WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy conserving site

  1. Energy conserving site design case study: Shenandoah, Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The case study examines the means by which energy conservation can be achieved at an aggregate community level by using proper planning and analytical techniques for a new town, Shenandoah, Georgia, located twenty-five miles southwest of Atlanta's Hartsfield International Airport. A potentially implementable energy conservation community plan is achieved by a study team examining the land use options, siting characteristics of each building type, alternate infrastructure plans, possible decentralized energy options, and central utility schemes to determine how community energy conservation can be achieved by use of pre-construction planning. The concept for the development of mixed land uses as a passively sited, energy conserving community is based on a plan (Level 1 Plan) that uses the natural site characteristics, maximizes on passive energy siting requirement, and allows flexibility for the changing needs of the developers. The Level 2 Plan is identical with Level 1 plan plus a series of decentraized systems that have been added to the residential units: the single-family detached, the apartments, and the townhouses. Level 3 Plan is similar to the Level 1 Plan except that higher density dwellings have been moved to areas adjacent to central site. The total energy savings for each plan relative to the conventional plan are indicated. (MCW)

  2. Options for passive energy conservation in site design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinette, Gary O.; Irons, Lynda; Roth, Ann; Felix, Carol; Reimann, Robert; Buechner, Stephan; Crandall, David B.; Paulo, Frances X.; Curry, George; Balsely, Douglas; Frecericks, Regina; Wilensky, Varda; Needham, Roberta

    1978-06-01

    At a time of concern for energy supplies and costs it is essential to examine the energy-conserving potential of once again using natural energy systems and patterns that exist on any site on which a building is to be or has been placed. This state-of-the-art study examines existing research and applications of land planning and design for energy-conservation purposes. It is organized around the basic principles of natural heating and cooling factors and the impact of site elements on human comfort, regional adaptation of these principles, steps in the site planning and design process, and energy-conservation options available in each of the steps. This is supplemented by an appendix and a bibliography of additional references. The principles of site planning and design for energy conservation deal with the impact of the sun and wind on natural elements and, conversely, ways in which landforms, water, and vegetation affect the impact of the sun and wind on limited sections of the earth. For instance, the sun is able to naturally warm certain slopes more than others, certain surface materials naturally accentuate the warmth of the sun, while certain naturally occurring elements, such as vegetation, block and control the sun. The wind moving over the earth's surface has certain natural directions, patterns, and characteristics. By recognizing these and by introducing or removing impediments it is possible to modify these patterns to provide natural ventilation and to conserve energy. Four commonly accepted regional divisions were utilized to illustrate the differing applications of these principles in the temperate, hot-humid, hot-arid, and cool regions of the continental U.S. The typical site planning or design process was superimposed over each region to illustrate the various energy conservation options possible, depending upon the precise decision made in each step in each region. 300 references.

  3. Introduction to Energy Conservation and Production at Waste Cleanup Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper, prepared by EPA's Engineering Forum under the Technical Support Project, provides an overview on the considerations for energy conservation and production during the design and (O&M) phases of waste cleanup projects.

  4. Energy-conserving site design: case study, The Woodlands, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located north of Houston. It includes 22,000 acres and the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center called the Metro Center and several additional tracts, such as the Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Each village is to be structured around one large and several supporting neighborhood centers. Ultimate population is planned to be 150,000. Included in this report are sections on background, team structure and organization, methodological considerations, the conventional and energy-conserving plan, constraints to implementation, and general conclusions and next phases.

  5. Energy Conservation in Existing Housing Sites; a Comparative Case Analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    2009-01-01

    The housing sector in the Netherlands is responsible for a significant fraction of primary energy use and CO2 emissions. Great energy conservation opportunities are to be found in the existing housing stock, especially in large renovation projects on existing sites. Energy conservation savings of up

  6. Energy conservation and management plan for plant facilities at the Livermore site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, W.; Szybalski, S.; Kerr, W. H.; Meyer, H. J.

    1976-03-15

    An energy conservation and management plan for the Livermore site of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is presented. The plan defines the energy-conservation goals for the next 10 years and proposes the ways and means of attaining them. The main features contained in this plan are as follows: development of the criteria and underlying assumptions required for long range planning, including energy growth rates and the case for using the concept of the technical-fix energy growth rate, LLL energy outlook and fuel cost projections, and life-cycle-cost criteria; targets of the long-range plan include between 1975 and 1985, an annual energy usage growth equal to 5.8 percent of the 1975 energy consumption, 1985 and thereafter, zero energy growth, a change from the current dependence on natural gas to the use of other fuels for heating, and a doubling of the 30-day strategic oil storage capacity; and cost schedule for the next 10 years.

  7. Impact of the resource conservation and recovery act on energy facility siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tevepaugh, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is a multifaceted approach to the management of both solid and hazardous waste. The focus of this research is on the RCRA mandated proposed regulations for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities. This research is an analysis of the interactions among hazardous waste disposal facilities, energy supply technologies and land use issues. This study addresses the impact of RCRA hazardous waste regulations in a descriptive and exploratory manner. A literature and legislative review, interviews and letters of inquiry were synthesized to identify the relationship between RCRA hazardous waste regulations and the siting of selected energy supply technologies. The results of this synthesis were used to determine if and how RCRA influences national land use issues. It was found that the interaction between RCRA and the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities required by energy supply technologies will impact national land use issues. All energy supply technologies reviewed generate hazardous waste. The siting of industrial functions such as energy supply facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities will influence future development patterns. The micro-level impacts from the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities will produce a ripple effect on land use with successive buffer zones developing around the facilities due to the interactive growth of the land use sectors.

  8. Energy-conserving site-design case study, Radisson, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Radisson is a 2,950-acre new community currently being developed by the New York State Urban Development Corporation and located in central New York, 12 miles north-west of Syracuse. Case-study sites selected for this project are a 95-acre residential site and the 51-acre Town Center of the new community. Development on the Residential Site is a low-density (2.8 dwelling units/acre) mixture of single-family, townhouse and multi-family units. Development on the Town Center site is a mixture of small-scale commercial use (144,000 sq. ft.) and 330+ multi-family dwelling units. Energy-conserving plans developed for both sites have focused on passive measures to reduce energy use for space heating. Utility-system options have been identified for both sites, but require further study as to feasibility and cost. This report summarizes energy savings and cost differentials due to passive measures incorporated in both the residential and Town Center Plans. The future implementation schedule, also discussed, summarizes the procedures an schedule required for implementation of the passive measures, as well as further study required for the development of utility-system options. 4 tables.

  9. Energy-conserving site design case studies: proceedings of the second workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabak, R

    1979-01-01

    The workshop was opened by Mr. J. Kaminsky giving a brief synopsis of the history of the case studies to date. The Site and Neighborhood Design case studies are roughly midway through the process of identifying and evaluating various options for increasing energy conservation in current design stages of their development and marketing schedule. The experiences gained to date are given for Burke Center (a village center site, concentrating on building options) in Fairfax Co., Virginia; Radisson (basically a new town) in central New York; Greenbrier (3,000 acres, very flat and wet in a standard metropolitan area) in Virginia near Norfolk; Shenandoah (a series of villages, developed in stages) in Georgia near Atlanta; and The Woodlands (12 million ft/sup 2/ of building area and 37,000 parking spaces) in Texas near Houston. Technical progress for each development is then summed. Dr. W.R. Powell presented a paper describing an energy conservation system called Community Annual Storage Systems (CASES). CASES collects heat in in summer and stores it for used heating in winter. In the winter, it preserves the chill and provides the necessary cooling in the summer for communities.

  10. Energy Conservation Simplified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

  11. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  12. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  13. Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Börner, Dirk; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M., Börner, D., Ternier, S., & Specht, M. (2013, 31 January). Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Presentation given at the symposium "Groene ICT en Duurzame ontwikkeling: Meters maken in het Hoger Onderwijs", Driebergen, The Netherlands.

  14. Energy conservation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  16. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... conservation standards for residential water heaters (other than tabletop and electric instantaneous models...

  17. Energy conservation through optimum utilization of site energy sources for all season thermal comfort in new residential construction for single family attached (rowhouse/townhouse) designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, S.; Holsman, J. P.

    1981-02-01

    A proposed design analysis is presented of a passive solar energy efficient system for a typical three level, three bedroom, two story, garage under townhouse. The design incorporates the best, most performance proven and cost effective products, materials, processes, technologies, and subsystems which are available today. Seven distinct categories recognized for analysis are identified as: the exterior environment; the interior environment; conservation of energy; natural energy utilization; auxiliary energy utilization; control and distribution systems; and occupant adaptation. Preliminary design features, fenestration systems, the plenum supply system, the thermal storage party fire walls, direct gain storage, the radiant comfort system, and direct passive cooling systems are briefly described.

  18. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The foundry industry is a significant user of energy, and therefore, a natural candidate for efforts to save energy and improve efficiency by both governmental agencies and technical/trade associations. These efforts are designed to both improve the national energy position and improve the industry's efficiency and profitability. Increased energy cost and the reduced availability of fossil fuels at certain times have provided the incentive to curb waste and to utilize purchased energy wisely. Energy costs now approach and sometimes exceed 10% of the sales dollar of many foundries. Although energy use by foundries has gradually decreased on a per/ton basis in recent years, the foundry industry must continue to find ways to utilize energy more efficiently. This workbook provides ways to achieve this goal.

  19. Industrial Energy Conservation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  20. Industrial energy conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P.S.; Williams, M.A. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 60 papers included in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 21 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  1. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  2. Growing and energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2009-01-01

    As energy costs increase, resistance is strong to these costs becoming a larger proportion of production cost. Many options can be considered in this battle. This presentation deals only with altering thermostat settings during initial crop growth stages early in the season. Reducing energy requirements in greenhouse crop production while maintaining quality and on-...

  3. Energy conservation principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper and presentation discuss preliminary findings from energy audits conducted in cotton gins in six states including the allocation of motor horse power and kilowatt hours energy consumption per bale. General inferences will be drawn from information collected at gin plants of various bale...

  4. Promoting household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first

  5. Energy conservation in rented buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Broechner, J.; Forsman, J.; Gaunt, L.; Holgersson, M.

    1984-08-01

    The bulletin is an anthology of nine essays by different authors addressing the issue of energy conservation in buildings, where there exists a landlord/tenant relationship. After an overview of the rental market and the stock of rental buildings different types of rental contracts and energy charges are described.

  6. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Tonello, Graciela; Jakovcevic, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive ...

  7. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  8. Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Omar I; Delmas, Magali A

    2015-02-10

    In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers.

  9. Optimized production and energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, T.R.; Sinner, B.; Volden, O.V.

    1986-05-01

    The possibilities of energy conservation in a cement factory are great. At least two important energy waste sources can be identified: flue gas heat and electrical energy of fan drives. A study of the Cementa AB factory at Slite, Sweden (production 2.1 million ton/y) shows that even though considerable efforts already have been made in energy saving, the potential is still great. Thus it is estimated that about 40 MW of gas heat can be turned into 3.5 MW of electrical energy. By applying high-efficiency motor drives about 2 MW can be recovered from fan drives. These two sources correspond to a total annual saving of /2.5 million. An investment to recover this energy will be paid back in less than a year.

  10. Transportation energy conservation data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A. S.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Burch, D. F.; Howard, E. B.; Hull, J. F.; Madewell, D. G.; Malthouse, N. S.; Ogle, M. C.

    1976-10-01

    Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; Conservation Alternatives; Government Impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; Energy Supply, including domestic petroleum production, prices, and projections; and Transportation Demand, including population characteristics and economic determinants. A bibliography of data sources is provided at the end of each chapter. A more general bibliography glossary, and subject index are included at the end of the book.

  11. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in accordance...

  12. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards... establish energy conservation standards for the use of electricity for purposes of circulating air through... (DOE) initiated a rulemaking to consider establishing new energy conservation standards or energy use...

  13. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.

  14. Dark Energy from Violation of Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Thibaut; Perez, Alejandro; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2017-01-13

    In this Letter, we consider the possibility of reconciling metric theories of gravitation with a violation of the conservation of energy-momentum. Under some circumstances, this can be achieved in the context of unimodular gravity, and it leads to the emergence of an effective cosmological constant in Einstein's equation. We specifically investigate two potential sources of energy nonconservation-nonunitary modifications of quantum mechanics and phenomenological models motivated by quantum gravity theories with spacetime discreteness at the Planck scale-and show that such locally negligible phenomena can nevertheless become relevant at the cosmological scale.

  15. Energy conservation in buildings and industrial plants. [includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckler, M.

    1981-01-01

    An examination is made of the opportunities and alternatives for energy conservation where great savings are possible - the design, construction, and operation of buildings and industrial facilities. Contrasts are made between the actual energy requirements of various building types (office buildings, schools, hospitals, shopping centers) and results are described of recent energy conservation measures applied to existing buildings. Energy-saving options available in the design and construction of new buildings covered are: measures in planning on-site operations; energy-intensive construction materials; energy-saving methods in designing and constructing a building's exterior envelope; ways to conserve energy in interior building spaces. Basics of energy management methods in buildings and the various building-automation systems available are reviewed. Energy-saving opportunities in areas of maintenance, providing better training for and communications with operating personnel, using computers and microprocessors for load computations, energy analysis, and monitoring or control of various energy consuming systems are explored. Other topics covered are: power generation, including solar energy as a conservation strategy; energy use at the construction site; fuel-resource utilization; load management; on-site energy systems; and alternative options such as waste recycling and geothermal energy. A broad nationwide overview of energy policies and overall strategies, a historical review of industrial sector conservation opportunities, and the environmental impact of the various energy technologies are presented. (MCW)

  16. 36 CFR 910.36 - Energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energy conservation. 910.36... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.36 Energy conservation. All new..., and the District of Columbia Energy Conservation Code Act of 1979 and its implementing regulations set...

  17. Energy-conserving development regulations: current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Almost every aspect of land development has an effect on energy use, from minute architectural details to broad considerations of urban density. Energy-efficiency depends in part on how development is planned and carried out. Conventional development regulations, such as zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, can be adapted in many ways to promote energy conservation at the community level. This report is about energy-efficient site and neighborhood design. It examines recent experiences of local governments that have adopted new development regulations or amended existing ones to promote energy conservation, more efficient generation and distribution, or a switch to alternative, renewable sources. Although much has been written in recent years about saving energy through community design, actual experience in applying these new ideas is still limited. To date, most communities have focused their efforts on studying the problem, documenting consumption patterns, and writing reports and plans. Only a handful have amended their land-use controls for the express purpose of saving energy. This study identifies 13 of these pioneering communities, after undertaking a survey of over 1400 local, regional, and state planning agencies. It takes a look at their experiences, to learn what has been done, how well it has worked, and what problems have been encountered.

  18. 76 FR 57897 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power... exclude external power supplies used in specific applications from certain energy conservation standards prescribed under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). Congress enacted this exclusion, which...

  19. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC04 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution... regarding energy conservation standards for distribution transformers. It was recently discovered that... the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA or the Act), Public Law 94-163 (42 U.S.C. 6291...

  20. 75 FR 27227 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB47 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential... preliminary analyses performed by DOE for these products; and potential energy conservation standard levels... on the energy conservation standards notice of public meeting (NOPM) and availability of the...

  1. 76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC56 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating... proposed rulemaking and announcement of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and...

  2. 24 CFR 200.78 - Energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy conservation. 200.78 Section... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Property Requirements § 200.78 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost effective energy...

  3. 76 FR 70865 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... / Wednesday, November 16, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AB79 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

  4. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume I. Energy conservation technology: management and energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction was developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This training manual is both an introduction to the need for energy conservation in buildings and a definition of the need for and the role of the enforcement official for energy conservation.

  5. Scaling-up energy conservation initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doren, van D.; Giezen, M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation in residential and commercial buildings is considered a key challenge and opportunity for low-carbon urban development. In cities worldwide, energy conservation initiatives have been realized that demonstrate the social, financial, and environmental benefits that energy

  6. 34 CFR 75.616 - Energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energy conservation. 75.616 Section 75.616 Education... Grantee? Construction § 75.616 Energy conservation. (a) To the extent feasible, a grantee shall design and construct facilities to maximize the efficient use of energy. (b) The following standards of the American...

  7. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that…

  8. Illinois energy conservation plan report: 1979 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In response to Energy Policy and this Conservation Act (PL 94-163) and Energy Conservation and Production Act (PL 94-385), this paper describes the activities to be undertaken by Illinois to meet the mandatory requirements of the Acts and to carry out other activities to encourage energy conservation by energy-consuming sectors in the state. Programs reach the residential, commercial/industrial, agricultural, educational, transportation, and government sectors. The overall goal of the program is to reduce projected energy consumption in 1980 by 5% through information and educational activities.

  9. Conservation of Energy - Is This a Violation of Energy Conservation? [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Physics

    2014-01-01

    NPS Physics Physics Demonstrations In this video Dr. D talks about conservation of energy using an apparatus known as the brachistochrone. This particular brachistochrone returns peculiar results when demonstrated. It appears energy is not conserved, but why?

  10. A Teacher's Introduction to Energy and Energy Conservation: Elementary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH. Center for Improved Education.

    This document is intended to give the elementary school teacher background information and general suggestions for teaching units and correlated learning activities related to energy and energy conservation. Sections are directed to: A Problem Shared by All, Causes, What is Energy?, Energy Sources, Searching for Solutions, Conservation: An Ethic…

  11. A Teacher's Introduction to Energy and Energy Conservation: Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH. Center for Improved Education.

    This document is intended to give the secondary school teacher background information and general suggestions for teaching units and correlated learning activities related to energy and energy conservation. Sections are directed to: A Problem Shared by All, Causes, What is Energy?, Energy Sources, Searching for Solutions, Conservation: An Ethic…

  12. Workplace Energy Conservation at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Summer; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This research contributes to the literature on workplace energy conservation by examining the predictors of individual employee behaviors and policy support in a university. The purpose of this research is to better understand what factors influence energy conservation behaviors in this setting to inform programs and interventions.…

  13. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  14. Gaming for energy conservation in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, D.V.; Brezet, J.C.; Keyson, D.V.; Boess, S.U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study about a ‘serious game’, “Energy Battle”, as a means to influence energy-related behavior in households. The Energy Battle is designed to engage home occupants in a fun way in energy conservation via a competition with other households. The challenge enabled home occupants

  15. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... CONTACT: James Raba, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... and Renewable Energy published a final rule titled ``Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric...

  16. Energy conservations from an environmental viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijikata, Kunio [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Ohokayama, Meguroku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    It is not incorrect to state that all major environmental problems, such as the greenhouse effect, destruction of the ozone layer from CFC`s, acid rain due to air pollution by NOx and SOx, etc., are caused by excessive industrial and residential energy consumption. Considering the finite world energy resources and limited global space, the day might be already upon us in which the total amount of energy consumption in the world should be reduced. To maintain a high living standard without increasing energy consumption, waste energy recovery and energy conservation are vitally important. In order to effective use of energy resources, we should really know the meaning of the energy consumption and the characteristics of energy resources. In this paper, the technological aspects of energy conservation are stated from the standpoint of available energy.

  17. 78 FR 55781 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... 1904-AB86 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers... commercial and industrial equipment, including walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. EPCA also requires the U...

  18. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 69... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts AGENCY: Office of Energy... standards for various consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment, including fluorescent lamp...

  19. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  20. Energy Conservation Equations of Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Vinokurov, Nikolay A

    2015-01-01

    A conventional derivation of motion equations in mechanics and field equations in field theory is based on the principle of least action with a proper Lagrangian. With a time-independent Lagrangian, a function of coordinates and velocities that is called energy is constant. This paper presents an alternative approach, namely derivation of a general form of equations of motion that keep the system energy, expressed as a function of generalized coordinates and corresponding velocities, constant. These are Lagrange equations with addition of gyroscopic forces. The important fact, that the energy is defined as the function on the tangent bundle of configuration manifold, is used explicitly for the derivation. The Lagrangian is derived from a known energy function. A development of generalized Hamilton and Lagrange equations without the use of variational principles is proposed. The use of new technique is applied to derivation of some equations.

  1. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on...

  2. 78 FR 25627 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation... to each of the analyses (e.g., market assessment, engineering analysis, energy use analysis, life.... Introduction A. Authority B. Background C. Rulemaking Process II. Planned Rulemaking Analyses A. Market...

  3. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

  4. Tidal energy site - Tidal energy site mammal/bird survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...

  5. Calorimeter energy calibration using the energy conservation law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new calorimeter energy calibration method was developed for the proposed ILC detectors. The method uses the center-of-mass energy of the accelerator as the reference. It has been shown that using the energy conservation law it is possible to make ECAL and HCAL cross calibration to reach a good energy resolution ...

  6. Energy conservation in large buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, A.; Hafemeister, D.

    1985-11-01

    As energy prices rise, newly energy aware designers use better tools and technology to create energy efficient buildings. Thus the U.S. office stock (average age 20 years) uses 250 kBTU/ft2 of resource energy, but the guzzler of 1972 uses 500 (up×2), and the 1986 ASHRAE standards call for 100-125 (less than 25% of their 1972 ancestors). Surprisingly, the first real cost of these efficient buildings has not risen since 1972. Scaling laws are used to calculate heat gains and losses of buildings to obtain the ΔT(free) which can be as large as 15-30 °C (30-60 °F) for large buildings. The net thermal demand and thermal time constants are determined for the Swedish Thermodeck buildings which need essentially no heat in the winter and no chillers in summer. The BECA and other data bases for large buildings are discussed. Off-peak cooling for large buildings is analyzed in terms of saving peak-electrical power. By downsizing chillers and using cheaper, off-peak power, cost-effective thermal storage in new commercial buildings can reduce U.S. peak power demands by 10-20 GW in 15 years. A further potential of about 40 GW is available from adopting partial thermal storage and more efficient air conditioners in existing buildings.

  7. Energy Conservation Checklist for Universities and Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Several specific success stories are included here from institutions that have had energy conservation programs long enough to establish meaningful statistics. They illustrate why it is not unreasonable for most institutions to meet the federal objective of a 15% reduction in energy consumption, even if 1973 is used as the base year, but with some…

  8. Social psychological aspects of energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Elliot; Yates, Suzanne

    1985-11-01

    Although some increases in the adoption of energy-efficient practices have been noted, only a small fraction of the potential savings are being realized, perhaps because human behavior is too complex for existing economic models. The rational-economic model is able to predict behavior in many situations, but it has limitations. To design effective public policy, the social, cognitive, and personal forces, that in addition to the economic realities define the situation, must be understood. This chapter examines one aspect of current energy conservation policy, the home energy audit program mandated by the Residential Conservation Service, and attempts to show how existing social psychological research might be beneficially applied.

  9. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  10. 75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced historic growth and unprecedented workload challenges...

  11. Energy conservation and substitution: refining the objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, G.

    1981-06-01

    Energy conservation is not a precisely defined concept; consequently, there is a considerable confusion about how to implement it or predict its effects. Reducing dependence on oil should be the central objective of energy policy, but this may not be furthered by generalized conservation strategies. Achieving a reduction in oil dependence requires a balanced policy of conservation and substitution. As governments have reacted against oil price rises and the subsequent inflationary effects with a swing towards monetarism and a harsher reliance upon market forces, the role of oil has become even more important. Reliance upon these policies has not eased the oil blockage upon economic activity; it has made it worse and made the task of providing alternatives to oil more difficult. Market forces have had a wedging, rather than a freeing, effect upon the pattern of energy supply. But the point is that conservation, on its own, does not create the momentum away from oil which is essential. The immediate objective is not to achieve a reduction in the consumption of energy as an end in itself, but as part of a liberation from dependence upon oil. Energy conservation needs to be seen as a servant of this wider objective. 21 references.

  12. 77 FR 28927 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... test procedures, the new/amended energy conservation standards, and the representation requirements by... Federal Energy Conservation Standards, and Representations for Certain ASHRAE Equipment III. General.... Rheem argued that the industry would need a minimum of 6 months to revise its technical literature if...

  13. 76 FR 31795 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB85 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers... regulations pertaining to the test procedure for walk-in coolers and freezers. The correction addresses an erroneous temperature condition for walk-in freezers. DATES: Effective Date: June 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  14. Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1981-12-01

    This document is a study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major end-use sectors. The study develops and applies a systematic approach to identifying and screening applied energy conservation research opportunities. To broadly cover the energy end-use sectors, this study develops useful information relating to the areas where federally-funded applied research will most likely play an important role in promoting energy conservation. This study is not designed to produce a detailed agenda of specific recommended research activities. The general information presented allows uniform comparisons of disparate research areas and as such provides the basis for formulating a cost-effective, comprehensive federal-applied energy conservation research strategy. Chapter 2 discusses the various methodologies that have been used in the past to identify research opportunities and details the approach used here. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5 the methodology is applied to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors and the opportunities for applied research in these sectors are discussed.Chapter 6 synthesizes the results of the previous three chapters to give a comprehensive picture of applied energy conservation research opportunities across all end-use sectors and presents the conclusions to the report.

  15. Calorimeter energy calibration using the energy conservation law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - posed ILC detectors. The method uses the center-of-mass energy of the accelerator as the reference. It has been shown that using the energy conservation law it is possible to make ECAL and HCAL cross calibration to reach a good energy ...

  16. A compendium of energy conservation success stories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office/endash/Energy Utilization Research/endash/sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

  17. A Compendium of Energy Conservation Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office{endash}Energy Utilization Research{endash}sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

  18. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  19. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall require fuel and energy conservation practices in the operation and...

  20. How energy conservation limits our measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascués, Miguel; Popescu, Sandu

    2014-04-11

    Observations in quantum mechanics are subject to complex restrictions arising from the principle of energy conservation. Determining such restrictions, however, has been so far an elusive task, and only partial results are known. In this Letter, we discuss how constraints on the energy spectrum of a measurement device translate into limitations on the measurements which we can effect on a target system with a nonconstant energy operator. We provide efficient algorithms to characterize such limitations and, in case the target is a two-level quantum system, we quantify them exactly. Our Letter, thus, identifies the boundaries between what is possible or impossible to measure, i.e., between what we can see or not, when energy conservation is at stake.

  1. Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  2. Avoidance motivation and conservation of energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  3. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  4. Energy Conservation Guidebook : to be Used in Conjunction with the Energy Conservation Policies October 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    This guidebook is an instrument for implementing BPA`s Energy Conservation Policies established through the concensus of the four Area Office Managers and the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Energy Resources. As technical support for, and elaboration of, the Energy Conservation Policies, the Guidebook follows the format of the Policies themselves. The Guidebook tackles each section of the Policies in order, again assigning roles and responsibilities where appropriate, enlarging on policy issues and, where appropriate, outlining data considerations. The sections in order are: conservation load reduction, cost-effectiveness limits, BA management targets, consumer contributions, utility contribution, program verification, and program evaluation.

  5. Scaling-up energy conservation initiatives : Barriers and local strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doren, D.; Giezen, M.; Driessen, P. P J; Runhaar, H. A C

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation in residential and commercial buildings is considered a key challenge and opportunity for low-carbon urban development. In cities worldwide, energy conservation initiatives have been realized that demonstrate the social, financial, and environmental benefits that energy

  6. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in a 2009 final rule at 74 FR 32059 (July 7... Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy...

  7. Energy conservation by reducing process variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Lafourcade, Sebastien [Pepite S.A., Liege (Belgium); Mack, Philippe [Pepite Technologies Inc., Montreal (Canada)

    2011-12-21

    Energy conservation is becoming an increasingly important instrument to stay competitive in today is increasingly global market. Important investments have been made in infrastructure and personnel in order to improve the management of energy such as increased metering, energy dashboards, energy managers, etc. Despite these investments, the results have not materialized and there is still a significant potential to further reduce energy consumption. In this paper a new methodology will be presented that helps industry better operate existing assets in order to reduce energy consumption, without having to make capital investments. The methodology uses a combination of advanced data analysis tools and a specific implementation scheme that has lead to significant savings in industry. The advanced data analysis tools are used to analyze the variability of the process in order to assess when the plant has been operated well or not so well in the past. By finding the root causes of these variations and the key variables that can explain them, improved operating guidelines and models can be developed and implemented. The specific implementation scheme is an important part of the methodology as it involves the people operating the plant. Several user cases will be presented showing an energy conservation of between 10%-20% without capital investments necessary. (author)

  8. Energy conservation strategies among American college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundes, L.; Lemke, D. [Department of Sociology, McDaniel College, 2 College Hill, Westminster, MD 21157-4390 (United States); Kulow, A. [Department of Biology, McDaniel College, Westminster, MD 21157-4390 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This research compares both attitudes and recycling behaviors in a sample of college males and females (N?=?302), a demographic group whose behaviors and willingness to adopt environmentally sound policies will become the dominant force for environmental reform in the USA in approaching decades. Consistent with prior research, women were significantly more likely to support strategies for energy conservation and were much more apt to always recycle. Among males (but not females), frequent recyclers of plastic were more supportive of energy conservation strategies, while for women, the link between attitudes and behavior is weaker, perhaps due to women's purported community-welfare orientation. In addition, because the strategies that received the most support from both sexes, walking to work or school, and purchasing and cooking with local produce, may reflect the resulting health benefits as much as concern for environmental sustainability, we should consider marketing the link between environmental altruism and personal wellbeing among young populations.

  9. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Efficiency Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  10. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND ENERGY DECENTRALIZATION: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark D.; Craig, Paul P.

    1980-01-01

    We have presented views of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system. appears not to be functioning in very important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in our judgment. far greater than is recognized either by the public or by 'experts.' It has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing. albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

  11. Energy conservation and energy decentralization: issues and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Craig, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    Views are presented of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system, appears not to be functioning in very-important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in the author's judgment, far greater than is recognized either by the public or by experts. They feel it has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing, albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

  12. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A REVIEW OF GOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE AGENCY ENERGY CONSERVATION INITIATIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Robert S.; Rainer, David

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results of a recent research project originally concerned with review of governmental initiatives for changes to hospital design and operation standards at both the federal and state levels. However. it quickly became apparent that concern with energy conservation was not impacting hospital environmental standards, especially at the state level, irrespective of the energy implications. Consequently, the study was redirected to consider all energy conservation initiatives directed toward design and operating practices unique to the hospital environment. The scope was limited to agency programs (i.e., not undertaken at the initiative of individual hospitals), applicable to non-federal public and private hospitals.

  13. Conserving Critical Sites for Biodiversity Provides Disproportionate Benefits to People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Frank W.; Turner, Will R.; Brooks, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites identified as top priorities for the conservation of threatened species. Conserving these sites would yield benefits – in terms of a) climate change mitigation through avoidance of CO2 emissions from deforestation; b) freshwater services to downstream human populations; c) retention of option value; and d) benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity – significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being. PMID:22666337

  14. Conserving critical sites for biodiversity provides disproportionate benefits to people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Larsen

    Full Text Available Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites identified as top priorities for the conservation of threatened species. Conserving these sites would yield benefits--in terms of a climate change mitigation through avoidance of CO(2 emissions from deforestation; b freshwater services to downstream human populations; c retention of option value; and d benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity--significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being.

  15. 76 FR 45606 - Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Fish and Wildlife Service Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat... Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, for the proposed Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP... proposed Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP). The EIS will be a joint Environmental Impact...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b) With...

  17. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. (a) Each... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the...

  18. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  19. Green Tribology Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

  20. Social benefits of financial investment support in energy conservation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, T. [ECON Centre for Economic Analysis, Oslo (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    Energy conservation became an important component of energy policy after the oil price increases in the 1970s. The authors refer to energy conservation as policy measures other than price and tax changes intended to improve the efficiency in end use of energy. From 1973 to 1985, more stringent technical standards, information and financial incentives contributed to a 20 percent drop in energy intensities in Organization Economic and Cooperative Developing (OECD) countries. However, high end use prices rather than conservation policies had the greatist effect. The author examines the costs and benefits of a Norwegian energy conservation program that provided financial support for investments in energy efficiency. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Discarded tires: energy conservation through alternative uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1979-12-01

    Scrap tires that are not recycled through retreading constitute a serious solid-waste problem, but also offer energy-conservation opportunities through their use as: (1) solid fuel (displaced energy = 15,000 Btu/lb or 35 kJ/g); (2) derived fuel and chemical feedstock (11,000 to 23,000 Btu/lb or 25 to 53.5 kJ/g); (3) virgin rubber compound substitute in traditional rubber products (34,000 to 40,000 Btu/lb or 79 to 93 kJ/g); and (4) asphalt additive for paving applications (90,000 Btu/lb or 210 kJ/g). Both the energy of the displaced fuel and material and the energy consumed preparing the tires for the above uses have been included, where possible, in these estimates. Also provided is a summary of the available data on the cost and requisite scale of operation for the various end use processes.

  2. 76 FR 67037 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ..., Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode... are unlikely to alter their current behavior on the basis of amended energy conservation standards... prices are in theory preferable when evaluating the life-cycle-cost savings associated with standards...

  3. 76 FR 22453 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ...) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and commercial and industrial.... Screening Analysis 1. Clothes Dryers 2. Room Air Conditioners C. Engineering Analysis 1. Technologies Not... price trends. The high end of this range corresponds to a constant real equipment price trend. Using the...

  4. 77 FR 32381 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial..., engineering resources, and other conversion activities over a longer period of time depending on the..., respectively. In addition, incremental product costs reflect a declining trend using the default product price...

  5. Energy conservation-problems and perspectives for developing nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, P.R. (National Productivity Council, New Delhi, India); Padrmanabhan, S.

    1980-03-15

    While studies of the past indicated a tight coupling of energy consumption and GNP, longer range indications are that they can be mutually decoupled. Developing nations can move forward towards achieving significant energy savings in their economics without fear of economic stagnation. Conservation policies at the national level are difficult to enunciate and the implementation mechanisms have to be strengthened. Macro-level economics may not be easily apparent as unit level economics. If energy conservation is not practiced, we would require the development of additional energy supply capacity with all of its economic implications. The role of science and technology inputs in industrial processes for minimizing energy consumption is significant. Sufficient funds should be allocated for pursuance of R and D activities in energy conservation and in developing alternative energy resources to supplement and later replace the existing costly transient fuels. A climate to promote conservation of energy should formulate policies which lays emphasis on energy conservation strategies rather than soley on energy growth issues. The effort should be directed towards energy programs that are a judicious mix up of energy and energy conservation strategies for achieving economic growth and a reasonable standard of living commensurate with the aspirations of the people. In capital-scarce economies, an account of the fact that energy conservation requires far less investment than energy capital supplies, conservation policies must play a central role in the overall framework of developing nation's national energy policies.

  6. Conservation of Mechanical Energy Using Dry Ice Slider-Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Jenna; Baker, Blane

    2008-01-01

    Energy concepts are fundamentally important for describing and analyzing systems ranging from subatomic particles to spiral galaxies. In general, students first encounter such concepts in introductory courses that typically focus on forms of energy, energy transfer, and conservation laws. Within these courses, conservation of mechanical energy is…

  7. 77 FR 43723 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Conservation programs (EE Programs) undertaken by an eligible utility system to finance demand side management... Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... implementing demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid...

  8. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  9. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Seneca Rocks Discovery Center, Seneca Rocks, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-22

    As part of ongoing efforts by the U.S. Forest Service to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies into its facilities, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment of the Seneca Rocks Discovery Center in Seneca Rocks, West Virginia. This report documents the findings of this assessment, and provides site-specific information for the implementation of energy and water conservation measures, and renewable energy measures.

  10. Conserving critical sites for biodiversity provides disproportionate benefits to people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Turner, Will R.; Brooks, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites......) benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity - significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being....

  11. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Renewable Energy Professionals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Healey, Victoria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  13. 40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy... renewable energy reserve. The Administrator will allocate 300,000 allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of the Acid Rain Data System. Allowances from this Reserve will be...

  14. Basic Energy Conservation and Management Part 1: Looking at Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal. However, school board members, superintendents, and directors of buildings and grounds are often unaware of the many options available to conserve energy. School energy conservation used to be relatively simple: turn off the lights and turn down the heat in the winter and…

  15. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Attitudes towards Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Ipek, Cemalettin

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to examine the pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation. In order to reach this main aim following research questions are formulated: (1) What are the attitude levels of pre-service primary teachers in terms of energy conservation? (2) Do pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation…

  16. Energy Conservation Manual for School Food Service Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Ann M.; Wheeler, George; Rousso, Victoria

    Energy cost management is important in all school food service operations, particularly at times when rising energy costs threaten budgets. This document is designed as a reference manual on energy and provides information about monitoring energy use and developing energy improvement and conservation plans. The manual offers energy conservation…

  17. Energy and the use of conservation tillage in US agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uri, N.D. [US Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States). Resource Inventory Div.

    1999-05-01

    The effect of energy on the use of conservation tillage is of special importance in addressing concerns about the impact of agricultural production on the environment in the United States. After establishing that a relationship exists between the price of energy and the use of conservation tillage via Granger causality, the relationship is quantified. It is shown that while the real price of energy does not affect the rate of adoption of conservation tillage, it does impact the extent to which it is used. Finally, there is no structural instability in the relationship between the relative use of conservation tillage and the real price of energy over the period 1963-1997. (author)

  18. Combining specificity determining and conserved residues improves functional site prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the location of functionally important sites from protein sequence and/or structure is a long-standing problem in computational biology. Most current approaches make use of sequence conservation, assuming that amino acid residues conserved within a protein family are most likely to be functionally important. Most often these approaches do not consider many residues that act to define specific sub-functions within a family, or they make no distinction between residues important for function and those more relevant for maintaining structure (e.g. in the hydrophobic core. Many protein families bind and/or act on a variety of ligands, meaning that conserved residues often only bind a common ligand sub-structure or perform general catalytic activities. Results Here we present a novel method for functional site prediction based on identification of conserved positions, as well as those responsible for determining ligand specificity. We define Specificity-Determining Positions (SDPs, as those occupied by conserved residues within sub-groups of proteins in a family having a common specificity, but differ between groups, and are thus likely to account for specific recognition events. We benchmark the approach on enzyme families of known 3D structure with bound substrates, and find that in nearly all families residues predicted by SDPsite are in contact with the bound substrate, and that the addition of SDPs significantly improves functional site prediction accuracy. We apply SDPsite to various families of proteins containing known three-dimensional structures, but lacking clear functional annotations, and discusse several illustrative examples. Conclusion The results suggest a better means to predict functional details for the thousands of protein structures determined prior to a clear understanding of molecular function.

  19. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Geothermal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  20. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  1. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Hydroelectric

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  2. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Solar

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  3. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  4. Molecular mechanism of energy conservation in polysulfide respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jormakka, Mika; Yokoyama, Ken; Yano, Takahiro; Tamakoshi, Masatada; Akimoto, Satoru; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Curmi, Paul; Iwata, So

    2008-07-01

    Bacterial polysulfide reductase (PsrABC) is an integral membrane protein complex responsible for quinone-coupled reduction of polysulfide, a process important in extreme environments such as deep-sea vents and hot springs. We determined the structure of polysulfide reductase from Thermus thermophilus at 2.4-A resolution, revealing how the PsrA subunit recognizes and reduces its unique polyanionic substrate. The integral membrane subunit PsrC was characterized using the natural substrate menaquinone-7 and inhibitors, providing a comprehensive representation of a quinone binding site and revealing the presence of a water-filled cavity connecting the quinone binding site on the periplasmic side to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that polysulfide reductase could be a key energy-conserving enzyme of the T. thermophilus respiratory chain, using polysulfide as the terminal electron acceptor and pumping protons across the membrane via a previously unknown mechanism.

  5. A Conserved Steroid Binding Site in Cytochrome c Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ling; Mills, Denise A.; Buhrow, Leann; Hiser, Carrie; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh (Michigan)

    2010-09-02

    Micromolar concentrations of the bile salt deoxycholate are shown to rescue the activity of an inactive mutant, E101A, in the K proton pathway of Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c oxidase. A crystal structure of the wild-type enzyme reveals, as predicted, deoxycholate bound with its carboxyl group at the entrance of the K path. Since cholate is a known potent inhibitor of bovine oxidase and is seen in a similar position in the bovine structure, the crystallographically defined, conserved steroid binding site could reveal a regulatory site for steroids or structurally related molecules that act on the essential K proton path.

  6. 10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments 430.34 Section 430.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.34 Energy and water conservation standards...

  7. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  8. Infrared thermography requirements study for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, R B; Larsen, R J; Goldberg, G G; Boyd, R J

    1977-04-01

    A description is given of a study to identify users (and their needs) of infrared (IR) instrumentation that may be applicable in the measurement of heat gains and/or losses from buildings, and to identify research, development and demonstration opportunities. The study is intended to provide the following information: (1) identify present and potential users and uses of infrared thermographic technology as related to energy conservation in buildings; (2) identify presently available IR thermographic instrumentation, techniques, and services, and determine how well it can serve the users and uses identified above; and (3) identify the technical opportunities for research, development, and demonstration on new IR thermographic technology that will better serve the users and uses identified above. The building sector requirements were analyzed, the user measurement requirements were identified, and cost guidelines for instrumentation are provided. An analysis is given of the constraints, requirements, and limitations of measurable parameters. This analysis provides the basis against which an IR instrument survey was conducted. The building sector requirements study indicates the general satisfaction of the user community with the use of IR thermography for qualitative evaluation of heat loss from buildings.

  9. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  10. Conservation of electrical energy in a petrochemical industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petrochemical industry can achieve system reliability, higher productivity, reduce energy cost, and reduce down time and maintenance costs through proper conservation of electrical power. Key words: Petrochemical industry, Control technologies, Power technologies, Electric motors, Energy efficiency, Power Factor.

  11. Design handbook : energy efficiency and water conservation in NAS facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    This handbook was created to provide definitive energy efficiency and water conservation design criteria for the design of NAS facilities. FAA-HDBK-001 provides implementation strategies and tools to comply with E.O. 12902, Energy and Water Conservat...

  12. Energy conservation and efficiency in manufacturing: Employee decisions and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Marla D.

    Energy conservation and intensity reduction efforts are becoming increasingly more prevalent and ultimately necessary, especially for energy-intensive manufacturing companies in particular to stay in business. Typical actions are to change technology, and thus, realize an energy cost savings in overall utilities. However, in today's competitive market, with climate change and other environmental impacts as well, it is necessary for the cost of energy to be valued as a cost of making a product, and thus, managed at the same level as the cost of labor or materials. This research assessed human behavior at the individual and organizational levels both at work and at home that either prompted or prohibited employees from taking daily action to conserve energy or develop greater energy efficient practices. Ultimately, the questions began with questions regarding employee views and knowledge of energy at work and at home and what drives both behaviors toward conservation or efficiency. And, the contribution identifies the key drivers, barriers, and/or incentives that affect those behaviors. The results of this study show that the key driver and motivator for energy conservation both at home and work is cost savings. The study showed that to further motivate individuals to conserve energy at home and work, more knowledge of the impact their actions have or could have as well as tools would be needed. The most poinient aspect of the research was the level of importance placed on energy conservation and the desire to conserve. The feedback given to the open ended questions was quite impressive regarding what employees have done and continue to do particularly within their homes to conserve energy. These findings brought about final recommendations that were in fact not expected but could significantly influence an increase in energy conservation at work by leveraging the existing desire to conserve which is a key component to decision making.

  13. ERDA programs and objectives: energy conservation in food processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towne, E A [ed.

    1977-07-01

    A workshop on energy conservation in the agriculture processing industry sponsored by ERDA in March 1976 resulted in 87 conservation research recommendations to ERDA. These recommendations and their incorporation into ongoing and planned ERDA research and development programs are discussed. Information is included on using food processing wastes, energy conservation in hot processes and waste heat recovery, ERDA responses to specific workshop recommendations on the processing of chemical fertilizers, dairy products, fruits, meats, vegetables, grain, and textiles.

  14. A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm--within a few percent--that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have…

  15. Conservation of energy for the Euler-Korteweg equations

    KAUST Repository

    Dębiec, Tomasz

    2017-12-30

    In this article we study the principle of energy conservation for the Euler-Korteweg system. We formulate an Onsager-type sufficient regularity condition for weak solutions of the Euler-Korteweg system to conserve the total energy. The result applies to the system of Quantum Hydrodynamics.

  16. Energy conservation in mechanical industry; Maitrise de l`energie dans les industries mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The workshop is composed of 12 communications on the theme of energy consumption, conservation and management in industry, and more especially in metal industry: evaluation of the energy savings potential in the French industry; official energy diagnosis procedure in buildings; the French national gas utility policy for energy conservation and economical performance in industry; energy conservation with speed variators for electric motors; energy audits and energy metering for conservation objectives. Examples of energy efficient systems or energy audits in various industrial sectors (compressed air, industrial buildings, heat treatments, curing...) are also presented. The electric power quality EDF`s contract is also discussed

  17. On-Site Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes a variety of approaches that local governments can use to advance climate and energy goals by meeting some or all of their electricity needs through on-site renewable energy generation.

  18. Microcomputers for energy conservation in homes and other small buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrick, A S

    1980-01-01

    Low cost microcomputers and related microelectric devices now make it practical to apply additional energy conserving control strategies in single-family homes and other small buildings. These conservation measures can make significant contributions toward attainment of national energy conservation objectives. Applications in space conditioning (heating, cooling, ventilation), lighting, electric demand limiting, metering of energy in various forms and for status displays are outlined. Examples of currently operating installations are described. Available equipment (such as personal computers, A/D converters, sensors, actuators, etc.) is discussed. Efforts at standard interface development and system integration are summarized. Statistics on the numbers of various building types, HVAC system types, energy consumption and energy conservation potential are presented. The structure of the HVAC controls industry is outlined. The US Department of Energy program of research, development and demonstration projects addressing efficient use of energy in buildings with new control systems is described.

  19. Energy Conservation in Dissipative Processes: Teacher Expectations and Strategies Associated with Imperceptible Thermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in…

  20. Energy conservation potential in Taiwanese textile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gui-Bing; Su, Te-Li; Chen, Hua-Wei [Department of Cosmetic Application and Management, St. Mary' s Medicine Nursing and Management College, 100, Lane. 265, Section 2, Sanxing Road, Sanxing Township, Yilan County (China); Lee, Jenq-Daw; Hsu, Tsung-Chi [Technology Center for Service Industries, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Section 4, Chung Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu (China)

    2010-11-15

    Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwan's energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwan's textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074 ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving was equivalent to 94,614 MWh of electricity, 23,686 kl of fuel oil and 4887 ton of fuel coal. It represented a potential reduction of 143,669 ton in carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 3848 ha plantation forest. This study summarizes energy-saving measures for energy users and identifies the areas for making energy saving to provide an energy efficiency baseline. (author)

  1. Conservation – a new and efficient source of energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Building Research Institute

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is becoming increasingly expensive. Conservation can offset the increase in energy cost and can therefore be considered a new and can fairly inexpensive source of energy. The following article looks at the ways in which energy savings in both...

  2. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  3. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    . An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...... of the energy chain. The results show that the possible options for energy conservation through the entire energy chain of the present technology are at least of the same magnitude as that involved in just switching to a more efficient biomass stove. The heat loss is largest while simmering when the boiling...

  4. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  5. Energy conservation of no-tillage production of corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, W.W.; Blevins, R.L.; Murdock, L.W.; Wells, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses the energy requirements for no-tillage production of corn as compared to conventional tillage. Emphasis is on energy conservation through nitrogen fertilizer management. Results with no-tillage research in Kentucky on differences in nitrogen efficiency with no-tillage compared to conventional tillage, use of legumes as cover crops for no-tillage, delayed application of nitrogen fertilizers, and use of a nitrification inhibitor are presented as potential energy conservation practices.

  6. Perge Archeological Site, its Landscape Features and Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmas ERDOĞAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Settlements as built environments are the living spaces/habitats of human beings. Cities that developed according to the needs of the communities are the physical reflections of cultures showing nature, human and space interrelationships as urban formations. So, many different settlement patterns were developed through history due to the environmental and the socio-cultural factors. On the other hand, archeological sites having the traces of different periods are the evidences of life styles, cultural, technological and social formations of various civilizations. In this article, the development of Perge antique settlement through history, the buildings forming the settlement and its landscape properties were presented. Then, the potentials and problems of the area and its near environs were evaluated. At the final stage, the existing situation of the archeological site was set and conservation issues of Perge antique settlement were discussed.

  7. State energy conservation plan for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The energy-savings and energy-management programs set up by state agencies in New Mexico are presented. Also the energy-savings and energy-management programs for public schools are presented. Plans and summaries are also given for the following program: solar water heaters for secondary schools; solar portable classroom demonstration; energy-savings and energy-management programs for county and municipal governments; energy-savings programs for commercial and residential sectors; weatherization; solar sustenance; energy-savings programs for hospitals and industrial buildings; carpools and vanpools; a program encouraging compliance with the national 55-mph speed limit; waste-oil recycling; utilitites; agriculture; procurement; modification; public information; and an administrative packet containing information on how to facilitate internal accounting procedures.

  8. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume II. Energy conservation technology: for the building inspector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This training manual contains the basic information necessary to acquaint the field building inspector with the concepts of energy conservation in buildings and instructs him in the basic techniques of field inspection of energy compliance.

  9. Gravity and the Conservation of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weller D. L.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Schwarzschild metric apportions the energy equivalence of a mass into a time com- ponent, a space component and a gravitational component. This apportionment indi- cates there is a source of gravitational energy as well as a limit to the magnitude of gravitational energy.

  10. Marketing: an approach to successful energy-conservation information programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, R. B.; McNeill, D. L.

    1980-08-01

    This monograph shows how the adoption of a marketing approach can improve the quality of the development and delivery of energy-conservation programs. Several factors make the use of such a marketing approach to conservation particularly beneficial, namely: (1) goals of conservation programs can be quantified (e.g., specified amount of energy to be saved); in addition, intermediate effects necessary for program success are also measureable (e.g., knowledge, attitude change, etc); (2) there is an apparent and increasing need for conservation by different parts (or sectors) of the population; however, it is clear that the desire for conservation is not the same for all sectors; (3) conservation programs can be thought of in much the same way as products with benefits and costs; this necessitates an understanding of how the population makes conservation decisions so that the program can fit into that decision process; (4) the need to tailor programs to the needs of the population is heightened by the general competition for the consumer dollar; it is necessary to design and present programs in a way that the individual will view conservation as an attractive choice among many (e.g., bank savings, buying clothes, furniture, car, etc.); and (5) the population's response to, and need for conservation is constantly changing; consequently, it is important to realize that these changes may need to be reflected in the conservation programs themselves (both ongoing and new).

  11. Basic Energy Conservation and Management--Part 2: HVAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal, and new technologies have brought greater energy efficiencies to the school environment. In Part 1 of this two-part series, the author discussed the steps required to establish an energy conservation and management program with an emphasis on lighting. In this article, he…

  12. Energy Conservation. The Best of ERIC, Number 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The 13 articles in this annotated bibliography cover a wide range of concerns from the finances of energy conservation to solar energy applications, to building design, to building maintenance, and to the role of the science teacher as an energy analyst and activist. (IRT)

  13. Vehicle energy conservation indicating device and process for use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crump, J.M.

    1980-01-29

    A vehicle energy conservation indicating device comprises an integrated instrument cluster functioning basically as a nomographic computing mechanism. The odometer distance traveled indicator computing mechanism is linked with the fuel indicating gauge mechanism such that a three variable equation computing mechanism is obtained. The three variables are distance traveled, quantity of fuel consumed and distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. Energy conservation is achieved by operating the vehicle under such performance conditions as to produce the highest possible value for distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. The instrument panel cluster brings the operator's attention to focus upon and continuously stimulated to conserving energy. Furthermore, the vehicle energy conservation indicating device can be adapted for recording these performance variables on tape type print out. The speedometer advises the vehicle operator when he is obeying or breaking the speed laws which are enforced and monitored by the police with specific punishment prescribed for violations of the law. At this time there is no comparable procedure for enforcing vehicle energy conservation. Thus, this direct read out of distance traveled per unit of energy will moderate the operation in an analogous manner similar to subliminal advertising. This device becomes the focal point of the instrument panel along with the speedometer, thereby providing constant motivation to obey both the speed and energy conservation laws.

  14. District Level Plan for Conservation. An Outline for a District-Level Plan for Energy Conservation. Energy Conservation Materials Package Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Interstate Energy Conservation Leadership.

    Features shared by successful school energy conservation programs include: (1) the formation of a district energy conservation committee that involves as many segments of the educational community as practical, (2) the assignment of specific responsibilities to specific individuals, (3) careful planning in the development of guidelines, (4)…

  15. Balancing act: Government roles in an energy conservation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterman, A.; Kourula, A.; Levitt, R.

    2014-01-01

    Government-led interorganizational alliance networks present a sensible opportunity to overcome many societal challenges through collaborative governance. In particular, few researchers have studied alliance networks in the field of energy conservation in commercial buildings—a sector with unique

  16. Energy awareness displays: motivating conservation at the workplace through feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Storm, Jeroen; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Storm, J., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012). Energy awareness displays: motivating conservation at the workplace through feedback. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 6(3/4), 189–203.

  17. Factors in Helping Educate about Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurin, Richard R.; Fox-Parrish, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Three different groups of students were surveyed (years 1995, 2002, and 2003) to determine their attitudes regarding the environment and environmental issues, and particularly energy use. Two groups (1995 and 2003) were purposely selected to be interviewed about energy issues. The survey revealed that all groups had bell-shaped spreads with the…

  18. Energy Conservation for Residential Dwellings. Course Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

    This course is one of four in a solar systems and energy management program developed by the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools to help tradespeople (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning mechanics; plumbers; and electricians) to develop an awareness of alternate energy sources and to gain skills in the areas of solar installations…

  19. A first report on making Saskatchewan a Canadian leader in energy conservation and renewable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prebble, P. [Government of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    This report proposed policy changes for energy conservation and renewable energy in Saskatchewan related to the electricity and buildings sectors. Recommendations were presented for 4 core areas, notably (1) transition to renewable energy in the electrical sector, (2) incentives to promote conservation and renewable energy, (3) the continuation of conservation and renewable energy programs within the buildings sector, and (4) the creation of new policies to encourage renewable energy use and energy conservation. The report recommended legislation for a renewable energy and conservation portfolio standard for electricity production, as well as increased investment in demand side management programs. The use of large-scale wind power in future electrical generation upgrades was also recommended, as well as net metering and financial incentives for small-scale producers of electricity. Tax credit schemes were presented, as well as various energy efficiency grant programs for homeowners, and the implementation of new energy efficiency building codes, and solar energy legislation. Policy measures to promote conservation and renewable energy development included the expansion of the office of energy conservation, and the establishment of a fund to ensure a stable public funding base for conservation and renewable energy initiatives. refs.

  20. A Compendium of Energy Conservation: Success Stories 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R&D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

  1. A compendium of energy conservation: Success stories 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

  2. Energy Conservation in the General Services Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisen, Walter A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the procedures already being taken in existing GSA-operated buildings to reduce immediately fuel and energy requirements without the luxury of time consuming and costly renovations. (Author/MF)

  3. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

  4. Energy conservation in molecular dynamics simulations of classical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Classical Newtonian dynamics is analytic and the energy of an isolated system is conserved. The energy of such a system, obtained by the discrete “Verlet” algorithm commonly used in molecular dynamics simulations, fluctuates but is conserved in the mean. This is explained by the existence...... in the time step length. Here we use the first non-trivial term in this expansion to obtain an improved estimate of the discrete values of the energy. The investigation is performed for a representative system with Lennard-Jones pair interactions. The simulations show that inclusion of this term reduces...... the standard deviation of the energy fluctuations by a factor of 100 for typical values of the time step length. Simulations further show that the energy is conserved for at least one hundred million time steps provided the potential and its first four derivatives are continuous at the cutoff. Finally, we show...

  5. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  6. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Tawil, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) were mandated by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 (Title III of Energy Conservation and Production Act) to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources in new buildings. The report analyzes alternative Federal strategies and their component policy instruments and recommends a strategy for achieving the goals of the Act. The concern is limited to space conditioning (heating, cooling, and lighting) and water heating. The policy instruments considered include greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are then described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) BEPS with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings. (MCW)

  7. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  8. Energy conservation and the residential and commercial sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A detailed analysis of energy conservation actions relevant to the residential and commercial sector has led to the conclusion that the potential for savings is great. The task will not be easy, however, since many of the actions require significant life style changes that are difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, many of the conservation actions cited as instant solutions to the energy crisis are those with only mid to long term potential, such as solar energy or heat pumps. Three significant conservation approaches are viable: adjusting price structure, mandating actions, and educating consumers. The first two appear to be the most feasible. But they are not without a price. Higher utility bills adversely affect the poor and the elderly on fixed incomes. Likewise, strict mandatory measures can be quite distasteful. But the effect of alternatives, such as voluntary savings accomplished through education processes, is minimal in a nation without a true conservation ethic.

  9. Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Daane, Abigail R; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop). We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and productive association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these ch...

  10. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  11. Telomeric expression sites are highly conserved in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hertz-Fowler

    Full Text Available Subtelomeric regions are often under-represented in genome sequences of eukaryotes. One of the best known examples of the use of telomere proximity for adaptive purposes are the bloodstream expression sites (BESs of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. To enhance our understanding of BES structure and function in host adaptation and immune evasion, the BES repertoire from the Lister 427 strain of T. brucei were independently tagged and sequenced. BESs are polymorphic in size and structure but reveal a surprisingly conserved architecture in the context of extensive recombination. Very small BESs do exist and many functioning BESs do not contain the full complement of expression site associated genes (ESAGs. The consequences of duplicated or missing ESAGs, including ESAG9, a newly named ESAG12, and additional variant surface glycoprotein genes (VSGs were evaluated by functional assays after BESs were tagged with a drug-resistance gene. Phylogenetic analysis of constituent ESAG families suggests that BESs are sequence mosaics and that extensive recombination has shaped the evolution of the BES repertoire. This work opens important perspectives in understanding the molecular mechanisms of antigenic variation, a widely used strategy for immune evasion in pathogens, and telomere biology.

  12. Energy-conservation opportunities in lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    Technologies and techniques which can be employed by your existing personnel - without the need for consultants - to reduce your lighting costs by as much as 70% are discussed. Four basic steps to reduce energy costs and improve the effectiveness of the lighting system discussed are: get acquainted with some of the basic terminology and energy efficient lamps and fixtures which are on the market; conduct a survey of the building to determine where and how much energy and money can be saved in the process; implement the simple, low-cost or no-cost measures immediately; and calculate the payback period for capital investment modifications, and implement those which make economic sense. Case studies are used to illustrate the recommendations. (MCW)

  13. Final Report: Weatherization and Energy Conservation Education and Home Energy and Safety Review in the Aleutian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Wright

    2011-08-30

    Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) hired three part-time local community members that desire to be Energy Technicians. The energy technicians were trained in methods of weatherization assistance, energy conservation and home safety. They developed a listing of homes in the region that required weatherization, and conducted on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety reviews in the communities of Akutan, False Pass, King Cove and Nelson Lagoon. Priority was given to these smaller communities as they tend to have the residences most in need of weatherization and energy conservation measures. Local residents were trained to provide all three aspects of the project: weatherization, energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review. If the total energy saved by installing these products is a 25% reduction (electrical and heating, both of which are usually produced by combustion of diesel fuel), and the average Alaska home produces 32,000 pounds of CO2 each year, so we have saved about: 66 homes x 16 tons of CO2 each year x .25 = 264 tons of CO2 each year.

  14. Energy Conservation for the Simulation of Deformable Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jonathan; Sheth, Rahul; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    We propose a novel technique that allows one to conserve energy using the time integration scheme of one's choice. Traditionally, the time integration methods that deal with energy conservation, such as symplectic, geometric, and variational integrators, have aimed to include damping in a manner independent of the size of the time step, stating that this gives more control over the look and feel of the simulation. Generally speaking, damping adds to the overall aesthetics and appeal of a numerical simulation, especially since it damps out the high frequency oscillations that occur on the level of the discretization mesh. We propose an alternative technique that allows one to use damping as a material parameter to obtain the desired look and feel of a numerical simulation, while still exactly conserving the total energy-in stark contrast to previous methods in which adding damping effects necessarily removes energy from the mesh. This allows, for example, a deformable bouncing ball with aesthetically pleasing damping (and even undergoing collision) to collide with the ground and return to its original height exactly conserving energy, as shown in Fig. 2. Furthermore, since our method works with any time integration scheme, the user can choose their favorite time integration method with regards to aesthetics and simply apply our method as a postprocess to conserve all or as much of the energy as desired.

  15. Small Oscillations via Conservation of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Tia; Reiner, Megan; Haugen, Andrew J.; Moore, Nathan T.

    2017-01-01

    The work describes an analogy-based small oscillations analysis of a standard static equilibrium lab problem. In addition to force analysis, a potential energy function for the system is developed, and by drawing out mathematical similarities to the simple harmonic oscillator, we are able to describe (and experimentally verify) the period of small…

  16. Travelling energy systems: knowledge transfer for energy efficiency and conservation from European to Australian building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Tema Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency and conservation in the Australian built environment have not yet been implemented to any great extent. Despite favourable prerequisites, such as vast windswept unpopulated areas suitable for wind power and many hours of direct sunlight in most populated areas, electricity is mainly generated by burning brown coal and buildings are poorly equipped for hot summers and cool winters. Australia urgently needs to convert to alternative energy sources and implement energy efficiency measures, since its carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. In a recent major redevelopment in Sydney, the Carlton and United Brewery (CUB) site knowledge of energy efficiency and conservation measures used in European buildings was transferred and implemented in local designs and infrastructure. This knowledge came mainly from urban planning and developments in London, but also from high-profile architectural firms based in Paris and Germany. The arrival of this knowledge in Australia led to phases when the knowledge was translated and enacted in local spaces and the constituent ideas were transformed into action. The present research is based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in which the planning and design of the CUB site was observed. The results of the study identify barriers to and opportunities for energy system knowledge transfer between different cultures and local spaces. Substantial time must be spent overcoming cultural barriers, so the involved parties can start talking the same language. This is not only true for stakeholders operating in different continents, but for stakeholders operating in different local arenas in the same country.

  17. Energy Conservation in the Home. Performance Based Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    These ten performance-based lesson plans concentrate on tasks related to energy conservation in the home. They are (1) caulk cracks, holes, and joints; (2) apply weatherstripping to doors and windows; (3) add plastic/solar screen window covering; (4) arrange furniture for saving energy; (5) set heating/cooling thermostat; (6) replace faucet…

  18. Landscape Design and Nursery Operation for Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard C.; Glazener, Dennis

    Landforms, vegetation, water bodies, climate and solar radiation can be analyzed and used to design an energy-conserving landscape and horticulture operation. Accordingly, this course instructor's manual covers the use of the elements of the environment to make landscaping and nursery design and operation more energy-efficient. Five sections…

  19. What's the status of refinery energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modiano, A; Planting, R.

    1982-07-01

    The US petroleum refining industry continues to progress in energy conservation. This is in keeping with a 1974 industry-wide pledge to reduce by 20 percent the energy needed to refine a barrel of crude oil, compared with the base year 1972. Last year, the industry had a 20.8 percent improvement.

  20. Training program for energy conservation in new building construction. Volume III. Energy conservation technology for plan examiners and code administrators. Energy Conservation Technology Series 200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, a Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. The subject of regulation of new building construction to assure energy conservation is recognized as one in which code officials have not had previous exposure. It was also determined that application of the model code would be made at varying levels by officials with both a specific requirement for knowledge and a differing degree of prior training in the state-of-the-art. Therefore, a training program and instructional materials were developed for code officials to assist them in the implementation and enforcement of energy efficient standards and codes. The training program for Energy Conservation Tehnology for Plan Examiners and Code Administrators (ECT Series 200) is presented.

  1. Grant request: to implement energy conservation measures as part of the state original and supplemental energy conservation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-16

    The program measures described in this document comprise a grant request to DOE under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 and the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976. The amount requested, $5,555,000, will allow the extension, acceleration, and implementation of energy conservation activities already in progress in California. Accomplishments to date have included the adoption of residential standards, and the implementation of an energy survey program for public buildings. Efficiency standards have been established for refrigerators and room and central air conditioners, appliances which utilize a significant amount of residential energy. Before the end of 1977, efficiency standards will be established for clothes dryers, washers, and water heaters. Program elements are: technical/financial assistance; public awareness; standards setting; solar element; research/analysis/evaluation; and coordination and management.

  2. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program: Bibliography, 1988 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H. (comp.)

    1988-04-01

    The 831 references covering the period 1980 through Feb. 1988, are arranged under the following: analysis and evaluation, building equipment, building thermal envelope systems and materials, community systems and cogeneration, residential conservation service, retrofit, advanced heat engine ceramics, alternative fuels, microemulsion fuels, industrial chemical heat pumps, materials for waste heat utilization, energy conversion and utilization materials, tribology, emergency energy conservation,inventions, electric energy systems, thermal storage, biofuels production, biotechnology, solar technology, geothermal, and continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations. An author index is included.

  3. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  4. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ..., U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule..., Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 0 For the reasons stated in the preamble, DOE amends 10 CFR Part...

  5. 75 FR 23191 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW.... Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Reflector Lamps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...

  6. Making Heat Visible: Promoting Energy Conservation Behaviors Through Thermal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation.

  7. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  8. Machine Learning of Accurate Energy-Conserving Molecular Force Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chmiela, Stefan; Sauceda, Huziel E; Poltavsky, Igor; Schütt, Kristof; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-01-01

    Using conservation of energy -- a fundamental property of closed classical and quantum mechanical systems -- we develop an efficient gradient-domain machine learning (GDML) approach to construct accurate molecular force fields using a restricted number of samples from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) trajectories. The GDML implementation is able to reproduce global potential-energy surfaces of intermediate-size molecules with an accuracy of 0.3 kcal/mol for energies and 1 kcal/mol/{\\AA} for atomic forces using only 1000 conformational geometries for training. We demonstrate this accuracy for AIMD trajectories of molecules, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene, ethanol, uracil, and aspirin. The challenge of constructing conservative force fields is accomplished in our work by learning in a Hilbert space of vector-valued functions that obey the law of energy conservation. The GDML approach enables quantitative molecular dynamics simulations for molecules at a fraction of cost of explicit AIMD calculations...

  9. Energy Conservation of the Designated Government Buildings in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangskarn Prapat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The designated government buildings have implemented and administered energy program under the energy development and promotion Act 2007 for many years continuously until 2015. Appointment person responsible for energy, performing energy management and implementing the energy conservation work plan and measures are legal requirements for the designated buildings. Therefore, the ministry of Energy has launched the project to support the implementation of energy management. The aim of the project was to create the energy management system in the designated government buildings, and to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, the evaluation of the project has been presented from the achievements of 839 designated government buildings. The energy saving is more than 440 ktoe/year. This is about 3% of energy consumptions of buildings.

  10. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.W.

    1979-07-01

    Detailed site specific data regarding the commercialization potential of the proven, potential, and inferred geothermal resource areas in Idaho are presented. To assess the potential for geothermal resource development in Idaho, several kinds of data were obtained. These include information regarding institutional procedures for geothermal development, logistical procedures for utilization, energy needs and forecasted demands, and resource data. Area reports, data sheets, and scenarios were prepared that described possible geothermal development at individual sites. In preparing development projections, the objective was to base them on actual market potential, forecasted growth, and known or inferred resource conditions. To the extent possible, power-on-line dates and energy utilization estimates are realistic projections of the first events. Commercialization projections were based on the assumption that an aggressive development program will prove sufficient known and inferred resources to accomplish the projected event. This report is an estimate of probable energy developable under an aggressive exploration program and is considered extremely conservative. (MHR)

  11. 1999 annual progress report -- Energy conservation team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. (EERE OTT Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies Energy Conversion Team Leader)

    1999-10-19

    This report highlights progress achieved during FY 1999 under the Light-duty Fuels Utilization R and D Program. The program is comprised of two elements: the Advanced Petroleum-Based APB Fuels Program which focused on developing and testing advanced fuels for use with compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) engines and fuel cells and the Alternative Fuels Program which focused on Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels. The report contains 17 summaries of industry and National Laboratory projects. Fuel efficient vehicles with very low emissions are essential to meet the challenges of climate change, energy security, and improved air quality. The authors anticipate cooperative efforts with the auto and energy industries to develop new and innovative technologies that will be used to make advanced transportation vehicles that are fuel efficient, clean, and safe.

  12. Energy conservation in flare purging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, K.J.; Rawlings, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A major source of energy consumption in flare systems is the purge gas flow. At very low flaring rates, combustion tends to retreat into the flare tip. Sustained burning within the tip will result in damage and eventual failure of the tip. The purge gas flow is normally adjusted until a visible flame is noticeable at grade. This paper presents a method of calculating purge gas flow rates for basic pipe flares based on an extensive research effort.

  13. Small oscillations via conservation of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Tia; Reiner, Megan; Haugen, Andrew J.; Moore, Nathan T.

    2017-11-01

    The work describes an analogy-based small oscillations analysis of a standard static equilibrium lab problem. In addition to force analysis, a potential energy function for the system is developed, and by drawing out mathematical similarities to the simple harmonic oscillator, we are able to describe (and experimentally verify) the period of small oscillations about the static equilibrium state. The problem was developed and implemented in a standard University Physics course at Winona State University.

  14. Alternatives for energy conservation in a baghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, P.J.; Horney, F.A.

    1982-06-01

    This paper presents a comparison of alternate cases and how to achieve optimum energy consumption and economic benefits from baghouses or fabric filters for particulate control on coal fired boilers. Various components of baghouses are reviewed with an evaluation of fan efficiencies, duct routing, duct turning vanes, insulation, lagging, types of dampers and damper installations. Also discussed are cleaning cycle modes, ways to reduce baghouse pressure drop and dust reentrainment. A computer model to optimize the cleaning cycle is also discussed.

  15. Energy conservation in industry; Energibesparelser i erhvervslivet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S (Denmark)); Maagoee Petersen, P. (Viegand and Maagoee ApS (Denmark))

    2010-02-15

    The report describes the completed survey and the methodology used for the analysis of energy saving opportunities and potentials for processing technologies and equipment in the industry. The report also includes a total of fourteen technology descriptions, of which eleven relate to end use of energy, while the three descriptions are for cross-technologies. The technology descriptions analyse any significant savings opportunities in the processing technologies concerned and work out the potentials of 'here and now' cost savings, with 2, 4 and 10-year payback time, respectively. The survey makes it possible to prioritize the instruments with the shortest payback times. The total savings potential for the eleven end-use technologies is estimated to be 10% at 2 years of payback time, 15% at four year payback time, and 32% at the 10 year payback time. The percentage potential is somewhat greater for the end-use technologies using electricity than the end-use which mainly uses fuel. That the potential is less for fuel-based end-use technologies may be explained by the fact that they are key processes that are regularly upgraded to increase product quality, to reduce production time and waste, etc. Such improvements also help to save energy and means that further improvements are relatively expensive. (ln)

  16. A new mechanism for energy conservation technology services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Feng

    1996-12-31

    In the ninth-five year plan of China, the socialist market economy model will be developed. In the stage of transferring from planning economy to market economy, the energy conservation technology services industry in China has met new challenges. Over the past ten to fifteen years, there has developed a new mechanism for financing energy efficiency investments in market economies. The process is simple. After inspecting an enterprise or an entity for energy saving opportunities, an Energy Service Company (ESCO) which business aimed at making money will review the recommended energy conservation opportunities with the enterprise or the entity (user) and implement those measures acceptable to the user at no front end cost to the user. The ESCO then guarantees that the energy savings will cover the cost of the capital renovations using the Performance Contracting.

  17. Transportation energy conservation data book: edition I. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonka, D B; Loebl, A S; Ogle, M C; Johnson, M L; Howard, E B

    1977-01-01

    This document contains statistical information on the major transportation modes, their respective energy consumption patterns, and other pertinent factors influencing performance in the transportation sector. Data relating to past, present, and projected energy use and conservation in the transportation sector are presented under seven chapter headings. These focus on (1) modal transportation characteristics, (2) energy characteristics of the transportation sector, (3) energy conservation alternatives involving the transportation sector, (4) government impacts on the transportation sector, (5) the supply of energy to the transportation sector, (6) characteristics of transportation demand, and (7) miscellaneous reference materials such as energy conversion factors and geographical maps. References are included for each set of data presented, and a more general bibliography is included at the end of the book. In addition, a glossary of key terms and a subject index is provided for the user. A second edition of this document is scheduled for publication in September 1977.

  18. Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

  19. Energy Alert 78-1, National Energy Act: A Special Report on the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This Energy Alert deals specifically with Public Law 95-619, the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA). Title III, Part 1 of NECPA authorizes $900 million over a three-year period for grants to schools and hospitals for energy audits, technical assistance and energy conservation projects. This publication attempts to inform…

  20. 75 FR 34656 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Perkins, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed rule.... Postal Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J...

  1. 76 FR 39245 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Direct final rule; correction. SUMMARY... Technology Development, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P ...

  2. 77 FR 13026 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standard for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    .... Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Commercial Ice Makers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION..., U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Preliminary TSD for...

  3. 76 FR 69122 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585...: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule; correction.... Kathleen B. Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  4. Energy Conservation through More Efficient Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, J.; Grossman, M. W.; Lagushenko, R.; Waymouth, J. F.

    1984-10-01

    The efficiency of a mercury-rare gas electrical discharge, which forms the basis of a fluorescent lamp, can be increased about 5 percent simply by increasing the concentration of mercury-196 from 0.146 percent (natural) to about 3 percent. These findings can be implemented immediately without any significant change in the process of manufacturing of this widely used source of illumination, provided that mercury-196 can be obtained economically. The potential energy savings for the United States are estimated to be worth in excess of 200 million per year.

  5. Key role for nuclear energy in global biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Barry W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-06-01

    Modern society uses massive amounts of energy. Usage rises as population and affluence increase, and energy production and use often have an impact on biodiversity or natural areas. To avoid a business-as-usual dependence on coal, oil, and gas over the coming decades, society must map out a future energy mix that incorporates alternative sources. This exercise can lead to radically different opinions on what a sustainable energy portfolio might entail, so an objective assessment of the relative costs and benefits of different energy sources is required. We evaluated the land use, emissions, climate, and cost implications of 3 published but divergent storylines for future energy production, none of which was optimal for all environmental and economic indicators. Using multicriteria decision-making analysis, we ranked 7 major electricity-generation sources (coal, gas, nuclear, biomass, hydro, wind, and solar) based on costs and benefits and tested the sensitivity of the rankings to biases stemming from contrasting philosophical ideals. Irrespective of weightings, nuclear and wind energy had the highest benefit-to-cost ratio. Although the environmental movement has historically rejected the nuclear energy option, new-generation reactor technologies that fully recycle waste and incorporate passive safety systems might resolve their concerns and ought to be more widely understood. Because there is no perfect energy source however, conservation professionals ultimately need to take an evidence-based approach to consider carefully the integrated effects of energy mixes on biodiversity conservation. Trade-offs and compromises are inevitable and require advocating energy mixes that minimize net environmental damage. Society cannot afford to risk wholesale failure to address energy-related biodiversity impacts because of preconceived notions and ideals. © 2014 The Authors Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Home retrofitting for energy conservation and solar considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This manual explains both the key concepts behind our need for and our impact on energy usage, as well as a nuts-and-bolts explanation of how to improve the energy efficiency of your home. By reviewing both the concepts and practices of energy conservation, the manual presents a comprehensive picture of how home energy use is effected by the inhabitants and by the structure itself. The manual begins with an explanation of why we are looking at energy, then proceeds to explain how the heat transfer occurs between houses and humans. Next is a chapter on energy audits and how to use them, followed by a comprehensive section on energy conservation actions to do now to reduce energy use. Conservation actions include low cost/no cost measures, schemes to reduce infiltration, how to increase insulation, and what to do with windows and doors, heating and heat distribution systems, and water heaters. Solar energy options are then briefly explained, as well as the all important issues of financing and tax credits. The manual concludes with a bibliography to direct the reader to more sources of information.

  7. Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Plan, its Characteristics, and Rationales for its Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tuncer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a comprehensive evaluation of the 1: 5000 Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Master Development Plan and the 1: 1000 Conservation Implementation Plans, which have become a matter of litigation against the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality, filed by various non-governmental organizations, universities, the Union of Chambers of Turkish Architects and Engineers (TMMOB and public institutions; in terms of the environment, transportation and traffic as regards the entirety of the planned location, and the integrity of the plan, based on conservation-reclamation planning essentials and public interest. Thus the Ulus Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Master Development and Implementation Plan and Plan Notes as ratified by the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality and Conservation Board, are examined in this context in terms of restoration site, protected site, conservation site, interaction and transition sites and historic and cultural properties.

  8. Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42% from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. The process was divided into 5 sections and the energy consumed in each step was determined based on 3 sets of conditions; a conventional distilled spirits process; a modern process incorporating commercially proven energy conservation; and a second generation process incorporating advanced conservation technologies which have not yet been proven. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of electricity on fuel ethanol plants is also studied. (MCW)

  9. 10 CFR 431.77 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.77 Section 431.77 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Energy Conservation Standards...

  10. 10 CFR 431.306 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.306 Section 431.306 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Walk-in Coolers and Walk-in Freezers Energy Conservation...

  11. 10 CFR 431.156 - Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. 431.156 Section 431.156 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... Standards § 431.156 Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. Each commercial clothes...

  12. 78 FR 73737 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence... Conservation Standards for General Service Lamps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/product.aspx?productid=82 . DATES...

  13. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  14. Energy conservation in molecular dynamics simulations of classical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxvaerd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole J; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2012-06-14

    Classical Newtonian dynamics is analytic and the energy of an isolated system is conserved. The energy of such a system, obtained by the discrete "Verlet" algorithm commonly used in molecular dynamics simulations, fluctuates but is conserved in the mean. This is explained by the existence of a "shadow Hamiltonian" H [S. Toxvaerd, Phys. Rev. E 50, 2271 (1994)], i.e., a Hamiltonian close to the original H with the property that the discrete positions of the Verlet algorithm for H lie on the analytic trajectories of H. The shadow Hamiltonian can be obtained from H by an asymptotic expansion in the time step length. Here we use the first non-trivial term in this expansion to obtain an improved estimate of the discrete values of the energy. The investigation is performed for a representative system with Lennard-Jones pair interactions. The simulations show that inclusion of this term reduces the standard deviation of the energy fluctuations by a factor of 100 for typical values of the time step length. Simulations further show that the energy is conserved for at least one hundred million time steps provided the potential and its first four derivatives are continuous at the cutoff. Finally, we show analytically as well as numerically that energy conservation is not sensitive to round-off errors.

  15. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule; technical... Secretary, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. For the reasons set forth in the preamble, DOE hereby...

  16. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    .... Lucy deButts, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.... Postal Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J...

  17. Energy Conservation and Conversion in NIMROD Computations of Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, J. A.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2017-10-01

    Previous work modeling magnetic relaxation during non-inductive start-up at the Pegasus spherical tokamak indicates an order of magnitude gap between measured experimental temperature and simulated temperature in NIMROD. Potential causes of the plasma temperature gap include: insufficient transport modeling, too low modeled injector power input, and numerical loss of energy, as energy is not algorithmically conserved in NIMROD simulations. Simple 2D nonlinear MHD simulations explore numerical energy conservation discrepancies in NIMROD because understanding numerical loss of energy is fundamental to addressing the physical problems of the other potential causes of energy loss. Evolution of these configurations induces magnetic reconnection, which transfers magnetic energy to heat and kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is eventually damped so, magnetic energy loss must correspond to an increase in internal energy. Results in the 2D geometries indicate that numerical energy loss during reconnection depends on the temporal resolution of the dynamics. Work support from U.S. Department of Energy through a subcontract from the Plasma Science and Innovation Center.

  18. Selecting appropriate energy efficiency indicators for the Thai Energy Conservation Promotion Programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.

    2000-06-01

    In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)

  19. 78 FR 77607 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-5B, 1000 Independence... Standards for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... of Energy, Building Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-5B, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC...

  20. 77 FR 22472 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J... and Renewable Energy. For the reasons set forth in the preamble, DOE corrects 10 CFR part 430 as set... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR...

  1. 78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for...

  2. 75 FR 5544 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of extension of... Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., 6th Floor... background documents or comments received, visit the U.S. Department of Energy, Resource Room of the Building...

  3. Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop). We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and appropriate association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these challenges by relating the original scenario to an exaggerated version in which the dissipated thermal energy is associated with perceptible warmth. Using these exaggerations, teachers infer that thermal energy is present to a lesser degree in the original scenario. They use this exaggeration strategy to track and conserve energy in dissipative scenarios.

  4. Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R. Daane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop. We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and appropriate association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these challenges by relating the original scenario to an exaggerated version in which the dissipated thermal energy is associated with perceptible warmth. Using these exaggerations, teachers infer that thermal energy is present to a lesser degree in the original scenario. They use this exaggeration strategy to track and conserve energy in dissipative scenarios.

  5. Energy conversion evolution at lunar polar sites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    growing capabilities at a polar base site. One essential requirement will be exca- vation and moving of regolith, for example to pile lunar material on top of a habitat for radia- tion shielding and thermal control. Bringing solar- derived energy into ...

  6. Energy conservation booklet for retailers. Energiesparbuch fuer den Einzelhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The advancing technical development of industries like heating, lighting, air conditioning - and especially the continually increasing energy costs which are becoming more and more important in all groups and dimensions of retail trade - compel the retailers to tackle the problems of rational energy utilization more intensively than before. It is the goal of the present brochure to provide some valuable aid regarding these problems. The brochure presents a practical and easily understandable information and tips for retailers which entail considerable energy conservation within short periods of amortization. Thus the retailers are able to realize the 'weak points of energy' on their market and to take remedial measures correspondingly.

  7. Jersey City energy conservation demonstration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, R.F.

    1978-08-01

    The Aerospace Corporation, the City Government, and the Board of Education of Jersey City have conducted a group of energy-conservation experiments to explore a number of conservation techniques believed to offer quick payback and to be of wide applicability. Experiments include the updating and/or rehabilitation of the energy-consuming features of old buildings and installation of devices designed to minimize energy losses caused by human error or laxity. Specific examples include: upgrading of the deteriorated and inefficient steam-distribution system of the city hall (originally constructed in 1894); an extensive program of reducing infiltration in an old school building; use of several timing devices in connection with heating, ventilation, and lighting systems to encourage energy-conservation practices; retrofit of school classrooms with high-pressure sodium lamps; and demonstration of practical and cost-effective ways of increasing the efficiency of conventional steam boilers. The report presents: the nature of the selected experiments; technical, human, and organizational factors that proved significant in performing and evaluating the experiments; discussions of observations and lessons learned; and general recommendations for an extended program of energy conservation in local governments. It is emphasized that, in retrofit of existing buildings, the unexpected is commonplace; and the habits and attitudes of building occupants are elements of the system that must always be taken into account. This report shows the benefits of energy saving, cost saving, and added comfort that may be attained by retrofitting old buildings, noting typical complications that arise. The effectiveness of the conservation methods is presented in terms of costs relative to effective payback periods calculated from results of their application in Jersey City.

  8. The Energy Conservation Guide 98/99; ENOEK guiden 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Norwegians have the world's largest electricity consumption per capita. This booklet aims to advice house owners on efficient use of energy. The main sections discuss the concept of energy conservation in general, heating, stoves and fireplaces, central heating, insulation and sealing, windows, hot water, water saving, lighting, domestic appliances, ventilation, outdoor facilities, and finally gives some tips on investments and profitability and how to obtain expert advice. The booklet is profusely illustrated.

  9. Exactly Energy Conserving Implicit Moment Particle in Cell Formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We report a new particle in cell (PIC) method based on the implicit moment method (IMM). The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its predecessors at the same time retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. Recent research has presented fully implicit methods where energy conservation is obtained as part of a non linear iteration procedure. The new method, referred to as Energy Conserving Implicit Moment Method (ECIMM), does not require any non linear iteration and its computational cycle is similar to that of explicit PIC. The properties of then new method are: i) it conserves energy exactly to round-off for any time step or grid spacing; ii) it is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency and allowing the user to select any desired time step; iii) it eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length. T...

  10. Energy Conservation Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Alva Edison Foundation, Southfield, MI.

    Background information, lists of materials needed, and procedures are provided for 11 energy conservation experiments. They include: (1) five experiments on heating and cooling (investigating how insulation works, investigating how weatherstripping works, investigating how storm windows work, building a draftometer, and letting sun heat a house);…

  11. Energy-conserving semi-discretizations and spurious numerical reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Frank (Jason); S. Reich

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe consider energy-conserving semi-discretizations of linear wave equations on nonuniform grids. Specifically we study explicit and implicit skew-adjoint finite difference methods, based on the assumption of an underlying smooth mapping from a uniform grid, applied to the first and

  12. Teaching Energy Conservation as a Unifying Principle in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbes, Jordi; Guisasola, Jenaro; Tarin, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present the design and assessment of a teaching sequence aimed at introducing the principle of energy conservation at post-compulsory secondary school level (16-18 year olds). The proposal is based on the result of research into teaching-learning difficulties and on the analysis of the physics framework. Evidence is shown that this…

  13. Individual discounting, energy conservation, and household demand for lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, P

    This paper analyzes household appliance purchase and energy consumption and conservation related to demand for lighting. The behavioral model is estimated using data on consumers' choices between various types of electric light bulbs with large differences in purchase costs, operating costs and

  14. A Quantification of the Energy Savings by Conservation Voltage Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Berry, A.; West, S.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of `Smart grid' technologies in the electricity supply industry has attracted new attention to Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR). CVR is a method that aims to save energy by reducing the voltage level of the electrical distribution network. However, not all devices consume less

  15. Energy Conservation in the Food System: A Publications List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Industrial Programs.

    This report contains an annotated list of selected publications readily available to the public on how to conserve energy in the food system. It is divided into eight sections, six representing sectors of the food system, one for "transportation," and a section entitled "multiple sector application." There are citations in each section, however,…

  16. The Energy Conservation in Our Universe and the Pressureless Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ho Chan

    2015-01-01

    conservation in our universe has to be modified because more vacuum energy is gained due to the universe expansion. As a result, the pressure of dark energy would be zero if the total energy of our universe is increasing. This pressureless dark energy model basically agrees with the current observational results.

  17. A Digital Game-Based Learning System for Energy Education: An Energy COnservation PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chien, Kun Huang; Liu, Tzu Chien

    2012-01-01

    Energy education has been conducted to equip learners with relevant energy conservation knowledge for many years. However, learners seldom put the knowledge into practice and even have few ideas about how to reduce energy consumption. To this end, there is a need to address this issue to improve the efficiency of energy education. One of the…

  18. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585... Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.../Courier: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 950 L'Enfant Plaza...

  19. 75 FR 19296 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed rule; extension of public comment... form of encryption. Postal Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies.... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20024...

  20. Consumer attitudes toward potentially restrictive energy conservation regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merfeld, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    A sample of 893 Oregon individuals from a Western Regional Agricultural Experiment Station Project (W-159 Consequences of Energy Conservation Policies for Western Region Households) was used to analyze consumer attitudes toward potentially restrictive energy conservation regulations. Belief in the seriousness of the energy problem, a psychological measure of internal control (internality), and eight socio-demographic characteristics were examined in relation to consumer attitudes toward these regulations. Those who did not believe in the seriousness of the energy problem were over 50 years of age, male, had less than a college degree, and opposed mandatory energy conservation regulations related to home thermostat settings. Homeowners opposed the regulation requiring their homes to pass an energy audit. Opposition to regulations appeared to be related only to an individual's perception of the consequences of the regulation, and not to belief in the enregy problem or locus of control. Those with low internality scores included females, rural residents, respondents over 50, and those with less than a college degree.

  1. Energy conservation in Newmark based time integration algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2006-01-01

    by the algorithm. The magnitude and character of these terms as well as the associated damping terms are discussed in relation to energy conservation and stability of the algorithms. It is demonstrated that the additional terms in the energy lead to periodic fluctuations of the mechanical energy and are the cause...... of motion, an extended form including structural damping, and finally the generalized form including structural as well as algorithmic damping. In all three cases the expression for energy, appearing in the balance equation, is the mechanical energy plus some additional terms generated by the discretization......Energy balance equations are established for the Newmark time integration algorithm, and for the derived algorithms with algorithmic damping introduced via averaging, the so-called a-methods. The energy balance equations form a sequence applicable to: Newmark integration of the undamped equations...

  2. Exactly energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapenta, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.lapenta@kuleuven.be

    2017-04-01

    We report a new particle in cell (PIC) method based on the semi-implicit approach. The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its semi-implicit predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. Recent research has presented fully implicit methods where energy conservation is obtained as part of a non-linear iteration procedure. The new method (referred to as Energy Conserving Semi-Implicit Method, ECSIM), instead, does not require any non-linear iteration and its computational cycle is similar to that of explicit PIC. The properties of the new method are: i) it conserves energy exactly to round-off for any time step or grid spacing; ii) it is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency and allowing the user to select any desired time step; iii) it eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length; iv) the particle mover has a computational complexity identical to that of the explicit PIC, only the field solver has an increased computational cost. The new ECSIM is tested in a number of benchmarks where accuracy and computational performance are tested. - Highlights: • We present a new fully energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell (PIC) method based on the implicit moment method (IMM). The new method is called Energy Conserving Implicit Moment Method (ECIMM). • The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. • The new method is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency. • The new method eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length. • These

  3. Energy Management for Navy Family Housing: A Manual for Voluntary Residential Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Conservation Results There’s good news from the third two-week period of the energy conservation study (which preceded the hurricane )I Although the overall...fTÜDIBCOCTOWN EDaaaKzaBDBii ms’ , v**a^Mttfc*«iB*aa«fe- •a>jfflasyfe Irma ,^ür’rfiiiit»! C-18 SOURCES OF INFORMATION 1. Consumer Information...Conservation Results There’s good news from the third two-week period of the energy conservation study (which preceded the hurricane )! Although the

  4. Energy conservation and the environment: conflict or complement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.

    1978-09-01

    The policy discussion following the Oil Embargo was clouded with fears of a return to a primitive existence based on drastically reduced energy inputs to society, or, on the other hand, an abandoning of environmental goals, allegedly a major barrier to development of new energy supplies. Often the energy use associated with environmental improvements was cited as a reason for expanding energy supplies, as if to say that a conflict existed between a clean environment and reductions in energy use. Or it was argued that a relaxation of environmental goals would lower the direct costs of harvesting and using energy and thereby alleviate the need for energy conservation. It has also been argued that the geopolitics of energy alone will force us to substitute riskier or ''dirtier'' energy sources for relatively clean oil and gas. Indeed, there is no question that the relationship among energy, the environment, and economic well-being is complicated. This essay sorts out many of the confusing aspects in order to show how goals relating to the efficient use of energy are aligned both with traditional economic goals and with modern environmental goals. To do this the author analyzes in depth the role of energy in the economy and, using examples, traces the origins of many of the misconceptions about that role--misconceptions that have inhibited a profound discussion of energy-related goals.

  5. 77 FR 7281 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... certain equipment, such as distribution transformers, shall be designed to achieve the maximum improvement... transformer's kVA rating represents its output power when it is fully loaded (i.e., 100 percent). Table I.1... Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 28...

  6. 78 FR 12969 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... key component of utility ETS programs that target electric water heaters because these larger- volume... conservation standard levels for electric storage water heaters and the impact of these standards on electric... implementation of the April 2010 standard levels by allowing for the manufacture of certain large-volume electric...

  7. Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

  8. Conserving energy in new buildings: analysis of nonregulatory policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, R.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    The costs and effectiveness of non-regulatory options relative to those of a regulatory approach are analyzed. Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Chapter 2 briefly reviews survey data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys are reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. Chapter 3 examines the provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking. Chapter 4 examines how adjustments to the tax structure could enhance economic incentives and counter economic disincentives for energy conservation. Qualifying buildings for tax benefits would almost certainly require certification of design energy consumption. The effectiveness of tax incentives would depend in part on dissemination of public information regarding the incentives. Chapter 5 examines subsidies, such as subsidized mortgages and loan guarantees, which lower the cost of money or other costs but do not change the market structure facing the consumer. Certification that buildings qualify for such treatment would probably be required. Chapter 6 presents recommendations based on the study's findings. (MCW)

  9. NCSU solar energy and conservation house. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    A passive solar energy house has been built adjacent to the NCSU McKimmon Continuing Education Center. The house contains a two-story embedded sunspace, two Trombe walls, active solar hot water heating, thermal storage in a rock filled ceiling/floor, and numerous research treatments, and energy conservation features. (See attached photo brochure; Appendix 1). The house is completely decorated and furnished in an attractive manner and the exterior architecture is traditional and has broad consumer appeal. It is also thoroughly instrumented to monitor performance. The house is open to the public on weekends and numerous people come to visit on their own initiative and others take advantage of the close proximity to McKimmon while there attending conferences. The house will influence and motivate large numbers of people to consider solar and energy conservation facets in their homes and will provide data to substantiate performance to prospective home buyers and meaningful data on design and construction for builders.

  10. 76 FR 78174 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure and Energy Conservation Standard for Set-Top Boxes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Contents I. Introduction II. Discussion A. Energy Conservation Standard 1. Product Classes 2. Lower Power... Procedure 1. Impact of Service Provider Software 2. Live Network Testing 3. Video Source 4. Digital Video...). \\6\\ IEC-62087: Methods of measurement for the power consumption of audio, video and related equipment...

  11. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  12. Targeting water and energy conservation using big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water conservation is often the most cost effective source of additional water supply for water stressed regions to maintain supply reliability with increasing population and/or demands, or shorter-term droughts. In previous research we demonstrated how including energy savings of conserved water can increase willingness to adopt conservation measures, at the same time that increases energy and GHG emissions savings. But the capacity to save water, energy and GHG emissions depends fundamentally in the economic benefits for customers and utilities. Utilities have traditionally used rebates, subsidies or incentives to enhance water conservation. But the economic benefits originated by these rebates depend on the actual savings of the water, energy and GHG emissions. A crucial issue that is not considered in the financial analysis of these rebates is the heterogeneity in water consumption, resulting in rebating households that actually do not need improvements in certain appliances. Smart meters with end-use disaggregation allow to consider this heterogeneity and to target rebates. By using an optimization approach that minimizes water and energy residential costs—accounting for retrofit costs and individual benefits according to previous levels of consumption—we are able to assess economically optimal rebate programs both for customers and utilities. Three programs are considered: first, same economic incentives are provided to all households and then they do their optimal decisions; second, traditional appliance-focused rebates are assessed; and third, utilities provide only rebates to those households that maximize water, energy or GHG emissions savings. Results show that the most economically efficient options for households are not the best options for utilities, and that traditional appliance-focused rebates are much less optimal than targeted rebates.

  13. 10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and their... PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates. The energy and water (in the case of faucets, showerheads...

  14. Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, L

    1980-10-01

    Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

  15. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  16. 76 FR 19077 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedures AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...

  17. Machine learning of accurate energy-conserving molecular force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Stefan; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Sauceda, Huziel E; Poltavsky, Igor; Schütt, Kristof T; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2017-05-01

    Using conservation of energy-a fundamental property of closed classical and quantum mechanical systems-we develop an efficient gradient-domain machine learning (GDML) approach to construct accurate molecular force fields using a restricted number of samples from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) trajectories. The GDML implementation is able to reproduce global potential energy surfaces of intermediate-sized molecules with an accuracy of 0.3 kcal mol -1 for energies and 1 kcal mol -1 Å̊ -1 for atomic forces using only 1000 conformational geometries for training. We demonstrate this accuracy for AIMD trajectories of molecules, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene, ethanol, uracil, and aspirin. The challenge of constructing conservative force fields is accomplished in our work by learning in a Hilbert space of vector-valued functions that obey the law of energy conservation. The GDML approach enables quantitative molecular dynamics simulations for molecules at a fraction of cost of explicit AIMD calculations, thereby allowing the construction of efficient force fields with the accuracy and transferability of high-level ab initio methods.

  18. Energy-environmental impacts of five energy conservation measures in the Middle Atlantic and Pacific states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P D; Edelson, E; Le, T Q; Sevian, W A; Smith, J E; Struth, A

    1979-10-01

    Estimates of some energy and environmental impacts for five different energy-conservation measures (district heating, industrial cogeneration, retrofit, rate reform, and vehicle redesign) were prepared for two different regions (Middle Atlantic and Pacific) and two different time periods (1985 and 2000) based upon data presented in regional reference energy systems developed at BNL. Results of the analysis indicate that regional energy use can be reduced by <1 to 6%. Vehicle redesign produces the greatest oil savings. Retrofit and district heating can each reduce oil and natural gas use. Industrial cogeneration can significantly reduce use of fuels consumed in central-station electricity production (e.g., coal and nuclear) but at an energy penalty incurred by industry: increased dependence on oil and natural gas could result. Rate reform and retrofit each reduce emissions production in rough proportion to the quantities of energy saved. Vehicle redesign reduces only supply sector emissions; end-use emissions are not affected even though gasoline use significantly decreases. District heating may reduce regional emissions but increase local emission burdens where waste heat is being produced. Local air quality need not be adversely affected, although long-range-transport potential increases. The district-heating concept may also have important effects on future power-plant siting options. Depending on the mix of fuels consumed, industrial cogeneration could increase regional emissions production because of the potential substitution of dirty fuels (coal, industrial wastes, and oil) for clean fuels (natural gas and nuclear); this may be particularly important in the Pacific region. In general, per unit reductions in electrical demand appear to produce greater environmental benefits than equivalent reductions in fuels used directly in an end-use device.

  19. Energy Efficiency of the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2006-12-01

    This report estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2003 International Code Council’s 2003 International Energy Conservation Code (as the mandatory residential energy efficiency code in the state of West Virginia. The state currently allows a less stringent replacement option. This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

  20. Financing residential energy conservation in the state of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R.S.; Fairburn, W.A.

    1978-12-01

    The Washington Energy Extension Service Finance Program was commissioned for the overall purpose of facilitating and assessing the development of energy-related loan policies by financial institutions. Explicit objectives of the project are to: identify financial problems of small energy consumers in the domestic installation of energy-saving technologies; identify the financial options currently available in the State of Washington; and in concert with the financial institutions of the state, develop and analyze recommended additional programs which will benefit both consumers and financial institutions. This final report of the WEES Finance Program extends the rate-of-return analysis to include the overall required rates of return necessary to justify various commercial bank functional activities; with judicious implementation, this methodology can be a substitute for the subjective risk-assessment techniques currently utilized in the commercial banking sector. This report also considers changes that have occurred in the development of financial options related to energy-conservation measures.

  1. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  2. 76 FR 52854 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... calculated as the clothes dryer test load weight in pounds divided by the sum of ``active mode'' per-cycle... cycles, which takes into account the amount of energy consumed and lost from the fuel's production... the full-fuel-cycle, beginning at the source of energy production. (Pub. L. 109-58 (August 8, 2005...

  3. 75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...-Standard Horsepower and Kilowatt Ratings i. Summary 2. Product Classes B. Screening Analysis C. Engineering... Period Analysis 1. Installation Cost 2. Energy Prices 3. Energy Price Trend 4. Maintenance and Repair... program for ``Certain Industrial Equipment,'' which includes small electric motors, the subject of this...

  4. Electron Bifurcation Makes the Puzzle Pieces Fall Energetically into Place in Methanogenic Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubner, Carolyn E; Peters, John W

    2017-10-06

    Elaborate arrays of iron-sulfur clusters link active sites via a flavin that bifurcates electrons through two energetically independent paths. The structure of the heterodisulfide reductase provides insight into how methanogens conserve energy through coupling hydrogen oxidation to coordinated exergonic heterodisulfide and endergonic ferredoxin reduction in an overall thermodynamically favorable reaction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cost-energy dynamics: An engineering-economic basis for industrial energy conservation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, D. L.; Vangool, W.

    1980-10-01

    A theory of cost energy dynamics that can be used to shape policies for industrial energy conservation is developed. The theory is built on two relationships commonly observed in process engineering: cost varies as a positive power function of system size and complexity, whereas energy consumption varies as a negative power function of the same attributes. These functions, rooted in thermodynamics, may be combined to yield a technological parameter (denoted c) that can be determined for each unit process. The lower the value of c, the greater the energy savings may be for a given expenditure. Cost energy dynamics ranks energy conservation potentials of industrial processes by the technology parameter c, aggregates energy consumption by unit processes, accounts for energy embodied in the investments, considers the tradeoffs between cost and energy and distinguishes bases for decision making in the public and private sectors.

  6. Soil-, water-, and energy-conserving tillage - Southern Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.R.; Musick, J.T.; Unger, P.W.; Wiese, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes some conservation cropping systems that have been developed through research. The cropping systems were: dryland wheat-fallow with stubble mulch, dryland wheat-chemical fallow-sorghum, irrigated wheat-chemical fallow-sorghum, irrigated sorghum double-cropped after winter wheat, and irrigated annual sorghum. For these cropping systems, the affect of tillage method upon soil water storage, crop yield, and energy use is discussed. 15 refs.

  7. The stepwise evolution of early life driven by energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, James G; House, Christopher H

    2006-06-01

    Two main theories have emerged for the origin and early evolution of life based on heterotrophic versus chemoautotrophic metabolisms. With the exception of a role for CO, the theories have little common ground. Here we propose an alternative theory for the early evolution of the cell which combines principal features of the widely disparate theories. The theory is based on the extant pathway for conversion of CO to methane and acetate, largely deduced from the genomic analysis of the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans. In contrast to current paradigms, we propose that an energy-conservation pathway was the major force which powered and directed the early evolution of the cell. We envision the proposed primitive energy-conservation pathway to have developed sometime after a period of chemical evolution but prior to the establishment of diverse protein-based anaerobic metabolisms. We further propose that energy conservation played the predominant role in the later evolution of anaerobic metabolisms which explains the origin and evolution of extant methanogenic pathways.

  8. Machine learning of accurate energy-conserving molecular force fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Stefan; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Sauceda, Huziel E.; Poltavsky, Igor; Schütt, Kristof T.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2017-01-01

    Using conservation of energy—a fundamental property of closed classical and quantum mechanical systems—we develop an efficient gradient-domain machine learning (GDML) approach to construct accurate molecular force fields using a restricted number of samples from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) trajectories. The GDML implementation is able to reproduce global potential energy surfaces of intermediate-sized molecules with an accuracy of 0.3 kcal mol−1 for energies and 1 kcal mol−1 Å̊−1 for atomic forces using only 1000 conformational geometries for training. We demonstrate this accuracy for AIMD trajectories of molecules, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene, ethanol, uracil, and aspirin. The challenge of constructing conservative force fields is accomplished in our work by learning in a Hilbert space of vector-valued functions that obey the law of energy conservation. The GDML approach enables quantitative molecular dynamics simulations for molecules at a fraction of cost of explicit AIMD calculations, thereby allowing the construction of efficient force fields with the accuracy and transferability of high-level ab initio methods. PMID:28508076

  9. Use of alternative energy and energy conservation in higher-education institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gette, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The problem was to ascertain the applicability of alternative-energy technology and energy management and conservation principles and techniques to higher-education institutions and to suggest the probable effects of such technology, principles, and techniques on higher education institutions in general and on their organization and administration. Procedures involved study of related literature on the energy crisis with particular emphasis on fossil-fuel status, identification of alternative energy sources and the probability of their availability in years immediately ahead. There was also emphasis on the study of conservation techniques. Also utilized were questionnaires to higher-education institutions identified as being deeply involved in conservation or uses of alternative energy resources or both. While there has been considerable research about and development of alternative energy sources, energy-conservation techniques constitute the most-important process currently available. Those in use range from simple conservation techniques to the use of advanced computer systems. The most important deal with the improvement of the efficiency of existing systems. Educating the college community about the whole area of study was considered important. The physical plant director was found to be the key person in most situations. Continued concern on the part of administrators is necessary. The problem of the energy crisis will continue despite what appears to be a current easing of the situation.

  10. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... environmental advocates (American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Appliance Standards Awareness...

  11. Helicity conservation in gauge boson scattering at high energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounaris, G J; Renard, F M

    2005-04-08

    We remark that the high energy gauge boson scattering processes involving two-body initial and final states satisfy certain selection rules described as helicity conservation of the gauge boson amplitudes (GBHC). These rules are valid at the Born level, as well as at the level of the leading and subleading 1-loop logarithmic corrections, in both the standard model and the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). A "fermionic equivalence" theorem is also proved, which suggests that GBHC is valid at all orders in the MSSM at sufficiently high energies, where the mass suppressed contributions are neglected.

  12. Data on energy conservation activity in multifamily housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    A policy review to determine how the multifamily building sector is responding to market signals and to evaluate what role the federal government should play in encouraging conservation in this subsector is presented. Available data is used to assess the current status of weatherization in multifamily housing and the current trends in adding weatherization measures on using them in new construction are identified and catalogued. Data on energy practices in multifamily housing and other energy related characteristics are also identified. The purpose, the sources covered, and the findings and recommendations are described. The data are summarized.

  13. Energy conservation through utilization of mechanical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, D. B.; Bliamptis, T. E.; Downer, J. R.; Heinemann, P. C.

    Potential benefits regarding fuel savings, necessary technology, and evaluation criteria for the development of flywheel-hybrid vehicles are examined. A case study is quoted in which adoption of flywheel-hybrid vehicles in a taxi fleet would result in an increase of 10 mpg average to 32 mpg. Two proposed systems are described, one involving direct engine power to the flywheel and the second regenerating the flywheel from braking energy through a continuously variable transmission. Fuel consumption characteristics are considered the ultimate determinant in the choice of configuration, while material properties and housing shape determine the flywheel speed range. Vehicle losses are characterized and it is expected that a flywheel at 12,000 rpm will experience less than one hp average parasitic power loss. Flywheel storage is suitable for smaller engines because larger engines dominate the power train mass. Areas considered important for further investigation include reliability of an engine run near maximum torque, noise and vibration associated with flywheel operation, start up delays, compatibility of driver controls, integration of normal with regenerative braking systems, and, most importantly, the continuously variable transmission.

  14. Part 2: Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2006-01-01

    This manual presents specific ways to enable developers, engineers or landscape architects to incorporate more trees into a development site. The proposed approach focuses on protecting existing trees, planting trees in storm water treatment practices, and planting trees in other open spaces at the development site. This manual introduces conceptual designs for storm...

  15. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage. (DMC)

  16. Illinois Energy Conservation Plan: documentation of DOE-U535-O-A calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-06

    This report presents data compiled on the estimated energy conservation achieved by programs included in the Illinois Energy Conservation Plan. Summaries are given for the following areas: thermal and lighting standards; state and local procurement standards; carpooling, vanpooling, and public transit; right turn on red; energy data information system; Homeowner's Extension Program; agricultural resource applications; Farm Energy Conservation Program; Commercial Industrial Program; Public Utilities Program; School Energy Management Program; energy management assistance to local government; Administration of State Plan; energy conservation information; energy management for state buildings; solar energy; waste to energy and resource recovery; intergovernmental coordination; community technology assistance.

  17. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  18. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  19. 76 FR 59394 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Publication of the Extension of Interim Waiver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedure AGENCY: Office of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...

  20. Model Property Based Material Balance and Energy Conservation Analysis for Process Industry Energy Transfer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fumin Ma; Gregory M. P. O’Hare; Tengfei Zhang; Michael J. O’Grady

    2015-01-01

    Conventional historical data based material and energy balance analyses are static and isolated computations. Such methods cannot embody the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow in the process industry; furthermore, they cannot easily realize the effective evaluation and comparison of different energy transfer processes by alternating the model module. In this paper, a novel method for material balance and energy conservation analysis of process industry en...

  1. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  2. Optimal residential water conservation strategies considering related energy in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lund, Jay R.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, residential water use is a much more energy intensive user. Based on this, we analyze the increased willingness to adopt water conservation strategies if energy cost is included in the customers' utility function. Using a Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses and probability distribution functions for parameters affecting water and water-related energy use in 10 different locations in California, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills and costs given both water and energy price shocks. Results can provide an upper bound of household savings for customers with well-behaved preferences, and show greater adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances when energy is accounted, resulting in an overall 24% reduction in indoor water use that represents a 30% reduction in water-related energy use and a 53% reduction in household water-related CO2 emissions. Previous use patterns and water and energy rate structures can affect greatly the potential benefits for customers and so their behavior. Given that water and energy are somewhat complementary goods for customers, we use results of the optimization to obtain own-price and cross-price elasticities of residential water use by simulating increases in water and energy prices. While the results are highly influenced by assumptions due to lack of empirical data, the method presented has no precedent in the literature and hopefully will stimulate the collection of additional relevant data.

  3. 76 FR 22324 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    .... Changing all electric models to use heat pump technology would be extremely disruptive to current.... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW... Technologies Program, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Suite 600, Washington, DC 20024. Telephone: (202) 586-2945. If...

  4. 76 FR 25622 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... increase in the price, initial charges, or maintenance expenses of the products likely to result from the... efficiency ratio; ``SEER'' means seasonal energy efficiency ratio; ``HSPF'' means heating seasonal... equipment and could not identify any models available on the market in the ``small'' unit product class (i.e...

  5. 75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...; and (3) furnace fans. DOE is required by a Court-ordered consent decree to publish a final rule...) Engineering, (2) markups to determine product price, (3) energy-use characterization, (4) life-cycle cost (LCC...) environmental impacts, (9) employment impacts, and (10) regulatory impacts. 1. Engineering Analysis The...

  6. 77 FR 16769 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ...-2006, Standard for Gas-Fired Central Furnaces), and commercial water heaters (ANSI Z21.10.3-2004, Gas... refer to the statute as amended through the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Public Law 110... water heaters, instantaneous water heaters, and unfired hot water storage tanks. Id. In doing so, EPCA...

  7. 75 FR 1121 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... electricity generating capacity. The energy savings will result in cumulative greenhouse gas emissions... meant to reflect the present value of all future climate-related impacts, which go well beyond the... revisions as a result of that rulemaking. ASAP asked whether, under EPACT 2005, those potential changes in...

  8. 77 FR 8525 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment. Microwave ovens are covered products under EPCA...-Down Options C. Engineering Analysis 1. Energy Use Metric 2. Standby Power Levels 3. Manufacturing..., respectively. In addition, incremental product costs reflect a declining trend (default learning rate) for...

  9. 76 FR 57515 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... and commercial and industrial equipment, including refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers... Considered C. Engineering Analysis 1. Discussion of Comments 2. Adjustment of the Baseline Energy Use... equipment costs. The extent of these costs and benefits depends on the projected price trends of...

  10. 78 FR 51463 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... industrial equipment, including metal halide lamp fixtures. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy.... Starting Method g. Conclusions B. Screening Analysis C. Engineering Analysis 1. Approach 2. Representative... addition, all estimates use incremental equipment costs that reflect a declining trend for equipment prices...

  11. The origin of the energy-momentum conservation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.

    2017-09-01

    The interplay between the action-reaction principle and the energy-momentum conservation law is revealed by the examples of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories, and general relativity. These two statements are shown to be equivalent in the sense that both hold or fail together. Their mutual agreement is demonstrated most clearly in the self-interaction problem by taking account of the rearrangement of degrees of freedom appearing in the action of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories. The failure of energy-momentum conservation in general relativity is attributed to the fact that this theory allows solutions having nontrivial topologies. The total energy and momentum of a system with nontrivial topological content prove to be ambiguous, coordinatization-dependent quantities. For example, the energy of a Schwarzschild black hole may take any positive value greater than, or equal to, the mass of the body whose collapse is responsible for forming this black hole. We draw the analogy to the paradoxial Banach-Tarski theorem; the measure becomes a poorly defined concept if initial three-dimensional bounded sets are rearranged in topologically nontrivial ways through the action of free non-Abelian isometry groups.

  12. Evolutionary mirages: selection on binding site composition creates the illusion of conserved grammars in Drosophila enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Lusk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of transcription factor binding sites in developmental enhancers and the apparent preferential conservation of clustered sites have been widely interpreted as proof that spatially constrained physical interactions between transcription factors are required for regulatory function. However, we show here that selection on the composition of enhancers alone, and not their internal structure, leads to the accumulation of clustered sites with evolutionary dynamics that suggest they are preferentially conserved. We simulated the evolution of idealized enhancers from Drosophila melanogaster constrained to contain only a minimum number of binding sites for one or more factors. Under this constraint, mutations that destroy an existing binding site are tolerated only if a compensating site has emerged elsewhere in the enhancer. Overlapping sites, such as those frequently observed for the activator Bicoid and repressor Krüppel, had significantly longer evolutionary half-lives than isolated sites for the same factors. This leads to a substantially higher density of overlapping sites than expected by chance and the appearance that such sites are preferentially conserved. Because D. melanogaster (like many other species has a bias for deletions over insertions, sites tended to become closer together over time, leading to an overall clustering of sites in the absence of any selection for clustered sites. Since this effect is strongest for the oldest sites, clustered sites also incorrectly appear to be preferentially conserved. Following speciation, sites tend to be closer together in all descendent species than in their common ancestors, violating the common assumption that shared features of species' genomes reflect their ancestral state. Finally, we show that selection on binding site composition alone recapitulates the observed number of overlapping and closely neighboring sites in real D. melanogaster enhancers. Thus, this study calls into

  13. 13 CFR 120.330 - Who is eligible for an energy conservation loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conservation loan? SBA may make or guarantee loans to assist a small business to design, engineer, manufacture, distribute, market, install, or service energy devices or techniques designed to conserve the Nation's energy...

  14. Statistical energy conservation principle for inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J

    2015-07-21

    Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales in engineering shear turbulence as well as climate atmosphere ocean science is a grand challenge of contemporary science with important societal impact. In such inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems there is a large dimensional phase space with a large dimension of unstable directions where a large-scale ensemble mean and the turbulent fluctuations exchange energy and strongly influence each other. These complex features strongly impact practical prediction and uncertainty quantification. A systematic energy conservation principle is developed here in a Theorem that precisely accounts for the statistical energy exchange between the mean flow and the related turbulent fluctuations. This statistical energy is a sum of the energy in the mean and the trace of the covariance of the fluctuating turbulence. This result applies to general inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems including the above applications. The Theorem involves an assessment of statistical symmetries for the nonlinear interactions and a self-contained treatment is presented below. Corollary 1 and Corollary 2 illustrate the power of the method with general closed differential equalities for the statistical energy in time either exactly or with upper and lower bounds, provided that the negative symmetric dissipation matrix is diagonal in a suitable basis. Implications of the energy principle for low-order closure modeling and automatic estimates for the single point variance are discussed below.

  15. Public Constructs of Energy Values and Behaviors in Implementing Taiwan's "Energy-Conservation/Carbon-Reduction" Declarations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Spangler, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The emergent crisis of global warming calls for energy education for people of all ages and social groups. The Taiwanese government has publicized 10 declarations on energy conservation and carbon reduction as public behavior guidelines to mitigate global warming. This study uses interviews with quantitative assessment to explore the values and…

  16. Department of Energy programs and objectives: energy conservation in agricultural production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This document describes the current Department of Energy agriculture research program as it relates to the research recommendations submitted by a 1976 workshop on energy conservation in agricultural production. In-depth discussions on fertilizers, irrigation, crop drying, fuel substitution, crop and animal production systems, greenhouses, materials handling, and transport systems are included. (MCW)

  17. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power... Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies'') and provide the appropriate docket number...

  18. Overview of energy-conserving development planning and design techniques based on five case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Findings and recommendations are presented of a review of five case studies of ways to conserve energy through development planning and site design in communities. Two approaches were used. In the first approach, a conventional, pre-existing plan was analyzed to determine potential energy use. Once energy-conservation options were identified and evaluated, the conventional plan was modified by employing those options. This approach was used in The Woodlands, Burke Center, and Radisson studies. In the second approach, energy-conservation options are independently identified and evaluated. Those options that passed specific criteria screening were then utilized in developing one or more totally new plans based on energy objectives. This approach was used in Greenbrier and Shenandoah. Radisson is a new town on the outskirts of Syracuse, New York. Greenbrier is a 3000 acre planned community adjacent to Norfolk and Virginia Beach. Shenandoah is a proposed new town in the Atlanta urbanized area. The Woodlands is a new community under development north of Houston. Burke Center is a residential planned unit development in Fairfax County, Virgnia. (MCW)

  19. Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason; Schloss, Carrie A; Soong, Oliver; Hannah, Lee; Davis, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society's competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species' habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  20. Conservation planning for offsetting the impacts of development: a case study of biodiversity and renewable energy in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason R.; Schloss, Carrie A.; Soong, Oliver; Lee Hannah,; Davis, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society’s competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species’ habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  1. Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kreitler

    Full Text Available Balancing society's competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species' habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and

  2. Energy conservation and management system using efficient building automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hazry, D.; Tanveer, M. Hassan; Joyo, M. Kamran; Warsi, Faizan A.; Kamarudin, H.; Wan, Khairunizam; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.; Hussain, A. T.

    2015-05-01

    In countries where the demand and supply gap of electricity is huge and the people are forced to endure increasing hours of load shedding, unnecessary consumption of electricity makes matters even worse. So the importance and need for electricity conservation increases exponentially. This paper outlines a step towards the conservation of energy in general and electricity in particular by employing efficient Building Automation technique. It should be noted that by careful designing and implementation of the Building Automation System, up to 30% to 40% of energy consumption can be reduced, which makes a huge difference for energy saving. In this study above mentioned concept is verified by performing experiment on a prototype experimental room and by implementing efficient building automation technique. For the sake of this efficient automation, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is employed as a main controller, monitoring various system parameters and controlling appliances as per required. The hardware test run and experimental findings further clarifies and proved the concept. The added advantage of this project is that it can be implemented to both small and medium level domestic homes thus greatly reducing the overall unnecessary load on the Utility provider.

  3. Developing sustainable energy policies for electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ajlan, S.A. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: salajlan@kacst.edu.sa; Al-Ibrahim, A.M. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Abdulkhaleq, M. [Ministry of Water and Electricity (Saudi Arabia); Alghamdi, F. [Ministry of Water and Electricity (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-09-15

    Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this

  4. 40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.80 Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General. The Administrator will allocate allowances from the Conservation and...

  5. 15 CFR 9.7 - Department of Commerce energy conservation mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.7 Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. The Department of Commerce shall develop an Energy Conservation Mark which shall be registered in the U.S. Patent Office under 15 U.S.C. 1054 for use...

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.160 - What actions must Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation? 102-74.160 Section 102-74.160 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.160 What actions must Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation? Federal agencies must— (a) Turn off...

  7. Technical analysis on energy conservation and emission reduction of new energy electric vehicle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    With the global environmental problems and energy crisis continuously emerging, all countries are taking active measures to achieve the benign development of domestic economy and society. Vehicle, as a large oil consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, nend to be a revolutionary change. Therefore, the development of new energy electric vehicle has become the consensus of the world. On this background, this paper has sorted out the current state and the related development planning of new energy electric vehicles in different countries to predict the car ownership of the new energy electric vehicles using elastic coefficient method and setting different path of development, conclude that under the consideration of energy conservation and emissions reduction factors, our country should mainly promote the BEV to realize the maximum energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  8. Energy-Integrating Master Plan for the City of Atlantic City, New Jersey: energy conservation element. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The Master Plan describes a coordinated energy-conservation effort for the City, the effective application and ultimate success of which depend primarily on the active involvement of the City government and its functional departments. Following an introductory section, Section XXI, Community Energy Determinants, describes the natural and man-made environment, growth and energy profiles, and the institutional environment. Additional sections are entitled: Energy-Conservation Options (passive energy options and active energy-conservation options); Energy Integration; Community Energy Management; Energy-Conservation Implementation Plan; and an appendix containing an energy-related glossary, a directory to various sources of information on energy conservation, various technical documents, a copy of the National Energy Act, and a bibliography. (MCW)

  9. Environmental Development Plan for Transportation Energy Conservation. FY 79 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. K.; Bernard, III, M. J.

    1978-12-15

    This is the first annual update of the Environment Development Plan (EDP) for the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation program. It identifies the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with the division's transportation programs. These programs include the research, development, demonstration and assessment (RDD and A) of seventeen transportation technologies and several strategy and policy development and implementation projects. The transportation technologies projects deal with highway transport including electric vehicles, marine transport and pipeline transport. This EDP presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns stemming from these programs.

  10. Protecting important sites for biodiversity contributes to meeting global conservation targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Scharlemann, Jörn P.W.; Evans, Mike I.

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone of conservation efforts and now cover nearly 13% of the world's land surface, with the world's governments committed to expand this to 17%. However, as biodiversity continues to decline, the effectiveness of PAs in reducing the extinction risk of species...... remains largely untested. We analyzed PA coverage and trends in species' extinction risk at globally significant sites for conserving birds (10,993 Important Bird Areas, IBAs) and highly threatened vertebrates and conifers (588 Alliance for Zero Extinction sites, AZEs) (referred to collectively hereafter......, mammals and amphibians restricted to protected AZEs (compared with unprotected or partially protected sites). Globally, half of the important sites for biodiversity conservation remain unprotected (49% of IBAs, 51% of AZEs). While PA coverage of important sites has increased over time, the proportion...

  11. Energy production from a refuse disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A refuse disposal site produces a considerable amount of biogas caused by the anaerobic fermentation which takes place inside. The components of the biogas are mainly methane (up to 60 vol. %) and carbon dioxide. For reasons of safety (danger of fire, explosion, smell) the gas must be collected. Now and then it is being utilised in special engines and burners. Usually, however, the biogas is being flared off. With the assistance of special hollow fibre membranes it has of late become possible, to lower the part of the carbon dioxide in the biogas to such an extend that a methane-rich gas is produced, which can be utilised in the same way as natural gas. Thus, a refuse disposal operator has the possibility to utilise in full the energy potential of the deposited waste, by selling this processed gas.

  12. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS... for technical assistance programs and energy conservation measures, including renewable resource... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicant certifications for technical assistance and...

  13. 40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section 73.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a) Qualified energy...

  14. 75 FR 14287 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures and Standards for Fluorescent Lamp... OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AB99 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent... major revisions to its test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts established under the Energy Policy...

  15. Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163) as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (Public Law 95-619). Title 10. Energy. Chapter II. Department of Energy. Subchapter D. Energy conservation. Part 430. Energy conservation program for Consumer Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The text of Part B--Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles--from Energy Policy and Conservation Act (PL 94-163) as amended by National Energy Conservation Policy Act (PL-619) is given. All terms are defined in 18 items. The text includes also the following subjects: coverage, test procedures, labeling, energy efficiency standards, requirements of manufacturers, effect on other law, rules, authority to obtain information, exports, imports, prohibited acts, enforcement, injunctive enforcement, citizen suits, administrative procedure and judicial review, consumer education, annual report, and authorization of appropriations. (MCW)

  16. Residential Energy Use and Conservation. Economics, Demographics, and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounen, D. [Department of Financial Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kok, N. [Limburg Institute of Financial Economics LIFE, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Quigley, J.M. [Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Energy consumption in the residential sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. However, much of the current debate regarding energy efficiency in the housing market focuses on the physical and technical determinants of energy consumption, neglecting the role of the economic behavior of resident households. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which the use of gas and electricity is determined by the technical specifications of the dwelling as compared to the demographic characteristics of the occupying household, using a unique set of microeconomic data for a sample of more than 300,000 Dutch homes. The results show that residential gas consumption is determined principally by structural dwelling characteristics, such as the vintage, building type and quality of the home, while electricity consumption varies more directly with household composition, in particular income and family composition. Combining these results with projections on future economic and demographic trends, we find that, absent price increases for residential energy, the aging of the population and their increasing wealth will mostly offset improvements in the energy efficiency of the building stock resulting from policy interventions and natural revitalization.

  17. Stable schemes for dissipative particle dynamics with conserved energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltz, Gabriel, E-mail: stoltz@cermics.enpc.fr

    2017-07-01

    This article presents a new numerical scheme for the discretization of dissipative particle dynamics with conserved energy. The key idea is to reduce elementary pairwise stochastic dynamics (either fluctuation/dissipation or thermal conduction) to effective single-variable dynamics, and to approximate the solution of these dynamics with one step of a Metropolis–Hastings algorithm. This ensures by construction that no negative internal energies are encountered during the simulation, and hence allows to increase the admissible timesteps to integrate the dynamics, even for systems with small heat capacities. Stability is only limited by the Hamiltonian part of the dynamics, which suggests resorting to multiple timestep strategies where the stochastic part is integrated less frequently than the Hamiltonian one.

  18. Effects of television modeling on residential energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winett, R A; Leckliter, I N; Chinn, D E; Stahl, B; Love, S Q

    1985-01-01

    A combination of social marketing, communications, social learning (particularly modeling), and behavior analysis may provide an effective framework for behavior change via films and television. We used this approach in developing special television programs about residential energy conservation. The programs were tailored and directed to preselected middle-class homeowners (N = 150), and delivered over a public access channel of a cable TV system. The results indicated that after one program exposure (about 20 minutes), viewers adopted simple strategies modeled in the programs which led to savings of approximately 10% on their home energy use for a substantial part of the cooling and heating season. Although the potential benefits to costs of large-scale media efforts seemed great, institutional barriers for such programs were identified. Less expensive, more local programs seem more viable.

  19. Energy conservation in outdoor swimming pools. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskam, F.

    1987-09-01

    The paper reports about several EC- and BMFT-supported demonstration programs aiming at reducing the operating costs of outdoor and indoor swimming pools with the help of solar energy and additional measures such as energy conservation and heat recovery. Presenting a number of relevant characteristics an illustrated survey sums up the results available after an operating period of several years. Apart from referring to the basic findings the paper informs about organizational aspects. The measures and systems applied comprise solar water heating systems, coverings to reduce heat losses, and heat recovery systems recovering heat from filter backwash water, showers and the outgoing air. Details are given on how the different systems were realized in three demonstration swimming pools. (HWJ).

  20. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  1. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen

    2012-05-01

    Maximizing the optical network unit’s (ONU) sleep time is an effective approach for achieving maximum energy conservation in green Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs). While overlapping downstream and upstream ONU transmissions can maximize the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green EPONs under the limited service discipline and the upstream-based overlapped time window. Specifically, we first derive the expected mean packet delay, and then present a closed-form expression of the ONU sleep time, setting identical upstream/downstream transmission cycle times based on a maximum downstream traffic delay re-quirement. With the proposed system model, we present a novel downstream bandwidth allocation scheme for energy conservation in green EPONs. Simulation results verify the proposed model and highlight the advantages of our scheme over conventional approaches.

  2. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 2 Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2006-01-01

    This manual is the second in a three-part series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 2. Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites presents specific ways to enable developers, engineers, or landscape architects to incorporate more trees into a development site. The proposed approach focuses...

  3. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume IV. Energy conservation technology: advanced course for plan examiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This manual contains a more in-depth training in the review techniques and concepts required by the plan examiners and code officials in administering the code for conventional (buildings of 3 stories or less) construction.

  4. Energy conservation in the earth's crust and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yao; Mu, Xinzhi

    2013-02-01

    Among various matters which make up the earth's crust, the thermal conductivity of coal, oil, and oil-gas, which are formed over a long period of geological time, is extremely low. This is significant to prevent transferring the internal heat of the earth to the thermal insulation of the surface, cooling the surface of the earth, stimulating biological evolution, and maintaining natural ecological balance as well. Fossil energy is thermal insulating layer in the earth's crust. Just like the function of the thermal isolation of subcutaneous fatty tissue under the dermis of human skin, it keeps the internal heat within the organism so it won't be transferred to the skin's surface and be lost maintaining body temperature at low temperatures. Coal, oil, oil-gas, and fat belong to the same hydrocarbons, and the functions of their thermal insulation are exactly the same. That is to say, coal, oil, and oil-gas are just like the earth's "subcutaneous fatty tissue" and objectively formed the insulation protection on earth's surface. This paper argues that the human large-scale extraction of fossil energy leads to damage of the earth's crust heat-resistant sealing, increasing terrestrial heat flow, or the heat flow as it is called, transferring the internal heat of the earth to Earth's surface excessively, and causing geotemperature and sea temperature to rise, thus giving rise to global warming. The reason for climate warming is not due to the expansion of greenhouse gases but to the wide exploitation of fossil energy, which destroyed the heat insulation of the earth's crust, making more heat from the interior of the earth be released to the atmosphere. Based on the energy conservation principle, the measurement of the increase of the average global temperature that was caused by the increase of terrestrial heat flow since the Industrial Revolution is consistent with practical data. This paper illustrates "pathogenesis" of climate change using medical knowledge. The

  5. Energy conservation in outdoor swimming pools. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskam, F.

    1987-11-01

    Part two of the report discusses the energy characteristics of three more BMFT/EC-supported demonstration plants (outdoor and indoor swimming pools) intended to investigate into low-cost energy supplies. Photographs, schematic sketches, tables, and figures facilitate access to the solar systems (collector surfaces, heat exchangers, water supply), the coverings (plastic foils), heat recovery systems recovering heat from the outgoing air (indoor swimming pools) and from filter backwash water as well as to other important aspects (swimming pool structures, site selection, climatic conditions). Water treatment and water heating systems are shown in a function diagram. (HWJ).

  6. Model Property Based Material Balance and Energy Conservation Analysis for Process Industry Energy Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumin Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional historical data based material and energy balance analyses are static and isolated computations. Such methods cannot embody the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow in the process industry; furthermore, they cannot easily realize the effective evaluation and comparison of different energy transfer processes by alternating the model module. In this paper, a novel method for material balance and energy conservation analysis of process industry energy transfer system is developed based on model property. Firstly, a reconfigurable energy transfer process model, which is independent of energy types and energy-consuming equipment, is presented from the viewpoint of the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow. Thereafter the material balance determination is proposed based on both a dynamic incidence matrix and dynamic balance quantity. Moreover, the model-weighted conservation determination theorem is proved, and the energy efficiency analysis method is also discussed. Results confirmed the efficacy of the proposed methods, confirming its potential for use by process industry in energy efficiency analyses.

  7. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  8. On the Definition of Energy for a Continuum, Its Conservation Laws, and the Energy-Momentum Tensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mayeul Arminjon

    2016-01-01

    .... Next, we consider a continuum or a system of fields in special relativity: we recall that the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor contains two local conservation equations of the same kind as before...

  9. Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel industry demonstration program. Task III. GTE high temperature recuperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, F.C.; Hoffman, A.O.; Lownie, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    The Office of Industrial Programs of the Department of Energy has undertaken a program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing various energy-conserving devices and equipment. This report presents results on one of those systems, a high-temperature ceramic recuperator designed and manufactured by Sylvania Chemical and Metallurgical Division, GTE Products Corporation of Towanda, Pennsylvania. The ceramic cross-flow recuperator unit recovers waste heat from the hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature burners of various manufacture. Of the 38 host site installations included in the program, sufficient operating data were obtained from 28 sites to evaluate the benefits in terms of energy and economic savings that can be achieved. Performance and cost data are analyzed and presented for those 28 installations, which covered a variety of applications, sizes, and industry types. Except for 5 sites where unusual operating or data-collection problems were encountered, the improvements in performance of the recuperated furnaces equalled or exceeded estimates; the average of the total fuel savings for these 23 sites was 44.0 percent, some portion of which resulted from furnace improvements other than recuperation. Payback times were calculated for both total costs and for recuperator-related costs, using a cumulative annual after-tax cash flow method which includes tax investment credits, estimates of general and fuel-price inflation, and maintenance costs.

  10. 75 FR 56795 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Responsible for Compliance for Walk- In Coolers or Freezers 2. Submission of Data Requirements for Fluorescent...'' or, in context, ``the Act'') sets forth a variety of provisions designed to improve energy efficiency... Federal conservation standards, which include energy conservation, water conservation and design standards...

  11. Energy Efficiency Pilot Projects in Jaipur: Testing the Energy Conservation Building Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-26

    The Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) in Jaipur, India is constructing two new buildings on its campus that allow it to test implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), which Rajasthan made mandatory in 2011. PNNL has been working with MNIT to document progress on ECBC implementation in these buildings.

  12. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…

  13. Solar Energy: Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts: Student Material. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, bibliographies, and illustrations for seven course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the…

  14. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Oilseed Crop Biodiesel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  15. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Methane Digesters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  16. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Woody Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  17. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Algae Biodiesel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  18. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jason D; Fedy, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  19. Landscapes for energy and wildlife: conservation prioritization for golden eagles across large spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jason D.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  20. HIGHLY CONSERVED O-FUCOSE SITES HAVE DISTINCT EFFECTS ON NOTCH1 FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Raajit; Arboleda-Velasquez, Joseph F.; Nita-Lazar, Alexandra; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Haltiwanger, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    The extracellular domain of mouse Notch1 contains 36 tandem epidermal growth factor like (EGF) repeats, many of which are modified with O-fucose. Previous work from several laboratories has indicated that O-fucosylation plays an important role in ligand mediated Notch activation. Nonetheless, it is not clear whether all, or a subset, of the EGF repeats need to be O-fucosylated. Three O-fucose sites are invariantly conserved in all Notch homologues with 36 EGF repeats (within EGF repeats 12, 26 and 27). In order to investigate which O-fucose sites on Notch1 are important for ligand-mediated signaling, we mutated the three invariant O-fucose sites in mouse Notch1, along with several less highly conserved sites, and evaluated their ability to transduce Jagged1 and Delta1 mediated signaling in a cell-based assay. Our analysis revealed that mutation of any of the three invariant O-fucose sites resulted in significant changes in both Delta1 and Jagged1 mediated signaling, but mutations in less highly conserved sites had no detectable effect. Interestingly, mutation of each invariant site gave a distinct effect on Notch function. Mutation of the O-fucose site in EGF repeat 12 resulted in loss of Delta1 and Jagged1 signaling, while mutation of the O-fucose site in EGF repeat 26 resulted in hyperactivation of both Delta1 and Jagged1 signaling. Mutation of the O-fucose site in EGF repeat 27 resulted in faulty trafficking of the Notch receptor to the cell surface and a decreased S1 processing of the receptor. These results indicate that the most highly conserved O-fucose sites in Notch1 are important for both processing and ligand mediated signaling in the context of a cell-based signaling assay. PMID:15994302

  1. MONKEY: Identifying conserved transcription-factor binding sitesin multiple alignments using a binding site-specific evolutionarymodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, VenkyN.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-10-28

    We introduce a method (MONKEY) to identify conserved transcription-factor binding sites in multispecies alignments. MONKEY employs probabilistic models of factor specificity and binding site evolution, on which basis we compute the likelihood that putative sites are conserved and assign statistical significance to each hit. Using genomes from the genus Saccharomyces, we illustrate how the significance of real sites increases with evolutionary distance and explore the relationship between conservation and function.

  2. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  3. Urban transportation energy conservation: analysis of traffic engineering actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The interrelationships among highway supply, vehicular travel demand, and vehicular fuel consumption are systematically considered using empirical data from Denver and San Francisco. A determination is made of the degree to which fule savings produced by more-efficient vehicle operation on city streets and freeways are offset by the additional fuel consumed by either longer or new vehicular travek, developing in the process an analytical framework, step-by-step procedure, and a base of empirical data that can be easily applied in other urban areas. The principal finding is that where comprehensive application of state-of-the-art techniques for improved traffic conrol of signalized urban arterials and freeways can be used to improve areawide travel time on the order of 10%, the energy savings attributable to this improved quality of flow are substantially less than offset by short-range induced increases in travel. Net energy savings produced are approximately 3% for the two cases analyzed. Further, these estimated savings are of the same order of magnitude as the savings obtainable through the application of measures directed primarily at reducing the demand for vehicular travel. This finding is counter to some recent thinking in which any improvement in highway supply is deemed undesirable from an energy conservation viewpoint since the change is seen as only inducing more travel.

  4. Wind Energy Deployment Process and Siting Tools (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2015-02-01

    Regardless of cost and performance, some wind projects cannot proceed to completion as a result of competing multiple uses or siting considerations. Wind energy siting issues must be better understood and quantified. DOE tasked NREL researchers with depicting the wind energy deployment process and researching development considerations. This presentation provides an overview of these findings and wind siting tools.

  5. Energy conserving truncations for convection with shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiffeault, J.L.; Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A method is presented for making finite Fourier mode truncations of the Rayleigh-Benard convection system that preserve invariants of the full partial differential equations in the dissipationless limit. This system is analogous to the flute-reduced MHD equations for large aspect-ratio axisymmetric toroidal systems. These truncations are shown to have no unbounded solutions and provide a description of the thermal flux that has the correct limiting behaviour in a steady-state. A particular low-order truncation (containing 7 modes) is selected and compared with the 6 mode truncation of Howard and Krishnamurti, which does not conserve the total energy in the dissipationless limit. A numerical example is presented to compare the two truncations and study the effect of shear flow on thermal transport.

  6. Sites Pre-Screened for Wind Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RE-Powering Screening Dataset spreadsheet contains detailed site information on over 80,000 contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites with screening results...

  7. Sites Pre-Screened for Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RE-Powering Screening Dataset spreadsheet contains detailed site information on over 80,000 contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites with screening results...

  8. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part V. Energy efficient buildings: the causes of litigation against energy conservation building codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, P.; Codina, R.; Cornwall, B.

    1978-09-01

    The guidelines laid out for the five subjects investigated in this series are to take a holistic view of energy conservation policies by describing the overall system in which they are implemented; provide analytical tools and sufficiently disagregated data bases that can be adapted to answer a variety of questions by the users; identify and discuss some of the important issues behind successful energy conservation policy; and develop an energy conservation policy in depth. Three specific cases reviewed are: the California nonresidential code (1976); the California residential code (1978); and the Farmers Home Administration code (1978). Although these three suits were brought by the building industry, this report also discusses considerations relevant to architects, bankers, and building inspectors. These cases are discussed from three perspectives: (1) objections to the codes explicitly stated in court, (2) industry conditions and practices behind objections stated in court, and (3) general beliefs not stated in court. This discussion focuses on suits intended to limit those building codes which the building industry sees as too strong. However, some energy conservation industries may sue to strengthen codes which they consider too weak. An example of such a case is Polarized Corporation's current suit against the Lighting section of ASHRAE 90-75 (Los Angeles Federal District Court, see Murnane, 1978). (MCW)

  9. 76 FR 9696 - Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of data availability... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000... costs and benefits in its energy conservation standards analysis, including comment on benefits and...

  10. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  12. Energy, Metaphysics, and Space: Ernst Mach's Interpretation of Energy Conservation as the Principle of Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzardi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Ernst Mach's interpretation of the principle of energy conservation (EC) in the context of the development of energy concepts and ideas about causality in nineteenth-century physics and theory of science. In doing this, it focuses on the close relationship between causality, energy conservation and space in Mach's…

  13. Energy management action plan: Developing a strategy for overcoming institutional barriers to municipal energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Energy offices working to improve efficiency of local government facilities face not only technical tasks, but institutional barriers, such as budget structures that do not reward efficiency, a low awareness of energy issues, and purchasing procedures based only on minimizing initial cost. The bureau, in working to remove such barriers in San Francisco, has identified 37 institutional barriers in areas such as operations & maintenance, purchasing, and facility design; these barriers were then reorganized into three groupings-- policy & attitudes, budget & incentives, and awareness & information-- and mapped. This map shows that the barriers mutually reinforce each other, and that a holistic approach is required for permanent change. The city`s recreation & parks department was used as a model department, and information about facility energy use was compiled into a departmental energy review. Staff interviews showed how barriers affect conservation. The bureau then generated ideas for projects to remove specific barriers and rated them according to potential impact and the resources required to implement them. Four of the six projects selected focused on maintenance staff: a cost- sharing lighting retrofit program, a boiler efficiency program, a departmental energy tracking system, and a budgetary incentive program for conservation. The other two projects are city-wide: promotion of a new term contract supplying energy-efficient light materials, and publication/distribution of ENERGY NEWS newsletter. A general methodology, the EMAP Strategy Guide, has been created to assist other energy offices in developing EMAPs.

  14. Energy management: a program of energy conservation for the community college facility. [Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various Authors

    1978-01-01

    This handbook developes helps for assessing and improving the energy efficiency of the community-college facility. The TEEM approach (Total Educational Energy Management) is a labor-intensive approach which requires the commitment and participation of all segments of the college community. The TEEM program presented here defines a series of tasks selected, ordered, and implemented in such a way as to achieve two basic objectives: (1) reducing campus energy requirements, and (2) meeting those reduced energy requirements more efficiently without adversely affecting the quality of educational programs. This guide to large-scale energy conservation on college campuses includes step-by-step procedures for establishing a program task force, defining specific tasks, and assigning responsibilities. Action plans are developed, energy consumption monitored, goals set, and conservation measures implemented. A series of appendices provides more detailed information, charts, and worksheets related to all aspects of energy use. The TEEM program provides the basic structure for achieving a significant reduction in campus energy costs.

  15. On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    five technologies, i.e., two on-site options: (1) photovoltaic, (2) micro combined heat and power, and three off-site options: (1) off-site windmill, (2) share of a windmill farm and (3) purchase of green energy from the 100% renewable utility grid. The results indicate that in case of the on......-site renewable supply options, the energy efficiency should be the first priority in order to design a cost-optimal Net ZEB. However, the results are opposite for the off-site renewable supply options, and thus it is more costeffective to invest in renewable energy technologies than in energy efficiency....

  16. Spatial demographic models to inform conservation planning of golden eagles in renewable energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Schumaker, Nathan H.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    Spatial demographic models can help guide monitoring and management activities targeting at-risk species, even in cases where baseline data are lacking. Here, we provide an example of how site-specific changes in land use and anthropogenic stressors can be incorporated into a spatial demographic model to investigate effects on population dynamics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Our study focused on a population of Golden Eagles exposed to risks associated with rapid increases in renewable energy development in southern California, U.S.A. We developed a spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model that integrated empirical data on demography of Golden Eagles with spatial data on the arrangement of nesting habitats, prey resources, and planned renewable energy development sites. Our model permitted simulated eagles of different stage-classes to disperse, establish home ranges, acquire prey resources, prospect for breeding sites, and reproduce. The distribution of nesting habitats, prey resources, and threats within each individual's home range influenced movement, reproduction, and survival. We used our model to explore potential effects of alternative disturbance scenarios, and proposed conservation strategies, on the future distribution and abundance of Golden Eagles in the study region. Results from our simulations suggest that probable increases in mortality associated with renewable energy infrastructure (e.g., collisions with wind turbines and vehicles, electrocution on power poles) could have negative consequences for population trajectories, but that site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative effects. Our study demonstrates the use of a flexible and expandable modeling framework to incorporate spatially dependent processes when determining relative effects of proposed management options to Golden Eagles and their habitats.

  17. Generating heavy particles with energy and momentum conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereš, Michal; Melo, Ivan; Tomášik, Boris; Balek, Vladimír; Černý, Vladimír

    2011-12-01

    We propose a novel algorithm, called REGGAE, for the generation of momenta of a given sample of particle masses, evenly distributed in Lorentz-invariant phase space and obeying energy and momentum conservation. In comparison to other existing algorithms, REGGAE is designed for the use in multiparticle production in hadronic and nuclear collisions where many hadrons are produced and a large part of the available energy is stored in the form of their masses. The algorithm uses a loop simulating multiple collisions which lead to production of configurations with reasonably large weights. Program summaryProgram title: REGGAE (REscattering-after-Genbod GenerAtor of Events) Catalogue identifier: AEJR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1523 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9608 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC Pentium 4, though no particular tuning for this machine was performed. Operating system: Originally designed on Linux PC with g++, but it has been compiled and ran successfully on OS X with g++ and MS Windows with Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition, as well. RAM: This depends on the number of particles which are generated. For 10 particles like in the attached example it requires about 120 kB. Classification: 11.2 Nature of problem: The task is to generate momenta of a sample of particles with given masses which obey energy and momentum conservation. Generated samples should be evenly distributed in the available Lorentz-invariant phase space. Solution method: In general, the algorithm works in two steps. First, all momenta are generated with the GENBOD algorithm. There, particle production is modeled as a sequence of two

  18. A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, A.; Lamb, V. R.

    1981-01-01

    To improve the simulation of nonlinear aspects of the flow over steep topography, a potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations is derived. It is pointed out that a family of schemes can conserve total energy for general flow and potential enstrophy for flow with no mass flux divergence. The newly derived scheme is a unique member of this family, that conserves both potential enstrophy and energy for general flow. Comparison by means of numerical experiment with a scheme that conserves (potential) enstrophy for purely horizontal nondivergent flow demonstrated the considerable superiority of the newly derived potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme, not only in suppressing a spurious energy cascade but also in determining the overall flow regime. The potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for a spherical grid is also presented.

  19. K-12 Teacher Understanding of Energy Conservation: Conceptual Metaphor, Dissipation, and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.

    In K-12 educational settings, conservation of energy is typically presented in two ways: the conservation of energy principle (energy is neither created nor destroyed) and the sociopolitical need to conserve energy (we guard against energy being used up). These two meanings of conservation typically remain disconnected from each other and can appear contradictory, even after instruction. In an effort to support teachers in building robust understandings of energy from their existing knowledge, I designed a study to investigate the productive ideas in K-12 teachers' conversations about energy. A micro-analysis of discourse, gestures, and artifacts of professional development courses revealed teachers' productive ideas about three aspects of energy: conceptual metaphor, dissipation and degradation. In learning about energy, K-12 teachers come to use conceptual metaphors in their own language and value attending to students' metaphorical language as a means of formative assessment. Teachers' conversations about dissipation suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong association between forms of energy (thermal) and their perceptible indicators (warmth). Teachers address this challenge by employing an exaggeration strategy to locate the dissipated thermal energy, making the energy indicator perceptible. Finally, teachers' unprompted statements about sociopolitical aspects of energy are related to both statements from the NGSS and aspects of energy degradation. I conclude that energy conservation can be better taught and learned in K-12 Education by: 1) understanding and applying conceptual metaphors about energy in K-12 settings, 2) using prior experiences to better understand dissipative energy processes involving imperceptible thermal energy, thereby understanding how energy conservation applies in all situations, and 3) connecting productive ideas about sociopolitical aspects of energy to canonical physics. Keywords

  20. Energy conservation in coal conversion. Final report, September 15, 1977--September 1, 1978. Selected case studies and conservation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcupile, J.C.

    1978-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the methodologies developed in the Energy Conservation in Coal Conversion August, 1977 Progress Report - Contract No. EY77S024196 - to an energy efficient, near-term coal conversion process design, and to develop additional, general techniques for studying energy conservation and utilization in coal conversion processes. The process selected for study was the Ralph M. Parsons Company of Pasadena, California ''Oil/Gas Complex, Conceptual Design/Economic Analysis'' as described in R and D Report No. 114 - Interim Report No. 4, published March, 1977, ERDA Contract No. E(49-18)-1975. Thirteen papers representing possible alternative methods of energy conservation or waste heat utilization have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. 24 CFR 990.185 - Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the performance contract; or a shared savings agreement with a private energy service company. All... for energy conservation/rate reduction. 990.185 Section 990.185 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.185 Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate...

  2. Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal…

  3. Energy conservation in the residential sector : The role of policy and market forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, energy conservation has been a hot topic of debate among policy makers and researchers due to the concerns about global climate change and energy dependency. From a policy perspective, residential sector has been an important target for energy conservation policies as it is a major

  4. 78 FR 7939 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... 430 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode); Proposed Rule #0... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... mode energy use for microwave ovens, including both microwave-only ovens and convection microwave ovens...

  5. 77 FR 43015 - Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC28 Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and... commercial and industrial electric motors under section 342(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE plans to use to evaluate...

  6. Residents’ Environmental Conservation Behaviors at Tourist Sites: Broadening the Norm Activation Framework by Adopting Environment Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect residents’ environmental conservation behaviors help in managing the environment of tourist sites. This research provides an integrative understanding of how residents near tourist sites form their environmental conservation behaviors by merging the norm-activation model and cognitive-affective model into one theoretical framework. Results of the structural analysis from a sample of 642 residents showed that this study’s proposed composite model includes a satisfactory level of predictive power for environmental conservation behaviors. The findings identify the following two dimensions of awareness of environmental consequences as having a key role in predicting environmental conservation behaviors: (1 awareness of positive consequences of environmental protection; and (2 awareness of disaster consequences. Results also show that environment attachment and personal norms about environmentalism played a mediating role between awareness of environmental consequences and environmental conservation behaviors, and that personal norms about environmentalism were the most powerful factor in predicting behaviors. Several practical implications were derived from the research findings that can contribute to environment management policy both within and outside the field of tourism, mostly notably: (1 how the effective promotion of these factors can encourage environmental conservation behaviors for residents; and (2 how governments can develop and implement environmental management measures to improve locals’ awareness of positive consequences of environmental protection.

  7. Balancing energy development and conservation: A method utilizing species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, C.S.; Laubhan, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative energy development is increasing, potentially leading to negative impacts on wildlife populations already stressed by other factors. Resource managers require a scientifically based methodology to balance energy development and species conservation, so we investigated modeling habitat suitability using Maximum Entropy to develop maps that could be used with other information to help site energy developments. We selected one species of concern, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (LPCH; Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) found on the southern Great Plains of North America, as our case study. LPCH populations have been declining and are potentially further impacted by energy development. We used LPCH lek locations in the state of Kansas along with several environmental and anthropogenic parameters to develop models that predict the probability of lek occurrence across the landscape. The models all performed well as indicated by the high test area under the curve (AUC) scores (all >0.9). The inclusion of anthropogenic parameters in models resulted in slightly better performance based on AUC values, indicating that anthropogenic features may impact LPCH lek habitat suitability. Given the positive model results, this methodology may provide additional guidance in designing future survey protocols, as well as siting of energy development in areas of marginal or unsuitable habitat for species of concern. This technique could help to standardize and quantify the impacts various developments have upon at-risk species. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  8. 10 CFR 431.87 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 431.87 Section 431.87 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers Energy Efficiency Standards § 431... manufactured on or after January 1, 1994, and before March 2, 2012, must meet the following energy efficiency...

  9. 75 FR 11530 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedure AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order...

  10. Handbook on solar energy and energy conservation for Arizona local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, D.E.; Pfister, S.; Harper, D.; English, T.; Biddle, W.; Smith, D.

    Three Guidebooks comprise the Handbook. Guidebook 1 provides information for local leaders on how to initiate and develop a local energy program. Guidebook 2, Planning and Zoning for Solar Access, provides assistance to people involved in the development and operation of planning and zoning methods to provide local solar access protection. Guidebook 3, Incorporating Solar Energy Conservation into Local Codes, provides assistance to the key people involved in the development and operation of local building codes. The paths that 15 communities took in Arizona took in designing their energy plan are summarized. A case study of Tucson, Arizona emphasizing land use regulations and the use of solar energy is presented in two parts: Potential Barriers to the Use of Solar Energy in Tucson and Solar Planning Options for the City of Tuscon. (MCW)

  11. BPA's Eighth Annual Energy Conservation Management Conference : Proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Conservation Management Conference (8th : 1981); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The five-year energy conservation program at Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is described at the conference. An overview of the program is presented. Topics covered in panel discussions include: how utilities can work effectively with weatherization contractors, homebuilders, energy auditors, and weatherization material suppliers; mechanisms for implementing conservation programs in the commercial sector; experiences gained in existing residential weatherization programs; and streamlining relationships between consumers, utilities, and BPA in providing services and getting feedback. The planning, programming, technical assistance, and engineering thrusts of BPA's conservation programs are discussed. Indoor air quality, renewable energy, and the regulator's role in relationships to energy conservation are discussed. Passive solar programs, DOE initiatives in solar and conservation for buildings, conservation potential in the commercial and industrial sectors, and current conservation research and development are also discussed. (MCW)

  12. Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V. Sheehan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern over global climate change as a result of fossil fuel use has resulted in energy production from renewable sources. Marine renewable energy devices provide clean electricity but can also cause physical disturbance to the local environment. There is a considerable paucity of ecological data at potential marine renewable energy sites that is needed to assess potential future impacts and allow optimal siting of devices. Here, we provide a baseline benthic survey for the Big Russel in Guernsey, UK, a potential site for tidal energy development. To assess the suitability of proposed sites for marine renewable energy in the Big Russel and to identify potential control sites, we compared species assemblages and habitat types. This baseline survey can be used to select control habitats to compare and monitor the benthic communities after installation of the device and contribute towards the optimal siting of any future installation.

  13. Epibenthic assessment of a renewable tidal energy site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Emma V; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Concern over global climate change as a result of fossil fuel use has resulted in energy production from renewable sources. Marine renewable energy devices provide clean electricity but can also cause physical disturbance to the local environment. There is a considerable paucity of ecological data at potential marine renewable energy sites that is needed to assess potential future impacts and allow optimal siting of devices. Here, we provide a baseline benthic survey for the Big Russel in Guernsey, UK, a potential site for tidal energy development. To assess the suitability of proposed sites for marine renewable energy in the Big Russel and to identify potential control sites, we compared species assemblages and habitat types. This baseline survey can be used to select control habitats to compare and monitor the benthic communities after installation of the device and contribute towards the optimal siting of any future installation.

  14. Selection of sites for the in situ conservation of four traditional leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection of sites for the in situ conservation of four traditional leafy vegetables consumed in Benin. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Acmella uliginosa, Ceratotheca sesamoides, Justicia tenella and Sesamum radiatum are four traditional leafy vegetables which are widely consumed in Benin.

  15. 78 FR 65629 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ....\\1\\ Part B includes definitions, test procedures, labeling provisions, energy conservation standards... have a ``drain out'' event. In reality, consumers with greater than 3-day average intervals between...

  16. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part I. Understanding and practicing energy conservation in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parady, W. Harold; Turner, J. Howard

    1980-06-01

    This is a training program to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic guide, which contains three parts. Part I considers the following: understanding the importance of energy; developing a concern for conserving energy; understanding the use of energy in buildings; care and maintenance of energy-efficient buildings; and developing energy-saving habits. A bibliography is presented.

  17. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-08-13

    We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

  18. Protecting important sites for biodiversity contributes to meeting global conservation targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart H M Butchart

    Full Text Available Protected areas (PAs are a cornerstone of conservation efforts and now cover nearly 13% of the world's land surface, with the world's governments committed to expand this to 17%. However, as biodiversity continues to decline, the effectiveness of PAs in reducing the extinction risk of species remains largely untested. We analyzed PA coverage and trends in species' extinction risk at globally significant sites for conserving birds (10,993 Important Bird Areas, IBAs and highly threatened vertebrates and conifers (588 Alliance for Zero Extinction sites, AZEs (referred to collectively hereafter as 'important sites'. Species occurring in important sites with greater PA coverage experienced smaller increases in extinction risk over recent decades: the increase was half as large for bird species with>50% of the IBAs at which they occur completely covered by PAs, and a third lower for birds, mammals and amphibians restricted to protected AZEs (compared with unprotected or partially protected sites. Globally, half of the important sites for biodiversity conservation remain unprotected (49% of IBAs, 51% of AZEs. While PA coverage of important sites has increased over time, the proportion of PA area covering important sites, as opposed to less important land, has declined (by 0.45-1.14% annually since 1950 for IBAs and 0.79-1.49% annually for AZEs. Thus, while appropriately located PAs may slow the rate at which species are driven towards extinction, recent PA network expansion has under-represented important sites. We conclude that better targeted expansion of PA networks would help to improve biodiversity trends.

  19. The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V

    2014-02-18

    Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally.

  20. Urban transportation energy conservation: case city applications of analysis methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, T.J.; Suhrbier, J.H.

    1979-10-01

    This report demonstrates the application of a set of disaggregate travel demand methodologies to the analysis of potential energy conservation strategies in three urban areas: Denver, Colorado; Fort Worth, Texas; and San Francisco, California. The methodologies are sketch planning in nature and include the forecasting of changes in automobile ownership; work trip model shares by drive alone, shared ride, and transit; non-work trip frequency, destination, and mode choice; fuel consumption and vehicle emissions. Using concepts of market segmentation and random sample household aggregation, both computer system and manual worksheet versions of the basic approach are applied. Policies analyzed include those related as employer based ride sharing, parking management, transit, pricing, and traffic operations. Considerable variations in the potential effectiveness was found, among the three urban areas, depending in large part on the availability of alternative travel modes such as transit. Descriptions are provided of the individual policy analyses performed, the methods by which example policies were analyzed, the necessary data preparation activities, and the procedures used to adapt the set of travel demand models to the unique conditions of each of the three metropolitan areas.

  1. Energy Conservation Behaviour Toolkit. Incentive Mechanisms for effective decrease of energy consumption at the workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, D.; Kalz, M.; Ternier, S.; Specht, M. [Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies CELSTEC, Open Universiteit, Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The work in this project is based on a previous project (Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible) in which several measurement and visualization approaches have been developed to make employees more aware about energy consumption and pro-environmental behavior at the workplace. While awareness is a first important step for the decrease of energy consumption and environmental learning it is not sufficient as a means for sustainable behavior change. For this reason we have explored in the follow-up project approaches how pro-environmental behavior at the workplace can be encouraged, rewarded and sustained. For this purpose we have implemented several technological solutions and we have piloted these in form of an energy conservation game called Mindergie at the main campus of the Open University in Heerlen, Netherlands. The project is in line with an earlier identified research gap in terms of energy conservation at the workplace and uses state-of-the-art technologies for mobile gaming and rewarding of non-formal learning activities.

  2. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  3. Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

  4. Development of a community energy conservation program. Volume II. Energy saving techniques for use by local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-26

    This volume contains technical material related to community energy conservation programs, and supplements the organizational material in Volume I. It is in looseleaf format so that sections related to specific topics can be easily copied or transferred to individuals responsible for various sorts of conservation, such as carpooling programs, building improvements, and community outreach. Three technical chapters are included, discussing topics in the areas of: internal city and county operations; community powers and regulations, and outreach programs. In the first, the concern is with what the community can do to reduce energy use in its own operations, an effective first step in promoting comprehensive energy conservation. The second chapter analyzes ways that the police power and fiscal powers of the community can be used for energy conservation, through building codes, zoning, and similar measures. In the final chapter, ways to promote energy conservation in the community are discussed: programs include outreach to households and firms, carpool promotion, waste oil recycling, etc.

  5. Protecting Important Sites for Biodiversity Contributes to Meeting Global Conservation Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Evans, Mike I.; Quader, Suhel; Aricò, Salvatore; Arinaitwe, Julius; Balman, Mark; Bennun, Leon A.; Bertzky, Bastian; Besançon, Charles; Boucher, Timothy M.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Burfield, Ian J.; Burgess, Neil D.; Chan, Simba; Clay, Rob P.; Crosby, Mike J.; Davidson, Nicholas C.; De Silva, Naamal; Devenish, Christian; Dutson, Guy C. L.; Fernández, David F. Día z; Fishpool, Lincoln D. C.; Fitzgerald, Claire; Foster, Matt; Heath, Melanie F.; Hockings, Marc; Hoffmann, Michael; Knox, David; Larsen, Frank W.; Lamoreux, John F.; Loucks, Colby; May, Ian; Millett, James; Molloy, Dominic; Morling, Paul; Parr, Mike; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Seddon, Nathalie; Skolnik, Benjamin; Stuart, Simon N.; Upgren, Amy; Woodley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone of conservation efforts and now cover nearly 13% of the world's land surface, with the world's governments committed to expand this to 17%. However, as biodiversity continues to decline, the effectiveness of PAs in reducing the extinction risk of species remains largely untested. We analyzed PA coverage and trends in species' extinction risk at globally significant sites for conserving birds (10,993 Important Bird Areas, IBAs) and highly threatened vertebrates and conifers (588 Alliance for Zero Extinction sites, AZEs) (referred to collectively hereafter as ‘important sites’). Species occurring in important sites with greater PA coverage experienced smaller increases in extinction risk over recent decades: the increase was half as large for bird species with>50% of the IBAs at which they occur completely covered by PAs, and a third lower for birds, mammals and amphibians restricted to protected AZEs (compared with unprotected or partially protected sites). Globally, half of the important sites for biodiversity conservation remain unprotected (49% of IBAs, 51% of AZEs). While PA coverage of important sites has increased over time, the proportion of PA area covering important sites, as opposed to less important land, has declined (by 0.45–1.14% annually since 1950 for IBAs and 0.79–1.49% annually for AZEs). Thus, while appropriately located PAs may slow the rate at which species are driven towards extinction, recent PA network expansion has under-represented important sites. We conclude that better targeted expansion of PA networks would help to improve biodiversity trends. PMID:22457717

  6. Problems in the implementation of energy conservation measures. II. Consumer motivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P.H.

    1977-10-15

    During the course of 1975 a national survey of household attitudes to energy use and conservation was undertaken. The study suggested that while the public are generally in favor of energy conservation, they do not practice it. The study highlighted the need to do more than merely raise the level of awareness of the need for energy conservation. The energy intensive nature of our life-style was identified as a critical constraint on the implementations of effective voluntary energy conservation programs. It was suggested that our pattern of energy use is so deeply embedded in our everyday behaviors that it would take more than the presentation of information to produce the necessary changes in behavior. Some of the problems involved in attempting to motivate the consumer to conserve energy using either an extrinsic or instrinsic motivational approach are explored. A general model of the energy system is employed to illustrate that changes in the informational environment must be accompanied by changes in the institutional environment if pro-conservation attitudes are to be converted into conserving behavior. The case of personal transportation is used to indicate the need for a comprehensive package of measures which not only motivate the consumer but also facilitate and reinforce positive behavior if the dual goals of satisfying personal mobility needs and energy conservation are to be satisfied.

  7. 78 FR 79419 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Effect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Revised Estimates of the Social Cost of Carbon AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW... benefits of reductions in CO 2 emissions associated with energy conservation standards using the May 2013...

  8. 75 FR 22584 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedure AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision...

  9. 75 FR 9120 - Energy Conservation Program: Public Meeting and Availability of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AB85 Energy Conservation Program: Public Meeting and Availability of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Date Change AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed rulemaking; date...

  10. 75 FR 45623 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Residential Refrigerator and Refrigerator-Freezer Test Procedure AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision...

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation site networks under climate change: accounting for uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Robert; Crosby, Mike; Huntley, Brian; Hole, David G; Butchart, Stuart H M; Collingham, Yvonne; Kalra, Mohit; Rajkumar, Jagadish; Rahmani, Asad; Pandey, Mitra; Gurung, Hum; Trai, Le Trong; Van Quang, Nguyen; Willis, Stephen G

    2013-04-01

    We forecasted potential impacts of climate change on the ability of a network of key sites for bird conservation (Important Bird Areas; IBAs) to provide suitable climate for 370 bird species of current conservation concern in two Asian biodiversity hotspots: the Eastern Himalaya and Lower Mekong. Comparable studies have largely not accounted for uncertainty, which may lead to inappropriate conclusions. We quantified the contribution of four sources of variation (choice of general circulation models, emission scenarios and species distribution modelling methods and variation in species distribution data) to uncertainty in forecasts and tested if our projections were robust to these uncertainties. Declines in the availability of suitable climate within the IBA network by 2100 were forecast as 'extremely likely' for 45% of species, whereas increases were projected for only 2%. Thus, we predict almost 24 times as many 'losers' as 'winners'. However, for no species was suitable climate 'extremely likely' to be completely lost from the network. Considerable turnover (median = 43%, 95% CI = 35-69%) in species compositions of most IBAs were projected by 2100. Climatic conditions in 47% of IBAs were projected as 'extremely likely' to become suitable for fewer priority species. However, no IBA was forecast to become suitable for more species. Variation among General Circulation Models and Species Distribution Models contributed most to uncertainty among forecasts. This uncertainty precluded firm conclusions for 53% of species and IBAs because 95% confidence intervals included projections of no change. Considering this uncertainty, however, allows robust recommendations concerning the remaining species and IBAs. Overall, while the IBA network will continue to sustain bird conservation, climate change will modify which species each site will be suitable for. Thus, adaptive management of the network, including modified site conservation strategies and facilitating species

  12. Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Emma V.; Gall, Sarah C.; Cousens, Sophie L.; Attrill, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern over global climate change as a result of fossil fuel use has resulted in energy production from renewable sources. Marine renewable energy devices provide clean electricity but can also cause physical disturbance to the local environment. There is a considerable paucity of ecological data at potential marine renewable energy sites that is needed to assess potential future impacts and allow optimal siting of devices. Here, we provide a baseline benthic survey for the Big Russel in Gue...

  13. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  14. 78 FR 62488 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date for the Dehumidifier Test Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AD06 Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date for the Dehumidifier Test Procedure... for the dehumidifier test procedures established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). The proposed amendments would require manufacturers to test using only the active mode provisions in...

  15. 76 FR 12421 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... Walk- In Coolers or Freezers (WICFs) 2. Basic Model Definition for Walk-In Coolers or Freezers (WICFs... forth a variety of provisions designed to improve energy efficiency. Part A of Title III (42 U.S.C. 6291... meets the applicable energy conservation, water conservation, and/or design standard before distributing...

  16. 75 FR 71570 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB99 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts... procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The... BLE test procedure would measure the performance of a ballast while operating a fluorescent lamp...

  17. 75 FR 37593 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners AGENCY... residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners to provide for measurement of standby mode and off mode...

  18. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michae O. Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... In order to explore an alternate energy source, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a study to assess Ghana's wind energy potential. Some areas across the country were found to have enough wind resource for power generation. However, sites for wind farms are not wind speed ...

  19. Energy conversion evolution at lunar polar sites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lunar polar environments have many advantages from the standpoint of energy supply to robotic and human surface bases.Sunlight is nearly continuous and always horizontal at peaks of perpetual light,while waste heat rejection is aided by the existence of cold,permanently shadowed regions nearby.In this paper a ...

  20. A New Energy Conservation Law for Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields and Its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Geyi, Wen

    2016-01-01

    We report a new energy conservation law for time-harmonic electromagnetic fields, which is valid for an arbitrary medium. In contrast to the well-established Poynting theorem for time-harmonic fields, the real part of the new energy conservation law gives an equation for the sum of stored electric and magnetic field energies and the imaginary part involves an equation related to the difference between the dissipated electric and magnetic energies. Universally applicable expressions for both the electric and magnetic field energies have been obtained and demonstrated to be valuable in characterizing the energy storage and transport properties in complex media. For a lossless isotropic and homogeneous medium, the new energy conservation law implies that the stored electromagnetic field energy of a radiating system enclosed by a surface is equal to the total field energy inside the surface subtracted by the energy flowing out of the surface.

  1. Impacts of environmental and utility siting laws on community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senew, M J; Shimamoto, G T; Seymour, D A; Santini, D J

    1978-02-01

    Community Energy Systems provide an interesting energy conservative alternative to the traditional trend of large, central, grid-connected power plant design. The small community energy system (generally smaller than 100 MW), provides for waste heat utilization and utility cogeneration significantly reducing a community's total energy demand. Developers of Community Energy Systems, unfortunately, are faced with a complex of environmental and siting regulations, most of which are aimed at regulating the development and design of large power-generating facilities. Aside from discouraging development of a potentially more economic and environmentally sound approach to power generation, air-pollution regulations discriminate against these smaller systems. Compliance with the many Federal, state and local regulations often make small energy systems uneconomical. This project studies the emissions associated with Community Energy Systems and reviews the Federal, state, and local laws that regulate their design.

  2. On Study of Application of Power Electronical Technology in Field of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ke

    2017-09-01

    aiming at achieving the sustainable development in economy and improving living standard of the residents, the government departments in China have strengthened the promotion of green, low-carbon and sustainable development concepts. Under this context, the energy conservation concept is implemented during the implementation of social production and life activities. Currently, in order to ensure the improvement in social energy conservation benefits, the advanced technologies are applied by China's enterprises and residents. This paper, based on this, discusses the development situations of energy conservation in China, and analyzes the application of power electronical technology in the field of energy conservation, hoping to realize the sustainable development of energy conservation cause in China and to gain high yield.

  3. 76 FR 56126 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J... Standards and Test Procedures AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J...

  4. Case studies in residual use and energy conservation at wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) funded a study to document energy conservation activities and their effects on operation costs, regulatory compliance, and process optimization at several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPS). The purpose of this report is to review the efforts of wastewater treatment Facilities that use residuals as fuels. Case histories are presented for facilities that have taken measures to reduce energy consumption during wastewater treatment. Most of the WWTPs discussed in this report have retrofitted existing facilities to achieve energy conservation. The case studies of energy conservation measures found no effects on the facilities` ability to comply with NPDES permits. Indeed, energy conservation activities enhance environmental compliance in several ways.

  5. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The enclosed work is based on previous research during this fiscal year, contained in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, June 1978. Five subjects were investigated and summaries were published for each subject in separate publications. This publication summarizes policy issues on the five subjects: tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives (economics of garbage collection; mechanical versus home separation of recyclables); policy barriers and investment decisions in industry (methodology for identification of potential barriers to industrial energy conservation; process of industrial investment decision making); energy-efficient recreational travel (information system to promote energy-efficient recreational travel; recreational travel; national importance and individual decision making); energy-efficient buildings (causes of litigation against energy-conservation building codes; description of the building process); and end-use energy-conservation data base and scenaerios (residential; commercial; transportation; and industrial).

  6. Energy conservation behavioural intention: attitudes, subjective norm and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. W. C.; Tanusia, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines the influence of attitude towards energy conservation at home, the attitude in the campus, subjective norm, and self-efficacy on energy conservation behavioural intention among students in a private university using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Data was collected from about 194 students using a questionnaire developed from current literature on TPB. Data analysis using Smart PLS version 3.2.4 found that attitude towards energy conservation at home has an indirect significant influence on attitude towards energy conservation behavioural intention via the mediating effect of attitude towards energy conservation in the campus. Self-efficacy and subjective norm are also positively related to energy conservation intention. The study also indicates the suitability of the TPB in predicting behavioural intention through attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Results suggest that energy education is vital in creating a positive attitude towards energy conservation while facilities managers in institutions need to formulate appropriate policies and regulations to inculcate the right attitude and behaviour towards energy saving.

  7. CONVIRT: a web-based tool for transcriptional regulatory site identification using a conserved virtual chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Taewoo; Lee, Sejoon; Hur, Cheol Goo; Lee, Doheon

    2009-12-31

    Techniques for analyzing protein-DNA interactions on a genome-wide scale have recently established regulatory roles for distal enhancers. However, the large sizes of higher eukaryotic genomes have made identification of these elements difficult. Information regarding sequence conservation, exon annotation and repetitive regions can be used to reduce the size of the search region. However, previously developed resources are inadequate for consolidating such information. CONVIRT is a web resource for the identification of transcription factor binding sites and also features comparative genomics. Genomic information on ortholog-independent conserved regions, exons, repeats and sequences is integrated into the virtual chromosome, and statistically over-represented single or combinations of transcription factor binding sites are sought. CONVIRT provides regulatory network analysis for several organisms with long promoter regions and permits inter-species genome alignments. CONVIRT is freely available at http://biosoft.kaist. ac.kr/convirt.

  8. Energy, Metaphysics, and Space: Ernst Mach's Interpretation of Energy Conservation as the Principle of Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzardi, Luca

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses Ernst Mach's interpretation of the principle of energy conservation (EC) in the context of the development of energy concepts and ideas about causality in nineteenth-century physics and theory of science. In doing this, it focuses on the close relationship between causality, energy conservation and space in Mach's antireductionist view of science. Mach expounds his thesis about EC in his first historical-epistemological essay, Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes von der Erhaltung der Arbeit (1872): far from being a new principle, it is used from the early beginnings of mechanics independently from other principles; in fact, EC is a pre-mechanical principle which is generally applied in investigating nature: it is, indeed, nothing but a form of the principle of causality. The paper focuses on the scientific-historical premises and philosophical underpinnings of Mach's thesis, beginning with the classic debate on the validity and limits of the notion of cause by Hume, Kant, and Helmholtz. Such reference also implies a discussion of the relationship between causality on the one hand and space and time on the other. This connection plays a major role for Mach, and in the final paragraphs its importance is argued in order to understand his antireductionist perspective, i.e. the rejection of any attempt to give an ultimate explanation of the world via reduction of nature to one fundamental set of phenomena.

  9. [Thermal energy utilization analysis and energy conservation measures of fluidized bed dryer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liming; Zhao, Zhengsheng

    2012-07-01

    To propose measures for enhancing thermal energy utilization by analyzing drying process and operation principle of fluidized bed dryers,in order to guide optimization and upgrade of fluidized bed drying equipment. Through a systematic analysis on drying process and operation principle of fluidized beds,the energy conservation law was adopted to calculate thermal energy of dryers. The thermal energy of fluidized bed dryers is mainly used to make up for thermal consumption of water evaporation (Qw), hot air from outlet equipment (Qe), thermal consumption for heating and drying wet materials (Qm) and heat dissipation to surroundings through hot air pipelines and cyclone separators. Effective measures and major approaches to enhance thermal energy utilization of fluidized bed dryers were to reduce exhaust gas out by the loss of heat Qe, recycle dryer export air quantity of heat, preserve heat for dry towers, hot air pipes and cyclone separators, dehumidify clean air in inlets and reasonably control drying time and air temperature. Such technical parameters such air supply rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, material temperature and outlet temperature and humidity are set and controlled to effectively save energy during the drying process and reduce the production cost.

  10. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.][Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Deringer, J.J. [Deringer Group, Riva, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  11. 77 FR 4698 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure and Energy Conservation Standard for Set-Top Boxes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J... Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.... Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Request for...

  12. The Conservation Measures of NATURA 2000 "Someşul Rece" Site Management Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Proorocu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Natura 2000 is a European network of protected natural areas including a significant number of natural habitats and wild species for the interest of comunnity. Natura 2000 ROSCI 0233 "Someşul Rece"  Site is situated in the south-western county of Cluj, on the administrative territory of Măguri-Răcătău and Ierii Valley. It has an area of 8529 ha and is a framed area of the Apuseni Mountains Alpine bioregions. The site preserves the following natural habitats: Rough mountain beech forests Asperulo-Fagetum, beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum, forests acidophilous Picea Abies mountain region and protect important species and active fish fauna, flora and fauna of the Apuseni Mountains. It is also home for several species (mammals, amphibians, fish and beetles like: lynx, wolf or otter. The conservation measures of Natura 2000 Somesul Rece Site, elaborated in order to protect the habitats and the species are part of the management plan. These measures were developed in close connection with the conservation status of habitats and species, but also taking into account the needs of local communities. These measures include: maintaining habitats in favorable conservation status; maintain the current habitat areas; preventing and combating poaching and overfishing;ensuring peace in areas of rock (for large mammals.

  13. 78 FR 73355 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... investing in energy efficiency; and (5) encouraging the use of renewable energy fuels for either Demand side..., RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of green house gases with energy efficiency improvements...

  14. ERIC Abstracts: ERIC Document Resumes on Energy Conservation and the Schools ERIC Abstract Series, Number 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC. National Academy for School Executives.

    Documents previously announced in Resources in Education (RIE) concerning energy conservation discuss the current energy crisis and its implications for the public schools, offer practical suggestions for reducing energy consumption, and examine the efficiency of various energy systems. The index terms used to select the documents are…

  15. 78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact... (RUS) has made a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for implementing its new Energy Efficiency... 12 to authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to reduce demand on electric...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Energy Program Conservation Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 436 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Pt... present management systems incorporate these elements. (1) Top Management Control. Top management must have a personal and sustained commitment to the program, provide active direction and motivation, and...

  17. 75 FR 19953 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field Energy Consumption of Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy...

  18. On the area of tension between energy conservation, environmental impact and IAQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolloos, M.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of conserving energy in the building sector, the Dutch Building Regulations incorporate requirements for the energy performance of houses and utility building. Use of the energy performance coefficient (EPC, see Box 1) offers excellent opportunities for enhancing the energy performance

  19. Norway encourages energy conservation in Serbia; Norge fremmer ENOEK i Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2003-07-01

    There is a great potential in Serbia for energy conservation and new technology after years of war. In practice, Serbia has lost 10 - 15 years and much must be rebuilt from the ground. Norway is working with Serbia to develop Serb know-how in the field of energy conservation. This involves consultative advice to the energy department in Belgrade for the development of a new energy act and the preparation of an energy report to the parliamentary assembly. There is also cooperation with the universities in order to establish four regional centres for energy conservation, and with several industrial companies to develop and implement definite investment projects. In Norway, several models for local energy conservation centres have been tried out during the last 20 years. These centres used to be financed by a mark-up on the electric tariff and they offered subsidized energy conservation counselling to the energy consumers. However, this did not work out well and the centres were removed from the electricity companies and now have to compete with other consultants to deliver the demanded services to the industries and private consumers. This false step will not be repeated in Serbia, where the energy conservation centres will be independent, commercial centres from the beginning. In developing this system, experience is drawn upon from Norwegian projects in many of the major cities in North-Western Russia.

  20. The Pacific Marine Energy Center - South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellin, Dan; Batten, Belinda

    2018-02-07

    The overall goal of this project was to build on existing progress to establish the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) as the nation's first fully permitted test site for wave energy converter arrays. Specifically, it plays an essential role in reducing levelized cost of energy for the wave energy industry by providing both the facility and resources to addres the challenges of cost reduction.

  1. Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul Essel; Eric T Glover; Serwaa Yeboah; Yaw Adjei-Kyereme; Israel Nutifafa Doyi Yawo; Mawutoli Nyarku; Godfred S Asumadu-Sakyi; Gustav Kudjoe Gbeddy; Yvette Agyiriba Agyiri; Evans Mawuli Ameho; Emmanuel Atule Aberikae

    2016-01-01

      Rainfall erosivity is the potential ability for rainfall to cause soil loss. The purpose of this study was to estimate the Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site in order to compute the surface erosion rate...

  2. Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Essel, Paul; Glover, Eric T; Yeboah, Serwaa; Adjei-Kyereme, Yaw; Yawo, Israel Nutifafa Doyi; Nyarku, Mawutoli; Asumadu-Sakyi, Godfred S; Gbeddy, Gustav Kudjoe; Agyiri, Yvette Agyiriba; Ameho, Evans Mawuli; Aberikae, Emmanuel Atule

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall erosivity is the potential ability for rainfall to cause soil loss. The purpose of this study was to estimate the rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site in order to compute the surface erosion rate...

  3. Generalization and extension of the law of acoustic energy conservation in a nonuniform flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M. K.

    1986-01-01

    An exact conservation equation is derived which generalizes the familiar acoustic energy equations. The new relation is valid for arbitrary disturbances to a viscous, compressible flow. It is suggested by a development of the acoustic energy equation by means of a regular perturbation expansion of the general energy equation of fluid mechanics. A perturbation energy density and flux are defined and identified as the exact physical quantities whose leading order perturbation representations are the usual acoustic energy density and flux. The conservation equation governing the perturbation energy quantities is shown to yield previously known results for several special cases.

  4. Energy use and conservation in China`s residential and commercial sectors: Patterns, problems, and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, F.

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses the determinants of residential and commercial energy demand, profiles the patterns and problems of energy consumption, and evaluates popular energy conservation measures of the People`s Republic of China. It also discusses technological and institutional opportunities for realizing greater energy conservation. General characteristics related to energy use include: population growth, economic growth, residential and commercial energy, and improved standards of living. Specific end-use areas that are examined in detail are space heating, cooking and water heating, and lighting and appliances.

  5. Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

  6. Energy conservation and circular economy in China's process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huiquan; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Hongbin [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Production Technology of Hydrometallurgy, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100080 (China); Bao, Weijun; Xiu, Caihong [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Production Technology of Hydrometallurgy, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Since energy consumption in process industries accounts for a great proportion of China's total energy consumption, energy conservation becomes the practical choice to reduce the conflict between energy demand and energy supply in China, and therefore, promoting energy conservation is the long-term solution to China's energy and environment problems from the source. In this paper, based on the introduction of the concept of energy consumption status in China's key energy-consuming process industries, the main technical bottlenecks and resource-environment problems were analyzed with special emphasis on energy utilization efficiency, energy consumption mode, and waste emission. As for the measures to resolve these problems, at the policy level, policies and programs of Chinese government related to energy conservation were introduced in combination with China's circular economy structure. At the technical level, the key technologies and research progress to improve energy utilization efficiency, reducing energy consumption, as well as utilizing the resource of discharged wastes were reviewed. Finally, three typical cases of the development of circular economy at three levels, namely the chemical industry, metallurgical industry, and electric power industry, were studied for the enforcement of circular economy and energy conservation in China's process industries. (author)

  7. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government energy management and conservation programs, Fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-06

    This report provides sinformation on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet statutory requirements of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act. It also describes energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Implementation activities undertaken during FY94 by the Federal agencies under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and Executive Orders 12759 and 12902 are also described. During FY94, total (gross) energy consumption of the US Government, including energy consued to produce, process, and transport energy, was 1.72 quadrillion Btu. This represents {similar_to}2.0% of the total 85.34 quads used in US.

  8. Concept Development of Optimal Mine Site Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on early work and concept development for Optimal Mine Site Energy Supply, where the specific energy supply requirements and constraints for mineral production operations are considered against methodologies that have been applied for other sectors and in other energy policy regimes. The primary motivation for this research is to help ensure that Canadian mineral producers will achieve reduced production costs through improvements in the efficiency with which they consume energy resources. Heat has not yet been considered for the mining sector in an integrated manner, which makes polygeneration of great interest. The methodology that optimizes configuration of polygeneration systems for mine sites has not been reported before. The variety of mining circumstances, temporal variations in energy prices, institutional inertia, and conservatism in design for mines are some of the reasons for this. This paper reviews some aspects of precedent energy management practice in mineral operations, which highlights energy challenges characteristic of the sector and sets out the initial formulation of optimal mine site energy supply. The review indicates the additional benefits of energy supply systems for mine sites that concurrently meet all utilities.

  9. Energy potential of biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, Jacob M; Fargione, Joseph E; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Lehman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N) as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha(-1). May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg(-1) and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg(-1), both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing the economic

  10. Energy siting in Utah: a programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, D.L.; Keith, J.E.; Glover, T.F.; Wooldridge, G.L.

    1981-06-01

    Using a conceptual model of a multiple-product firm, the necessary conditions for an optimal input and output allocation were determined for a region constrained by resource availabilities and/or policy constraints. A linear-programing model was developed to determine the optimal allocation of water between agricultural and coal-fired electrical generating entities as well as the trade offs which could occur if electrical generation were increased. Other areas of potential trade offs such as coal source restrictions and air quality regulations were also examined. Coal mining and transportation costs were included as were SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and particulate emission rates on a coal and plant basis. Few trade-offs between electrical power generation and irrigated agriculture were noted. However, substantial changes within the energy sector were discovered as coal capacities and air-quality standards were changed. Net revenues declined sharply as air costs after and/or pollution and coal-capacity restrictions were imposed and/or increased. It was determined that substantial changes in regional economic activity occurred as a result of these restrictions on development.

  11. Presenting Pompeii: Steps towards Reconciling Conservation and Tourism at an Ancient Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Wallace

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mass tourism can have many negative impacts on archaeological sites. As tourism increases, so does the need to actively manage these concerns. At the archaeological site of Pompeii this is particularly evident as tourism and its physical impact increase each year. This paper begins with a historical overview of the development of Pompeii as an archaeological site and heritage attraction and goes on to present the preliminary results of research into how presentation and interpretation can be used as a tool for site conservation and preservation at Pompeii. In 2011, extensive visitor observations and movement mapping were carried out to understand how visitor behaviours impact the site and how visitors move throughout the site. In depth interviews were also conducted with visitors to understand why they visit Pompeii and what they want from the experience. The results have provided a starting point for understanding how to develop a sustainable interpretation and presentation strategy that utilises the vast site more effectively and provides a better visitor experience.

  12. Technology application analyses at five Department of Energy Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), a division of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., managing contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was tasked by the United States Air Force (USAF) through an Interagency Agreement between DOE and the USAF, to provide five Technology Application Analysis Reports to the USAF. These reports were to provide information about DOE sites that have volatile organic compounds contaminating soil or ground water and how the sites have been remediated. The sites were using either a pump-and-treat technology or an alternative to pump-and-treat. The USAF was looking at the DOE sites for lessons learned that could be applied to Department of Defense (DoD) problems in an effort to communicate throughout the government system. The five reports were part of a larger project undertaken by the USAF to look at over 30 sites. Many of the sites were DoD sites, but some were in the private sector. The five DOE projects selected to be reviewed came from three sites: the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Kansas City Site, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). SRS and LLNL provided two projects each. Both provided a standard pump-and-treat application as well as an innovative technology that is an alternative to pump-and-treat. The five reports on these sites have previously been published separately. This volume combines them to give the reader an overview of the whole project.

  13. Human Activities in Natura 2000 Sites: A Highly Diversified Conservation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiafouli, Maria A.; Apostolopoulou, Evangelia; Mazaris, Antonios D.; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.; Drakou, Evangelia G.; Pantis, John D.

    2013-05-01

    The Natura 2000 network was established across the European Union's (EU) Member States with the aim to conserve biodiversity, while ensuring the sustainability of human activities. However, to what kind and to what extent Natura 2000 sites are subject to human activities and how this varies across Member States remains unspecified. Here, we analyzed 111,269 human activity records from 14,727 protected sites in 20 Member States. The frequency of occurrence of activities differs among countries, with more than 86 % of all sites being subjected to agriculture or forestry. Activities like hunting, fishing, urbanization, transportation, and tourism are more frequently recorded in south European sites than in northern or eastern ones. The observed variations indicate that Natura 2000 networks are highly heterogeneous among EU Member States. Our analysis highlights the importance of agriculture in European landscapes and indicates possible targets for policy interventions at national, European, or "sub-European" level. The strong human presence in the Natura 2000 network throughout Member States, shows that conservation initiatives could succeed only by combining social and ecological sustainability and by ensuring the integration of policies affecting biodiversity.

  14. Examination of commercial aviation operational energy conservation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    Forty-seven fuel conservation strategies are identified for commercial aviation and the fuel saving potential, costs, constraints, and current implementation levels of these options are examined. This assessment is based on a comprehensive review of published data and discussions with representatives from industry and government. Analyses were performed to quantify the fuel saving potential of each option, and to assess the fuel savings achieved to date by the airline industry. Those options requiring further government support for option implementation were identified, rated, and ranked in accordance with a rating methodology developed in the study. Finally, recommendations are made for future government efforts in the area of fuel conservation in commercial aviation.

  15. Violation of unitarity by Hawking radiation does not violate energy-momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje, E-mail: hnikolic@irb.hr [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Bošković Institute, P.O.B. 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-04-01

    An argument by Banks, Susskind and Peskin (BSP), according to which violation of unitarity would violate either locality or energy-momentum conservation, is widely believed to be a strong argument against non-unitarity of Hawking radiation. We find that the whole BSP argument rests on the crucial assumption that the Hamiltonian is not highly degenerate, and point out that this assumption is not satisfied for systems with many degrees of freedom. Using Lindblad equation, we show that high degeneracy of the Hamiltonian allows local non-unitary evolution without violating energy-momentum conservation. Moreover, since energy-momentum is the source of gravity, we argue that energy-momentum is necessarily conserved for a large class of non-unitary systems with gravity. Finally, we explicitly calculate the Lindblad operators for non-unitary Hawking radiation and show that they conserve energy-momentum.

  16. Violation of unitarity by Hawking radiation does not violate energy-momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Bošković Institute, P.O.B. 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-04-02

    An argument by Banks, Susskind and Peskin (BSP), according to which violation of unitarity would violate either locality or energy-momentum conservation, is widely believed to be a strong argument against non-unitarity of Hawking radiation. We find that the whole BSP argument rests on the crucial assumption that the Hamiltonian is not highly degenerate, and point out that this assumption is not satisfied for systems with many degrees of freedom. Using Lindblad equation, we show that high degeneracy of the Hamiltonian allows local non-unitary evolution without violating energy-momentum conservation. Moreover, since energy-momentum is the source of gravity, we argue that energy-momentum is necessarily conserved for a large class of non-unitary systems with gravity. Finally, we explicitly calculate the Lindblad operators for non-unitary Hawking radiation and show that they conserve energy-momentum.

  17. Conservation voltage regulation (CVR) applied to energy savings by voltage-adjusting equipment through AMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, B.-R.; Chang, C.-A.; Huang, P.-Y.; Kuo, C.-H.; Ye, Z.-J.; Shen, B.-C.; Chen, B.-K.

    2017-11-01

    Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) includes peak demand reduction, energy conservation, carbon emission reduction, and electricity bill reduction. This paper analyzes the energy-reduction of Siwei Feeders with applying CVR, which are situated in Penghu region and equipped with smart meters. Furthermore, the applicable voltage reduction range for the feeders will be explored. This study will also investigate how the CVR effect and energy conservation are improved with the voltage control devices integrated. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the Taiwan Power Company to promote and implement voltage reduction and energy conservation techniques. This study is expected to enhance the energy-reduction performance of the Penghu Low Carbon Island Project.

  18. Energy conservation manual for builders in the Mid-Columbia Basin area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucchi, R.P.; Nieves, L.A.; Hopp, W.J.

    1981-03-01

    Results of a comprehensive cost-effectiveness evaluation of energy conservation measures currently available for use in typical residential buildings are presented. Section 2 discusses construction techniques for energy-efficient buildings and presents estimates of the cost of incorporating the conservation measures in the prototype building, the resultant annual energy savings, and the value of that annual energy savings based upon typical regional fuel prices. In Section 3 this information is summarized to prioritize conservation investments according to their economic effectiveness and offer general recommendations to home builders. Appendix A contains detailed information pertaining to the energy consumption calculations. Appendix B presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of a detail cash flow analysis of each of the conservation items for which sufficient performance and cost data are currently available. (MCW)

  19. Energy conserving norms for the solution of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, M. D.; Plemmons, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The hyperbolic system of partial differential equations with a real constant square coefficient matrix A is considered. The problem of finding an energy conserving norm for the solution of the system is reduced to the problem of characterizing those matrices appearing in the boundary conditions which satisfy two specific matrix equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the coefficient matrix A and the matrices appearing in boundary conditions are derived for an energy conserving norm. The conditions serve as criteria on a given system which determine whether or not the solution will have its energy conserved in some norm. Examples of specific systems and boundary conditions are also provided.

  20. Barriers to the adoption of energy-conserving technologies in the textile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Zussman, S.K.

    1979-09-01

    An overview of the textile industry and a discussion of energy-conserving technologies currently available at the pilot-demonstration stage are presented. Existing and potential barriers to the adoption of these technologies in the textile industry identified are: economic; technical acceptance; conflict between commitments of capital for compliance with environmental and health regulations and for investment in energy conservation measures; and a lack of information and technical expertise. Possible measures to eliminate barriers to the implementation of energy-conserving technologies are discussed. (MCW)

  1. Bird diversity and the conservation value of a new Ramsar site: Guangdong Haifeng Wetlands, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Jiang, Zhigang; Zhang, Chunlan; Xiao, Feng; Hu, Huijian

    2011-09-01

    Wetlands are critical habitats for birds. However, wetlands are being degraded at an accelerating rate due to global human activity, and a disproportionate fraction of wetland-dependent bird species are in decline. We evaluated the conservation value of a new Ramsar site, Guangdong Haifeng Wetlands, China, for birds, by comparing bird communities (using line transect data) in 3 different districts: Gongping, Dongguan Lian'anwei and Dahu. We recorded 139 species of birds, including 26 species that are protected at a national level. Dahu had the highest species richness and diversity, whereas Dongguan Lian'anwei had the highest abundance of birds and the lowest species diversity. Finally, Gongping had both the lowest species richness and the lowest abundance. The endemism of constituent species differed among districts, and the bird communities were complementary. There were significant seasonal differences in the species richness and the number of individuals. Spring had the highest species richness and diversity. The present study identifies the high conservation value of Haifeng Wetlands for both waterbirds and terrestrial birds. Our findings suggest that conservation efforts in Haifeng Wetlands and other wetlands should focus not only on wintering migratory birds, but also on resident birds. To accomplish effective conservation, we should consider the reserve and surrounding wetlands as a whole, incorporating ecological research, education and local economic development. © 2011 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  2. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  3. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  4. Energy conservation for a sustainable energy supply; Energiebesparing voor een duurzame energievoorziening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijers, F.; Kampman, B.; Bennink, D.; Bles, M.; Van Lieshout, M.; Schepers, B.

    2013-05-15

    Options available for improving energy efficiency in the Netherlands are listed and discussed. As detailed in this report, there is still substantial scope for reducing energy consumption in the production and use of energy carriers, much of it not only attractive from the perspective of society as a whole but also profitable for the actors concerned. By exploiting these opportunities, sustainability targets can be cost-effectively met. The report examines why so much potential is still not being utilised and how this can be remedied. Following a description of the potential for energy conservation, a package of smart, effective policies is recommended to secure this potential [Dutch] De mogelijkheden van energiebesparing in Nederland zijn in kaart gebracht. In deze notitie wordt aangetoond dat bij energiebesparing bij het gebruik en bij de productie van energiedragers nog veel onbenut, maar maatschappelijk aantrekkelijk potentieel ligt, waarvan een groot deel rendabel is. Benutting daarvan leidt ertoe dat de duurzaamheidsdoelen op een kosteneffectieve manier behaald kunnen worden. We hebben onderzocht waarom veel potentieel nu niet benut wordt en hoe dat wel kan gebeuren. Deze analyse beschrijft het besparingspotentieel en biedt voorstellen voor een pakket aan slimme, effectieve beleidsinstrumenten om dit potentieel te realiseren: door inzet van verplichtingen en door energiebesparing aantrekkelijker te maken.

  5. Energy conservation measures in buildings heated by district heating - A local energy system perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difs, Kristina; Trygg, Louise [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Bennstam, Marcus; Nordenstam, Lena [Tekniska Verken Linkoeping AB, Box 1500, SE-581 15 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    The extensive energy use in the European building sector creates opportunities for implementing energy conservation measures (ECMs) in residential buildings. If ECM are implemented in buildings that are connected to a district heating (DH) system, the operation of DH plants may be affected, which in turn may change both revenue and electricity production in cogeneration plants. In this study a local energy system, containing a DH supplier and its customer, has been analysed when implementing three ECMs: heat load control, attic insulation and electricity savings. This study is unique since it analyses economic and CO{sub 2} impacts of the ECMs in both a user and a supplier perspective in combination with a deregulated European electricity market. Results show that for the local energy system electricity savings should be prioritised over a reduction in DH use, both from an economic and a global CO{sub 2} perspective. For the DH supplier attic insulation demonstrates unprofitable results, even though this measure affects the expensive peak load boilers most. Heat load control is however financially beneficial for both the DH supplier and the residences. Furthermore, the relation between the fixed and variable DH costs is highlighted as a key factor for the profitability of the ECMs. (author)

  6. Insect Diversity of the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar Site: An Important Site for Biodiversity Conservation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosina Kyerematen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of species diversity of insects of the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site, with special reference to species of conservation concern, was carried out as part of an evaluation of changes in the ecological character of the site, twenty years after designation. Samples were taken from two protected areas within the Ramsar site, in the wet (July, dry (January, and intermediate (June seasons. Community diversity was characterized in terms of number of species accumulated, species richness, Shannon-Weiner indices of diversity, Pielou’s evenness, and Bray-Curtis similarity. A total of 134 families from 19 insect orders were recorded during the entire study period. Yenku Block A recorded the highest species richness (98 and the highest diversity index (14.97, corroborated by the highest Margalef index of 3.82 with a relatively even distribution of species (0.834 during the intermediate season, and recorded the lowest diversity (6.957 and species richness (41 during the dry season. On the whole, the Muni-Pomadzi Ramsar site showed a high diversity of insect species. The presence of species such as Junonia oenone and Papilio demodocus which are specialized in degraded habitats at Yenku Block A in large numbers is a clear indication of degradation of the forest, but the presence of forest species such as Salamis anacardii and Euphaedra crokeri is an indication that some parts of this reserve are still in good shape. A comparison of the butterfly species recorded with findings in a 1997 survey showed a marked increase in numbers from 75 to 130; this may be attributed to the habitat changes that have taken place at the site offering more diverse habitat types.

  7. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

    2014-03-26

    India is experiencing unprecedented construction boom. The country doubled its floorspace between 2001 and 2005 and is expected to add 35 billion m2 of new buildings by 2050. Buildings account for 35% of total final energy consumption in India today, and building energy use is growing at 8% annually. Studies have shown that carbon policies will have little effect on reducing building energy demand. Chaturvedi et al. predicted that, if there is no specific sectoral policies to curb building energy use, final energy demand of the Indian building sector will grow over five times by the end of this century, driven by rapid income and population growth. The growing energy demand in buildings is accompanied by a transition from traditional biomass to commercial fuels, particularly an increase in electricity use. This also leads to a rapid increase in carbon emissions and aggravates power shortage in India. Growth in building energy use poses challenges to the Indian government. To curb energy consumption in buildings, the Indian government issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which applies to commercial buildings with a connected load of 100 kW or 120kVA. It is predicted that the implementation of ECBC can help save 25-40% of energy, compared to reference buildings without energy-efficiency measures. However, the impact of ECBC depends on the effectiveness of its enforcement and compliance. Currently, the majority of buildings in India are not ECBC-compliant. The United Nations Development Programme projected that code compliance in India would reach 35% by 2015 and 64% by 2017. Whether the projected targets can be achieved depends on how the code enforcement system is designed and implemented. Although the development of ECBC lies in the hands of the national government – the Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the Ministry of Power, the adoption and implementation of ECBC largely relies on state and local governments. Six years after ECBC

  8. LRR conservation mapping to predict functional sites within protein leucine-rich repeat domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helft

    Full Text Available Computational prediction of protein functional sites can be a critical first step for analysis of large or complex proteins. Contemporary methods often require several homologous sequences and/or a known protein structure, but these resources are not available for many proteins. Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs are ligand interaction domains found in numerous proteins across all taxonomic kingdoms, including immune system receptors in plants and animals. We devised Repeat Conservation Mapping (RCM, a computational method that predicts functional sites of LRR domains. RCM utilizes two or more homologous sequences and a generic representation of the LRR structure to identify conserved or diversified patches of amino acids on the predicted surface of the LRR. RCM was validated using solved LRR+ligand structures from multiple taxa, identifying ligand interaction sites. RCM was then used for de novo dissection of two plant microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP receptors, EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR and FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2. In vivo testing of Arabidopsis thaliana EFR and FLS2 receptors mutagenized at sites identified by RCM demonstrated previously unknown functional sites. The RCM predictions for EFR, FLS2 and a third plant LRR protein, PGIP, compared favorably to predictions from ODA (optimal docking area, Consurf, and PAML (positive selection analyses, but RCM also made valid functional site predictions not available from these other bioinformatic approaches. RCM analyses can be conducted with any LRR-containing proteins at www.plantpath.wisc.edu/RCM, and the approach should be modifiable for use with other types of repeat protein domains.

  9. Evaluation of selected near-term energy-conservation options for the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Colsher, C.S.; Hamilton, R.W.; Buehring, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    This report evaluates the potential for implementation of near-term energy-conservation practices for the residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, transportation, and utility sectors of the economy in twelve states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The information used to evaluate the magnitude of achievable energy savings includes regional energy use, the regulatory/legislative climate relating to energy conservation, technical characteristics of the measures, and their feasibility of implementation. This work is intended to provide baseline information for an ongoing regional assessment of energy and environmental impacts in the Midwest. 80 references.

  10. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loots, G; Ovcharenko, I

    2006-08-08

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. We have created a database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes entitled ECRbase that is constructed from a collection of pairwise vertebrate genome alignments produced by the ECR Browser database. ECRbase features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes presented in the database. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in all ECRs and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and two pufferfish genomes. It is freely accessible at http://ECRbase.dcode.org.

  11. Bainbridge Energy Challenge. Energy efficiency and conservation block grant (EECBG) - Better buildings neighborhood program. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Yvonne X.

    2014-02-14

    RePower Bainbridge and Bremerton (RePower) is a residential energy-efficiency and conservation program designed to foster a sustainable, clean, and renewable energy economy. The program was a 3.5 year effort in the cities of Bainbridge Island and Bremerton, Washington, to conserve and reduce energy use, establish a trained home performance trade ally network, and create local jobs. RePower was funded through a $4.8 million grant from the US Department of Energy, Better Buildings Program. The grant’s performance period was August 1, 2010 through March 30, 2014.

  12. Monuments and energy efficiency between conservation and modernization; Denkmal und Energieeffizienz zwischen Konservierung und Anpassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Roswitha [LWL - Amt fuer Denkmalpflege, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Protection of monuments does not necessarily mean conservation of buildings in their original state, but modernization with a view to energy conservation should be an important goal as well. The contribution shows how the two goals can be combined. (orig./AKB)

  13. 78 FR 13566 - Energy Conservation Program for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps: Public Meeting and Availability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC36 Energy Conservation Program for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps: Public Meeting... conservation standards for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. The meeting will cover the analytical... High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, EERE-2010-BT-STD-0043 and/or RIN 1904-AC36, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  14. 76 FR 72332 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... the November 2007 ANOPR) concerning energy conservation standards for commercial clothes washers and... conservation standards rulemaking. AHAM commented that it opposes the inclusion of thermal elements designed... including microwave ovens with thermal elements in the definition of microwave ovens, that same unworkable...

  15. On Representations and Integrability of Mathematical Structures in Energy-Conserving Physical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalsmo, Morten; Schaft, Arjan van der

    1998-01-01

    In the present paper we elaborate on the underlying Hamiltonian structure of interconnected energy-conserving physical systems. It is shown that a power-conserving interconnection of port-controlled generalized Hamiltonian systems leads to an implicit generalized Hamiltonian system, and a

  16. 77 FR 3404 - Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... standards for automatic commercial ice makers; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE is using...] RIN 1904-AC39 Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers: Public Meeting and... conservation standards for automatic commercial ice makers. In addition, DOE encourages written comments on...

  17. Idaho Energy Conservation Resource Guide for Health Education, Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Pete; And Others

    This manual is a resource guide on energy conservation for the teaching of health education. It contains 12 student activities which are grouped into four goal oriented units. The main objectives of the project are to increase the student's understanding that: (1) Natural laws limit energy availability; (2) Energy consumption affects both man and…

  18. Idaho Energy Conservation Resource Guide for Mathematics, Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, John; And Others

    This manual is a resource guide on energy conservation for teaching mathematics from grades seven to twelve. It contains 25 student activities which are grouped into four goal oriented units. The main objectives of the project are to increase the student's understanding that: (1) Natural laws limit energy availability; (2) Energy consumption…

  19. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 3 / Wednesday, January 5, 2011... Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  1. Applying species-energy theory to conservation: A case study for North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Bowers Phillips; Andrew J. Hansen; Curtis H. Flather; Jim Robinson-Cox

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem energy is now recognized as a primary correlate and potential driver of global patterns of species richness. The increasingly well-tested species-energy relationship is now ripe for application to conservation, and recent advances in satellite technology make this more feasible. While the correlates for the species-energy relationship have been addressed many...

  2. 76 FR 25211 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts AGENCY: Office of Energy... Energy (DOE) issues a final rule amending the existing test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts at... operation. The test procedure specifies use of a fluorescent lamp load during testing, allowing ballasts to...

  3. An approach to enhance the conservation-compatibility of solar energy development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Richard Cameron

    Full Text Available The rapid pace of climate change poses a major threat to biodiversity. Utility-scale renewable energy development (>1 MW capacity is a key strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but development of those facilities also can have adverse effects on biodiversity. Here, we examine the synergy between renewable energy generation goals and those for biodiversity conservation in the 13 M ha Mojave Desert of the southwestern USA. We integrated spatial data on biodiversity conservation value, solar energy potential, and land surface slope angle (a key determinant of development feasibility and found there to be sufficient area to meet renewable energy goals without developing on lands of relatively high conservation value. Indeed, we found nearly 200,000 ha of lower conservation value land below the most restrictive slope angle (<1%; that area could meet the state of California's current 33% renewable energy goal 1.8 times over. We found over 740,000 ha below the highest slope angle (<5%--an area that can meet California's renewable energy goal seven times over. Our analysis also suggests that the supply of high quality habitat on private land may be insufficient to mitigate impacts from future solar projects, so enhancing public land management may need to be considered among the options to offset such impacts. Using the approach presented here, planners could reduce development impacts on areas of higher conservation value, and so reduce trade-offs between converting to a green energy economy and conserving biodiversity.

  4. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  5. Household energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Northwest: Tracking changes between 1983 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Shankle, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed the changes in consumer energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Pacific Northwest between 1983 and 1985. The information was collected through stratified random telephone surveys on 2000 and 1058 households, respectively, for 1983 and 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This report covers four topic areas and tests two hypotheses. The topics are as follows: consumer perceptions and attitudes of energy use and conservation in the home; consumer perceptions of energy institutions and other entities; past and intended conservation actions and investments; and segmentation of homeowners into market prospect groups. The hypotheses tested are as follows: (1) There has been no change in the size and psychographic make-up of the original three market segments found in the 1983 survey analysis; and (2) image profiles of institutions with respect to familiarity, overall impression, and believability as sources of energy conservation information remain unchanged since 1983.

  6. Barriers connected with certifying or listing of energy-conserving products used in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-05-01

    The report assesses the availability and implementation of energy conservation technology, particularly in the residential sector. Of concern is that energy-conserving innovations are restricted and, in some cases, blocked entirely from reaching the marketplace by a variety of institutional barriers. An ERDA-sponsored project to identify practical policy or program options whose implementation would increase the rate and degree of market penetration of these products is summarized. From research performed over a five-month period, the report describes the results of a survey of energy-conserving products and certification practices and procedures; energy-conserving products identified as being restricted; identification and analysis of the effects of these barriers; and the recommendations of policies and programs to mitigate the effects of the identified barriers. (MCW)

  7. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... energy conservation standards adopted pursuant to EPCA, and for making representations about the... product literature, product markings, product marketing, or product installation and operation..., and allow for an accurate representation of efficiency of a wide range of different water heaters...

  8. The Ecological Relevance of Sleep: The Trade-off between Sleep, Memory and Energy Conservation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Timothy C. Roth; Niels C. Rattenborg; Vladimir V. Pravosudov

    2010-01-01

    .... Specifically, we highlight the advantage of using food-caching animals as a system in which a conflict might occur between engaging in sleep for memory/learning and hypothermia/torpor to conserve energy...

  9. Application of Dynamic Energy Budget theory for conservation relevant modelling of Bird life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, C.M.G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Teixeira, C.M.G.L. (2016, Januari 13). Application of Dynamic Energy Budget Theory For Conservation Relevant Modelling of Bird Life Histories. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Prom./coprom.: prof. dr. S.A.L.M. Kooijman & T. Sousa.

  10. A Note on the Conservation of Mechanical Energy and the Galilean Principle of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F. C.; Soares, V.; Tort, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    A reexamination of simple examples that we usually teach to our students in introductory courses is the starting point for a discussion about the principle of conservation of energy and Galilean invariance. (Contains 5 figures.)

  11. Numerical simulation of heat transfer in microchannel using energy conservative dissipative particle dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelei Xie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissipative particle dynamics is a particle-based mesoscopic simulation method. Classic dissipative particle dynamics cannot be used to simulate heat transfer in fluids since the total energy of the system is not conserved. In this article, two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction is first investigated using dissipative particle dynamics with energy conservation. The energy conservative dissipative particle dynamics results are compared with the FLUENT simulation data, and it demonstrates that they are in good agreement with each other. Then, forced convection heat transfers in microchannel of the same wall temperature and different wall temperatures are simulated, respectively, by using periodic boundary condition of dimensionless temperature. The results show that the velocity, temperature, and dimensionless temperature distributions are consistent with theoretical results. Finally, we give a qualitative analysis about the applicability of the energy conservative dissipative particle dynamics approach in simulating flow and heat transfer in rough microchannel.

  12. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  13. Study of energy conservation in selected institutions of higher education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlisin, M.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between 1) energy usage and number of full-time-equivalent students and 2) energy usage and twenty-two selected energy savings measures incorporated by the Illinois public universities in fiscal years 1976 and 1980. The study culminated in the evaluation of the statistical significance and positive or negative relationships of the data through use of the Spearman rho correlation formula. The conclusions of this study were that there was a positive relationship between decreased 1) energy usage and numbers of full-time-equivalent students and decreased 2) energy usage and twenty-two selected energy-savings measures incorporated by the Illinois public universities in fiscal years 1976 and 1980.

  14. Recording, monitoring and managing the conservation of historic sites: a new application for BGS·SIGMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Emily; Smith, Nichola; Lawrie, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The principles behind, and the methods of, digital data capture can be applied across many scientific, and other, disciplines, as can be demonstrated by the use of a custom modified version of the British Geological Survey's System for Integrated Geoscience Mapping, (BGS·SIGMA), for the capture of data for use in the conservation of Scottish built heritage. Historic Environment Scotland (HES), an executive agency of the Scottish Government charged with safeguarding the nation's historic environment, is directly responsible for 345 sites of national significance, most of which are built from stone. In common with many other heritage organisations, HES needs a system that can capture, store and present conservation, maintenance and condition indicator information for single or multiple historic sites; this system would then be used to better target and plan effective programmes of maintenance and repair. To meet this need, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has worked with HES to develop an integrated digital site assessment system that provides a refined survey process for stone-built (and other) historic sites. Based on BGS·SIGMA—an integrated workflow underpinned by a geo-spatial platform for data capture and interpretation—the new system is built on top of ESRI's ArcGIS software, and underpinned by a relational database. Users can, in the field or in the office, populate custom-built data entry forms to record maintenance issues and repair specifications for architectural elements ranging from individual blocks of stone to entire building elevations. Photographs, sketches, and digital documents can be linked to architectural elements to enhance the usability of the data. Predetermined data fields and supporting dictionaries constrain the input parameters, ensuring a high degree of standardisation in the datasets and, therefore, enabling highly consistent data extraction and querying. The GIS presentation of the data provides a powerful and versatile

  15. Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    total 99.84 quads used in the United States. 3 Measured on a Btu-per-gross-square-foot (Btu/ gsf ) basis. 4 For the purposes of the Energy Independence...baseline in terms of British thermal units per gross square foot (Btu/ gsf ) of building area.7 More recently, two major energy bills have been enacted...versus gross building area (Btu/ gsf ). For the energy reduction goals of EPACT and EO13423, some inherently inefficient industrial types of buildings are

  16. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report on Federal Energy Management for Fiscal year (FY) 1992 provides information on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet the statutory requirements of Title V, Part 3, of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 8251-8261, and Title VIII of NECPA, 42 U.S.C. 8287-8287b. This report also describes the energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under the authorization of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6361. Implementation activities undertaken during FY 1992 by the Federal agencies under Executive Order 12759 on Federal Energy Management are also described in this report.

  17. Control Strategies to Conserve Energy in All-Air Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-14

    York, ASHRAE, Inc. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers. "Standards for Natural and Mechanical Ventilation ...or REPoRT a P61mO0 COVERED 1 Control Strategies to Conserve Energy in All-Air Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning THESIS 14Systems o ~~~sGOG...Morrison, William James (M. S., Civil Engineering) Control Strategies to Conserve Energy in All-Air Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems Report

  18. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center, Juneau, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); LoVullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This report summarizes results from the energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center and site in Juneau, Alaska. The assessment is an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted the assessment with U.S. Forest Service personnel August 19-20, 2015, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use.

  19. Energy conservation, how is it possible. A social-psychological research of the promotion of energy conservation by influencing the behavior of households. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midden, C.J.H.

    1981-03-01

    The Energy Study Centre of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN and the Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leyden University, have jointly undertaken a research project on the effectiveness of behavior change strategies to influence the energy use in family households. An overview is presented of the three different approaches to behavior change: information, the approach based on learning principles, and the coercive-approach. A field experiment has been carried out in which the effects of four strategies were tested. These strategies were: 1. general information about how to conserve energy in the home, 2. weekly feedback with respect to the magnitude and financial consequences of the own energy use, 3. weekly feedback with respect to the magnitude and financial consequenses of the own energy use compared with the use of people in comparable conditions (same houses), 4. weekly feedback (comparative) and financial incentives for reduction of energy use. The results indicate that the individual feedback and financial incentives and feedback are effective in reducing energy use, that the comparative feedback is effective under certain conditions and that the general information seems hardly effective. The results have also been related to the attitudes of the residents towards energy conservation.

  20. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  1. Students Reinventing the General Law of Energy Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logman, P S W M

    2014-01-01

    In current education students have difficulty in applying and adapting their conceptions of energy to various situations. This may be due to the fact that the concept of energy is taught as an indisputable fact. Because the new Dutch curriculum for the exact sciences advises a context-based approach

  2. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  3. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  4. Challenges and opportunities for animal conservation from renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Katzner; J.A. Johnson; D.M. Evans; T.W.J. Garner; M.E. Gompper; R. Altwegg; T.A. Branch; I.J. Gordon; N. Pettorelli

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is among the greatest threats confronting both human and natural systems (IPCC, 2007). A substantial component of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is from energy production, generated via the burning of fossil fuels, especially coal, natural gas and refined petroleum. Given that reduction in global energy consumption is unlikely over the next...

  5. Application research on big data in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bingdong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Mei; Yao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of big data age, the energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation is a natural big data industry. The planning, management, decision-making of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation and other aspects should be supported by the analysis and forecasting of large amounts of data. Now, with the development of information technology, such as intelligent city, sensor road and so on, information collection technology in the direction of the Internet of things gradually become popular. The 3G/4G network transmission technology develop rapidly, and a large number of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data is growing into a series with different ways. The government not only should be able to make good use of big data to solve the problem of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation, but also to explore and use a large amount of data behind the hidden value. Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics and application technology of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data, this paper carries out its application research in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry, so as to provide theoretical basis and reference value for low carbon management.

  6. Einstein's physical strategy, energy conservation, symmetries, and stability: "But Grossmann & I believed that the conservation laws were not satisfied"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J. Brian

    2016-05-01

    Recent work on the history of General Relativity by Renn et al. shows that Einstein found his field equations partly by a physical strategy including the Newtonian limit, the electromagnetic analogy, and energy conservation. Such themes are similar to those later used by particle physicists. How do Einstein's physical strategy and the particle physics derivations compare? What energy-momentum complex(es) did he use and why? Did Einstein tie conservation to symmetries, and if so, to which? How did his work relate to emerging knowledge (1911-1914) of the canonical energy-momentum tensor and its translation-induced conservation? After initially using energy-momentum tensors hand-crafted from the gravitational field equations, Einstein used an identity from his assumed linear coordinate covariance xμ‧ = Mνμ xν to relate it to the canonical tensor. Usually he avoided using matter Euler-Lagrange equations and so was not well positioned to use or reinvent the Herglotz-Mie-Born understanding that the canonical tensor was conserved due to translation symmetries, a result with roots in Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Whereas Mie and Born were concerned about the canonical tensor's asymmetry, Einstein did not need to worry because his Entwurf Lagrangian is modeled not so much on Maxwell's theory (which avoids negative-energies but gets an asymmetric canonical tensor as a result) as on a scalar theory (the Newtonian limit). Einstein's theory thus has a symmetric canonical energy-momentum tensor. But as a result, it also has 3 negative-energy field degrees of freedom (later called "ghosts" in particle physics). Thus the Entwurf theory fails a 1920s-1930s a priori particle physics stability test with antecedents in Lagrange's and Dirichlet's stability work; one might anticipate possible gravitational instability. This critique of the Entwurf theory can be compared with Einstein's 1915 critique of his Entwurf theory for not admitting rotating coordinates and not getting

  7. 10 CFR 455.113 - Grantee records and reports for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS... energy conservation measure, including renewable resource measures, shall keep all the records required... identify each building and provide data on energy use for that building for the relevant 12-month period...

  8. Analysis to develop a program for energy conservation in irrigated agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.; Brix, V.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Laughlin, B.M.

    1978-09-01

    It is estimated by the FEA that 0.26 quadrillion Btus of energy is annually required to irrigate crops in the USA. The development of a DOE program for energy conservation in irrigation is described. Information is included on: studies of how this energy consumption can be reduced and by how much; engineering and economic studies of irrigation equipment and methods; proposals for improving the efficiency of pumps and prime movers; projects selected for demonstrating irrigation energy conservation; and recommendations for further research. (LCL)

  9. Behavior change of the Andeno personnel. Energy conservation and higher efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekker, G.B.; Siero, F.W.

    1989-06-21

    From 1979 on Andeno, a DSM Chemicals daughter (DSM is Dutch State Mines), invests in technical measures to save energy. However, also behavioral measures are needed with regard to the personnel. In cooperation with the Foundation Public Relations Energy Netherlands and the Social and Organization Psychology of the University Groningen (Netherlands) an energy conservation campaign was started in 1987. Method and results are shortly discussed. Some recommendations are given. It is concluded that energy conservation by means of personnel participation was a financial success. 1 fig.

  10. Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Erik [Center For Transportation And The Environment, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help other US industries

  11. Energy and economic impact of conservation tillage systems in the Saskatchewan parkland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, A.M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Melfort, SK (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impact that conservation tillage production systems for cereals, oilseeds and pulse crops have on the energy use and economics of individual farm operations. Thirty-six farmers were surveyed to gather information on the advantages and disadvantages of conservation tillage. Inputs associated with the production of spring wheat, canola and field peas for both conservation and conventional tillage systems were used to calculate energy consumed and variable costs for each crop and seeding system. Average fuel consumption of seeding, fertilizing and spraying of crops was reported at 9.5 litres per hectare, 45 per cent of reported conventional fuel consumption. Other benefits of conservation tilling included reduced farm labour and improved soil moisture conservation. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. The potential for energy conservation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsmith, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The period of high oil prices between 1973 and 1985 was traumatic in the United States, as it was also in the rest of the world. It was also instructive in showing the kinds of adaptation that could occur rapidly in a very large industrialized economy. During the period, energy use remained essentially constant while the economy continued to grow. The efficiency of energy use, as indicated by the ratio of energy consumption to gross domestic product, increased by 24 percent. Since 1985 there has been little further improvement in energy efficiency. Can this kind of improvement in efficiency be repeated, and if so, what can make it happen? A number of energy analysts have recently made projections for the next 20 years. The projections all indicate steady increases of about 1 percent per year in the level of energy use. Since these projections assumed that gross domestic product will increase by about 2.3 percent per year, the implication is that energy efficiency is expected to increase slowly during the next two decades.

  13. Conservation of Energy for Crowd Self-Driven Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Marsh, Kerry L

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, how an object moves given external forces is characterized by physical laws. As for creatures like human, their movements are self-driven, and the driving forces are generated by intention of people in a psychological sense. How to capture this characteristic in consistency with known physics laws is meaningful to understand human behaviors. By investigating a Newtonian-like model of a pedestrian, this paper presents a fluid-like model of crowd, showing that the physical concept of energy is also suited for psychological study of human collective behaviors. An energy balance equation is derived to characterize how the energy is transformed between the psychological forms and physical forms: the psychological drive arises as a potential form of energy, which aims at either accelerating or compressing a crowd as transformed to energy in physical forms (e.g., kinetic energy or static energy). If such transformation cannot be realized, disorder of the crowd may appear as a possible result. Based on...

  14. Temporal De-biasing of Behaviour in Residential Energy Consumption: Supporting Conservation Compliance Through Feedback Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Kevin

    Despite years of research in residential energy conservation, means of inducing conservation behaviour through feedback are not well understood. In this thesis I take a novel approach to feedback design by addressing temporal inconsistencies that may hinder individuals from forming an intention to conserve. To help understand conservation compliance strategies, I proposed a visual framework to categorize interventions. I present two design heuristics that were inspired by temporal construal theory (Liberman & Trope, 2003). They were the impetus for the design of three feedback display prototypes, which were examined. Due to methodological limitations, significant improvements to compliance were not found. However, evidence suggests that comparative feedback may have supported reasoning about conservation rather than supporting conservation compliance directly. Future work includes refinement of feedback displays to avoid direct comparisons, exploring the use of nature imagery, and the study of a possible interaction between environmental values and comparative feedback on compliance.

  15. Energy conservation in milk spray-drying plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charan, R. (College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur (India). Dept. of Processing and Food Engineering); Prasad, S. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India))

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model for the energy consumption in spray-drying plant was developed. The model was tested using data collected from a commercial milk spray-drying plant producing 1500 kg/h baby food. The operating parameters were optimized using the gradient projection method for a multi-variable non-linear function subject to inequality constraints. The energy consumption of the milk dryer was compared using the existing and the optimized systems. It was found that there was a saving of 16.8% in the total energy consumption. (author)

  16. Reduction of Annealing Times for Energy Conservation in Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony D. Rollett; Hasso Weiland; Mohammed Alvi; Abhijit Brahme

    2005-08-31

    Carnegie Mellon University was teamed with the Alcoa Technical Center with support from the US Dept. of Energy (Office of Industrial Technology) and the Pennsylvania Technology Investment Authority (PTIA) to make processing of aluminum less costly and more energy efficient. Researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering have investigated how annealing processes in the early stages of aluminum processing affect the structure and properties of the material. Annealing at high temperatures consumes significant amounts of time and energy. By making detailed measurements of the crystallography and morphology of internal structural changes they have generated new information that will provide a scientific basis for shortening processing times and consuming less energy during annealing.

  17. Einstein's Physical Strategy, Energy Conservation, Symmetries, and Stability: "but Grossmann & I believed that the conservation laws were not satisfied"

    CERN Document Server

    Pitts, J Brian

    2016-01-01

    Recent work on the history of General Relativity by Renn, Sauer, Janssen et al. shows that Einstein found his field equations partly by a physical strategy including the Newtonian limit, the electromagnetic analogy, and energy conservation. Such themes are similar to those later used by particle physicists. How do Einstein's physical strategy and the particle physics derivations compare? What energy-momentum complex(es) did he use and why? Did Einstein tie conservation to symmetries, and if so, to which? Einstein used an identity from his assumed linear coordinate covariance x'= Mx to relate it to the canonical tensor. Usually he avoided using matter Euler-Lagrange equations and so was not well positioned to use or reinvent the Herglotz-Mie-Born understanding that the canonical tensor was conserved due to translation symmetries, a result with roots in Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Whereas Mie and Born were concerned about the canonical tensor's asymmetry, Einstein did not need to worry because his Entwurf La...

  18. Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians Energy Conservation and Options Analysis - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Turner

    2008-07-11

    The Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians was awarded a grant through the Department of Energy First Steps program in June of 2006. The primary purpose of the grant was to enable the Tribe to develop energy conservation policies and a strategy for alternative energy resource development. All of the work contemplated by the grant agreement has been completed and the Tribe has begun implementing the resource development strategy through the construction of a 1.0 MW grid-connected photovoltaic system designed to offset a portion of the energy demand generated by current and projected land uses on the Tribe’s Reservation. Implementation of proposed energy conservation policies will proceed more deliberately as the Tribe acquires economic development experience sufficient to evaluate more systematically the interrelationships between conservation and its economic development goals.

  19. Energy conservation in the production of domestic hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency in existing buildings and the construction of energy efficient buildings are discussed with emphasis on water heating. Cost effective measures proposed include fitting an 80-mm insulating jacket to the hot water storage cylinder, using time switches, fitting thermostatic control systems to boiler based central heating, and storing domestic hot water at a lower temperature. Research into the recovery of heat from waste water, the use of cold water detergents, and the use of heat pumps is urged.

  20. LIGSITEcsc: predicting ligand binding sites using the Connolly surface and degree of conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder Michael

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying pockets on protein surfaces is of great importance for many structure-based drug design applications and protein-ligand docking algorithms. Over the last ten years, many geometric methods for the prediction of ligand-binding sites have been developed. Results We present LIGSITEcsc, an extension and implementation of the LIGSITE algorithm. LIGSITEcsc is based on the notion of surface-solvent-surface events and the degree of conservation of the involved surface residues. We compare our algorithm to four other approaches, LIGSITE, CAST, PASS, and SURFNET, and evaluate all on a dataset of 48 unbound/bound structures and 210 bound-structures. LIGSITEcsc performs slightly better than the other tools and achieves a success rate of 71% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion The use of the Connolly surface leads to slight improvements, the prediction re-ranking by conservation to significant improvements of the binding site predictions. A web server for LIGSITEcsc and its source code is available at scoppi.biotec.tu-dresden.de/pocket.