    Teacher professional learning communities provide environments in which teachers engage in regular research and collaboration. They have been found effective as a means for connecting professional learning to the day-to-day realities faced by teachers in the classroom. In this paper, we draw on survey data collected in primary schools serving 71 villages in rural Gansu Province, as well as transcripts from in-depth interviews with 30 teachers. Our findings indicate that professional learning communities penetrate to some of China's most resource-constrained schools, but that their nature and development are shaped by institutional supports, principal leadership, and teachers' own initiative.

  1. Dual job holding by public sector health professionals in highly resource-constrained settings: problem or solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Stephen; Bian, Ying; Jumpa, Manuel; Meng, Qingyue; Nyazema, Norman; Prakongsai, Phusit; Mills, Anne

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the policy options for the regulation of dual job holding by medical professionals in highly resource-constrained settings. Such activity is generally driven by a lack of resources in the public sector and low pay, and has been associated with the unauthorized use of public resources and corruption. It is also typically poorly regulated; regulations are either lacking, or when they exist, are vague or poorly implemented because of low regulatory capacity. This paper draws on the limited evidence available on this topic to assess a number of regulatory options in relation to the objectives of quality of care and access to services, as well as some of the policy constraints that can undermine implementation in resource-poor settings. The approach taken in highlighting these broader social objectives seeks to avoid the value judgements regarding dual working and some of its associated forms of behaviour that have tended to characterize previous analyses. Dual practice is viewed as a possible system solution to issues such as limited public sector resources (and incomes), low regulatory capacity and the interplay between market forces and human resources. This paper therefore offers some support for policies that allow for the official recognition of such activity and embrace a degree of professional self-regulation. In providing clearer policy guidance, future research in this area needs to adopt a more evaluative approach than that which has been used to date.

  2. Wind energy resource assessment in Madrid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Jimenez, Angel; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Autonomous Community of Madrid, in the following Madrid Region), is a region located at the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Its area is 8.028 km{sup 2}, and its population about five million people. The Department of Economy and Technological Innovation of the Madrid Region, together with some organizations dealing on energy saving and other research institutions have elaborated an Energy Plan for the 2004-12 period. As a part of this work, the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the Polytechnic University of Madrid has carried out the assessment of the wind energy resources [Crespo A, Migoya E, Gomez Elvira R. La energia eolica en Madrid. Potencialidad y prospectiva. Plan energetico de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004-2012. Madrid: Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2004]; using for this task the WAsP program (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program), and the own codes, UPMORO (code to study orography effects) and UPMPARK (code to study wake effects in wind parks). Different kinds of data have been collected about climate, topography, roughness of the land, environmentally protected areas, town and village distribution, population density, main facilities and electric power supply. The Spanish National Meteorological Institute has nine wind measurement stations in the region, but only four of them have good and reliable temporary wind data, with time measurement periods that are long enough to provide representative correlations among stations. The Observed Wind Climates of the valid meteorological stations have been made. The Wind Atlas and the resource grid have been calculated, especially in the high wind resource areas, selecting appropriate measurements stations and using criteria based on proximity, similarity and ruggedness index. Some areas cannot be used as a wind energy resource mainly because they have environmental regulation or, in some cases, are very close

  3. Constrained numerical gradients and composite gradients: Practical tools for geometry optimization and potential energy surface navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenrup, Michael; Lindh, Roland; Fdez Galván, Ignacio

    2015-08-15

    A method is proposed to easily reduce the number of energy evaluations required to compute numerical gradients when constraints are imposed on the system, especially in connection with rigid fragment optimization. The method is based on the separation of the coordinate space into a constrained and an unconstrained space, and the numerical differentiation is done exclusively in the unconstrained space. The decrease in the number of energy calculations can be very important if the system is significantly constrained. The performance of the method is tested on systems that can be considered as composed of several rigid groups or molecules, and the results show that the error with respect to conventional optimizations is of the order of the convergence criteria. Comparison with another method designed for rigid fragment optimization proves the present method to be competitive. The proposed method can also be applied to combine numerical and analytical gradients computed at different theory levels, allowing an unconstrained optimization with numerical differentiation restricted to the most significant degrees of freedom. This approach can be a practical alternative when analytical gradients are not available at the desired computational level and full numerical differentiation is not affordable. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A constrained reduced-dimensionality search algorithm to follow chemical reactions on potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Timm; Yu, Chin-Hui

    2013-06-01

    A constrained reduced-dimensionality algorithm can be used to efficiently locate transition states and products in reactions involving conformational changes. The search path (SP) is constructed stepwise from linear combinations of a small set of manually chosen internal coordinates, namely the predictors. The majority of the internal coordinates, the correctors, are optimized at every step of the SP to minimize the total energy of the system so that the path becomes a minimum energy path connecting products and transition states with the reactants. Problems arise when the set of predictors needs to include weak coordinates, for example, dihedral angles, as well as strong ones such as bond distances. Two principal constraining methods for the weak coordinates are proposed to mend this situation: static and dynamic constraints. Dynamic constraints are automatically activated and revoked depending on the state of the weak coordinates among the predictors, while static ones require preset control factors and act permanently. All these methods enable the successful application (4 reactions are presented involving cyclohexane, alanine dipeptide, trimethylsulfonium chloride, and azafulvene) of the reduced dimensionality method to reactions where the reaction path covers large conformational changes in addition to the formation/breaking of chemical bonds. Dynamic constraints are found to be the most efficient method as they require neither additional information about the geometry of the transition state nor fine tuning of control parameters.

  5. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic processes IV: Geochemical, thermal and mass consequences of energy-constrained recharge, assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-RAFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendy A. Bohrson Department of Geological Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington, 98926, USA; Frank J. Spera Institute for Crustal Studies and Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106, USA

    2003-01-01

    A wealth of geochemical and petrological data provide evidence that the processes of fractional crystallization, assimilation, and magma recharge (replenishment) dominate the chemical signatures of many terrestrial igneous rocks. Previous work [Spera and Bohrson, 2001 ; Bohrson and Spera, 2001] has established the importance of integrating energy, species and mass conservation into simulations of complex magma chamber processes. An extended version of the energy-constrained formulation, Energy-Constrained Recharge, Assimilation, Fractional Crystallization (EC-RAFC), tracks mass and compositional variations of melt, cumulates, and enclaves in a magma body undergoing simultaneous recharge, assimilation, and fractional crystallization [Spera and Bohrson, 2002]. Because many EC-RAFC results are distinct from those predicted by extant RAFC formulations, the primary goal of this paper is to present a range of geochemical and mass relationships for selected cases that highlight issues relevant to modern petrology. Among the plethora of petrologic problems that have important, well-documented analogues in nature are the geochemical distinctions that arise when a magma body undergoes continuous versus episodic recharge, the connection between erupted magmas and associated cumulate bodies, the behavior of recharge-fractionation dominated systems (RFC), thermodynamic conditions that promote the formation of enclaves versus cumulates, and the conditions under which magma bodies may be described as chemically homogeneous. Investigation of the effects of continuous versus episodic recharge for mafic magma undergoing RAFC in the lower crust indicates that the resulting geochemical trends for melt and solids are sensitive to the intensity and composition of recharge, suggesting that EC-RAFC may be used as a tool to distinguish the nature of the recharge events. Compared to the record preserved in melts, the geochemical and mass characteristics of solids associated with particular

  6. Constrained-DFT method for accurate energy-level alignment of metal/molecule interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Souza, A. M.

    2013-10-07

    We present a computational scheme for extracting the energy-level alignment of a metal/molecule interface, based on constrained density functional theory and local exchange and correlation functionals. The method, applied here to benzene on Li(100), allows us to evaluate charge-transfer energies, as well as the spatial distribution of the image charge induced on the metal surface. We systematically study the energies for charge transfer from the molecule to the substrate as function of the molecule-substrate distance, and investigate the effects arising from image-charge confinement and local charge neutrality violation. For benzene on Li(100) we find that the image-charge plane is located at about 1.8 Å above the Li surface, and that our calculated charge-transfer energies compare perfectly with those obtained with a classical electrostatic model having the image plane located at the same position. The methodology outlined here can be applied to study any metal/organic interface in the weak coupling limit at the computational cost of a total energy calculation. Most importantly, as the scheme is based on total energies and not on correcting the Kohn-Sham quasiparticle spectrum, accurate results can be obtained with local/semilocal exchange and correlation functionals. This enables a systematic approach to convergence.

  7. Proceedings. Future Energy - Resources, Distribution and Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    the environment, energy and the use of resources will be an important foundation for bringing about changes in the future. The environmental effects caused by the Energy System are local as well as global. Regarding the global challenges, it is important to find solutions and incentives that are financially, politically and administratively sound, that will work across borders and give a fair distribution of burdens between rich and poor countries, at the same time giving poor countries good opportunities for development. The Proceedings from the seminar should be a useful contribution to the debate on the Energy System for both specialists and the general public. It will also be a useful background document for setting priorities for energy policies and energy research in the future. Furthermore, it should provide a useful summary of the current scientific debate for both the laymen and specialized experts in the field of energy research. This will also provide guidance for the task of setting national research priorities in the future. The seminar describes status and future prospects within different resource-, technology- and application areas globally as well as from a Norwegian perspective. International trends in the energy markets are described, and an ambitious Swiss plan to halve the consumption of fossil fuels in the future will be presented.

  8. Nuclear energy resources for electrical power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, K.F.

    1974-01-01

    'Nuclear Energy Resources' is interpreted as the nuclear power systems currently available commercially and those at an advanced stage of development, together with full and associated resources required to implement large-scale nuclear programs. Technical advantages and disadvantages of the established power reactor systems are reviewed, and the uranium fuel situation is outlined in terms of supply and demand, the relationship of resources to the requiremnts of current reactor types, and the likely future implications of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). Because of its importance for the future, the problems, status, and likely time scale of the FBR are discussed in some detail. It is concluded that the most important areas for nearterm attention in Australia are the criteria and conditions that would apply to nuclear installations, and the possible development of uranium fuel cycle industries. The pattern of development of reactor and fuel cycle strategies overseas is important for uranium industry planning, and in the long term plutonium availability may be a key factor in power and energy planning. Finally, acceptance of nuclear power includes acceptance that its radioactive wastes will have to be stored on earth, and recent developments to demonstrate that this can be done safely and economically are very important in terms of longterm public attitudes. (author)

  9. Distribution System Pricing with Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hledik, Ryan [The Brattle Group, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lazar, Jim [The Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Technological changes in the electric utility industry bring tremendous opportunities and significant challenges. Customers are installing clean sources of on-site generation such as rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. At the same time, smart appliances and control systems that can communicate with the grid are entering the retail market. Among the opportunities these changes create are a cleaner and more diverse power system, the ability to improve system reliability and system resilience, and the potential for lower total costs. Challenges include integrating these new resources in a way that maintains system reliability, provides an equitable sharing of system costs, and avoids unbalanced impacts on different groups of customers, including those who install distributed energy resources (DERs) and low-income households who may be the least able to afford the transition.

  10. Sustainable resource planning in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalinia, Saeed; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainable resource planning with the consideration of expected transmission network expansion. • Incomplete information non-cooperative game-theoretic method for GEP. • Maximizing utility value whiling considering merits of having various generation portfolios. • Minimizing risk of investment using renewable generation options. • Application of the stochastic approach for evaluating the unpredictability of opponent payoffs and commodity values. - Abstract: This study investigates the role of sustainable energy volatility in a market participant’s competitive expansion planning problem. The incomplete information non-cooperative game-theoretic method is utilized in which each generation company (GENCO) perceives strategies of other market participants in order to make a decision on its strategic generation capacity expansion. Sustainable generation incentives, carbon emission penalties, and fuel price forecast errors are considered in the strategic decisions. The market clearing process for energy and reserves is simulated by each GENCO for deriving generation expansion decisions. A merit criterion (i.e., the utility value) is proposed for a more realistic calculation of the expected payoff of a GENCO with sustainable energy resources. Finally, the impact of transmission constraints is investigated on the GENCO’s expansion planning decision. The case studies illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method

  11. An Ultra-Low Energy Subthreshold SRAM Bitcell for Energy Constrained Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Banerjee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a key issue in portable biomedical devices that require uninterrupted biomedical data processing. As the battery life is critical for the user, these devices impose stringent energy constraints on SRAMs and other system on chip (SoC components. Prior work shows that operating CMOS circuits at subthreshold supply voltages minimizes energy per operation. However, at subthreshold voltages, SRAM bitcells are sensitive to device variations, and conventional 6T SRAM bitcell is highly vulnerable to readability related errors in subthreshold operation due to lower read static noise margin (RSNM and half-select issue problems. There are many robust subthreshold bitcells proposed in the literature that have some improvements in RSNM, write static noise margin (WSNM, leakage current, dynamic energy, and other metrics. In this paper, we compare our proposed bitcell with the state of the art subthreshold bitcells across various SRAM design knobs and show their trade-offs in a column mux scenario from the energy and delay metrics and the energy per operation metric standpoint. Our 9T half-select-free subthreshold bitcell has 2.05× lower mean read energy, 1.12× lower mean write energy, and 1.28× lower mean leakage current than conventional 8T bitcells at the TT_0.4V_27C corner. Our bitcell also supports the bitline interleaving technique that can cope with soft errors.

  12. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  13. Microvascular free flap reconstruction for head and neck cancer in a resource-constrained environment in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav P Trivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reconstruction with free flaps has significantly changed the outcome of patients with head and neck cancer. Microsurgery is still considered a specialised procedure and is not routinely performed in the resource-constrained environment of certain developing parts of India. Materials and Methods: This article focuses on the practice environment in a cancer clinic in rural India. Availability of infrastructure, selection of the case, choice of flap, estimation of cost and complications associated with treatment are evaluated and the merits and demerits of such an approach are discussed. Results: We performed 22 cases of free flaps in a six-month period (2008-2009. Majority (17 of the patients had oral cancer. Seven were related to the tongue and eight to the buccal mucosa. Radial forearm free flap (RFF: 9 and anterolateral thigh flap (ALT: 9 were the most commonly used flaps. A fibula flap (1 was done for an anterior mandible defect, whereas a jejunum free flap (1 was done for a laryngopharyngectomy defect. There were six complications with two re-explorations but no loss of flaps. Conclusion: Reconstruction with microvascular free flaps is feasible in a resource-constrained setup with motivation and careful planning.

  14. The epidemiology of substance use among street children in resource-constrained settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, Lonnie; Mwangi, Ann; Vreeman, Rachel; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula

    2013-10-01

    To compile and analyze critically the literature published on street children and substance use in resource-constrained settings. We searched the literature systematically and used meta-analytical procedures to synthesize literature that met the review's inclusion criteria. Pooled-prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the random-effects model for life-time substance use by geographical region as well as by type of substance used. Fifty studies from 22 countries were included into the review. Meta-analysis of combined life-time substance use from 27 studies yielded an overall drug use pooled-prevalence estimate of 60% (95% CI = 51-69%). Studies from 14 countries contributed to an overall pooled prevalence for street children's reported inhalant use of 47% (95% CI = 36-58%). This review reveals significant gaps in the literature, including a dearth of data on physical and mental health outcomes, HIV and mortality in association with street children's substance use. Street children from resource-constrained settings reported high life-time substance use. Inhalants are the predominant substances used, followed by tobacco, alcohol and marijuana. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    and gas endowment estimates. Whereas petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the United States may run into import deficits, particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from both Canada and Mexico. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as those at Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others have also used USGS estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. However, recent articles using the USGS (2000) estimates suggest peaking of oil in 2020-2035 and peaking of non-OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries) oil in 2015-2020. Such a short time framework places greater emphasis on a transition to increased use of natural gas; i.e., a methane economy. Natural gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame according to some authors. Coal resources are considerable and provide significant petroleum potential either by extracting natural gas from them, by directly converting them into petroleum products, or by utilizing them to generate electricity, thereby reducing natural gas and oil requirements by fuel substitution. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resources yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits also are under way.

  16. Feasibility Assessment of a Fine-Grained Access Control Model on Resource Constrained Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Uriarte Itzazelaia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Upcoming smart scenarios enabled by the Internet of Things (IoT envision smart objects that provide services that can adapt to user behavior or be managed to achieve greater productivity. In such environments, smart things are inexpensive and, therefore, constrained devices. However, they are also critical components because of the importance of the information that they provide. Given this, strong security is a requirement, but not all security mechanisms in general and access control models in particular are feasible. In this paper, we present the feasibility assessment of an access control model that utilizes a hybrid architecture and a policy language that provides dynamic fine-grained policy enforcement in the sensors, which requires an efficient message exchange protocol called Hidra. This experimental performance assessment includes a prototype implementation, a performance evaluation model, the measurements and related discussions, which demonstrate the feasibility and adequacy of the analyzed access control model.

  17. Feasibility Assessment of a Fine-Grained Access Control Model on Resource Constrained Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte Itzazelaia, Mikel; Astorga, Jasone; Jacob, Eduardo; Huarte, Maider; Romaña, Pedro

    2018-02-13

    Upcoming smart scenarios enabled by the Internet of Things (IoT) envision smart objects that provide services that can adapt to user behavior or be managed to achieve greater productivity. In such environments, smart things are inexpensive and, therefore, constrained devices. However, they are also critical components because of the importance of the information that they provide. Given this, strong security is a requirement, but not all security mechanisms in general and access control models in particular are feasible. In this paper, we present the feasibility assessment of an access control model that utilizes a hybrid architecture and a policy language that provides dynamic fine-grained policy enforcement in the sensors, which requires an efficient message exchange protocol called Hidra. This experimental performance assessment includes a prototype implementation, a performance evaluation model, the measurements and related discussions, which demonstrate the feasibility and adequacy of the analyzed access control model.

  18. Mankind and energy: Needs - resources - hopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A study-week, promoted by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (PAS) and held in the Vatican City on 10-15 November 1980, examined thoroughly the theme: ''Mankind and Energy: Needs - Resources - Hopes''. The study-week was sponsored by the PAS, organized by the French physicist Prof. Andre Blanc-Lapierre, and was presided over by the well-known biophysicist Prof. Carlos Chagas, who is also President of the same Pontifical Academy of Sciences. The volume ''Humanite et Energie: Besoins - Ressources - Espoirs'', with all the proceedings of the study-week, may be obtained on request from the Cancelleria della Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze, Casina Pio IV, Citta del Vaticano. (author)

  19. Cooperative Optimal Coordination for Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tao; Wu, Di; Ren, Wei; Wang, Hong; Hong, Yiguang; Johansson, Karl

    2017-12-12

    In this paper, we consider the optimal coordination problem for distributed energy resources (DERs) including distributed generators and energy storage devices. We propose an algorithm based on the push-sum and gradient method to optimally coordinate storage devices and distributed generators in a distributed manner. In the proposed algorithm, each DER only maintains a set of variables and updates them through information exchange with a few neighbors over a time-varying directed communication network. We show that the proposed distributed algorithm solves the optimal DER coordination problem if the time-varying directed communication network is uniformly jointly strongly connected, which is a mild condition on the connectivity of communication topologies. The proposed distributed algorithm is illustrated and validated by numerical simulations.

  20. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  1. Dimensionless Analysis of Segmented Constrained Layer Damping Treatments with Modal Strain Energy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shitao Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Constrained layer damping treatments promise to be an effective method to control vibration in flexible structures. Cutting both the constraining layer and the viscoelastic layer, which leads to segmentation, increases the damping efficiency. However, this approach is not always effective. A parametric study was carried out using modal strain energy method to explore interaction between segmentation and design parameters, including geometry parameters and material properties. A finite element model capable of handling treatments with extremely thin viscoelastic layer was developed based on interlaminar continuous shear stress theories. Using the developed method, influence of placing cuts and change in design parameters on the shear strain field inside the viscoelastic layer was analyzed, since most design parameters act on the damping efficiency through their influence on the shear strain field. Furthermore, optimal cut arrangements were obtained by adopting a genetic algorithm. Subject to a weight limitation, symmetric and asymmetric configurations were compared. It was shown that symmetric configurations always presented higher damping. Segmentation was found to be suitable for treatments with relatively thin viscoelastic layer. Provided that optimal viscoelastic layer thickness was selected, placing cuts would only be applicable to treatments with low shear strain level inside the viscoelastic layer.

  2. Energy management in a microgrid with distributed energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linfeng; Gari, Nicolae; Hmurcik, Lawrence V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A performance metric is proposed with the consideration of price, environment effect, and service quality. • Models of a microgrid and a microgrid network are designed with distribute energy resources and storage. • Different cases in MG operation are discussed. - Abstract: A smart grid power system with renewable energy resources and distributed energy storage shows significant improvement in the power system’s emission reduction, reliability, efficiency, and security. A microgrid is a smart grid in a small scale which can be stand-alone or grid-tied. Multi microgrids form a network with energy management and operational planning through two-way power flow and communication. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of a microgrid, a performance metric is proposed with consideration of the electricity price, emission, and service quality, each of them is given a weighting factor. Thus, the performance metric is flexible according to the consumers’ preference. With the weighting factors set in this paper, this performance metric is further applied on microgrids operated as stand-alone, grid-tied, and networked. Each microgrid consists of a solar panel, a hydrogen fuel cell stack, an electrolyzer, a hydrogen storage tank, and a load. For a stand-alone system, the load prediction lowers down the daily electricity consumption about 5.7%, the quantity of H 2 stored fluctuates in a wide range, and overall performance indexes increase with the solar panel size. In a grid-tied MG, the load prediction has a significant effect on the daily consumed electricity which drops 25% in 4 days, some day-time loads are shifted to the night time, and the capacity of hydrogen tank is lower than that in a stand-alone MG. In a network with multiple MGs, the control of the power distribution strongly affects the MG’s performance. However, the overall performance index instead of any specific index increases with the MG’s power generated from renewable energy

  3. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Sri Lanka and the Maldives. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  4. Resource-constrained scheduling with hard due windows and rejection penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    This work studies a scheduling problem where each job must be either accepted and scheduled to complete within its specified due window, or rejected altogether. Each job has a certain processing time and contributes a certain profit if accepted or penalty cost if rejected. There is a set of renewable resources, and no resource limit can be exceeded at any time. Each job requires a certain amount of each resource when processed, and the objective is to maximize total profit. A mixed-integer programming formulation and three approximation algorithms are presented: a priority rule heuristic, an algorithm based on the metaheuristic for randomized priority search and an evolutionary algorithm. Computational experiments comparing these four solution methods were performed on a set of generated benchmark problems covering a wide range of problem characteristics. The evolutionary algorithm outperformed the other methods in most cases, often significantly, and never significantly underperformed any method.

  5. Sustaining Lesson Study: Resources and Factors that Support and Constrain Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Continue After the Grant Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druken, Bridget Kinsella

    Lesson study, a teacher-led vehicle for inquiring into teacher practice through creating, enacting, and reflecting on collaboratively designed research lessons, has been shown to improve mathematics teacher practice in the United States, such as improving knowledge about mathematics, changing teacher practice, and developing communities of teachers. Though it has been described as a sustainable form of professional development, little research exists on what might support teachers in continuing to engage in lesson study after a grant ends. This qualitative and multi-case study investigates the sustainability of lesson study as mathematics teachers engage in a district scale-up lesson study professional experience after participating in a three-year California Mathematics Science Partnership (CaMSP) grant to improve algebraic instruction. To do so, I first provide a description of material (e.g. curricular materials and time), human (attending district trainings and interacting with mathematics coaches), and social (qualities like trust, shared values, common goals, and expectations developed through relationships with others) resources present in the context of two school districts as reported by participants. I then describe practices of lesson study reported to have continued. I also report on teachers' conceptions of what it means to engage in lesson study. I conclude by describing how these results suggest factors that supported and constrained teachers' in continuing lesson study. To accomplish this work, I used qualitative methods of grounded theory informed by a modified sustainability framework on interview, survey, and case study data about teachers, principals, and Teachers on Special Assignment (TOSAs). Four cases were selected to show the varying levels of lesson study practices that continued past the conclusion of the grant. Analyses reveal varying levels of integration, linkage, and synergy among both formally and informally arranged groups of

  6. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  7. Multi-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy based on modified multi-energy constrained iterative deconvolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenlong; Cai, Zhijian; Zhou, Hongwu; Wu, Jianhong

    2013-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy is fast and nondestructive, and it is widely used in chemistry, biomedicine, food safety and other areas. However, Raman spectroscopy is often hampered by strong fluorescence background, especially in food additives detection and biomedicine researching. In this paper, one efficient technique was the multi-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (MERDS) which incorporated a series of small wavelength-shift wavelengths as excitation sources. A modified multi-energy constrained iterative deconvolution (MMECID) algorithm was proposed to reconstruct the Raman Spectroscopy. Computer simulation and experiments both demonstrated that the Raman spectrum can be well reconstructed from large fluorescence background. The more excitation sources used, the better signal to noise ratio got. However, many excitation sources were equipped on the Raman spectrometer, which increased the complexity of the experimental system. Thus, a trade-off should be made between the number of excitation frequencies and experimental complexity.

  8. Mobile-based system for cost-effective e-learning contents delivery in resource and bandwidth constrained learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. J. Mahenge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs has brought opportunities for the development of Smart Cities. The Smart City uses ICT to enhance performance and wellbeing, to reduce costs and resource consumption, and to engage more effectively and actively with its citizens. In particular, the education sector is adopting new ways of learning in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs through e-learning systems. While these opportunities exist, e-learning content delivery and accessibility in third world countries like Tanzania is still a challenge due to resource and network constrained environments. The challenges include: high cost of bandwidth connection and usage; high dependency on the Internet; limited mobility and portability features; inaccessibility during the offline period and shortage of ICT facilities. In this paper, we investigate the use of mobile technology to sustainably support education and skills development particularly in developing countries. Specifically, we propose a Cost-effective Mobile Based Learning Content Delivery system for resource and network constrained environments. This system can be applied to cost-effectively broaden and support education in many cities around the world, which are approaching the 'Smart City' concept in their own way, even with less available technology infrastructure. Therefore, the proposed solution has the potential to reduce the cost of the bandwidth usage, and cut down the server workload and the Internet usage overhead by synchronizing learning contents from some remote server to a local database in the user’s device for offline use. It will also improve the quality of experience and participation of learners as well as facilitate mobility and portability in learning activities, which also supports the all-compassing learning experience in a Smart City.

  9. How CMB and large-scale structure constrain chameleon interacting dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriero, Daniel [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätstr. 25, Bielefeld (Germany); Das, Subinoy [Indian Institute of Astrophisics, Bangalore, 560034 (India); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: boriero@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: subinoy@iiap.res.in, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-07-01

    We explore a chameleon type of interacting dark matter-dark energy scenario in which a scalar field adiabatically traces the minimum of an effective potential sourced by the dark matter density. We discuss extensively the effect of this coupling on cosmological observables, especially the parameter degeneracies expected to arise between the model parameters and other cosmological parameters, and then test the model against observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and other cosmological probes. We find that the chameleon parameters α and β, which determine respectively the slope of the scalar field potential and the dark matter-dark energy coupling strength, can be constrained to α < 0.17 and β < 0.19 using CMB data and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. The latter parameter in particular is constrained only by the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Adding measurements of the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} tightens the bound on α by a factor of two, although this apparent improvement is arguably an artefact of the tension between the local measurement and the H{sub 0} value inferred from Planck data in the minimal ΛCDM model. The same argument also precludes chameleon models from mimicking a dark radiation component, despite a passing similarity between the two scenarios in that they both delay the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Based on the derived parameter constraints, we discuss possible signatures of the model for ongoing and future large-scale structure surveys.

  10. Constraining the dark energy models with H (z ) data: An approach independent of H0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Fotios K.; Basilakos, Spyros

    2018-03-01

    We study the performance of the latest H (z ) data in constraining the cosmological parameters of different cosmological models, including that of Chevalier-Polarski-Linder w0w1 parametrization. First, we introduce a statistical procedure in which the chi-square estimator is not affected by the value of the Hubble constant. As a result, we find that the H (z ) data do not rule out the possibility of either nonflat models or dynamical dark energy cosmological models. However, we verify that the time varying equation-of-state parameter w (z ) is not constrained by the current expansion data. Combining the H (z ) and the Type Ia supernova data, we find that the H (z )/SNIa overall statistical analysis provides a substantial improvement of the cosmological constraints with respect to those of the H (z ) analysis. Moreover, the w0-w1 parameter space provided by the H (z )/SNIa joint analysis is in very good agreement with that of Planck 2015, which confirms that the present analysis with the H (z ) and supernova type Ia (SNIa) probes correctly reveals the expansion of the Universe as found by the team of Planck. Finally, we generate sets of Monte Carlo realizations in order to quantify the ability of the H (z ) data to provide strong constraints on the dark energy model parameters. The Monte Carlo approach shows significant improvement of the constraints, when increasing the sample to 100 H (z ) measurements. Such a goal can be achieved in the future, especially in the light of the next generation of surveys.

  11. Resilience Analysis of Key Update Strategies for Resource-Constrained Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Severe resource limitations in certain types of networks lead to various open issues in security. Since such networks usually operate in unattended or hostile environments, revoking the cryptographic keys and establishing (also distributing) new keys – which we refer to as key update – is a criti...

  12. Resource-Constrained Optimal Scheduling of Synchronous Dataflow Graphs via Timed Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, W.; de Groote, Robert; Holzenspies, P.K.F.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis

    Synchronous dataflow (SDF) graphs are a widely used formalism for modelling, analysing and realising streaming applications, both on a single processor and in a multiprocessing context. Efficient schedules are essential to obtain maximal throughput under the constraint of available resources. This

  13. Energy reserves and energy resources: situation in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, L.

    1981-01-01

    Following an explanation of the main relevant technical terms and units, the author discusses the world energy consumption over the last few years and its structural development. This is supplemented by an analysis of energy consumption in Austria. Based on this, the author gives a forecast of the further growth of the world energy consumption figures to the year 2020 and compares these with the world's reserves of raw materials for energy production. A similar comparison is made for Austria. Outlining the irregularity in the distribution of the reserves over the earth and a short explanation of the dependence on the respective technology of the utilisation of nuclear fuels, the author discusses the possibilities of developing the energy resources all over the world as well as in Austria. The quantitative assessment is based on IIASA studies and on corresponding investigations carried out in Austria. By way of summary, he presents an outlook on the possibilities of upgrading solid fuels as a temporary remedy against future difficulties in the supply of crude oil or natural gas and underlines the importance of nuclear energy for the future. (Auth.)

  14. Energy management in microgrid based on the multi objective stochastic programming incorporating portable renewable energy resource as demand response option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, Vahid Sohrabi; Jirdehi, Mehdi Ahmadi; Hemmati, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy resources are often known as cost-effective and lucrative resources and have been widely developed due to environmental-economic issues. Renewable energy utilization even in small scale (e.g., microgrid networks) has attracted significant attention. Energy management in microgrid can be carried out based on the generating side management or demand side management. In this paper, portable renewable energy resource are modeled and included in microgrid energy management as a demand response option. Utilizing such resources could supply the load when microgrid cannot serve the demand. This paper addresses energy management and scheduling in microgrid including thermal and electrical loads, renewable energy sources (solar and wind), CHP, conventional energy sources (boiler and micro turbine), energy storage systems (thermal and electrical ones), and portable renewable energy resource (PRER). Operational cost of microgrid and air pollution are considered as objective functions. Uncertainties related to the parameters are incorporated to make a stochastic programming. The proposed problem is expressed as a constrained, multi-objective, linear, and mixed-integer programing. Augmented Epsilon-constraint method is used to solve the problem. Final results and calculations are achieved using GAMS24.1.3/CPLEX12.5.1. Simulation results demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed method in microgrid energy management. - Highlights: • Introducing portable renewable energy resource (PRER) and considering effect of them. • Considering reserve margin and sensitivity analysis for validate robustness. • Multi objective and stochastic management with considering various loads and sources. • Using augmented Epsilon-constraint method to solve multi objective program. • Highly decreasing total cost and pollution with PRER in stochastic state.

  15. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  16. Determinants of Oxygen Therapy in Childhood Pneumonia in a Resource-Constrained Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kuti, Bankole Peter; Adegoke, Samuel Ademola; Ebruke, Benard E.; Howie, Stephen; Oyelami, Oyeku Akibu; Ota, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Childhood pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among underfives particularly in the resource-constraint part of the world. A high proportion of these deaths are due to lack of oxygen, thereby making oxygen administration a life-saving adjunctive when indicated. However, many primary health centres that manage most of the cases often lack the adequate manpower and facilities to decide which patient should be on oxygen therapy. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors...

  17. Fast Rescheduling of Multiple Workflows to Constrained Heterogeneous Resources Using Multi-Criteria Memetic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Süß

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by, but not limited to, the task of scheduling jobs organized in workflows to a computational grid. Due to the dynamic nature of grid computing, more or less permanent replanning is required so that only very limited time is available to come up with a revised plan. To meet the requirements of both users and resource owners, a multi-objective optimization comprising execution time and costs is needed. This paper summarizes our work over the last six years in this field, and reports new results obtained by the combination of heuristics and evolutionary search in an adaptive Memetic Algorithm. We will show how different heuristics contribute to solving varying replanning scenarios and investigate the question of the maximum manageable work load for a grid of growing size starting with a load of 200 jobs and 20 resources up to 7000 jobs and 700 resources. Furthermore, the effect of four different local searchers incorporated into the evolutionary search is studied. We will also report briefly on approaches that failed within the short time frame given for planning.

  18. Coupling geophysical investigation with hydrothermal modeling to constrain the enthalpy classification of a potential geothermal resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeremy T.; Karakhanian, Arkadi; Connor, Chuck; Connor, Laura; Hughes, Joseph D.; Malservisi, Rocco; Wetmore, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An appreciable challenge in volcanology and geothermal resource development is to understand the relationships between volcanic systems and low-enthalpy geothermal resources. The enthalpy of an undeveloped geothermal resource in the Karckar region of Armenia is investigated by coupling geophysical and hydrothermal modeling. The results of 3-dimensional inversion of gravity data provide key inputs into a hydrothermal circulation model of the system and associated hot springs, which is used to evaluate possible geothermal system configurations. Hydraulic and thermal properties are specified using maximum a priori estimates. Limited constraints provided by temperature data collected from an existing down-gradient borehole indicate that the geothermal system can most likely be classified as low-enthalpy and liquid dominated. We find the heat source for the system is likely cooling quartz monzonite intrusions in the shallow subsurface and that meteoric recharge in the pull-apart basin circulates to depth, rises along basin-bounding faults and discharges at the hot springs. While other combinations of subsurface properties and geothermal system configurations may fit the temperature distribution equally well, we demonstrate that the low-enthalpy system is reasonably explained based largely on interpretation of surface geophysical data and relatively simple models.

  19. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 4. The Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, K.E.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled in this chapter into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline are provided for in the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state. Assessments for individual states are presented. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters.

  20. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  1. Overcoming potential energy distortions in constrained internal coordinate molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Saugat; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Larsen, Adrien B; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2016-01-28

    energy distortions encountered in constrained ICMD simulations of peptide molecules.

  2. System Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben

    units, including the ICT solutions that can facilitate the integration. Specifically, the international standard "IEC 61850-7-420 Communications systems for Distributed Energy Resources" is considered as a possible brick in the solution. This standard has undergone continuous development....... It is therefore investigated in this project how ancillary services can be provided by alternatives to central power stations, and to what extent these can be integrated in the system by means of market-based methods. Particular emphasis is put on automatic solutions, which is particularly relevant for small......, and this project has actively contributed to its further development and improvements. Different types of integration methods are investigated in the project. Some are based on local measurement and control, e.g. by measuring the grid frequency, whereas others are based on direct remote control or market...

  3. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  4. Management of late-preterm and term infants with hyperbilirubinaemia in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Kumar, Praveen; Boo, Nem-Yun; Iskander, Iman F; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda B; Vaucher, Yvonne E; Slusher, Tina M

    2015-04-12

    Hyperbilirubinaemia is a ubiquitous transitional morbidity in the vast majority of newborns and a leading cause of hospitalisation in the first week of life worldwide. While timely and effective phototherapy and exchange transfusion are well proven treatments for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, inappropriate or ineffective treatment of hyperbilirubinaemia, at secondary and tertiary hospitals, still prevails in many poorly-resourced countries accounting for a disproportionately high burden of bilirubin-induced mortality and long-term morbidity. As part of the efforts to curtail the widely reported risks of frequent but avoidable bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) and kernicterus) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) with significant resource constraints, this article presents a practical framework for the management of late-preterm and term infants (≥ 35 weeks of gestation) with clinically significant hyperbilirubinaemia in these countries particularly where local practice guidelines are lacking. Standard and validated protocols were followed in adapting available evidence-based national guidelines on the management of hyperbilirubinaemia through a collaboration among clinicians and experts on newborn jaundice from different world regions. Tasks and resources required for the comprehensive management of infants with or at risk of severe hyperbilirubinaemia at all levels of healthcare delivery are proposed, covering primary prevention, early detection, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, and follow-up. Additionally, actionable treatment or referral levels for phototherapy and exchange transfusion are proposed within the context of several confounding factors such as widespread exclusive breastfeeding, infections, blood group incompatibilities and G6PD deficiency, which place infants at high risk of severe hyperbilirubinaemia and bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction in LMICs, as well as the limited facilities

  5. Resource-Constrained Information Management: Providing Governments with Information for Earthquake Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatenmacher, Michael; Isaac, Shabtai; Svoray, Tal

    2017-05-01

    This study seeks to attain a better understanding of the information that is required by governments to prepare for earthquakes, and of the constraints they face in obtaining this information. The contributions of the study are two-fold. A survey that was conducted among those responsible for earthquake preparedness actions in different governmental agencies and at different levels revealed on the one hand a desire for information on a broad range of topics, but on the other hand that no resources were allocated in practice to gather this information. A Geographic Information System-based process that was developed following the survey, allowed the required information on seismic hazards and loss and damage risks to be rapidly collected, mapped and integrated. This supported the identification of high-priority areas, for which a more detailed analysis could be initiated. An implementation of the process showed promise, and confirmed its feasibility. Its relative simplicity may ensure that an earthquake preparedness process is initiated by governments that are otherwise reluctant to allocate resources for this purpose.

  6. Planck-scale Lorentz violation constrained by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Hamburg, II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany); Taylor, A.M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Mattingly, D.M.; Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    We investigate the consequences of higher dimension Lorentz violating, CPT even kinetic operators that couple standard model fields to a non-zero vector field in an Effective Field Theory framework. Comparing the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum reconstructed in the presence of such terms with data from the Pierre Auger observatory allows us to establish two sided bounds on the coefficients of the mass dimension five and six operators for the proton and pion. Our bounds imply that for both protons and pions, the energy scale of Lorentz symmetry breaking must be well above the Planck scale. In particular, the dimension five operators are constrained at the level of 10{sup -3}M{sup -1}{sub Planck}. The magnitude of the dimension six proton coefficient is bounded at the level of 10{sup -6}M{sup -2}{sub Planck} except in a narrow range where the pion and proton coefficients are both negative and nearly equal. In this small area, the magnitude of the dimension six proton coefficient must only be below 10{sup -3}M{sup -2}{sub Planck}. Constraints on the dimension six pion coefficient are found to be much weaker, but still below M{sup -2}{sub Planck}. (orig.)

  7. Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Based on a Realizable Energy Delivery Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC is an important tool for independent system operators in the day-ahead electric power market. A serious issue arises that the energy realizability of the staircase generation schedules obtained in traditional SCUC cannot be guaranteed. This paper focuses on addressing this issue, and the basic idea is to formulate the power output of thermal units as piecewise-linear function. All individual unit constraints and systemwide constraints are then reformulated. The new SCUC formulation is solved within the Lagrangian relaxation (LR framework, in which a double dynamic programming method is developed to solve individual unit subproblems. Numerical testing is performed for a 6-bus system and an IEEE 118-bus system on Microsoft Visual C# .NET platform. It is shown that the energy realizability of generation schedules obtained from the new formulation is guaranteed. Comparative case study is conducted between LR and mixed integer linear programming (MILP in solving the new formulation. Numerical results show that the near-optimal solution can be obtained efficiently by the proposed LR-based method.

  8. Energy Efficient Materials Manufacturing from Secondary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelian, Diran; Mishra, Brajendra

    Rare earths metals, including yttrium and scandium, are being increasingly used in clean energy technologies, colored phosphors, lasers and high intensity magnets. There are important defense applications such as fighter jet engines, missile guidance systems and space based satellite and communication systems, based on these metals. The commitment to clean energy technologies by various governments, as well as the projected growth in power and transportation sectors across the globe will certainly escalate the demand for rare earth metals and compounds. This demand implies that to ensure unhindered technological innovation, it is essential to possess secure supply chains for rare earth elements. The United States continues to be one of the largest consumers and importer of rare earths and the trend is expected to continue as the demand increases. In order to ensure secure rare earth supply and attenuate supply-demand imbalances post 2014, it is not only necessary to encourage and support exploration of newer reserves, build a rare earth stockpile, but it is also of utmost importance to look at opportunities to recycle and reuse Rare Earth Elements (REE) from secondary sources, such as post-consumer and manufacturing process wastes. This research describes the technological developments made to convert these valuable resources into functional manufactured materials for lighting industry, automotive and petroleum refining catalysts, and high density permanent magnets. In addition, production of rhenium from advanced aerospace alloys is also discussed from the perspective that it can be recovered for introduction in turbine alloys.

  9. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  10. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  11. An Interval Fuzzy-Stochastic Chance-Constrained Programming Based Energy-Water Nexus Model for Planning Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an interval fuzzy-stochastic chance-constrained programming based energy-water nexus (IFSCP-WEN model is developed for planning electric power system (EPS. The IFSCP-WEN model can tackle uncertainties expressed as possibility and probability distributions, as well as interval values. Different credibility (i.e., γ levels and probability (i.e., qi levels are set to reflect relationships among water supply, electricity generation, system cost, and constraint-violation risk. Results reveal that different γ and qi levels can lead to a changed system cost, imported electricity, electricity generation, and water supply. Results also disclose that the study EPS would tend to the transition from coal-dominated into clean energy-dominated. Gas-fired would be the main electric utility to supply electricity at the end of the planning horizon, occupying [28.47, 30.34]% (where 28.47% and 30.34% present the lower bound and the upper bound of interval value, respectively of the total electricity generation. Correspondingly, water allocated to gas-fired would reach the highest, occupying [33.92, 34.72]% of total water supply. Surface water would be the main water source, accounting for more than [40.96, 43.44]% of the total water supply. The ratio of recycled water to total water supply would increase by about [11.37, 14.85]%. Results of the IFSCP-WEN model present its potential for sustainable EPS planning by co-optimizing energy and water resources.

  12. Energy resources in foreign policy: a theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Česnakas, Giedrius

    2010-01-01

    This article examines which theory of international relations is best suited for the analysis of energy resources in international relations. The article suggests that realism paradigm theories might provide a useful starting point from a descriptive method in the studies of energy resources in foreign policy. The idealism paradigm downplays the strategic importance of energy resources, and suggests simplified view that statesmen are economically rational actors. Realism suggests that energy ...

  13. Assessing water resources in Azerbaijan using a local distributed model forced and constrained with global data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Hegnauer, Mark; Schellekens, Jaap; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; ten Velden, Corine

    2017-04-01

    In many countries, data is scarce, incomplete and often not easily shared. In these cases, global satellite and reanalysis data provide an alternative to assess water resources. To assess water resources in Azerbaijan, a completely distributed and physically based hydrological wflow-sbm model was set-up for the entire Kura basin. We used SRTM elevation data, a locally available river map and one from OpenStreetMap to derive the drainage direction network at the model resolution of approximately 1x1 km. OpenStreetMap data was also used to derive the fraction of paved area per cell to account for the reduced infiltration capacity (c.f. Schellekens et al. 2014). We used the results of a global study to derive root zone capacity based on climate data (Wang-Erlandsson et al., 2016). To account for the variation in vegetation cover over the year, monthly averages of Leaf Area Index, based on MODIS data, were used. For the soil-related parameters, we used global estimates as provided by Dai et al. (2013). This enabled the rapid derivation of a first estimate of parameter values for our hydrological model. Digitized local meteorological observations were scarce and available only for limited time period. Therefore several sources of global meteorological data were evaluated: (1) EU-WATCH global precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1958-2001 (Harding et al., 2011), (2) WFDEI precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1979-2014 (by Weedon et al., 2014), (3) MSWEP precipitation (Beck et al., 2016) and (4) local precipitation data from more than 200 stations in the Kura basin were available from the NOAA website for a period up to 1991. The latter, together with data archives from Azerbaijan, were used as a benchmark to evaluate the global precipitation datasets for the overlapping period 1958-1991. By comparing the datasets, we found that monthly mean precipitation of EU-WATCH and WFDEI coincided well

  14. Analysis of Total Factor Efficiency of Water Resource and Energy in China: A Study Based on DEA-SBM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the serious issues that China faces during its fast economic development is the low input–output efficiency of water and energy resources and growing water pollution. With the current economic development model of China, economic growth still requires large input of water resource and energy resource. This paper has focused on the total factor efficiency of water resource and energy resource by each province in China. We treat the undesirable outputs as outputs in the DEA-SBM Model instead of as inputs in previous studies, and design a new MATLAB programming to achieve optimization solutions of multi-variable constrained nonlinear functions to evaluate the Total Factor Efficiency of Water resource (TFEW and the Total Factor Efficiency of Energy (TFEE in China accurately. By using the method, this paper has analyzed the TFEW and TFEE in China from 2003 to 2014 by economic zones and typical provinces and provided corresponding policy recommendations.

  15. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  16. A hybrid electromagnetism-like algorithm for a multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sadeghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two different sub-problems are considered to solve a resource constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP, namely i assignment of modes to tasks and ii scheduling of these tasks in order to minimize the makespan of the project. The modified electromagnetism-like algorithm deals with the first problem to create an assignment of modes to activities. This list is used to generate a project schedule. When a new assignment is made, it is necessary to fix all mode dependent requirements of the project activities and to generate a random schedule with the serial SGS method. A local search will optimize the sequence of the activities. Also in this paper, a new penalty function has been proposed for solutions which are infeasible with respect to non-renewable resources. Performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with the best algorithms published so far on the basis of CPU time and number of generated schedules stopping criteria. Reported results indicate excellent performance of the algorithm.

  17. Improving the Performance of Highly Constrained Water Resource Systems using Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms and RiverWare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Instead of building new infrastructure to increase their supply reliability, water resource managers are often tasked with better management of current systems. The managers often have existing simulation models that aid their planning, and lack methods for efficiently generating and evaluating planning alternatives. This presentation discusses how multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) decision support can be used with the sophisticated water infrastructure model, RiverWare, in highly constrained water planning environments. We first discuss a study that performed a many-objective tradeoff analysis of water supply in the Tarrant Regional Water District (TRWD) in Texas. RiverWare is combined with the Borg MOEA to solve a seven objective problem that includes systemwide performance objectives and individual reservoir storage reliability. Decisions within the formulation balance supply in multiple reservoirs and control pumping between the eastern and western parts of the system. The RiverWare simulation model is forced by two stochastic hydrology scenarios to inform how management changes in wet versus dry conditions. The second part of the presentation suggests how a broader set of RiverWare-MOEA studies can inform tradeoffs in other systems, especially in political situations where multiple actors are in conflict over finite water resources. By incorporating quantitative representations of diverse parties' objectives during the search for solutions, MOEAs may provide support for negotiations and lead to more widely beneficial water management outcomes.

  18. Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, David J; Wanzala, Peter; D'Lima, Melvin; Njiru, Anthony; Chindia, Mark; Dimba, Elisabeth; Johnson, Newell W

    2015-11-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), caused by HHV-8, is the most frequent HIV-associated malignancy worldwide and remains a major scourge in Sub-Saharan Africa. KS is also endemic in much of Africa. There is a risk of misdiagnosis based solely on clinical appearance and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, especially with other reactive and neoplastic vascular proliferations which occur in the mouth. This study examined oral and cutaneous biopsies from clinically diagnosed lesions of KS in Kenya, using histopathology supplemented with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HHV-8 as confirmation of diagnosis. Biopsies of 49 lesions (28 oral, 21 cutaneous) previously diagnosed as 'KS' were re-examined by H&E staining and IHC targeting HHV-8 LANA-1. Positive controls were sections from embedded BCBL-1 cell lines. Negative controls were from three different HHV-8-negative biopsies. Confirmation of HHV-8 immunohistochemistry was sought by PCR and by determining the HHV-8 ORFK1 subtype. Whilst most cases were confirmed, 12 oral and 4 cutaneous lesions displayed clinical and histological features of KS but were negative to HHV-8 IHC. These oral lesions were re-diagnosed as pyogenic granulomata (n = 6), deep mycosis (n = 1), inflamed mucosa (n = 2) or 'uncertain but not KS' (n = 3). Whilst PCR is usually helpful in differentiating HHV-8 disease, all samples were HHV-8 PCR positive, with identical sequences, suggesting cross-contamination of samples in the original pathology laboratories. HHV-8 IHC is essential for the correct diagnosis of KS, but due to the high level of contamination in resource-poor settings, PCR is inadvisable. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Spatiotemporal variability of marine renewable energy resources in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varlas, George; Christakos, Konstantinos; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, A.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) resources such as wind and wave energy depend on the complex behaviour of weather and climatic conditions which determine the development of MRE technologies, energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the spatiotemporal variability of MRE resources along

  20. Dual energy CT using slow kVp switching acquisition and prior image constrained compressed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Chen Guanghong

    2010-01-01

    Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) is currently a subject of extensive investigation. DECT is currently implemented using either a dual source scanner with high and low kVp data acquired from separate sources or a single source scanner with both high and low kVp data acquired in an alternating manner. Both methods require dedicated hardware to enable data acquisition and image reconstruction for DECT. In this paper, we present a method to enable DECT using a single x-ray source with a slow kVp switching data acquisition. The enabling reconstruction technique allowing for the reduction in slew rate is the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm. When a slow kVp switching data acquisition method is used, the projection data with high and low kVp values are undersampled and the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) image reconstruction does not enable streaking artifact-free images for material decomposition in DECT. In this paper, all of the acquired high and low kVp projection data were used to generate a prior image using the conventional FBP method. The PICCS algorithm was then used to reconstruct both high and low kVp images to enable material decomposition in the image domain. Both numerical simulations and physical phantom experimental studies were conducted to validate the proposed DECT scheme. The results demonstrate that a slew rate corresponding to 123 views at high and low kVp (high and low kVp values used for dual energy decomposition) is sufficient for the PICCS-based DECT method. In contrast, the slew rate should be high enough to obtain over 500 projections at each kVp for artifact-free reconstruction using an FBP-based DECT method.

  1. Constraining high-energy neutrino emission from choked jets in stripped-envelope supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter

    2018-01-01

    There are indications that γ-ray dark objects such as supernovae (SNe) with choked jets, and the cores of active galactic nuclei may contribute to the diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos measured by the IceCube observatory. In particular, stripped-envelope SNe have received much attention since they are capable of producing relativistic jets and could explain the diversity in observations of collapsar explosions (e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), low-luminosity GRBs, and Type Ibc SNe). We use an unbinned maximum likelihood method to search for spatial and temporal coincidences between Type Ibc core-collapse SNe, which may harbor a choked jet, and muon neutrinos from a sample of IceCube up-going track-like events measured from May 2011–May 2012. In this stacking analysis, we find no significant deviation from a background-only hypothesis using one year of data, and are able to place upper limits on the total amount of isotropic equivalent energy that choked jet core-collapse SNe deposit in cosmic rays Script Ecr and the fraction of core-collapse SNe which have a jet pointed towards Earth fjet. This analysis can be extended with yet to be made public IceCube data, and the increased amount of optically detected core-collapse SNe discovered by wide field-of-view surveys such as the Palomar Transient Factory and All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae. The choked jet SNe/high-energy cosmic neutrino connection can be more tightly constrained in the near future.

  2. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  3. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  4. Electric vehicle charging to support renewable energy integration in a capacity constrained electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Examination of EV charging in a wind rich area with transmission constraints. • Multiple survey instruments to determine transportation needs, when charging occurs. • Simple charging, time-of-day scheduled, and ideal smart charging investigated. • Export power peaks reduced by 2% with TOD, 10% with smart charging 10% of fleet. • Smart charging EVs enables enough added wind capacity to power the fleet. - Abstract: Digby, Nova Scotia, is a largely rural area with a wealth of renewable energy resources, principally wind and tidal. Digby’s electrical load is serviced by an aging 69 kV transmission line that often operates at the export capacity limit because of a local wind energy converter (WEC) field. This study examines the potential of smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) to achieve two objectives: (1) add load so as to increase export capacity; (2) charge EVs using renewable energy. Multiple survey instruments were used to determine transportation energy needs and travel timing. These were used to create EV charging load timeseries based on “convenience”, “time-of-day”, and idealized “smart” charging. These charging scenarios were evaluated in combination with high resolution data of generation at the wind field, electrical flow through the transmission system, and electricity load. With a 10% adoption rate of EVs, time-of-day charging increased local renewable energy usage by 20% and enables marginal WEC upgrading. Smart charging increases charging by local renewable energy by 73%. More significantly, it adds 3 MW of load when power exports face constraints, allowing enough additional renewable electricity generation capacity to fully power those vehicles.

  5. Wind Power: An Emerging Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    One may ask the question, What is energy? Typically the first answers that come to mind are oil, coal, and natural gas or nuclear energy. Most human activities require some form of energy consumption. This may be the energy produced by the food that one eats or the gasoline that is used in cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles. One cannot ignore…

  6. Unused Energy Resources of the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2008-01-01

    Croatia has very modest fossil fuels resources and relatively large unused potentials of increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. Energy import dependency is close to 60 percent and constantly rising, thus increasing already considerable Croatian foreign debt. By using potential of these resources until the year 2020 Croatia could almost totally eliminate fossil fuels import, reduce foreign debt as well as energy systems' harmful influences on environment, climate and health, and increase domestic employment.(author)

  7. Design and implementation of a patient navigation system in rural Nepal: Improving patient experience in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Anant; Thapa, Poshan; Citrin, David; Schwarz, Ryan; Gauchan, Bikash; Bista, Deepak; Tamrakar, Bibhu; Halliday, Scott; Maru, Duncan; Schwarz, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Patient navigation programs have shown to be effective across multiple settings in guiding patients through the care delivery process. Limited experience and literature exist, however, for such programs in rural and resource-constrained environments. Patients living in such settings frequently have low health literacy and substantially lower social status than their providers. They typically have limited experiences interfacing with formalized healthcare systems, and, when they do, their experience can be unpleasant and confusing. At a district hospital in rural far-western Nepal, we designed and implemented a patient navigation system that aimed to improve patients' subjective care experience. First, we hired and trained a team of patient navigators who we recruited from the local area. Their responsibility is exclusively to demonstrate compassion and to guide patients through their care process. Second, we designed visual cues throughout our hospital complex to assist in navigating patients through the buildings. Third, we incorporated the patient navigators within the management and communications systems of the hospital care team, and established standard operating procedures. We describe here our experiences and challenges in designing and implementing a patient navigator program. Such patient-centered systems may be relevant at other facilities in Nepal and globally where patient health literacy is low, patients come from backgrounds of substantial marginalization and disempowerment, and patient experience with healthcare facilities is limited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Establishing a regulatory value chain model: An innovative approach to strengthening medicines regulatory systems in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; Kashfipour, Farrah; Susko, Matt; Feachem, Neelam Sekhri; Boyle, Colin

    2016-05-01

    Medicines Regulatory Authorities (MRAs) are an essential part of national health systems and are charged with protecting and promoting public health through regulation of medicines. However, MRAs in resource-constrained settings often struggle to provide effective oversight of market entry and use of health commodities. This paper proposes a regulatory value chain model (RVCM) that policymakers and regulators can use as a conceptual framework to guide investments aimed at strengthening regulatory systems. The RVCM incorporates nine core functions of MRAs into five modules: (i) clear guidelines and requirements; (ii) control of clinical trials; (iii) market authorization of medical products; (iv) pre-market quality control; and (v) post-market activities. Application of the RVCM allows national stakeholders to identify and prioritize investments according to where they can add the most value to the regulatory process. Depending on the economy, capacity, and needs of a country, some functions can be elevated to a regional or supranational level, while others can be maintained at the national level. In contrast to a "one size fits all" approach to regulation in which each country manages the full regulatory process at the national level, the RVCM encourages leveraging the expertise and capabilities of other MRAs where shared processes strengthen regulation. This value chain approach provides a framework for policymakers to maximize investment impact while striving to reach the goal of safe, affordable, and rapidly accessible medicines for all.

  9. 75 FR 4316 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... generation forecasting systems for wind and solar generation resources to a state-of-the-art forecasting... are needed to eliminate those barriers. VERs, such as resources powered by wind and solar energy... in the fuel source that is beyond the control of the resource operator. This includes wind and solar...

  10. The Final Report: 1975 Energy Resource Alternatives Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Mark L.; And Others

    This publication describes the projects entered in the Energy Resource Alternatives competition in 1975. Teams of engineering students were given a year to develop non-conventional or alternative energy systems that produced useful energy outputs. Besides an overview of energy sources and uses and discussions of the competitions development, the…

  11. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; Kline, J.

    2001-10-01

    The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Dominican Republic identifies the wind characteristics and the distribution of the wind resource in this country. This major project is the first of its kind undertaken for the Dominican Republic. The information contained in the atlas is necessary to facilitate the use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. A computerized wind mapping system developed by NREL generated detailed wind resource maps for the entire country. This technique uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to produce high-resolution (1-square kilometer) annual average wind resource maps.

  12. 78 FR 60366 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    .... Public Comments. 4. Council Discussion. The RERC will hear opinions and views of citizens by providing a... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The TVA Regional Energy Resource Council...

  13. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  14. Alternative energy resources for MoDOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This research investigates environmentally friendly alternative energy sources that could be used by MoDOT in various areas, and develops applicable and sustainable strategies to implement those energy sources.

  15. sustainable development of national energy resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    environmental protection (oil pollution) and safety (oil rigs and collisions at sea). Gas does not even ..... improvement in energy efficiency and of the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.27 .... 37 For discussion of PSNR in the WTO context, see China – Measures Related to the. Exportation of Various Raw ...

  16. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Resource Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Schneider Electric Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  17. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dai

    1995-01-01

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author)

  18. Conservation and renewable energy resource directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Directory facilitates quick access to DOE offices responsible for conservation and renewable energy activities. Because several offices in DOE may have responsibility for various phases of a technology or service (i.e., research, development, demonstration, commercialization, information, education, etc.) the Directory lists the key contacts from the various phases by category. The Directory is organized in five main categories plus an index and relevant appendices. The categories are: revewable energy technologies (thermal and electric solar, wind energy systems, small scale hydroelectric, biomass, ocean systems); complementary technologies (appropriate technology, advanced engine design, cogeneration, energy storage, total energy systems); conservation technologies (buildings and community systems, transportation, industrial and agricultural energy conservation, state and local programs); environment; and support services (information, outreach, education, small business support, basic research, data and analysis, publication, films, Solar Energy Research Institute, regional offices laboratories, and information centers).

  19. A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's POWER project, or the Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources project, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale. The products of the project find valuable applications in the solar and wind energy sectors of the renewable energy industries. The primary source data for the POWER project are NASA's World Climate Research Project (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Release 3.0) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (V 4.0.3). Users of the POWER products access the data through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, Version 6.0) website (http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Over 200 parameters are available to the users. The spatial resolution is 1 degree by 1 degree now and will be finer later. The data covers from July 1983 to December 2007, a time-span of 24.5 years, and are provided as 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. As of now, there have been over 18 million web hits and over 4 million data file downloads. The POWER products have been systematically validated against ground-based measurements, and in particular, data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) archive, and also against the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Parameters such as minimum, maximum, daily mean temperature and dew points, relative humidity and surface pressure are validated against the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) data. SSE feeds data directly into Decision Support Systems including RETScreen International clean energy project analysis software that is written in 36 languages and has greater than 260,000 users worldwide.

  20. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  1. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  2. Energy Resources Consumption Minimization in Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balastov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the energy savings analysis during operation of buildings, provides the heat balance of residential premises, considers options for energy-efficient solutions for hot water supply systems in buildings. As technical facilities that allow the use of secondary heat sources and solar energy, there are also considered the systems with heat recovery of “gray” wastewater, heat pumps, solar collectors and photoelectric converters.

  3. Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21: Green leadership empowers public hospitals to overcome obstacles and challenges in a resource-constrained environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Weimann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare sector itself contributes to climate change, the creation of hazardous waste, use of toxic metals such as mercury, and water and air pollution. To mitigate the effect of healthcare provision on the deteriorating environment and avoid creating further challenges for already burdened health systems, Global Green Hospitals was formed as a global network. Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH, as the leading academic hospital in Africa, joined the network in 2014. Since then, several projects have been initiated to reduce the amount of general waste, energy consumption and food waste, and create an environmentally friendlier and more sustainable hospital in a resource-constrained public healthcare setting. We outline the various efforts made to reduce the carbon footprint of GSH and reduce waste and hazardous substances such as mercury and polystyrene, and elaborate how obstacles and resistance to change were overcome. The hospital was able to halve the amount of coal and water used, increase recycling by 50% over 6 months, replace polystyrene cups and packaging with Forest Stewardship Council recyclable paper-based products, reduce the effect of food wastage by making use of local farmers, and implement measures to reduce the amount of expired pharmaceutical drugs. To improve commitment from all involved roleplayers, political leadership, supportive government policies and financial funding is mandatory, or public hospitals will be unable to tackle the exponentially increasing costs related to climate change and its effects on healthcare.

  4. Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21): Green leadership empowers public hospitals to overcome obstacles and challenges in a resource-constrained environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, E; Patel, B

    2016-12-21

    The healthcare sector itself contributes to climate change, the creation of hazardous waste, use of toxic metals such as mercury, and water and air pollution. To mitigate the effect of healthcare provision on the deteriorating environment and avoid creating further challenges for already burdened health systems, Global Green Hospitals was formed as a global network. Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), as the leading academic hospital in Africa, joined the network in 2014. Since then, several projects have been initiated to reduce the amount of general waste, energy consumption and food waste, and create an environmentally friendlier and more sustainable hospital in a resource-constrained public healthcare setting. We outline the various efforts made to reduce the carbon footprint of GSH and reduce waste and hazardous substances such as mercury and polystyrene, and elaborate how obstacles and resistance to change were overcome. The hospital was able to halve the amount of coal and water used, increase recycling by 50% over 6 months, replace polystyrene cups and packaging with Forest Stewardship Council recyclable paper-based products, reduce the effect of food wastage by making use of local farmers, and implement measures to reduce the amount of expired pharmaceutical drugs. To improve commitment from all involved roleplayers, political leadership, supportive government policies and financial funding is mandatory, or public hospitals will be unable to tackle the exponentially increasing costs related to climate change and its effects on healthcare.

  5. Energy-efficient cloud computing : autonomic resource provisioning for datacenters

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfatsion, Selome Kostentinos

    2018-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an increasingly important concern in data centers because of issues associated with energy consumption, such as capital costs, operating expenses, and environmental impact. While energy loss due to suboptimal use of facilities and non-IT equipment has largely been reduced through the use of best-practice technologies, addressing energy wastage in IT equipment still requires the design and implementation of energy-aware resource management systems. This thesis focu...

  6. Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies providing technical information regarding renewable energy in Pakistan as well as suggestions and recommendations for the development of these resources, and over view the present status of renewable energy sources. (author)

  7. A decision model for energy resource selection in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Kocaoglu, Dundar F.; Daim, Tugrul U.; Yang Jiting

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and renewable energy resources as energy alternatives for China through use of a hierarchical decision model. The results indicate that although coal is still the major preferred energy alternative, it is followed closely by renewable energy. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the most critical criterion for energy selection is the current energy infrastructure. A hierarchical decision model is used, and expert judgments are quantified, to evaluate the alternatives. Criteria used for the evaluations are availability, current energy infrastructure, price, safety, environmental impacts and social impacts.

  8. Security-constrained optimal energy management system for three-phase residential microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara, Pedro P.; López, Juan Camilo; da Silva, Luiz C.P.

    2017-01-01

    management. The aim of the proposed model is to minimize the final operational costs of the microgrid while considering operational constraints of the EDS and an unexpected outage of the main grid through a security-constrained set of equations. The optimal solution of the MILP model is found using...

  9. Renewable energy resources: Opportunities and constraints 1990-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This study examined the prospects for new renewable energy resources, from a global perspective, over the next three decades and beyond. The study is intended to support the work of the World Energy Council (WEC) Commission on Energy for Tomorrow's World. The new renewable resources investigated were: Solar; wind; geothermal; modern biomass; ocean; small hydro. Each of these areas was thoroughly researched and was the subject of a separate section of the report. Recent information on large-scale hydroelectric and traditional biomass is included for added perspective on total use of renewable energy, but both fall outside the definition of new renewable energy used in this report

  10. The energy resources of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.; Schumann, G.W.S.

    1975-01-01

    The topic, energy estimates, is approached from the viewpoint of producers of non-renewable energy raw materials. The authors are concerned with what can be and is being done in Southern Africa. A table is given of the planned capital and research expenditure in the energy field in South Africa for 1974-1984. The authors emphasize the importance of intelligent action on the part of governments in the development of a set of value judgement criteria which provides a reasoned balance between the needs of the present and the future

  11. Generalization of the Manley-Rowe relations for non-periodic signals constrained in bandwidth with finite energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, P.

    1979-01-01

    General relations for the energy spectral densities of nonperiodic signals constrained in bandwidth in nonlinear reactances are derived. It is assumed that the charge-voltage characteristics of the reactances are polynomials. In addition certain conditions for the frequency bands of the signals must be met. By contrast with the Manley-Rowe relations integrals with respect to frequency appear instead of the ratios power over frequency. The integrands are energy spectral densities divided by frequency. For parametric devices inequalities can be derived for the ratios of the energy levels in the different circuits and the limiting frequencies of the energy spectral densities. With these inequalities it is possible to determine limits for the energy levels.

  12. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2001 Information Resources Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) eighth annual Information Resources Catalog can help keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The catalog includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.

  13. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect

  14. Constraining dark energy and modified gravity with galaxy clusters, Oskar Klein Center for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Using measurements of the abundance of galaxy clusters we obtain constraints on dark energy and gravity at cosmological scales. Our data set consists of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations of 94 of those clusters. Using a new statistical...... framework we self-consistently and simultaneously constrain cosmology and observable-mass scaling relations accounting for survey biases, parameter covariances and systematic uncertainties. Allowing the linear growth index and the dark energy equation of state to take any constant values, we find...

  15. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  16. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  17. Prediction of Wind Energy Resources (PoWER) Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ARL-TR-7573● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Prediction of Wind Energy Resources ( PoWER ) User’s Guide by David P Sauter...not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7573 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Prediction of Wind Energy Resources ( PoWER ...2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 09/2015–11/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prediction of Wind Energy Resources ( PoWER ) User’s

  18. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  19. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  20. World's future with respect to conventional and alternative energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozemre, A.Y.

    1994-01-01

    It is expected that world's petroleum reserve will have exhausted in 2050, natural gas in 2070 and coal in 2150. This situation results in focusing of attention over nuclear energy and alternative energy resources. Serious studies and assessments of expense show, that electrical generation from tission type of nuclear energy can be sufficient to solve the energy deficiency in short-term. In medium-term, in addition to the utilization of nuclear energy, it is possible to make use of solar energy which is considered to be an alternative energy source. Electrical generation from therma-nuclear energy, which has an almost inexhaustible source of energy that will serve for the long-term energy need of humanity, will be functional towards the end of 21st century. Moreover, humanity should give up wasteful consumption of energy and should spend effort for the realization of technological innovations which could enable the use of energy with maximum efficiency

  1. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  2. 78 FR 78466 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... TVA's business objectives including rates, reliability, resiliency and environmental responsibility. 4. Public Comments 5. Council Discussion on the balancing of TVA's business objectives during Integrated... energy resource activities and the priorities among competing objectives and values. Notice of this...

  3. Electric power from renewable energy: resources and stakes for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the essential of the last thematic letter published by the IFEN (French institute of the environment), devoted to the resources and stakes of the electric power produced by the renewable energies in France. (A.L.B.)

  4. The biomass energy. Definitions - resources - uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damien, A.

    2008-01-01

    This book offers a whole panorama of the biomass, details the regulation, the standardization and the associated taxation. It points out the competition between the energy uses (heat, electricity, biofuels) and with the other uses (food, paper, furniture, clothes...) and exposes the techniques of the biomass processing. (A.L.B.)

  5. Utilization of secondary energy resources of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with a heat output of 4200 kW, a working agent R 600, a source of low-potential heat-circulating water: a 460 kW gas engine. The proposed scheme showed high efficiency of power supply of the town in comparison with the gas boiler. Keywords: heat pump; internal combustion engine metallurgical plant; energy efficiency ...

  6. Energy efficient processing of natural resources; Energieeffiziente Verarbeitung natuerlicher Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlken, Alexandra [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Projekt FU2; Hans, Carl [Bremer Institut fuer Produktion und Logistik GmbH BIBA, Bremen (Germany). Abt. Intelligente Informations- und Kommunikationsumgebungen fuer die kooperative Produktion im Forschungsbereich Informations- und Kommunikationstechnische Anwendungen; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Inst. fuer integrierte Produktentwicklung; Bremer Institut fuer Produktion und Logistik GmbH BIBA, Bremen (Germany). Forschungsbereich Informations- und kommunikationstechnische Anwendungen; Austing, Bernhard [Fa. Austing, Damme (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Energy efficiency is gaining high importance in production processes. High energy consumption is directly related to high costs. The processing of natural resources is resulting in additional energy input because of defined output quality demands. This paper discussed approaches and IT-solutions for the automatically adjustment of production processes to cope with varying input qualities. The intention is to achieve the lowest energy input into the process without quality restraints.

  7. Kalimantan energy resource management to support energy independence and industry growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizki Firmansyah Setya Budi; Wiku Lulus Widodo; Djati Hoesen Salimy

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of energy resource in Kalimantan such as coal, oil, CBM, gas and nuclear. While the electricity consumption still low. That condition caused by the bad energy planning. The aim of the study are to know the number and the ability of energy resource to supply the energy demand that support the growth of Kalimantan industry. The methodology are collecting and processing data through calculation using MESSAGE Program. The result is energy resource in Kalimantan can support Kalimantan energy independence and industry growth in Kalimantan. The coal resource is 34,814 million ton consumption 835 million ton, gas resource is 31,814 BSCF consumption 3,281 BSCF, Oil resource is 920 MMSTB consumption 4406 MMSTB, CBM resource is 210 TCF consumption 2.1 TCF, U 3 O 8 resource is 12,409 ton consumption zero. Whereas for hydro and biomass, the resource are 256 and 138 MWyr, the maximum consumption 185 and 126 MWyr every year. Oil consumption will exceed the resource so need import from other island or replaced by others energy that have large resource such as gas, CBM, or coal. Potency to make cleaner environment can be done by used nuclear energy. (author)

  8. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  9. Exploring resource efficiency for energy, land and phosphorus use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Maurits; Hermans, Kathleen; Vuuren, van Detlef P.; Bouwman, A.F.; Kram, Tom; Bakkes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present four model-based scenarios exploring the potential for resource efficiency for energy, land and phosphorus use, and implications for resource depletion, climate change and biodiversity. The scenarios explored include technological improvements as well as structural

  10. Information Modeling for Direct Control of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We present an architecture for an unbundled liberalized electricity market system where a virtual power plant (VPP) is able to control a number of distributed energy resources (DERs) directly through a two-way communication link. The aggregator who operates the VPP utilizes the accumulated...... for a whole range of different DERs. The devised information model can serve as input to the international standardization efforts on distributed energy resources....

  11. Meta-analysis of non-renewable energy resource estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a review of estimates of ultimately recoverable resources (URR) of non-renewable energy sources: coal, conventional and unconventional oil, conventional and unconventional gas, and uranium for nuclear fission. There is a large range in the estimates of many of the energy sources, even those that have been utilized for a long time and, as such, should be well understood. If it is assumed that the estimates for each resource are normally distributed, then the total value of ultimately recoverable fossil and fissile energy resources is 70,592 EJ. If, on the other hand, the best fitting distribution from each of the resource estimate populations is used, a the total value is 50,702 EJ, a factor of around 30% smaller. - Highlights: ► Brief introduction to categorization of resources. ► Collated over 380 estimates of ultimately recoverable global resources for all non-renewable energy sources. ► Extensive statistical analysis and distribution fitting conducted. ► Cross-energy source comparison of resource magnitudes.

  12. Catchment scale water resource constraints on UK policies for low-carbon energy system transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konadu, D. D.; Fenner, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term low-carbon energy transition policy of the UK presents national scale propositions of different low-carbon energy system options that lead to meeting GHG emissions reduction target of 80% on 1990 levels by 2050. Whilst national-scale assessments suggests that water availability may not be a significant constrain on future thermal power generation systems in this pursuit, these analysis fail to capture the appropriate spatial scale where water resource decisions are made, i.e. at the catchment scale. Water is a local resource, which also has significant spatio-temporal regional and national variability, thus any policy-relevant water-energy nexus analysis must be reflective of these characteristics. This presents a critical challenge for policy relevant water-energy nexus analysis. This study seeks to overcome the above challenge by using a linear spatial-downscaling model to allocate nationally projected water-intensive energy system infrastructure/technologies to the catchment level, and estimating the water requirements for the deployment of these technologies. The model is applied to the UK Committee on Climate Change Carbon Budgets to 2030 as a case study. The paper concludes that whilst national-scale analyses show minimal long-term water related impacts, catchment level appraisal of water resource requirements reveal significant constraints in some locations. The approach and results presented in this study thus, highlights the importance of bringing together scientific understanding, data and analysis tools to provide better insights for water-energy nexus decisions at the appropriate spatial scale. This is particularly important for water stressed regions where the water-energy nexus must be analysed at appropriate spatial resolution to capture the full water resource impact of national energy policy.

  13. Similar goals, divergent motives. The enabling and constraining factors of Russia's capacity-based renewable energy support scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Niels

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Russian government set its first quantitative renewable energy target at 4.5% of the total electricity produced and consumed by 2020. In 2013, the Government launched its capacity-based renewable energy support scheme (CRESS), however, the expects it will merely add 0.3% to the current 0.67% share of renewables (Ministry of Energy, 2016c). This raises the question what factors might explain this implementation gap. On the basis of field research in Moscow, the article offers an in-depth policy analysis of resource-geographic, financial, institutional and ecologic enabling and constraining factors of Russia's CRESS between 2009 and 2015. To avoid the trap that policy intentions remain on paper, the entire policy cycle – from goal setting to implementation – has been covered. The article concludes that wind energy, which would have contributed the lion's share of new renewable energy capacity, lags behind, jeopardizing the quantitative renewable energy target. The depreciation of the rouble decreased return on investment, and the Local Content Requirement discouraged investors given the lack of Russian wind production facilities. Contrary to resource-geographic and financial expectations, solar projects have been commissioned more accurately, benefitting from access to major business groups and existing production facilities. - Highlights: • The support scheme is focused on the oversupplied integrated electricity market. • The scheme disregards the technical and economic potential in isolated areas. • The solar industry develops at the fastest rate, wind and small hydro lag behind. • Access to business groups and production facilities condition implementation. • The devaluation of the rouble necessitated a revision of the policy design.

  14. Management of moderate wind energy coastal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Life cycle analysis reveals the viability of moderate wind fields utilization. → Wind turbine is the greenest electricity generator at a touristic site. → Wind parks should be collective applications of small hotel-apartments owners. -- Abstract: The feasibility of wind energy utilization at moderate wind fields was investigated for a typical touristic coastal site in Western Greece. Initially, the wind speed and direction as well as its availability, duration and diurnal variation were assessed. For an analysis period of eight years, the mean wind speed at ten meters was determined as 3.8 m s -1 with a small variation in monthly average wind speeds between 3.0 (January) and 4.4 m s -1 (October). The mean wind power density was less than 200 W m -2 at 10 m indicating the limiting suitability of the site for the usual renewable energy applications. However, life cycle analysis for wind turbine generators with lower cut-in, cut-out, and rated speeds revealed that the energy yield ratio can reach a value of six for a service life of 20 years while the energy pay-back period can be 3 years with 33 kt CO 2 -e of avoided greenhouse emissions. Therefore, the recent technological turbine improvements make wind power viable even at moderate wind fields. Moreover, the study of electricity supply of typical small hotel-apartments in the region of Western Greece indicated that the installation of 300 wind turbine generators in these moderate wind fields would cover the total consumption during the open touristic period with profits during the rest of the year. According to these results, wind turbine generators are the 'greenest' way of generating electricity in touristic coastal sites, even of moderate wind speeds.

  15. Wave energy resource assessment and review of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Nik, W.B.: Sulaiman, O.O. [Maritime Technology Department, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Rosliza, R. [TATI University College, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, (Malaysia); Prawoto, Y. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Muzathik, A.M. [Institute of Technology, University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2011-07-01

    Increase in human population has increased the demand for more energy. Technical improvement in transport and electrical appliances gives a lot of facilities to our life nowadays. Still we need to generate or convert this energy. Energy generation based on conventional technologies is always accompanied by environmental pollution. It gives overheating and greenhouse effects that later result in biosphere degradation. Nowadays sea wave energy is being increasingly regarded in many countries as a major and promising resource. It is renewable and environmentally friendly. In this paper wave parameters related to wave energy is analyzed. Then the paper describes the development of many different types of wave-energy converters. Several topics are addressed; the characterization of the wave energy resource, range of devices and how such devices can be organized into classes.

  16. Renewable Energy Resources With Smart Microgrid Model In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikant Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of civilization is increasing energy consumption. Due to which India is facing an energy crisis. It is estimated that global energy demand will double in 2030. India Trhurga other developing countries will face a crisis. Returning to the problem Fall growth of renewable energy resources will increase. Even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Naturally replenished renewable energy such as sunlight wind rain tides and geothermal heat as will have to depend on natural resources. High energy demand and environmental concerns in the papers smart microgrid is forced to change the existing power grid. This paper dynamic demand response and smart microgrid for residential and industrial consumption in the context of renewable energy production including the proposed management approach. The objectives of this research renewable energy resources with a smart microgrid has played an important role. Power system in rural areas in India to meet growing energy demand. The model deployed PLC networks data management system sensors Switchgears Transformers and other utility tools to integrate Smart Grid Smart homes are used together. Analytical results Residential renewable energy generation and smart meters show the effectiveness of the proposed system to optimize control of the electrical grid and is designed to improve energy conservation.

  17. Wind as a renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawsey, R. A.; Ferraro, R. J.

    1988-12-01

    A description of the United States wind energy technology status, a discussion of recent milestones achieved in wind power, and a call for action in order for competitive wind systems to become practical in an international marketplace is presented in this report. An immediate opportunity to initiate a joint venture project with the government, equipment developers, equipment manufacturers, utilities, and the Electric Power Research Institute is described. The key technical areas of materials technology for reduced airfoil fatigue, airfoil design for optimum new-site performance, and power electronics for variable-speed wind turbines are highlighted.

  18. Transition? What transition? : Changing energy systems in an increasingly carbon constrained world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, J.A.; Lopez de Silanes, Florencio; de Roode, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Energy transitions have been taking place continuously since the Industrial Revolution. These transitions primarily involve national energy mixes. In general, countries keep moving up the energy ladder, meaning that they integrate larger and larger proportions of specialized fuels into their energy

  19. Observation on optimal transition from conventional energy with resource constraints to advanced energy with virtually unlimited resource, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Hiroo; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Kiyose, Ryohei

    1983-01-01

    This is an extension of the Suzuki model (base model) on optimal transition from resource-limited energy (oil) to advanced energy with virtually unlimited resource. The finite length of plant life, fuel cost, technological progress factor of advanced energy and the upper limit upon annual consumption rate of oil are taken into account for such an extension. The difference in optimal solutions obtained from extended and base models is shown by an application of the maximum principle. The implication of advanced energy R and D andenergy conservation effort is also discussed. (author)

  20. Energy Survival: entertainment as a resource for local energy actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elburg, Henk van; Moosdijk, Catelijne van de [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, SenterNovem, the Dutch Broadcasting Corporation, a publishing company and a consortium of local authorities launched 'Energy Survival'; a renewing energy marketing strategy for children to create a demand for local energy actions. New elements are powerful branding and the use of cross media techniques through national TV, internet, local events and primary education. Through entertainment, Energy Survival influences children's attitude towards energy consumption and its convincing relation with the environment. It aims at qualifying children to become 'energy ambassadors' in their own local environment: family, school and neighbourhood. Energy Survival has become a well tested energy game-concept for children in whom public and private partners cooperate under one brand name and with a clear division of roles and interests. However, the backbone of the concept is the local approach: local actions in municipalities and in primary schools, supported by television and internet where children learn to deal with the upcoming energy challenges of the planet they will inherit. By providing an internet-based teaching method, especially primary schools will be an effective multiplier to reach children. Broadcasting the energy game on national TV on the one hand, and local events and preliminaries on the other hand, ensure opportunities for widespread 'duplication' of the concept, adapted to local policy priorities regarding sustainable energy because each municipality is permitted to choose its own themes. Despite the fact that the project is still young and that the partners consider it as a 'long term-investment', the first independent monitoring results indicate that Energy Survival so far is quite successful. Ratings of the first TV-series show a national market share of 20 % in the age group 6-12 years and significantly more interaction between children and their parents on energy related issues. The website

  1. BUILDING TRIBAL CAPABILITIES IN ENERGY RESOURCE TRIBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Lopez

    2003-04-01

    The CERT Tribal Internship Program is part of the education and training opportunities provided by CERT to accelerate the development of American Indian technical professionals available to serve Tribes and expand the pool of these professionals. Tribes are severely impacted by the inadequate number of Indian professionals available to serve and facilitate Tribal participation and support of the energy future of Tribes,and subsequently the energy future of the nation. By providing interns with hands-on work experience in their field of study two goals are accomplished: (1) the intern is provided opportunities for professional enhancement; and (2) The pool of Indian professionals available to meet the needs of Tribal government and Tribal communities in general is increased. As of January 17, 2003, Lance M Wyatt successfully completed his internship with the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice on the Task Force that specifically focuses their work on Tribal nations. While working as an intern with the National Transportation Program, Albuquerque operations, Jacqueline Agnew received an offer to work for the Alaska Native Health Board in Anchorage, Alaska. This was an opportunity that Ms. Agnew did not feel she could afford to forego and she left her internship position in February 2003. At present, CERT is in the process of finding another qualified individual to replace the internship position vacated by Ms. Agnew. Mr. Wyatt's and Ms. Agnew's final comments are given.

  2. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izutsu Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings. In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts. The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well. The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1. It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child

  3. Pyramid Resource Center-Green Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, Paul, D.

    2011-09-02

    There are currently over 3,500 USA/Canadian landfills listed by the EPA/EC and like numbers in Europe that are producing methane-rich landfill gas (LFG). This gas is typically made up of 50-percent methane (CH4), 35-percent carbon dioxide (CO2), and 2 to 25% nitrogen and oxygen (N2 & O2), plus dozens of dilute contaminants. LFG is classified as a renewable fuel, because it is generated via biological decay of municipal solid waste, a constant byproduct of human activity. To date, most LFG has been allowed to escape into the atmosphere. On account of its high CH4 content, LFG may contribute to climate change, as CH4 is one of the most harmful greenhouse gases with 21 times the global warming potential of CO2. Of the landfills that collect LFG, most simply flare it. In the past decade, some landfills have begun to use LFG for electricity generation or for direct combustion as low Btu gas. Very few landfills upgrade LFG to high Btu gas. A patented CO2 WashTM process developed by Acrion Technologies Inc., and licensed to Firm Green Inc. shows promise as an economically and environmentally sustainable process to recover energy and prevent pollution from landfills. The CO2 WashTM has already been proven at lab-scale. It upgrades LFG, which consists of 50% methane (CH4) + 35% carbon dioxide (CO2) + 2 to 25% nitrogen + oxygen (N2+O2), 1 to 2% water vapor, and dozens of contaminants (which total a few hundred to a few thousand parts per million). CH4, which by itself has an energy content of 1,012 British thermal units (Btu) per standard cubic foot (SCF), is the only component in LFG that contributes to its energy content, which is therefore about 400-550 Btu/SCF. Accordingly, raw LFG is usually referred to as medium-Btu gas. To be salable, it is necessary to remove essentially all the components besides CH4, while keeping the vast majority of the revenue producing CH4. This is high-Btu gas, yielding 850 to 1,000 Btu/SCF. The CO2 WashTM process upgrades LFG to about 930 Btu

  4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Information Resources Catalog 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-01-01

    NREL's ninth annual Information Resources Catalog can keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. It includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.

  5. Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T; Hagerman, George; Scott, George

    2011-12-01

    This project estimates the naturally available and technically recoverable U.S. wave energy resources, using a 51-month Wavewatch III hindcast database developed especially for this study by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Centers for Environmental Prediction. For total resource estimation, wave power density in terms of kilowatts per meter is aggregated across a unit diameter circle. This approach is fully consistent with accepted global practice and includes the resource made available by the lateral transfer of wave energy along wave crests, which enables wave diffraction to substantially reestablish wave power densities within a few kilometers of a linear array, even for fixed terminator devices. The total available wave energy resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge, based on accumulating unit circle wave power densities, is estimated to be 2,640 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 590 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 240 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 80 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 1570 TWh/yr for Alaska, 130 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 30 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico. The total recoverable wave energy resource, as constrained by an array capacity packing density of 15 megawatts per kilometer of coastline, with a 100-fold operating range between threshold and maximum operating conditions in terms of input wave power density available to such arrays, yields a total recoverable resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge of 1,170 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 250 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 160 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 60 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 620 TWh/yr for Alaska, 80 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 20 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico.

  6. An assessment of solar energy as a national energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P.; Woodward, W.; Cherry, W. E.; Morse, F. H.; Herwig, L. O.

    1972-01-01

    The applications are discussed of solar energy for thermal energy for buildings; chemical and biological conversion of organic materials to liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and the generation of electricity. It is concluded that if solar development programs are successful, building heating for public use is possible within 5 years, building cooling in 6 to 10 years, synthetic fuels from organic materials in 5 to 8 years, and electricity production in 10 to 15 years.

  7. Impact of future energy policy on water resources in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivotti, Pedro; Karatayev, Marat; Sobral Mourão, Zenaida; Shah, Nilay; Clarke, Michèle; Konadu, D. Dennis

    2017-04-01

    As part of its commitment to become one of the top-30 developed countries in the world, Kazakhstan set out an ambitious target of increasing the share of renewables and alternative sources of energy in its power generation mix to 50% by 2050. This vision greatly contrasts with the current situation, with coal and natural gas power plants producing around 90% of total electricity in 2016. While this transition provides a unique opportunity to improve the sustainability of the national energy system, major natural resources challenges currently faced in the country should be taken into account. Particularly in the case of water resources management, the current system is characterised by significant losses, heavy reliance on irrigation for the agricultural sector, unevenly distributed surface water, vulnerability to climate change and variations in transboundary inflows, amongst other issues. In this context, this study aims to investigate the future availability of water resources to support food production and the transition to a new energy system. Given the challenges mentioned above, tackling this question requires an integrated analysis of the water-energy-food systems in Kazakhstan. This is done in three stages: (1) characterising the water supply and demand in the country; (2) establishing the linkages between water resources and activities in the power production and agricultural sectors; and (3) identifying potential conflicts at the nexus between water, energy and food, taking into account future energy policy scenarios, trends for food production and water resource use.

  8. Reducing LTE Uplink Transmission Energy by Allocating Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical resource block (PRB) allocation on an LTE modem's transmit power and total modem energy consumption is examined. In this paper the uplink resource blocks are scheduled in either a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) manner......, to determine if low transmission power & long transmission time or high transmission power & short transmission time is most energy efficient. It is important to minimize the LTE modem's energy consumption caused by uplink transmission because it affects phone battery time, and because researchers rarely focus...

  9. 2010 survey of energy resources. 22nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    This, the 22nd edition of the World Energy Council's Survey of Energy Resources (SER), is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy. The Survey is a flagship publication of the World Energy Council (WEC), prepared triennially and timed for release at each World Energy Congress. It is a unique document in that no entity other than the WEC compiles such wideranging information on a regular and consistent basis. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, industry, investors, NGOs and academia.

  10. The largest renewable, easily exploitable, and economically sustainable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Giancarlo; Saraceno, Eugenio

    2018-02-01

    Sun, the ultimate energy resource of our planet, transfers energy to the Earth at an average power of 23,000 TW. Earth surface can be regarded as a huge panel transforming solar energy into a more convenient mechanical form, the wind. Since millennia wind is recognized as an exploitable form of energy and it is common knowledge that the higher you go, the stronger the winds flow. To go high is difficult; however Bill Gates cites high wind among possible energy miracles in the near future. Public awareness of this possible miracle is still missing, but today's technology is ready for it.

  11. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  12. Negative energy balance in a male songbird, the Abert's towhee, constrains the testicular endocrine response to luteinizing hormone stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Gao, Sisi; Valle, Shelley; Bittner, Stephanie; Hutton, Pierce; Meddle, Simone L.; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Energy deficiency can suppress reproductive function in vertebrates. As the orchestrator of reproductive function, endocrine activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis is potentially an important mechanism mediating such effects. Previous experiments in wild-caught birds found inconsistent relationships between energy deficiency and seasonal reproductive function, but these experiments focused on baseline HPG axis activity and none have investigated the responsiveness of this axis to endocrine stimulation. Here, we present data from an experiment in Abert's towhees, Melozone aberti, using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) challenges to investigate whether energy deficiency modulates the plasma testosterone responsiveness of the HPG axis. Wild-caught birds were either ad libitum fed or energetically constrained via chronic food restriction during photoinduced reproductive development. Energy deficiency did not significantly affect the development of reproductive morphology, the baseline endocrine activity of the HPG axis, or the plasma testosterone response to GnRH challenge. Energy deficiency did, however, decrease the plasma testosterone responsiveness to LH challenge. Collectively, these observations suggest that energy deficiency has direct gonadal effects consisting of a decreased responsiveness to LH stimulation. Our study, therefore, reveals a mechanism by which energy deficiency modulates reproductive function in wild birds in the absence of detectable effects on baseline HPG axis activity. PMID:26333925

  13. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  14. Energy Resources Performance Report, FY 1991 and FY 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-07-01

    Once the Federal Columbia River Power System provided all the power our customers needed and surplus energy, which we sold to others. However, we planned for the time when the surplus would disappear. With our customers, we developed centralized, region-wide conservation programs to conserve energy and build the knowledge and ability to save more energy when needed. We began to look at conservation as a resource, comparing it with supply-side alternatives. Much was accomplished. In Bonneville`s service area in the 1980s, our customers acquired 300 average megawatts (aMW) of conservation savings. How? By weatherizing about 240,000 homes, by making aluminum plants, other industrial plants and commercial buildings more efficient, and also by encouraging states to adopt energy-efficient building codes. Now, our energy surplus is gone. Our customers need energy, and in a hurry. While we plan how much energy will be needed, when and by which customers, we must concurrently accelerate our efforts to acquire resources. Our 1990 Resource Program launched a strategy to do just that, starting in 1991 and 1992, with continuing activities in 1993--1995. The goals and plans of the 1990 Resource Program are still being implemented.

  15. Quantitative variability of renewable energy resources in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Varlas, George; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Based on European Union (EU) targets for 2030, the share of renewable energy (RE) consumption should be increased at 27%. RE resources such as hydropower, wind, wave power and solar power are strongly depending on the chaotic behavior of the weather conditions and climate. Due to this dependency, the prediction of the spatiotemporal variability of the RE resources is more crucial factor than in other energy resources (i.e. carbon based energy). The fluctuation of the RE resources can affect the development of the RE technologies, the energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the variability of the potential RE resources in Norway. More specifically, hydropower, wind, wave, and solar power are quantitatively analyzed and correlated with respect to various spatial and temporal scales. In order to analyze the diversities and their interrelationships, reanalysis and observational data of wind, precipitation, wave, and solar radiation are used for a quantitative assessment. The results indicate a high variability of marine RE resources in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.

  16. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  17. Depletion of energy or depletion of knowledge alternative use of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is about the depletion of Energy resources being a huge problem facing the world at this time. As available energy sources are coming to a shortage and measures are be taken in order to conserve the irreplaceable energy resources that leads to sustainability and fair use of energy sources for future generations. Alternative energy sources are being sought; however no other energy source is able to provide even a fraction of energy as that of fossil fuels. Use of the alternative energy resources like wind corridors (Sindh and Baluchistan), fair use of Hydro energy (past monsoon flooding can produce enough energy that may available for next century). Uranium Resources which are enough for centuries energy production in Pakistan (Dhok Pathan Formation) lying in Siwalick series from Pliocene to Pleistocene. Among all of these, my focus is about energy from mineral fuels like Uranium from Sandstone hosted deposits in Pakistan (Siwalik Series in Pakistan). A number of uranium bearing mineralized horizons are present in the upper part of the Dhok Pathan Formation. These horizons have secondary uranium mineral carnotite and other ores. Uranium mineralization is widely distributed throughout the Siwaliks The purpose of this paper was to introduce the use of alternative energy sources in Pakistan which are present in enough amounts by nature. Pakistan is blessed with wealth of natural resources. Unfortunately, Pakistan is totally depending on non renewable energy resource. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. After food, fossil fuel is humanity's most important source of energy. Pakistan is among the most gas dependent economies of the world. Use of fossil fuel for energy will not only increase the demand of more fossils but it has also extreme effects on climate as well as direct and indirect effects to humans. These entire remedial thinking can only be possible if you try to use alternative energy resources rather than

  18. Constraining sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and shear acceleration mechanism of particles in relativistic jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruoyu

    2015-06-10

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are extreme energetic particles from outer space. They have aroused great interest among scientists for more than fifty years. However, due to the rarity of the events and complexity of the process of their propagation to Earth, they are still one of the biggest puzzles in modern high energy astrophysics. This dissertation is dedicated to study the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from various aspects. Firstly, we discuss a possible link between recently discovered sub-PeV/PeV neutrinos and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. If these two kinds of particles share the same origin, the observation of neutrinos may provide additional and non-trivial constraints on the sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Secondly, we jointly employ the chemical composition measurement and the arrival directions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, and find a robust upper limit for distances of sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays above ∝55 EeV, as well as a lower limit for their metallicities. Finally, we study the shear acceleration mechanism in relativistic jets, which is a more efficient mechanism for the acceleration of higher energy particle. We compute the acceleration efficiency and the time-dependent particle energy spectrum, and explore the feature of synchrotron radiation of the accelerated particles. The possible realizations of this mechanism for acceleration of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in different astrophysical environments is also discussed.

  19. Grid of the Future: Quantification of Benefits from Flexible Energy Resources in Scenarios With Extra-High Penetration of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebic, Jovan [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Hinkle, Gene [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Matic, Slobodan [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Schmitt, William [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting

    2015-01-15

    The main objective of this study is to quantify the entitlement for system benefits attainable by pervasive application of flexible energy resources in scenarios with extra-high penetration of renewable energy. The quantified benefits include savings in thermal energy and reduction of CO2 emissions. Both are primarily a result of displacement of conventional thermal generation by renewable energy production, but there are secondary improvements that arise from lowering operating reserves, removing transmission constraints, and by partially removing energy-delivery losses due to energy production by distributed solar. The flexible energy resources in the context of this study include energy storage and adjustable loads. The flexibility of both was constrained to a time horizon of one day. In case of energy storage this means that the state of charge is restored to the starting value at the end of each day, while for load this means that the daily energy consumed is maintained constant. The extra-high penetration of renewable energy in the context of this study means the level of penetration resulting in significant number of hours where instantaneous power output from renewable resources added to the power output from baseload nuclear fleet surpasses the instantaneous power consumption by the load.

  20. Canada's power play : the case for a Canadian energy strategy for a carbon-constrained world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbins, R.; Roberts, K.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presented the results of a series of energy sector consultations conducted across western Canada to determine expert opinions related to the subject of energy policy in Canada. The consultations indicated that many sector experts and stakeholders feel that climate change must be addressed when designing an energy policy for Canada, and that a fair balance must be obtained between the need for economic and environmental sustainability. The economy should not be compromised by action on climate change, and regional differences should be considered. Results of the study suggested that a Canadian energy strategy should coordinate federal, provincial, territorial, and municipal energy policy initiatives. Energy production targets for a range of renewable and non-renewable energy sources should be established. The strategy should inform and be compatible with a national climate change strategy, and move beyond regulation and singular initiatives such as carbon capture and storage. The strategy should stress energy conservation, send appropriate price signals as financial incentives for change, and recognize the need for public investment in research and technology. The document stated that an effective energy strategy may take many years to establish.

  1. Social Free Energy of a Pareto-Like Resource Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Zlatić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available For an organisation with a Pareto-like distribution of the relevant resources we determine the social free energy and related social quantities using thermodynamical formalism. Macroscopic dynamics of the organisation is linked with the changes in the attributed thermodynamical quantities through changes in resource distribution function. It is argued that quantities of thermodynamical origin form the optimised set of organisation’s state indicators, which is reliable expression of micro-dynamics.

  2. Residential Consumer-Centric Demand-Side Management Based on Energy Disaggregation-Piloting Constrained Swarm Intelligence: Towards Edge Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2018-04-27

    The emergence of smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices has highly favored the realization of smart homes in a down-stream sector of a smart grid. The underlying objective of Demand Response (DR) schemes is to actively engage customers to modify their energy consumption on domestic appliances in response to pricing signals. Domestic appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption intelligently. Besides, to residential customers for DR implementation, maintaining a balance between energy consumption cost and users’ comfort satisfaction is a challenge. Hence, in this paper, a constrained Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method is proposed. The method can be further featured with edge computing. In contrast with cloud computing, edge computing—a method of optimizing cloud computing technologies by driving computing capabilities at the IoT edge of the Internet as one of the emerging trends in engineering technology—addresses bandwidth-intensive contents and latency-sensitive applications required among sensors and central data centers through data analytics at or near the source of data. A non-intrusive load-monitoring technique proposed previously is utilized to automatic determination of physical characteristics of power-intensive home appliances from users’ life patterns. The swarm intelligence, constrained PSO, is used to minimize the energy consumption cost while considering users’ comfort satisfaction for DR implementation. The residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method proposed in this paper is evaluated under real-time pricing with inclining block rates and is demonstrated in a case study. The experimentation reported in this paper shows the proposed residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method can re-shape loads by home appliances in response to DR signals. Moreover, a phenomenal reduction in peak power consumption is achieved

  3. The energy transition in a climate-constrained world: Regional vs. global optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brede, M.; de Vries, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a stylized economy-energy-climate model and discuss the role of the atmosphere, fossil fuels, and a stock of accumulated knowledge about renewable energy technologies in collaboratively and competitively managed worlds. The model highlights that assumptions about the 'degree

  4. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  5. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  6. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Youn-Hee; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-01-01

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM) mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. The proposed AKM mechanism does not require any pre-configured security information between the access network domain and the IoT service domain. It considers the resource constraints of IoT devices, allowing IoT devices to delegate the burden of AKM processes to a powerful agent. The agent has sufficient power to support various authentication methods for the access point, and it performs cryptographic functions for the IoT devices. Performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism greatly reduces computation costs, network costs, and memory usage of the resource-constrained IoT device as compared to the existing IEEE 802.11 Key Management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. PMID:28934152

  7. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Wook Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many Internet of Things (IoT services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. The proposed AKM mechanism does not require any pre-configured security information between the access network domain and the IoT service domain. It considers the resource constraints of IoT devices, allowing IoT devices to delegate the burden of AKM processes to a powerful agent. The agent has sufficient power to support various authentication methods for the access point, and it performs cryptographic functions for the IoT devices. Performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism greatly reduces computation costs, network costs, and memory usage of the resource-constrained IoT device as compared to the existing IEEE 802.11 Key Management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism.

  8. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Han, Youn-Hee; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-09-21

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM) mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. The proposed AKM mechanism does not require any pre-configured security information between the access network domain and the IoT service domain. It considers the resource constraints of IoT devices, allowing IoT devices to delegate the burden of AKM processes to a powerful agent. The agent has sufficient power to support various authentication methods for the access point, and it performs cryptographic functions for the IoT devices. Performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism greatly reduces computation costs, network costs, and memory usage of the resource-constrained IoT device as compared to the existing IEEE 802.11 Key Management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism.

  9. Use of dried-blood-spot samples and in-house assays to identify antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-infected children in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemniak, Carrie; Mengistu, Yohannes; Ruff, Andrea; Chen, Ya-Hui; Khaki, Leila; Bedri, Abubaker; Simen, Birgitte B; Palumbo, Paul; Eshleman, Susan H; Persaud, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Monitoring HIV drug resistance is an important component of the World Health Organization's global HIV program. HIV drug resistance testing is optimal with commercially available clinically validated test kits using plasma; however, that type of testing may not be feasible or affordable in resource-constrained settings. HIV genotyping from dried blood spots (DBS) with noncommercial (in-house) assays may facilitate the capture of HIV drug resistance outcomes in resource-constrained settings but has had varying rates of success. With in-house assays for HIV reverse transcriptase, we evaluated the yield of genotyping DBS samples collected from HIV-infected children who were enrolled in two clinical trials conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (median HIV viral load, 5.88 log(10) HIV RNA copies/ml; range, 4.04 to 6.99). Overall, HIV genotypes were obtained for 94 (89.5%) of 105 samples tested (95% and 84% from clinical trials #1 and #2, respectively); however, successful analysis of 15 (16.1%) of the 94 samples required repeat testing using a different set of primers on previously synthesized cDNA. The yield of genotyping was lower on the DBS that were stored suboptimally from clinical trial #2 (56% versus 88% for optimally stored). Concordance with plasma genotypes derived using a clinically validated, commercial kit-based assay (ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system) was also assessed in a subset of children with paired testing. For 34 samples with paired DBS and plasma genotypes, there was 100% concordance for major drug resistance mutations. DBS genotyping using in-house assays provides an alternative for antiretroviral drug resistance testing in children in resource-constrained regions but may require region-specific optimization before widespread use.

  10. Use of Dried-Blood-Spot Samples and In-House Assays To Identify Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in HIV-Infected Children in Resource-Constrained Settings ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemniak, Carrie; Mengistu, Yohannes; Ruff, Andrea; Chen, Ya-Hui; Khaki, Leila; Bedri, Abubaker; Simen, Birgitte B.; Palumbo, Paul; Eshleman, Susan H.; Persaud, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring HIV drug resistance is an important component of the World Health Organization's global HIV program. HIV drug resistance testing is optimal with commercially available clinically validated test kits using plasma; however, that type of testing may not be feasible or affordable in resource-constrained settings. HIV genotyping from dried blood spots (DBS) with noncommercial (in-house) assays may facilitate the capture of HIV drug resistance outcomes in resource-constrained settings but has had varying rates of success. With in-house assays for HIV reverse transcriptase, we evaluated the yield of genotyping DBS samples collected from HIV-infected children who were enrolled in two clinical trials conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (median HIV viral load, 5.88 log10 HIV RNA copies/ml; range, 4.04 to 6.99). Overall, HIV genotypes were obtained for 94 (89.5%) of 105 samples tested (95% and 84% from clinical trials #1 and #2, respectively); however, successful analysis of 15 (16.1%) of the 94 samples required repeat testing using a different set of primers on previously synthesized cDNA. The yield of genotyping was lower on the DBS that were stored suboptimally from clinical trial #2 (56% versus 88% for optimally stored). Concordance with plasma genotypes derived using a clinically validated, commercial kit-based assay (ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system) was also assessed in a subset of children with paired testing. For 34 samples with paired DBS and plasma genotypes, there was 100% concordance for major drug resistance mutations. DBS genotyping using in-house assays provides an alternative for antiretroviral drug resistance testing in children in resource-constrained regions but may require region-specific optimization before widespread use. PMID:21956987

  11. Observation on optimal transition from conventional energy with resource constraints to advanced energy with virtually unlimited resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    1980-01-01

    The paper is aimed at making a theoretical analysis on optimal shift from finite energy resources like presently used oil toward advanced energy sources like nuclear and solar. First, the value of conventional energy as a finite resource is derived based on the variational principle. Second, a simplified model on macroeconomy is used to obtain and optimal relationship between energy production and consumption and thereby the optimality on energy price is provided. Third, the meaning of research and development of advanced energy is shown by taking into account resource constraints and technological progress. Finally, an optimal timing of the shift from conventional to advanced energies is determined by making use of the maximum principle. The methematical model employed there is much simplified but can be used to conclude that in order to make an optimal shift some policy-oriented decision must be made prior to when an economically competitive condition comes and that, even with that decision made, some recession of energy demand is inevitable during the transitional phase. (author)

  12. Resource management for energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Deyu; Zhou, Haibo; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers a comprehensive review and in-depth discussion of the current research on resource management. The authors explain how to best utilize harvested energy and temporally available licensed spectrum. Throughout the brief, the primary focus is energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks (ESHNs) including energy harvesting (EH)-powered spectrum sensing and dynamic spectrum access. To efficiently collect data through the available licensed spectrum, this brief examines the joint management of energy and spectrum. An EH-powered spectrum sensing and management scheme for Heterogeneous Spectrum Harvesting Sensor Networks (HSHSNs) is presented in this brief. The scheme dynamically schedules the data sensing and spectrum access of sensors in ESHSNs to optimize the network utility, while considering the stochastic nature of EH process, PU activities and channel conditions. This brief also provides useful insights for the practical resource management scheme design for ESHSNs and motivates a ne...

  13. Energy resources, CO2 production and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    World fossil fuel reserves, historical and current rates of consumption are reviewed and estimates of indigeneous lives in geographical regions are made. Rates of production and accumulations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are calculated and correlations made with measured global mean temperatures and concomitant sea-level rises. It is concluded that, if present rates of global fossil-fuel consumptions continue unabated, the world's fossil-fuel store will be depleted by the year 2050. This would be accompanied by a substantial rise in global mean temperature. The effects of various protocols for the reductions of emissions are examined. It is concluded that there is no alternative than to cease the production and release into the atmosphere of the more damaging man-made greenhouse gases as soon as is practicably possible and to seek a sustained reduction in the rates of combustion of fossil fuels world-wide via energy management and conservation. (author)

  14. The Regularized Fast Hartley Transform Optimal Formulation of Real-Data Fast Fourier Transform for Silicon-Based Implementation in Resource-Constrained Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Regularized Fast Hartley Transform provides the reader with the tools necessary to both understand the proposed new formulation and to implement simple design variations that offer clear implementational advantages, both practical and theoretical, over more conventional complex-data solutions to the problem. The highly-parallel formulation described is shown to lead to scalable and device-independent solutions to the latency-constrained version of the problem which are able to optimize the use of the available silicon resources, and thus to maximize the achievable computational density, th

  15. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral de Mello Meena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for

  16. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane Rw; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Izutsu, Takashi; Tran, Tuan

    2011-01-07

    Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings.In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts.The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well.The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1). It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality

  17. Constraining Dark Energy with X-ray Clusters, SNe Ia and the CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapetti, D

    2005-01-01

    In [1] we present new constraints on the evolution of dark energy from an analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background, supernova and X-ray galaxy cluster data. From a combined analysis of all three data sets and assuming that the Universe is at, we examine a series of dark energy models with up to three free parameters: the current dark energy equation of state w 0 , the early time equation of state w et and the scale factor at transition, a t . Allowing the transition scale factor to vary over the range 0.5 t 0 = -1.27 -0.39 +0.33 and w et = -0.66 -0.62 +0.44 . They find no significant evidence for evolution in the dark energy equation of state parameter with redshift. The complementary nature of the data sets leads to a tight constraint on the mean matter density, (Omega) m , alleviates a number of other parameter degeneracies, including that between the scalar spectral index n s , the physical baryon density (Omega) b h 2 and the optical depth τ and also allows us to examine models dropping the flatness prior. As required for the energy-momentum conservation our analysis includes spatial perturbations in the dark energy component. We show that not including them leads to spuriously tighter constraints on w 0 and especially on wet

  18. Constraining Dark Energy with X-ray Galaxy Clusters, Supernovae and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapetti, D

    2005-01-01

    We present new constraints on the evolution of dark energy from an analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background, supernova and X-ray galaxy cluster data. Our analysis employs a minimum of priors and exploits the complementary nature of these data sets. We examine a series of dark energy models with up to three free parameters: the current dark energy equation of state w 0 , the early time equation of state w et and the scale factor at transition, a t . From a combined analysis of all three data sets, assuming a constant equation of state and that the Universe is flat, we measure w 0 = 1.05 -0.12 +0.10 . Including w et as a free parameter and allowing the transition scale factor to vary over the range 0.5 t 0 = -1.27 -0.39 +0.33 and w et = -0.66 -0.62 +0.44 . We find no significant evidence for evolution in the dark energy equation of state parameter with redshift. Marginal hints of evolution in the supernovae data become less significant when the cluster constraints are also included in the analysis. The complementary nature of the data sets leads to a tight constraint on the mean matter density, (Omega) m and alleviates a number of other parameter degeneracies, including that between the scalar spectral index n s , the physical baryon density (Omega) b h 2 and the optical depth τ. This complementary nature also allows us to examine models in which we drop the prior on the curvature. For non-flat models with a constant equation of state, we measure w 0 = -1.09 -0.15 +0.12 and obtain a tight constraint on the current dark energy density, (Omega) de = 0.70 ± 0.03. For dark energy models other than a cosmological constant, energy-momentum conservation requires the inclusion of spatial perturbations in the dark energy component. Our analysis includes such perturbations, assuming a sound speed c s 2 = 1 in the dark energy fluid as expected for Quintessence scenarios. For our most general dark energy model, not including such perturbations would lead to spurious constraints

  19. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  20. America's Changing Energy Landscape - USGS National Coal Resources Data System Changes to National Energy Resources Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J. A., II

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Eastern Energy Resources Science Center (EERSC) has an ongoing project which has mapped coal chemistry and stratigraphy since 1977. Over the years, the USGS has collected various forms of coal data and archived that data into the National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) database. NCRDS is a repository that houses data from the major coal basins in the United States and includes information on location, seam thickness, coal rank, geologic age, geographic region, geologic province, coalfield, and characteristics of the coal or lithology for that data point. These data points can be linked to the US Coal Quality Database (COALQUAL) to include ultimate, proximate, major, minor and trace-element data. Although coal is an inexpensive energy provider, the United States has shifted away from coal usage recently and branched out into other forms of non-renewable and renewable energy because of environmental concerns. NCRDS's primary method of data capture has been USGS field work coupled with cooperative agreements with state geological agencies and universities doing coal-related research. These agreements are on competitive five-year cycles that have evolved into larger scope research efforts including solid fuel resources such as coal-bed methane, shale gas and oil. Recently these efforts have expanded to include environmental impacts of the use of fossil fuels, which has allowed the USGS to enter into agreements with states for the Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Assessment as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act. In 2016 they expanded into research areas to include geothermal, conventional and unconventional oil and gas. The NCRDS and COALQUAL databases are now online for the public to use, and are in the process of being updated to include new data for other energy resources. Along with this expansion of scope, the database name will change to the National Energy Resources Data System (NERDS) in FY 2017.

  1. Energy needs, uses, and resources in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, P.F.; Nathans, R.; Beardsworth, E.; Hale, S. Jr.

    1978-03-01

    The report identifies the energy needs, uses, and resources in the developing countries of the world and examines the energy options available to them for their continued social and economic growth. If traditional patterns of development are to continue, oil consumption in the non-OPEC LDCs will grow steadily to become comparable with current U.S. consumption between 2000 and 2020. Attempts to exploit indigenous hydrocarbon resources even in those LDCs with untapped reserves will be limited by shortages of capital and technical manpower. In the absence of major actions to replace noncommercial fuels or to increase the effectiveness with which they are used, a large fraction of the 3 to 4 billion LDC rural population in the year 2000 will not be able to raise their energy usage above subsistence levels. There is a wide variety of solutions to these problems, many of them emerging directly from the changed economics of energy. For example, most LDCs have not adequately explored and developed their own indigenous resources; in virtually all energy conversion and utilization processes there are opportunities for improvements in efficiency and substitution of renewable energy forms. In virtually all these areas there are opportunities for effective assistance activities.

  2. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  4. Energy resources of the developing countries and some priority markets for the use of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, T. A.; Hein, G. F.

    1977-01-01

    Energy consumption for the developed and non-developed world is expressed as a function of GNP. An almost straight-line graph results when energy consumption statistics are treated in this manner. The richest countries consume the most energy, and the poorest countries the least. It therefore follows that greater energy production in the developing countries (leading to greater energy consumption) will contribute to their economic growth. Energy resources in the developing countries are compared, including: solid fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas, oil shale, and uranium. Mention is also made of the potential of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, in the underdeveloped world; and it is these resources which offer the greatest possibilities for economic improvement if the money is forthcoming, i.e., from the world bank, to fund the necessary technology.

  5. Natural resources and energy systems: a strategic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.; Schmidt, E.; Anderer, J.

    1986-06-01

    Oil prices falls to below ten dollar a barrel. US synfuel program cancelled after billions of dollars are invested. Tennessee Valley Authority tries to sell unfinished nuclear plants to China. Completed nuclear plant stands idle in Austria. Canadians seek uses for excess power from Candu plants. A glut of cheap oil, a general excess of operating nuclear capacity, an ever growing number of mothballed or not quite completed non-operating nuclear plants. Today the formidable challenge is to use abundant energy sources in ways that support social and economic development and protect the environment. In this paper we seek to provide a strategic perspective on how to meet this challenge. Toward this end, we explore the misconceptions of the past that led to costly errors in energy planning. The issue here is to dispel the myth of resource depletion as the driving force for the shift from one energy source to another. To gain insight into the actual basis for energy substitution, we turn our attention to energy patterns, viewing these in retrospect and prospect. This review of energy development provides an opportunity to consider some of the environmental implications of the expanded use of energy resources. These findings are then drawn together in an attempt to highlight certain R and D options that we believe offer a sound basis for strategic energy management. (Author, shortened by G.Q.)

  6. Exploring the challenges of energy and resources network governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poocharoen, Ora-orn; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2012-01-01

    While a growing amount of literature has recently emerged describing network governance, less attention has been paid to evaluating the actual performance of networks. Our paper looks at the challenges facing network governance for natural resources (primarily logging and forestry) and energy (primarily renewable energy and energy efficiency) in Asia. The paper investigates what network governance is, and what types of challenges networks have to tackle. It then develops a qualitative analytical framework to evaluate the effectiveness of networks consisting of five criteria: (1) clarity of roles and objectives among members, (2) having strong, independent, continual sources of funding, (3) institutional formality (having a permanent secretariat, budget, full time staff, etc.), (4) efficacy (ability to accomplish its mission and goals at the least possible cost); and (5) level of interdependency among members. Finally, we apply this framework to four case studies: the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Centre for Energy, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), ASEAN Regional Knowledge Network on Forests and Climate Change (FCC), and ASEAN Regional Knowledge Network on Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG). These cases illustrate effective (or ineffective) environmental and energy networks and the factors that are associated with network governance. - Highlights: ► This article evaluates four cases of energy and resources network governance. ► We assess these cases according to five criteria. ► We illustrate the effectiveness (and ineffectiveness) of these networks.

  7. Constraining the gravitational binding energy of PSR J0737-3039B using terrestrial nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, W. G.; Li Baoan

    2009-01-01

    We show that the gravitational binding energy of a neutron star of a given mass is correlated with the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy at 1-2 times nuclear saturation density for equations of state without significant softening (i.e., those that predict maximum masses M max >1.44M · in line with the largest accurately measured neutron star mass). Applying recent laboratory constraints on the slope of the symmetry energy to this correlation we extract a constraint on the baryon mass of the lower mass member of the double pulsar binary system, PSR J0737-3039B. We compare with independent constraints derived from modeling the progenitor star of J0737-3039B up to and through its collapse under the assumption that it formed in an electron capture supernova. The two sets of constraints are consistent only if L < or approx. 70 MeV.

  8. Territorial autonomy, energy resources administration and regalia regime in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao Rodriguez, Alberto

    2000-01-01

    The paper includes topics like the territorial organization in Colombia, the energy administration, the organization of the Colombian system of regalia, options of the not-renewable natural resources administration, reorganization of the Colombian system of regalia, articulation to the territorial organization of the country and an administration proposal is made

  9. Assessment of a Combined Offshore Renewable Energy Resource for Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Gary; Ringwood, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper attempts to assess if extracting energy from a combined offshore, wind, wave and tidal resource can reduce the difficulties envisaged from integrating a large volume of a single intermittent source into the current electricity system in Ireland. The paper concludes that the use of wave power and tidal power, in combination with wind power, has significant merit.

  10. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  11. Energy and water resources of Burkina Faso as catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is dedicated to the research conducted in Burkina Faso. The Research objectives were to study the energy situation, search for sources of water for the power plant and oil refinery. To operate the power plant and oil refinery, large amounts of water would be required. Water from open sources is a scarce resource ...

  12. Remotely sensed data fusion for offshore wind energy resource mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ticha, M.B.

    2007-11-01

    Wind energy is a component of an energy policy contributing to a sustainable development. Last years, offshore wind parks have been installed offshore. These parks benefit from higher wind speeds and lower turbulence than onshore. To sit a wind park, it is necessary to have a mapping of wind resource. These maps are needed at high spatial resolution to show wind energy resource variations at the scale of a wind park. Wind resource mapping is achieved through the description of the spatial variations of statistical parameters characterizing wind climatology. For a precise estimation of these statistical parameters, high temporal resolution wind speed and direction measurements are needed. However, presently, there is no data source allying high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. We propose a data fusion method taking advantage of the high spatial resolution of some remote sensing instruments (synthetic aperture radars) and the high temporal resolution of other remote sensing instruments (scatterometers). The data fusion method is applied to a case study and the results quality is assessed. The results show the pertinence of data fusion for the mapping of wind energy resource offshore. (author)

  13. Capacity of Distribution Feeders for Hosting Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Anagnostopoulos, P.

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of distributed energy resources (DER) all over the world. Several countries have adopted a variety of support schemes (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, direct subsidies, tax exemptions etc.) so as to promote distributed generation (DG...

  14. Distributed generation for South Africa based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available -grid energy systems. These two mini-grids made use of local solar and wind resources to generate electricity. This paper describes the technical lessons that the CSIR learnt in its experiences with the design and implementation of these hybrid mini...

  15. Energy and Resource Recovery from Sludge. State of Science Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogo, Y.; Monteith, H. [Hydromantis Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    There is general consensus among sanitary engineering professionals that municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge is not a 'waste', but a potential source of valuable resources. The subject is a major interest to the members of the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC). The GWRC is therefore preparing a strategic research plan related to energy and resource recovery from wastewater sludge. The initial focus of the strategy will be on sewage sludge as water reuse aspects have been part of earlier studies. The plan will define new research orientations for deeper investigation. The current state of science (SoS) Report was prepared as the preliminary phase of GWRC's future strategic research plan on energy and resource recovery from sludge.

  16. Determining the Optimal Solution for Quadratically Constrained Quadratic Programming (QCQP) on Energy-Saving Generation Dispatch Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmana, E.; Chaerani, D.; Khansa, H. N.

    2018-03-01

    Energy-Saving Generation Dispatch (ESGD) is a scheme made by Chinese Government in attempt to minimize CO2 emission produced by power plant. This scheme is made related to global warming which is primarily caused by too much CO2 in earth’s atmosphere, and while the need of electricity is something absolute, the power plants producing it are mostly thermal-power plant which produced many CO2. Many approach to fulfill this scheme has been made, one of them came through Minimum Cost Flow in which resulted in a Quadratically Constrained Quadratic Programming (QCQP) form. In this paper, ESGD problem with Minimum Cost Flow in QCQP form will be solved using Lagrange’s Multiplier Method

  17. Risk-constrained dynamic self-scheduling of a pumped-storage plant in the energy and ancillary service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazempour, S. Jalal; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Haghifam, M.R.; Yousefi, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    This work addresses a new framework for self-scheduling of an individual price-taker pumped-storage plant in a day-ahead (DA) market. The goal is achieving the best trade-off between the expected profit and the risks when the plant participates in DA energy, spinning reserve and regulation markets. In this paper, a set of uncertainties including price forecasting errors and also the uncertainty of power delivery requests in the ancillary service markets are contemplated. Considering these uncertainties, a new approach is proposed which is called dynamic self-scheduling (DSS). This risk-constrained dynamic self-scheduling problem is therefore formulated and solved as a mixed integer programming (MIP) problem. Numerical results for a case study are discussed. (author)

  18. Analysis of market penetration of renewable energy alternatives under uncertain and carbon constrained world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Future energy prices and supply, availability and costs can have a significant impact on how fast and cost effectively we could abate carbon emissions. Two-staged decision making methods embedded in U.S. EPA's MARKAL modeling system will be utilized to find the most robust mitig...

  19. MEMS-Based Storage Devices : Integration in Energy-Constrained Mobile Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The digital era in which we are living today requires our increasing awareness of energy efficiency to reduce the negative effects on our lovely environment. We, people, are increasingly dealing with digital contents to facilitate our deals, which increases the demand for larger storage capacities

  20. Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Renewable Marine Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Emilio; Quiles, Eduardo; Correcher, Antonio; Morant, Francisco

    2018-03-22

    In this paper we present a multi-sensor floating system designed to monitor marine energy parameters, in order to sample wind, wave, and marine current energy resources. For this purpose, a set of dedicated sensors to measure the height and period of the waves, wind, and marine current intensity and direction have been selected and installed in the system. The floating device incorporates wind and marine current turbines for renewable energy self-consumption and to carry out complementary studies on the stability of such a system. The feasibility, safety, sensor communications, and buoy stability of the floating device have been successfully checked in real operating conditions.

  1. An Efficient Genetic Agorithm for Solving the Multi-Mode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem Based on Random Key Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Sebt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new genetic algorithm (GA is presented for solving the multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem (MRCPSP with minimization of project makespan as the objective subject to resource and precedence constraints. A random key and the related mode list (ML representation scheme are used as encoding schemes and the multi-mode serial schedule generation scheme (MSSGS is considered as the decoding procedure. In this paper, a simple, efficient fitness function is proposed which has better performance compared to the other fitness functions in the literature. Defining a new mutation operator for ML is the other contribution of the current study. Comparing the results of the proposed GA with other approaches using the well-known benchmark sets in PSPLIB validates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to solve the MRCPSP.

  2. Assessing Global Ocean Wind Energy Resources Using Multiple Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoying Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy, as a vital renewable energy source, also plays a significant role in reducing carbon emissions and mitigating climate change. It is therefore of utmost necessity to evaluate ocean wind energy resources for electricity generation and environmental management. Ocean wind distribution around the globe can be obtained from satellite observations to compensate for limited in situ measurements. However, previous studies have largely ignored uncertainties in ocean wind energy resources assessment with multiple satellite data. It is against this background that the current study compares mean wind speeds (MWS and wind power densities (WPD retrieved from scatterometers (QuikSCAT, ASCAT and radiometers (WindSAT and their different combinations with National Data Buoy Center (NDBC buoy measurements at heights of 10 m and 100 m (wind turbine hub height above sea level. Our results show an improvement in the accuracy of wind resources estimation with the use of multiple satellite observations. This has implications for the acquisition of reliable data on ocean wind energy in support of management policies.

  3. Optimum selection of an energy resource using fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouelnaga, Ayah E., E-mail: ayahabouelnaga@hotmail.co [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, 21544 Alexandria (Egypt); Metwally, Abdelmohsen; Nagy, Mohammad E.; Agamy, Saeed [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, 21544 Alexandria (Egypt)

    2009-12-15

    Optimum selection of an energy resource is a vital issue in developed countries. Considering energy resources as alternatives (nuclear, hydroelectric, gas/oil, and solar) and factors upon which the proper decision will be taken as attributes (economics, availability, environmental impact, and proliferation), one can use the multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) to optimize the selection process. Recently, fuzzy logic is extensively applied to the MAUT as it expresses the linguistic appraisal for all attributes in wide and reliable manners. The rise in oil prices and the increased concern about environmental protection from CO{sub 2} emissions have promoted the attention to the use of nuclear power as a viable energy source for power generation. For Egypt, as a case study, the nuclear option is found to be an appropriate choice. Following the introduction of innovative designs of nuclear power plants, improvements in the proliferation resistance, environmental impacts, and economics will enhance the selection of the nuclear option.

  4. Electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroth, D.P.; Podnieks, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Past work during the Apollo Program and current efforts to determine extraterrestrial mining technology requirements have led to the exploration of various methods applicable to lunar or planetary resource mining and processing. The use of electromagnetic energy sources is explored and demonstrated using laboratory methods to establish a proof of concept for application to lunar mining, construction, and resource extraction. Experimental results of using laser, microwave, and solar energy to fragment or melt terrestrial basal under atmospheric and vacuum conditions are presented. Successful thermal stress fragmentation of dense igneous rock was demonstrated by all three electromagnetic energy sources. The results show that a vacuum environment has no adverse effects on fragmentation by induced thermal stresses. The vacuum environment has a positive effect for rock disintegration by melting, cutting, or penetration applications due to release of volatiles that assist in melt ejection. Consolidation and melting of basaltic fines are also demonstrated by these methods

  5. Optimum selection of an energy resource using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouelnaga, Ayah E.; Metwally, Abdelmohsen; Nagy, Mohammad E.; Agamy, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Optimum selection of an energy resource is a vital issue in developed countries. Considering energy resources as alternatives (nuclear, hydroelectric, gas/oil, and solar) and factors upon which the proper decision will be taken as attributes (economics, availability, environmental impact, and proliferation), one can use the multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) to optimize the selection process. Recently, fuzzy logic is extensively applied to the MAUT as it expresses the linguistic appraisal for all attributes in wide and reliable manners. The rise in oil prices and the increased concern about environmental protection from CO 2 emissions have promoted the attention to the use of nuclear power as a viable energy source for power generation. For Egypt, as a case study, the nuclear option is found to be an appropriate choice. Following the introduction of innovative designs of nuclear power plants, improvements in the proliferation resistance, environmental impacts, and economics will enhance the selection of the nuclear option.

  6. Women and energy resources management. A UNIFEM perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, I.

    1996-01-01

    Women need access to energy resources in order to meet their basic needs for food, shelter, clean water, health care and employment and to improve their family's living conditions. Due to population growth and economic development the demand for the main energy sources in low-income rural areas, biomass, is far greater than the supply, and women have no choice but to overexploit the increasingly scarce resources just to survive. Improvements in energy efficiency and an increased use of renewable energy sources could help women to balance their immediate livelihood needs and the long-term ecological needs. However, women generally lack access to these improved energy technologies. This article explores the causes of women's limited access to improved energy technologies and why energy polices and programmes often fail to address women's specific needs and concerns. Strategies of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) are outlined as examples of approaches aiming at improving women's access to information and sustainable technologies and promoting women's full participation in environmental decision and policy making. (author). 23 refs

  7. Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsson, Simon; Grandell, Leena; Wachtmeister, Henrik; Höök, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have proposed fast transitions to energy systems based on renewable energy technology. Many of them dismiss potential physical constraints and issues with natural resource supply, and do not consider the growth rates of the individual technologies needed or how the energy systems are to be sustained over longer time frames. A case study is presented modelling potential growth rates of the wind energy required to reach installed capacities proposed in other studies, taking into account the expected service life of wind turbines. A sustained commissioning model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for analysing reasonable growth patterns for technologies that can be sustained in the future. The annual installation and related resource requirements to reach proposed wind capacity are quantified and it is concluded that these factors should be considered when assessing the feasibility, and even the sustainability, of fast energy transitions. Even a sustained commissioning scenario would require significant resource flows, for the transition as well as for sustaining the system, indefinitely. Recent studies that claim there are no potential natural resource barriers or other physical constraints to fast transitions to renewable energy appear inadequate in ruling out these concerns. - Highlights: • Growth rates and service life is important when evaluating energy transitions. • A sustained commissioning model is suggested for analysing renewable energy. • Natural resource requirements for renewable energy are connected to growth rates. • Arguments by recent studies ruling out physical constraints appear inadequate

  8. Improved One-Way Hash Chain and Revocation Polynomial-Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Schemes in Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-healing group key distribution (SGKD aims to deal with the key distribution problem over an unreliable wireless network. In this paper, we investigate the SGKD issue in resource-constrained wireless networks. We propose two improved SGKD schemes using the one-way hash chain (OHC and the revocation polynomial (RP, the OHC&RP-SGKD schemes. In the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes, by introducing the unique session identifier and binding the joining time with the capability of recovering previous session keys, the problem of the collusion attack between revoked users and new joined users in existing hash chain-based SGKD schemes is resolved. Moreover, novel methods for utilizing the one-way hash chain and constructing the personal secret, the revocation polynomial and the key updating broadcast packet are presented. Hence, the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes eliminate the limitation of the maximum allowed number of revoked users on the maximum allowed number of sessions, increase the maximum allowed number of revoked/colluding users, and reduce the redundancy in the key updating broadcast packet. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes are practical for resource-constrained wireless networks in bad environments, where a strong collusion attack resistance is required and many users could be revoked.

  9. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  10. The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI: Constraining the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. In the ASY-EOS experiment at the GSI laboratory, flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au, 96Zr+96Zr and 96Ru+96Ru collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon with the Large Area Neutron Detector LAND as part of a setup with several additional detection systems used for the event characterization. Flow results obtained for the Au+Au system, in comparison with predictions of the UrQMD transport model, confirm the moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy deduced from the earlier FOPI-LAND data.

  11. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  12. Reliability constrained decision model for energy service provider incorporating demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboubi-Moghaddam, Esmaeil; Nayeripour, Majid; Aghaei, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation of Energy Service Providers (ESPs) in electricity markets is modeled. • Demand response as the cost-effective solution is used for energy service provider. • The market price uncertainty is modeled using the robust optimization technique. • The reliability of the distribution network is embedded into the framework. • The simulation results demonstrate the benefits of robust framework for ESPs. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) programs are becoming a critical concept for the efficiency of current electric power industries. Therefore, its various capabilities and barriers have to be investigated. In this paper, an effective decision model is presented for the strategic behavior of energy service providers (ESPs) to demonstrate how to participate in the day-ahead electricity market and how to allocate demand in the smart distribution network. Since market price affects DR and vice versa, a new two-step sequential framework is proposed, in which unit commitment problem (UC) is solved to forecast the expected locational marginal prices (LMPs), and successively DR program is applied to optimize the total cost of providing energy for the distribution network customers. This total cost includes the cost of purchased power from the market and distributed generation (DG) units, incentive cost paid to the customers, and compensation cost of power interruptions. To obtain compensation cost, the reliability evaluation of the distribution network is embedded into the framework using some innovative constraints. Furthermore, to consider the unexpected behaviors of the other market participants, the LMP prices are modeled as the uncertainty parameters using the robust optimization technique, which is more practical compared to the conventional stochastic approach. The simulation results demonstrate the significant benefits of the presented framework for the strategic performance of ESPs.

  13. Constraining slow-roll inflation in the presence of dynamical dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junqing; Zhang Xinmin

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter we perform a global analysis of the constraints on the inflationary parameters in the presence of dynamical dark energy models from the current observations, including the three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP3) data, Boomerang-2K2, CBI, VSA, ACBAR, SDSS LRG, 2dFGRS and ESSENCE (192 sample). We use the analytic description of the inflationary power spectra in terms of the horizon-flow parameters {ε i }. With the first order approximation in the slow-roll expansion, we find that the constraints on the horizon-flow parameters are ε 1 2 =0.034±0.024 (1σ) in the ΛCDM model. In the framework of dynamical dark energy models, the constraints become obviously weak, ε 1 2 =-0.006±0.039 (1σ), and the inflation models with a 'blue' tilt, which are excluded about 2σ in the ΛCDM model, are allowed now. With the second order approximation, the constraints on the horizon-flow parameters are significantly relaxed further. If considering the non-zero ε 3 , the large running of the scalar spectral index is found for the ΛCDM model, as well as the dynamical dark energy models

  14. Feasibility of constraining the curvature parameter of the symmetry energy using elliptic flow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    A QMD transport model that employs a modified momentum dependent interaction (MDI2) potential, supplemented by a phase-space coalescence model fitted to FOPI experimental multiplicities of free nucleons and light clusters is used to study the density dependence of the symmetry energy above the saturation point by a comparison with experimental elliptic flow ratios measured by the FOPI-LAND and ASYEOS Collaborations in 197Au + 197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon impact energy. A previous calculation using the same model has proven that neutron-to-proton and neutron-to-charged-particles elliptic flow ratios probe on average different densities allowing in principle the extraction of both the slope L and curvature K_{sym} parameters of the symmetry energy. To make use of this result a Gogny interaction inspired potential is modified by the addition of a density dependent, momentum independent term, while enforcing a close description of the empirical nucleon optical potential, allowing independent modifications of L and Ksym. Comparing theoretical predictions with experimental data for neutron-to-proton and neutron-to-charged-particles elliptic flow ratios the following constraint is extracted: L = 85 ± 22(exp) ± 20(th) ± 12(sys) MeV and K_{sym} = 96 ± 315(exp) ± 170(th) ± 166(sys) MeV. Theoretical errors include effects due to uncertainties in the isoscalar part of the equation of state, value of the isovector neutron-proton effective mass splitting, in-medium effects on the elastic nucleon-nucleon cross-sections, Pauli blocking algorithm variants and scenario considered for the conservation of the total energy of the system. Systematical uncertainties are generated by the inability of the transport model to reproduce experimental light-cluster-to-proton multiplicity ratios. A value for L free of systematical theoretical uncertainties can be extracted from the neutron-to-proton elliptic flow ratio alone: L = 84 ± 30(exp) ± 19(th) MeV. It is demonstrated that

  15. Multi-Peak Double-Dwell GPS Weak Signal Acquisition Method and VLSI Implementation for Energy-Constrained Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption of Global Positioning System (GPS acquisition is a great challenge for energy-constrained applications. In this work, a metric named acquisition mean computation overhead is proposed to measure the energy cost. A novel multi-peak double-dwell (MP/DD acquisition method for GPS weak signal is proposed. It adopts multi-peak correlation results as candidates in the first acquisition dwell and selects the largest one as the final acquisition result in the second acquisition dwell. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are presented in detail. Meanwhile, the very-large-scale integration (VLSI implementation of coarse- and fine-grained acquisition engines applied to the proposed method is done. The detection probability and acquisition mean computation overhead are simulated using the Monte-Carlo method, and its mean acquisition power is tested with an actual chip. We fabricated the GPS signal acquisition engine with a 40 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The simulation results demonstrate that detection probability is promoted from 18% to 67% when signal power is equal to 23 dB/Hz. The acquisition mean computation overhead is reduced greatly by 64%. Measurement results show that the energy consumption of this design is only 21.5% of the conventional double-dwell/maximum (DD/MAX method.

  16. Constraining Dark Matter Interactions with Pseudoscalar and Scalar Mediators Using Collider Searches for Multijets plus Missing Transverse Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Malik, Sarah A; McCabe, Christopher; Penning, Bjoern

    2015-10-30

    The monojet search, looking for events involving missing transverse energy (E_{T}) plus one or two jets, is the most prominent collider dark matter search. We show that multijet searches, which look for E_{T} plus two or more jets, are significantly more sensitive than the monojet search for pseudoscalar- and scalar-mediated interactions. We demonstrate this in the context of a simplified model with a pseudoscalar interaction that explains the excess in GeV energy gamma rays observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We show that multijet searches already constrain a pseudoscalar interpretation of the excess in much of the parameter space where the mass of the mediator M_{A} is more than twice the dark matter mass m_{DM}. With the forthcoming run of the Large Hadron Collider at higher energies, the remaining regions of the parameter space where M_{A}>2m_{DM} will be fully explored. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of complementing the monojet final state with multijet final states to maximize the sensitivity of the search for the production of dark matter at colliders.

  17. TRIAD AND MODUS MODEL REALIZATION OF POTENTIAL ENERGY AND RESOURCE SAVINGS ON THE ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Klimchuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studied categories of the resource, energy and potential energy savings that resulted in the development of triad and modus model of potential energy and resource savings enterprises based on the concept of “environmental economics”. To assess the level of energy efficiency in the company it is proposed to use a definition of “potential of energy and resource savings” which is interpreted as a synergistic approach to improve energy conservation reserves through intensification of production based on the rationalization of the use of all resources. Keywords: potential of energy savings, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environmental economics, energy resource.

  18. Nonlinear model dynamics for closed-system, constrained, maximal-entropy-generation relaxation by energy redistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a nonlinear model for relaxation by energy redistribution within an isolated, closed system composed of noninteracting identical particles with energy levels e i with i=1,2,...,N. The time-dependent occupation probabilities p i (t) are assumed to obey the nonlinear rate equations τ dp i /dt=-p i ln p i -α(t)p i -β(t)e i p i where α(t) and β(t) are functionals of the p i (t)'s that maintain invariant the mean energy E=Σ i=1 N e i p i (t) and the normalization condition 1=Σ i=1 N p i (t). The entropy S(t)=-k B Σ i=1 N p i (t)ln p i (t) is a nondecreasing function of time until the initially nonzero occupation probabilities reach a Boltzmann-like canonical distribution over the occupied energy eigenstates. Initially zero occupation probabilities, instead, remain zero at all times. The solutions p i (t) of the rate equations are unique and well defined for arbitrary initial conditions p i (0) and for all times. The existence and uniqueness both forward and backward in time allows the reconstruction of the ancestral or primordial lowest entropy state. By casting the rate equations in terms not of the p i 's but of their positive square roots √(p i ), they unfold from the assumption that time evolution is at all times along the local direction of steepest entropy ascent or, equivalently, of maximal entropy generation. These rate equations have the same mathematical structure and basic features as the nonlinear dynamical equation proposed in a series of papers ending with G. P. Beretta, Found. Phys. 17, 365 (1987) and recently rediscovered by S. Gheorghiu-Svirschevski [Phys. Rev. A 63, 022105 (2001);63, 054102 (2001)]. Numerical results illustrate the features of the dynamics and the differences from the rate equations recently considered for the same problem by M. Lemanska and Z. Jaeger [Physica D 170, 72 (2002)]. We also interpret the functionals k B α(t) and k B β(t) as nonequilibrium generalizations of the thermodynamic-equilibrium Massieu

  19. Constrained Optimal Stochastic Control of Non-Linear Wave Energy Point Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Chen, Jian-Bing; Kramer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    are enforced on the motion of the floater to prevent it from hitting the bottom of the sea or to make unacceptable jumps out of the water. The applied control law, which is of the feedback type with feedback from the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the floater, contains two unprovided gain......The paper deals with the stochastic optimal control of a wave energy point absorber with strong nonlinear buoyancy forces using the reactive force from the electric generator on the absorber as control force. The considered point absorber has only one degree of freedom, heave motion, which is used...

  20. Critical resources in clean energy technologies and waste flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal

    is fraught with the risk of shifting the supply security problem from one type of non‐renewable resources (fossil fuels) to another type (metals), in particular the specialty metals such as rare earth elements e.g. neodymium and dysprosium. This PhD work presented an in‐depth analysis of potential resource......A broader implementation of clean energy technologies in future is a widely motivated scenario for meeting the climate change goals as well as to reduce our dependency on the non‐renewable fossil fuels. However, the transition from the current fossil‐based society to a future low‐carbon society...

  1. Decentralized Energy Management with Profile Steering : Resource Allocation Problems in Energy Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, Thijs

    2017-01-01

    Our energy supply chain is changing rapidly, driven by a societal push towards clean and renewable resources. However, these resources are often uncontrollable (e.g., wind and sun) and are increasingly being exploited on smaller scales (e.g., rooftop photovoltaic). This poses a reliability challenge

  2. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary assessment of the cost effectiveness of distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) Building 1512. This study was conducted in response to the base's request for design assistance to the Federal Energy Management Program. Given the current tariff structure there are two main decisions facing NBVC: whether to install distributed energy resources (DER), or whether to continue the direct access energy supply contract. At the current effective rate, given assumptions about the performance and structure of building energy loads and available generating technology characteristics, the results of this study indicate that if the building installed a 600 kW DER system with absorption cooling and heat capabilities chosen by cost minimization, the energy cost savings would be about 14 percent, or $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, this study also suggests that significant savings could be obtained if Building 1 512 changed from the direct access contract to a SCE TOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) rate without installing a DER system. At current SCE TOU-8 tariffs, the potential savings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent, or $15,000 per year

  3. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  4. Constraining nuclear data via cosmological observations: Neutrino energy transport and big bang nucleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris Mark

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new computational capability that moves toward a self-consistent calculation of neutrino transport and nuclear reactions for big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN. Such a self-consistent approach is needed to be able to extract detailed information about nuclear reactions and physics beyond the standard model from precision cosmological observations of primordial nuclides and the cosmic microwave background radiation. We calculate the evolution of the early universe through the epochs of weak decoupling, weak freeze-out and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN by simultaneously coupling a full strong, electromagnetic, and weak nuclear reaction network with a multi-energy group Boltzmann neutrino energy transport scheme. The modular structure of our approach allows the dissection of the relative contributions of each process responsible for evolving the dynamics of the early universe. Such an approach allows a detailed account of the evolution of the active neutrino energy distribution functions alongside and self-consistently with the nuclear reactions and entropy/heat generation and 'ow between the neutrino and photon/electron/positron/baryon plasma components. Our calculations reveal nonlinear feedback in the time evolution of neutrino distribution functions and plasma thermodynamic conditions. We discuss the time development of neutrino spectral distortions and concomitant entropy production and extraction from the plasma. These e↑ects result in changes in the computed values of the BBN deuterium and helium-4 yields that are on the order of a half-percent relative to a baseline standard BBN calculation with no neutrino transport. This is an order of magnitude larger e↑ect than in previous estimates. For particular implementations of quantum corrections in plasma thermodynamics, our calculations show a 0.4% increase in deuterium and a 0.6% decrease in 4He over our baseline. The magnitude of these changes are on the order of uncertainties

  5. Constrained instanton and baryon number non-conservation at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sil'vestrov, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    The main subject of this paper is the calculation of corrections to instanton action ΔS∼(mρ) 4 log(mρ)/g 2 (ρ is the intanton radius) in the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. The total cross section for baryon number violating processes at high energies is usually parametrized as σ tat ∝exp(4π/αF(ε)), where α=g 2 /4π, ε=√s/E 0 , E 0 =√6πm w /α. In the present paper the third nontrivial term of the F(ε) expansion is obtained. The unknown correction to F(ε) are expected to be of the order of ε 8/3 . The total cross section is extremely sensitive to the value of single instanton action. For sufficiently heavy Higgs boson the ρ-dependent part of the instanton action is changed drastically. 21 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Effects of time-varying β in SNLS3 on constraining interacting dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuang; Wang, Yong-Zhen; Geng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that, for the Supernova Legacy Survey three-year (SNLS3) data, there is strong evidence for the redshift evolution of the color-luminosity parameter β. In this paper, adopting the w-cold-dark-matter (wCDM) model and considering its interacting extensions (with three kinds of interaction between dark sectors), we explore the evolution of β and its effects on parameter estimation. In addition to the SNLS3 data, we also use the latest Planck distance priors data, the galaxy clustering data extracted from sloan digital sky survey data release 7 and baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey, as well as the direct measurement of Hubble constant H 0 from the Hubble Space Telescope observation. We find that, for all the interacting dark energy (IDE) models, adding a parameter of β can reduce χ 2 by ∝34, indicating that a constant β is ruled out at 5.8σ confidence level. Furthermore, it is found that varying β can significantly change the fitting results of various cosmological parameters: for all the dark energy models considered in this paper, varying β yields a larger fractional CDM densities Ω c0 and a larger equation of state w; on the other side, varying β yields a smaller reduced Hubble constant h for the wCDM model, but it has no impact on h for the three IDE models. This implies that there is a degeneracy between h and coupling parameter γ. Our work shows that the evolution of β is insensitive to the interaction between dark sectors, and then highlights the importance of considering β's evolution in the cosmology fits. (orig.)

  7. A global perspective on renewable energy resources. NASA's prediction of worldwide energy resources (power) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Taiping; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Whitlock, Charles H. [SSAI/NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Stackhouse, Paul W. Jr [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project, initiated under the NASA Science Mission Directorate Applied Science Energy Management Program, analyzes, synthesizes and makes available data parameters on a global scale. These data have proved to be reliable and useful to the renewable energy industries, especially to the solar energy sectors. The POWER project derives its data primarily from NASA's World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Version 2.9) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (Version 4). The latest development of the NASA POWER Project and its plans for the future are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  8. On the generalization of constraint programming and boolean satisfiability solving techniques to schedule a resource-constrained project consisting of multi-mode jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schnell

    Full Text Available In our paper, we analyze new exact approaches for the multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling (MRCPSP problem with the aim of makespan minimization. For the single-mode RCPSP (SRCPSP recent exact algorithms combine a Branch and Bound algorithm with principles from Constraint Programming (CP and Boolean Satisfiability Solving (SAT. We extend the above principles for the solution of MRCPSP instances. This generalization is on the one hand achieved on the modeling level. We propose three CP-based formulations of the MRCPSP for the G12 CP platform and the optimization framework SCIP which both provide solution techniques combining CP and SAT principles. For one of the latter we implemented a new global constraint for SCIP, which generalizes the domain propagation and explanation generation principles for renewable resources in the context of multi-mode jobs. Our constraint applies the above principles in a more general way than the existing global constraint in SCIP. We compare our approaches with the state-of-the-art exact algorithm from the literature on MRCPSP instances with 20 and 30 jobs. Our computational experiments show that we can outperform the latter approach on these instances. Furthermore, we are the first to close (find the optimal solution and prove its optimality for 628 open instances with 50 and 100 jobs from the literature. In addition, we improve the best known lower bound of 2815 instances and the best known upper bound of 151 instances. Keywords: Multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling, Constraint programming, SAT solving, SCIP, Lazy clause generation, Exact algorithm

  9. Technologies for Distributed Energy Resources. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Technical Assistance Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, P.; Brown, T.

    2001-01-01

    This four-page fact sheet describes distributed energy resources for Federal facilities, which are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Distributed energy resources include both existing and emerging energy technologies: advanced industrial turbines and microturbines; combined heat and power (CHP) systems; fuel cells; geothermal systems; natural gas reciprocating engines; photovoltaics and other solar systems; wind turbines; small, modular biopower; energy storage systems; and hybrid systems. DOE FEMP is investigating ways to use these alternative energy systems in government facilities to meet greater demand, to increase the reliability of the power-generation system, and to reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  10. Survey of Public Understanding on Energy Resources including Nuclear Energy (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se-Moon; Song, Sun-Ja

    2007-01-01

    Women in Nuclear-Korea (WINK) surveyed the public understanding on various energy resources in early September 2006 to offer the result for establishment of the nuclear communication policy. The reason why this survey includes other energy resources is because the previous works are only limited on nuclear energy, and also aimed to know the public's opinion on the present communication skill of nuclear energy for the public understanding. The present study is purposed of having data how public understands nuclear energy compared to other energies, such as fossil fuels, hydro power, and other sustainable energies. The data obtained from this survey have shown different results according to the responded group; age, gender, residential area, etc. Responded numbers are more than 2,000 of general public and university students. The survey result shows that nuclear understanding is more negative in women than in men, and is more negative in young than older age

  11. Survey of energy resources: focus on shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The energy sector around the world is undergoing major changes resulting from increasing competitive pressures and concerns about costs, security of supply and the environment. At the same time, 1.6 billion people, almost a quarter of the world population, do not have access to commercial energy and the need for energy infrastructure investment is huge. The energy challenges are not the same in all regions. While rapidly burgeoning economies in the developing world are focusing on expanding energy access to support their economic growth and provide basic energy services to their citizens, industrialised countries are focusing on securing energy supplies in a competitive environment and in a publicly and environmentally acceptable way. In recent years, shale gas has been making headlines as a potential solution for many of the energy-related challenges, in particular in the United States. A number of studies on shale gas have been conducted, the majority focusing on the assessment of the resource base and the role of emerging technologies, which can significantly increase the current reserve estimates.

  12. Assessment of Kinetic Tidal Energy Resources Using SELFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasa Ranjan Behera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation is carried out to study the theoretical tidal stream energy resource in the Singapore Strait to support the search for renewable energy in the effort to reduce the carbon footprints in the Southeast Asia. The tidal hydrodynamics in the Singapore Strait has been simulated using a Semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian Finite-Element (SELFE model solving the 3D shallow water equations with Boussinesq approximations. Potential sites, with high tidal current (2.5 m/s and suitable for Tidal Energy Converter (TEC array installation to generate sustainable energy, have been identified. Further, various operational factors for installation of Tidal Energy Converters are considered before computing the theoretical power output for a typical TEC array. An approximate estimation of the possible theoretical power extraction from a TEC array shows an energy potential of up to 4.36% of the total energy demand of Singapore in 2011. Thus, the study suggests a detailed investigation of potential sites to quantify the total tidal stream energy potential in the Singapore Strait.

  13. Active constrained layer damping treatments for shell structures: a deep-shell theory, some intuitive results, and an energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, I. Y.

    1997-02-01

    This paper studies vibration control of a shell structure through use of an active constrained layer (ACL) damping treatment. A deep-shell theory that assumes arbitrary Lamé parameters 0964-1726/6/1/011/img1 and 0964-1726/6/1/011/img2 is first developed. Application of Hamilton's principle leads to the governing Love equations, the charge equation of electrostatics, and the associated boundary conditions. The Love equations and boundary conditions imply that the control action of the ACL for shell treatments consists of two components: free-end boundary actuation and membrane actuation. The free-end boundary actuation is identical to that of beam and plate ACL treatments, while the membrane actuation is unique to shell treatments as a result of the curvatures of the shells. In particular, the membrane actuation may reinforce or counteract the boundary actuation, depending on the location of the ACL treatment. Finally, an energy analysis is developed to determine the proper control law that guarantees the stability of ACL shell treatments. Moreover, the energy analysis results in a simple rule predicting whether or not the membrane actuation reinforces the boundary actuation.

  14. Distributed energy resources in grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Increased penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) and large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources are challenging the entire architecture of traditional power system. Microgrid, featuring higher flexibility and reliability, becomes an attractive candidate for the configuration...... of future electrical power system. This paper gives an overview of DER units in the grid interactive ac microgrid. The options in structures and control methods of power electronics interfaced DER units are described. Instantaneous load sharing strategies among DER units in the islanded microgrid operations...

  15. Resource file: practical publications for energy management, edition III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The Resource File is an in-depth bibliography of 166 practical and action-oriented energy conservation publications and materials. It is a reference tool, designed for Federal, state, and local energy managers or people who are asked to recommend how-to conservation guides to the public. Each listing describes a publication's intended audience and provides a summary of its contents. Included are operations and maintenance manuals, life-cycle costing handbooks, home insulation manuals, films on fuel-saving driving techniques, and courses devoted exclusively to home weatherization. 166 items.

  16. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  17. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  18. Multi-objective generation scheduling with hybrid energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Manas

    In economic dispatch (ED) of electric power generation, the committed generating units are scheduled to meet the load demand at minimum operating cost with satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Generation of electricity from the fossil fuel releases several contaminants into the atmosphere. So the economic dispatch objective can no longer be considered alone due to the environmental concerns that arise from the emissions produced by fossil fueled electric power plants. This research is proposing the concept of environmental/economic generation scheduling with traditional and renewable energy sources. Environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is a multi-objective problem with conflicting objectives since emission minimization is conflicting with fuel cost minimization. Production and consumption of fossil fuel and nuclear energy are closely related to environmental degradation. This causes negative effects to human health and the quality of life. Depletion of the fossil fuel resources will also be challenging for the presently employed energy systems to cope with future energy requirements. On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as hydro and wind are abundant, inexhaustible and widely available. These sources use native resources and have the capacity to meet the present and the future energy demands of the world with almost nil emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The costs of fossil fuel and renewable energy are also heading in opposite directions. The economic policies needed to support the widespread and sustainable markets for renewable energy sources are rapidly evolving. The contribution of this research centers on solving the economic dispatch problem of a system with hybrid energy resources under environmental restrictions. It suggests an effective solution of renewable energy to the existing fossil fueled and nuclear electric utilities for the cheaper and cleaner production of electricity with hourly

  19. Distributed optimal coordination for distributed energy resources in power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Di; Yang, Tao; Stoorvogel, A.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources (DERs) have been rapidly developing in recent years for improving reliability and efficiency of distribution systems. Emerging DERs require effective and efficient coordination in order to reap their potential benefits. In this paper......, we consider an optimal DER coordination problem over multiple time periods subject to constraints at both system and device levels. Fully distributed algorithms are proposed to dynamically and automatically coordinate distributed generators with multiple/single storages. With the proposed algorithms...

  20. Production of exergy from labour and energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    An indivisible relation between exergy of labour as well as of the energy resources and real economics are theoretically shown. In discussions on historical changes of productive activities of human beings from agriculture to industries, the proof of the theory of labour and the existence of an upper ceiling on Gross National Product (GNP) are given. The essential role of exergy in the market economy system in terms of productivities of goods, as well as their exchange are discussed. (Author)

  1. Constraining the dynamical dark energy parameters: Planck-2013 vs WMAP9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosyadlyj, B.; Sergijenko, O.; Durrer, R.; Pelykh, V.

    2014-05-01

    We determine the best-fit values and confidence limits for dynamical dark energy parameters together with other cosmological parameters on the basis of different datasets which include WMAP9 or Planck-2013 results on CMB anisotropy, BAO distance ratios from recent galaxy surveys, magnitude-redshift relations for distant SNe Ia from SNLS3 and Union2.1 samples and the HST determination of the Hubble constant. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo routine to map out the likelihood in the multi-dimensional parameter space. We show that the most precise determination of cosmological parameters with the narrowest confidence limits is obtained for the Planck+HST+BAO+SNLS3 dataset. The best-fit values and 2σ confidence limits for cosmological parameters in this case are Ωde = 0.718±0.022, w0 = -1.15+0.14-0.16, ca2 = -1.15+0.02-0.46, Ωbh2 = 0.0220±0.0005, Ωcdmh2 = 0.121±0.004, h = 0.713±0.027, ns = 0.958+0.014-0.010, As = (2.215+0.093-0.101)ṡ10-9, τrei = 0.093+0.022-0.028. For this dataset, the ΛCDM model is just outside the 2σ confidence region, while for the dataset WMAP9+HST+BAO+SNLS3 the ΛCDM model is only 1σ away from the best fit. The tension in the determination of some cosmological parameters on the basis of two CMB datasets WMAP9 and Planck-2013 is highlighted.

  2. Iterative reconstruction for low dose dual energy CT using information-divergence constrained spectral redundancy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiahui; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Zhang, Shanli; Wang, Yongbo; Liao, Yuting; Li, Sui; Zhang, Hua; Zeng, Dong; Ma, Jianhua

    2018-03-15

    Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) can improve the capability of differentiating different materials compared with conventional CT. However, due to non-negligible radiation exposure to patients, dose reduction has recently become a critical concern in CT imaging field. In this work, to reduce noise at the same time maintain DECT images quality, we present an iterative reconstruction algorithm for low-dose DECT images where in the objective function of the algorithm consists of a data-fidelity term and a regularization term. The former term is based on alpha-divergence to describe the statistical distribution of the DE sinogram data. And the latter term is based on the redundant information to reflect the prior information of the desired DECT images. For simplicity, the presented algorithm is termed as "AlphaD-aviNLM". To minimize the associative objective function, a modified proximal forward-backward splitting algorithm is proposed. Digital phantom, physical phantom, and patient data were utilized to validate and evaluate the presented AlphaD-aviNLM algorithm. The experimental results characterize the performance of the presented AlphaD-aviNLM algorithm. Speficically, in the digital phantom study, the presented AlphaD-aviNLM algorithm performs better than the PWLS-TV, PWLS-aviNLM, and AlphaD-TV with more than 49%, 34%, and 40% gains for the RMSE metric, 1.3%, 0.4%, and 0.7% gains for the FSIM metric and 13%, 8%, and 11% gains for the PSNR metric. In the physical phantom study, the presented AlphaD-aviNLM algorithm performs better than the PWLS-TV, PWLS-aviNLM, and AlphaD-TV with more than 0.55%, 0.07%, and 0.16% gains for the FSIM metric.

  3. COMPLEX MAPPING OF ENERGY RESOURCES FOR ALLOCATION OF SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Novakovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents developed methodology of solar and wind energy resources complex mapping at the regional level, taking into account the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting the placement of renewable energy facilities. Methodology provides a reasonable search and allocation of areas, the most promising for the placement of wind and solar power plants.

  4. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Renewable energy and resource curse on the possible consequences of solar energy in North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bae, Yuh Jin

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to project whether the five North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisa) have the potentials to suffer from a solar energy curse. Under the assumption that a solar energy curse will be similar to the current resource curse, the combination of

  6. Optimal allocation of international atomic energy agency inspection resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Each year the Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections to confirm that nuclear materials and facilities are employed for peaceful purposes. Because of limited inspection resources, however, the IAEA cannot fully attain its safeguards goals either quantitatively as measured by the inspection effort negotiated in the facility attachments or qualitatively as measured by the IAEA criteria for evaluating attainment of safeguards goals. Under current IAEA procedures the allocation of inspection resources assigns essentially equal inspection effort to facilities of the same type. An alternative approach would incorporate consideration of all material categories and facilities to be assigned inspection resources when allocating effort to a particular facility. One such method for allocating inspection resources is based on the IAEA criteria. The criteria provide a framework for allocating inspection effort that includes a ranking of material types according to their safeguards importance, an implicit definition of inspection activities for each material and facility type, and criteria for judging the attainment of safeguards goals in terms of the quality and frequency of these inspection activities. This framework is applicable to resource allocation for an arbitrary group of facilities such as a state's fuel cycle, the facilities inspected by an operations division, or all of the facilities inspected by the IAEA

  7. Energy resources for mankind considered from the earth evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Shin-ich; Shimizu, Saburo

    2005-01-01

    The amount of energy resources contained in Earth and that we mankind can use in future can be estimated on the basis of the information given by astrophysical and geochemical considerations. The kind of resources includes geothermal, nuclear, solar, and fossil energy. We believe that the results of these considerations, especially the method of thinking, may be taken into curriculum in high schools or introductory courses of university education. In school education relating to energy and environmental problems we think that it is more important for the students to learn how to think or estimate and how to solve the problems than to be given any established knowledge itself from the teachers and reference books or journals. Students are easily discouraged by teachers who are talking that petroleum will be exhausted in 40 years or that uranium-235 will be also exhausted unless we develop the nuclear fuel system utilizing uranium-238 breading. They seem afraid of insufficient left when they grow old. In this report we call the readers attention that the amount of energy resources contained in Earth is such that the mankind can never exhaust them and that they are waiting to be exploited or for the time to come when the technology for their utilization is developed. We also pay attention that too much consumption of energy surely affect the earth environment (heat pollution) - the limit will be the consumption rate of about 0.1 W/m 2 of the earth surface which equals to the heat emission rate from the earth surface toward the space. (author)

  8. Assessment of energy wood resources in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, Y. email: yuri.gerasimov@metla.fi; Karjalainen, T.

    2009-07-01

    The energy wood procurement possibilities for the eight regions making up Northwest Russia were assessed. Wood byproducts from roundwood harvesting and sawmilling were considered for energy production based on actual harvesting, sawmill and plywood production figures for 2006. Of the total calculated potential of 31 million solid m3 (62 TWh), nearly 70% (21.8 million m3) is from harvesting. The remainder (9 million m3) is from saw and plywood milling. The approximate available energy wood by region would be: 2.3 million m3 from the Republic of Karelia, 2.7 million m3 from the Republic of Komi, 5.4 million m3 from Arkhangelsk, 4.6 million m3 from Vologda, 3.8 million m3 from Leningrad, 2.0 million m3 from Novgorod, 0.8 million m3 from Pskov, and 41,000 m3 from the Murmansk regions. There are large differences in the potentials between and within the regions. This is due to the differences in their forest resources; differences in their utilisation of these resources; the available intrastructures; some limitations on wood harvesting. A part of this calculated potential is already utilised, since some non-industrial roundwood from central processing yards sawmills and plywood mills are currently used in energy production. Nearly 65% of all the potential energy wood from roundwood harvesting is non-industrial roundwood, 19% is spruce stumps removed after final felling, 8% is unused branches and tops, and 8% is defective wood resulting from logging. About 58% of the total potential energy wood from roundwood harvesting is coniferous. However, there are large differences between the regions and within the regions in the species proportions. Currently about 40% of the allowable cut is used. This means that it would be possible to intensify the utilisation of the forest resources and thereby also to increase the use of wood for energy production. Full implementation of the allowable cut could provide 73.5 million m3 of energy wood (147 TWh). In addition, if the technical

  9. a Fuel-Cell Distributed Energy Resource with Integrated Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhajoei, Hassan

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a fuel-cell distributed energy resource with integrated energy storage. A compatible power electronic interface to couple the fuel-cell with the grid and/or a local load is introduced. Details of the energy storage module, the power electronic interface and the corresponding controls are described. A control strategy for the power electronic interface is developed to manage the flow of power between the fuel-cell, the energy storage and the grid. A dynamic model for the fuel-cell distributed resource is developed and is used for the systematic design of the distributed resource control system. Performance of the fuel-cell distributed energy resource is evaluated based on digital time-domain simulations in the (Electromagnetic Transient Program) EMTP-RV software environment. Effectiveness of the energy storage module, the compatible interface and the corresponding controls in enhancing the fuel-cell distributed resource performance is verified. The results demonstrate the developed power electronic interface and control strategy provide the fuel-cell with the load-following capability, the plug-and-play feature and high qualities of voltage and power that are required for the microgrid application.

  10. A Theoretical Essay on Sustainability and Environmentally Balanced Output Growth: Natural Capital, Constrained Depletion of Resources and Pollution Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Marcos Carvalho de Sena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that today’s activities are imposing a heavy burden on the earth's capacity has led to an increasing interest in environmental issues. It is emphasized that rapid production growth has exhausted natural resources and polluted the environment. The objective of this essay is to offer a clear definition of natural capital, connect it to a qualitative concept of sustainability and, supported by two analytical models and a set of studies on related environmental literature, to show that sustainability can be attained via imposition of controls over production processes that use depletable natural resources and generate pollution. The methodology used contemplates an integrative approach combining a qualitative (seeking definitions-analytical (appraising models apparatus to reach a new conceptual perspective to conceive sustainability. As the main essay’s contribution, it is showed that sustainability can be reached if compensation is allowed for, i.e., stocks of renewable being augmented as production depletes the stocks of nonrenewable natural resources. Moreover, that result is possible even considering nondecreasing output production, an important finding to contrast with the current environmentally based output growth literature, which asserts that slowing down output production is the only way to obtain sustainability.

  11. The research and training of human resources to produce renewable resources of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Rangel Delgado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The prospective technique approach used as a context, this paper emphasizes the importance of a long term vision on the human resources development for renewable energies production. In the same sense it outlines the connection between the professions associated with the generation of renewable energy and the labor market. Results are presented on the research intellectual capacity of Mexico, highlighting, the public universities, specialized research centers, researchers, and the associated academic programs to renewable energies. Finally, it is presented the conclusions, and suggestions oriented to increase strategically, the renewable energies research for the technology development. Also it might incorporate our country towards the international market for renewable technologies, in the long term.

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN ENERGY RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestru MAXIMILIAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and political development of human society in recent decades put to the fore the issue of natural resources available to the earth; scientists are asking ever more seriously the question to what extent these resources can support the economic development in the future, can provide food and survival of a growing population and will be able to contribute to the eradication of underdevelopment. The emphasis of major events – the population explosion, the trend of depletion of natural resources, environmental deterioration, underdevelopment etc. – was and it is still discussed with increasing responsibility by specialists, being drafted a large number of forecasts for a variable duration perspective. The trend of depletion of natural resources is another phenomenon of the contemporary world and that will become, certainly, even more pronounced in the near future. Harnessing the increasing exhaustible natural resources with low reserves and a slow recovery of renewable resources raises acutely the issue regarding the conservation of these resources. In recent decades, there is a tendency to waste energy and raw materials in the society. There are produced goods without an absolute utility, being imposed artificially by advertising or fashion swings and many products are designed in such a way that it takes little to compel the buyer to replace them. The "consumption" civilization is characterized as a "society that throws" the population of developed countries (18% of world population dispelling waste form 20 to 25% of the material production of the world. Excessive consumption of raw materials and fuel was favoured by their relatively low prices, maintained under the pressure of interests of transnational companies, prices that disfavoured, however, the developing countries. Consequently, consumption of raw materials and fuel turned to the easily accessible resources that have been heavily exploited, partially abandoning some

  13. Using Imaging Spectrometry measurements of Ecosystem Composition to constrain Regional Predictions of Carbon, Water and Energy Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, A. S.; Bogan, S.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem composition is a key attribute of terrestrial ecosystems, influencing the fluxes of carbon, water, and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The description of current ecosystem composition has traditionally come from relatively few ground-based inventories of the plant canopy, but are spatially limited and do not provide a comprehensive picture of ecosystem composition at regional or global scales. In this analysis, imaging spectrometry measurements, collected as part of the HyspIRI Preparatory Mission, are used to provide spatially-resolved estimates of plant functional type composition providing an important constraint on terrestrial biosphere model predictions of carbon, water and energy fluxes across the heterogeneous landscapes of the Californian Sierras. These landscapes include oak savannas, mid-elevation mixed pines, fir-cedar forests, and high elevation pines. Our results show that imaging spectrometry measurements can be successfully used to estimate regional-scale variation in ecosystem composition and resulting spatial heterogeneity in patterns of carbon, water and energy fluxes and ecosystem dynamics. Simulations at four flux tower sites within the study region yield patterns of seasonal and inter-annual variation in carbon and water fluxes that have comparable accuracy to simulations initialized from ground-based inventory measurements. Finally, results indicate that during the 2012-2015 Californian drought, regional net carbon fluxes fell by 84%, evaporation and transpiration fluxes fell by 53% and 33% respectively, and sensible heat increase by 51%. This study provides a framework for assimilating near-future global satellite imagery estimates of ecosystem composition with terrestrial biosphere models, constraining and improving their predictions of large-scale ecosystem dynamics and functioning.

  14. Supporting Teacher Professional Development to Use Tablets in Resource Constrained Schools: A Case Study of Cofimvaba Schools, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Botha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of three years, 360 teachers at 26 resource constrained schools in Cofimvaba, which lies in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, have received training on how to integrate mobile tablets in their classrooms to support teaching and learning. The training modules combined the use of teaching strategies and fun with practical hands-on exercises which can be used in any type of subject for any grade when training teachers. Teachers embarked on a learning path attached to badges to reward their efforts and evidence of how they have applied their training in their classrooms. The purpose of this paper is to share this novel approach to teacher training in a unique context where schools are deprived of resources but still managed to successfully integrate mobile tablets in their classroom practices. These practices have changed the way teachers teach from standing with a textbook and chalk in front of a class sitting in rows, to standing with a tablet and learners are engaged in group work and using the tablets as a resource in a disconnected environment. The success of these training modules lies in the application of an approach of teach with and not to, earn as you learn and not just give technology, respect and humility, flexibility, innovation, creativity and co-creation.

  15. Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Browne, Matthew; Calone, Roberto

    The usage of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in utilities around the world is expected to increase significantly. The existing distribution systems have been generally designed for unidirectional power flow, and feeders are opened and locked out for any fault within. However, in the future...... this practice may lead to a loss of significant generation where each feeder may have significant DER penetration. Also, utilities have started to investigate islanding operation of distribution systems with DER as a way to improve the reliability of the power supply to customers. This report is the result...... of 17 months of work of the Joint Working Group B5/C6.26/CIRED “Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources”. The working group used the CIGRE report TB421 “The impact of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation on Substation Protection and Automation”, published...

  16. Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Browne, Matthew; Calone, Roberto

    of 17 months of work of the Joint Working Group B5/C6.26/CIRED “Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources”. The working group used the CIGRE report TB421 “The impact of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation on Substation Protection and Automation”, published......The usage of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in utilities around the world is expected to increase significantly. The existing distribution systems have been generally designed for unidirectional power flow, and feeders are opened and locked out for any fault within. However, in the future...... by WG B5.34 as the entry document for the work on this report. In doing so, the group aligned the content and the scope of this report, the network structures considered, possible islanding, standardized communication and adaptive protection, interface protection, connection schemes and protection...

  17. Measuring health-related quality of life of HIV-positive adolescents in resource-constrained settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Masquillier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1 assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQOL scale for adolescents (KIDSCREEN and 2 determining which version of the KIDSCREEN (52-, 27- and 10-item version is most suitable for low-resource settings. METHODS: The KIDSCREEN was translated into Eastern African English, Luganda (Uganda and Dholuo (Kenya according to standard procedures. The reconciled version was administered in 2011 to ALH aged 13-17 in Kenya (n = 283 and Uganda (n = 299. All three KIDSCREEN versions were fitted to the data with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. After comparison, the most suitable version was adapted based on the CFA outcomes utilizing the results of previous formative research. In order to develop a general HRQOL factor, a second-order measurement model was fitted to the data. RESULTS: The CFA results showed that without adjustments, the KIDSCREEN cannot be used for measuring the HRQOL of HIV-positive adolescents. After comparison, the most suitable version for low-resource settings--the 27-item version--was adapted further. The introduction of a negative wording factor was required for the Dholuo model. The Dholuo (CFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.039 and the Luganda model (CFI: 0.90; RMSEA: 0.052 showed a good fit. All cronbach's alphas of the factors were 0.70 or above. The alpha value of the Dholuo and Lugandan HRQOL second-order factor was respectively 0.84 and 0.87. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the adapted KIDSCREEN-27 is an adequate tool for measuring HRQOL in low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence.

  18. Cost-effective choices of marine fuels in a carbon-constrained world: results from a global energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljegard, Maria; Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria; Andersson, Karin; Johnson, Hannes

    2014-11-04

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition model has been modified to include a more detailed shipping sector in order to assess what marine fuels and propulsion technologies might be cost-effective by 2050 when achieving an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 400 or 500 ppm by the year 2100. The robustness of the results was examined in a Monte Carlo analysis, varying uncertain parameters and technology options, including the amount of primary energy resources, the availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, and costs of different technologies and fuels. The four main findings are (i) it is cost-effective to start the phase out of fuel oil from the shipping sector in the next decade; (ii) natural gas-based fuels (liquefied natural gas and methanol) are the most probable substitutes during the study period; (iii) availability of CCS, the CO2 target, the liquefied natural gas tank cost and potential oil resources affect marine fuel choices significantly; and (iv) biofuels rarely play a major role in the shipping sector, due to limited supply and competition for bioenergy from other energy sectors.

  19. Residual biomass resources for energy production. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, G.

    2010-06-01

    This report covers the whole problematic of energy production from biomass residues in France except the production of biofuels. It is made of two parts. The first one gives an overview of the availability of residual biomass resources, The concept of residue (or waste) is placed in its economic and regulatory context (the major part of the resource cannot be considered as waste without any further potential use). The conditions of availability of the resource for each market segment are identified. The second part describes the conditions for the use of 5 different conversion options of these residues into energy. The logistics constraints for the procurement of the fuel and the intermediate operations to prepare it are briefly summarised. The objective was the identification of key issues in all relevant aspects, without giving too much emphasis to one of them at the expense of another one in order to avoid duplicating the frequent cases of facilities that do not meet environmental and economic targets because the designers of the system have not paid enough attention to a parameter of the system. (author)

  20. Dynamic Optimization of Constrained Layer Damping Structure for the Headstock of Machine Tools with Modal Strain Energy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakai Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic stiffness and damping of the headstock, which is a critical component of precision horizontal machining center, are two main factors that influence machining accuracy and surface finish quality. Constrained Layer Damping (CLD structure is proved to be effective in raising damping capacity for the thin plate and shell structures. In this paper, one kind of high damping material is utilized on the headstock to improve damping capacity. The dynamic characteristic of the hybrid headstock is investigated analytically and experimentally. The results demonstrate that the resonant response amplitudes of the headstock with damping material can decrease significantly compared to original cast structure. To obtain the optimal configuration of damping material, a topology optimization method based on the Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO is implemented. Modal Strain Energy (MSE method is employed to analyze the damping and to derive the sensitivity of the modal loss factor. The optimization results indicate that the added weight of damping material decreases by 50%; meanwhile the first two orders of modal loss factor decrease by less than 23.5% compared to the original structure.

  1. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ((mu)Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a(mu)Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the(mu)Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into(mu)Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular(mu)Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a(mu)Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible example

  2. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a

  3. Energy policy, aid, and the development of renewable energy resources in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew; Shah, Kalim U.

    2016-01-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have established ambitious renewable energy targets. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by several factors: a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, to attract development assistance in the energy sector, and to strengthen the position of SIDS in climate change negotiations. Here we explore the interplay between the role of aid and energy policy in the development of renewable energy resources in SIDS. We find that the importance of development assistance has implications for the sustainability of renewable energy development, given that funding is not always accompanied by necessary energy policy reforms. We also identify energy efficiency and access to modern energy services as having received insufficient attention in the establishment and structure of renewable energy targets in SIDS, and argue that this is problematic due to the strong economic case for such investments. - Highlights: • SIDS have established the world's most ambitious renewable energy targets. • These are motivated by fossil fuel dependence and climate change vulnerability. • Aid dependence has influenced the ambition of renewable energy targets. • Energy efficiency and energy access have received insufficient attention. • Domestic policy reforms necessary for the achievement of targets has been limited.

  4. Mapping Thermal Energy Resource Potentials from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neugebauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater heat recovery via heat exchangers and heat pumps constitutes an environmentally friendly, approved and economically competitive, but often underestimated technology. By introducing the spatial dimension in feasibility studies, the results of calculations change considerably. This paper presents a methodology to estimate thermal energy resource potentials of wastewater treatment plants taking spatial contexts into account. In close proximity to settlement areas, wastewater energy can ideally be applied for heating in mixed-function areas, which very likely have a continuous heat demand and allow for an increased amount of full-load hours compared to most single-use areas. For the Austrian case, it is demonstrated that the proposed methodology leads to feasible results and that the suggested technology might reduce up to 17% of the Austrian global warming potential of room heating. The method is transferrable to other countries as the input data and calculation formula are made available. A broad application of wastewater energy with regard to spatial structures and spatial development potentials can lead to (1 increasing energy efficiency by using a maximum of waste heat and (2 a significant reduction of (fossil energy consumption which results in a considerable reduction of the global warming potential of the heat supply (GWP if electricity from renewables is used for the operation of heat pumps.

  5. Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection Systems: Technology Review and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, N. R.

    2002-09-01

    Interconnecting distributed energy resources (DER) to the electric utility grid (or Area Electric Power System, Area EPS) involves system engineering, safety, and reliability considerations. This report documents US DOE Distribution and Interconnection R&D (formerly Distributed Power Program) activities, furthering the development and safe and reliable integration of DER interconnected with our nation's electric power systems. The key to that is system integration and technology development of the interconnection devices that perform the functions necessary to maintain the safety, power quality, and reliability of the EPS when DER are connected to it.

  6. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  7. Inner solar system prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    Zacny, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates Venus and Mercury prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to exploration and utilization of these bodies. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists interested in current and impending Venus and Mercury related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors.   Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in Venus and Mercury exploration and exploitation.

  8. The incidence and types of medication errors in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-constrained settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Anene Agu

    Full Text Available This study assessed the incidence and types of medication errors, interventions and outcomes in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in selected HIV treatment centres in Nigeria.Of 69 health facilities that had program for active screening of medication errors, 14 were randomly selected for prospective cohort assessment. All patients who filled/refilled their antiretroviral medications between February 2009 and March 2011 were screened for medication errors using study-specific pharmaceutical care daily worksheet (PCDW. All potential or actual medication errors identified, interventions provided and the outcomes were documented in the PCDW. Interventions included pharmaceutical care in HIV training for pharmacists amongst others. Chi-square was used for inferential statistics and P0.05. The major medications errors identified were 26.4% incorrect ART regimens prescribed; 19.8% potential drug-drug interaction or contraindication present; and 16.6% duration and/or frequency of medication inappropriate. Interventions provided included 67.1% cases of prescriber contacted to clarify/resolve errors and 14.7% cases of patient counselling and education; 97.4% of potential/actual medication error(s were resolved.The incidence rate of medication errors was somewhat high; and majority of identified errors were related to prescription of incorrect ART regimens and potential drug-drug interactions; the prescriber was contacted and the errors were resolved in majority of cases. Active screening for medication errors is feasible in resource-limited settings following a capacity building intervention.

  9. Renewable energy resources and their role in the energy balance of the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    2001-01-01

    The role of the renewable energy sources in the energy production sector is discussed. The main features of solar, wind and biomass energy are reviewed. Studies for Bulgaria show a total solar radiation above 1600 kWh/m 2 for the Southern regions. The assessment of the solar resources, made by the DOE gives about 170 000 TWh/y for the whole territory. The economically advantageous resources for passive heating are 10.6 TWh till 2020. For the same period the utilization of 0.92 TWh solar energy is possible. Solar installations with surface about 14 000 m 2 are currently in operation. 54% of them are in the tourism sphere and only 8% are in industry (due to some economical difficulties about 44% of the industrial installations are shut down). On the base of processing of the data from more that 100 meteorological stations on the country territory, a spatial assessment of the resources has been done. For the whole territory the wind potential is estimated to about 15800 GW. Theoretical average annual wind resources at 10 km above the surface are 125 000 TWh. There are several areas with wind velocity 5-6 m/s which are suitable for wind energy production. The energy resources of biomass for the country are large - around 35.5 TWh. Under the programmes 'Country Study Project' and PHARE, different scenarii for the renewable energy source utilization till 2020 are developed. Estimation for the possibilities for wider application of the renewable sources in the market are done

  10. A Practical and Robust Execution Time-Frame Procedure for the Multi-Mode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem with Minimal and Maximal Time Lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Hsiang-Ling Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and optimizing organizational processes, such as the one represented by the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP, improve outcomes. Based on assumptions and simplification, this model tackles the allocation of resources so that organizations can continue to generate profits and reinvest in future growth. Nonetheless, despite all of the research dedicated to solving the RCPSP and its multi-mode variations, there is no standardized procedure that can guide project management practitioners in their scheduling tasks. This is mainly because many of the proposed approaches are either based on unrealistic/oversimplified scenarios or they propose solution procedures not easily applicable or even feasible in real-life situations. In this study, we solve a more true-to-life and complex model, Multimode RCPSP with minimal and maximal time lags (MRCPSP/max. The complexity of the model solved is presented, and the practicality of the proposed approach is justified depending on only information that is available for every project regardless of its industrial context. The results confirm that it is possible to determine a robust makespan and to calculate an execution time-frame with gaps lower than 11% between their lower and upper bounds. In addition, in many instances, the solved lower bound obtained was equal to the best-known optimum.

  11. Geology and mineral and energy resources, Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico; an interactive computer presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidball, Ronald R.; Bartsch-Winkler, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    This Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) contains a program illustrating the geology and mineral and energy resources of the Roswell Resource Area, an administrative unit of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in east-central New Mexico. The program enables the user to access information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mining history, metallic and industrial mineral commodities, hydrocarbons, and assessments of the area. The program was created with the display software, SuperCard, version 1.5, by Aldus. The program will run only on a Macintosh personal computer. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with Macintosh HFS standards. The program was developed on a Macintosh II-series computer with system 7.0.1. The program is a compiled, executable form that is nonproprietary and does not require the presence of the SuperCard software.

  12. Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, Voicu; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads......Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads...

  13. Energy resources of the Denver and Cheyenne Basins, Colorado - resource characteristics, development potential, and environmental problems. Environmental Geology 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.M.; Ladwig, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The geological characteristics, development potential, and environmental problems related to the exploration for and development of energy resources in the Denver and Cheyenne Basins of Colorado were investigated. Coal, lignite, uranium, oil and natural gas were evaluated. Emphasis is placed on environmental problems that may develop from the exploration for an extraction of these energy resources

  14. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Barron, W.F. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong); LaRocco, P. [LaRocco Associates (United States); Shen, Z. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan`s rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  16. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Barron, W.F. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong)); LaRocco, P. (LaRocco Associates (United States)); Shen, Z. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan's rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  17. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  18. Role for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the Digital Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2007-11-01

    A large, and growing, part of the Nation's economy either serves or depends upon the information technology industry. These high-tech or "digital" enterprises are characterized by a dependence on electronic devices, need for completely reliable power supply, and intolerance to any power quality problems. In some cases these enterprises are densely populated with electronic loads and have very high energy usage per square foot. Serving these enterprises presents both electric power and equipment cooling challenges. Traditional electric utilities are often hard-pressed to deliver power that meets the stringent requirements of digital customers, and the economic and social consequences of a service quality or reliability problem can be large. New energy delivery and control options must be developed to effectively serve a digital economy. This report explores how distributed energy resources, partnerships between utility and customer to share the responsibility for service quality, innovative facility designs, higher energy efficiencies and waste-heat utilization can be coupled to meet the needs of a growing digital economy.

  19. Integrative real-time geographic visualization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokine, A.; Shankar, M.; Stovall, J.; Bhaduri, B.; King, T.; Fernandez, S.; Datar, N.; Omitaomu, O.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Several models forecast that climatic changes will increase the frequency of disastrous events like droughts, hurricanes, and snow storms. Responding to these events and also to power outages caused by system errors such as the 2003 North American blackout require an interconnect-wide real-time monitoring system for various energy resources. Such a system should be capable of providing situational awareness to its users in the government and energy utilities by dynamically visualizing the status of the elements of the energy grid infrastructure and supply chain in geographic contexts. We demonstrate an approach that relies on Google Earth and similar standard-based platforms as client-side geographic viewers with a data-dependent server component. The users of the system can view status information in spatial and temporal contexts. These data can be integrated with a wide range of geographic sources including all standard Google Earth layers and a large number of energy and environmental data feeds. In addition, we show a real-time spatio-temporal data sharing capability across the users of the system, novel methods for visualizing dynamic network data, and a fine-grain access to very large multi-resolution geographic datasets for faster delivery of the data. The system can be extended to integrate contingency analysis results and other grid models to assess recovery and repair scenarios in the case of major disruption. (author)

  20. Government control or low carbon lifestyle? – Analysis and application of a novel selective-constrained energy-saving and emission-reduction dynamic evolution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guochang; Tian, Lixin; Fu, Min; Sun, Mei

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a novel selective-constrained energy-saving and emission-reduction (ESER) dynamic evolution system, analyzing the impact of cost of conserved energy (CCE), government control, low carbon lifestyle and investment in new technology of ESER on energy intensity and economic growth. Based on artificial neural network, the quantitative coefficients of the actual system are identified. Taking the real situation in China for instance, an empirical study is undertaken by adjusting the parameters of the actual system. The dynamic evolution behavior of energy intensity and economic growth in reality are observed, with the results in perfect agreement with actual situation. The research shows that the introduction of CCE into ESER system will have certain restrictive effect on energy intensity in the earlier period. However, with the further development of the actual system, carbon emissions could be better controlled and energy intensity would decline. In the long run, the impacts of CCE on economic growth are positive. Government control and low carbon lifestyle play a decisive role in controlling ESER system and declining energy intensity. But the influence of government control on economic growth should be considered at the same time and the controlling effect of low carbon lifestyle on energy intensity should be strengthened gradually, while the investment in new technology of ESER can be neglected. Two different cases of ESER are proposed after a comprehensive analysis. The relations between variables and constraint conditions in the ESER system are harmonized remarkably. A better solution to carry out ESER is put forward at last, with numerical simulations being carried out to demonstrate the results. - Highlights: • Use of nonlinear dynamical method to model the selective-constrained ESER system. • Monotonic evolution curves of energy intensity and economic growth are obtained. • Detailed analysis of the game between government control and low

  1. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: constraining the evolution of Newton's constant using the growth rate of structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesseris, Savvas; Blake, Chris; Davis, Tamara; Parkinson, David

    2011-01-01

    We constrain the evolution of Newton's constant using the growth rate of large-scale structure measured by the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey in the redshift range 0.1 m (assuming General Relativity), and use this to construct a diagnostic to detect the presence of an evolving Newton's constant. Secondly we directly measure the evolution of Newton's constant, G eff , that appears in Modified Gravity theories, without assuming General Relativity to be true. The novelty of these approaches are that, contrary to other methods, they do not require knowledge of the expansion history of the Universe, H(z), making them model independent tests. Our constraints for the second derivative of Newton's constant at the present day, assuming it is slowly evolving as suggested by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints, using the WiggleZ data is G double-dot eff (t 0 ) = −1.19 ± 0.95·10 −20 h 2 yr −2 , where h is defined via H 0 = 100 h km s −1 Mpc −1 , while using both the WiggleZ and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxy (SDSS LRG) data is G double-dot eff (t 0 ) = −3.6 ± 6.8·10 −21 h 2 yr −2 , both being consistent with General Relativity. Finally, our constraint for the rms mass fluctuation σ 8 using the WiggleZ data is σ 8 = 0.75 ± 0.08, while using both the WiggleZ and the SDSS LRG data σ 8 = 0.77 ± 0.07, both in good agreement with the latest measurements from the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation

  2. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolela, Ahmed [Department of Petroleum Operations, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Kotebe Branch Office, P. O. Box-486, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2007-11-22

    The gravity of Ethiopian energy problem has initiated studies to explore various energy resources in Ethiopia, one among this is the exploration for coal resources. Studies confirmed the presence of coal deposits in the country. The coal-bearing sediments are distributed in the Inter-Trappean and Pre-Trap volcanic geological settings, and deposited in fluvio-lacustrine and paludal environments in grabens and half-grabens formed by a NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fault systems. Most significant coal deposits are found in the Inter-Trappean geological setting. The coal and coal-bearing sediments reach a maximum thickness of 4 m and 300 m, respectively. The best coal deposits were hosted in sandstone-coal-shale and mudstone-coal-shale facies. The coal formations of Ethiopia are quite unique in that they are neither comparable to the coal measures of the Permo-Carboniferous Karroo Formation nor to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous of North America or Northwestern Europe. Proximate analysis and calorific value data indicated that the Ethiopian coals fall under lignite to high volatile bituminous coal, and genetically are classified under humic, sapropelic and mixed coal. Vitrinite reflectance studies confirmed 0.3-0.64% Ro values for the studied coals. Palynology studies confirmed that the Ethiopian coal-bearing sediments range in age from Eocene to Miocene. A total of about 297 Mt of coal reserve registered in the country. The coal reserve of the country can be considered as an important alternative source of energy. (author)

  3. Research and utilization of renewable energy resources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.S.; Aditya, S.K.; Mazumder, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh is an energy deficit and low-economy country with high population density. Per-capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world. The only dependable indigenous gas, which is the major primary energy source in the country, is used mainly for the production of electricity and fertilizer. If it is burnt at an annual 10% growth rate of consumption, may not last more than 15-20 years. Around 30% of the people of the country have connections to the national grid line. In the villages, where 80% of the population live, the situation is worse. Even if it is possible to take the electric grid line to all villages of the country, which will be an extremely difficult and expensive work to do, the majority of the village houses will not be able to have electric connections due to poverty. No nuclear power station exists in the country and the possibility of setting up any in the near future is limited due to non-availability of funds. Hydroelectric resources are also low because of the flat terrain of the country. The fuel import bill also occupies a significant portion of the total amount of export earnings. Conventional resources in Bangladesh are utterly inadequate for supplying the energy needs to bring in a significant improvement in our economy. On the other hand when our gas reserves will be exhausted it will be difficult for us even to maintain the energy supply for the development of our country unless we find alternate sources of energy. Solar energy availability in Bangladesh is high around 5KWH/day per meter square or 2.6 10/sup 11/ MWH/year on the total surface area of the country. This is equivalent to the output of about 30GW capacity utility plant for 100 years assuming 10% efficiency of the solar devices. Large-scale production of electricity from new, renewable energy sources is a great challenge. Wind power is difficult to exploit economically in regions with wind speeds bellow 5 m/s yearly average. Solar thermal power plants come

  4. Managing human resources in the field of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear field, comprising industry, government authorities, regulators, R and D organizations and educational institutions, relies heavily on a specialized, highly trained and motivated workforce for its sustainability. An ageing workforce, declining student enrolment and the resultant risk of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge and experience for expanding or newly established nuclear programmes are all serious challenges that influence the management of human resources (HR) in the nuclear field. The management of human resources requires particular attention in the field of nuclear energy, both because of the high standards of performance expected in this field and the considerable time needed to develop such specialists. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy were primarily developed during the second half of the twentieth century. The nuclear field is now at a mature stage of development, with those who were pioneers in the field having retired and their responsibilities handed over to subsequent generations. For those aspects of the nuclear field related to nuclear power, a great deal of effort has been devoted to managing and continuing to improve the safety and operational performance of existing facilities. However, indications are that the next decades may see considerable expansion to meet increasing energy needs, while responding to concerns about the environment, including global warming. Thus, in the nuclear field, those Member States with existing nuclear power programmes may be forced to replace a large part of their current workforce, while also attracting, recruiting and preparing a fresh workforce for the new facilities being planned. At the same time, those who will be initiating nuclear power programmes, or other peaceful applications, will be developing HR for their programmes. In the past, the development of human resources in the nuclear field has depended on considerable support from organizations in the country of origin of the technology

  5. A Detailed Assessment of the Wave Energy Resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reduan Atan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wave characteristic assessments of wave energy test sites provide a greater understanding of prevailing wave conditions and are therefore extremely important to both wave energy test site operators and clients as they can inform wave energy converter design, optimisation, deployment, operation and maintenance. This research presents an assessment of the wave resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS on the west coast of Ireland based on 12-years of modelled data from January 2004 to December 2015. The primary aim is to provide an assessment of annual and seasonal wave characteristics and resource variability at the two deployment berths which comprise the site. A nested model has been developed using Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN to replicate wave propagations from regional to local scale with a 0.05° resolution model covering the northeast Atlantic and a 0.0027° resolution model covering AMETS. The coarse and fine models have been extensively validated against available measured data within Irish waters. 12-year model outputs from the high resolution model were analysed to determine mean and maximum conditions and operational, high and extreme event conditions for significant wave height, energy period and power. Annual and seasonal analyses are presented. The 12-year annual mean P were 68 kW/m at Berth A (BA and 57 kW/m at Berth B (BB. The resource shows strong seasonal and annual variations and the winter mean power levels were found to be strongly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

  6. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design Conditions AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of public meeting...

  7. Ocean thermal energy: concept and resources, history and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihous, Gerard

    2015-10-01

    Two articles address the possibility of exploiting a higher than 20 degrees temperature difference between ocean surfaces and 1 km deep waters to produce electricity. The first article describes the operation principle in closed cycle and briefly presents the open cycle approach. The global energetic assessment is discussed. The author analyses available thermal resources in relationship with the main ocean streams. He outlines that the design of an ocean thermal energy project requires the acquisition and knowledge of a lot of data, modelling and simulations. In the second article, the author notices that past experiments highlighted the difficulties of implementation of the concept. He notably evokes works performed by Georges Claude during the 1920's, projects elaborated at the end of the 20. century, the realisation of a mini OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) station in Hawaii, the OTEC-1 project, a Japanese project in Nauru, the test of a suspended cold water duct, the net power producing experiment in the USA. Perspectives and costs are finally briefly discussed, and recent and promising projects briefly evoked (notably that by DCNS and Akuo Energy in Martinique)

  8. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  9. Biomass Energy Systems and Resources in Tropical Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lugano (KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Tanzania has a characteristic developing economy, which is dependent on agricultural productivity. About 90% of the total primary energy consumption of the country is from biomass. Since the biomass is mostly consumed at the household level in form of wood fuel, it is marginally contributing to the commercial energy supply. However, the country has abundant energy resources from hydro, biomass, natural gas, coal, uranium, solar, wind and geothermal. Due to reasons that include the limited technological capacity, most of these resources have not received satisfactory harnessing. For instance: out of the estimated 4.7GW macro hydro potential only 561MW have been developed; and none of the 650MW geothermal potential is being harnessed. Furthermore, besides the huge potential of biomass (12 million tons of oil equivalent), natural gas (45 million cubic metres), coal (1,200 million tones), high solar insolation (4.5 - 6.5 kWh/m2), 1,424km of coastal strip, and availability of good wind regime (> 4 m/s wind speed), they are marginally contributing to the production of commercial energy. Ongoing exploration work also reveals that the country has an active system of petroleum and uranium. On the other hand, after commissioning the 229 km natural gas pipeline from SongoSongo Island to Dar es Salaam, there are efforts to ensure a wider application in electricity generation, households, automotive and industry. Due to existing environmental concerns, biomass resource is an attractive future energy for the world, Tanzania inclusive. This calls for putting in place sustainable energy technologies, like gasification, for their harnessing. The high temperature gasification (HTAG) of biomass is a candidate technology since it has shown to produce improved syngas quality in terms of gas heating value that has less tar. This work was therefore initiated in order to contribute to efforts on realizing a commercial application of biomass in Tanzania. Particularly, the work aimed at

  10. Optimal allocation of International Atomic Energy Agency inspection resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1987-12-01

    The Safeguards Department of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections to assure the peaceful use of a state's nuclear materials and facilities. Because of limited resources for conducting inspections, the careful disposition of inspection effort among these facilities is essential if the IAEA is to attain its safeguards goals. This report describes an optimization procedure for assigning an inspection effort to maximize attainment of IAEA goals. The procedure does not require quantitative estimates of safeguards effectiveness, material value, or facility importance. Instead, the optimization is based on qualitative, relative prioritizations of inspection activities and materials to be safeguarded. This allocation framework is applicable to an arbitrary group of facilities such as a state's fuel cycle, the facilities inspected by an operations division, or all of the facilities inspected by the IAEA

  11. 78 FR 72878 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Of Filing Procedures for Order No. 764...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM10-11-000] Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Of Filing Procedures for Order No. 764 Electronic Compliance Filings Take... Variable Energy Resources, Order No. 764, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,331, order on reh'g, Order No. 764-A...

  12. Causes of puerperal and neonatal sepsis in resource-constrained settings and advocacy for an integrated community-based postnatal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne E; Morgan, Christopher; Vyankandondera, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Puerperal sepsis and neonatal sepsis are important causes of mortality and morbidity in low-income countries. To help improve global guidelines on postpartum care by reviewing existing data on microbiologic causes of sepsis among mothers, newborns, and mother-newborn pairs. An extensive literature review of peer-reviewed publications from resource-constrained settings was conducted using PubMed. Primary research studies containing microbiologic data on puerperal sepsis or combined maternal and neonatal sepsis published since 1980. Study characteristics and results were analyzed. Data regarding causative microorganisms were tabulated and discussed in the main text. Diagnostic evaluation of microorganisms causing puerperal sepsis was difficult, with few studies linking microorganisms causing infection in individual mother-newborn pairs. The most frequent microorganisms associated with puerperal sepsis were Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The most frequent microorganisms associated with neonatal sepsis were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella species. Management tools for community-based care of mothers with puerperal sepsis-including early detection, initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, and timely referral-should be added to those currently in use for neonatal sepsis. Further research is required to address acceptability, feasibility, and impact of community-based presumptive treatment. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the Land Use/Cover Change in an Arid Region Oasis City Constrained by Water Resource and Environmental Policy Change using Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Li, X.; Lu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Land use/cover change (LUCC) is an important subject in the research of global environmental change and sustainable development, while spatial simulation on land use/cover change is one of the key content of LUCC and is also difficult due to the complexity of the system. The cellular automata (CA) model had an irreplaceable role in simulating of land use/cover change process due to the powerful spatial computing power. However, the majority of current CA land use/cover models were binary-state model that could not provide more general information about the overall spatial pattern of land use/cover change. Here, a multi-state logistic-regression-based Markov cellular automata (MLRMCA) model and a multi-state artificial-neural-network-based Markov cellular automata (MANNMCA) model were developed and were used to simulate complex land use/cover evolutionary process in an arid region oasis city constrained by water resource and environmental policy change, the Zhangye city during the period of 1990-2010. The results indicated that the MANNMCA model was superior to MLRMCA model in simulated accuracy. These indicated that by combining the artificial neural network with CA could more effectively capture the complex relationships between the land use/cover change and a set of spatial variables. Although the MLRMCA model were also some advantages, the MANNMCA model was more appropriate for simulating complex land use/cover dynamics. The two proposed models were effective and reliable, and could reflect the spatial evolution of regional land use/cover changes. These have also potential implications for the impact assessment of water resources, ecological restoration, and the sustainable urban development in arid areas.

  14. Perceived barriers to the implementation of Isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV in resource constrained settings: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindachew, Mesele; Deribew, Amare; Memiah, Peter; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-01-01

    Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the risk of active TB. IPT is a key public health intervention for the prevention of TB among people living with HIV and has been recommended as part of a comprehensive HIV and AIDS care strategy. However, its implementation has been very slow and has been impeded by several barriers. The Objective of the study is to assess the perceived barriers to the implementation of Isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV in resource constrained settings in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2010. A qualitative study using a semi-structured interviewed guide was used for the in-depth interview. A total of 12 key informants including ART Nurse, counselors and coordinators found in four hospitals were included in the interview. Each session of the in-depth interview was recorded via audio tape and detailed notes. The interview was transcribed verbatim. The data was analyzed manually. The findings revealed that poor patient adherence was a major factor; with the following issues cited as the reasons for poor adherence; forgetfulness; lack of understanding of condition and patient non- disclosure of HIV sero-status leading to insubstantial social support; underlying mental health issues resulting in missed or irregular patient appointments; weak patient/healthcare provider relationship due to limited quality interaction; lack of patient information, patient empowerment and proper counseling on IPT; and the deficient reinforcement by health officials and other stakeholders on the significance of IPT medication adherence as a critical for positive health outcomes. Uptake of the implementation of IPT is facing a challenge in resource limited settings. This recalled provision of training/capacity building and awareness creation mechanism for the health workers, facilitating disclosure and social support for the patients is recommended.

  15. NETL's Energy Data Exchange (EDX) - a coordination, collaboration, and data resource discovery platform for energy science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Rowan, C.; Rager, D.; Dehlin, M.; Baker, D. V.; McIntyre, D.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-organizational research teams working jointly on projects often encounter problems with discovery, access to relevant existing resources, and data sharing due to large file sizes, inappropriate file formats, or other inefficient options that make collaboration difficult. The Energy Data eXchange (EDX) from Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is an evolving online research environment designed to overcome these challenges in support of DOE's fossil energy goals while offering improved access to data driven products of fossil energy R&D such as datasets, tools, and web applications. In 2011, development of NETL's Energy Data eXchange (EDX) was initiated and offers i) a means for better preserving of NETL's research and development products for future access and re-use, ii) efficient, discoverable access to authoritative, relevant, external resources, and iii) an improved approach and tools to support secure, private collaboration and coordination between multi-organizational teams to meet DOE mission and goals. EDX presently supports fossil energy and SubTER Crosscut research activities, with an ever-growing user base. EDX is built on a heavily customized instance of the open source platform, Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN). EDX connects users to externally relevant data and tools through connecting to external data repositories built on different platforms and other CKAN platforms (e.g. Data.gov). EDX does not download and repost data or tools that already have an online presence. This leads to redundancy and even error. If a relevant resource already has an online instance, is hosted by another online entity, EDX will point users to that external host either using web services, inventorying URLs and other methods. EDX offers users the ability to leverage private-secure capabilities custom built into the system. The team is presently working on version 3 of EDX which will incorporate big data analytical

  16. Efficient use of energy resources on french farms: an analysis through technical efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ghali , Mohamed; Latruffe , Laure; Daniel , Karine

    2016-01-01

    Integrating natural resources and ecological services in the production process is crucial to implement sustainable agriculture. However, the measurement of natural resource efficiency remains difficult. This paper aims at contributing to this issue, by investigating French farms’ use and excess (slack) of energy resources through Data Envelopment Analyses (DEA). Results show that disentangling energy resources from the rest of intermediate consumption highlights energy use excess which is ma...

  17. Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate for a Tidal Energy Conversion Installation using Acoustic Flow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Ian; Baldwin, Ken; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The ``Living Bridge'' project plans to install a tidal turbine at Memorial Bridge in the Piscataqua River at Portsmouth, NH. A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers ADCP. Two locations were evaluated: at the planned deployment location and mid-channel. The goal was to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Differences in the tidal characteristics between the two measurement locations are highlighted. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP ``bin'' vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin sizes affect the standard deviation of measurements, and measurement uncertainties are evaluated. Supported by NSF-IIP grant 1430260.

  18. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  19. Nuclear energy prospects and uranium resources in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polliart, A.J.; Barretto, P.M.C.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear power and other major technological applications of nuclear energy will become of interest to a growing number of Latin American countries as their demand for electricity rises because of the expansion of industry. Nevertheless, for many years to come, the chief benefits that atomic energy can bring to Latin America will take the form of applying nuclear science techniques in medicine, water resources development and agricultural research. The medical applications are widely known and the water resources applications are highly specialized. The agricultural applications are many, but generally less well known, and this is one reason why the Agency is devoting a special meeting of the Conference to a review of the use of nuclear science techniques in agricultural research, food production and food preservation. Latin America is the only region of the world in which substantial progress has been made towards what is now known as a nuclear-weapon-free zone - in other words, a zone in which no country possesses or seeks to possess the capacity to make nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, or permits such weapons on its territory. This has been achieved partly by the operation of Treaties and partly by the policy of individual Governments. The nuclear-weapon-free status is partly reflected in safeguards agreements with the Agency. In this way, the countries of the region are avoiding the vast waste of scarce resources that a nuclear weapons programme entails and, particularly, of scarce scientific manpower and technological skill, which they urgently need for their own peaceful development. The Agency safeguards thus provide international assurance that the nuclear programmes of the countries concerned will not be diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosives. In this way the Agency's safeguards contribute to security and peace in the region. It is obviously of interest to all countries in the region that this de facto nuclear

  20. Adaptive prediction model accuracy in the control of residential energy resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negenborn, R.R.; Houwing, M.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, H.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing use of distributed energy resources and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure, the possibilities for minimizing costs of household energy consumption increase. Technology is moving toward a situation in which automated energy management systems could control domestic

  1. Least-cost model predictive control of residential energy resources when applying ?mCHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Heijnen, P.W.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, H.

    2007-01-01

    With an increasing use of distributed energy resources and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure, the possibilities for minimizing costs of household energy consumption increase. Technology is moving toward a situation in which households manage their own energy generation and consumption,

  2. China could satisfied her energy demand by her domestic resource of renewable and hydrogen energy and with her favorite condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao De You

    2006-01-01

    Paper described recent situation and the reason of oils consumed increasing rapidly and the activity for searching oil around the world wide and proposed some suggestion for rapid development and commercialization of hydrogen energy system in China with her domestic resources. China could satisfy the energy demand with her domestic resources of renewable energies and depending on her domestic scientific and technology and personal resources etc. It could Clean up the misunderstanding of other country and worried about the oil price increasing. (author)

  3. Nuclear Power and Resource Efficiency—A Proposal for a Revised Primary Energy Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Ola Eriksson

    2017-01-01

    Measuring resource efficiency can be achieved using different methods, of which primary energy demand is commonly used. The primary energy factor (PEF) is a figure describing how much energy from primary resources is being used per unit of energy delivered. The PEF for nuclear power is typically 3, which refers to thermal energy released from fission in relation to electricity generated. Fuel losses are not accounted for. However; nuclear waste represents an energy loss, as current plans for ...

  4. The German energy market. 2014 yearbook. Data and facts on conventional and renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; RWTH Aachen Univ.; World Energy Council, London

    2014-01-01

    The present book provides an overview of the energy market of the German Federal Republic. Its main emphasis is on structures of demand and supply in the markets for crude oil, brown coal, hard coal, natural gas and electricity. A special chapter has been dedicated to renewable energy resources. Another focal area are the price formation mechanisms for oil, coal, natural gas and electricity. The development of energy demand is analysed, differentiating between the sectors industry, transport, households and trade/industry/services. The book addresses the international climate protection treaties, the legal framework for climate protection activities at the European level and the implementation of trade in greenhouse gas emission permits in Germany. It presents current forecasts and scenarios, thus pointing out possible perspectives in the German energy market. It also discusses the framework conditions for Germany's energy policy. The energy markets are portrayed through facts and figures compiled in a total of 125 tables and 148 diagrams. Details of ownership of more than 100 utility companies are made transparent. The chapter on energy in the coalition agreement of 27 November 2013 between the Christian Democratic Union, Christian Social Union and the Social Democratic Party is documented verbatim. Rounding off the publication is a detailed glossary that will facilitate the reader's understanding of complex matters in the field of energy economy.

  5. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  6. Preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet U.S. transportation energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M. K.; Moore, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that substitutes for conventional petroleum resources will be needed to meet U.S. transportation energy demand in the first half of this century. One possible substitute is natural gas which can be used as a transportation fuel directly in compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas vehicles or as resource fuel for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. This paper contains a preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet future U.S. transportation fuel demand. Several scenarios of natural gas demand, including transportation demand, in the U.S. to 2050 are developed. Natural gas resource estimates for the U. S. are discussed. Potential Canadian and Mexican exports to the U.S. are estimated. Two scenarios of potential imports from outside North America are also developed. Considering all these potential imports, U.S. natural gas production requirements to 2050 to meet the demand scenarios are developed and compared with the estimates of U.S. natural gas resources. The comparison results in a conclusion that (1) given the assumptions made, there are likely to be supply constraints on the availability of U.S. natural gas supply post-2020 and (2) if natural gas use in transportation grows substantially, it will have to compete with other sectors of the economy for that supply-constrained natural gas

  7. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  8. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-04-01

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. First, we consider sparsely deployed cells experiencing negligible interference and assume perfect channel state information (CSI). For this setting, we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus number of users, and phantom cells share of the total available resource units (RUs). We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It is found that increasing phantom cells share of RUs decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. Second, we consider the densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem having into consideration the inevitable interference and imperfect channel estimation. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing the EE performance metric of this network. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some of the system parameters on the performance of the proposed strategies, such as phantom cells share of RUs, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell coverage, number of pilots and the maximum power available for transmission by the phantom cells BSs. It is found that increasing the number of pilots deteriorates the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing maximum power available for phantom cells transmissions reduces the EE of the whole setup in a

  9. Advanced Distribution Network Modelling with Distributed Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Alison

    The addition of new distributed energy resources, such as electric vehicles, photovoltaics, and storage, to low voltage distribution networks means that these networks will undergo major changes in the future. Traditionally, distribution systems would have been a passive part of the wider power system, delivering electricity to the customer and not needing much control or management. However, the introduction of these new technologies may cause unforeseen issues for distribution networks, due to the fact that they were not considered when the networks were originally designed. This thesis examines different types of technologies that may begin to emerge on distribution systems, as well as the resulting challenges that they may impose. Three-phase models of distribution networks are developed and subsequently utilised as test cases. Various management strategies are devised for the purposes of controlling distributed resources from a distribution network perspective. The aim of the management strategies is to mitigate those issues that distributed resources may cause, while also keeping customers' preferences in mind. A rolling optimisation formulation is proposed as an operational tool which can manage distributed resources, while also accounting for the uncertainties that these resources may present. Network sensitivities for a particular feeder are extracted from a three-phase load flow methodology and incorporated into an optimisation. Electric vehicles are the focus of the work, although the method could be applied to other types of resources. The aim is to minimise the cost of electric vehicle charging over a 24-hour time horizon by controlling the charge rates and timings of the vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage that controlled EV charging can have over an uncontrolled case, as well as the benefits provided by the rolling formulation and updated inputs in terms of cost and energy delivered to customers. Building upon the rolling optimisation, a

  10. Biomass energy resource enhancement: the move to modern secondary energy forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, K.; Overend, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Income growth and industrialization in developing countries is driving their economies towards the use of secondary energy forms that deliver high efficiency energy and environmentally more benignant-uses for biomass. Typical of these secondary energy forms are electricity, distributed gas systems and liquid fuels. This trend suggests that the hitherto separate pathways taken by biomass energy technology development in developing and industrialized countries will eventually share common elements. While in the United States and the European Union the majority of the bioenergy applications are in medium- and large-scale industrial uses of self-generated biomass residues, the characteristic use in developing countries is in rural cook-stoves. Increasing urbanization and investment in transportation infrastructure may allow increasing the operational scale in developing countries. One factor driving this trend is diminishing individual and household biomass resource demands as rural incomes increase and households ascend the energy ladder towards clean and efficient fuels and appliances. Scale increases and end-user separation from the biomass resource require that the biomass be converted at high efficiency into secondary energy forms that serve as energy carriers. In middle-income developing country economies such as Brazil, secondary energy transmission is increasingly in the form of gas and electricity in addition to liquid transportation fuels. Unfortunately, the biomass resource is finite, and in the face of competing food and fibre uses and land constraints, it is difficult to substantially increase the amount of biomass available. As a result, development must emphasize conversion efficiency and the applications of bioenergy. Moreover, as a consequence of economic growth, biomass resources are increasingly to be found in the secondary and tertiary waste streams of cities and industrial operations. If not used for energy production, this potential resource needs

  11. Hot dry rock geothermal energy: A renewable energy resource that is ready for development now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. W.; Potter, R. M.; Myers, C. W.

    Hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, is a very large and well-distributed resource of nonpolluting, and essentially renewable, energy that is available globally. Its use could help mitigate climatic change and reduce acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nations's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. On a national scale we can begin to develop this new source, using it directly for power generation or for direct-heat applications, or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fuel power plants. In the HDR concept, which has been demonstrated in the field in two different applications and flow-tested for periods up to one year, heat is recovered from the earth by pressurized water in a closed-loop circulation system. As a consequence, minimal effluents are released to the atmosphere, and no wastes are produced. This paper describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source.

  12. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa’s wind and solar energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, Crescent

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past, renewables were mainly driven by the US, Europe and China, but South Africa is slowly picking up. This presentation discusses South Africa's wind and solar resources as alternative energy resources....

  13. Trading strategies for distribution company with stochastic distributed energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui; Korpås, Magnus; Pinson, Pierre; Østergaard, Jacob; Khodayar, Mohammad E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A market framework is presented for a proactive DISCO (PDISCO). • Two-stage wholesale markets and stochastic distributed energy resources are involved. • A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is proposed. • Continuous strategic offers and bids are achieved. - Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology to address the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) engaged in the transmission-level (TL) markets. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is presented to formulate the gaming framework between the PDISCO and markets. The lower-level (LL) problems include the TL day-ahead market and scenario-based real-time markets, respectively with the objectives of maximizing social welfare and minimizing operation cost. The upper-level (UL) problem is to maximize the PDISCO’s profit across these markets. The PDISCO’s strategic offers/bids interactively influence the outcomes of each market. Since the LL problems are linear and convex, while the UL problem is non-linear and non-convex, an equivalent primal–dual approach is used to reformulate this bilevel model to a solvable mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified by case studies.

  14. Optimizing Power–Frequency Droop Characteristics of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Zhao, Changhong; Dall Anese, Emiliano; Chen, Yu Christine; Dhople, Sairaj V.

    2018-05-01

    This paper outlines a procedure to design power-frequency droop slopes for distributed energy resources (DERs) installed in distribution networks to optimally participate in primary frequency response. In particular, the droop slopes are engineered such that DERs respond in proportion to their power ratings and they are not unfairly penalized in power provisioning based on their location in the distribution network. The main contribution of our approach is that a guaranteed level of frequency regulation can be guaranteed at the feeder head, while ensuring that the outputs of individual DERs conform to some well-defined notion of fairness. The approach we adopt leverages an optimization-based perspective and suitable linearizations of the power-flow equations to embed notions of fairness and information regarding the physics of the power flows within the distribution network into the droop slopes. Time-domain simulations from a differential algebraic equation model of the 39-bus New England test-case system augmented with three instances of the IEEE 37-node distribution-network with frequency-sensitive DERs are provided to validate our approach.

  15. Mineral and energy resources of the Roswell Resource Area, East-Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, Susan B.; Donatich, Alessandro J.

    1995-01-01

    The sedimentary formations of the Roswell Resource Area have significant mineral and energy resources. Some of the pre-Pennsylvanian sequences in the Northwestern Shelf of the Permian Basin are oil and gas reservoirs, and Pennsylvanian rocks in Tucumcari Basin are reservoirs of oil and gas as well as source rocks for oil and gas in Triassic rocks. Pre-Permian rocks also contain minor deposits of uranium and vanadium, limestone, and gases. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in Permian rocks include associated gases such as carbon dioxide, helium, and nitrogen. Permian rocks are mineralized adjacent to the Lincoln County porphyry belt, and include deposits of copper, uranium, manganese, iron, polymetallic veins, and Mississippi-Valley-type lead-zinc. Industrial minerals in Permian rocks include fluorite, barite, potash, halite, polyhalite, gypsum, anhydrite, sulfur, limestone, dolomite, brine deposits (iodine and bromine), aggregate (sand), and dimension stone. Doubly terminated quartz crystals, called 'Pecos diamonds' and collected as mineral specimens, occur in Permian rocks along the Pecos River. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are hosts for copper, uranium, and small quantities of gold-silver-tellurium veins, as well as significant deposits of oil and gas, carbon dioxide, asphalt, coal, and dimension stone. Mesozoic rocks contain limited amounts of limestone, gypsum, petrified wood, and clay. Tertiary rocks host ore deposits commonly associated with intrusive rocks, including platinum-group elements, iron skarns, manganese, uranium and vanadium, molybdenum, polymetallic vein deposits, gold-silver-tellurium veins, and thorium-rare-earth veins. Museum-quality quartz crystals are associated with Tertiary intrusive rocks. Industrial minerals in Tertiary rocks include fluorite, vein- and bedded-barite, caliche, limestone, and aggregate. Tertiary and Quaternary sediments host important placer deposits of gold and titanium, and occurrences of silver and uranium. Important industrial

  16. Mineral and energy resources of the BLM Roswell Resource Area, east-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, Susan B.

    1992-01-01

    The sedimentary formations of the Roswell Resource Area have significant mineral and energy resources. Some of the pre-Pennsylvanian sequences in the Northwestern Shelf of the Permian Basin are oil and gas reservoirs, and Pennsylvanian rocks in Tucumcari basin are reservoirs of oil and gas as well as source rocks for oil and gas in Triassic rocks. Pre-Permian rocks also contain minor deposits of uranium and vanadium, limestone, and associated gases. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in Permian rocks include associated gases such as carbon dioxide, helium, and nitrogen. Permian rocks are mineralized adjacent to the Lincoln County porphyry belt, and include deposits of copper, uranium, manganese, iron, polymetallic veins, and Mississippi-valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc. Industrial minerals in Permian rocks include fluorite, barite, potash, halite, polyhalite, gypsum, anhydrite, sulfur, limestone, dolomite, brine deposits (iodine and bromine), aggregate (sand), and dimension stone. Doubly terminated quartz crystals, called "Pecos diamonds" and collected as mineral specimens, occur in Permian rocks along the Pecos River. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are hosts for copper, uranium, and small quantities of gold-silver-tellurium veins, as well as significant deposits of oil and gas, COa, asphalt, coal, and dimension stone. Mesozoic rocks contain limited amounts of limestone, gypsum, petrified wood, dinosaur remains, and clays. Tertiary rocks host ore deposits commonly associated with intrusive rocks, including platinum group elements, iron skarns, manganese, uranium and vanadium, molybdenum, polymetallic vein deposits, gold-silver- tellurium veins, and thorium-rare earth veins. Museum-quality quartz crystals in Lincoln County were formed in association with intrusive rocks in the Lincoln County porphyry belt. Industrial minerals in Tertiary rocks include fluorite, vein- and bedded-barite, caliche, limestone, and aggregate. Tertiary and Quaternary sediments host important placer deposits of

  17. Tidal Energy Conversion Installation at an Estuarine Bridge Site: Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Gagnon, I.; Baldwin, K.; Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The "Living Bridge" project aims to create a self-diagnosing, self-reporting "smart bridge" powered by a local renewable energy source, tidal energy - transforming Memorial Bridge, a vertical lift bridge over the tidal Piscataqua River connecting Portsmouth, NH and Kittery, ME, into a living laboratory for researchers, engineers, scientists, and the community. The Living Bridge project includes the installation of a tidal turbine at the Memorial Bridge. The energy converted by the turbine will power structural health monitoring, environmental and underwater instrumentation. Utilizing locally available tidal energy can make bridge operation more sustainable, can "harden" transportation infrastructure against prolonged grid outages and can demonstrate a prototype of an "estuarine bridge of the future". A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) at two locations: near the planned deployment location in 2013-14 for 123 days and mid-channel in 2007 for 35 days. Data were evaluated to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. The target deployment site exhibited significantly more energetic ebb tides than flood tides, which can be explained by the local bathymetry of the tidal estuary. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP "bin" vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin

  18. Characterization of U. S. energy resources and reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the best available estimates of the total domestic energy potential within the United States. The array of energy sources include those appropriate for power generation, liquid fuels, and direct heat applications. The energy sources examined are: geothermal energy, solar energy, biomass energy, wind energy, shale oil, coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat, uranium, and hydropower. 37 refs., 7 figs., 59 tabs.

  19. An analysis of effect of water resources constraint on energy production in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Karakas, Huseyin; Tilki, Timur

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The purpose of this study is to measure the influence of Turkeys water resources on energy production considering growing demand in the future. In our study, we will examine the water usage in electricity generation in different types of thermal power plants. The project will assess the available water resources in the future, the proportion of these resources that will be allocated to energy production and the increasing energy deman...

  20. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  1. Role of nuclear energy to a future society of shortage of energy resources and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shinzo, E-mail: saito.shinzo@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Human society entered into the society of large energy consumption since the industrial revolution and consumes more than 10 billion tons of oil equivalent energy a year in the world in the present time, in which over 80% is provided by fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Total energy consumption is foreseen to increase year by year from now on due to significant economical and population growth in the developing countries such as China and India. However, fossil fuel resources are limited with conventional crude oil estimated to last about 40 years, and it is said that the peak oil production time has come now. On the other hand, global warming due to green house gases (GHG) emissions, especially carbon dioxide, has become a serious issue. Nuclear energy plays an important role as means to resolve energy security and global warming issues. Four hundred twenty-nine nuclear power plants are operating world widely producing 16% of the total electric power with total plant capacity of 386 GWe without emission of CO{sub 2} as of 2006. It is estimated that another 250 GWe nuclear power is needed to keep the same level contribution of electricity generation in 2030. On the other hand, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) named high temperature gas-cooled engineering test reactor (HTTR) and carbon free hydrogen production process (IS process). Nuclear energy utilization will surely widen in, not only electricity generation, but also various industries such as steel making, chemical industries, together with hydrogen production for transportation by introduction of HTGRs. The details of development of the HTTR and IS process are also described.

  2. Role of nuclear energy to a future society of shortage of energy resources and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinzo

    2010-03-01

    Human society entered into the society of large energy consumption since the industrial revolution and consumes more than 10 billion tons of oil equivalent energy a year in the world in the present time, in which over 80% is provided by fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Total energy consumption is foreseen to increase year by year from now on due to significant economical and population growth in the developing countries such as China and India. However, fossil fuel resources are limited with conventional crude oil estimated to last about 40 years, and it is said that the peak oil production time has come now. On the other hand, global warming due to green house gases (GHG) emissions, especially carbon dioxide, has become a serious issue. Nuclear energy plays an important role as means to resolve energy security and global warming issues. Four hundred twenty-nine nuclear power plants are operating world widely producing 16% of the total electric power with total plant capacity of 386 GWe without emission of CO 2 as of 2006. It is estimated that another 250 GWe nuclear power is needed to keep the same level contribution of electricity generation in 2030. On the other hand, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) named high temperature gas-cooled engineering test reactor (HTTR) and carbon free hydrogen production process (IS process). Nuclear energy utilization will surely widen in, not only electricity generation, but also various industries such as steel making, chemical industries, together with hydrogen production for transportation by introduction of HTGRs. The details of development of the HTTR and IS process are also described.

  3. From energy efficiency towards resource efficiency within the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the integration of resource efficiency into the European Ecodesign Directive. The purpose is to analyse the processes and stakeholder interactions, which formed the basis for integrating resource efficiency requirements into the implementing measure for vacuum cleaners and th...

  4. Web-based public health geographic information systems for resources-constrained environment using scalable vector graphics technology: a proof of concept applied to the expanded program on immunization data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamadjeu Raoul

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic Information Systems (GIS are powerful communication tools for public health. However, using GIS requires considerable skill and, for this reason, is sometimes limited to experts. Web-based GIS has emerged as a solution to allow a wider audience to have access to geospatial information. Unfortunately the cost of implementing proprietary solutions may be a limiting factor in the adoption of a public health GIS in a resource-constrained environment. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG is used to define vector-based graphics for the internet using XML (eXtensible Markup Language; it is an open, platform-independent standard maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C since 2003. In this paper, we summarize our methodology and demonstrate the potential of this free and open standard to contribute to the dissemination of Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI information by providing interactive maps to a wider audience through the Internet. Results We used SVG to develop a database driven web-based GIS applied to EPI data from three countries of WHO AFRO (World Health Organization – African Region. The system generates interactive district-level country immunization coverage maps and graphs. The approach we describe can be expanded to cover other public health GIS demanding activities, including the design of disease atlases in a resources-constrained environment. Conclusion Our system contributes to accumulating evidence demonstrating the potential of SVG technology to develop web-based public health GIS in resources-constrained settings.

  5. Web-based public health geographic information systems for resources-constrained environment using scalable vector graphics technology: a proof of concept applied to the expanded program on immunization data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tolentino, Herman

    2006-06-03

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are powerful communication tools for public health. However, using GIS requires considerable skill and, for this reason, is sometimes limited to experts. Web-based GIS has emerged as a solution to allow a wider audience to have access to geospatial information. Unfortunately the cost of implementing proprietary solutions may be a limiting factor in the adoption of a public health GIS in a resource-constrained environment. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is used to define vector-based graphics for the internet using XML (eXtensible Markup Language); it is an open, platform-independent standard maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) since 2003. In this paper, we summarize our methodology and demonstrate the potential of this free and open standard to contribute to the dissemination of Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) information by providing interactive maps to a wider audience through the Internet. We used SVG to develop a database driven web-based GIS applied to EPI data from three countries of WHO AFRO (World Health Organization - African Region). The system generates interactive district-level country immunization coverage maps and graphs. The approach we describe can be expanded to cover other public health GIS demanding activities, including the design of disease atlases in a resources-constrained environment. Our system contributes to accumulating evidence demonstrating the potential of SVG technology to develop web-based public health GIS in resources-constrained settings.

  6. User experience analysis of an eHealth system for tuberculosis in resource-constrained settings: A nine-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduri, Niranjan; Bastos, L Gustavo V; Sawyer, Kelly; Reciolino, L Fernando A

    2017-06-01

    e-TB Manager, a web-based eHealth system has been successfully institutionalized in 10 resource-constrained countries that account for one-third of the world's tuberculosis (TB) burden, but user experience has never been evaluated. A cross-sectional, anonymous survey in eight unique languages based on the targeted countries. e-TB Manager users included nurses, doctors, pharmacists, statisticians/data officers, laboratory professionals/assistants, health workers, and administrators. With an 86.3% completion rate for all required questions, 1,511 completed responses were analyzed. Users had worked in TB programs for a median of five years and had used e-TB Manager for a median of two years. Overall, 60.2% of respondents were female, 65% were clustered in the age groups of 30-39 and 40-49 years old, and nearly half (49%) were using e-TB Manager at the district and sub-district levels of a country's health system. Older respondents aged over 50, regardless of location and with at least 6 or more years of experience in public-sector TB programs, had higher mean satisfaction scores than did their younger counterparts. Overall, those who had used e-TB Manager for more than two years had significantly higher mean scores for the majority of the survey statements than did those who had used e-TB Manager for less than two years. Ukraine had significantly higher mean scores for finding patient information available in e-TB Manager and in its benefit in improving patient care compared to Brazil, Armenia, Nigeria, and Indonesia. Brazil and Ukraine differed significantly from five other countries in that they did not need additional training, thereby demonstrating their institutional capacity after more than five years of using e-TB Manager. Although users gave high ratings to e-TB Manager in terms of helping to improve patient care, found it to be reliable, and were generally satisfied, there is need for a combination of refresher training and e-learning methodologies to keep

  7. Interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico: an online resource for decisionmakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Latysh, Natalie; Matherne, Ann Marie; Linard, Joshua I.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the western United States, increased demand for energy is driving the rapid development of nonrenewable and renewable energy resources. Resource managers must balance the benefits of energy development with the potential consequences for ecological resources and ecosystem services. To facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development, the U.S. Geological Survey has developed an online Interactive Energy Atlas (Energy Atlas) for Colorado and New Mexico. The Energy Atlas is designed to meet the needs of varied users who seek information about energy in the western United States. The Energy Atlas has two primary capabilities: a geographic information system (GIS) data viewer and an interactive map gallery. The GIS data viewer allows users to preview and download GIS data related to energy potential and development in Colorado and New Mexico. The interactive map gallery contains a collection of maps that compile and summarize thematically related data layers in a user-friendly format. The maps are dynamic, allowing users to explore data at different resolutions and obtain information about the features being displayed. The Energy Atlas also includes an interactive decision-support tool, which allows users to explore the potential consequences of energy development for species that vary in their sensitivity to disturbance.

  8. Use of hydrogeothermal resources - energy and environmental analysis; Nutzung hydrothermaler Erdwaermevorkommen - Energie und Umweltanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, M.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1997-12-01

    The usage of hydrothermal resources for providing low caloric heat is a promissing option for the reduction of energy related environmental effects. This is especially true due the fact that this technology is currently available from the technical point of view. With this background the aim of this paper is to analyze the changes of some key environmental figures fro an existing hydrothermal heating plant in comparison to a fossil fired heating plant. The full life-cycle, from the erection to disposal of these plants are taken into consideration. Based upon the results discussed some conclusions are drawn concerning the contribution of a heat production from hydrothermal resources for realizing an environmental and climatic more sound energy supply system in Germany. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Nutzung hydrothermaler Erdwaermevorkommen zur Bereitstellung von Niedertemperaturwaerme wird als eine vielversprechende Moeglichkeit zur Reduktion der energiebedingten Umweltauswirkungen angesehen, zumal diese Option zwischenzeitlich technisch weitgehend betriebssicher verfuegbar ist. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird im folgenden exemplarisch an einer existierenden geothermischen Heizzentrale die Umweltentlastung im Vergleich zu einer Waermebereitstellung aus leichtem Heizoel und Erdgas unter Beruecksichtigung der Anlagenerrichtung und -entsorgung quantifiziert. Ausgehend davon werden Aussagen gemacht, inwieweit diese Technologie einen Beitrag zu einer umweltfreundlicheren und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Deutschland leisten kann. (orig.)

  9. Tidal current energy resource assessment in Ireland: Current status and future update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, Fergal; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Interest in renewable energy in Ireland has increased continually over the past decade. This interest is due primarily to security of supply issues and the effects of climate change. Ireland imports over 90% of its primary energy consumption, mostly in the form of fossil fuels. The exploitation of Ireland's vast indigenous renewable energy resources is required in order to reduce this over-dependence on fossil fuel imports to meet energy demand. Various targets have been set by the Irish government to incorporate renewable energy technologies into Ireland's energy market. As a result of these targets, the development in wind energy has increased substantially over the past decade; however this method of energy extraction is intermittent and unpredictable. Ireland has an excellent tidal current energy resource and the use of this resource will assist in the development of a sustainable energy future. Energy extraction using tidal current energy technologies offers a vast and predictable energy resource. This paper reviews the currently accepted tidal current energy resource assessment for Ireland. This assessment was compiled by Sustainable Energy Ireland in a report in 2004. The assessment employed a 2-dimensional numerical model of the tidal current velocities around Ireland, and from this numerical model the theoretical tidal current energy resource was identified. With the introduction of constraints and limitations, the technical, practical, accessible and viable tidal current energy resources were obtained. The paper discusses why the assessment needs updating including the effect on the assessment of the current stage of development of tidal current turbines and their deployment technology. (author)

  10. Secondary Power Resources of the Fuel and Energy Complex in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkrabets F.P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the types of secondary energy resources that occur during or as a result of mining or of technological processes at metallurgical, coke and chemical enterprises. The research of opportunities to use them directly at industrial enterprises, in case when an energy resource or the energy generated “is not a commodity” was carried out. To generate electricity from secondary sources, the use of diesel power plants and gas–turbine facilities was offered. The values ​​of investments in the construction of thermal power plants (TPP based on different types of secondary energy resources were calculated. Tentative capacities of power plants, which utilize the energy of secondary sources were also computed. The figures used for assessing the release and use of secondary energy resources were given. The necessity of using secondary sources of energy to reduce harmful effects on the environment was emphasized.

  11. The influence of waves on the tidal kinetic energy resource at a tidal stream energy site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, Nicolas; Chapalain, Georges; Neill, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We model the influence of waves on tidal kinetic energy in the Fromveur Strait. • Numerical results are compared with field data of waves and currents. • The introduction of waves improve predictions of tidal stream power during storm. • Mean spring tidal stream potential is reduced by 12% during extreme wave conditions. • Potential is reduced by 7.8% with waves forces and 5.3% with enhanced friction. - Abstract: Successful deployment of tidal energy converters relies on access to accurate and high resolution numerical assessments of available tidal stream power. However, since suitable tidal stream sites are located in relatively shallow waters of the continental shelf where tidal currents are enhanced, tidal energy converters may experience effects of wind-generated surface-gravity waves. Waves may thus influence tidal currents, and associated kinetic energy, through two non-linear processes: the interaction of wave and current bottom boundary layers, and the generation of wave-induced currents. Here, we develop a three-dimensional tidal circulation model coupled with a phase-averaged wave model to quantify the impact of the waves on the tidal kinetic energy resource of the Fromveur Strait (western Brittany) - a region that has been identified with strong potential for tidal array development. Numerical results are compared with in situ observations of wave parameters (significant wave height, peak period and mean wave direction) and current amplitude and direction 10 m above the seabed (the assumed technology hub height for this region). The introduction of waves is found to improve predictions of tidal stream power at 10 m above the seabed at the measurement site in the Strait, reducing kinetic energy by up to 9% during storm conditions. Synoptic effects of wave radiation stresses and enhanced bottom friction are more specifically identified at the scale of the Strait. Waves contribute to a slight increase in the spatial gradient of

  12. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whissel, John C. [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States); Piche, Matthew [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  13. Efforts for nuclear energy human resource development by industry-government-academic sectors cooperation. Nuclear Energy Human Resource Development Council Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    The report consists of eighteen sections such as the present conditions of nuclear energy, decreasing students in the department of technology and decreasing numbers of nuclear-related subjects, The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Program (HRD Program), The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Council (HRD Council), the industry-academia partnership for human resource development, the present situation of new graduates in the nuclear field, new workers of nuclear industry, the conditions of technical experts in the nuclear energy industry, long-range forecast of human resource, increasing international efforts, nuclear energy human resources development road map, three points for HRD, six basic subjects for HRD, the specific efforts of the industrial, governmental and academic sectors, promoting a better understanding of nuclear energy and supporting job hunting and employment, students to play an active part in the world, and support of the elementary and secondary schools. Change of numbers of nuclear-related subjects of seven universities, change of number of new graduates in nuclear field of various companies from 1985 to 2006, number of people employed by nuclear industries from 1998 to 2007, number of technical experts in the electric companies and the mining and manufacturing industries and forecast of number of technical experts in total nuclear industries are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  14. Agent-based Integration of Complex and Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources in Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Umair, Aisha; Demazeau, Yves

    2017-01-01

    A Virtual Power Plant aggregates several Distributed Energy Resources in order to expose them as a single, controllable entity. This enables smaller Distributed Energy Resources to take part in Demand Response programs which traditionally only targeted larger consumers. To date, models for Virtual...

  15. Simulated Annealing Approach Applied to the Energy Resource Management Considering Demand Response for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation and management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) by an Virtual Power Players (VPP) is an important task in a smart grid context. The Energy Resource Management (ERM) of theses DERs can become a hard and complex optimization problem. The large integration of several DERs...

  16. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  17. 75 FR 4836 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements (TERAs)'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for renewal... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of request...

  18. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Guthrie, George [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  19. Alternative energy resources for the Missouri Department of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates environmentally friendly alternative energy sources that could be used by MoDOT in various areas, and develops applicable and sustainable strategies to implement those energy sources.

  20. Interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico: an online resource for decisionmakers and the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, N.B.; Babel, N.; Diffendorfer, J.; Ignizio, D.; Hawkins, S.; Latysh, N.; Leib, K.; Linard, J.; Matherne, A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the western United States, increased demand for energy is driving the rapid development of oil, gas (including shale gas and coal-bed methane), and uranium, as well as renewable energy resources such as geothermal, solar, and wind. Much of the development in the West is occurring on public lands, including those under Federal and State jurisdictions. In Colorado and New Mexico, these public lands make up about 40 percent of the land area. Both states benefit from the revenue generated by energy production, but resource managers and other decisionmakers must balance the benefits of energy development with the potential consequences for ecosystems, recreation, and other resources. Although a substantial amount of geospatial data on existing energy development and energy potential is available, much of this information is not readily accessible to natural resource decisionmakers, policymakers, or the public. Furthermore, the data often exist in varied formats, requiring considerable processing before these datasets can be used to evaluate tradeoffs among resources, compare development alternatives, or quantify cumulative impacts. To allow for a comprehensive evaluation among different energy types, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists has developed an online Interactive Energy Atlas for Colorado and New Mexico. The Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area (EERMA) interdisciplinary team includes investigators from several USGS science centers1. The purpose of the EERMA Interactive Energy Atlas is to facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development. The Atlas is designed to meet the needs of various users, including GIS analysts, resource managers, policymakers, and the public, who seek information about energy in the western United States. Currently, the Atlas has two primary capabilities, a GIS data viewer and an

  1. Energy education resources. Kindergarten through 12th grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-17

    This publication is the result of a study undertaken by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC), a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide its customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for students and educators. The list is updated once a year.

  2. The Sun - Major Energy Resource for the Future -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief discussion is given on hydro-power, wind-power and ocean thermal energy conversion as indirect tech- niques of utilization of solar energy. Solar energy can also be directly converted into heat and electricity. Techniques for such direct conversion, with special reference to photovoltaic generation of electricity, are.

  3. Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses. Infofacts/Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The February 2003 death of Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler, who according to the coroner's report died after taking ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra), has garnered national attention for the topic of nutritional supplements and energy drinks. Energy drinks and energy-enhancing pills, diet aids, muscle-enlargers, and other supplements fall…

  4. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, P. [comp.

    1992-12-01

    This publication is the result of a study undertaken by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC), a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide its customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related education materials for primary and secondary students and educators. The list is updated once a year.

  5. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

  6. Changing Climates. The Role of Renewable Energy in a Carbon-Constrained World. A Paper Prepared for REN21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.; Denton, F.; Garg, A.; Kamel, S.; Pacudan, R.; Usher, E.

    2005-12-01

    The current paper on renewable energy and climate change is focused on the key characteristics of the climate change challenge, the intergovernmental action to address the challenge, and how current and future renewable energy projects can contribute to global carbon mitigation and adaptation efforts at the local level. The report presents the current and possible different future contributions that renewable energy can make. This is based on analysis of different authoritative global scenarios and their underlying assumptions, and is aimed at providing guidance on what would be required in terms of policy decisions and technological developments if renewable energy is going to significantly mitigate climate change. Although the focus is particularly on climate change and the opportunities for renewable energy, other issues are closely interlinked. Reducing GHG emissions by introducing more renewable energy, for example, will also have positive impacts on the security of energy supply, while potentially compounding the need for investment capital. The report begins with the current global energy demand and the contribution of renewable energy to meeting that demand. Next, different key internationally recognised energy development scenarios are presented from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Energy Agency (IEA), together with selected policy scenarios of very different specific options to mitigate climate change and stabilize CO2 levels in the range of 450-550 ppm. These scenarios are presented with both high and limited penetrations of renewable energy, along with discussions of underlying assumptions leading to these different results, including comparisons of projected technology costs. Existing policies worldwide to promote renewable energy are then analysed for their relative efficiency and results. Guidance is presented on the possible policy tools governments can use to move from the stipulated 'business

  7. Improved static analysis and verification of energy consumption and other resources via abstract interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen, Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Resource analysis aims at inferring the cost of executing programs for any possible input, in terms of a given resource, such as the traditional execution steps, time ormemory, and, more recently energy consumption or user defined resources (e.g., number of bits sent over a socket, number of database accesses, number of calls to particular procedures, etc.). This is performed statically, i.e., without actually running the programs. Resource usage information is useful for a var...

  8. Multiple criteria evaluation of current energy resources for Turkish manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onuet, Semih [Department of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Faculty, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: onut@yildiz.edu.tr; Tuzkaya, Umut Rifat; Saadet, Narthan [Department of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Faculty, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    Energy is the main component of natural resources of developing, as well as developed, countries like Turkey. Because of economic and social developments, the demand for energy, in general, has increased considerably in Turkey. Since Turkey is not an oil or natural gas (NG) producing country, the energy resource usage for energy consumption should be effective. The Turkish industrial sector comprises approximately 36% of Turkey's primary energy consumption, and the manufacturing industry is the largest industrial sector. In this study, the focus was on the manufacturing industry as the major energy consuming sector in Turkey, and it was analyzed in terms of efficient use of energy resources. The most widely used energy resources in the Turkish manufacturing industry, namely fuel-oil, coal, electricity, LPG and NG were taken into account. Evaluation and selection of current energy resources in this selected industry can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problem, including human judgments, tangible and intangible criteria and priorities and trade offs between goals and criteria. The analytic network process (ANP), one of the MCDM methods, was used to evaluate the most suitable energy resources for the manufacturing industry in this study.

  9. Multiple criteria evaluation of current energy resources for Turkish manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenuet, Semih; Tuzkaya, Umut Rifat; Saadet, Narthan [Department of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Faculty, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    Energy is the main component of natural resources of developing, as well as developed, countries like Turkey. Because of economic and social developments, the demand for energy, in general, has increased considerably in Turkey. Since Turkey is not an oil or natural gas (NG) producing country, the energy resource usage for energy consumption should be effective. The Turkish industrial sector comprises approximately 36% of Turkey's primary energy consumption, and the manufacturing industry is the largest industrial sector. In this study, the focus was on the manufacturing industry as the major energy consuming sector in Turkey, and it was analyzed in terms of efficient use of energy resources. The most widely used energy resources in the Turkish manufacturing industry, namely fuel-oil, coal, electricity, LPG and NG were taken into account. Evaluation and selection of current energy resources in this selected industry can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problem, including human judgments, tangible and intangible criteria and priorities and trade offs between goals and criteria. The analytic network process (ANP), one of the MCDM methods, was used to evaluate the most suitable energy resources for the manufacturing industry in this study. (author)

  10. Efficient Use of Energy Resources on French Farms: An Analysis through Technical Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ghali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrating natural resources and ecological services in the production process is crucial to implement sustainable agriculture. However, the measurement of natural resource efficiency remains difficult. This paper aims at contributing to this issue, by investigating French farms’ use and excess (slack of energy resources through Data Envelopment Analyses (DEA. Results show that disentangling energy resources from the rest of intermediate consumption highlights energy use excess which is masked when considering intermediate consumption as a whole. The analysis of the determinants of energy use excess and of intermediate consumption shows a discrepancy in results, which policy-makers should take into account when designing energy policies. In addition, results show that large and highly capital intensive farms perform better in terms of energy use excess, while the dependence on public subsidies is a constraint.

  11. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-03-01

    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  12. DOE's Tribal Energy Program Offers Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. MacCourt, Chair, Indian Law Practice, Ater Wynne LLP

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or who seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. Building upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in tribal energy workshops conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, it is designed to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process. It includes information on how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; a general overview of key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and a detailed discussion of ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects. The guide also includes a glossary of some of the most commonly used technical terms.

  13. Energy from the west: energy resource development systems report. Volume IV: uranium. Final report, 1975-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.L.; Chartock, M.A.; Leonard, R.L.; Ballard, S.C.; Gilliland, M.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the technologies likely to be used for development of uranium resources in eight western states (Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming). It provides information on input materials and labor requirements, outputs, residuals, energy requirements, economic costs, and resource specific state and federal laws and regulations

  14. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations to study the price evolution of non-renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, F.

    2006-01-01

    Mass conservation equation of non-renewable resources is employed to study the resources remaining in the reservoir according to the extraction policy. The energy conservation equation is transformed into an energy-capital conservation equation. The Hotelling rule is shown to be a special case of the general energy-capital conservation equation when the mass flow rate of extracted resources is equal to unity. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations are then coupled and solved together. It is investigated the price evolution of extracted resources. The conclusion of the Hotelling rule for non-extracted resources, i.e. an exponential increase of the price of non-renewable resources at the rate of current interest, is then generalized. A new parameter, called 'Price Increase Factor', PIF, is introduced as the difference between the current interest rate of capital and the mass flow rate of extraction of non-renewable resources. The price of extracted resources can increase exponentially only if PIF is greater than zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is lower than the current interest rate of capital. The price is constant if PIF is zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is equal to the current interest rate. The price is decreasing with time if PIF is smaller than zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is higher than the current interest rate. (author)

  15. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  16. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  17. The user cost of energy resource and its reasonable tax rate-A case of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifan, Liu

    2017-12-01

    The development and use of natural resources bring about the externality of resources depletion, especially for non-renewable resources. This paper takes oil as an example to analyze the user cost of energy resource with EI Serafy User cost method, and discusses the rationality of the resource tax. Meanwhile, this paper determines oil resource tax rate in consideration of resource sustainable development. The results show that, the user cost of oil isn’t compensated fully, it is too low to make compensation to the environment and the profit of future generation, and the resource tax is a little low. At last of the paper, some conclusions and policy suggestions on resource tax reform are given.

  18. Northeast Asian economy cooperation: study on energy resource cooperation in Northeast Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In Northeast Asian region, there are East Russia with abundant resources, Japan a large energy consumption country, Korea and China with rapidly increasing energy consumption due to their economic development, but the utilization rate of East Russian resources are very low and the resource trading and investment among Korea, China and Japan are also low. Korea and Japan use most of energy imported from Middle East. It is expected that import of petroleum and gas except coal will be increasing in China and most of imported energy will be imported mainly from the Middle East. For Korea, with not much energy resources and foreign-oriented economic system, if investment on resource development among Northeast Asian countries is active and energy transportation among these countries is liberalized, the enhancement of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has a high possibility to provide North and South Korean energy cooperation as well as to secure energy security and to develop energy industry. Therefore, Korean government needs to promote Northeast Asian energy cooperation by taking its lead. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 44 tabs.

  19. Value of sensitive in-situ environmental assets in energy resource extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thampapillai, Dodo J.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of energy resources and the preservation of sensitive in-situ environmental assets are invariably mutually exclusive alternatives. The opportunity cost value of preserving the environmental assets can be assessed by recourse to resource rent taxes, and threshold values. The case study analysis carried out in this paper suggests that the preservation of these assets could be justifiable on the grounds of “acceptable sacrifice”. - Highlights: ► Resource rents owed to the state from energy resource extraction can be significant. ► Benefits if mining energy resources are over-stated when the role of sensitive environmental assets is ignored. ► Threshold values could help to resolve conflicts between environmental preservation and resource extraction.

  20. Energy and Water Resources of Burkina Faso as Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... development would invest additional 38 millions euros. New solar station will be located near Ouagadougou, capital of. Burkina Faso. 96 thousands solar panels will. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. 2005. 2010. 2015. 2020. 2025. 2030. 2035. % energies fossiles energies renouvelables. 0. 5000. 10000.