WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy competition acquisition

  1. Competitive Acquisition for Part B Drugs and Biologicals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 303 (d) of the Medicare Modernization Act (see Downloads section below) requires the implementation of a competitive acquisition program (CAP) for Medicare...

  2. The Effects of Incentives in Acquisition Competition on Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    organizational, management, and cultural issues (Madachy, EFFECTS OF INCENTIVES IN ACQUISITION COMPETITION 5 2008, Frangos , 1998). In the SEI’s direct...change from the task force on defense acquisition law and oversight Forrester, J. W. (1971). Principles of systems. Pegasus Communications. Frangos , S

  3. The competitive environment of the North American energy marketing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkin, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Various issues regarding U.S. wholesale energy marketing were discussed with particular emphasis on how energy marketing is changing industries in North America. In 1998, the energy industry reported a growth in revenue of 26 per cent despite declining natural gas prices. It was emphasized that several major competitive issues need to be addressed by industry competitors in order to operate in this unpredictable market. These issues include profitability, market volatility and mergers and acquisitions. This paper presented a list of the top 10 North American Energy marketers in 1998. Although the number of marketers in the energy sector continues to grow, it is expected that the numbers will decline significantly within three years. This will be due mostly to the continuation of major mergers and acquisitions. It was concluded that in general, energy marketing may become an even more attractive industry because of increasing operating margins. 5 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Competition under capacitated dynamic lot-sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Lot-sizing and capacity planning are important supply chain decisions, and competition and cooperation affect the performance of these decisions. In this paper, we look into the dynamic lot-sizing and resource competition problem of an industry consisting of multiple firms. A capacity competition...... production setup, along with inventory carrying costs. The individual production lots of each firm are limited by a constant capacity restriction, which is purchased up front for the planning horizon. The capacity can be purchased from a spot market, and the capacity acquisition cost fluctuates...

  5. Global Trends of International Mergers and Acquisitions in the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Galperina

    2017-03-01

    global energy market (reform, restoration, competition. The tendencies of mergers and acquisitions in energy in the context of the energy markets transformation have been revealed, including, but not limited to: the increase in the number and value of transactions in renewable energy under any scenario of the global energy market development; the cyclical nature of the mergers and acquisitions development; synchronization of mergers and acquisitions cycles in energy and world market of mergers and acquisitions; increase in the number of transactions; involvement of innovative energy companies that implement energy-efficient production, intelligent technologies, and robotics in the consolidation processes; increase in the share of cross-border mergers and acquisitions; accelerated regional growth in the number and value of mergers and acquisitions transactions in the developed countries of Western Europe, North America (USA, Canada, Asia-Pacific (China, India, Australia; the high growth rates of international mergers and acquisitions among developing countries in the countries of Central and South America (Mexico, Brazil, as well as in some African countries where the renewable energy is being rapidly developing (Kenya, South Africa, Nigeria.

  6. 76 FR 9680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration... the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program. DATES: Effective Date: February 22, 2011...-656) by striking title VII (15 U.S.C. 644 note). The repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness...

  7. Competition in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Warren

    1995-01-01

    With changes occurring within both the gas and electricity industries and both sectors undergoing simultaneous reforms at the State and national levels it is timely to look at some major aspects of the energy-reform processes in Australia and to attempt to offer some perspectives from the viewpoint of an industry user of energy. From an industry user's viewpoint there is quantifiable evidence that competition in the energy sector will deliver major economic benefits to industry and the nation. The reform process currently in train will increase Australia's international competitiveness. Commonwealth-State collaboration is useful on economic issues which require a national consistent approach. Many significant and complex arrangement apply to the gas and electricity sectors which add to the complexity of the respective reform processes. More competitive arrangements are therefore required more quickly at several stages of the gas-sector reform process, such as in the commercialization of government utilities, resolving the issue of third-party transmission pricing, and the removal of State governments' impediments to competitive trading. The Hilmer Report on National Competition Policy will help deal with some difficult structural and transitional issues, e.g. third-party access, competitive structures, regulatory regimes, and a consistent national approach.(author). 1 fig., 1 photo

  8. The competitiveness of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, C.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed review of cost factors affecting the final production cost of nuclear KWh is made in comparison with coal, oil, and natural gas. Investment costs are higher for nuclear plants because they require higher quality (design and engineering). Additionaly thereis a 15% of provision cost for spare equipments (e.g. steam generators) with an impact of 5% in KWh cost. Fuel acquisition is a very fluctuant term. Reprocessing would be essential for cost saving. It is estimated for the french case a 30% of use of MOx type fuel. The studies performed taking into account investment, O+M and fuel show a clear competitiveness of nuclear energy. Fuel represents a relatively low part of the total cost, being the initial investment the most important percentage of cost

  9. Energy's role in industrial competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    At a conference on the role of energy in industrial competitiveness, papers were presented on the energy consumer's perspective on energy issues in the mineral and food industries, global perspectives on the role of energy in industrial competitiveness, a supplier's perspective on energy issues in the oil/gas and electric industries, perspectives on environmental issues including climate change, and international partnerships for industrial competitiveness, notably in the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 15 papers from this conference

  10. Energy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.; Flaman, L.; Beigie, C.

    1992-01-01

    Energy efficiency-related programs in two Canadian provinces are reviewed. The Ontario Ministry of Energy has implemented programs to improve industrial energy efficiency in order to contribute to future economic growth. Since 1987, the Industrial Energy Services Program provides energy audits, feasibility analysis grants, and project engineering grants for energy efficiency improvements. Results show that an industrial plant can cut its energy costs by an average of 10% with the proper help. To minimize electricity costs, Ontario Hydro has a demand management program that offers a combination of financial assistance for energy conservation measures, rate incentives, standards and regulation, and fuel substitution. Results in 1992 show 250 MW in saved and shifted load. In Alberta, a TransAlta Utilities program in supply side management has the objective of maximizing the production potential of existing plants. The resulting benefit is improved electric power production efficiency that leads to increased competitiveness. Side benefits include delay of new plant construction, reduced coal consumption, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, Canada's economic competitiveness is reviewed historically and measures to improve this competitiveness are suggested. A new national policy strategy would include gradual elimination of all import tariffs, optimization of natural resources, securing energy availability at prices at or below world levels, and becoming a leader in transportation and communications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Analysis of inter-energy competition in the age of complex energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This is a survey report of the Japan Energy Economics Research Institute. Section 1 describes the energy industry in time of complex energies (History of changes and competition of energy sources. Formation of the energy market. Energy tax). Section 2 describes the present situation and the prospect of the competition among the energies (Present images of competition between industrial sector, civil household sector, transportation sector and the energy conversion sector. Development of the energy utilization system (cogeneration, regional air conditioning, waste heat recovery system, individual air conditioning system. Strategic meaning of the expansion of inter-energy competition market). Section 3 describes the arrangement of the fair competition conditions and the energy policy (Energy policy effect and cost. Energy industrial regulation and its abatement. Competitive energy market and fair competing conditions).

  12. ACQUISITION AS A GENERATOR STRATEGY FROM COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET OF FUELS DISTRIBUITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Fernandes Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject from this work is about acquisitions as organizational strategies and it is guided by the general objective on identifying if the acquisition of Texaco by Ultra Group, in Brazil, could generate competitive advantages. Thus, the main aim is to characterize, specifically, the fuel distribution sector in Brazil, presenting characteristics, strategies, classification of resources and the competitive advantage’s identification in the buying process of Texaco by Ultra Group. The methodology used for this research is a case study of qualitative nature. Data collection has been performed through literature review, documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews. In the analysis of collected data, specific objectives have been met. It was clear, therefore, the presence of features such as scale earnings, brand exposure, better management practices, synergies, tangible and intangible assets and market growth. So, those resources are classified according to the competitive implications. Then, it might be concluded that Texaco´s acquisition could bring competitive advantages for Ultra / Ipiranga Group. Respondents believe the sector is growing and businesses tend to grow despite the world crisis. They also confirmed that, in a highly competitive market, strategic alliances and market growing are factors that may ensure success to each company.

  13. Cooperation in energy acquisition; Kooperation in der Energiebeschaffung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnis, Erik; Holzinger, Sebastian [Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Increasing competition in the power industry has brought many utilities to reconsider their competitive standing. Long-term cooperations in electricity and gas acquisition are getting more important against this background as they will reduce the administrative expenditure, help develop new sources, and give more weight in business negotiations. Increasingly, cooperations are entered across national borders.

  14. How competitive is nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear energy will be crucial for determining its future share in world electricity production. In addition, the widespread liberalization of power markets, in particular in OECD countries, reinforces the role of commercial criteria in technology selection . The recently published IEA/NEA study on Projected Costs of Generating Electricity: 2010 Edition (IEA/NEA, 2010) provides important indications regarding the relative competitiveness of nuclear energy in OECD member countries as well as in four non-OECD countries (Brazil, China, Russia and South Africa). The results highlight the paramount importance of discount rates and, to a lesser extent, carbon and fuel prices when comparing different technologies. Going beyond this general finding, the study also shows that the relative competitiveness of nuclear energy varies widely from one major region to another, and even from country to country. While the study provides a useful snapshot of the costs of generating electricity with different technologies, it does not provide an absolute picture of the competitiveness of nuclear energy. Like any study, Projected Costs of Generating Electricity makes a number of common assumptions about discount rates as well as carbon and fuel prices. In addition, its calculations are based on a methodology that is referred to as the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE), which assumes that all risks are included in the interest or discount rate, which determines the cost of capital. In other words, neither the electricity price risk for nuclear and renewables, nor the carbon and fuel price risk for fossil fuels such as coal and gas, receive specific consideration. The decisions of private investors, however, will depend to a large extent on their individual appreciations of these risks. The competitiveness of nuclear energy thus depends on three different factors which may vary greatly from market to market: interest rates, carbon and fuel prices, and

  15. Myth of energy competitiveness in energy producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Chihiro; Widayanti, Tjahya

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the relative comparative advantage, focusing on energy prices, of an energy producing developing country (Indonesia) and a non-energy producing developed country (Japan). For energy producing developing countries, it is strategically important to increase the competitiveness of energy dependent industries, and encourage the development of value-added industries. Much work has been done on relative advantage analysis, but the effects of the energy price formation mechanisms on price competitiveness have not been analysed. In this paper a comprehensive approach, using production and cost functions and synchronized price formation by means of principal component analysis, is introduced. (Author)

  16. Company Mergers and Acquisitions on the Edge of Unlawful Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena - Mădălina Rotaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of economy, transactions represent one of the fastest means available for improvingany company’s commercial and strategic position in the market. The context of technologicaldevelopments in recent years and the trend of globalization have largely influenced work in thefields of goods and services. Currently, geographical factors are no longer an obstacle andcompanies can expand their production without being influenced by state frontiers. Internationalmergers and acquisitions are, most often, joined by a true "cultural shock" [1] and must comply withregulations on competition both nationally and internationally. Since the penalties imposed byauthorities in charge of competition regulations are substantial, both internationally andnationally, this means that, when making mergers, one should be very cautious.

  17. Competition on European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Speck, S; Mulder, M.

    2003-01-01

    The launch of the Directives on Electricity and Gas in the late 1990s was the starting point for creating common and competitive energy markets in the European Union. The main goal of this process was to increase efficiency of allocation of resources and, hence,enhance consumer welfare. More specifically, increasing competition within the energy markets should lead to a reduction of energy prices and to a convergence of prices among EU member states. Within a year from now, end-users in the Netherlands will be free to choose their own supplier, thus finalising the deregulation of Dutch energy markets. What lessons may be learned from the experience thus far? What are the results of the liberalisation process up to now? How have prices developed,and can these developments be explained? How afraid should we be for the lights to go out in a competitive electricity market?

  18. Tax Competition and Double Tax Treaties with Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Siggelkow, Benjamin Florian

    2013-01-01

    In a two-period tax competition model with provision of local public goods, we analyze efficiency properties of double taxation reliefs incorporating either the exemption method, the tax credit system or the full taxation after deduction system. Foreign direct investments are presumed to be one-way and characterized by long-term mergers and acquisitions. We find that in case of (i) tax revenue maximization the exemption method implies inefficiently low tax rates, whereas the fu...

  19. Energy and Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau , Dominique; Fontagné , Lionel; Martin , Philippe

    2013-01-01

    When energy prices are expected to rise over the next twenty years, it is essential that industrial innovation efforts and the supply of goods and service off erings be directed towards energy-efficient technologies. However, a more significant increase in energy prices in France than in other countries would be detrimental to the short-term competitiveness of French industry. The present Note outlines the terms of the trade-off France has to confront between reserving a significant part of i...

  20. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  1. Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details...... on the aspects of the problem, the data, and a summary of the methods used by selected top entries. We also discuss the lessons learned from this competition from the organizers’ perspective. The complete data set, including the solution data, is published along with this paper, in an effort to establish...

  2. Competition within the energy sector and State regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.; Jess Olsen, O.

    1995-10-01

    It is presumed that energy markets will be liberalized. Questions discussed are how the Danish electricity and gas sectors are to be re-regulated in order to ensure that this goal is reached in the most satisfactory manner (cheaper energy supply under competitive conditions) and whether there will be a conflict between the goal of liberalization and the environmental goals of clean technology and energy conservation. It is suggested that a compulsory splitting up of the two regional power associations in Denmark should not be necessary. Transmission and distribution must continue to be regulated as these are natural monopolies not compatible with competition. District heating will still be a monopoly and its prices must be closely regulated to prevent soaring. The opening up of the European gas market to competition will threaten Danish energy utilities. The increasing compulsory use of natural gas in cogeneration plants to politically determined high prices is not sustainable under competitive conditions. Energy saving activities should not be affected. Energy surcharges are attractive measures on a liberalized market. The regulation of competition ought to be incorporated explicitly as a restriction in the Ministry of Energy's energy policy regulation. Energy utilities could be excluded from participation in price setting. International regulation of competition will demand a clarification of the separation of regulatory competence between the member states and the European Commission. It will also be necessary to adjust the Danish regulation of the electricity sector to the future Scandinavian system. (AB) 77 refs

  3. The Final Report: 1975 Energy Resource Alternatives Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Mark L.; And Others

    This publication describes the projects entered in the Energy Resource Alternatives competition in 1975. Teams of engineering students were given a year to develop non-conventional or alternative energy systems that produced useful energy outputs. Besides an overview of energy sources and uses and discussions of the competitions development, the…

  4. Energy and competition. Supplying Europe with safe and low-cost energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The EC Commission and the Energy Committee of the European Parliament want to achieve more competition in energy supply. To this end, deregulation is to be carried out as a first step. The proposals under discussion are based on the English-Welsh model which, however, can hardly be applied to the whole of the EC and not at all to Germany, as it provides for government controlled ''pseudo''-competition to override real competition. At the same time, the German Federal Cartel Office tries to abolish altogether the concept of territorial protection. In a ''competition'' brought about by such means, foreign utilities operating in Germany would enjoy advantages over domestic utilities. From an all-European point of view, also the draft amendment to the Energy Economy Act proposed by the German Federal Ministry of Economics, and a number of regulations covering energy trust legislation, are appearing at the wrong time. (orig.) [de

  5. Energy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The members of the Enquete Commission ''Future Energy Policy'' of the German Bundestag are introduced as well as the list of participants from industry and other organizations in the public heaving on 18 th December 1981. Then the catalogue of questions of the Enquete Commission is presented. The written answers of the 11 representatives of industry form the main part of the report. In the following the minutes of the public hearing of the Enquete Commission 'Future Energy Policy' of the German Bundestag on Friday, 18 th December 1981 on the topic of 'The Competitiveness of German economy in various energy supply structures' is presented. (UA) [de

  6. Forward projections of energy market competitiveness rankings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    By July 2007, the provisions of the second Internal Market Directives for Electricity and Gas had been implemented in the majority of EU Member States. These fundamental changes in market opening, ownership structures and network access conditions, together with the increasing maturity of liberalised trading and retail markets, can be expected to affect the behaviour of existing and potential market participants, consequently affecting the energy market competitiveness of alternative countries. While the UK was the most competitive of the EU and G7 energy markets in 2006, the dynamic effect of the liberalisation programme across Continental Europe may challenge that position in the future. This report assesses how competitiveness rankings may evolve in the future, identifying changes that could take place in the UK and the rest of the EU from 2007 to 201 1. It goes on to explore the potential risk that the competitiveness of the UK's energy markets will decline relative to those of other countries in the EU and G7, to the extent that the PSA target will not be met. A detailed analysis of the potential changes in the UK markets is undertaken, including the development of upside and downside scenarios showing the positive and negative effects of changes in market structure and behaviour on the UK's competitiveness score. Changes in market structures required for energy markets in both the 2006 comparator group and the rest of the EU to become as competitive as the UK are then assessed, along with the plausibility of these changes given the current and future market, legislative and regulatory environments

  7. Energy's role in industrial competitiveness: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneau, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Canadian exports are fundamentally dominated by raw materials, and the manufacturers and producers of these materials are inherently large consumers of energy. The access to reliable indigenous energy reserves at relatively low costs has played a significant role in Canada's competitiveness. Nevertheless, this competitiveness exists in a commercial environment in which practices are undergoing profound changes, attributable to the low relative value of raw materials on world markets where there are many competitors. In addition, recycling is increasingly influencing the demand and the price of products. Trade in manufactured goods has increased over the past few years, which has an effect on energy demand and on requirements related to the quality of supply. It is increasingly evident that the value of information products will increase more rapidly than the value of products made from materials, and that those information products will be the principal foundation of future wealth. At the same time, energy and fuel sectors are subject to profound change following environmental restrictions, questions regarding sustainable development, technological advances, modification of institutions, and political changes. An examination of the principal sectors of the Canadian energy system shows different degrees of development in each and different capabilities for making positive contributions to the competitiveness of the industries they serve. The protective monopoly supply of power is seen as one factor inhibiting competitiveness

  8. Measurement of power and energy consumption of a competition-mobile-robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Tsing-Tshih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power and energy consumption are the two most important factors for successful operation; they also play important roles in performance identification. The measurement of power and energy consumption is a common test in the development process of a competition mobile robot. If the power of a competition mobile robot is not sufficient, the running time in the competition will be too long and winning the competition will not be possible. Thus, the power and energy consumption are basic and important measurement parameters for a competition mobile robot. In this paper, five types of hand-made competition mobile robots are successfully developed and their performances are measured. From the measurements, their powers and energy consumptions are evaluated and analyzed, respectively. The test results show large differences in the powers and energy consumptions of the five models, even though the same motors were used. The design and construction of the competition mobile robot are the key parameters that cause these huge differences. It is possible to develop the measurement techniques for power and energy consumption, quickly and precisely, to determine how to modify a competition mobile robot rapidly and efficiently to a condition optimal for a mobile robot competition.

  9. Gauging the future competitiveness of renewable energy in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspary, Georg

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to assess the likely competitiveness of different forms of renewable energy in Colombia over the next 25 years. To this end, it compares the likely power production cost for a set of renewable energy sources, and compares them to the likely long-run cost of traditional energy. Costs from global and local externalities through the use of traditional energy sources are also factored into the analysis. The key conclusion of the article is that while solar PV will likely remain uncompetitive under any future cost scenario, cost paths for small hydro, modern biomass or geothermal are already close enough to being competitive, so that appropriate government intervention may make the decisive difference in making these technologies competitive with conventional energy technologies. (author)

  10. Renewable energy promotion in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    The opening of electricity markets to competition involves fundamental structural changes in the electricity supply industry. There is, however, doubt that the new industrial organisation will provide the right price signals that will ensure that renewable energy options will be adopted. Therefore, one of the numerous challenges in the energy industry restructuring process is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents mechanisms to promote the use of renewable energy in competitive electricity markets. These mechanisms include the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) and the Systems Benefit Charge (SBC). The paper discusses merits and disadvantages of these mechanisms, given the experience made in the United States and the United Kingdom. (author)

  11. Using Sustainable Development as a Competitive Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Pat

    Sustainable development reduces construction waste by 43%, generating 50% cost savings. Residential construction executives lacking adequate knowledge regarding the benefits of sustainable development practices are at a competitive disadvantage. Drawing from the diffusion of innovation theory, the purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore knowledge acquisition within the bounds of sustainable residential construction. The purposive sample size of 11 executive decision makers fulfilled the sample size requirements and enabled the extraction of meaningful data. Participants were members of the National Home Builders Association and had experience of a minimum of 5 years in residential construction. The research question addressed how to improve knowledge acquisition relating to the cost benefits of building green homes and increase the adoption rate of sustainable development among residential builders. Data were collected via semistructured telephone interviews, field observation, and document analysis. Transcribed data were validated via respondent validation, coded into 5 initial categories aligned to the focus of the research, then reduced to 3 interlocking themes of environment, competitive advantage, and marketing. Recommendations include developing comprehensive public policies, horizontal and vertical communications networks, and green banks to capitalize sustainable development programs to improve the diffusion of green innovation as a competitive advantage strategy. Business leaders could benefit from this data by integrating sustainable development practices into their business processes. Sustainable development reduces operational costs, increases competitive advantage for builders, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Implications for social change increase energy independence through conservation and developing a legislative policy template for comprehensive energy strategies. A comprehensive energy strategy promotes economic development

  12. 41 CFR 102-73.100 - Is the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984, as amended (CICA), applicable to lease acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984, as amended (CICA), applicable to lease acquisition? 102-73.100 Section 102-73.100... Contracting Act of 1984 § 102-73.100 Is the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984, as amended (CICA...

  13. Energy taxes, environment and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Gaern Hansen, L.; Bech-Ravn, C.; Ramskov, J.L.

    2006-11-01

    Economic theory about foreign trade and competition as well as empirical studies of relevance are not making evident that industries in general should pay lower environmental taxes than other kind of consumers. Consequently, economic theory cannot justify the present Danish energy tax regime where households are required to pay high energy taxes whereas industries are allowed to pay low energy taxes. On the contrary, it is more likely that reduced industry taxes will result in reduced welfare to society, lower income and lower employment as compared to a scenario of equal energy taxes. Theory can justify, however, a stepwise introduction of green taxes in order to make industries and markets adapt to the new regulatory framework. Moreover, some theoretical contributions argue that under certain circumstances one could point to a need for protecting certain kinds of industries (e.g. industries employing unskilled labour), but an exclusive tax reduction given to all industries is not supported by economic theory. By using the GTAP model we have calculated the welfare effect of levelling Danish energy taxes so households and industries have to pay equal energy taxes. The GTAP model has a good and international reputation for being designed to analyse international trade and competitiveness. We find that levelling the Danish energy taxes will increase welfare in Denmark by 1.3% equivalent to DKK 8 billion. The Danish energy tax reform, however, will cause an increase in CO 2 emissions in neighbouring countries. The calculation does not consider the influence of the EU market for tradable CO 2 permits introduced as from January 2005. (au)

  14. Energy's role in competitiveness: Context and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.

    1990-02-01

    This study of competitiveness has three objectives. The first objective is to explain how macroeconomic and microeconomic factors can affect structural change in the US economy and how energy is linked to these factors. The second objective is to provide an explanation of how many individual decision makers, in responding to higher energy prices, have changed the structure of the economy. This structural change, and the effect it has had on energy use, is estimated for the US economy. A major component of these changes results from changes in US trade with other countries, which gives rise to the third objective. The third objective is to develop a research design that will allow a better understanding of the role that energy plays in the competitiveness of goods in world trade. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Energy to the masses : a blueprint for competition in Alberta's retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for competition in Alberta's retail energy market and its influence on Direct Energy Marketing Limited . The main factors for successful retail energy competition were identified as being a level playing field for all retailers; a stable and committed regulatory framework; customer education; brand trust and visibility; regulated pricing which reflects market conditions; customer service and billing; unrestricted customer choice; and, conformity between electricity and gas markets. Direct Energy is a wholly owned subsidiary of British-based Centrica plc, one of the top 30 companies in the United Kingdom in terms of market capitalization. It was created during Britain's regulatory reform of the energy industry and operates through 4 retail brand units. Centrica entered the North American market in 2000 when it acquired Direct Energy Marketing Limited which supplies energy and services to half of the households in Ontario. Direct Energy is expected to increase its customer base with the pending closure of ATCO Gas and ATCO Electric in Alberta, making it Canada's largest provider of retail energy services. In a competitive energy market, retailers can offer a wider range of products than energy alone. Cost-to services can be reduced by offering services such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning

  16. Competitive dynamics of energy, environment, and economy in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Chen, Haipeng; Li, Yi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies the Lotka–Volterra model to investigate the competitive interactions among energy, environment, and economy (3Es) in the U.S. The proposed LV-COMSUD (Lotka–Volterra COmpetition Model for SUstainable Development) has satisfactory performance for model fitting and provides a useful multivariate framework to predict outcomes concerning these interactions. Our key findings include a pure competition between emissions and GDP (Gross Domestic Product), neutralisms between renewable and fossil/nuclear energy, and commensalisms between GDP and renewable/fossil energy and between nuclear energy and fossil energy/emissions. These results indicate that renewable/fossil energy use contributes to GDP and interacts indirectly with emissions, that an environmental Kuznets curve exists, and that the amount of produced nuclear energy correlates with emission. The U.S. is dependent on non-clean energy sources and its energy efficiency has room for improvement. The results provide unique insights for policy makers to craft up sustainable economic development plans. Overall, it is suggested that for developed markets such as the U.S., to enhance energy security and mitigate climate changes, improving energy efficiency and developing low-carbon clean energy should be top priorities. - Highlights: • The competitive interactions among energy, environment, and economy are examined. • A pure competition between emissions and GDP exists and an EKC exists. • Energy use contributes to GDP and interacts indirectly with emissions. • Nuclear energy was used to tackle the growth of emissions/fossil energy use. • Improved energy efficiency is a viable policy to enhance energy security in U.S

  17. Certification and brand identity for energy efficiency in competitive energy services markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prindle, W.R.; Wiser, R.

    1998-07-01

    Resource commitments for energy efficiency from electricity companies are disappearing rapidly as the regulated Integrated Resource Planning and Demand-Side Management paradigms that fostered them give way to competitive power markets in a restructuring electricity industry. While free-market advocates claim that energy efficiency needs will be taken care of by competitive energy service providers, there is no assurance that efficiency will compete effectively with the panoply of other energy-related (and non-energy-related) services that are beginning to appear in early market offerings. This paper reports the results of a feasibility study for a certification and brand identity program for energy efficiency geared to competitive power markets. Funded by the Energy Foundation, this study involved a survey and personal interviews with stakeholders, plus a workshop to further the discussion. Stakeholders include independent power marketers and energy service companies, utility affiliate power marketers and energy service companies, government agencies, trade associations, non-profit organizations, equipment manufacturers, and consultants. The paper summarizes the study's findings on such key issues as: Whether a brand identity concept has a critical mass of interest and support; how qualification and certification could work in such a program; how a brand identity could be positioned in the market; how an efficiency brand identity could co-brand with renewable power branding programs and other green marketing efforts; and the resources and components needed to make such a program work on a national scale.

  18. Energy levy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdowski, P.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The principle of regulating levies is that the consumption of products that have negative effects on the environment will be reduced. The income of the levies can be reimbursed to the civilians and companies via tax reduction. One of the impacts of the implementation of energy levies is the negative effect on the competitive position of the Dutch industry and businesses. In this report attention is paid to the micro-economic consequences of energy levies. The flows of fifteen production processes and the position of these processes in the market have been analyzed systematically. The impacts of energy levies on these product flows are investigated. The sectors that have been analyzed are the services sector (mainly determined by households), the agricultural food sector, the transportation sector, and the basic industry (mostly energy-intensive industries). In order to determine the sensitivity of the height of the energy levy three variants were investigated: 25%, 50% and 100% surcharge on the present energy costs. The variants are combined with three geographic levy ranges: national, European and global. 21 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Energy security in a competitive world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The world is shrinking and becoming increasingly interconnected. Events in one part of the world quickly impact other parts of the world. Rising standards of living in developed countries, along with rapid communications and growing, mobile populations, go hand in hand with greater worldwide interconnectedness but at the same time are leading to a greater rate of resource depletion. Adequate and economical energy resources are one of the crucial factors in maintaining and increasing standards of living around the world, yet nonrenewable energy resources are being depleted. The international marketplace is also becoming more tightly interconnected and competitive. Increasing trade competition among nations may lead to greater economic efficiency and, on the whole, to improved living standards in successful countries, but competition also contributes to barriers against cooperation. International trade competition may be leading to a tendency for competing nations to become more parochial in technology research and development. The impact of growing populations and rising living standards on the world's environment is also increasing and becoming more pervasive. Solid waste disposal is an increasingly aggravating problem, and hazardous waste and toxic wastes are even more difficult to deal with. Acid rain, global climate change, ozone-layer depletion, stream and harbor pollution, and the resulting pollution of the oceans are all evidence of a highly interconnected world. It is easy to argue that solutions must be political, economic, and social. In large part this must be the case; but as technologists, we want to do all we can to give political, economic, and social forces the best opportunity to succeed. Technology will be part of the solution and not just part of the problem of securing adequate energy supplies with acceptable environmental impact. 2 refs

  20. Competitive energy markets. The effective route to improving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinden, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Market forces, operating in an increasingly competitive energy market, are a preferred route to achieving environmental and energy efficiency benefits, than those which can be achieved through a managed approach adopted by many governments. It is shown, through examples, how electricity is a catalyst for change at several levels in business, the community and the general economy. Experience in the United Kingdom indicates that free market forces and inter-energy competition not only help improve the regional and therefore national economy, but they offer a very effective way of introducing improvements in energy efficiency and the environment. Governments should establish the framework for competition and regulation but not attempt to manage an industry, which is invariably done more effectively by those who run them. (author)

  1. Current and future competitiveness of renewable energy carriers - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.

    1998-01-01

    The dissertation draws attention to the fact that in the world today 80% of the resources that are used are limited - non renewable energy carriers - and because of the long time between planning and doing (carrying out) within the energy sector, it is worthwhile from the long-term perspective to steer early on towards more sustainable solutions, such as renewable energy carriers. The State and the market have begun to adjust to concepts such as 'competitiveness', which can be viewed as containing both feasibility and legitimacy aspects - the state through different regulations and environmental taxes and environmental fees, and actors on the market that marginally produce/choose renewable energy carriers. The overlying methodology in the dissertation is an actor's viewpoint. This viewpoint brings forth, in turn, two different views, the analytical and the interpretative. The dissertation presents different stances within the energy sector: commercial production logic, commercial sustainability logic, and the socio-economic sustainability logic. By drawing one's attention to how one has the possibility to create (enact) his own reality, it is possible to highlight how organisations can increase their competitiveness by being conscious of their own view and others, logic, which in turn forms their views about competitiveness, which in turn determines which projects will materialize. Enterprises and individuals create a description of reality together through a dialectic process, i.e. by developing an environmental management system that contains elements of environmental auditing, environmental performance indicators, and environmental labelling, which 'reveal' the production conditions that lie behind the actualization of the final product. An example is the product, 'green' electricity, which, in spite of the fact that the final product - electricity - is identical irrespective of the production method, just at the moment can be sold at different prices according

  2. Open energy management systems as a tool for competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podmore, R.

    1995-01-01

    Energy Management Systems (EMSs) have been called the nerve center for an electric utility. These systems have the capacity to monitor the electrical grid by retrieving tens of thousands of MW/MVar flows, voltages and breaker/switch positions every few seconds. With data interchange agreements utilities can also monitor performance of neighboring systems. System dispatchers need to access more and more information sources and their job is becoming more complicated. Other departments need to access EMS related data and work more closely with system dispatch. To date, the role of Energy Management Systems has not been affected significantly by the prospect of competition. With the clean air act, emission allowance trading, open transmission access, and potential for customer choice it is likely that Energy Management Systems will play a more strategic business role in the future. In particular, Open Energy Management Systems that allow the utility the freedom to select applications from multiple vendors will have special advantages. This paper will address potential areas, where an Open Energy Management System can be used to obtain a competitive edge. It will also outline how competition is likely to affect Energy Management System architectures and procurement practices

  3. The EU-Russia Energy Dialogue: Competition Versus Monopolies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Russia and the European Union have clearly entered a new stage in their energy relations, defined by a growing asymmetry between a strengthened national monopoly on the supply side and a gradual opening of markets in Europe. In this context, a multitude of new approaches to EU Russia energy relations have been voiced recently by a wide variety of experts. Unfortunately, many of them involve 'defensive' solutions, driven by lack of mutual trust on both sides. Is a positive approach nevertheless still possible? The paper argues that competition is a key universal value in the development of a new and sustainable energy relationship between Russia and Europe. It is clear that EU competition regulators should take the lead in setting up a new framework for EU-Russia energy relations in the future. The success of their endeavors will not only determine the security of energy supply for European consumers, but also that of the Russian and Eurasian energy markets. (author)

  4. Regulation of Danish energy markets with imperfect competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, M.; Hansen, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we use a new CGE model of the Danish economy with the acronym ECOSMEC (Economic COuncil Simulation Model with Energy markets and Carbon taxation). The model is a hybrid of two existing static models developed by respectively the Secretariat of the Danish Economic Council and by the MobiDK project in the Ministry of Business and Industry. Distinct features of the ECOSMEC model are a rather disaggregated modelling of energy demand and supply, introduction of various market structures in the energy sector, and a consistent specification of different household types. The simulations presented in the paper have the following implications: First, a uniform CO 2 tax of approximately 300 DKK per ton CO 2 could reduce emissions by 20 per cent in a scenario with perfect competition in the energy sector. However, assuming different market structures in the energy sector influences the uniform CO 2 tax needed to reach a given emission target. In the paper we assume that the Danish energy sector is a natural monopoly regulated to comply with average cost pricing, but we also discuss alternative descriptions of imperfect competition. Second, the empirical arguments for differentiated CO 2 taxes motivated by imperfect energy markets are weak. This is in line with earlier international studies on environmental taxes and imperfect competition. Third, the Danish economy could benefit from a deregulation of the electricity and district heating sector with respect to welfare and economic activity. This result holds also if CO 2 emissions are kept constant. (au)

  5. Energy and competitiveness - Notes of the Economic Analysis Council, Nr. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Dominique; Fontagne, Lionel; Martin, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    This note aims at analyzing the impact of a possible increase of energy prices on the French competitiveness, and more particularly on the performance of exporting companies, while trying to make a distinction between short-term and long-term effects. A first part proposes a diagnosis of the French loss of competitiveness. The second part analyzes the energy prices in France for industries with comparisons with other countries (electricity price, tariffs and production cost). The next part addresses mechanisms relating competitiveness and energy price on a short, medium or long term. Then the authors try to assess at the enterprise level how exports react to energy price variations. The last part contains recommendations for an economic policy

  6. Competitive position of energy carriers in trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suding, P.H.; Forsbach, H.H.

    Industrial consumers and public institutions, which are classed with the group of minor consumers, differ in their behaviour in energy consumption greatly from the structure of the whole group. Also the willingness to convert from fuel oil to natural gas in these trade groups is relatively high. Within the framework of 5 model enterprises, the profitability of energy carriers and economizing technology in trade is analysed. The model enterprises are a bakery, a meat purveyor, a restaurant, a laundry and a hospital. The basic data are compared with the data from 1985. The comparison shows that the competitive positions of energy carriers in business and public in the process heat sector here not changed dramatically. The competitiveness of natural gas has improved since 1985 through the changes in price. However, in the sectors in which it belongs to the group of economical alternatives (e.g. in the bakeries), electricity has not lost much ground. (BR)

  7. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIEKHOVA L. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the presented research is to explore the potential of international energy management standards to increase competitiveness of industrial enterprises under conditions of Ukrainian transitional economy. The study had the following objectives: to trace the evolution of fundamental energy efficiency standards; to discuss experience in their use in various countries; to identify factors that are key to achieving competitive advantage under the implementation ISO 50001. Methodology. This article presents a historical overview of the standardisation of principles and approaches for the purpose of the energy-efficient management. The research was carried out by studying the international documents, voluntary standards and national practices in the field of energy efficiency. Conclusions. The study examines the experiences of different countries in the field of energy management systems. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the ISO 50001 with the other basic standards for the organisation of management. The system approach enables to identify the main factors and their impact on capacity to achieve competitive advantages, which are possible to obtain after certification to ISO 50001. Originality. The study reviewed and analysed the energy management penetration within its dynamics at time and country level. After analysing the statistical data and the results of the interviews, the authors identified 20 key factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises that are certified to ISO 50001. All of these factors were divided into four groups, two groups represent external environment – opportunities and threats, and two groups – internal capacity – strengths and weaknesses of enterprises. Practical value. The proposed system of factors may be useful for the planning of actions towards strengthening the capacity of energy management systems in the context of the formation competitive advantages on the industrial

  8. 75 FR 54524 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...., because the changes are to internal Government organization and operating procedures only. The rule... 48 CFR Part 207 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations... Life Cycle of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (DFARS Case 2009-D014) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition...

  9. Global Trends of International Mergers and Acquisitions in the Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Liubov Galperina; Yuliia Klen

    2017-01-01

    The article explores conditions, factors and results of mergers and acquisitions in international business with the example of the energy industry. The directions of world energy market transformation in the framework of PESTLE analysis have been determined by the factors influencing the efficiency and future of the companies that have effected mergers and acquisitions. The transformation of the global energy market is associated with changes in the main market parameters that ...

  10. Competitive market and sources of its advantages in the electric energy subsector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Pająk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The electric energy subsector varies considerably in terms of competitiveness depending on the area under analysis. Power generation, transmission and distribution have quite different characteristics of competitiveness than areas such as electricity trading. In the area of power generation, competitive advantage is developed by factors such as: skilful operation in the fuel market and targeted investments affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of equipment. In the area of energy distribution, despite the natural monopoly, some distribution system operators dynamically take over the market share of newly constructed networks. The area of energy trading can be successfully compared to other competitive market segments where mass sales of services and products occur.

  11. Energy Tax and Competition in Energy Efficiency. The Case of Consumer Durables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, K.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of an energy tax on technical improvements and on prices of consumer durables induced by strategic competition in energy efficiency. If the gasoline tax is raised this does in principle not affect the producers of cars because the motorist pays for it in terms of a higher cost of using the car. This, however, affects the unit sales of car producers because of substitution towards other modes of transportation. A second element of reaction to energy price variation is an indirect one and relates to the effect of energy prices on technology. Competition forces car producers to develop more energy efficient cars in order to reduce the cost of using a car. This indirect effect can partly offset the direct effect of higher energy prices on demand if it is profitable for the automobile industry to engineer more energy efficient equipment. We will analyze the impact of an energy tax on energy efficiency and on the price of a durable good. This will be done within the framework of a duopoly competing in prices and in the energy efficiency of its products. The government chooses a welfare maximizing energy tax as an incentive to innovate. Then we will analyze a strategic two-stage decision process in which the duopolists first decide about energy efficiency and then compete in prices. 18 refs

  12. Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Frasch, Manfred; Leptin, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are booming a strategy of choice for organizations attempting to maintain a competitive advantage. Previous research on mergers and acquisitions declares that acquirers do not normally benefit from acquisitions. Targets, on the other hand, have a tendency of gaining positive returns in the few days surrounding merger announcements due to several characteristic on the acquisitions deal. The announcement period wealth effect on acquiring firms, however, is as cle...

  13. Enhancement of faba bean competitive ability by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is highly correlated with dynamic nutrient acquisition by competing wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xu; Bei, Shuikuan; Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Zhang, Junling

    2015-01-29

    The mechanistic understanding of the dynamic processes linking nutrient acquisition and biomass production of competing individuals can be instructive in optimizing intercropping systems. Here, we examine the effect of inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae on competitive dynamics between wheat and faba bean. Wheat is less responsive to mycorrhizal inoculation. Both inoculated and uninoculated wheat attained the maximum instantaneous N and P capture approximately five days before it attained the maximum instantaneous biomass production, indicating that wheat detected the competitor and responded physiologically to resource limitation prior to the biomass response. By contrast, the instantaneous N and P capture by uninoculated faba bean remained low throughout the growth period, and plant growth was not significantly affected by competing wheat. However, inoculation substantially enhanced biomass production and N and P acquisition of faba bean. The exudation of citrate and malate acids and acid phosphatase activity were greater in mycorrhizal than in uninoculated faba bean, and rhizosphere pH tended to decrease. We conclude that under N and P limiting conditions, temporal separation of N and P acquisition by competing plant species and enhancement of complementary resource use in the presence of AMF might be attributable to the competitive co-existence of faba bean and wheat.

  14. 2012 Global Energy Competitiveness Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorot, Pascal; Lauriano do Rego, Wilfrid

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 Global Energy Competitiveness Index, a survey jointly conducted by Institut Choiseul and KPMG, is the first of its kind. It ranks 146 countries, grouping them into 5 categories ranging from the best performers to under-performers. The first edition of this annual study ranks the countries surveyed not only by continent but also according to the quality of their energy mix, electricity access and availability levels and the compatibility of their energy policies with environmental challenges. The governing bodies of the countries in the panel (relevant ministries and regulatory authorities) can gain much from this decision-making support tool that fosters dialogue on energy-related issues. The targeted audience also includes industry professionals, NGOs, international organisations and other economic players such as banks, consulting firms and specialist commercial law firms commercial law firms. Europe is by far the best performing continent ahead of the best performing continent, ahead of the Americas and Americas and even further ahead of Asia/Oceania and Africa. Generally speaking, the Nordic countries are among the best performers: Norway, Canada, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden and Finland rank, in this order, in the global Top 10. Four EU countries are among the global Top 10 (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and France) and five others (the United Kingdom, Austria, Germany, Slovakia and Spain) are in the Top 20. Surprisingly, Colombia stood out as the fifth most competitive country in terms of energy. Its outstanding performance is due to a strong energy mix (ranked second worldwide) and an energy strategy compatible with today's key environmental challenges. The apparent domination of Northern-hemisphere countries needs to be considered in conjunction with the results achieved by the other Seeming domination of be considered in conjunction with the results achieved by the other countries with regard to their energy mix and the environmental compatibility of

  15. Ideas on a competitive structure for German energy supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennigsen-Foerder, R v

    1985-12-20

    The author expresses the future need for action on the part of energy policy at Federal level in no uncertain terms. Regional experiments in energy policy and state-induced limits on competition in the heat market have documented the fact that watchfulness is to be recommended even in a relatively relaxed energy market. The author does admit that the level of electricity prices in the Federal Republic is comparatively high; overall, however, energy prices are in line with the world market situation. This can only be explained by deliberate renunciation of extensive state control of the primary energy structure. The competitiveness of German energy supplies can thus be closely linked up to the question as to what strategy will be pursued with regard to preparations for 'crisis contingency X', i.e. for another sudden explosion of energy costs. The author supports the thesis 'that it is more expensive from the point of view of the economy as a whole to prepare ex-ante for 'Day X' than it is to adapt to it ex-post'.

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  17. Evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway and the influence of energy policy on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Honglin; Wang, Lin; Tian, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the evolution of the competition of energy alternative pathway in China, and the influence of energy policy on economic growth by using a dynamical system method. Firstly, the relation between energy and economic growth is taken into account, and a dynamic evolution model is established. It is observed that Hopf bifurcation and chaotic behavior occurs with the varying investment in renewable energy production. Secondly, when there is no policy intervention in energy market, the evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway is also investigated. Thirdly, the system parameters are also identified by using an artificial neural network method on the basis of certain empirical statistical data in China, and the dynamics of the parameters-identified system are studied. Finally, the influences of energy policy on economic growth are empirically analyzed, and some policy recommendations are given based on the results of empirical analysis. - Highlights: • Modeling the energy economy system via the method of dynamic system. • Attaining the chaotic attractor of the energy production and economic system. • Discovering the Hopf bifurcation when the investment changes. • Proposing the alternative pathway of free competition in energy production. • Determining the turning points of parameters related to policy regulation

  18. Economic Optimal Operation of Community Energy Storage Systems in Competitive Energy Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Arghandeh, Reza; Woyak, Jeremy; Onen, Ahmet; Jung, Jaesung; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed, controllable energy storage devices offer several benefits to electric power system operation. Three such benefits include reducing peak load, providing standby power, and enhancing power quality. These benefits, however, are only realized during peak load or during an outage, events that are infrequent. This paper presents a means of realizing additional benefits by taking advantage of the fluctuating costs of energy in competitive energy markets. An algorithm for optimal charge...

  19. Requirements for success in competitive energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, E.

    1997-01-01

    A summary of a lecture delivered to the Institute of Energy on a power generator's experience of the UK competitive electricity market is given. It is concluded that privatization has met the public interest better than nationalisation and that the future lies in international growth and globalisation. (UK)

  20. Design + energy: results of a national student design competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A national competition for students in schools of architecture was conducted during the Spring of 1980. The competition was the first of a series of competitions that emphasized the integration of architectural design and energy considerations in medium-scale building projects, and specifically applying passive solar design strategies and the appropriate use of brick masonry materials. Some 300 faculty members and over 2200 students representing 80 of the 92 US architecture schools participated in the program. A summary is presented of the program and the range of submissions grouped by problem types and general climatic region.

  1. The new challenges of energy operators. To bring strategic answers to market changes and to unprecedented competitive threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    Because of regulatory and technological changes, energy operators have to reconsider their business model, i.e. to identify their tomorrow's key activities and skills, and to keep control of the value chain as a multitude of new and various operators try to be present on the production sector and on the distribution sector. In order to give an insight on these issues, this study proposes three reports and a video. While the video proposes an original presentation of the main conclusions of this study, the first document is an executive synthesis which outlines and discusses some important issues: regulatory and technological changes submit energy operators to an unprecedented competitive and strategic paradigm; an efficient management of transition requires a profession-based approach and renewed strategic assets; energy operators must take the risk of 'uberisation' of their profession into account in order to better respond. The second document is an analysis report which addresses the upheavals of the energy operator environment (regulatory changes, technological upheavals, focus on the new energy deal), and the main strategic challenges faced by energy operators (redesign of the energy model, projection on non-core activities, acquisition of new strategic assets). It also proposes a discussion on the reconfiguration of the energy value chain (an upstream disruption of the value chain, a risk of reversal of the whole value chain). The third document proposes presentations of the evolution of key figures of energy markets in France (electricity, gas, renewable energy, turnovers of specialised actors in gas production and distribution and of the electricity sectors), a presentation of the sector economic structure and competitive landscape (sites, personnel, market shares, market key figures, main operators, electric power producers, gas providers, and renewable plant operators), and an overview of main events (asset management strategy

  2. Energy and environmental efficiency in competitive power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    For years the electric utility industry operated as a regulated monopoly, largely immune to market forces except those of competing fuels. That era came to an end with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1974, which created a market for non-utility generated power. Within twenty years, non-regulated, non-utility generators had become the primary supplier of new energy resources. Their market power is matched by their political power, as evidenced in the Energy Policy Act of 1994 (EPAct), which requires open access to utility transmission lines to facilitate inter-utility bulk power sales. The conventional wisdom is that active wholesale power markets with competition among alternative generators will lead to lower power-development costs and cheaper retail power prices. The trend towards alternative bulk power sources at low prices intersects with large retail power customers' interest in accessing alternative power supplies. In most cases, these alternatives to local utilities are at a lower cost than retail rates. For the most part, proponents of generation competition have remained silent about potential environmental consequences. However, skeptics of increased competition, including major environmental groups, cite environmental impacts among their concerns. This report examines these concerns

  3. Energy market competition in the EU and G7: the relative extent of energy market competition in the EU and G7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This report presents a methodology for measuring the competitiveness of energy markets in the light of the UK government's Public Service Agreement target to ensure that the UK ranks within the top three most competitive markets. Details are given of the approach taken involving the identification of competitiveness indicators in the supply chain, analysis of current practices by regulatory and competitive authorities, application of a scoring rule, and aggregation and weighting of the scores. The initial filtering of countries based on the presence of crucial characteristics, the availability of data, and the ease of interpretation and evaluation of the filters is described along with detailed indicators for upstream markets, wholesale markets, retail suppliers and network activities. Information on data sources, data used for indicator evaluation, calculation of US and Canadian comparators, profitability margins, and links between companies is presented in appendices.

  4. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package. To build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, E.; Spencer, Th.

    2011-01-01

    As the EU's climate and energy goals defined in its Climate and Energy Package (CEP) are to protect the climate, to protect EU economic competitiveness, and to protect EU energy security, the authors first define these notions (time consistency, competitiveness, energy security) and stress the importance of strengthening the CEP, notably by fostering low carbon technology investment and low carbon products and services innovation. They discuss several policy recommendations for the development of a low carbon, competitive and energy secure EU. These recommendations are notably based on the strengthening of current instruments and on the implementation of new tools to reach the 20% energy efficiency target, on an increase stringency and predictability of the EU ETS, and on the use of direct public financial support to facilitate the transition towards a EU low carbon economy

  5. 75 FR 8272 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... limited to, cost-effective measures intended to achieve the following: (i) Competitive prototyping. (ii... subsystems. (v) Use of modular, open architectures to enable competition for upgrades. (vi) Use of build-to...

  6. Acquisition System Verification for Energy Efficiency Analysis of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fossil fuel depletion foster interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings. There are different methods to achieve improved efficiency; one of them is the use of additives, such as phase change materials (PCMs. To prove this method’s effectiveness, a building’s behaviour should be monitored and analysed. This paper describes an acquisition system developed for monitoring buildings based on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA and with a 1-wire bus network as the communication system. The system is empirically tested to prove that it works properly. With this purpose, two experimental cubicles are made of self-compacting concrete panels, one of which has a PCM as an additive to improve its energy storage properties. Both cubicles have the same dimensions and orientation, and they are separated by six feet to avoid shadows. The behaviour of the PCM was observed with the acquisition system, achieving results that illustrate the differences between the cubicles directly related to the PCM’s characteristics. Data collection devices included in the system were temperature sensors, some of which were embedded in the walls, as well as humidity sensors, heat flux density sensors, a weather station and energy counters. The analysis of the results shows agreement with previous studies of PCM addition; therefore, the acquisition system is suitable for this application.

  7. Competitiveness of nuclear energy - Key findings from an OECD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, Evelyne

    2006-01-01

    Economic competitiveness always has been a cornerstone in decision making for electricity generation options but the liberalization of energy markets has enhanced its importance. For private investors in de-regulated markets the economic attractiveness of a project is often 'the' driving factor. For plant owners and operators reducing costs is a key objective. The relative competitiveness of nuclear energy as compared with alternatives has been investigated in a recent OECD study which noted some evolution in the ranking of different options as compared with results published seven years ago. In particular the volatility of fossil fuel prices, notably natural gas for electricity generation, along with technical progress enhancing the reliability and availability factor of nuclear power plants have had a significant influence on comparative economic performance of base-load options. Furthermore, as governments implement progressively policies to address global climate change threat, the moves to internalize the costs of carbon emissions is increasing the competitiveness of low-carbon options such as renewable energy sources and nuclear power versus coal and to a lesser extent gas. (authors)

  8. Process Document for the Conservation Competitive Bidding Pilot Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is proposing to test competitive bidding for Conservation Resources to expand its existing resource acquisition capabilities. Competitive bidding may target specific types of electric end-uses or end-use sectors. It is a new acquisition approach through which Bonneville seeks to acquire resources that are not acquired through other existing or planned conservation programs. This proposal describes the conservation component of the all-source competitive acquisition approach that will be developed. It is expected that the combined resource acquisition effort will target about 100 average megawatts (aMW) as proposed in the 1990 Resource Program, although the exact amount has not yet been determined. Increasing the acquisition target will, to some extent, depend on whether the proposed pilot program is large enough to establish confidence in the approach.

  9. Probabilistic energy forecasting: Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2014 and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2016-01-01

    The energy industry has been going through a significant modernization process over the last decade. Its infrastructure is being upgraded rapidly. The supply, demand and prices are becoming more volatile and less predictable than ever before. Even its business model is being challenged fundamenta......The energy industry has been going through a significant modernization process over the last decade. Its infrastructure is being upgraded rapidly. The supply, demand and prices are becoming more volatile and less predictable than ever before. Even its business model is being challenged...... fundamentally. In this competitive and dynamic environment, many decision-making processes rely on probabilistic forecasts to quantify the uncertain future. Although most of the papers in the energy forecasting literature focus on point or singlevalued forecasts, the research interest in probabilistic energy...

  10. Competition in the electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Mel

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation of the electric power industry is changing the 'personality' of utilities and the way they operate in order to survive in a more competitive marketplace. This paper will identify and discuss key issues NAC International believes will arise as the nuclear industry responds to deregulation. The regulatory treatment of such issues as retail wheeling, recovery of stranded costs, divestiture of assets and securitization will have a significant impact on how utilities, particularly those with nuclear assets, proceed into the new marketplace. While some will survive as a result of innovative thinking, cost control, and entrance into new niche markets, others will be forced to reassess their viability altogether. Increased mergers and acquisitions and early plant closures are potential consequences of these struggles. Meanwhile, innovative companies will develop and enter into new nuclear markets including most notably the acquisition of generating assets. Other key drivers that will significantly impact the competitiveness of nuclear versus other fuels will be the resolution of the nuclear waste issue, the reduction of O and M and decisions regarding whether to make expensive capital additions. Additionally, this paper will present an overview of key regulatory and legislative initiatives impacting electricity. Finally, this paper will examine the roles of regulating bodies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and state utility commissions, and will provide an outlook for further legislative and regulatory actions in this competitive environment. (author)

  11. The competitive challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the strategies necessary to succeed in the increasingly competitive independent power industry. The topics of the article include the factors encouraging mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures, the availability of financing, changes in the market, regulatory climate changes, competition and power planning, Not In My Back Yard and project siting, and the road ahead

  12. Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, Andrea M. [Millennium Institute, 2111 Wilson Blvd, Suite 700, Arlington, VA 22201 (United States); University of Bergen, Postboks 7800, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Yudken, Joel S. [High Road Strategies, LLC, 104 N. Columbus Street, Arlington, VA 22203 (United States); Ruth, Matthias [University of Maryland, 3139 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study examines the impacts of energy price changes resulting from different carbon-pricing policies on the competitiveness of selected US energy-intensive industries. It further examines possible industry responses, and identifies and provides a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. The industry sectors investigated - steel, aluminum, chemicals and paper - are among the largest industrial users of fossil fuels in the US economy. The results of this examination show that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competitiveness of US energy-intensive manufacturing sectors over the next two decades, if climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies. The extent of these impacts will vary across industries, depending on their energy intensities, the mix of energy sources they rely on and how energy is used in production activities (heat and power, feedstock). Of relevance is also the speed and rigor with which industries adopt new technologies and retire (or replace) old ones. Other factors affecting these impacts include an industry's vulnerability to foreign imports and its ability to pass through cost increases to its customers in the face of international market competition. (author)

  13. Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Andrea M.; Yudken, Joel S.; Ruth, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impacts of energy price changes resulting from different carbon-pricing policies on the competitiveness of selected US energy-intensive industries. It further examines possible industry responses, and identifies and provides a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. The industry sectors investigated - steel, aluminum, chemicals and paper - are among the largest industrial users of fossil fuels in the US economy. The results of this examination show that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competitiveness of US energy-intensive manufacturing sectors over the next two decades, if climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies. The extent of these impacts will vary across industries, depending on their energy intensities, the mix of energy sources they rely on and how energy is used in production activities (heat and power, feedstock). Of relevance is also the speed and rigor with which industries adopt new technologies and retire (or replace) old ones. Other factors affecting these impacts include an industry's vulnerability to foreign imports and its ability to pass through cost increases to its customers in the face of international market competition.

  14. Has renewable energy induced competitive behavior in the Spanish electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Espinosa, Maria Paz; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Recent energy policy has favored a massive introduction of Renewable Energy Sources on electricity markets, which has greatly impacted their performance. First, the electricity price has decreased as a consequence of the so-called merit-order effect. Another relevant effect is associated to the intermittent nature of Renewable Energy, which has increased the cost of ancillary services. A third and important aspect, less addressed in the literature, is the induced change in the strategic behavior of the conventional electricity producers. In principle, the entry of new generators in a concentrated market would make it more competitive and change the strategic behavior of the incumbents. We test this hypothesis for the Spanish wholesale market. While we find no significant change in behavior for Nuclear, Hydropower and Coal, a change is observed in Combined Cycle bidding strategies after the entry of renewable generators. Our analysis shows that the massive entry of Renewable Energy Sources made other generators' behavior more competitive in the short run, but the effect was not persistent. - Highlights: • The indirect effects of RES affect prices in electricity markets. • RES induced little change in Nuclear, Coal and Hydropower generation. • Combined Cycle bidding strategies have evolved to adapt to the introduction of RES. • RES made Combined Cycle's behavior more competitive in the short run. • The competitive effect induced by RES is not persistent in the long run.

  15. Petroleum, energy and environment: the status of 2001 fusions-acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    After the year 2000 world surge of fusions-acquisitions in various industrial sectors (telecommunications in particular), the phenomenon has slowed down during the year 2001 except for the energy sector and in particular in the oil and gas industry. This article summarizes the status of these fusions-acquisitions according to a study carried out by the French centre of foreign trade (CFCE). (J.S.)

  16. High-resolution insight into the competitive adsorption of heavy metals on natural sediment by site energy distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limin; Jin, Qiang; Tandon, Puja; Li, Aimin; Shan, Aidang; Du, Jiajie

    2018-04-01

    Investigating competitive adsorption on river/lake sediments is valuable for understanding the fate and transport of heavy metals. Most studies have studied the adsorption isotherms of competitive heavy metals, which mainly comparing the adsorption information on the same concentration. However, intrinsically, the concentration of each heavy metal on competitive adsorption sites is different, while the adsorption energy is identical. Thus, this paper introduced the site energy distribution theory to increase insight into the competitive adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Zn). The site energy distributions of each metal with and without other coexisting heavy metals were obtained. It illustrated that site energy distributions provide much more information than adsorption isotherms through screening of the full energy range. The results showed the superior heavy metal in each site energy area and the influence of competitive metals on the site energy distribution of target heavy metal. Site energy distributions can further help in determining the competitive sites and ratios of coexisting metals. In particular, in the high-energy area, which has great environmental significance, the ratios of heavy metals in the competitive adsorption sites obtained for various competitive systems were as follows: slightly more than 3:1 (Cu-Cd), slightly less than 3:1 (Cu-Zn), slightly more than 1:1 (Cd-Zn), and nearly 7:2:2 (Cu-Cd-Zn). The results from this study are helpful to deeply understand competitive adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn) on sediment. Therefore, this study was effective in presenting a general pattern for future reference in competitive adsorption studies on sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear energy in future sustainable, competitive energy mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarri, L.

    2002-01-01

    nuclear power. For the medium term, 2030-2050, new reactors aiming at reducing capital costs, enhancing safety and improving the efficiency of natural resource use are being developed by designers. In order to address new challenges of deregulated markets, innovative reactor designs should enhance economic competitiveness and reduce financial risks of nuclear energy. The renewed interest of governments for the nuclear option (e.g., US, Finland) has triggered national and international initiatives (GIF, INPRO) aiming at defining and implementing co-operative R and D programmes leading to the deployment of a new generation of nuclear systems meeting the economic, environmental and social goals of sustainable development. International co-operation is essential for a successful renaissance of nuclear energy in the competitive context of the new millennium. Sharing experience, expertise and know-how across countries offers unique opportunities for synergy and cost effectiveness. Intergovernmental organisations such as NEA can play a key role in this regard through providing a framework for exchanging information and undertaking joint projects. (author)

  18. 48 CFR 245.7302 - Competitive sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302 Competitive sales. ...

  19. Energy, enterprises and transports: how conciliate competitiveness and responsibility; Energie, entreprises et transports: comment concilier competitivite et responsabilite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    The meeting on the enterprises and transports competitiveness in a context of energy conservation, organized in Nice the 15 april 2003, took place three topics: are the competitiveness of enterprises and the energy consumptions mastership reconcilable? What are the solutions to answer the market demands with a decrease of the energy consumption? Concerning the goods transport, must we leave the road transport? The whole texts of the round tables and the open and exit allocution are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  20. Competition Law and the Energy Sector (Konkurenčno pravo in energetski sektor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Grilc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence and place of competition law in the energy sector. Since energy is considered an economic sector, which is regulated, it also touches the phenomenon of regulation itself, as well as the liberalization. In terms of content it is divided into two parts. The first set is of general and introductory character. It deals with regulation, liberalization and competition law from conceptual aspects and tackles the relationship between rules that constitute sectoral regulation and legislation in the field of competition law. The different packages liberalization in the EU, especially the sectoral report in 2007 are dealt with, as well. The second part goes deeper into the analysis of recent cases in the field of competition law in the EU. It deals with agreements which restrict competition, abuse of dominant position. In particular, it analyses the long-term supply contracts and all steps for their assessment, as well as the competitive problems of public undertakings and undertakings with exclusive rights, and the latest anti-competitive practices.

  1. Competition Experiments as a Means of Evaluating Linear Free Energy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Richard J.; Vedernikov, Andrei; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    The use of competition experiments as a means of evaluating linear free energy relationship in the undergraduate teaching laboratory is reported. The use of competition experiments proved to be a reliable method for the construction of Hammett plots with good correlation providing great flexibility with regard to the compounds and reactions that…

  2. Threshold values in acquisitions in the power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses weather the authorities should define threshold values for the market concentration in the power market for reasons of future competition. It is shown that special circumstances in the power market dictate that the competition authorities may have good reasons to adopt a precautionary attitude to acquisitions in that market. The assessment must consider the fact that it is the competition in individual hours that is relevant for the market. Thus the competition authorities should use threshold values based on the producers' share of the power capacity in all relevant market areas that are affected by the acquisition. The threshold values may still be used only as a first filtering out procedure. A final decision about intervention must be founded on a closer assessment of all the socioeconomic consequences of the acquisition in each case

  3. Energy and competition. Supplying Europe with safe and low-cost energy; Energie und Wettbewerb. Die Versorgung Europas mit sicherer und preisguenstiger Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnt, D [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany)

    1994-01-01

    The EC Commission and the Energy Committee of the European Parliament want to achieve more competition in energy supply. To this end, deregulation is to be carried out as a first step. The proposals under discussion are based on the English-Welsh model which, however, can hardly be applied to the whole of the EC and not at all to Germany, as it provides for government controlled ``pseudo``-competition to override real competition. At the same time, the German Federal Cartel Office tries to abolish altogether the concept of territorial protection. In a ``competition`` brought about by such means, foreign utilities operating in Germany would enjoy advantages over domestic utilities. From an all-European point of view, also the draft amendment to the Energy Economy Act proposed by the German Federal Ministry of Economics, and a number of regulations covering energy trust legislation, are appearing at the wrong time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Europaeische Kommission und Energieausschuss des Europaeischen Parlamentes wollen in der Energieversorgung mehr Wettbewerb, wozu zunaechst eine Deregulierung durchgefuehrt werden soll. Pate bei den zu diskutierenden Vorschlaegen hat das englisch-walisische Modell gestanden, das aber wenig auf die gesamte Europaeische Union (EU) und gar nicht auf Deutschland uebertragbar ist, da dem tatsaechlichen ein staatlich kontrollierter Pseudo-Wettbewerb uebergestuelpt wird. Gleichzeitig versucht das Bundeskartellamt, den Gebietsschutz radikal aufzuheben. Solcherart hergestellter ``Wettbewerb`` wuerde auslaendische EVU in Deutschland gegenueber heimischen bevorteilen. Auch der Entwurf des Bundeswirtschaftsministeriums zur Novellierung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes und einer Reihe von energiekartellrechtlichen Vorschriften kommt aus gesamteuropaeischer Sicht zur Unzeit. (orig.)

  4. Effects of energy and carbon taxes on building material competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund, (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The relations between building material competitiveness and economic instruments for mitigating climate change are explored in this bottom-up study. The effects of carbon and energy taxes on building material manufacturing cost and total building construction cost are modelled, analysing individual materials as well as comparing a wood-framed building to a reinforced concrete-framed building. The energy balances of producing construction materials made of wood, concrete, steel, and gypsum are described and quantified. For wood lumber, more usable energy is available as biomass residues than is consumed in the processing steps. The quantities of biofuels made available during the production of wood materials are calculated, and the cost differences between using these biofuels and using fossil fuels are shown under various tax regimes. The results indicate that higher energy and carbon taxation rates increase the economic competitiveness of wood construction materials. This is due to both the lower energy cost for material manufacture, and the increased economic value of biomass by-products used to replace fossil fuel. (Author)

  5. Competitive assessment of the US: Renewable energy equipment industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    This report is a competitive assessment of the U.S. renewable energy equipment industry. The contents include: Definition of technologies; Industry characteristics; Historical perspectives; Industry performance; Trends and projections; The world marketplace; and Issues and options.

  6. Serobactins-mediated iron acquisition systems optimize competitive fitness of Herbaspirillum seropedicae inside rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosconi, Federico; Trovero, María F; de Souza, Emanuel M; Fabiano, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 is a diazotrophic endophyte able to colonize the interior of many economically relevant crops such as rice, wheat, corn and sorghum. Under iron-deficient conditions, this organism secretes serobactins, a suite of lipopetide siderophores. The role of siderophores in the interaction between endophytes and their plant hosts are not well understood. In this work, we aimed to determine the importance of serobactins-mediated iron acquisition systems in the interaction of H. seropedicae with rice plants. First we provide evidence, by using a combination of genome analysis, proteomic and genetic studies, that the Hsero_2345 gene encodes a TonB-dependent receptor involved in iron-serobactin complex internalization when iron bioavailability is low. Our results show that survival of the Hsero_2345 mutant inside rice plants was not significantly different from that of the wild-type strain. However, when plants were co-inoculated at equal ratios with the wild-type strain and with a double mutant defective in serobactins synthesis and internalization, recovery of mutant was significantly impaired after 8 days post-inoculation. These results demonstrate that serobactins-mediated iron acquisition contributes to competitive fitness of H. seropedicae inside host plants. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Energy forum 2005: Nuclear power - in competition with sustainable energy supply in Europe. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The forum of energy for future organized on 29st September 2005 the annual Energy Forum at Berlin. The Energy Forum 2005 dealt with nuclear power in competition with sustainable energy supply in Europe and didn't only give their members the possibility of a discussion on this actual theme. Furtheron demanding aims on CO2-reduction, increased raw material- and energy prices as the construction of a new Finnish nuclear power plant have countries moved to evaluate again the future-oriented role of nuclear power. (orig./GL)

  8. EU Energy Law. Volume 2. EU Competition Law and Energy Markets. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabau, E.; Jones, C.; Hancher, L.; Kjoelbye, L.; Landes, V.; Van der Woude, M.

    2007-09-01

    This completely revised and reworked second edition: incorporates the conclusions and consequences of the Sectoral Energy Competition Enquiry; contains an entirely reworked section on anti-competitive agreements and practices; examines in detail the developments in individual cases concerning long-term capacity reservation and sales/purchase agreements; considers recent developments on cases concerning collusion on price and quantity restrictions; looks into detail at the consequences of the Sectoral enquiry on abuse of a dominant position, particularly regarding discrimination in network access; revises the section on merger control to take account of developments in the methodology in defining markets and defining dominance /significant impediment of competition from the Sectoral enquiry; includes major new merger cases: Endesa, GDF/Suez, E.ON/MOL, DONG; and finally updates the State Aid section to take account of new decisions on renewable support schemes, security of supply

  9. Increasing the competitiveness of wind energy. New technologies for advanced wind predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The performance of thermal and nuclear power plants is assessed routinely and precisely, whereas the performance assessment of wind turbines is lagging far behind. This increases operational costs, reduces energy capture, and makes wind energy less competitive. The paper presents a technology and system with improved 24-h power forecasting, as well as condition monitoring of the rotor blades. The system can be employed by any wind power plant and offers potentials to increase the competitiveness of the power industry. (orig.)

  10. Promoting healthy competition across the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    As of August 1 last year, Finland's Electricity Market Authority became the Energy Market Authority. The timing of the change coincided with the introduction of Finland's new Natural Gas Market Act and reflected the extension of the Authority's responsibility to cover promoting healthy and efficient competition on both the electricity and natural gas market and to secure reasonable and equitable service principles in the operations of both networks. The Electricity Market Authority began operations in mid-1995 as an expert body subordinate to the Ministry of Trade and industry when Finland's Electricity Market Act came into force, bringing with it a phased opening-up of the Finnish electricity market. The principle task of the Authority was, and remains, to supervise the pricing of transmission, distribution, and other network services, and to ensure a healthy level of competition

  11. AlintaGas perspective on evolving competition in the Western Australian energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the evolving competition in the Western Australian energy market, with a clear focus on gas. Before considering the future energy market, he puts today's market in perspective and set the framework within which the development of the future markets should be considered. What is a competitive market? It is a market where there are enough producers and enough users for competition between them to determine prices, which are set prices, not costs. An example of a competitive gas market in Western Australia is the Pilbara. There are enough producers and enough users in the Pilbara area that gas prices are set by the normal forces of supply and demand and transport costs are essentially negligible. There is no need for regulation or any external price setting - the forces of supply and demand determine prices. In the south west gas market there are the same gas suppliers, but a different and larger group of customers. This market differs from the Pilbara market because now there are transport costs involved. The transport element is a natural monopoly - and it is important to ensure transport prices do not distort the competitive market established between producers and users. Hence, third party access to the Dampier to Bunbury Natural Gas Pipeline (DBNGP), under properly regulated access arrangements to ensure there is no market distortion, allows the forces of competition to set prices in the south west gas market. Western Australia is fortunate - and unique among the Australian states - in that it has a number of gas producers keen to sell into Western Australian gas markets. Hence, gas on gas competition - as well as inter-fuel competition - is setting prices. For historic reasons - and they are good reasons - energy markets in Western Australia are not yet completely open. There is however a program of market deregulation that commenced on I January 1995 and will be completed on July 2002, which means that all gas customers, even residential

  12. Data acquisition systems for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Olmos, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Data Acquisition Systems most frequently used in High Energy Physics experiments is described. This report begins with a brief description of the main elements of a typical signal processing chain, following with a detailed exposition of the four most popular instrumentation standards used in this kind of experiments: NIM, CAMAC, and VMI. (author). 20 figs., 9 ref

  13. Data acquisition systems for high energy Physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Olmos, P.

    1986-01-01

    We describe here the Data Acquisition Systems most frequently used in High Energy Physics experiments. This report begins with a brief description of the main elements of a typical signal processing chain, following with a detailed exposition of the four most popular instrumentation standards used in this kind of experimental: NIM, CAMAC, FASTBUS and VME. (Author) 9 refs

  14. Economic efficency and competitive position of nuclear energy today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the relaxation making itself felt at the moment on the world energy markets, the competitive position of nuclear power from either existing or shortly to be connected power plants remains safe. Any attempt at doing without this extraordinarily convenient vehicle of power generation would mean to severely force up costs and expenses. The competitive position of existing nuclear power plants is assumed to remain untouched through the coming decade. In spite of the presently very low world market prices imported coal is especially affected by, even abstract economic analyses show nuclear energy to come out superior to all other alternatives providing for the electric power supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. Once the over-capacity is reduced and under control, a longer-term superior competitive position of nuclear power, however, presupposes a rise in prices full level with those of the neighbor countries. At any rate and for the time being, the divergence of electric power from imported coal prices which was even obvious in the mean load range has diminished. The superior position of nuclear power in the base load range can be maintained through avoiding further rises in operating costs by gradual rationalization and standardization. (orig./HP) [de

  15. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  16. Competition and stability analyses among emissions, energy, and economy: Application for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Fu, Hsin-Chia

    2015-01-01

    In view of limited natural resources on Earth, linkage among environment, energy, and economy (3Es) becomes important perspectives for sustainable development. This paper proposes to use Lotka–Volterra model for SUstainable Development (LV-SUD) to analyse the interspecific interactions, equilibria and their stabilities among emissions, different types of energy consumption (renewable, nuclear, and fossil fuel), and real GDP, the main factors of 3Es issues. Modelling these interactions provides a useful multivariate framework for prediction outcomes. Interaction between 3Es, namely competition, symbiosis, or predation, plays an important role in policy development to achieve a balanced use of energy resources and to strengthen the green economy. Applying LV-SUD in Mexico, an emerging markets country, analysing results show that there is a mutualism between fossil fuel consumption and GDP; prey-predator relationships that fossil fuel and GDP enhance the growth of emissions, but emissions inhibit the growth of the others; and commensalisms that GDP benefits from nuclear power, and renewable power benefits from fossil fuel. It is suggested that national energy policies should remain committed to decoupling the relevance between non-clean energy and GDP, to actively developing clean energy and thereby to properly reducing fossil fuel consumption and emissions without harming economic growth. - Highlights: • LV-SUD is used to analyse the competition between environment-energy-economy (3Es). • The competitions between renewable, nuclear, and fossil energy are analysed. • Competition between 3Es plays an important role in policy development. • LV-SUD provides a useful multivariate framework for prediction outcomes. • An application for emerging markets countries such as Mexico is presented

  17. How to make energy transition a lever for competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, Gilles; Ben Brahim, Hedi; Berger, Raphael; Dassa, Francois; Dreyer, Iana; Leger, Sebastien; Maneville, Frederic de; Perez, Yannick; Rosier, Philippe; Rusquec, Jean du; Servan, Thibault; Tlili, Cecile; Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    This note examines the major challenges faced by the energy sector in France in a context of continuous cost increase, of lack of domestic production, of high public expenses for the development of renewable energies, of low energy performance, of financial and regulatory framework which does not favour investments. It also highlights the central role of Europe to face these challenges although the European energy policy still lacks ambition, and is still dominated by the climate issue. It formulates a set of propositions about three main axes: a better management of energy consumption, a promotion of new emerging competitive industrial sectors without weakening the sectors of excellence France possesses in the field of energy, and to make the Europe of energy progress

  18. 48 CFR 813.106 - Soliciting competition, evaluation of quotations or offers, award and documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Soliciting competition, evaluation of quotations or offers, award and documentation. 813.106 Section 813.106 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 813.106 Soliciting competition, evaluation of quotations or offers, award...

  19. 48 CFR 245.7307 - Non-competitive sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7307 Non-competitive sales. ...

  20. Using energy storage for strategic advantage in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Symons, P.

    1998-01-01

    Energy storage products are emerging for use in power quality, electric transmission and distribution, and renewable energy applications. Despite this emergence into high-value markets, widespread market penetration will only occur when the value of the services that energy storage products can deliver are clearly delineated. The emergence of competitive electricity markets will more clearly define the flexible benefits of energy storage devices. This paper presents a summary of the ESA's position of the status of energy storage technologies, the market barriers, and steps the ESA is undertaking to reduce these barriers. (author)

  1. 48 CFR 13.106 - Soliciting competition, evaluation of quotations or offers, award and documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Soliciting competition, evaluation of quotations or offers, award and documentation. 13.106 Section 13.106 Federal Acquisition... ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.106 Soliciting competition, evaluation of quotations or offers, award and...

  2. The data acquisition system used in one-dimension multichannel fast electron energy loss spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weichun; Zhu Linfan; Zhang Yijun; Xu Kezuo

    2010-01-01

    It describes a data acquisition system used in one dimension multichannel fast electron energy loss spectrometer, which can work in scan acquisition mode and static acquisition mode. The timing precision of the scan mode is less than 4 μs by utilizing the gated signal generated by data acquisition card DAQ2010 and an AND logic circuit. A timer card PCI8554 is used to synchronize the data acquisition card and the personal computer. The scan voltage supply is controlled by the personal computer through the RS232 interface. The multithreading technology is used in the acquisition software in order to improve the accommodating-err ability of the acquisition system. A satisfactory test result is given. (authors)

  3. Effects of the energy and mining industry on management of national competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Madzík

    2016-04-01

    influence of energy and mining industry on competitiveness over the last 40 years has increased, particularly in the case of countries with low or medium economic development, and it has decreased in developed countries. The resulting information about the intensity of the mutual relations might be useful for management of competitiveness and planning of strategic economic tools.

  4. THE COSTS OF THE ELECTRICAL ENERGY IN THE ALUMINIUM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilianu Marian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has given the opportunity to reconsider the use of resources, so the subject of competitive advantage has become actual. In the aluminium industry the cost of electrical energy is critical not only for competitive reasons but for the mere existence and performance of numerous production facilities . Several ways of resisting the pressure of high energy costs have been experimented the most promising being those based on different forms of public-private partnership/co-operation. In many countries the big industrial producers benefit from a special treatment concerning the energy acquisition and are supported by the government in order to remain competitive.

  5. Developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitola, J.P. [Unicom Thermal Technologies, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In two year`s time, Unicorn Thermal Technologies has grown into one of the largest district cooling systems of 25,000 tons with a 1996 plan to grow to 40,000 tons. This growth is attributed to the development and implementation of a marketing and sales plan based on thorough market research and innovative marketing and sales strategies, and the consistent implementation of those strategies. The beginning of the sales effort was focused around the company`s first district cooling facility, However, it quickly grew into a much broader vision as market acceptance increased. Although the district energy industry has often based its message on being a low cost energy provider, market research and early sales experience indicated that customers choose district cooling as a value added service. As customers began to reserve capacity in the first plant, the idea that district cooling is a value added service and not a commodity energy product was continually reinforced through marketing communications. Although this analysis is a review of developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market, it purposely avoids a long winded discussion of head to head competition.

  6. To make a competitiveness lever out of energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, Gilles; Ben Brahim, Hedi; Berger, Raphael; Servan, Thibault; Dassa, Francois; Dreyer, Iana; Leger, Sebastien; Maneville, Frederic de; Perez, Yannick; Rosier, Philippe; Rusquec, Jean du; Tlili, Cecile; Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    This note focuses of the major challenges for the French energy sector within a context of continuous cost increase, and outlines the central role of Europe to face the energy challenges. The authors state proposals under three main themes: a better management of energy consumption, a support to the emergence of new competitive industrial sectors without weakening the existing ones, and make the Europe of energy progress. The authors address the challenge of energy cost increase (a traditionally efficient French energy mix but with costs to increase in the future, a weak energy performance, a financial and regulatory framework not favourable to investments and innovation), discuss the European energy policy which, according to them, lacks ambition (a policy unbalanced by the prevalence of the climate issue, a national independence in contradiction with increasing interdependencies) and then make their proposals

  7. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Gloria; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on physical performance during a rugby sevens competition. A second purpose was to investigate the post-competition urinary caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. On two non-consecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish National rugby sevens Team (mean age and body mass = 23 ± 2 years and 66 ± 7 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure(®), ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a 6 × 30 m sprint test, and then played three rugby sevens games against another national team. Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the games were assessed using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Urine samples were obtained pre and post-competition. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the energy drink increased muscle power output during the jump series (23.5 ± 10.1 vs. 25.6 ± 11.8 kW, P = 0.05), running pace during the games (87.5 ± 8.3 vs. 95.4 ± 12.7 m/min, P caffeine concentration than the placebo (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P caffeine in the form of a commercially available energy drink considerably enhanced physical performance during a women's rugby sevens competition.

  8. The future of energy markets: tensions between the conflicting demands of competition and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    2000-01-01

    It clearly shows that the whole energy sector is on the move, pulled this way and that by the conflicting demands of competition and politics. The utilities face enormous pressure on costs, while customers enjoy an unprecedented measure of freedom. No one can avoid the pressure of the market, not even politicians. The latter should recognize that there is no point in hobbling an industry that has to face up to the European competition, and that fair conditions of competition are essential. If the political conditions are right, the current tensions may ultimately turn out to be fruitful and release new energies from which all will profit. (orig.) [de

  9. Acquisition of Preparative Gel Permeation Chromatography for Research and Education in Energy Conversion and Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0090 Acquisition of Preparative Gel Permeation Chromatography for Research and Education in Energy Conversion and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquisition of Preparative Gel Permeation Chromatography for Research and Education in Energy Conversion and Nanocomposites 5a... research with education at all levels across a broad range of materials, and create important opportunities to expose and train undergraduates, women

  10. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  11. Successful renewable energy development in a competitive electricity market: A Texas case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnikau, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy in markets with competition at wholesale and retail levels poses challenges not present in areas served by vertically-integrated utilities. The intermittent nature of some renewable energy resources impact reliability, operations, and market prices, in turn affecting all market participants. Meeting renewable energy goals may require coordination among many market players. These challenges may be successfully overcome by imposing goals, establishing trading mechanisms, and implementing operational changes in competitive markets. This strategy has contributed to Texas' leadership among all US states in non-hydro renewable energy production. While Texas has been largely successful in accommodating over 9000 MW of wind power capacity, this extensive reliance upon wind power has also created numerous problems. Higher levels of operating reserves must now be procured. Market prices often go negative in the proximity of wind farms. Inaccurate wind forecasts have led to reliability problems. Five billion dollars in transmission investment will be necessary to facilitate further wind farm projects. Despite these costs, wind power is generally viewed as a net benefit. - Research Highlights: → Texas rapidly emerged as a leader in renewable energy development. → This state's experiences demonstrate that the right combination of policies to lead to rapid renewable energy development in a region with a very competitive electricity market. → Wind power development has lead to various operational challenges.

  12. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Cherrelle; Bollinger, L. Andrew; Koirala, Binod; Scholten, Daniel; Facchinetti, Emanuele; Lilliestam, Johan; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization concentrates competition at the wholesale level, local energy management at the distribution level is likely to impose new roles and responsibilities on existing and/or new actors. This paper prov...

  13. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G; Jenkins, N [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  14. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  15. The dynamic relationship between plant architecture and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, E David

    2014-01-01

    In this review, structural and functional changes are described in single-species, even-aged, stands undergoing competition for light. Theories of the competition process as interactions between whole plants have been advanced but have not been successful in explaining these changes and how they vary between species or growing conditions. This task now falls to researchers in plant architecture. Research in plant architecture has defined three important functions of individual plants that determine the process of canopy development and competition: (i) resource acquisition plasticity; (ii) morphogenetic plasticity; (iii) architectural variation in efficiency of interception and utilization of light. In this review, this research is synthesized into a theory for competition based on five groups of postulates about the functioning of plants in stands. Group 1: competition for light takes place at the level of component foliage and branches. Group 2: the outcome of competition is determined by the dynamic interaction between processes that exert dominance and processes that react to suppression. Group 3: species differences may affect both exertion of dominance and reaction to suppression. Group 4: individual plants may simultaneously exhibit, in different component parts, resource acquisition and morphogenetic plasticity. Group 5: mortality is a time-delayed response to suppression. Development of architectural models when combined with field investigations is identifying research needed to develop a theory of architectural influences on the competition process. These include analyses of the integration of foliage and branch components into whole-plant growth and precise definitions of environmental control of morphogenetic plasticity and its interaction with acquisition of carbon for plant growth.

  16. Energy mergers, acquisitions and trusts : no end in sight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of Canadian export of natural gas to the U.S. and mergers in the Canadian gas industry was presented. Issues discussed included: (1) the Canadian role in U.S. gas markets, (2) growth, returns, and reinvestment rates in the Canadian gas industry, (3) current and historical mergers and acquisitions activity, (4) the driving forces of continued mergers, and (5) the role of trusts in mergers and acquisitions. It was stressed that the recent trend of energy industry mergers is reshaping the industry. Canadian gas producers are currently finding themselves in a high risk, low-return, capital intensive industry caught in a 10-year major growth trend driven by U.S. exports. Unfortunately, for the immediate future there is no end in sight. figs

  17. Energy mergers, acquisitions and trusts : no end in sight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiry, J. [Woodside Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    An overview of Canadian export of natural gas to the U.S. and mergers in the Canadian gas industry was presented. Issues discussed included: (1) the Canadian role in U.S. gas markets, (2) growth, returns, and reinvestment rates in the Canadian gas industry, (3) current and historical mergers and acquisitions activity, (4) the driving forces of continued mergers, and (5) the role of trusts in mergers and acquisitions. It was stressed that the recent trend of energy industry mergers is reshaping the industry. Canadian gas producers are currently finding themselves in a high risk, low-return, capital intensive industry caught in a 10-year major growth trend driven by U.S. exports. Unfortunately, for the immediate future there is no end in sight. figs.

  18. Energy storage reinforces competitive business practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makansi, J.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines how the ability to ''store'' electricity can pay handsome dividends in a competitive environment. Priorities change when industries are deregulated. Indeed, new priorities are being established for electric generation--low cost, efficiency, product distinction for marketing purposes, etc. are all more critical today. Perhaps not so obvious is the fundamental role of energy storage in a fully competitive marketplace. In fact, rarely do a technology development and a changing business climate play off against each other so nicely. Consider the function of the emerging electricity broker, or power marketer. Imagine the premium that broker could command with access to a large increment of electricity--purchased at a low price--and supplied at a moment's notice for a substantially higher price. Storage of electricity would mean that the investment in excess available generation capacity to supply so-called peak demand could be avoided. It also means that electricity could be brokered like other commodities--that is purchased, stockpiled, and sold to reflect market conditions across a wider geographical region and time spain. Benefits accrue to transmission and distribution, in addition to generation. Energy storage helps to manage the increasing stress placed on the grid as a result of intermittent sources of power and large numbers of cogenerators and small power producers. On the customer side, any ratepayer large or small could, theoretically, play the spot market in electric supply with a reserve to tap in emergencies. For a parallel in other deregulated markets, recall how storage has become an important factor in natural-gas contracting. Quality of electricity also can be improved by applying storage to stabilize the grid, especially along the distribution system at substations. And the opening of vast markets for electricity consumption, such as electric vehicles, depends in large measure on electric storage

  19. A data acquisition computer for high energy physics applications DAFNE:- hardware manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, J.; Seller, P.; De-An, W.

    1983-07-01

    A high performance stand alone computer system based on the Motorola 68000 micro processor has been built at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Although the design was strongly influenced by the requirement to provide a compact data acquisition computer for the high energy physics environment, the system is sufficiently general to find applications in a wider area. It provides colour graphics and tape and disc storage together with access to CAMAC systems. This report is the hardware manual of the data acquisition computer, DAFNE (Data Acquisition For Nuclear Experiments), and as such contains a full description of the hardware structure of the computer system. (author)

  20. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullenkamp, Patrick H; Holody, Diane S

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the project was to develop a greater understanding of the key factors determining wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and to reduce installed systems cost. Multiple stakeholders including DOE, turbine OEMs, and large component manufactures will all benefit by better understanding the factors determining domestic competitiveness in the emerging offshore and next generation land-based wind industries. Major objectives of this project were to: 1. Carry out global cost and process comparisons for 5MW jacket foundations, blades, towers, and permanent magnet generators; 2. Assess U.S. manufacturers’ competitiveness and potential for cost reduction; 3. Facilitate informed decision-making on investments in U.S. manufacturing; 4. Develop an industry scorecard representing the readiness of the U.S. manufacturers’ to produce components for the next generations of wind turbines, nominally 3MW land-based and 5MW offshore; 5. Disseminate results through the GLWN Wind Supply Chain GIS Map, a free website that is the most comprehensive public database of U.S. wind energy suppliers; 6. Identify areas and develop recommendations to DOE on potential R&D areas to target for increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness, per DOE’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI). Lists of Deliverables 1. Cost Breakdown Competitive Analyses of four product categories: tower, jacket foundation, blade, and permanent magnet (PM) generator. The cost breakdown for each component includes a complete Bill of Materials with net weights; general process steps for labor; and burden adjusted by each manufacturer for their process categories of SGA (sales general and administrative), engineering, logistics cost to a common U.S. port, and profit. 2. Value Stream Map Competitiveness Analysis: A tool that illustrates both information and material flow from the point of getting a

  1. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitive Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullenkamp, Patrick [Global WindNetwork, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The Global Wind Network (GLWN) assessed the key factors that determine wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to provide a better understanding of the factors that will help enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and reduce installed system costs.

  2. Impact of gas on utilities - competitive energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolican, M.

    1997-01-01

    The initiatives taken by Nova Scotia Power to have natural gas as a generating fuel was discussed. Nova Scotia Power customers have indicated to the Utility that along with reduced energy costs, they want choices, better services and innovative products. It was noted that coal is currently Nova Scotia Power's principal fuel, but the utility is working with the Cape Breton Development Corporation, their supplier, to bring the cost of coal down. The utility is also exploring the potential of coal bed methane in Pictou and Cumberland counties of Nova Scotia. However, the most promising competitive energy option for their customers is Sable Offshore natural gas. To bring natural gas as the generating fuel for electricity, the Utility is taking steps to convert its Tufts Cove Thermal Generating Station to natural gas and to pipe natural gas to the Trenton Generating Station by November 1999. Bringing natural gas to these two stations would establish a critical base level of demand for natural gas in the Halifax and New Glasgow-Trenton area. One of the important ingredients of this plan is the cost of piping the gas to market. It was suggested that the 'postage stamp' tolling system (i.e. one price for the gas delivered anywhere along the pipeline) favored by some, would not give Nova Scotians the economic advantages that they deserve. For this reason, Nova Scotia Power favours the 'point to point' tolling system, a system that is considered fair and efficient, and the one that has a better chance of producing competitive energy prices

  3. Competition in energy markets - law and regulation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter Duncanson; Brothwood, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Analysis of the origins, aims and implementation of the EU energy directives is essential to an understanding of the emerging internal market in energy in the European Union. This book provides a detailed and practical account of the legislation and the various developments in the Member States that are leading to a competitive energy market for the first time. It explains the legislation, EU case law and the relevant national laws, regulations and competence of the enforcing authorities. (Author)

  4. The impact of the energy cost on the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry. A review of the contributions of research in economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordigoni, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    After a large introduction on the variations of energy prices (in relationship with energy sources, with end users, with competitiveness), on what can be found in the literature on competitiveness in the industry in relationship with energy, and on the current debates on energy prices and energy transition, this report discusses the variations of energy prices among countries and among industrial sectors, outlines that high oil prices threaten more economic growth than competitiveness, notices that countries possessing abundant energy resources tend to be specialised in intensive industries, that energy prices tends to have an important impact on competitiveness in some specific sectors, outlines that shale gases boost the demand of the whole American economy but that the associated competitiveness improvement rather concerns energy intensive sectors, and finally discusses the energy issue at a European level

  5. Incorporating Renewable Energy Science in Regional Landscape Design: Results from a Competition in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée M. de Waal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy transition is expected to make an important contribution to sustainable development. Although it is argued that landscape design could foster energy transition, there is scant empirical research on how practitioners approach this new challenge. The research question central to this study is: To what extent and how is renewable energy science incorporated in regional landscape design? To address this knowledge gap, a case study of a regional landscape design competition in the Netherlands, held from 2010–2012, is presented. Its focus was on integral, strategic landscape transformation with energy transition as a major theme. Content analysis of the 36 competition entries was supplemented and triangulated with a survey among the entrants, observation of the process and a study of the competition documents and website. Results indicated insufficient use of key-strategies elaborated by renewable energy science. If landscape design wants to adopt a supportive role towards energy transition, a well-informed and evidence-based approach is highly recommended. Nevertheless, promising strategies for addressing the complex process of ensuring sustainable energy transition also emerged. They include the careful cultivation of public support by developing inclusive and bottom-up processes, and balancing energy-conscious interventions with other land uses and interests.

  6. 48 CFR 1313.106 - Soliciting competition, evaluation of quotations or offers, award and documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Soliciting competition, evaluation of quotations or offers, award and documentation. 1313.106 Section 1313.106 Federal Acquisition... PROCEDURES Procedures 1313.106 Soliciting competition, evaluation of quotations or offers, award and...

  7. 48 CFR 52.216-30 - Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition without Adequate Price Competition. 52.216... Price Competition. As prescribed in 16.601(e)(2), insert the following provision: Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition Without Adequate Price Competition (FEB...

  8. Mergers, Acquisitions and Export Competitiveness: Experience of Indian Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Pulak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic reforms in general and subsequent wave of M&A in particular, this paper attempts to examine the impact of M&A on the export competitiveness of firms in the Indian manufacturing sector. By using a panel dataset of 33 industries from the period of 2000-01 to 2007-08, it is found that, the wave of M&A has enhanced the export competitiveness of firms. The industries with larger number of M&A have greater penetration in the international market. The other factors that have significantly contributed to export competitiveness include the presence of MNCs and import of foreign technology. Export competiveness is higher in the industries that have larger presence of MNCs and greater foreign technology purchase intensity. On the other hand, industries with higher capital intensity or greater selling efforts by firms have limited penetration in the international market. However, this paper did not find any significant influence of market concentration, competition from imports, in-house efforts, or profitability on export competitiveness of firms. Therefore, the findings from this paper have important policy implications in relation to the regulation of M&A and entry of MNCs as well as the import of capital goods.

  9. Gallium-67 imaging with low collimators and energy weighted acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamill, J.J.; DeVito, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the medium and high energy collimators used in 67 Ga imaging have poorer resolution than low-energy collimators, such as the LEAP. The low energy collimators could be used for gallium imaging if the background under the 93 and 185 keV peaks could be reduced without degrading the signal-to-noise ratio unacceptably. energy weighted acquisition provides a means of accomplishing this background reduction. The authors have developed weighing functions for gallium imaging through LEAP and high resolution collimators. The resolution of the low energy collimators is realized while the background is comparable to, or better than, the background in normal, energy-window imaging with the medium energy collimator. The pixel noise is somewhat greater than the Poisson noise in normal gallium imaging, and some noise correlations, or noise texture, is introduced

  10. 48 CFR 252.216-7002 - Alternate A, Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition... Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition. As prescribed in 216.601(e...-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price...

  11. Exploring an Age Difference in Preschool Children's Competitiveness Following a Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Zhu, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Literature suggests that resource acquisition compels competition in young children. However, little is still known about the development of preschool children's competitiveness. In this preliminary study, 166 children (aged 2-4 and 5-6 years) engaged in a dyadic competition which resulted in a winning and a losing group (in a control/non-competition group, participants engaged in a similar task which did not lead to winning/losing outcome), and then experimenters tracked their decisions to compete again with a rival (i.e., an individual they interacted in the previous competition task) and a non-rival competitor (i.e., an anonymous classmate they did not interact in the previous competition task) for a reward, respectively. As expected, results showed an age-related decreasing trend in the percentage of choices to compete with a competitor. However, this age difference was only significant in the control group when participants played with the partner with whom they interacted in the previous game and in the losing group when participants competed with a non-rival competitor. This study contributes to our knowledge of how competitiveness develop in preschool childhood, and calls for further research on the roles of motivation and cognitive control in children's competitiveness.

  12. Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.; Hongisto, M.; Turkulainen, T.; Kuisma, J.; Loikkanen, T.

    1999-01-01

    The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation

  13. The Impact of Energy taxes on Competitiveness and Output: A Panel Regression Study of 56 European Industry Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Martin K.; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the extent to which energy taxes - via the resulting increase in real energy prices, or in their own right - reduce or enhance industrial competitiveness. From a panel data set covering 56 industry sectors throughout Europe over the period 1990-2003, we estimate how cha...... changes in real energy taxes and real energy prices affect, on the one hand, competitiveness measured in terms unit energy costs and unit wage costs and, on the other hand, economic performance expressed in terms of output (value added)......The focus of this paper is the extent to which energy taxes - via the resulting increase in real energy prices, or in their own right - reduce or enhance industrial competitiveness. From a panel data set covering 56 industry sectors throughout Europe over the period 1990-2003, we estimate how...

  14. 48 CFR 52.216-29 - Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Hour Proposal Requirements-Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition. 52.216-29... Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price Competition (FEB 2007) (a) The... Time-and-Materials/Labor-Hour Proposal Requirements—Non-Commercial Item Acquisition With Adequate Price...

  15. Long-term energy supply contracts in European competition policy: Fuzzy not crazy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauteclocque, Adrien de; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Long-term supply contracts often have ambiguous effects on the competitive structure, investment and consumer welfare in the long term. In the new market context, these effects are likely to be worsened and thus even harder to assess. Since liberalization and especially since the release of the Energy Sector Inquiry in early 2007, the portfolio of long-term supply contracts of the former incumbents have become a priority for review by the European Commission and the national competition authorities. It is widely believed that European Competition authorities take a dogmatic view on these contracts and systemically emphasize the risk of foreclosure over their positive effects on investment and operation. This paper depicts the methodology that has emerged in the recent line of cases and argues that this interpretation is largely misguided. It shows that a multiple-step approach is used to reduce regulation costs and balance anti-competitive effects with potential efficiency gains. However, if an economic approach is now clearly implemented, competition policy is constrained by the procedural aspect of the legal process and the remedies imposed remain open for discussion.

  16. Current and future competitiveness of bioenergy - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, E.; Lundgren, K.; Maartensson, Kjell

    1998-01-01

    It is important to visualize the conceptions that guide the behaviour of the actors within the energy system to be able to, in an efficient manner, increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. A major issue is to elucidate explicit and implicit presumptions within judgements on the competitiveness of bioenergy. This study focuses on how conceptions of bioenergy in the form of patterns of thinking, influence whether bioenergy can become competitive. The aim of the study is to develop a framework that will enable an increased understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy today and in the future. The conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold are studied and analysed. The conceptions of the actors are seen as key factors for the understanding of the function of the energy system and accordingly also for the understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The over-all method perspective in the study is an actor approach. The actors' conceptions have been identified from interviews with 30 significant actors within the energy system. The material from the interviews has been synthesised into nine ideal types of actors. These nine 'model actors' are seen as representing the whole material and form the basis for the further analysis of the competitiveness of bioenergy as depending on patterns of thinking called logics. Three idealized logics are developed. The three logics developed in the study are production logic, market logic and socio-economic logic. (Upholders of the logics rank energy sources after production cost, profitability, and socio-economic legitimacy, respectively.) The logics co-exist within the different parts of the energy system. A single person can even uphold more than one logic. The three logics have however different weight in different organisations and in different parts of the energy system. Finally, the study proposes an enlarged description of the competitiveness of bioenergy in three dimensions: price

  17. The problems of assessing the value of mergers and acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borovikov A.D.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses some questions concerning mergers and acquisitions of companies. The essential foundation of any mergers and acquisitions is always the competitive environment, more precisely, its constant changes.

  18. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. Data Acquisition System for Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Yu Xiaoqi; Yang Tao

    2005-01-01

    A Data Acquisition System (DAQ) for electron energy loss coincident spectrometers (EELCS) has been developed. The system is composed of a Multiplex Time-Digital Converter (TDC) that measures the flying time of positive and negative ions and a one-dimension position-sensitive detector that records the energy loss of scattering electrons. The experimental data are buffered in a first-in-first-out (FIFO) memory module, then transferred from the FIFO memory to PC by the USB interface. The DAQ system can record the flying time of several ions in one collision, and allows of different data collection modes. The system has been demonstrated at the Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers at the Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics, USTC. A detail description of the whole system is given and experimental results shown

  20. Participation acquisitions at and between redistributors; Beteiligungserwerbe an und zwischen kommunalen Weiterverteilern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaue, S. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Publizistik- und Kommunikationswissenschaften

    2007-10-15

    In the contribution under consideration the author reports on participation acquisitions at and between redistributors. The imperfect treatment of the acquisition of minority participations at public utilities by cartel authorities and courts did not bring satisfying results for the structure to the power economy. The preconditions for more competition became worse due to the changes in the structure of power economy which were not prevented by the cartel authorities. The competitive order loses at clarity, if the previous practice of the cartel authorities is continued. It is undecided whether the development of a dominating market system by a multiplicity of minority acquisitions can be described as an improper use of a market dominating position according to paragraph 19 of the law against restraints of competition.

  1. Variability in energy cost and walking gait during race walking in competitive race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, J; Fougeron, B; Legros, P

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variability of energy cost (Cw) and race walking gait after a 3-h walk at the competition pace in race walkers of the same performance level. Nine competitive race walkers were studied. In the same week, after a first test of VO2max determination, each subject completed two submaximal treadmill walks (6 min length, 0% grade, 12 km X h(-1) speed) before and after a 3-h overground test completed at the individual competition speed of the race walker. During the two submaximal tests, subjects were filmed between the 2nd and the 4th min, and physiological parameters were recorded between the 4th and the 6th min. Results showed two trends. On the one hand, we observed a significant and systematic increase in energy cost of walking (mean deltaCw = 8.4%), whereas no variation in the gait kinematics prescribed by the rules of race walking was recorded. On the other hand, this increase in metabolic energy demand was accompanied by variations of different magnitude and direction of stride length, of the excursion of the heel and of the maximal ankle flexion at toe-off among the race walkers. These results indicated that competitive race walkers are able to maintain their walking gait with exercise duration apart from a systematic increase in energy cost. Moreover, in this form of locomotion the effect of fatigue on the gait variability seems to be an individual function of the race walk constraints and the constraints of the performer.

  2. The behaviour of Pacific metallurgical coal markets: the impact of Japan's acquisition strategy on market price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, R J [Queensland University, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Graduate School of Management, Faculty of Commerce and Economics

    1993-03-01

    This paper examines whether some elements of Japan's resource acquisition strategies might have caused price and other distortions of market behaviour in the Pacific metallurgical coal trade. The industry chosen for investigation is that of steel manufacture, and the traded resources commodity examined is coking coal, which is the primary energy input for blast furnace iron making. Regression modelling studies to determine historic acquisition value and quality relationships for US, Australian and Canadian coals sold into the Japanese coking coal market are described. Departures from normal demand response behaviour to price competitiveness are also investigated. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  4. Exploring an Age Difference in Preschool Children’s Competitiveness Following a Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that resource acquisition compels competition in young children. However, little is still known about the development of preschool children’s competitiveness. In this preliminary study, 166 children (aged 2–4 and 5–6 years engaged in a dyadic competition which resulted in a winning and a losing group (in a control/non-competition group, participants engaged in a similar task which did not lead to winning/losing outcome, and then experimenters tracked their decisions to compete again with a rival (i.e., an individual they interacted in the previous competition task and a non-rival competitor (i.e., an anonymous classmate they did not interact in the previous competition task for a reward, respectively. As expected, results showed an age-related decreasing trend in the percentage of choices to compete with a competitor. However, this age difference was only significant in the control group when participants played with the partner with whom they interacted in the previous game and in the losing group when participants competed with a non-rival competitor. This study contributes to our knowledge of how competitiveness develop in preschool childhood, and calls for further research on the roles of motivation and cognitive control in children’s competitiveness.

  5. Exploring an Age Difference in Preschool Children’s Competitiveness Following a Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Zhu, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Literature suggests that resource acquisition compels competition in young children. However, little is still known about the development of preschool children’s competitiveness. In this preliminary study, 166 children (aged 2–4 and 5–6 years) engaged in a dyadic competition which resulted in a winning and a losing group (in a control/non-competition group, participants engaged in a similar task which did not lead to winning/losing outcome), and then experimenters tracked their decisions to compete again with a rival (i.e., an individual they interacted in the previous competition task) and a non-rival competitor (i.e., an anonymous classmate they did not interact in the previous competition task) for a reward, respectively. As expected, results showed an age-related decreasing trend in the percentage of choices to compete with a competitor. However, this age difference was only significant in the control group when participants played with the partner with whom they interacted in the previous game and in the losing group when participants competed with a non-rival competitor. This study contributes to our knowledge of how competitiveness develop in preschool childhood, and calls for further research on the roles of motivation and cognitive control in children’s competitiveness. PMID:29593610

  6. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit & The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression & Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ & Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II & SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies.

  7. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit ampersand The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression ampersand Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ ampersand Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II ampersand SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies

  8. Trends in prices to commercial energy consumers in the competitive Texas electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnikau, Jay; Fox, Marilyn; Smolen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    To date, the price of electricity to commercial or business energy consumers has generally increased at greater rates in the areas of Texas where retail competition has been introduced than in areas that do not enjoy competition. Trends in commercial competitive prices have largely mirrored trends in residential prices. Market restructuring has tended to increase the sensitivity of retail electricity prices to changes in the price of natural gas, the marginal fuel used for generation in Texas. Consequently, the rapid increases in the commodity price of natural gas following restructuring led to increases in competitive electric rates which exceeded the increases in areas not exposed to restructuring, where the fuel component of electric rates tend to reflect a weighted average of the utilities' fuel costs. There is some evidence that pricing behavior by competitive retailers changed when the retailers affiliated with the incumbent utilities were permitted some pricing flexibility, resulting in a reduction in prices. (author)

  9. Nuclear Energy: A Competitive and Safe Option, The EDF Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, F.

    1998-01-01

    Today, nuclear energy seems challenged by fossil energies, especially gas. However, the 1997's French government survey over energy options still places nuclear energy at the top of the list. The reasons why and how safe nuclear energy is still competitive are detailed in this paper. Most recent data from EDF's reactor will be discussed in terms of environmental and electricity production issues. The methods and management used to attain these results are explained for the different phases: design, construction, operation, and maintenance. The beneficial aspects over industrial development and local employment will be underlined. The influence of nuclear energy on EDF's financial results are shown, from past programme to today's operation. As most of french reactors are designed to adapt their output to the changes of load in the national grid, results are, as a conclusion, discussed in a small and medium electrical grid perspective. (author)

  10. Which issue is important for nuclear energy: sustainability, competition, climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, Octavian

    2003-01-01

    This paper tries to explore the implications of three important energy policy issues: sustainability, global climate change, and competition in electricity markets. We know that nuclear energy is another way to generate electricity, so it is impossible to discuss the outlook for nuclear without understanding the need for electricity. The issue for society is how to produce electricity at reasonable costs without damaging the environment. Unfortunately, there are no perfect alternatives. Key considerations include the capital and operating costs of electrical generating facilities, reliability, safety, environmental impact as well as assumptions on future economic growth. Nuclear energy offers good solution. Nuclear power energy scores very well against the three criteria for electricity generation, which matter most to our society - availability, affordability and sustainability. Nuclear power has proven to be highly reliable as shown by the performance of more than 400 reactors now operating in the world. These reactors compete with coal or gas- generated electricity and often offer a significant cost advantage. New reactor designs will be faster to build, safer and competitive with the best clean coal or gas-burning technologies now available. Nuclear power is also sustainable, not only because it contains all the waste it generates but also because the safety of the technology is now well established. The disposal of used fuel, despite the claims of those who are ideologically opposed to nuclear energy, is in my opinion not a problem without solution. The public should have confidence in the feasibility of long-term storage and the eventual safe disposal of radioactive wastes. What are the views for short- and for long-term? Reactor owners are seeking increased power output and plant life extensions, encouraged by the competitive cost of electricity produced and improving operational performance. However, while the lifetime for present reactors is extended and

  11. Data Acquisition and Mass Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Vyvre, P.

    2004-08-01

    The experiments performed at supercolliders will constitute a new challenge in several disciplines of High Energy Physics and Information Technology. This will definitely be the case for data acquisition and mass storage. The microelectronics, communication, and computing industries are maintaining an exponential increase of the performance of their products. The market of commodity products remains the largest and the most competitive market of technology products. This constitutes a strong incentive to use these commodity products extensively as components to build the data acquisition and computing infrastructures of the future generation of experiments. The present generation of experiments in Europe and in the US already constitutes an important step in this direction. The experience acquired in the design and the construction of the present experiments has to be complemented by a large R&D effort executed with good awareness of industry developments. The future experiments will also be expected to follow major trends of our present world: deliver physics results faster and become more and more visible and accessible. The present evolution of the technologies and the burgeoning of GRID projects indicate that these trends will be made possible. This paper includes a brief overview of the technologies currently used for the different tasks of the experimental data chain: data acquisition, selection, storage, processing, and analysis. The major trends of the computing and networking technologies are then indicated with particular attention paid to their influence on the future experiments. Finally, the vision of future data acquisition and processing systems and their promise for future supercolliders is presented.

  12. Physical and energy requirements of competitive swimming events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Sharp, Rick L

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic sports competitions held during the summer Olympic Games include diving, open-water swimming, pool swimming, synchronized swimming, and water polo. Elite-level performance in each of these sports requires rigorous training and practice to develop the appropriate physiological, biomechanical, artistic, and strategic capabilities specific to each sport. Consequently, the daily training plans of these athletes are quite varied both between and within the sports. Common to all aquatic athletes, however, is that daily training and preparation consumes several hours and involves frequent periods of high-intensity exertion. Nutritional support for this high-level training is a critical element of the preparation of these athletes to ensure the energy and nutrient demands of the training and competition are met. In this article, we introduce the fundamental physical requirements of these sports and specifically explore the energetics of human locomotion in water. Subsequent articles in this issue explore the specific nutritional requirements of each aquatic sport. We hope that such exploration will provide a foundation for future investigation of the roles of optimal nutrition in optimizing performance in the aquatic sports.

  13. Competition for cores in remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulmus, Serra Caner; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    We study competition between an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and an independently operating remanufacturer (IO). Different from the existing literature, the OEM and IO compete not only for selling their products but also for collecting returned products (cores) through their acquisition

  14. A golden age or a false dawn? Energy efficiency in UK competitive energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, N.

    1998-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets may affect the prospects for energy efficiency in a variety of ways. Downward pressure on prices will reduce incentives for efficiency and the end of a supply monopoly makes more difficult mandating demand side management programmes. On the other hand, the removal of price controls could end some regulatory disincentives, and liberalisation enables suppliers to market energy efficiency bundled with energy units. The overall effects of liberalisation for energy efficiency are therefore complex. This paper focuses on the effects of liberalisation on those characteristics of energy markets which underpin long-term energy inefficiency. These barriers to energy efficiency have been shown to arise from fundamental features of traditional utility markets - notably centralisation, commoditization and the complexity of demand side investment. The extent to which these will be altered in liberalised markets in the UK is considered. It is concluded that some important market imperfections are not addressed by competition in the supply of energy commodities. However, more fundamental changes may in the longer term encourage more differentiation in supply markets, in which there could be higher priority for energy efficiency. The policy measures which might encourage the process are discussed. (author)

  15. ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN CORPORATE INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role of international mergers and acquisitions in corporate integration. The factors that stimulate mergers and acquisitions activities bring real changes in the world economy. Mergers and acquisitions are a form of expansion: mergers can take place either as a statutory merger or consolidation and minority, majority or full acquisitions dominate the international market. It is very important to not confuse the meaning of the two terms. Multinational companies are forced by the competitive environment to adopt new strategies to penetrate a particular market and decrease the position of competition on global market or to counteract competitor action on the other market. Cross-border M and A is functionally classified in horizontal, vertical, concentric and conglomerate. The balance between these types of M and A has been changing over time and the distinction among these four categories is not always clear-cut.

  16. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio T. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  17. Real-time control and data-acquisition system for high-energy neutral-beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.; Jacobson, V.

    1981-12-01

    The need for a real-time control system and a data acquisition, processing and archiving system operating in parallel on the same computer became a requirement on General Atomic's Doublet III fusion energy project with the addition of high energy neutral beam injectors. The data acquisition processing and archiving system is driven from external events and is sequenced through each experimental shot utilizing ModComp's intertask message service. This system processes, archives and displays on operator console CRTs all physics diagnostic data related to the neutral beam injectores such as temperature, beam alignment, etc. The real-time control system is data base driven and provides periodic monitoring and control of the numerous dynamic subsystems of the neutral beam injectors such as power supplies, timing, water cooling, etc

  18. COMPETITION AND REGULATION IN THE EU ENERGY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Havriş

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available When prices are high and public service obligations are not properly fulfilled, consumers wonder if they obtain what they need from the market. In electricity and gas markets of the EU Member States, apart from the persistence of high, non-transparent regulated prices, a number of shortcomings have been identified by the European Commission, such as a less than optimal network use for energy transmission, a lack of coordination and cooperation across borders by transmission system operators and national authorities, and a lack of transparent and simple procedures for dealing with consumers’ complaints. These are the main elements of the infringement proceedings that the European Commission decided to launch on 25 June 2009 against 25 Member States for non–compliance with certain Community provisions in the Second Internal Energy Market Package, which entered into force on 1 July 2007. Quite emblematic is the fact that it occurred the same day as the adoption of the Third Internal Energy Market Package aiming to ensure a proper functioning of the EU energy market. We intend to analyse what has happened in the recent years at the EU level in order to liberalise and remove the significant remaining obstacles to competition in the energy market.

  19. Current and future competitiveness of renewable energy carriers - Conceptions about competitiveness; Foernyelsebara energibaerares nuvarande och framtida konkurrenskraft - foerestaellningar om konkurrenskraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, K.

    1998-05-01

    The dissertation draws attention to the fact that in the world today 80% of the resources that are used are limited - non renewable energy carriers - and because of the long time between planning and doing (carrying out) within the energy sector, it is worthwhile from the long-term perspective to steer early on towards more sustainable solutions, such as renewable energy carriers. The State and the market have begun to adjust to concepts such as `competitiveness`, which can be viewed as containing both feasibility and legitimacy aspects - the state through different regulations and environmental taxes and environmental fees, and actors on the market that marginally produce/choose renewable energy carriers. The overlying methodology in the dissertation is an actor`s viewpoint. This viewpoint brings forth, in turn, two different views, the analytical and the interpretative. The dissertation presents different stances within the energy sector: commercial production logic, commercial sustainability logic, and the socio-economic sustainability logic. By drawing one`s attention to how one has the possibility to create (enact) his own reality, it is possible to highlight how organisations can increase their competitiveness by being conscious of their own view and others, logic, which in turn forms their views about competitiveness, which in turn determines which projects will materialize. Enterprises and individuals create a description of reality together through a dialectic process, i.e. by developing an environmental management system that contains elements of environmental auditing, environmental performance indicators, and environmental labelling, which `reveal` the production conditions that lie behind the actualization of the final product. An example is the product, `green` electricity, which, in spite of the fact that the final product - electricity - is identical irrespective of the production method, just at the moment can be sold at different prices according

  20. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sustainable acquisition. 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition...

  1. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2009-01-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  2. Energy performance assessment in urban planning competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicker, Ursula; Monien, Dirk; Duminil, Éric; Nouvel, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantification of energy efficiency in urban planning. • Analysis based on 3D (city) model. • Impact evaluation of urban form on energy demand, supply and building costs. • Primary energy balance with and without inclusion of shadowing effects. - Abstract: Many cities today are committed to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and the fraction of renewables especially in new urban developments. However, quantitative data on building energy performance as a function of urban density, building compactness and orientation, building use and supply options are rarely available during the design of new cities or early scenario analysis for existing city quarters, making it difficult for cities to effectively evaluate which concepts work today and in the future. The paper proposes a methodology to assess the energy demand and supply options as a function of the availability of geometry, building standard and use data. An automated procedure was implemented to identify each building’s geometry and volume and transfer the information to a simulation tool, which then calculates heating demand and solar energy generation on roofs and facades. The simulation includes shading calculations for each segment of the façades and roofs and thus allows a very detailed quantification of the building energy demand. By applying the methodology to a case study city quarter designed in an urban competition in Munich, it could be shown how the urban design influences the energy demand of the quarter and which fractions of renewable energy can be integrated into the roofs. While the building insulation standard and use are the is most important criteria for building energy efficiency (with an impact of more than a factor 2), the exact geometrical form, compactness and urban shading effects influences the energy demand by 10–20%. On the other hand, the detailed roof geometry and orientation influences the possible solar coverage of electricity or thermal

  3. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-10-11

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  4. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  5. From Non-market Support to Cost-Competitive Incentives. Wind Energy Commercialization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenqiang, Liu; Xiliang, Zhang; Shuhua, Gu; Gan, Lin

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind energy in China. By examining the economics of windfarm development, it compares the economics of wind technology with other conventional energy technologies and analyzes the role of alternative policy instruments. Meanwhile, it identifies the major constraints of wind technology development and the defects of current non-market support from the government. It shows that the development of wind power will be directly subject to rational policy change, incentive mechanisms and institutional framework building. Particular importance is paid to market incentives to reach the objectives of commercialization and industrialization of wind power. The paper recommends some cost-competitive incentive measure and policies to drive the wind power market. It concludes that promising market incentives to speed up the development of wind energy include: (i) establish market competition mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) adjust tax policies and government subsidies; (iii) stimulate investment incentive policies and regulations; and (iv) change governmental institutions and management modes. (author)

  6. Meeting the Northwest's Energy Needs Through Competitive Bidding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1990-07-01

    Utilities have traditionally met load growth requirements through building projects (self-build), purchasing power from other utilities, or from running conservation programs. During the 1980s, alternative capacity expansion approaches were developed. Resources are now also obtained through PURPA-based or competitive bidding acquisition programs. Self-build programs typically involve large-scale hydropower; coal-, natural gas-, and oil-fired projects; and nuclear thermal electric generating projects. Characteristics of these projects, in addition to size, include long lead times, capital intensiveness, substantial environmental impacts, and a significant risk of cost overruns. The risk element became immediately apparent to those investor-owned utilities that, because of decreased load growth, had thermal project investments disallowed in rate cases or were forced to terminate projects. Phrases such as prudent investment,'' used and useful,'' and least-cost planning'' became familiar to the utility industry. Many utilities, once burned, subsequently adopted a policy of never again constructing a base-loaded generating plant. 2 figs.

  7. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General acquisition strategy. 626.4 Section 626.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce...

  8. Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-02-27

    The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Manufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.ufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.

  9. Does nuclear energy have a chance in the political minefield between sustainability and competition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sustainability harmonizes economy and ecology. The demand for energy will continue to increase over and beyond several decades. Nuclear energy not only has the advantages of 'energy on tap' (renewable energy), but also those of 'energy in store'. However, it also creates problems, which should not be underestimated. But the criticism levelled at nuclear energy is open to criticism in itself. As far as the public is concerned, nuclear waste is still the main stumbling block. Nevertheless, there is room for this form of energy between competition and sustainability. (orig.) [de

  10. Data Acquisition and Transmission System for Building Energy Consumption Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building energy consumption monitoring and management system have been developed widely in China in order to gain the real-time data of energy consumption in buildings for analyzing it in the next state work. This paper describes a low-cost and small-sized collector based on the STM32 microcontroller, which can be placed in a building easily to implement the work of data acquisition, storage, and transmission. The collector gathers the electricity, water, heat, and energy consumption data through the RS485 field bus and stores the data into an SD card with mass storage, finally, using Internet to finish the communication and transmission to data server through TCP protocol. The collector has been used in application for two years, and the results show that the system is reliable and stable.

  11. Energy taxes and industrial competitiveness: the case of Italian carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardazzi, Rossella; Pazienza, Maria Grazia

    2005-01-01

    An international debate on which economic instrument should be used to reduce pollutant emissions has begun since the nineties when the awareness of climatic risks aroused and first attempts to introduce a European carbon tax were made. Although this project failed, several national programmes of carbon/energy taxes have been developed with a common concern for industrial competitiveness of energy and/or carbon-intensive firms. Therefore, double dividend schemes have been applied to reduce existing distorsive taxes while introducing a higher burden on energy products. This paper reviews the most important European case studies and analyses the effects of the introduction of a carbon tax in Italy on energy expenditure and economic profitability of Italian manufacturing enterprises. This tax has been introduced in 1998 and should have progressively increased up to the final tax rates in 2005. However, this process halted in the year 2000 - as the world energy prices increased - and the ultimate rates have never been applied. Nonetheless, our analysis offers relevant insights both because energy excises are a major instrument in environmental policy and because industrial activities affected by energy taxes will also be affected by the tradable permits scheme recently adopted by the European Union. The study is performed with a micro simulation model to simulate changes, in energy excises and the associated reduction of social contributions to achieve the double dividends. Existing empirical analyses have usually been carried out at aggregate or sectoral level, but the effects on costs both of carbon tax and of compensative measures differ at the firm level, thus it is significant to study the impact on economic profitability on individual units of analysis. The data show that energy expenditure as a component of intermediate costs varies by economic activity as well as the energy mix used in the production process, thus suggesting possible competitiveness problems

  12. Diffusion of renewable energy technologies in South Korea on incorporating their competitive interrelationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Chul-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies (RETs) have attracted significant public attention for several reasons, the most important being that they are clean alternative energy sources that help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To increase the probability that RETs will be successful, it is essential to reduce the uncertainty about its adoption with accurate long-term demand forecasting. This study develops a diffusion model that incorporates the effect of competitive interrelationships among renewable sources to forecast the growth pattern of five RETs: solar photovoltaic, wind power, and fuel cell in the electric power sector, and solar thermal and geothermal energy in the heating sector. The 2-step forecasting procedure is based on the Bayus, (1993. Manage. Sci. 39, 11, 1319–1333) price function and a diffusion model suggested by Hahn et al. (1994. Marketing Sci. 13, 3, 224–247). In an empirical analysis, the model is applied to the South Korean renewable energy market. - Highlights: • We develop a diffusion model incorporating the competition among renewables. • A price function and a diffusion model are used in 2-step forecasting procedure. • The annual demand through 2035 for five renewables in South Korea is forecasted. • Wind power will maintain the largest market share in the electric power sector. • The supply of geothermal energy will be larger than that of solar thermal energy

  13. Homogeneous non-competitive bioaffinity assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokko, Tiina; Kokko, Leena; Soukka, Tero; Loevgren, Timo

    2007-01-01

    A homogeneous non-competitive assay principle for measurement of small analytes based on quenching of fluorescence is described. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurs between the donor, intrinsically fluorescent europium(III)-chelate conjugated to streptavidin, and the acceptor, quencher dye conjugated to biotin derivative when the biotin-quencher is bound to Eu-streptavidin. Fluorescence can be measured only from those streptavidins that are bound to biotin of the sample, while the fluorescence of the streptavidins that are not occupied by biotin are quenched by quencher-biotin conjugates. The quenching efficiencies of the non-fluorescent quencher dyes were over 95% and one dye molecule was able to quench the fluorescence of more than one europium(III)-chelate. This, however, together with the quadrovalent nature of streptavidin limited the measurable range of the assay to 0.2-2 nmol L -1 . In this study we demonstrated that FRET could be used to design a non-competitive homogeneous assay for a small analyte resulting in equal performance with competitive heterogeneous assay

  14. Effects of an accelerated liberalization. Consequences of accelerated liberalization for the competitiveness of Dutch energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaal, M.B.T.

    2001-08-01

    One of the conclusions of the Dutch Energy Report, published at the end of 1999, was that it would be feasible to speed up the pace of liberalization in the Netherlands. This conclusion will lead to the liberalization of the retail customers in 2004 and the market for renewable energy in 2001. This will be an incentive to more competition and put a greater pressure on energy companies to concentrate in order to benefit from economies of scale. Less preparation time implies also that there will be less layers of isolation against cost leaders and hence a more intense (price-based) competition. The central question in this report is whether and to what extent the effects of policy, in particular the accelerated liberalization, affect the strategic behavior and competitiveness of the Dutch Regional Electricity Companies (RECs). To address this question four face-to-face interviews have been held with experts from the four major RECs. In these interviews the experts gave their opinion about the Dutch policy regarding the accelerated liberalization and the rate and extent of the privatization. Subsequently, their perspective on the impact of the policy on their competitiveness and their analysis of the Dutch energy market was recorded. After that, the experts exposed their outlook on the future energy market and the ambition and most likely direction of their companies. The data collection was complemented with numerous relevant public interviews of experts derived from various newspapers and energy magazines. The data thus collected were analyzed by means of a theoretical framework consisting of the insights of Porter, Prahalad and Hamel and at a more detailed level marketing theories regarding positioning and branding. This resulted in an overview of the current market position of the Dutch RECs and an outlook for the years to come. 27 refs

  15. Energy Games - A Grade 5 Competition, The Data Analysis and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, W. H.

    2016-12-01

    ISF Academy, a K-G12 school in Hong Kong with over 1500 students and currently spanning 3 buildings, is retrofitting the school with an energy tracking system in three phases. The first phase that happened during February to June 2016, has included retrofitting nine Grade 5 classrooms. In this program, the daily energy usage data from these classrooms were shown. The Grade 5 students received feedback on their energy use in real time, as they competed over four months in their homeroom classes to lower their electrical use, and subsequently their carbon footprint. This competition has successfully given the 180 Grade 5 students initiative to decrease their energy use, leading to a significant decrease in energy usage throughout this competition, compared to the baseline recorded in late 2015. The winning classroom's total energy usage was around 30% lower than the average total energy usage, showing that by using energy efficiently, energy usage in a school can be decreased by a lot. The energy tracking system installed and maintained by from Global Design Corporation utilizes uniquely identified current detectors attached to circuit breakers, to monitor electrical use of individual circuits. The detectors monitor the energy used for classroom lighting, fans and plugs, as well as the air conditioners. Further analysis can also be calculated with current data that is collected in the Phase 1 experiment, such as calculating the carbon emissions reduction throughout the school year, providing possible class learning activities and also aiding in future energy use and carbon footprint predictions. This data collected will help refine phase 2 and 3 of the installation, expanding the system to more buildings and also giving insight to the rollout of the system to the whole school when the systems are fully in place. In Phase 2, the energy tracking system would be expanded to all classrooms in the old buildings, while in Phase 3, the system would be expanded the all

  16. Energy as a competitive factor - Opportunities for the Swiss economy; Wettbewerbsfaktor Energie - Chancen fuer die Schweizer Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-02-15

    This report Swiss for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews opportunities offered to the Swiss economy by regarding energy as a competitive factor. Goals set in Switzerland regarding the reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions and measures taken in this area are commented on. The report takes a look at measures that are technically and economically implementable in the building and transport areas. The costs and investment involved in the implementation of a particular scenario are examined. The chances offered to Swiss companies in the area of replacements for fossil fuels are examined. Market potentials in the areas of renewable energy sources and energy productivity are reviewed as are related financial services and workplace effects.

  17. Nuclear energy and the Green Paper of the European Commission 'An European strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metes, Mircea

    2006-01-01

    At present the energy is for European Union officials an issue of top priority. In the beginning of 2006 the natural gas crisis between Russia and Ukraine remembered menacingly to the Europeans that energy supply of the continent depends decisively on importation from other geographic areas and that these importation raise risks of a great variety. In addition to the power problems, disastrous effects on the economy, human life and eco-systems appeared to have the climate changes produced by fossil fuel burning. Consequently, a common energetic policy of Europe should be targeted at three main objectives: sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. Six directions of action were identified: 1. EU must finalize the construction of internal European gas and electricity market; 2. EU should ensure that its energy market guaranties the security of supply under a solidary policy of the member states; 3. It is necessary that a large debate to have place about different sources of energy including the problems of costs and impact on climatic change, security and supply competitiveness and sustainability; 4. EU should approach the climatic change issues in agreement with the objectives established at Lisbon conference aiming at placing EU in the forefront of technological and scientific progress; 5. A strategic plan concerning the energy technology; 6. A common foreign policy in the field of energy. It is worthy to stress that the present Green Paper of EU has a manifestly different position concerning the nuclear energy with respect to the prior Green Paper of November 2000. While, in 2000 the EU Commission viewed the nuclear energy as being 'in limbo', in the 2006 version the Commission declared the nuclear energy as the most important source of power in Europe without CO 2 emissions. It is stated that all the energy options should be kept open while the Europe states have the right to establish their own energy mix, which they consider optimal, and in which

  18. Smart acquisition EELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sader, Kasim; Schaffer, Bernhard; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik; Brown, Andy; Bleloch, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  19. Smart acquisition EELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sader, Kasim, E-mail: k.sader@leeds.ac.uk [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Schaffer, Bernhard [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Vaughan, Gareth [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Bleloch, Andrew [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  20. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  1. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Briggs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035 was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ. Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012 and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016 elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.

  2. Feasibility and Competitiveness of the Further Nuclear Energy Production in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylys, S.; Ziedelis, S.; Klevas, V.

    2006-01-01

    The newest results gained during analysis of perspectives and technical - economical conditions of nuclear energy usage continuation in Lithuania are presented. After the compulsory premature closure of Ignalina NPP the negative power balance and the shortage of power generating capacity can emerge in the energy sector of Lithuania. This problem can arise already in 2010. Depending on rate of growth of economy the extent of shortage of power generating capacity can range from -50 MW to -583 MW with evident trend for further growing. The positive power balance could be restored if new nuclear power plant (NPP) or new combined cycle gas turbine power plants (CCGT PP) are erected. Feasibility and competitiveness of the new NPP and CCGT PP are compared, analysed and evaluated. Analysis is performed taking into account volume of investments for construction, level of discount rate, forecast of changes of the price of primary energy sources, possible loading level of a new power plant. At the case of low plant loading level (7000 hours per year) the electricity production costs are almost the same for NPP and for CCGT PP. However, increasing the plant's loading level up to 8000 hours per year changes the ratio of electricity production costs to positive for NPP. Comparison of expenses for fuel and total expenses shows unchallenged priority of NPP against CCGT PP. Estimating the forthcoming inevitable growth of price for natural gas, economic advantage of nuclear energy production seems to be obvious. The future energy balance for Baltic states, NORDEL countries, Germany and Russia is also analysed. Deficit of electricity is foreseen in Baltic states and NORDEL countries already after 2007, in Russia - after 2010. Even Central and South European countries (especially those, which are planning to cancel usage of nuclear energy) are forecasting shortage of electricity in 2015 - 2020 years. Such situation in European energy market could be treated as additional argument for

  3. The Competitiveness of Alternative Hydrogen Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.

    to transport services and in market competitiveness and societal competitiveness. The major societal competitive advantage of hydrogen is its convertibility to electricity and from any other source of energy. This enables a flexible use of natural gas and primary electricity as transport fuels. The major...... advantage in market competitiveness is the energy efficiency of the fuel cell. This advantage is, however, to some extent balanced by the costs associated with conversion, transport, and storage. The balance between these factors required for market competitiveness is identified.......The paper surveys the literature on the competitiveness of alternative hydrogen pathways in the transport sector. The competitiveness of the alternative systems can be differentiated in the “well-to-tank (WtT)” and “tank-to-wheel (TtW)” sections of the pathway transforming primary energy...

  4. Building the competitive intelligence knowledge: processes and activities in a corporate organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of building and developing comprehensive tools, techniques, support systems, and better methods of harnessing the competitive intelligence knowledge processes. The author stresses the need for building sophisticated methodological competitive intelligence knowledge acquisition, systematic collection of competitive intelligence knowledge from various sources for critical analysis, process, organization, synthesis, assessment, screening, filtering and interpreta...

  5. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users

  6. Procurement of Systems Acquisition and Support Services Software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the audit were to determine whether DIA's contract for software acquisition support was awarded through full and open competition and whether the contract provides the best overall...

  7. Addressing industrial competitiveness concerns in the 2030 EU Climate and Energy Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Colombier, Michel; Spencer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the current sombre economic context, the issue of industrial competitiveness has become highly salient. Europe's industrial challenges need to be understood to be addressed. Europe like other major economies has gone through the resource intensive phase of building its capital stock. At Europe's level of development, high incomes tend to be spent on high value added services and manufactures. These factors mean that Europe's industry has been undergoing a long-term transition since the early 70's. In addition, European industry has been hit by a deep cyclical downturn as a result of the crisis. This long-term structural trend and current conjectural situation have nothing to do with energy policy. However, it would be wrong to suggest that energy prices do not play a role for certain industries. For a few highly energy and trade intensive industries, energy prices are a significant factor of comparative advantage. These industries will need protection in the 2030 climate and energy package, especially if a meaningful CO 2 price is to emerge. The current mechanisms to address competitiveness involve a number of drawbacks, notably the distortions and windfall profits that they entail due to variations of production levels from the historical reference used for free allocation. They also do not effectively address electricity intensive industries. Finding a solution to these issues is important for negotiating a meaningful future framework. Options that could be considered include moving to output based allocation for energy intensive, trade exposed industries, or considering temporary opt-outs for these industries. Given the potential risks around temporary opt-outs, output based allocation could be a way forward, combined with a much tighter focus on the energy intensive, trade exposed industries and a harmonized system for dealing with electricity intensive industries. (authors)

  8. Energy transition: which investments for which competitiveness? Understanding German, Spanish and British strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document reports a study which aimed at a better understanding of energy transition strategies in Germany, Spain and United Kingdom. It outlines that these strategies are different and give contrasted results, that economic implication of energy transition programmes are also different. Two financing approaches are identified (mainly by private investors, or by mobilizing all types of financial support), and therefore two economic strategies (productivity-oriented investments, or search for a structural competitiveness with a new growth model). The report notices that there is no reference study of the impact of energy transition on employment

  9. INA's Preparations for Liberalised Energy Market and Privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, T.; Kolundzic, S.

    2001-01-01

    Before opening of the market, energy entities must carry out numerous preparations in order to be ready for challenges of a competitive environment. Some preparations refer to legal and organisational issues, but many of them encompass reengineering of business processes, cost reduction schemes and various improvement measures aimed at maintenance or acquisition of a competitive advantage. INA is actively pursuing some of the above measures, but now, by the end of 2001, we also have to deal with preparations for privatisation. These two processes have some important common elements, competitiveness being certainly one of them. INA must work toward improving its competitive strength in the gas sector, in refining, in marketing of oil products, but also in various supporting activities. However, there are constraints that we have to observe, mainly related to social issues.(author)

  10. Meeting the near-term demand for hydrogen using nuclear energy in competitive power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen is becoming the reference fuel for future transportation and the timetable for its adoption is shortening. However, to deploy its full potential, hydrogen production either directly or indirectly needs to satisfy three criteria: no associated emissions, including CO 2 ; wide availability; and affordability. This creates a window of great opportunity within the next 15 years for nuclear energy to provide the backbone of hydrogen-based energy systems. But nuclear must establish its hydrogen generating role long before the widespread deployment of Gen IV high-temperature reactors, with their possibility of producing hydrogen directly by heat rather than electricity. For Gen IV the major factors will be efficiency and economic cost, particularly if centralized storage is needed and/or credits for avoided emissions and/or oxygen sales. In the interim, despite its apparently lower overall efficiency, water electrolysis is the only available technology today able to meet the first and second criteria. The third criterion includes costs of electrolysis and electricity. The primary requirements for affordable electrolysis are low capital cost and high utilisation. Consequently, the electricity supply must enable high utilisation as well as being itself low-cost and emissions-free. Evolved Gen III+ nuclear technologies can produce electricity on large scales and at rates competitive with today's CO 2 -emitting, fossil-fuelled technologies. As an example of electrolytic hydrogen's potential, we show competitive deployment in a typical competitive power market. Among the attractions of this approach are reactors supplying a base-loaded market - though permitting occasional, opportunistic diversion of electricity during price spikes on the power grid - and easy delivery of hydrogen to widely distributed users. Gen IV systems with multiple product streams and higher efficiency (e.g., the SCWR) can also be envisaged which can use competitive energy markets to advantage

  11. Optimising the road to a low carbon competitive energy sector in Europe. An essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dril, A.W.N.

    2011-10-01

    In the strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy the European Commission stressed the urgency of far-reaching changes in energy production, use, and supply. The stated priorities are energy efficiency, integrated markets, energy security, innovation and external actions. In March 2011, an energy efficiency plan was proposed with measures leading to 20% efficiency improvement in 2020. The Commission also launched the Roadmap for a Low Carbon Economy in 2050. In December 2011, the European Commission launched its Energy Roadmap 2050. This paper will evaluate their optimality for the three basic goals: competitive, sustainable and secure. The key question addressed in this essay is: Do current and envisaged EU energy and climate policies allow for optimal introduction of new energy technologies towards a globally competitive, sustainable and secure energy system? The key findings are: (1) To ensure an affordable future energy supply and combat climate change, a global transition of the energy sector is needed. Europe has to make its choices in that global context. This process will take several decades and will be surrounded with many uncertainties; (2) Reinforcing and expanding the European emission trading scheme (ETS) to include other sectors and regions in coming decades is the preferred element in a robust regulatory framework. Stable and higher carbon prices are an essential condition for low carbon investment planning and many other Member State policies. When prices are high and stable the market will seek the most cost efficient mix; (3) Renewables and energy efficiency are important solutions for the long run. Assuming the ETS will be significantly strengthened overall EU targets and policies for renewable and efficiency beyond 2020 have to fit within the ETS framework; (4) If renewable energy and energy efficiency targets for separate MS and sectors are set, they need to be flexible in order to avoid suboptimal economic outcomes. After 2020 a

  12. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic…

  13. Rates for the competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ander, B.; Watson, I.; Snelson, K.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion panel consisted of Bruce Ander of Pamco Atlas, Ian Watson, Chair of the Ontario Chamber of Commerce Energy Committee, and Ken Snelson, Principal of Snelson International Energy. Ian Watson shared his membership's views on the future supply of electric power under a competitive energy system in Ontario, stressing the need for the government to instruct Ontario Hydro to bring forward a transmission rate to the Ontario Energy Board in 1997, and for legislation to allow independent buyers and sellers to contract with one another to use that transmission rate outside the control of Ontario Hydro. He also expressed concern about Ontario Hydro's anti-competitive load retention rate which was an obvious bid to retain its major customers. Ken Snelson reported on a review of the effects of competition on Canada's long-term energy outlook. He predicted that in a competitive market with full retail access, customers can expect a lot more choice; independent producers also will have many more options for selling power

  14. Competitiveness and range of applications of nuclear power, as seen in the light of recent developments in the field of energy economic and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1975-01-01

    At the reactor conferences in Karlsruhe in 1973 and in Berlin in 1974 the author gave his views on the competitive position of nuclear energy in the German Federal Republic and described how the determining factors in cost development, both for conventional energy generation and for nuclear power generation, have developed since October 1971. Basic data were provided by the paper by B. Bergmann and H. Kraemer (KFA Juelich) 'Technical and economic state in October 1971 as well as prospects for nuclear energy in power economics in the German Federal Republic' (Juel-827-HT - February 1972). The author now shows to what extent the determining factors for the competitive capacity of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany have changed until April 1975. (orig.) [de

  15. Competitive energy markets and nuclear power. Can we have both, do we want either?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Steve

    2010-01-01

    In 1987, the UK Conservative Party was re-elected promising to transform the electricity industry into a privatised competitive industry and to promote an expansion of nuclear power. Fulfilling both objectives was not possible. The nuclear plants were withdrawn from the sale and plans to build new plants were abandoned, but privatisation proceeded. In 2007, the Labour government began a new attempt to build nuclear plants to operate in the competitive electricity market, promising that no subsidies would be offered to them. By 2010, the utilities that were planning to build nuclear plants were beginning to suggest that 'support' in some form would be needed if they were to build new plants. More surprisingly, the energy regulator, Ofgem, cast doubt on whether a competitive wholesale electricity market would provide security of supply. In 1990, the UK government opted for a competitive electricity market over expanding nuclear power. Now, the option of opting for a competitive electricity market may not exist. However, this might not leave the way open for new nuclear plants. The expected cost of power from new nuclear plants is now so high that no more than one or two heavily subsidised plants will be built. (author)

  16. The integration of gas and electricity: potential effects on competition in markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Milla, J.

    2007-01-01

    During the last years, an increasing number of gas and electricity companies have integrated their activities in both sectors. Following this trend, several Mergers and Acquisitions between gas and electricity companies have emerged, and some of them have been cross-borders operations that have given rise to multinational enterprises. This paper analyses the causes of the integration of gas and electricity activities, and examines its implications on regulation and competition policy, showing that these changes in the energy industry raise new challenges and compel to adopt new measures in that field of the economic policy. (Author) 25 refs

  17. Capturing the real value in high-tech acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S; Tabrizi, B

    1999-01-01

    Eager to stay ahead of fast-changing markets, more and more high-tech companies are going outside for competitive advantage. Last year in the United States alone, there were 5,000 high-tech acquisitions, but many of them yielded disappointing results. The reason, the authors contend, is that most managers have a shortsighted view of strategic acquisitions--they focus on the specific products or market share. That focus might make sense in some industries, where those assets can confer substantial advantages, but in high tech, full-fledged technological capabilities--tied to skilled people--are the key to long-term success. Instead of simply following the "buzz," successful acquires systematically assess their own capability needs. They create product road maps to identify holes in their product line. While the business group determines if it can do the work in-house, the business development office scouts for opportunities to buy it. Once business development locates a candidate, it conducts an expanded due diligence, which goes beyond strategic, financial, and legal checks. Successful acquires are focused on long-term capabilities, so they make sure that the target's products reflect a real expertise. They also look to see if key people would be comfortable in the new environment and if they have incentives to stay on board. The final stage of a successful acquisition focuses on retaining the new people--making sure their transition goes smoothly and their energies stay focused. Acquisitions can cause great uncertainty, and skilled people can always go elsewhere. In short, the authors argue, high-tech acquisitions need a new orientation around people, not products.

  18. 75 FR 82567 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Repeal of the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Competitiveness Demonstration Program AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... of the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program, to meet the requirements of section 1335... (15 U.S.C. 644 note), the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program. In accordance with the...

  19. Competition between Chinese and Indian Oil & Gas Companies and its Implications for Sino-Indian Bilateral Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Shikin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns overseas oil & gas assets acquisitions made by Chinese and Indian national oil companies (NOCs within the last two decades. The paper analyzes whether these companies pursue commercial interests of their shareholders or political will of national governments. To answer this question the author examines Chinese and Indian corporations’ organization and ownership structure foundations of which were laid in the 1990s when both countries’ energy sectors faced structural reforms resulted in transforming archaic governmental organizations into modern competitive state-owned corporations that could compete with the leading Western oil and gas companies. The article also scrutinizes competition between Chinese and Indian companies so as to find out if it is able to affect political relations between Beijing and Delhi, exacerbates existing conflicts or cause the emergence of the new ones. To address this issue the author analyzes some cases of Sino-Indian clash of energy interests in different regions of the world.

  20. Sustainable Acquisition Process Improvement for Naval Facilities Engineering Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, Erin

    2003-01-01

    .... While this guidance is intended to create an open and competitive process to achieve lowest cost or best value, conflicts among traditional acquisition processes and new law requirements are emerging...

  1. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan eLi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Competition for nitrogen (N, particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, 15N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With interspecific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to interspecific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with interspecific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech.

  2. Creating a competitive electricity market in Ontario - The energy consumer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.

    1997-01-01

    The large consumers' perspective on the Ontario Government's decision to delay action on restructuring the electric power industry was provided, and recommendations were offered as to the best course of action that the Government ought to take. Ontario Hydro's proposal to restructure itself into separate generation, transmission and retail corporations, and to introduce competition into the Corporation was attacked as unworkable, in that it could not help but encourage price manipulation. The large consumer group also argued that retail distribution in Ontario needs major rationalization without an Ontario Hydro presence. In place of the Ontario Hydro proposal the Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario (AMPCO) recommends a separate transmission system including an independent system operator, a restructuring of local distribution within a definite time frame and consistent criteria, to be worked out by municipal utilities and Ontario Hydro Retail, and establishment of a Transition Authority independent of Ontario Hydro with a mandate to carry out these changes. While the Ontario Government appears to be unlikely to undertake such a'risky' initiative at this stage of its mandate, significant change, including competition, remains inevitable. It is not a question of whether, but when a fully competitive energy market in Ontario will become a reality. tabs., figs

  3. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  4. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  5. Energy loss optimization of run-off-road wheels applying imperialist competitive algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Taghavifar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The novel imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA has presented outstanding fitness on various optimization problems. Application of meta-heuristics has been a dynamic studying interest of the reliability optimization to determine idleness and reliability constituents. The application of a meta-heuristic evolutionary optimization method, imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA, for minimization of energy loss due to wheel rolling resistance in a soil bin facility equipped with single-wheel tester is discussed. The required data were collected thorough various designed experiments in the controlled soil bin environment. Local and global searching of the search space proposed that the energy loss could be reduced to the minimum amount of 15.46 J at the optimized input variable configuration of wheel load at 1.2 kN, tire inflation pressure of 296 kPa and velocity of 2 m/s. Meanwhile, genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and hybridized GA–PSO approaches were benchmarked among the broad spectrum of meta-heuristics to find the outperforming approach. It was deduced that, on account of the obtained results, ICA can achieve optimum configuration with superior accuracy in less required computational time.

  6. The energy administration, an effective alternative to improve the managerial competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borroto Nordelo, Anibal; Lapido Rodriguez, Margarita; Monteagudo Yanes, Jose and others

    2005-01-01

    This region's actual development is in need of immediate actions to reduce costs, protect the environment and increase company competitiveness versus a growing global economy. Energetic efficiency represents on of the principal opportunities to meets these goals. Numerous studies in companies in Cuba, Mexico, Colombia and Ecuador have shown poor energetic management and cleared that there are many costs reduction possibilities if they create technical capacities within the industry. The center of energy and environmental studies in the university of Cien Fuegos, created the total management of efficient energy, its main objective is to create in technical and organizational capacities in the corporations. Known as TGTEE, Total Management of Efficient Energy, has widened its popularity among the region and has achieved significant economic and social results, and leads to the construction of an energetic and environmental culture

  7. Competitive energy markets and nuclear power. Can we have both, do we want either?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve [Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    In 1987, the UK Conservative Party was re-elected promising to transform the electricity industry into a privatised competitive industry and to promote an expansion of nuclear power. Fulfilling both objectives was not possible. The nuclear plants were withdrawn from the sale and plans to build new plants were abandoned, but privatisation proceeded. In 2007, the Labour government began a new attempt to build nuclear plants to operate in the competitive electricity market, promising that no subsidies would be offered to them. By 2010, the utilities that were planning to build nuclear plants were beginning to suggest that 'support' in some form would be needed if they were to build new plants. More surprisingly, the energy regulator, Ofgem, cast doubt on whether a competitive wholesale electricity market would provide security of supply. In 1990, the UK government opted for a competitive electricity market over expanding nuclear power. Now, the option of opting for a competitive electricity market may not exist. However, this might not leave the way open for new nuclear plants. The expected cost of power from new nuclear plants is now so high that no more than one or two heavily subsidised plants will be built. (author)

  8. Competitive energy markets and nuclear power: Can we have both, do we want either?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve, E-mail: Stephen.thomas@gre.ac.u [Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    In 1987, the UK Conservative Party was re-elected promising to transform the electricity industry into a privatised competitive industry and to promote an expansion of nuclear power. Fulfilling both objectives was not possible. The nuclear plants were withdrawn from the sale and plans to build new plants were abandoned, but privatisation proceeded. In 2007, the Labour government began a new attempt to build nuclear plants to operate in the competitive electricity market, promising that no subsidies would be offered to them. By 2010, the utilities that were planning to build nuclear plants were beginning to suggest that 'support' in some form would be needed if they were to build new plants. More surprisingly, the energy regulator, Ofgem, cast doubt on whether a competitive wholesale electricity market would provide security of supply. In 1990, the UK government opted for a competitive electricity market over expanding nuclear power. Now, the option of opting for a competitive electricity market may not exist. However, this might not leave the way open for new nuclear plants. The expected cost of power from new nuclear plants is now so high that no more than one or two heavily subsidised plants will be built.

  9. Exploring the Impact of Fuel Data Acquisition Technology on the USMC Expeditionary Energy Command and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Tulusan, J., Soi, L., Paefgen, J., Brogle, M., & Staake, T. (2011). Eco -efficient feedback technologies : Which eco ...IMPACT OF FUEL DATA ACQUISITION TECHNOLOGY ON THE USMC EXPEDITIONARY ENERGY COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM by Jeremy F. Thomas September 2016...DATE September 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF FUEL DATA ACQUISITION TECHNOLOGY

  10. Insights on Technology Innovation - A Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon Competition Entries 2002-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Joseph J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Farrar, Sara L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Decathlon is a collegiate competition that challenges student teams to design and build full-size, solar-powered houses. Because of balanced design priorities of architecture, engineering, innovation, performance, and energy use, teams have focused on a range of technologies in the built environment, from wall materials to home control systems, from electric lighting to HVAC equipment, and from geothermal to solar photovoltaic technology. This report provides insights into building technology innovation from a review of the Solar Decathlon competition entry designs, anecdotal experiences, and related market reports. The report describes example case studies of the evolution of technology solutions over time to illustrate the innovative, market-driving nature of the Solar Decathlon. It charts technologies utilized in the team designs over seven competitions and compares those to broader market adoption. It is meant to illustrate the technology innovation aspects of the competition, not to be a comprehensive or quantitative analysis. Solar Decathlon also has impacts on public perception of innovative technologies as well as workforce development through the thousands of participating students. The focus of these case studies is to showcase how it contributes to marketplace adoption of innovative energy technologies.

  11. Detection of parathyroid adenomas using a monophasic dual-energy computed tomography acquisition: diagnostic performance and potential radiation dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Flors, Lucia; Durst, Christopher R.; Hou, Qinghua; Mukherjee, Sugoto; Patrie, James T.; Wintermark, Max

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the diagnostic performance of a combination of virtual non-contrast (VNC) images and arterial images obtained from a single-phase dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisition and standard non-contrast and arterial images from a biphasic protocol and to study the potential radiation dose reduction of the former approach. All DECT examinations performed for evaluation of parathyroid adenomas during a 13-month period were retrospectively reviewed. An initial single-energy unenhanced acquisition was followed by a dual-energy arterial phase acquisition. ''Virtual non-contrast images'' were generated from the dual-energy acquisition. Two independent and blinded radiologists evaluated three different sets of images during three reading sessions: single arterial phase, single-phase DECT (virtual non-contrast and arterial phase), and standard biphasic protocol (true non-contrast and arterial phase). The accuracy of interpretation in lateralizing an adenoma to the side of the neck and localizing it to a quadrant in the neck was evaluated. Sixty patients (mean age, 65.5 years; age range, 38-87 years) were included in the study. The lateralization and localization accuracy, sensitivity, and positive predicted value (PPV) and negative predicted value (NPV) of the different image datasets were comparable. The combination of VNC and arterial images was more specific than arterial images alone to lateralize a parathyroid lesion (OR = 1.93, p = 0.043). The use of the single-phase protocol resulted in a calculated radiation exposure reduction of 52.8 %. Virtual non-contrast and arterial images from a single DECT acquisition showed similar diagnostic accuracy than a biphasic protocol, providing a significant dose reduction. (orig.)

  12. Detection of parathyroid adenomas using a monophasic dual-energy computed tomography acquisition: diagnostic performance and potential radiation dose reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Flors, Lucia; Durst, Christopher R.; Hou, Qinghua; Mukherjee, Sugoto [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Patrie, James T. [University of Virginia, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Wintermark, Max [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The aims of the study were to compare the diagnostic performance of a combination of virtual non-contrast (VNC) images and arterial images obtained from a single-phase dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisition and standard non-contrast and arterial images from a biphasic protocol and to study the potential radiation dose reduction of the former approach. All DECT examinations performed for evaluation of parathyroid adenomas during a 13-month period were retrospectively reviewed. An initial single-energy unenhanced acquisition was followed by a dual-energy arterial phase acquisition. ''Virtual non-contrast images'' were generated from the dual-energy acquisition. Two independent and blinded radiologists evaluated three different sets of images during three reading sessions: single arterial phase, single-phase DECT (virtual non-contrast and arterial phase), and standard biphasic protocol (true non-contrast and arterial phase). The accuracy of interpretation in lateralizing an adenoma to the side of the neck and localizing it to a quadrant in the neck was evaluated. Sixty patients (mean age, 65.5 years; age range, 38-87 years) were included in the study. The lateralization and localization accuracy, sensitivity, and positive predicted value (PPV) and negative predicted value (NPV) of the different image datasets were comparable. The combination of VNC and arterial images was more specific than arterial images alone to lateralize a parathyroid lesion (OR = 1.93, p = 0.043). The use of the single-phase protocol resulted in a calculated radiation exposure reduction of 52.8 %. Virtual non-contrast and arterial images from a single DECT acquisition showed similar diagnostic accuracy than a biphasic protocol, providing a significant dose reduction. (orig.)

  13. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  14. White paper for a competitive energy offer at the service of an achieved energy transition and of a guaranteed security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    Published by a professional body (AFIEG, Independent French Association of Electricity and Gas)), this white paper first gives an overview and some critics on the French energy policy, and then aims at outlining and discussing three main objectives of an energy policy: security of supply, energy competitiveness, and a realistic and successful energy transition. It proposes measures to reach these objectives while taking regulatory stability, and equal treatment of operators in terms of regulation into account. Recommendations are stated regarding these objectives and requirements

  15. Diversification of the energy mix and renewable energy sources in Slovenia for ensuring sustainable, competitive and secure energy in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlogar, Sasa; Raner, Damjana; Zebeljan, Djordje

    2007-07-01

    The European Union is facing major challenges in the energy field - growing import dependency, the need for substantial investment and lack of competitive energy market. It has adopted binding legislation and non-binding recommendations, but they do not suffice. The latest Green paper identifies diversification of energy mix as one of the key areas, where further action is needed, if Europe is to overcome this crisis. Renewable energy is recognised as a relevant factor in improving security of energy supply, since it increases the share of indigenous energy and thus provides a more balanced and diversified energy mix. Slovenia's energy mix includes 11 % of renewables. In our electricity mix the share of renewables is higher, 27,6 %.The estimations show that by 2015 13,3 % of primary energy use will come from renewable sources. Our current strategy in the field of renewable energy sources is to increase their share in overall energy balance sheet to 12 % in 2010 and to increase their share in electricity production to 33,6 % in 2010. But Slovenia will have to take into account new ambitious targets the European Commission recommended recently, while trying to determine the optimally balanced diversification of energy sources in the future. (auth)

  16. Point Climat no. 29 'Managing France's energy transition while safeguarding economic competitiveness: be productive'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Leguet, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: - Is the French energy transition compatible with economic growth and a 'competitive' French economy? Our answer is 'yes, with some conditions'. - The French economy is better positioned today for a meaningful energy transition than it has been for over 40 years. At the level of the macro-economy, a steady shift to higher energy prices is now much easier without hurting economic growth than it once was. - A small percentage of energy-intensive sectors may need targeted and temporary assistance with this transition

  17. 2005 Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Hazard

    2005-05-07

    This report gives a summary of the 2005Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition. It lists our objectives, what we did, and an analysis of how we met our objectives. An 80-page report with a list of verified print, radio and TV media coverage, and copies of selected news clips and web media coverage is available at the NESEA office for review.

  18. Evaluating mergers and acquisitions with a purchase investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E A; Giniat, E J

    1988-04-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are risk transactions. Therefore, a well-planned and executed purchase investigation that considers financial, personnel, legal and risk management, third-party payer, and medical staff issues is imperative. Organizations that can successfully complete a purchase investigation will be able to make better informed, lower risk, financial decisions, and will have a competitive advantage in achieving strategic goals. This article is the third in a series on mergers and acquisitions. Other articles will include legal issues and capital planning.

  19. Merger mania: mergers and acquisitions in the generic drug sector from 1995 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Volesky, Karena D

    2017-08-22

    Drug shortages and increasing generic drug prices are associated with low levels of competition. Mergers and acquisitions impact the level of competition. Record merger and acquisition activity was reported for the pharmaceutical sector in 2014/15, yet information on mergers and acquisitions in the generic drug sector are absent from the literature. This information is necessary to understand if and how such mergers and acquisitions can be a factor in drug shortages and increasing prices. Data on completed merger and acquisition deals that had a generic drug company being taken over (i.e. 'target') were extracted from Bloomberg Finance L.P. The number and announced value of deals are presented globally, for the United States, and globally excluding the United States annually from 1995 to 2016 in United States dollars. Generic drug companies comprised 9.3% of the value of all deals with pharmaceutical targets occurring from 1995 to 2016. Globally, in 1995 there were no deals, in 2014 there were 22 deals worth $1.86 billion, in 2015 there were 34 deals totalling $33.56 billion, and in 2016 there were 42 deals worth in excess of $44 billion. This substantial increase was partially attributed to Teva's 2016 acquisition of Allergan's generic drug business. The surge in mergers and acquisitions for 2015/16 was driven by deals in the United States, where they represented 89.7% of the dollar value of deals in those years. The recent blitz in mergers and acquisitions signals that the generic drug industry is undergoing a transformation, especially in the United States. This restructuring can negatively affect the level of competition that might impact prices and shortages for some products, emphasizing the importance of updating regulations and procurement policies.

  20. Small and medium-sized firms top management teams’ decision making in global acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Kiessling

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The new global marketplace has caused changes in some organizations’/industries’ forms and execution of strategy and reliance on international personnel. Entry and success through the accumulation of knowledge in the global marketplace have become the impetus for sustainable competitive/developmental advantage for many corporations. Many organizations choose a strategy focusing on international acquisitions in foreign markets to compete effectively in the current ever-changing dynamic competitive landscape. After acquisition, the monitoring of the operations of the new international subsidiary by US firms typically is an ethnocentric example of applying home-country standards and controls. We suggest that the top management team (TMT of a firm is a valuable resource, needs to be retained and that ethnocentric monitoring must be reconsidered. This research focuses on the TMT and their value to the firm to help explain the variation in acquisition success. Thus post-acquisition integration and monitoring must account for this valuable asset.

  1. A general purpose program system for high energy physics experiment data acquisition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuren; Xing Yuguo; Jin Bingnian

    1985-01-01

    This paper introduced the functions, structure and system generation of a general purpose program system (Fermilab MULTI) for high energy physics experiment data acquisition and analysis. Works concerning the reconstruction of MULTI system level 0.5 which can be run on the computer PDP-11/23 are also introduced briefly

  2. Knowledge-based competitiveness indices and its connection with energy indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Andrea V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based economy has become a major trend in international society in the 21st century. However, today’s strategies place a greater emphasis on sustainability than in the past, while continuing to emphasize the importance of education and its connection with labour market. There has been a re-orientation, where resource, eco-efficiency and innovation have become major elements for achieving national objectives and a relevant level of competitiveness. This article deals with 30 indices, which define the competitiveness of a specific economy, and involve knowledge parameters. They are classified into four main categories and one special category. They are then analysed regarding the participation of Serbia and their availability. The main focus of this paper is to give detailed analyses of energy indices, as a special category of knowledge indexes. It has been shown that Serbia, in many cases, was not included in the study analysis or that there was insufficient information about Serbia’s position. This article shows that only a part of the presented indices includes Serbia. It is concluded that a new, revised model is needed that will include more exact indicators.

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on data acquisition system for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, R.S.

    1984-09-01

    The workshop ''Data acquisition system for high energy experiment'' was held by the on-line electronics group of KEK in cooperation with the data processing section on May 28-29, 1984, at KEK. This year, the proton synchrotron is prepared for the work after shutdown, and in the TRISTAN, the full scale construction of the data acquisition system is advanced. One of the large topics was the TKO box proposed by the data acquisition development group of KEK, and its specification is included in this book. This workshop was the meeting with very wide range from front end electronics to large computers. The talks on flash analog/digital converters and latest data communication were held. As a new trial, the wish lists on the future development and support of on-line electronics and others were collected from the participants, and these were deliberated by all the members. The contents of the discussion at this time are given in this book. The summaries of the lectures presented at the meeting are collected in this book. The interchange with the experimental group is indispensable for the activities of the on-line electronics group, accordingly, the workshop like this will be held hereafter. (Kako, I.)

  4. Energy service contracting in DOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahle, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) annually consumes about $3 Billion in energy to operate facilities at military installations worldwide, representing about 80% of utility operating expense for all Federal facilities. Recent legislation and a Presidential Executive Order have directed DOD by Fiscal Year 2000 to reduce facility energy consumption by 20%, from the level of energy used in Fiscal Year 1985. To achieve this goal it is estimated that energy efficiency improvement investments between $2-3 billion would be required. Considering the competition for resources within DOD as it experiences downsizing and restructuring, DOD will need to seek opportunities to tap alternative investment strategies through energy service contracting to leverage Federal resources. Shared Energy Savings and Operations and Maintenance Energy Services contracting activities in the Department of the Navy will be used to address how such acquisition methods can contribute to achieving DOD energy efficiency goals

  5. The 2018 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2018 (Power TAC 2018). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through

  6. The 2013 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2013 (Power TAC 2013). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  7. The 2016 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2016 (Power TAC 2016). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through

  8. The 2017 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2017 (Power TAC 2017). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through

  9. The 2012 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  10. The 2015 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2015 (Power TAC 2015). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through

  11. The 2014 Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2014 (Power TAC 2014). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  12. The convergence of electric power and natural gas industries. Mergers and acquisitions in the United States; La convergence des industries de l'electricite et du gaz naturel: les fusions-acquisitions aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meritet, S

    2000-07-01

    Deep transformations have taken place in the US electric power industry, in terms of organisation and competition. The reforms of the regulation of this sector have changed the operation rules and, as an answer, the companies have adapted their behaviour. The reorganization is characterized by the combination between new competitive markets with new occupations. The deregulation and the technical progress accelerate the reconfiguration of the industry with the convergence of the natural gas and electric power activities. Since 1996, the numerous mergers-acquisitions between companies are representative of the tight links existing between the two energy sources. In this work, the convergence of the natural gas and power industries in the US is examined. The study of the reconciliation between power and gas companies (mainly the utilities) stresses on the improvement of the combined companies efficiency. The first part deals with the reconfiguration of the US power industry. The second part analyzes the consequences of the gas-electricity mergers and acquisitions. It includes the exploitation of financial data and a classical econometric test about the 'size-scale-spread' relation. The re-composition of the value chain is at the center of the industrial economy problem: it gives the opportunity for new forms of markets and firms. (J.S.)

  13. Smart grids: Another step towards competition, energy security and climate change objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric

    2011-01-01

    The deployment of smart grids in electricity systems has given rise to much interdisciplinary research. The new technology is seen as an additional instrument available to States to achieve targets for promoting competition, increasing the safety of electricity systems and combating climate change. But the boom in smart grids also raises many economic questions. Public policies will need to be adapted, firstly to make allowance for the potential gains from smart grids and the associated information flow, and secondly to regulate the new networks and act as an incentive for investors. The new competitive offerings and end-user pricing systems will contribute to improving allocative and productive efficiency, while minimizing the risks of market power. With real-time data on output and consumption, generators and consumers will be able to adapt to market conditions. Lastly smart grids will boost the development of renewable energy sources and new technologies, by assisting their integration and optimal use. - Highlights: → Smart grids could promote competition with new offerings and end-user pricing. → New information could induce demand response and demand-side management. → New regulatory policies are needed to favour the deployment of smart grids. → Development of new technologies could be improved.

  14. Are there barriers to competition on the market for energy services?; Finns det konkurrenshinder paa marknaden foer energitjaenster?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Under orders from the Government, offices of Swedish Energy Authority conduct an in-depth analysis of the competitive conditions in various segments of the energy services market. In particular, the competitive relationship between energy suppliers and on the other hand, other companies providing energy services. Also the relationship between municipal-owned companies and other companies providing energy services should be analyzed. The institutional framework is already known, as well as much of the activity in the market. However, there still seems to be perspective on actors' own perceptions of market conditions that should be clarified. For this reason, the starting point for this investigation was the companies' own statements and comments, which were obtained partly through a questionnaire and interviews. A basic assumption has been that the opinions and beliefs also guide companies actions. This means that the actors' own voices form a kind of recurring theme in the study and contributes to a deeper understanding of the actors' motivations. It should be noted that Energy Agency does not necessarily share the views that emerge in this context.

  15. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... Energy (DOE) is proposing to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export... comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods...

  16. A new wave of merger and acquisitions of energy industry: reasons, effects, policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    A new wave of merger and acquisitions is interesting the energy industry. Many enterprises will disappear and markets will become more and more monopolistic. Once removed all barriers (foreign and domestic), who has remained in their own boundaries will not last for long. In this view, what is the market position of Italian enterprises and what political issues is carrying out our Country? [it

  17. Plant Size and Competitive Dynamics along Nutrient Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Deborah E; Martina, Jason P; Elgersma, Kenneth J; Currie, William S

    2017-08-01

    Resource competition theory in plants has focused largely on resource acquisition traits that are independent of size, such as traits of individual leaves or roots or proportional allocation to different functions. However, plants also differ in maximum potential size, which could outweigh differences in module-level traits. We used a community ecosystem model called mondrian to investigate whether larger size inevitably increases competitive ability and how size interacts with nitrogen supply. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that bigger is better, we found that invader success and competitive ability are unimodal functions of maximum potential size, such that plants that are too large (or too small) are disproportionately suppressed by competition. Optimal size increases with nitrogen supply, even when plants compete for nitrogen only in a size-symmetric manner, although adding size-asymmetric competition for light does substantially increase the advantage of larger size at high nitrogen. These complex interactions of plant size and nitrogen supply lead to strong nonlinearities such that small differences in nitrogen can result in large differences in plant invasion success and the influence of competition along productivity gradients.

  18. Target validation for FCV technology development in Japan from energy competition point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENDO Eiichi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to validate the technical targets in the governmental hydrogen energy road-map of Japan by analyzing market penetration of fuel cell vehicle(FCV)s and effects of fuel price and carbon tax on it from technology competition point of view. In this analysis, an energy system model of Japan based on MARKAL is used. The results of the analysis show that hydrogen FCVs could not have cost-competitiveness until 2030 without carbon tax, including the governmental actual plan of carbon tax. However, as the carbon tax rate increases, instead of conventional vehicles including gasoline hybrid electric vehicle, hydrogen FCVs penetrate to the market earlier and more. By assuming higher fuel price and severer carbon tax rate, market share of hydrogen FCVs approaches to the governmental goal. This suggests that cheaper vehicle cost and/or hydrogen price than those targeted in the road-map is required. At the same time, achievement of the technical targets in the road-map also allows to attain the market penetration target of hydrogen FCVs in some possible conditions. (authors)

  19. Business planning for license renewal and plant acquisitions. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Edward L.; Grimes, Chris; Walters, Doug; Doroshuk, Barth; Gasper, Joe; Salmon, Harry; Bier, Vicki M.; Hagen, Ronald; Richardson, Charles J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Subsequent to Calvert Cliffs and Oconee license renewals in 2000, many plants have not applied for license renewal. Industry is moving to standardize and streamline the process to make it as efficient and effective as possible. At the same time, it is focusing on business practices and competitiveness of nuclear plants in the long-term market-both under regulated and deregulated state formats. In addition, new acquisitions and consolidation in the nuclear market have created several large owner-operators that have specialized business needs. Speakers with experience in the foregoing facets have been selected from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Nuclear Energy Institute, and utilities to address the business challenges facing them now and in the future. (authors)

  20. A study on crosstalk correction in dual energy acquisition of 123I-MIBG and 201TlCl in myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoguchi, Masahisa; Satoh, Keiko; Murata, Hajime; Takao, Yuji; Ohtake, Eiji; Katoh, Kenichi; Saitoh, Kyoko; Toyama, Hinako; Ueno, Takashi.

    1991-01-01

    In the simultaneous dual energy acquisition, energy spectrums of two radionuclides crosstalk each other and this phenomenon is a cause of the poor quality of images. In order to obtain the image of high quality in dual energy acquisition of 123 I-MIBG and 201 TlCl, a crosstalk correction method was originated. The crosstalk from 201 Tl to 123 I window (RI) and the crosstalk from 123 I to 201 Tl window (R2) were determined by the cardiac phantom studies. R1 and R2 showed almost constant value throughout the myocardial wall. The crosstalk correction was performed using R1 and R2. After the crosstalk correction, the defect region placed in the cardiac phantom was detected more clearly both in visual interpretation and in quantitative analysis. The crosstalk correction method with R1 and R2 was applied to some clinical cases. By the crosstalk correction, the quality of image was improved and a false defect caused by crosstalk disappeared in a clinical case. The crosstalk correction was considered to be useful for improving the quality of image on dual energy acquisition. (author)

  1. External Costs and Benefits of Energy. Methodologies, Results and Effects on Renewable Energies Competitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, R.; Cabal, H.; Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to give a summarised vision of the concept of eternality in energy production, the social and economic usefulness of its evaluation and consideration as support to the political decision-marking in environmental regulation matters, technologies selection of new plants, priorities establishment on energy plans, etc. More relevant environmental externalisation are described, as are the effects on the health, ecosystems, materials and climate, as well as some of the socioeconomic externalisation such as the employment, increase of the GDP and the reduction and depletion of energy resources. Different methodologies used during the last years have been reviewed as well as the principals resulted obtained in the most relevant studies accomplished internationally on this topic. Special mention has deserved the European study National Implementation of the Extern E Methodology in the EU . Results obtained are represented in Table 2 of this study. Also they are exposed, in a summarised way, the results obtained in the evaluation of environmental externalisation of the Spanish electrical system in function of the fuel cycle. In this last case the obtained results are more approximated since have been obtained by extrapolation from the obtained for ten representative plants geographically distributed trough the Peninsula. Finally it has been analysed the influence that the internalization of the external costs of conventional energies can have in the competitiveness and in te market of renewable energy, those which originate less environmental effects and therefore produce much smaller external costs. The mechanisms of internalization and the consideration on the convenience or not of their incorporation in the price of energy have been also discussed. (Author) 30 refs

  2. Energie 2011. Development of competition with good sides and bad. Special Report of the Monopolies Commission in accordance with Art. 62 Para. 1 of the Energy Economy Law; Energie 2011. Wettbewerbsentwicklung mit Licht und Schatten. Sondergutachten der Monopolkommission gemaess paragraph 62 Abs. 1 EnWG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Special Report by the Monopolies Commission on electricity and gas is its third on the energy market pursuant to Art. 62 of the German Energy Economy Law (EnWG). In it the Commission relates its view of the status quo and development trend of competition and assesses whether there is effective competition in the markets for the grid-bound supply of electricity and gas in the German Federal Republic. It also reviews how the provisions of the Energy Economy Law concerning regulation and the safeguarding of competition have been applied and discusses current issues of competition policy in the energy sector. This third report analyses new developments in these areas. It also addresses other topics of recent interest such as the consequences of the revised view on nuclear energy, remunicipalisation or regulatory problems relating to railway electricity and railway electricity grids. The editorial work on this Special Report was completed shortly after the enactment of the Law Amending Energy Law Related Provisions, and the analyses conducted by the Monopolies Commission were updated accordingly.

  3. A smart-pixel holographic competitive learning network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Timothy Michael

    Neural networks are adaptive classifiers which modify their decision boundaries based on feedback from externally- or internally-generated error signals. Optics is an attractive technology for neural network implementation because it offers the possibility of parallel, nearly instantaneous computation of the weighted neuron inputs by the propagation of light through the optical system. Using current optical device technology, system performance levels of 3 × 1011 connection updates per second can be achieved. This thesis presents an architecture for an optical competitive learning network which offers advantages over previous optical implementations, including smart-pixel-based optical neurons, phase- conjugate self-alignment of a single neuron plane, and high-density, parallel-access weight storage, interconnection, and learning in a volume hologram. The competitive learning algorithm with modifications for optical implementation is described, and algorithm simulations are performed for an example problem. The optical competitive learning architecture is then introduced. The optical system is simulated using the ``beamprop'' algorithm at the level of light propagating through the system components, and results showing competitive learning operation in agreement with the algorithm simulations are presented. The optical competitive learning requires a non-linear, non-local ``winner-take-all'' (WTA) neuron function. Custom-designed smart-pixel WTA neuron arrays were fabricated using CMOS VLSI/liquid crystal technology. Results of laboratory tests of the WTA arrays' switching characteristics, time response, and uniformity are then presented. The system uses a phase-conjugate mirror to write the self-aligning interconnection weight holograms, and energy gain is required from the reflection to minimize erasure of the existing weights. An experimental system for characterizing the PCM response is described. Useful gains of 20 were obtained with a polarization

  4. Competitiveness and potentials of UCG-CCS on the European energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, T.; Nakaten, N.; Schlüter, R.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    The world-wide coal reserves can satisfy the world's primary energy demand for several hundred years. However, deep coal deposits with seams of low thickness and structural complexity do currently not allow an economic exploitation of many deposits. Here, underground coal gasification (UCG) can offer an economical approach for coal extraction. The intended overall process relies on coal deposit exploitation using directed drillings located at the coal seam base and the subsequent in situ coal conversion into a synthesis gas. The resulting synthesis gas is used for electricity generation in a combined cycle plant at the surface. A reduction of the CO2 emissions resulting from the combined process is realized by subsequent CO2 capture and its injection into the previously gasified coal seams. The scope of the present study was the investigation of UCG-CCS competitiveness on the European energy market and the determination of the impacting factors. For that purpose, a modular model for calculation of UCG-CCS electricity generation costs was implemented and adapted to the most relevant process parameters. Furthermore, the range of energy supply coverage was estimated based on different German energy generation scenarios.

  5. Light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency and biomass allocation in invasive Prunus serotina and native Quercus petraea in relation to light environment, competition and allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robakowski, Piotr; Bielinis, Ernest; Sendall, Kerrie

    2018-05-01

    This study addressed whether competition under different light environments was reflected by changes in leaf absorbed light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency, relative growth rate and biomass allocation in invasive and native competitors. Additionally, a potential allelopathic effect of mulching with invasive Prunus serotina leaves on native Quercus petraea growth and photosynthesis was tested. The effect of light environment on leaf absorbed light energy partitioning and photosynthetic characteristics was more pronounced than the effects of interspecific competition and allelopathy. The quantum yield of PSII of invasive P. serotina increased in the presence of a competitor, indicating a higher plasticity in energy partitioning for the invasive over the native Q. petraea, giving it a competitive advantage. The most striking difference between the two study species was the higher crown-level net CO 2 assimilation rates (A crown ) of P. serotina compared with Q. petraea. At the juvenile life stage, higher relative growth rate and higher biomass allocation to foliage allowed P. serotina to absorb and use light energy for photosynthesis more efficiently than Q. petraea. Species-specific strategies of growth, biomass allocation, light energy partitioning and photosynthetic efficiency varied with the light environment and gave an advantage to the invader over its native competitor in competition for light. However, higher biomass allocation to roots in Q. petraea allows for greater belowground competition for water and nutrients as compared to P. serotina. This niche differentiation may compensate for the lower aboveground competitiveness of the native species and explain its ability to co-occur with the invasive competitor in natural forest settings.

  6. 78 FR 50086 - Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of...) application and a plan of development for solar energy projects on approximately 3,705 acres of public land in... designated Solar Energy Zones (SEZ): Los Mogotes East SEZ and De Tilla Gulch SEZ. Applications for solar...

  7. The global energy industry: is competition among suppliers ensured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regibeau, P.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, many factors have affected the effective degree of competition in coal, electricity, gas and oil. This paper concentrates on the effects of globalization, regulatory reform, privatization and inter-fuel mergers. While demand side globalization has led to increased competition, greater supply side globalization might lead to more collusive behaviour in sectors such as coal and electricity. Regulatory reform has helped foster competition in the US gas market and in several electricity markets. Still, regulators have imposed insufficient vertical separation and the regulation of international electricity transmission remains problematic. Privatization is very useful in enforcing initial changes in industry structure. Inter-fuel mergers might entail efficiency gains but they also raise significant issues for competition policy authorities. (orig.)

  8. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  9. AN OVERVIEW ON THE DETERMINANTS OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancea Mariana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the presentation of the economic dimension of the mergers and acquisitions from a macroeconomic perspective. Thus, the objective of this paper is to reveal the main drivers of merger and acquisition activity. These operations take place in waves, which enters the context of changing the competition game marked by economic changes, technological evolutions, changes generated by the phenomenon of globalization, and by regulating changes. On the other side, a series of studies in the literature argue the existence of a connection between evaluating the securities and the merger and acquisition activity. This research is based on a systematic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature regarding the macroeconomic determinants of mergers and acquisitions.

  10. Current and future financial competitiveness of electricity and heat from energy crops: A case study from Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Jones, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that Miscanthus and willow energy-crop cultivation could be economically competitive with current agricultural land uses at a farm-gate biomass price ranging from EUR70 to EUR130 t -1 dry matter [Styles, D., Thorne, F., Jones, M.B., in review. Energy crops in Ireland: An economic comparison of willow and Miscanthus production with conventional farming systems. Biomass and Bioenergy, May 2006]. This paper uses the same farm-gate prices to calculate the economic competitiveness of energy crop electricity and heat production, using a net-present-value (NPV) approach (20-year period, 5% discount rate). Direct and gasified co-firing of willow wood with coal would result in electricity generation 30% or 37% more expensive than coal generation, at current coal and CO 2 allowance prices and a farm-gate biomass cost of EUR100 t -1 . 'Break-even' CO 2 allowance prices are EUR33 and EUR37 t -1 , respectively. However, co-firing of Miscanthus with peat is close to economic competitiveness, and would require a CO 2 allowance price of EUR16 t -1 to break-even (against a current price of EUR12 t -1 ). NPV analyses indicate that wood heat is significantly cheaper than oil, gas or electric heat, excluding existing wood-boiler installation subsidies. Discounted annual savings range from EUR143 compared with gas to EUR722 compared with electric heating at the domestic scale and from EUR3454 to EUR11,222 at the commercial scale. Inclusion of available subsidies improves the comparative economics of domestic wood heat substantially. The economic advantage of wood heat is robust to variation in fuel prices, discount rates and heat loads. The greatest obstacles to energy-crop utilisation include: (i) a reluctance to consider long-term economics; (ii) possible competition from cheaper sources of biomass; (iii) the need for a spatially coordinated supply and utilisation network. (author)

  11. The convergence of electric power and natural gas industries. Mergers and acquisitions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, S.

    2000-01-01

    Deep transformations have taken place in the US electric power industry, in terms of organisation and competition. The reforms of the regulation of this sector have changed the operation rules and, as an answer, the companies have adapted their behaviour. The reorganization is characterized by the combination between new competitive markets with new occupations. The deregulation and the technical progress accelerate the reconfiguration of the industry with the convergence of the natural gas and electric power activities. Since 1996, the numerous mergers-acquisitions between companies are representative of the tight links existing between the two energy sources. In this work, the convergence of the natural gas and power industries in the US is examined. The study of the reconciliation between power and gas companies (mainly the utilities) stresses on the improvement of the combined companies efficiency. The first part deals with the reconfiguration of the US power industry. The second part analyzes the consequences of the gas-electricity mergers and acquisitions. It includes the exploitation of financial data and a classical econometric test about the 'size-scale-spread' relation. The re-composition of the value chain is at the center of the industrial economy problem: it gives the opportunity for new forms of markets and firms. (J.S.)

  12. Energy prospects in the USA; Les perspectives energetiques aux USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This article summarizes the main trends of the US national energy plan sustained by the administration of President Bush: national energy policy development (diversification of energy supplies, development of an hydrogen economy), energy legislation (energy saving, development of renewable energy sources, promoting national production, budget discussion), re-launching of the nuclear sector: situation of the nuclear operators, competitiveness of nuclear energy, impact of deregulation on fusion/acquisition operations, role and liability of the federal administration (development of the Yucca Mountain (Nevada) disposal site for spent fuels, 'Nuclear Power 2010' initiative, long-term 'Generation IV' program, advanced fuel cycle program, hydrogen initiative and project of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) at the Idaho national laboratory). (J.S.)

  13. The importance of partnerships, mergers and acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabandt, C.A. [Merrill Lynch, New York, NY (United States)

    1998-09-01

    An overview of the electric utility industry was presented. The main factors driving mergers and acquisitions in the industry were identified as being consolidation, disaggregation, convergence and international expansion. To prove the point, statistics from recent merger and acquisition transactions in the U.S. were presented. The importance of disaggregation of the utility business and convergence as the major themes of the electricity and natural gas industries were demonstrated. They are driven by a new competitive marketplace and fewer regulations. The driving forces behind them were explained, buttressing the arguments with recent statistics reflecting an upsurge in convergence transactions. Significant opportunities abroad and recent foreign acquisitions by U. S. utilities were also reviewed. With regard to convergence, it was shown to be occurring in both the generation/wholesale and distribution/retail marketing segment of the electric power industry. 3 figs.

  14. A New capitalism in Brazil? Fusions & acquisitions on Lula government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Martines Belieiro Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims analyze the phenomenon of fusions and acquisitions of companies in Brazil during the government of ex-president Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva, from 2003 to 2010. The adopted point of view is the one of relations between the State an d the economy trying to investigate what the new role of the private capital in the contemporary Brazil. The basic hypothesis that guide this work is to explain the fusions and acquisitions in a broader context of State support to the process of fusions and acquisitions as a new way of global insertion of Brazilian capitalism in a moment of international competitiveness.

  15. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  16. Mergers and acquisitions - an empirical analysis of the German energy sector; Mergers and Acquisitions. Eine empirische Analyse der Energieindustrie in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misirlioglu, Cem [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Innovationsoekonomie

    2013-07-15

    Growth strategies have become an essential component of corporate planning since the onset of market liberalisation and deregulation. The present article analyses the use of mergers and acquisitions as an external market strategy (M and A) in the period from 2000 until 2010. It transpires that the development of M and A has gained momentum and will probably see even greater dynamism in the future as a result of changing political framework conditions as well as further developments in the market for conventional and renewable energies.

  17. Making renewable energy competitive in India: Reducing financing costs via a government-sponsored hedging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooquee, Arsalan Ali; Shrimali, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    In India, a significant barrier to market-competitiveness of renewable energy is a shortage of attractive debt. Domestic debt has high cost, short tenors, and variable interest rates, adding 30% to the cost of renewable energy compared to renewable energy projects elsewhere. Foreign debt is as expensive as domestic debt because it requires costly market-based currency hedging solutions. We investigate a government-sponsored foreign exchange facility as an alternative to reducing hedging costs. Using the geometric Brownian motion (GBM) as a representative stochastic model of the INR–USD foreign exchange rate, we find that the expected cost of providing a currency hedge via this facility is 3.5 percentage points, 50% lower than market. This leads to an up to 9% reduction in the per unit cost of renewable energy. However, this requires the government to manage the risks related to unexpected currency movements appropriately. One option to manage these risks is via a capital buffer; for the facility to obtain India's sovereign rating, the capital buffer would need to be almost 30% of the underlying loan. Our findings have significant policy implications given that the Indian government can use this facility to make renewable energy more competitive and, therefore, hasten its deployment. - Highlights: • We analyze a government-sponsored foreign exchange facility in India. •We use geometric Brownian motion to represent the INR–USD exchange rate. •This facility can reduce the currency hedging costs by 50%. •This facility can reduce the levelized cost of renewable energy by 9%. •The capital buffer to reach India's sovereign rating is 30% of the original loan.

  18. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal...

  19. Energy and competition in italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanetti, G.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of competition of the Italian production is based on the analysis of the prices. The most important period is between the first petroliferol crisis and these days. The production is concentrated on sector of old tradition and executed from an enterprise of small dimension [it

  20. Does personality influence job acquisition and tenure in people with severe mental illness enrolled in supported employment programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Guillaume; Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc

    2017-06-01

    When employment difficulties in people with severe mental illness (SMI) occur, it could be partly linked to issues not specific to SMI, such as personality traits or problems. Despite the fact that personality has a marked influence on almost every aspect of work behavior, it has scarcely been investigated in the context of employment for people with SMI. We aimed to evaluate if personality was more predictive than clinical variables of different competitive work outcomes, namely acquisition of competitive employment, delay to acquisition and job tenure. A sample of 82 people with a SMI enrolled in supported employment programs (SEP) was recruited and asked to complete various questionnaires and interviews. Statistical analyses included logistic regressions and survival analyses (Cox regressions). Prior employment, personality problems and negative symptoms are significantly related to acquisition of a competitive employment and to delay to acquisition whereas the conscientiousness personality trait was predictive of job tenure. Our results point out the relevance of personality traits and problems as predictors of work outcomes in people with SMI registered in SEP. Future studies should recruit larger samples and also investigate these links with other factors related to work outcomes.

  1. Equal access to the energy infrastructure as a precondition to promote competition in the energy market. The case of European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Bartlomiej

    2010-01-01

    In many EU countries, the infrastructures for supplying electricity and gas (electricity networks, gas pipelines, and storage facilities) are still properties of the so-called vertically integrated undertakings (VIU) responsible for the extraction or generation, supply, and transmission and distribution of the energy. While competition can be promoted in the generation/production and supply side of the vertical integration, transmission and distribution segments remain natural monopolies that hinder market mechanisms. Vertical integration simply raises the possibility for incumbents to favor their own divisions and to block new entrants. As a result, non-discriminatory and equal access to the electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks, also LNG and storage facilities, is crucial to foster competition in politically delicate structures of the electricity and gas markets. (author)

  2. Equal access to the energy infrastructure as a precondition to promote competition in the energy market. The case of European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Bartlomiej [Kozminski University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    In many EU countries, the infrastructures for supplying electricity and gas (electricity networks, gas pipelines, and storage facilities) are still properties of the so-called vertically integrated undertakings (VIU) responsible for the extraction or generation, supply, and transmission and distribution of the energy. While competition can be promoted in the generation/production and supply side of the vertical integration, transmission and distribution segments remain natural monopolies that hinder market mechanisms. Vertical integration simply raises the possibility for incumbents to favor their own divisions and to block new entrants. As a result, non-discriminatory and equal access to the electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks, also LNG and storage facilities, is crucial to foster competition in politically delicate structures of the electricity and gas markets. (author)

  3. The French market of wind energy and its perspectives. Which evolution for the competition landscape in a disrupting regulatory context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at providing an overview of the development of wind energy in France after market lift-off, at assessing the influence of Grenelle II on this sector, at assessing the competitiveness of wind energy with respect to other production sources, and at analysing strategies of equipment manufacturers and operators on a market where competitive positions are from being fixed. The report proposes an overview of the French wind energy market (legal context, growth dynamics, market valorisation, cost structure and profitability, support measures), analyses the positions and challenges of wind turbine manufacturers (the front end of the sector) and of wind farm developers and operators (the back end of the sector). Several manufacturers (Areva, Enercon, Gamesa, GE Energy, Nordex, REpower, Siemens and Vestas) and developers and operators (Boralex, EDF Energies Nouvelles, EDP Renovavels, Eolfi, GDF Suez, Iberdrola Renovables, Poweo, Theolia) have been analysed

  4. Quickness analysis and realization of DDC316 in low-energy X-rays detection acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fuqiang; Zhang Yaqiong; Zhang Xiaojiao

    2011-01-01

    According to the performance requirements of Industry low-energy X-rays Detection acquisition sys- tem, through analyzing the characteristics of low-energy X-rays, DDC316 and series of other ADC chips, to research the impact on systems rapidity when using DDC316 chip to achieve signal amplifier and A/D conversion the detection system based on FPGA technique, choose series of Cyclone EPIC3T144C8 as the main control chip which produced by Altera company, in order to improve the rapidity of the system. (authors)

  5. Analysis of the Competitive Potential of Bioethanol in Colombia: An approach from Michael Porter's 5 Competitive Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Velasquez, Alejandro; Montoya R, Ivan Alonso; Montoya Restrepo, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The search for alternative energy production and consumption require a look into the industry of biofuels such as bioethanol as an alternative energy to overcome the disadvantages generated by the traditional methods of production and consumption, especially in the political, environmental and social issues and generate competitive advantages compared to other primary energy sources. In the present document, and from the Michael Porter five (5) Forces model is detailed an evaluation of the bioethanol industry as an alternative fuel and is described how attractive or competitive may become the industry today. To achieve this purpose, an evaluation of the competitive forces was proposed to a group of experts, using a Likert scale. Thus, it was evaluated the potential usefulness of the proposal.

  6. Optimization of dual-energy CT acquisitions for proton therapy using projection-based decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches-Freixas, Gloria; Létang, Jean Michel; Ducros, Nicolas; Rit, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been presented as a valid alternative to single-energy CT to reduce the uncertainty of the conversion of patient CT numbers to proton stopping power ratio (SPR) of tissues relative to water. The aim of this work was to optimize DECT acquisition protocols from simulations of X-ray images for the treatment planning of proton therapy using a projection-based dual-energy decomposition algorithm. We have investigated the effect of various voltages and tin filtration combinations on the SPR map accuracy and precision, and the influence of the dose allocation between the low-energy (LE) and the high-energy (HE) acquisitions. For all spectra combinations, virtual CT projections of the Gammex phantom were simulated with a realistic energy-integrating detector response model. Two situations were simulated: an ideal case without noise (infinite dose) and a realistic situation with Poisson noise corresponding to a 20 mGy total central dose. To determine the optimal dose balance, the proportion of LE-dose with respect to the total dose was varied from 10% to 90% while keeping the central dose constant, for four dual-energy spectra. SPR images were derived using a two-step projection-based decomposition approach. The ranges of 70 MeV, 90 MeV, and 100 MeV proton beams onto the adult female (AF) reference computational phantom of the ICRP were analytically determined from the reconstructed SPR maps. The energy separation between the incident spectra had a strong impact on the SPR precision. Maximizing the incident energy gap reduced image noise. However, the energy gap was not a good metric to evaluate the accuracy of the SPR. In terms of SPR accuracy, a large variability of the optimal spectra was observed when studying each phantom material separately. The SPR accuracy was almost flat in the 30-70% LE-dose range, while the precision showed a minimum slightly shifted in favor of lower LE-dose. Photon noise in the SPR images (20 mGy dose

  7. Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in Division I Field Hockey Players During Competitive Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Katie M; Ledesma, Allison B

    2016-08-01

    Sell, KM and Ledesma, AB. Heart rate and energy expenditure in Division I field hockey players during competitive play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2122-2128, 2016-The purpose of this study was to quantify energy expenditure and heart rate data for Division I female field hockey players during competitive play. Ten female Division I collegiate field hockey athletes (19.8 ± 1.6 years; 166.4 ± 6.1 cm; 58.2 ± 5.3 kg) completed the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test to determine maximal heart rate. One week later, all subjects wore a heart rate monitor during a series of 3 matches in an off-season competition. Average heart rate (AvHR), average percentage of maximal heart rate (AvHR%), peak exercise heart rate (PExHR), and percentage of maximal heart rate (PExHR%), time spent in each of the predetermined heart rate zones, and caloric expenditure per minute of exercise (kcalM) were determined for all players. Differences between positions (backs, midfielders, and forwards) were assessed. No significant differences in AvHR, AvHR%, PExHR, PExHR%, and %TM were observed between playing positions. The AvHR% and PExHR% for each position fell into zones 4 (77-93% HRmax) and 5 (>93% HRmax), respectively, and significantly more time was spent in zone 4 compared with zones 1, 2, 3, and 5 across all players (p ≤ 0.05). The kcalM reflected very heavy intensity exercise. The results of this study will contribute toward understanding the sport-specific physiological demands of women's field hockey and has specific implications for the duration and schedule of training regimens.

  8. 76 FR 59623 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only One Offer (DFARS Case 2011-D013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ..., 215, 216, and 252 RIN 0750-AH11 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Only One Offer... Supplement (DFARS) to address acquisitions using competitive procedures in which only one offer is received... days, if the solicitation allowed fewer than 30 days for receipt of proposals and only one offer is...

  9. Post-acquisition integration of employees : a case study of Norsk Hydro

    OpenAIRE

    Winsjansen, Elisabeth; Wright, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    This study explores and investigates the integration of employees after a cross-border acquisition has been signed and closed. An exploratory study of Norsk Hydro has been conducted using a qualitative research design, with five in-depth interviews of employees from Norsk Hydro and from the organization’s divisions in Germany and Brazil. The number of cross-border acquisitions have increased in the past decades as a way of companies to renew their competitive positions in the g...

  10. The role of nuclear power in the new competitive era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    As power generators around the world grapple with the challenges of deregulation and competition, there are those who suggest that ownership of an operating nuclear power plant may prove to be a liability. This is not the case for most plants. On the contrary, nuclear facilities that perform well will be important assets in competitive markets, whether as sources of competitively priced electricity, or as strategic factors in mergers and acquisitions. And, as the world focuses renewed attention on global climate change and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear power's significant environmental benefits further enhances its continued viability. The emergence of competitive markets will create a period of tremendous opportunity and enhanced value for nuclear plants. Nuclear plants, large coal plants, and hydro are the only types that can produce power at the bus bar with production costs close to one cent per kilowatt-hour. The challenge for all nuclear plants is to reduce costs and improve performance in order to improve their net earnings stream. Prospects for dramatic reductions are very high. In recent years, average nuclear plant performance figures worldwide have improved rapidly and substantially, and average costs are dropping. How will nuclear plants compare with alternative energy sources in an era of heightened competition? To evaluate nuclear plants in a competitive environment, this paper will look at three key areas: capital costs; operation and maintenance costs; and fuel costs, including spent fuel issues. The paper will examine innovative strategies to deal with capital or 'sunk costs' such as write-downs through securitization and regional operating companies, and will also focus on best practices in O and M and fuel where all nuclear plants have the potential to move to 'best in class'. The lessons that every nuclear plant can learn from other plants can contribute significantly to the performance improvement process. What has been

  11. Competition policies on the electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, U.

    2008-01-01

    This article puts forward a critical analysis of European competition instruments and practices in terms of market power on the electricity wholesale markets. Due to the speck nature of electrical activities, competition policies come up against difficulties of market power identification at first, since there is no model for detecting perfectly the potential or real exertion of market power in this sector. What is more, since competition authorities rely on specific intervention methods, their ability to limit the exertion of market power is relatively low. For a large number of their interventions involves controlling concentrations. In the light of this double phenomenon, this article discusses some recent developments of European competition policies on the electricity wholesale markets. The sector inquiry of 2007 seems to mark the start of a new competition policy practice in the electricity sector. The initiative and decision-making power now seem to be nesting mainly at a European level where action is not only to be found in terms of controlling mergers and acquisitions, but also stretches to involve an in-depth evaluation of the way the different markets work. This action is manifested in decisions to investigate some companies as well as legislative proposals in the framework of the third package. Thus we are moving towards a greater monitoring of electricity markets using more formal supervision instruments and on a more continuous basis. (author)

  12. Developing a retail energy service business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleckaitis, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Opportunities in the retail energy market and some of the steps that Consumersfirst Ltd. plans to take to carve out an appropriate niche for itself in what is expected to be a fiercely competitive deregulated energy market in Ontario are discussed. The major components of Consumersfirst Ltd's (Canadian division of IPLE's retail energy services), are a multi-faceted energy strategy, featuring unbundling Consumers Gas, acquisition of complementary enterprises such as e.g. HVAC contractors, investigation of green energy opportunities, and alliances and joint ventures with companies providing complementary services, such as e.g. Hydro-Quebec. The critical success factors, as always, are understanding customer needs, defining clear and differentiated value propositions, delivering on promises, selecting the right people for the job, and taking the longer-term view. Most important of all is to realize that there is no proven or single 'end state' model as markets are constantly evolving. figs

  13. Finding synergy between local competitiveness and global sustainability to provide a future to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Yacout, Abdellatif; Wade, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The world's future energy needs will require a mix of energy conversion technologies matched to the local energy market needs while also responding to both local and global socio-political concerns, e.g. energy security, environmental impact, safety and non-proliferation. There is growing recognition worldwide that nuclear energy should not only be part of the solution but maybe as well play a larger share in future's energy supply. The sustainability of future nuclear energy systems is hereby important and a variety of studies have already shown that sustainability of nuclear energy from a resource perspective is achievable via the nuclear fuel cycle though where economic sustainability is essentially defined by the nuclear power plants. The main challenge in deploying sustainable nuclear energy systems will be to find synergies between this local competitiveness of nuclear power plants and the global resource sustainability defined via the nuclear fuel cycle. Both may go hand-in-hand in the long-term but may need government guidance in starting the transition towards such future sustainable nuclear energy systems. (authors)

  14. Real time data acquisition and processing system software supported by RDOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huimin; Chou Gongchun; Hao Shuxiang

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes a system software supported by RDOS operating system for management and supervision a multiuser nuclear spectrum data acquisition and processing system to be made of NOVA/840 computer. The system has manifold functions including four direct address data acquisition channels. One multi-dimension nuclear data acquisition channel, four scalers and four automatic control entrances. Every channel is used competitively by each user. The system's management and all processing functions are performed by system software. The architecture of the system can renew according to users' requirement with support of the system software.This article explains the logical structure of the system software and discusses some technical keys

  15. The renewal of hydroelectric concessions in competitive call

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document discusses various issues associated with the planned competitive call on the French hydraulic power plants. The principles of this competitive call for hydroelectric concessions are first addressed: administrative regime of concessions, competitive call process, criteria of selection of the concession holder, case of 'concession of valleys', potential competitors. It outlines and discusses the difficulties of this competitive call: France is the single country to implement this procedure; it concerns a national asset; it questions the guarantee of a future use of equipment at best for the energy benefits of French consumers; the competitive call is a nice idea indeed but extremely complex. A note discusses the profitability aspects of Plants for Transfer of Energy by Pumping

  16. Current situation and discussion of acquisition work in professional libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition work in professional libraries is an important part of library work, and faces enormous challenges at this stage. For the status quo of the acquisition work in professional libraries, we should develop effective acquisition principles to ensure the integrity of our professional library's collection and systematic literature, and to provide more effective protection for relevant research work. We need reasonable arrangements for the procurement of books with limited funding to avoid the waste of funds. We should use the network, to actively develop the procurement channels, and to establish accurate and reliable systematic network of information resources for the reader. We need to consciously cultivate and improve the professional competence of acquisition staff, to meet the requirement of the acquisition staff in the new situation. We should carry out knowledge management in professional library, to form a competitive 'knowledge resources'. For information research, technical personnel, and scientific researchers, we provide effective information services in time, and carry out personalized services. (authors)

  17. Assessment of nuclear energy cost competitiveness against alternative energy sources in Romania envisaging the long-term national energy sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper includes some of the results obtained by RATEN ICN Pitesti experts in the IAEA.s Collaborative Project INPRO-SYNERGIES. The case study proposed to evaluate and analyze the nuclear capacity development and increasing of its share in the national energy sector, envisaging the long term national and regional energy sustainability by keeping collaboration options open for the future while bringing solutions to short/medium-term challenges. The following technologies, considered as future competing technologies for electric energy generation in Romania, were selected: nuclear technology (represented by PHWR CANDU Units 3 and 4 - CANDU new, advanced HWR - Adv. HWR, and advanced PWR - Adv. PWR) and, as alternative energy sources, classical technology (represented by Coal-fired power plant using lignite fossil fuel, with carbon capture - Coal_new, and Gas-fired power plant operating on combined cycle, with carbon capture - Gas_new). The study included assessment of specific economic indicators, sensitivity analyses being performed on Levelised Unit Energy Cost (LUEC) variation due to different perturbations (e.g. discount rate, overnight costs, etc). Robustness indices (RI) of LUEC were also calculated by considering simultaneous variation of input parameters for the considered power plants. The economic analyses have been performed by using the IAEA.s NEST program. The study results confirmed that in Romania, under the national specific conditions defined, electricity produced by nuclear power plants is cost competitive against coal and gas fired power plants electricity. The highest impact of considered perturbations on LUEC has been observed for capital intensive technologies (nuclear technologies) comparatively with the classic power plants, especially for discount rate changes. (authors)

  18. Economic competitiveness of seawater desalinated by nuclear and fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2001-01-01

    The levelized discounted production water cost method and the new desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP1.1) were used to compare the economics of desalination using nuclear or fossil energy. The results indicate that nuclear desalination is more economic than fossil desalination with reverse osmosis (RO), multi-effect distillation (MED) and multi-stage flash (MSF). The desalination water cost varies depending on the desalination technology and the water plant size from 0.52-1.98 USD·m -3 with the lowest water price by RO and the highest by MSF. The sensitivity factors for the economic competitiveness increases in order of the discounted rate, desalination plant scale, fossil fuel price, specific power plant investment, seawater temperature and total dissolve solid (TDS). The highest water cost is about 22.6% more than the base case

  19. Suez-Gaz de France merger, E.ON's public takeover bid on Endesa... The new energy fight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.; Rouaud, P.O.; Mairet, C.

    2006-01-01

    The energy sector is in fever. In less than a week (February 21 to 26, 2006), the Europe of energy has fallen into a frenzy of mergers and acquisitions: the German E.ON offered 29.1 billion euros to get the Spanish Endesa, Electricite de France (EdF), who already got the Italian Edison in 2005, is ready for more major acquisitions, the Italian Enel is candidate for the repurchasing of Suez, while Gaz de France (GdF) and Suez have started a surprise merger. The stake of this match between giants is their growing up and the penetration of foreign markets before their complete liberalization in July 2007. The potential victims of these actions are the competition and the clients, the industrial ones first. (J.S.)

  20. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 3, Issue 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    affecting the behavioral change beyond issuing a memorandum. Exhortations are no way to develop a sound business process ( Deming , 1982, pp. 65–70), much...Acquisition University Press. Deming , W. E. (1982). Out of the crisis: Quality, productivity and competitive position. New York, NY: Cambridge University

  1. Gamma/neutron competition above the neutron separation energy in delayed neutron emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the β-decay properties of some well known delayed neutron emitters an experiment was performed in 2009 at the IGISOL facility (University of Jyväskylä in Finland using Total Absorption γ-ray Spectroscopy (TAGS technique. The aim of these measurements is to obtain the full β-strength distribution below the neutron separation energy (Sn and the γ/neutron competition above. This information is a key parameter in nuclear technology applications as well as in nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. Preliminary results of the analysis show a significant γ-branching ratio above Sn.

  2. An Assessment of Early Competitive Prototyping for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Executive ( CAE ). The MDA determines when programs move from one acquisition phase to the next by reviewing program accomplishments at the various...the M113 family of vehicles. The AMPV will come in five variants: general purpose, medical evacuation, medical treatment , mortar carrier and...System (EPS) Program Control and Planning Segment (CAPS). EPS will provide extremely high frequency, jam-resistant, and secure satellite communications

  3. Can renewable energy sources be financed through competitive power markets in the long run?; Koennen sich erneuerbare Energien langfristig auf wettbewerblich organisierten Strommaerkten finanzieren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Oliver; Essler-Frey, Anke; Engelhorn, Thorsten [MVV Energie AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    In this paper we address the issue of whether renewable energy sources can be integrated into power markets if the use of renewable energies is extended at the desired speed. Market integration means that renewable energy sources have to cover their full costs from revenues on competitive markets. In the first part of this paper, we evaluate the long-term revenues of intermittent renewable energy sources using a high resolution power market model. Considering the renewable targets of the German lead study of 2010, we show that due to the merit order effect, intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind power and photovoltaic, cannot be financed through power markets alone, even if their full costs fall below those of conventional power plants. This is also true for scenarios with high CO{sub 2}-prices and increasing spot market prices. In the second part of this paper, we discuss whether in the long run additional instruments such as green certificates or capacity markets would allow for a more competitive financing of renewable energy sources. Center stage in the discussion is the question under which circumstances these instruments increase competitive pricing and decentralised market decisions. (orig.)

  4. Endoleak detection using single-acquisition split-bolus dual-energy computer tomography (DECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javor, D.; Wressnegger, A.; Unterhumer, S.; Kollndorfer, K.; Nolz, R.; Beitzke, D.; Loewe, C. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To assess a single-phase, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with a split-bolus technique and reconstruction of virtual non-enhanced images for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Fifty patients referred for routine follow-up post-EVAR CT and a history of at least one post-EVAR follow-up CT examination using our standard biphasic (arterial and venous phase) routine protocol (which was used as the reference standard) were included in this prospective trial. An in-patient comparison and an analysis of the split-bolus protocol and the previously used double-phase protocol were performed with regard to differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and image quality. The analysis showed a significant reduction of radiation dose of up to 42 %, using the single-acquisition split-bolus protocol, while maintaining a comparable diagnostic accuracy (primary endoleak detection rate of 96 %). Image quality between the two protocols was comparable and only slightly inferior for the split-bolus scan (2.5 vs. 2.4). Using the single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction while maintaining high image quality, resulting in effective endoleak identification. (orig.)

  5. The Influence of Information Acquisition on the Complex Dynamics of Market Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhanbing; Ma, Junhai

    In this paper, we build a dynamical game model with three bounded rational players (firms) to study the influence of information on the complex dynamics of market competition, where useful information is about rival’s real decision. In this dynamical game model, one information-sharing team is composed of two firms, they acquire and share the information about their common competitor, however, they make their own decisions separately, where the amount of information acquired by this information-sharing team will determine the estimation accuracy about the rival’s real decision. Based on this dynamical game model and some creative 3D diagrams, the influence of the amount of information on the complex dynamics of market competition such as local dynamics, global dynamics and profits is studied. These results have significant theoretical and practical values to realize the influence of information.

  6. Ppr - Puma: a successful acquisition?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Buongiorno; B. Rovetta

    2010-01-01

    The PPR-Puma case explores the issue of evaluating the acquisition of Puma by the PPR group. Starting from the assessment of the business strategy and the analysis of the competitive scenario and firm-specific positioning, the case moves to a sound financial analysis and company valuation to be carried out with the objective to assess the actual value of the target company and the potential synergies to be achieved by the bidder. PPR is a very well-known player in the retail and luxury busine...

  7. Building a Pre-Competitive Knowledge Base to Support Australia's Wave Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, R. K.; Hemer, M. A.; Symonds, G.; Rosebrock, U.; Kenyon, R.; Zieger, S.; Durrant, T.; Contardo, S.; O'Grady, J.; Mcinnes, K. L.

    2016-02-01

    A pre-competitive, query-able and openly available spatio-temporal atlas of Australia's wind-wave energy resource and marine management uses is being delivered. To provide the best representation of wave energy resource information, accounting for both spatial and temporal characteristics of the resource, a 34+yr numerical hindcast of wave conditions in the Australian region has been developed. Considerable in situ and remotely sensed data have been collected to support calibration and validation of the hindcast, resulting in a high-quality characterisation of the available wave resource in the Australian domain. Planning for wave energy projects is also subject to other spatial constraints. Spatial information on alternative uses of the marine domain including, for example, fisheries and aquaculture, oil and gas, shipping, navigation and ports, marine parks and reserves, sub-sea cables and infrastructure, shipwrecks and sites of cultural significance, have been compiled to complement the spatial characterisation of resource and support spatial planning of future wave energy projects. Both resource and spatial constraint information are being disseminated via a state-of-the-art portal, designed to meet the needs of all industry stakeholders. Another aspect currently impeding the industry in Australia is the limited evidence-base of impacts of wave energy extraction on adjacent marine and coastal environments. To build this evidence base, a network of in situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented.

  8. Diode-pumped solid-state-laser drivers and the competitiveness of inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.

    1993-12-01

    Based on five technical advances at LLNL and a new systems-analysis code that we have written, we present conceptual designs for diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) drivers for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plants. Such designs are based on detailed physics calculations for the drive, and on generic scaling relationships for the reactor and balance of plant (BOP). We describe the performance and economics of such power plants, show how sensitive these results are to changes in the major parameters, and indicate how technological improvements can make DPSSL-driven IFE plants more competitive

  9. An Analysis of the Army Service Acquisition Review Requirements and the Perceived Effectiveness on Intended Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Selection Evaluation Market Research Metrics Competition Acquisition Schedule Consolidation Recommendation As detailed in the Chapter IIB, OSD Policy...REQUIREMENTS AND THE PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS ON INTENDED IMPROVEMENTS June 2016 By: Roxanne Moss Michael Vukovich Megan Weidner Advisors...ANALYSIS OF THE ARMY SERVICE ACQUISITION REVIEW REQUIREMENTS AND THE PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS ON INTENDED IMPROVEMENTS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  10. Monopolization Through Acquisitions in Multimarket Oligopolies (Replaced by TILEC DP 2011-047)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that, under Cournot competition, monopolization through acquisitions is more likely to occur in industries where firms serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. Under segmented markets, within a

  11. Virginia Power's capacity acquisition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Virginia Power is a utility with a growing demand for electricity. To meet that growth it has embarked on an aggressive program to encourage the construction of privately-owned generating plants. In 1988 it conducted the largest competitive acquisition program by any utility to date. Virginia Power has retained the option to build plants if the bids it receives are too costly or do not meet the needs of its customers. This paper describes the situation at Virginia Power, the program it has implemented, and the capacity additions which are scheduled between 1989 and 1995

  12. Ecological interactions and the fitness effect of water-use efficiency: Competition and drought alter the impact of natural MPK12 alleles in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Brandon E; Des Marais, David L; Juenger, Thomas E

    2016-04-01

    The presence of substantial genetic variation for water-use efficiency (WUE) suggests that natural selection plays a role in maintaining alleles that affect WUE. Soil water deficit can reduce plant survival, and is likely to impose selection to increase WUE, whereas competition for resources may select for decreased WUE to ensure water acquisition. We tested the fitness consequences of natural allelic variation in a single gene (MPK12) that influences WUE in Arabidopsis, using transgenic lines contrasting in MPK12 alleles, under four treatments; drought/competition, drought/no competition, well-watered/competition, well-watered/no competition. Results revealed an allele × environment interaction: Low WUE plants performed better in competition, resulting from increased resource consumption. Contrastingly, high WUE individuals performed better in no competition, irrespective of water availability, presumably from enhanced water conservation and nitrogen acquisition. Our findings suggest that selection can influence MPK12 evolution, and represents the first assessment of plant fitness resulting from natural allelic variation at a single locus affecting WUE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Competition effects of mergers: An event study of the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the competition effects of the entry of Vattenfall into the German electricity market. While the competition authorities supported the entry by approving Vattenfall's acquisition of three regional utilities, other market participants raised concerns over the emergence of an upcoming oligopoly in the German market for power generation. We contrast the efficiency hypothesis postulating pro-competitive effects of mergers with the market power hypothesis postulating anti-competitive effects. For the analysis of the two opposing hypotheses, we use an event study approach to the stock prices of Vattenfall's competitors in the German market. While we find no empirical evidence for increased market power in the German electricity market due to Vattenfall's mergers, there is some indication for efficiency increases. We therefore cannot oppose the view of the competition authorities predicting an overall positive effect for consumers as a result of Vattenfall's entry into the German electricity market.

  14. Training need analysis for energy efficiency advisors and data bank of available training programs (9255 U 965)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lail, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a skill profile for an 'energy efficiency advisor' position, and production of a data base of available training programs undertaken by the Power Acquisition department of B.C. Hydro, were described. Driving forces for products and services at competitive prices and transition factors crucial to successful market positioning were outlined, along with future plans for securing a foothold in British Columbia. Desirable market oriented management principles and dynamic competitive marketing strategies were noted. It was concluded that the progression toward market-based dynamics would make changes occur more quickly and would require the introduction of tailored products and services

  15. Energy resource alternatives competition. Progress report for the period February 1, 1975--December 31, 1975. [Space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity for homes, farms, and light industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzke, D.J.; Osowski, D.M.; Radtke, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    This progress report describes the objectives and results of the intercollegiate Energy Resource Alternatives competition. The one-year program concluded in August 1975, with a final testing program of forty student-built alternative energy projects at the Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The goal of the competition was to design and build prototype hardware which could provide space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity at a level appropriate to the needs of homes, farms, and light industry. The hardware projects were powered by such nonconventional energy sources as solar energy, wind, biologically produced gas, coal, and ocean waves. The competition rules emphasized design innovation, economic feasibility, practicality, and marketability. (auth)

  16. An Analysis of the Competitive Strategy in the Industry Providing a Defense System of Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melone, James

    2000-01-01

    .... Both the 1996 Defense Science Board Report on Vertical Integration and DoD's 1999 report on Price Based Acquisition recommend that DoD take steps to further understanding of competitive conditions...

  17. Competition and norms: A self-defeating combination?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, Genevieve; Gurguc, Zeynep; Koutroumpis, Pantelis; Martin, Ralf; Muûls, Mirabelle; Napp, Tamaryn

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of information feedback mechanisms on electricity and heating usage at a student hall of residence in London. In a randomised control trial, we formulate different treatments such as feedback information and norms, as well as prize competition among subjects. We show that information and norms lead to a sharp – more than 20% - reduction in overall energy consumption. Because participants do not pay for their energy consumption this response cannot be driven by cost saving incentives. Interestingly, when combining feedback and norms with a prize competition for achieving low energy consumption, the reduction effect – while present initially – disappears in the long run. This could suggest that external rewards reduce and even destroy intrinsic motivation to change behaviour. - Highlights: •We investigate the effect of information feedback on residential energy consumption. •A RCT tests whether norms affect the decisions of price-indifferent participants. •Feedback mechanisms and norms reduce energy consumption by 22% on average. •Introducing prize competition dissipates the impact of information feedback and norms.

  18. 48 CFR 939.7002 - Contractor acquisition of information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information technology. 939.7002 Section 939.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7002 Contractor acquisition of information technology. (a) Management and operating (M&O...

  19. E-commerce opens up new opportunities for energy trading in the competitive markets; eCommerce: Neue Chancen im Energiewettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titzrath, B. [Anderson Consulting Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Scholtissek, S.

    2000-09-01

    The article discusses the opportunities opened up for energy supply companies in building or maintaining their competitive edge in the rapidly changing competitive environment. Pitfalls are described, and successful e-commerce strategies employing all available tools are explained, referring to the business-to-business segment as well as customer relationship management. (orig./CB) [German] Die Electronic Economy stellt die Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVU) nicht nur vor Herausforderungen, sondern eroeffnet auch grosse Chancen. Es ist jedoch Vorsicht geboten. Wer hier nicht seine eigene eCommerce-Strategie entwickelt und implementiert, dem drohen Marktanteilsverluste. (orig./CB)

  20. Can market forces and competition supplant regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges facing regulators and governments as utilities and pipelines transform from regulated monopolies into competitive businesses were discussed. In the past, the absence of competition required that utility and pipeline companies be regulated by governments to ensure fair pricing and good performance. The question of whether or not competition can entirely replace regulation was examined. Although the focus was on the natural gas industry, the regulatory trends in other industries were also briefly considered. In 1985, the federal government agreed to allow the commodity price of natural gas to fluctuate in response to market forces. This began the process of deregulation in the Canadian natural gas industry. Direct purchasing introduced competition and ended the monopolies of local distribution companies in purchasing gas. The main benefits of the competitive market structure were that consumers could choose products and services from a range of competing companies at competitive prices. This was critical to the success of the Canadian economy since Canada is the third largest exporter of energy and the eighth largest consumer of energy. It was suggested that even in a competitive market abuse of market power is possible, therefore, there is an important role for government in ensuring the existence of a level playing field. A variety of issues involved in an effective transition to a competitive market were also discussed. 2 figs

  1. 10 CFR 490.302 - Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. 490.302 Section 490... Alternative Fuel Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.302 Vehicle acquisition mandate schedule. (a) Except as provided in section 490.304 of this part, of the light duty motor vehicles newly acquired by a...

  2. Game theory competition analysis of reservoir water supply and hydropower generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.

    2013-12-01

    The total installed capacity of the power generation systems in Taiwan is about 41,000 MW. Hydropower is one of the most important renewable energy sources, with hydropower generation capacity of about 4,540 MW. The aim of this research is to analyze competition between water supply and hydropower generation in water-energy systems. The major relationships between water and energy systems include hydropower generation by water, energy consumption for water system operation, and water consumption for energy system. In this research, a game-theoretic Cournot model is formulated to simulate oligopolistic competition between water supply, hydropower generation, and co-fired power generation in water-energy systems. A Nash equilibrium of the competitive market is derived and solved by GAMS with PATH solver. In addition, a case study analyzing the competition among water supply and hydropower generation of De-ji and Ku-Kuan reservoirs, Taipower, Star Energy, and Star-Yuan power companies in central Taiwan is conducted.

  3. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. 77 FR 12913 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... 2010-015; Item I; Docket 2010-0015, Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL97 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Women... Regulation (FAR) to implement the Small Business Administration's regulations establishing the Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program. This rule authorizes the restriction of competition for Federal contracts...

  5. Competition along productivity gradients: news from heathlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Achat, David L; Puzos, Luc; Augusto, Laurent

    2018-05-01

    The importance of competition in low productive habitats is still debated. Studies which simultaneously evaluate preemption of resources and consequences for population dynamics are needed for a comprehensive view of competitive outcomes. We cultivated two emblematic species of European heathlands (Calluna vulgaris and Molinia caerulea) in a nursery for 2 years at two fertility levels, reproducing the productivity gradient found in phosphorus (P)-depleted heathlands in southwest France. The second year, we planted Ulex europaeus seedlings, a ubiquitous heathland species, under the cover of the two species to evaluate its ability to regenerate. Half of the seedlings were placed in tubes for exclusion of competitor roots. We measured the development of the competitors aboveground and belowground and their interception of resources (light, water, inorganic P). Ulex seedlings' growth and survival were also measured. Our results on resources interception were consistent with species distribution in heathlands. Molinia, which dominates rich heathlands, was the strongest competitor for light and water in the rich soil. Calluna, which dominates poor heathlands, increased its root allocation in the poor soil, decreasing water and inorganic P availability. However, the impact of total competition and root competition on Ulex seedlings decreased in the poor soil. Other mechanisms, especially decrease of water stress under neighbouring plant cover, appeared to have more influence on the seedlings' response. We found no formal contradiction between Tilman and Grime's theories. Root competition has a primary role in acquisition of soil resources in poor habitats. However, the importance of competition decreases with decreasing fertility.

  6. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy's nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy

  7. High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office: a mission overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Don D.; Slater, John M.

    2004-10-01

    The High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office (HEL-JTO) was established in 2000 for the purpose of developing and executing a comprehensive investment strategy for HEL science and technology that would underpin weapons development. The JTO is currently sponsoring 80 programs across industry, academia, and government agencies with a budget of approximately $60 million. The competitively awarded programs are chosen to advance the current state of the art in HEL technology and fill technology gaps, thus providing a broad capability that can be harvested in acquisition programs by the military services.

  8. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. Monopolization Through Acquisitions in Multimarket Oligopolies (Replaced by CentER DP 2011-112)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that, under Cournot competition, monopolization through acquisitions is more likely to occur in industries where firms serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. Under segmented markets, within a

  10. Modeling the Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions of Companies on their Capitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodiazhna Tatiana V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic globalization, the most common approaches to creating powerful companies that have high market value are those that use mergers and acquisitions. In Ukraine, such processes also have been considerably intensified in recent years. However, in the national economic science, the problems of evaluating the impact of mergers and acquisitions of companies on their capitalization, as well as on the concentration and competitiveness of the country’s economy, have not been solved to date. The article is aimed at analyzing the market capitalization of the world’s largest companies and modeling the impact of their mergers and acquisitions on the capitalization of their economies. As a result of the study, it has been determined that modeling the impact of the mergers and acquisitions of the world’s companies on the level of capitalization of their economies has proved the hypothesis that the countries of the world, where mergers and acquisitions of companies are more extensive, also have larger capitalization level.

  11. New design concepts for energy-conserving buildings. Results of a national competition among students in schools of architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The National Student Competition in Energy Conscious Design held among professional schools of architecture in 1976 is documented. Fifty-five schools participated, submitting 115 entries; twelve were chosen as finalists. Details are presented on the twelve winning designs and excerpts from the remaining 103 entries are published. (MCW)

  12. Current status of mergers and acquisitions (M and A) in the U.S. electric utilities operators; Beikoku koeki denki jigyosha wo meguru M and A no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, E. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    Mergers and acquisitions (M and A) are rapidly increasing among the U.S. electric utilities operators. This paper reports from among a large number of cases the mergers with district power distribution companies in England, and movements aiming at building a comprehensive energy corporation by using M and A with gas companies. The purpose of acquiring the British power distribution companies is to seek expanded earnings having become necessary due to little growth in power demand and intensified competition. This may be possible because the cap price is high in the cap price system in England, and can provide a large room for earning more profits. It is also an attempt of utilizing more effectively the experience of deregulation having been done ahead of America, such as introduction of unboundering and pooling systems. Four companies were under acquisition activities in even 1996 alone, and if prior acquisitions are added, actually half of British district power distribution companies have had been acquired. Merger of electric power companies with gas companies is the opening act of movements aimed at obtaining single-handed the oil business to become a comprehensive energy corporation. 4 refs., 14 tabs.

  13. The impact of competition on gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    This article looks at the impact of third-party access on non-European contract structures and possible lessons for Europe. For a number of years now, a debate has gone on in Europe about creating an internal market for energy, in which increased competition, both between different fuels and between different suppliers of the same fuel, has been put forward as an important feature. There is every possibility that pressure in the direction of liberalisation and introduction of more competition into European energy markets will continue. In the gas sector, introduction of third-party access (TPA) has been considered, at least by the European Commission, as a prerequisite for increased competition. (author)

  14. A Rule of Reason for Inward FDI: Integrating Canadian Foreign Investment Review and Competition Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Bishop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Investment Canada Act (ICA needs an overhaul. This reform must include a paradigm shift in thinking to a much less restrictive view about the benefits of foreign direct investment in Canada. Currently, the ICA operates under the presumption that foreign firms behave detrimentally to the Canadian economy: foreign acquirers are required to show “net benefit” to Canada and may need to make onerous commitments for maintaining output or employment. This attitude, a holdover from the ICA’s predecessor, the Foreign Investment Review Agency, has created an atmosphere which fosters protectionism and relies on economically incoherent factors to assess the merit of proposed transactions. It is time to shed that archaic attitude and adopt a more reasoned perspective. Rather than requiring each proposed transaction to provide proof for the specific benefit to Canada, the ICA should assume that foreign acquisitions benefit Canada unless there is proof to the contrary. A more welcoming, balanced and rational perspective would be that foreign acquisitions actually improve the productivity of Canadian companies and contribute to the wellbeing of Canada’s economy. The ICA is flawed in other ways, too. Some reviews of proposed transactions have become unnecessarily fraught with politics. Think of the recent politically enmeshed fretting over the bid that the state-owned Chinese Offshore National Company made for Nexen Energy, or Malaysia’s state-owned Petronas’ bid for Progress Energy Resources Corp. Indeed, there has been a very real fear of traditionally Canadian-owned institutions losing their Canadian essence to foreign ownership. Then, too, there is the federal government’s built-in ability to impose onerous conditions, or undertakings, on foreign acquirers. All this is clearly a deterrent to potentially beneficial foreign investment in Canada. Canada needs a new regime without nationalism, protectionism and politics. Ideally, this new

  15. Electricity market competition and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, C.; Paffenbarger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the world, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries' governments are promoting competitive electricity markets. In particular, there is a move away from administrative price-setting by government institutions to market price-setting through the introduction of competition. Today this is often focused on competition in generation. However, competition among final electricity suppliers and distributors to provide effective consumer choice is a further step that governments are likely to pursue as experience with market reform grows. This competitive environment will undoubtedly impact upon the nuclear generation industry. Competition will provide an opportunity to reinvigorate nuclear power; it will improve the transparency of energy policy-making and the policy framework for nuclear power; it will spur innovation in existing plants and help prospects for new plant build; and provide a strong impetus for cost reduction and innovation. This paper discusses these issues in detail. It looks at the potential benefits and challenges to the nuclear generation industry arising from an increasingly competitive market. (author)

  16. DSM and electric utility competitiveness: An Illinois perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    A predominant theme in the current electric utility industry literature is that competitive forces have emerged and may become more prominent. The wholesale bulk power market is alreadly competitive, as non-utility energy service providers already have had a significant impact on that market; this trend was accelerated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Although competition at the retail level is much less pervasive, electric utility customers increasingly have greater choice in selecting energy services. These choices may include, depending on the customer, the ability to self-generate, switch fuels, move to a new location, or rely more heavily on demand-side management as a means of controlling electric energy use. This paper explores the subject of how demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are often developed by a utility to satisfy resource requirements as a part of its least-cost planning process, can affect the utility's ability to compete in the energy services marketplace. In this context, the term 'DSM' is used in this paper to refer to those demand-side services and programs which provide resources to the utility's system. Depending on one's perspective, DSM programs (so defined) can be viewed either as an enhancement to the competitive position of a utility by enabling it to provide its customers with a broader menu of energy services, simultaneously satisfying the objectives of the utility as well as those of the customers, or as a detractor to a utility's ability to compete. In the latter case, the concern is with respect to the potential for adverse rate impacts on customers who are not participants in DSM programs. The paper consists of an identification of the pros and cons of DSM as a competitive strategy, the tradeoff which can occur between the cost impacts and rate impacts of DSM, and an examination of alternative strategies for maximizing the utilization of DSM both as a resource and as a competitive strategy

  17. DSM and electric utility competitiveness: An Illinois perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    A predominant theme in the current electric utility industry literature is that competitive forces have emerged and may become more prominent. The wholesale bulk power market is alreadly competitive, as non-utility energy service providers already have had a significant impact on that market; this trend was accelerated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Although competition at the retail level is much less pervasive, electric utility customers increasingly have greater choice in selecting energy services. These choices may include, depending on the customer, the ability to self-generate, switch fuels, move to a new location, or rely more heavily on demand-side management as a means of controlling electric energy use. This paper explores the subject of how demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are often developed by a utility to satisfy resource requirements as a part of its least-cost planning process, can affect the utility`s ability to compete in the energy services marketplace. In this context, the term `DSM` is used in this paper to refer to those demand-side services and programs which provide resources to the utility`s system. Depending on one`s perspective, DSM programs (so defined) can be viewed either as an enhancement to the competitive position of a utility by enabling it to provide its customers with a broader menu of energy services, simultaneously satisfying the objectives of the utility as well as those of the customers, or as a detractor to a utility`s ability to compete. In the latter case, the concern is with respect to the potential for adverse rate impacts on customers who are not participants in DSM programs. The paper consists of an identification of the pros and cons of DSM as a competitive strategy, the tradeoff which can occur between the cost impacts and rate impacts of DSM, and an examination of alternative strategies for maximizing the utilization of DSM both as a resource and as a competitive strategy.

  18. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  19. Production and competition in the European electric sector. 4. report from the research project 'renewable energy in the community's internal market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjersgaard, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim is to elucidate the dynamic interactive pricing, competition and market mechanisms that are valid for the European electric power market. The perspective in the report is to analyse the vertical flow of substance and values of energy, the interaction of the actors, and the economic relations. The first link in the vertical chain is the energy raw materials supplies: the reserves and production of fossil and nuclear fuels and the relation to globalization of electricity production. The next link is the production of electricity: the production technologies used and their positioning, the importance of large trans-national utilities in relation to technological changes. The third link is the market and the changes of the market between production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electricity, and the consequences of these changes. Two horizontal regulating sectional views are analysed: The European Union regulations of the electric power sector and the Danish regulations of power supplies. Finally, production and competition of electric power from renewable energy sources, i.e. wind power, in a future European energy market is put into perspective. (LN) 134 refs

  20. ''FASTBUS'': status of development of a standard high speed data acquisition bus for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    1977-11-01

    In late 1975 the US NIM Committee initiated a study group, known as the Advanced System Study Group, to review the future data acquisition modular interface requirements for high-energy physics. The final report of this group recommended the development of a new standard system, now known as ''FASTBUS,'' which would have as principal features improved speed by a factor of 10 over CAMAC, more generalized architecture to accommodate distributed parallel processing and fast preprocessing, special scan modes of particular use in high-energy particle detection systems, and standardized bus structures and mechanics. A brief summary of current activity is given. 7 figures, 3 tables

  1. Shark scavenging behavior in the presence of competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon P. GERRY, Andrea J. SCOTT

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of organisms within a community can often be determined by the degree of plasticity or degree of specialization of resource acquisition. Resource acquisition is often based on the morphology of an organism, behavior, or a combination of both. Performance tests of feeding can identify the possible interactions that allow one species to better exploit a prey item. Scavenging behaviors in the presence or absence of a competitor were investigated by quantifying prey selection in a trophic generalist, spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias, and a trophic specialist, smooth-hounds Mustelus canis, in order to determine if each shark scavenged according to its jaw morphology. The diet of dogfish consists of small fishes, squid, ctenophores, and bivalves; they are expected to be nonselective predators. Smooth-hounds primarily feed on crustaceans; therefore, they are predicted to select crabs over other prey types. Prey selection was quantified by ranking each prey item according to the order it was consumed. Dietary shifts were analyzed by comparing the percentage of each prey item selected during solitary versus competitive scavenging. When scavenging alone, dogfish prefer herring and squid, which are easily handled by the cutting dentition of dogfish. Dogfish shift their diet to include a greater number of prey types when scavenging with a competitor. Smooth-hounds scavenge on squid, herring, and shrimp when alone, but increase the number of crabs in the diet when scavenging competitively. Competition causes smooth-hounds to scavenge according to their jaw morphology and locomotor abilities, which enables them to feed on a specialized resource [Current Zoology 56 (1: 100–108 2010].

  2. Conceptual Principles for Developing and Regulating the Energy Policy of Ukraine at a Competitive Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Oleksandr V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the current trends of regulatory policy in the global energy market and identifying potent ways for energy efficiency growth in terms of the Ukrainian economy. An analysis of the main trends of energy policy development in the world has been carried out and a priority direction for the development of Ukrainian energy on the basis of the biofuel industry has been determined. The article substantiates actuality of the matter that one of the main directions of overcoming the energy crisis in Ukraine, along with ensuring recovery and sustainable growth of the gross domestic product, is transition to the industrial use of biofuels. The process of production and consumption of biofuels must be seen as a means to raise the level of decentralization, while ensuring energy sources. It is determined that the State must provide information support for producers of biofuels, defining their market range and encouraging beneficial business partners. Increased production of biofuels in Ukraine will serve as a fundamental factor in achieving international competitiveness of the national economy, as well as its growth on innovation basis.

  3. Wood-energy market impact on competition, procurement practices, and profitability of landowners and forest products industry in the U.S. south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, Joseph L. IV.; Bolding, M. Chad; Smith, Robert L.; Aust, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Recent emphasis on producing energy from woody biomass has raised questions about the impact of a wood-energy market on the U.S. South's wood supply chain. We surveyed wood-energy facilities, fibermills, sawmills, private landowners, and government landholders to investigate the expected impact of a vibrant wood-energy market on the southern wood supply chain. Specifically, our study was designed to document potential competition for resources, wood supply chain profitability, and landowner willingness to sell timber to energy facilities. Results indicate that wood-energy facilities and traditional mills were not competing for raw material on a large scale at the time of the study, but competition is expected over the next decade. Almost 90% of fibermills reported that traditional forest industry mills should enter the wood-energy market, but most were skeptical that the new market would improve profitability. Ninety percent of responding landowners reported a willingness to sell to energy facilities if the right price is offered and all of those who had already sold timber to an energy facility were satisfied with the experience. Only 3.5% of respondents were unwilling to sell timber to an energy company, and only one of these respondents listed timber production as a primary objective, which indicates those who would not harvest timber for energy, may be unlikely to harvest timber for other purposes also. This study suggests that the southern wood supply chain is in position to profit from a wood-energy market; however, concerns remain about the coexistence of the forest products and wood-energy industries. (author)

  4. Will nuclear power be a competitive energy source in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, U.; Staender, K.

    1995-01-01

    In order to safeguard the competitiveness of European manufacturers in the world market, a Franco-German project for the development of a PWR, the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR), has been established in 1992, including activities for harmonization of reactor safety strategies and criteria on a European level, and standardization of existing nuclear engineering guides and codes. The project task to be achieved in the two years ahead is to prove that the new reactor design will meet the licensing requirements of both countries, and will be a successful, competitive system. The two project partners agreed to define the economic efficiency of the new reactor design to be proven as soon as evidence is given that operation of the EPR plant in the medium load range is competitive with the operation of a new, imported coal-fired conventional power plant. A basic, design-based economic efficiency analysis is given showing that the required competitiveness is achieved beyond 5.500 operating hours at full load. Sensitivity analyses of the power generation costs reveal that the system's competitiveness may be jeopardized by conceivably least favourable, specific costs of plant operation, fuel, or maintenance in particular. (orig./HP) [de

  5. A new protocol of dual energy acquisition on stress 201Tl and rest 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Masakazu; Matsuo, Takeshi; Imamura, Takurou; Koiwaya, Yasushi; Eto, Tanenao; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Jinnouchi, Seishi

    2001-01-01

    We carried out stress 201 Tl (Tl) and rest 99m Tc-tetrofosmin (TF) myocardial scintigraphy with dual energy acquisition in 24 patients with suspected ischemic heart disease performed coronary arteriography and elucidated the sensitivity of this method. One hour after light meal eating, TF (555 MBq) was injected intravenously at rest and after 3 minutes from injection of TF exercise or pharmacologic stress was performed. During stress Tl (111 MBq) was injected intravenously before end-point or at adequate point of pharmacologic stress. Dual energy acquisition using triple energy windows (TEW) was started after 5 minutes (early) and 4 hours (delayed) from stress. The sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp) and accuracy (Ac) in diagnosis of non-infarcted branches by using Tl (early)-TF (rest) and Tl (early)-Tl (delayed) were 79% vs. 53% (Sn), 78% vs. 96% (Sp) and 79% vs. 71% (Ac) respectively. Accordance of uptake score of infarcted region between TF (rest) and Tl (delayed) was 70%. In conclusion, this protocol is seemed to be useful as usual protocol for detection of myocardial ischemia and viability during about only 1 hour. (author)

  6. Förster resonance energy transfer demonstrates a flavonoid metabolon in living plant cells that displays competitive interactions between enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosby, K.C.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Gadella (jr.), T.W.J.; Winkel, B.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We have used Förster resonance energy transfer detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM-FRET) to provide the first evidence from living plants cells for the existence of a flavonoid metabolon. The distribution of flux within this system may be regulated by the direct competition of

  7. [The significance of student competitions for the development of motivation for education and the acquisition of professional competences in the students the Department of Forensic Medical Expertise of the Sechenovsky University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Lomakin, Yu V; Leonova, E N

    2018-01-01

    Russia joined the Bologna process in 2003 and since that time has become integrated into the unified European educational space. The key element of the new form of the higher education process is the self-guided unsupervised work of the students. Motivation is needed to promote the involvement of the students in the educational process which implies the necessity of the goal-oriented initiative for the acquisition of professional knowledge and practical experience in the field of forensic medicine. To achieve this goal, the Department of Forensic Medicine of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University places special emphasis on the experience with carrying out student competitions. Each such competition consists of several contests focused on the solution of a specific problem, e.g. the inspection of the place of occurrence under investigation with a gunshot or punctured-and-incised wound, forensic medical autopsy, problem studies, and intelligence tests. All the contests and problem studies are held in the form of an interactive game. The experience gained in the course of the student competitions gives practical evidence that the interdepartmental intelligence contests contribute to raising the interest of students in forensic medicine. The open competition provides a highly efficient tool for the popularization of scientific knowledge and the promotion of interest in the participation in the forensic medical research activities. Moreover, the student competitions facilitate formation of the earlier professional skills indispensable for team working and the development of abilities for making decisions under the extreme conditions. In addition, the contests teach the participants the art of public appearance. They improve the quality of vocational training in forensic medicine and help to establish the first professional contacts at the interinstitutional (including international) level.

  8. Alberta's electricity policy framework : competitive, reliable, sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper described public policies in Alberta that are implemented to create an electric power industry that is competitive, reliable and sustainable. The success of Alberta's competitive electric market framework can be attributed to new investment in the industry along with new players participating in the electricity market. The Alberta Department of Energy is committed to a competitive wholesale market model and to competitively-priced electricity. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board supports the development of Alberta's vast resource base and facilitates power generation development and support through transmission development and an interconnected transmission system. A wholesale market Policy Task Force was established in 2005 to review the progress in Alberta's electric market design and its competitive retail market. This paper outlines a policy framework which addresses design of the regulated rate option post July 1, 2006; short-term adequacy; and long-term adequacy. Other inter-related market issues were also discussed, such as operating reserves market, transmission services, interties, demand response, balancing pool assets, credit, market power mitigation, and wind generation. It is expected that the recommendations in this paper will be implemented as quickly as possible following amendments to regulations or ISO rules. tabs., figs.

  9. Implications of mergers and acquisitions in gas and electric markets: The role of yardstick competition in merger analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    There has been no shortage of proposed and consummated mergers of regulated utilities in the electric, natural gas, and telecommunication industries over the last decade. For example, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association states that there have been thirty electric utility mergers since 1992 and dozens of so-called convergence mergers between electric and gas utilities during that period. Yardstick competition or the competition that occurs when the regulator can compare the relative performances of utilities it regulates with other utilities it regulates or with neighboring utilities in other jurisdictions, places pressure on the regulated utilities to perform better for fear of coming up short in the comparison process. There are three important questions regulators may ask about the importance of yardstick competition as regulatory tool and the weight regulators should give to diminution of yardstick competition in the merger context. First, does it make that much difference? In the electric industry, for example, distribution costs typically comprise less than ten percent of the delivered price of electricity. Second, to preserve theoretical yardstick competition, are regulators then going to block mergers that bring other efficiencies? And finally, are there sound tools at the regulators' disposal should they be inclined to take yardstick competition seriously as a factor in regulation of utilities?

  10. Implications of mergers and acquisitions in gas and electric markets: The role of yardstick competition in merger analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, H.L.

    1999-06-30

    There has been no shortage of proposed and consummated mergers of regulated utilities in the electric, natural gas, and telecommunication industries over the last decade. For example, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association states that there have been thirty electric utility mergers since 1992 and dozens of so-called convergence mergers between electric and gas utilities during that period. Yardstick competition or the competition that occurs when the regulator can compare the relative performances of utilities it regulates with other utilities it regulates or with neighboring utilities in other jurisdictions, places pressure on the regulated utilities to perform better for fear of coming up short in the comparison process. There are three important questions regulators may ask about the importance of yardstick competition as regulatory tool and the weight regulators should give to diminution of yardstick competition in the merger context. First, does it make that much difference? In the electric industry, for example, distribution costs typically comprise less than ten percent of the delivered price of electricity. Second, to preserve theoretical yardstick competition, are regulators then going to block mergers that bring other efficiencies? And finally, are there sound tools at the regulators' disposal should they be inclined to take yardstick competition seriously as a factor in regulation of utilities?

  11. Competition in California: questions remain about the impact of deregulation on renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    After little more than a year of client choice in California's electricity market, it is still uncertain whether competition can create anything more than a niche market for the state's renewable energy industry. As of the end of May, only about 1.35% of California's eligible clients had switched their electricity provider. More than 92,000 of those switches were residential, representing roughly 1% of the state's households. While the total number of switches is small, an estimated 50% of all small clients who have switched have chosen renewables. Deregulation came with a $540 million fund to bolster renewable technologies. About 30% of that, or $162 million, is being used to subsidize 55 new wind, geothermal, landfill gas, biomass and small hydro projects totalling more than 500 MW, expected to come on stream over the next four years. The new competitive turn could have an impact on the kind of technologies that become the preferred providers over the long term. California's deregulation has been criticized as confusing and poorly constructed, leaving small clients with little incentive to change. A higher than expected demand for green power among commercial clients is one of the positive surprises of the California market. Twenty one percent of green power demand came from small commercial, industrial and agricultural clients

  12. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, H. van; Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels. (author)

  13. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, Harro van; Biermann, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels

  14. More competition: Threat or chance for financing renewable electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Sandor; Jaeger-Waldau, Arnulf

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines how increased competition in electricity markets may reshape the future electricity generation portfolio and its potential impact on the renewable energy (RE) within the energy mix. The present analysis, which is based on modelling investor behaviour with a time horizon up to 2030, considers the economic aspects and conditions for this development with a particular focus on the photovoltaics. These aspects include pure financial/investment factors, such as the expected returns in the sector, subsidisation of certain RE resources and other policies focusing on the energy sector (liberalisation, environmental policies and security of supply considerations). The results suggest that policies aiming at the expansion of renewable energy technologies and strengthening the competition in the electricity markets have mutually reinforcing effects. More competition can reduce the financial burden of the existing renewable support schemes and consequently help to achieve the already established RE targets. (author)

  15. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988: Annual report of the metals initiative for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This annual report has been prepared for the President and Congress describing the activities carried out under the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988, commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative. The Act has the following purposes: (1) increase energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of the American steel, aluminum, and copper industries; and (2) continue research and development efforts begun under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. These activities are detailed in a subsequent section. Other sections describe the appropriation history, the distribution of funds through fiscal year 1996, and the estimated funds necessary to continue projects through fiscal year 1997. The Metals Initiative supported four research and development projects with the U.S. Steel industry: (1) steel plant waste oxide recycling and resource recovery by smelting, (2) electrochemical dezincing of steel scrap, (3) rapid analysis of molten metals using laser-produced plasmas, and (4) advanced process control. There are three Metals Initiative projects with the aluminum industry: (1) evaluation of TiB2-G cathode components, (2) energy efficient pressure calciner, and (3) spray forming of aluminum. 1 tab.

  16. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988: Annual report of the metals initiative for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This annual report has been prepared for the President and Congress describing the activities carried out under the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988, commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative. The Act has the following purposes: (1) increase energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of the American steel, aluminum, and copper industries; and (2) continue research and development efforts begun under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. These activities are detailed in a subsequent section. Other sections describe the appropriation history, the distribution of funds through fiscal year 1996, and the estimated funds necessary to continue projects through fiscal year 1997. The Metals Initiative supported four research and development projects with the U.S. Steel industry: (1) steel plant waste oxide recycling and resource recovery by smelting, (2) electrochemical dezincing of steel scrap, (3) rapid analysis of molten metals using laser-produced plasmas, and (4) advanced process control. There are three Metals Initiative projects with the aluminum industry: (1) evaluation of TiB2-G cathode components, (2) energy efficient pressure calciner, and (3) spray forming of aluminum. 1 tab

  17. Oil and gas competition in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrie, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in Western Europe, the competition between oil and gas began on a large scale during the 1960s. Indeed, natural gas accounted for only 2 percent of Western Europe's energy consumption in 1960 and for already 7 percent in 1970. It now accounts for about 17 percent. Almost all of this increase took place at the detriment of oil products. The competition between those two energy sources has resulted in the development of natural gas supply on one hand, and in several political and economic factors on the other

  18. More competition, less staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Staffing at US nuclear plants has been sharply reduced in recent years, as nuclear plants strive for aggressive cost reduction in a deregulating energy market. These steps have proved necessary to make nuclear plant production competitive with alternative sources. (author)

  19. Untying the Energy Knot of Supply Security, Climate Change, Economic Competitiveness: The Role of Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulteel, Paul; Capros, Pantelis

    2007-07-01

    In energy terms, the following decades will be dominated by the challenge of developing a low-carbon, energy-secure and competitive economy. EURELECTRIC launched a study, horizon 2030-2050, to develop a qualified vision about the role of electricity in responding to these challenges. The resulting message is a positive one: with the right policies that include a long-term visibility of carbon pricing to allow integration of climate change impacts in investments and business strategies, it is possible to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions without unreasonable costs to the economy, and at the same time to reduce oil and gas dependency. A focus on demand side energy-efficiency is a prerequisite. The development of renewables, of clean fossil fuel technology with carbon capture and storage, and of nuclear energy can make a low-carbon and largely oil-independent power generation mix a reality. This allows for formidable synergies with energy-efficient electro-technologies at the demand side. Two sectors are especially meaningful in this respect: the heating and cooling and road transport sectors, where heat pumps and plug-in hybrid cars respectively can make energy-efficient, oil-independent and low-carbon homes and cars a reality. Although the analysis is based on European conditions, the authors believe that it has worldwide relevance. (auth)

  20. Energy Production from Biogas: Competitiveness and Support Instruments in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klāvs, G.; Kundziņa, A.; Kudrenickis, I.

    2016-10-01

    Use of renewable energy sources (RES) might be one of the key factors for the triple win-win: improving energy supply security, promoting local economic development, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The authors ex-post evaluate the impact of two main support instruments applied in 2010-2014 - the investment support (IS) and the feed-in tariff (FIT) - on the economic viability of small scale (up to 2MWel) biogas unit. The results indicate that the electricity production cost in biogas utility roughly corresponds to the historical FIT regarding electricity production using RES. However, if in addition to the FIT the IS is provided, the analysis shows that the practice of combining both the above-mentioned instruments is not optimal because too high total support (overcompensation) is provided for a biogas utility developer. In a long-term perspective, the latter gives wrong signals for investments in new technologies and also creates unequal competition in the RES electricity market. To provide optimal biogas utilisation, it is necessary to consider several options. Both on-site production of electricity and upgrading to biomethane for use in a low pressure gas distribution network are simulated by the cost estimation model. The authors' estimates show that upgrading for use in a gas distribution network should be particularly considered taking into account the already existing infrastructure and technologies. This option requires lower support compared to support for electricity production in small-scale biogas utilities.

  1. Energy Production from Biogas: Competitiveness and Support Instruments in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klāvs G.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy sources (RES might be one of the key factors for the triple win-win: improving energy supply security, promoting local economic development, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The authors ex-post evaluate the impact of two main support instruments applied in 2010-2014 – the investment support (IS and the feed-in tariff (FIT – on the economic viability of small scale (up to 2MWel biogas unit. The results indicate that the electricity production cost in biogas utility roughly corresponds to the historical FIT regarding electricity production using RES. However, if in addition to the FIT the IS is provided, the analysis shows that the practice of combining both the above-mentioned instruments is not optimal because too high total support (overcompensation is provided for a biogas utility developer. In a long-term perspective, the latter gives wrong signals for investments in new technologies and also creates unequal competition in the RES electricity market. To provide optimal biogas utilisation, it is necessary to consider several options. Both on-site production of electricity and upgrading to biomethane for use in a low pressure gas distribution network are simulated by the cost estimation model. The authors’ estimates show that upgrading for use in a gas distribution network should be particularly considered taking into account the already existing infrastructure and technologies. This option requires lower support compared to support for electricity production in small-scale biogas utilities.

  2. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well......: production versus production (e.g., food vs. fuel), production versus conservation (e.g., food production vs. conservation), and built-up environment versus production or conservation (e.g., food vs. urban). Sustainability impacts that result from land-use competition are analyzed and found to differ...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts....

  3. Coordination of the EU's emissions trading, energy taxation and subsidies for energy production. Interim Report by the Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    price of an emission allowance is climbing. The current taxation structure in emissions trading somewhat increases the amount of electricity produced in cogeneration of power and heat. During the first term, emissions trading will not bring any unreasonable additional costs to operators through acquisition of emission allowances. Instead, in a slightly longer term, the development of the price of electricity will pose a considerable risk especially to the competitiveness of the energy-intensive industries. The power acquisition costs of the other sectors of economy and households may also rise notably. Energy taxation is a major source of revenue to the State. In 2002 a total of EUR 2,760 million was accrued as excise duty revenue from energy products. The return on the basic duty on fuel tax amounted to around EUR 1,990 million, the return on electricity tax to c. EUR 380 million and that on carbon dioxide tax to c. EUR 390 million. At the first stage, the Working Group has focused on studying the functioning of emissions trading and the energy taxation scheme as a whole. The prime goal was to include in the Working Group's interim report a view of the immediate needs for amending the main outlines of energy taxation because of emissions trading. Such pressures for change in the structures of energy taxation did not occur in the short term. In 2004 the Working Group will continue its work in terms of energy taxation as well. Then it will be examined in more detail as part of the set of energy policy tools. (orig.)

  4. Long-term implications of feed energy source in different genetic types of reproductive rabbit females: I. Resource acquisition and allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnau-Bonachera, Alberto; Cervera, Concha; Blas, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    To achieve functional but also productive females, we hypothesised that it is possible to modulate acquisition and allocation of animals from different genetic types by varying the main energy source of the diet. To test this hypothesis, we used 203 rabbit females belonging to three genetic types...

  5. THE STRATEGY OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BY TRANSITION TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN INTERNATIONALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HAGIU,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and the increase of the variability grade of the business environment in general, and of the international business environment especially, represented determinant elements of the awareness of strategic issues of international competitiveness of firms and of the intensifying efforts to resolve the many different aspects of it. This paper is addressed to all those interested in the interesting and important issue of competitiveness in general and of the automotive industry competitiveness in particular. We stopped to the car industry as the automotive industry in Romania is one of the industries that have a high added value and a significant share of GDP. A role no less important had the fact that in the case of the automotive industry there are clear opportunities to improve competitiveness in the international market by focusing not only on low cost segments but also pointing to other market segments. The economic crisis has made Dacia sales to exports increase considerably, but the data show that with alleviate of the economic crisis the success of Dacia will begin to decrease. So it turns out that Dacia is a crisis car, and as the crisis will end, the manufacturer must rethink its strategy if it wants to maintain or increase sales. In the present paper we stoped to the transition to alternative energy sources strategy in the functioning of automobiles as a possible way to increase the competitiveness of Romanian automotive industry because all indicates are that alternative sources are the future and we should adapt trends better sooner rather than later.

  6. THE STRATEGY OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BY TRANSITION TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN INTERNATIONALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HAGIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and the increase of the variability grade of the business environment in general, and of the international business environment especially, represented determinant elements of the awareness of strategic issues of international competitiveness of firms and of the intensifying efforts to resolve the many different aspects of it. This paper is addressed to all those interested in the interesting and important issue of competitiveness in general and of the automotive industry competitiveness in particular. We stopped to the car industry as the automotive industry in Romania is one of the industries that have a high added value and a significant share of GDP. A role no less important had the fact that in the case of the automotive industry there are clear opportunities to improve competitiveness in the international market by focusing not only on low cost segments but also pointing to other market segments. The economic crisis has made Dacia sales to exports increase considerably, but the data show that with alleviate of the economic crisis the success of Dacia will begin to decrease. So it turns out that Dacia is a crisis car, and as the crisis will end, the manufacturer must rethink its strategy if it wants to maintain or increase sales. In the present paper we stoped to the transition to alternative energy sources strategy in the functioning of automobiles as a possible way to increase the competitiveness of Romanian automotive industry because all indicates are that alternative sources are the future and we should adapt trends better sooner rather than later

  7. Competition:an inspirational marketing tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Waarts (Eric)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractCompetition is the engine behind innovation and dynamics in the marketplace. Sectors like public transport,water,energy and telecom are liberalized and deregulated by nationalandinternationalgovernmentsinordertoincreasecompetitionamongcompanies. The ultimate goals are to create

  8. Sectorial survey: energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2001-06-01

    After 3 years of quasi-stagnation, the consumption of primary energy started again in the year 2000 with a +2.1% of growth. Petroleum remains the first energy source consumed in the world, in front of coal which is closely followed by natural gas. The increase of oil prices all along the year 2000 up to the beginning of 2001 has had serious impacts on natural gas prices. In this context, the energy actors have had an offensive behaviour based on the acquisition of market shares in the areas in progress of deregulation. The historical actors of the gas back-end sector have had to face both the offensive of the oil companies on the one hand and of the electric utilities on the other hand. In this changing competition environment the 2000 financial year has been felt differently by the oil, natural gas and electric companies. This study makes a clear and detailed status of the oil, gas, coal, electricity and nuclear markets situation through the economical analysis of 8 companies of the energy sector. (J.S.)

  9. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report outlines the energy research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The report is the result of the research project Competitive policies in the Nordic Energy Research and Innovation Area (eNERGIA). The project was co-funded by Nordic Energy Research and NIFU STEP. The objective of the project was to determine possible policy interventions targeted at the development and commercial promotion of promising renewable energy production technologies in the Nordic countries. The report is based on an analysis of the framework conditions for the sector innovation systems for energy production, with a focus on research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries. We identified the key actors and institutions in all the eight countries studied. In addition, we conducted a performance assessment based on the quantitative indicators of publishing and patenting, international collaboration and funding data. Using these indicators as a basis, we conducted an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) of the Nordic sector innovation systems for energy production. This analysis identified common or diverging characteristics, challenges, framework conditions, energy-technology specialisation and, most important of all, cases of good practice in key technologies. The project included two workshops, and the results of these are also reported here. The outcomes of the workshops have been used in several parts of the project: A Nordic workshop on the environmental consequences of deployment at scale of these technologies to replace existing energy systems, with a focus on wind energy and photovoltaic energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, and second-generation bioenergy. A Nordic workshop on policy implications for Nordic Energy Research. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports

  10. Competition and confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borloo, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    After a presentation of the new situation of the energy sector with the opening of European energy markets to competition, the author recalls the role of the French government in the organisation and operation of this market: reliable information and protection of consumers, security of supplies with reasonable gas prices, sound relations and partnerships with producing and transit countries. France agrees with the diagnostic of the European Commission about the necessity to improve the operation of the domestic energy markets but differs with the projects of the Commission on the means to be implemented to ensure transparency, non-discrimination, and efficiency in the operation of these markets. (J.S.)

  11. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  12. Environmental issues and competitiveness of district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.

    1991-01-01

    The advantages of district heating systems are evaluated in competition to individual heating for the Swiss markets. The preservation of the environmental quality on the national (clean air concept) and global scale (Toronto recommendation) is formulated as constraint of the energy system. The implications of these constraints for the economic competition of district heating is evaluated. The study estimates the evolution of energy demand in the heating markets and shortly describes the technical possibilities in satisfying demand by a set of conventional heating systems, systems using renewable energy sources, energy conservation measures and district heating systems based on conventional or nuclear energy sources. The main conclusion is that small capacity nuclear district heating systems, if acceptable, could enhance the flexibility of the Swiss energy system in respect to CO 2 control. (author) 3 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  13. The competitiveness of nuclear energy in an era of liberalized markets and restrictions on greenhouse-gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.; Gulli, F.

    2008-01-01

    The debate on the benefits of nuclear energy revolves around the very competitiveness of this energy source. This article tries to show why it is not easy to answer unambiguously the question whether or not it is convenient to resort to nuclear power in a given country. After listing the factors on which the cost of electricity generation rests and discussing the range of probability of their value, the levelized cost of electricity generation from nuclear, coal and gas-fired plants is calculated using the Monte Carlo method. The results show that nuclear power is likely to be competitive, especially if policies to combat Co2 emissions will continue in the coming decades. There are, however, some margins of uncertainty, mainly related, to the one hand, to the cost of nuclear plants, that depends on the socio-institutional context, and on the other, to the fossil fuels cost, that are inherently difficult to anticipate even on average. Finally it is noted that the context of liberalized electricity markets may make it more difficult for investors to accept the risk of investing in nuclear power plants and for the community to socialize some of the costs associated with this technology. [it

  14. Data acquisition systems for high energy Physics experiments; Sistemas de adquisicion de datos en experimentos de Fisica de Particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I; Olmos, P

    1986-07-01

    We describe here the Data Acquisition Systems most frequently used in High Energy Physics experiments. This report begins with a brief description of the main elements of a typical signal processing chain, following with a detailed exposition of the four most popular instrumentation standards used in this kind of experimental: NIM, CAMAC, FASTBUS and VME. (Author) 9 refs.

  15. Analyzing the Impacts of Implementation of Human Resource Information System in Mergers and Acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN; YIWEN

    2016-01-01

    Mergers&Acquisitions(M&A)have become very popular throughout the world in the recent years,due to globalization,liberalization,technological developments and intensely competitive business environment.Inchoately,it suggests that strategic or financial terms are the main issues result in the failure of M&A.In this paper,it analyses the challenges of mergers and acquisitions and the implementation of HRIS from the perspective of timing,data entry,staff training,and security.Through the analysis,it is clear how to make sure the post-merger organization development successfully.

  16. Article 27 of Competition Law and What Lies Beneath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdana A. Saputro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss about Article 27 of Law No. 5 Year 1999 on the Restriction of Monopoly Practices and Unfair Business Practices (“Competition Law”. One may wonder the rigorousness to the application of Article 27 which arguably could ban any merger which meets market test without conducting any competitive assessment. For this, the law has been presumed that the acquisition or controlling of large market share from merger is per se illegality. Further, the effects of Article 27 would be discussed in this paper. A merger review itself is not an easy task and tends to bring complex issues that one needs to be dealt with. Things get more complicated when one deals with the merger application in developing countries since there are various aspects that need to be taken account by the respective antitrust authority (including Indonesia Obviously, every country needs to set up its competition law in accordance with its own economic characteristics and conditions. Many have argued as to point out the severe condition in market as a result of high concentration of competition. But more of them argued otherwise, as it could positively pushed on the market. This article would also include best practices from US and EU competition law practices regarding the issue at hand, as well as the relationship of merger control and practices in developing countries. The article offers suggestion with regard to the current approach to Article 27 of the Competition Law and from EU and US best practice which could be used for the benefit of Indonesia’s competition law especially to the application of Article 27.

  17. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  18. Costs and competitiveness of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.; Woite, G.

    1995-01-01

    The experienced and projected future construction costs and electricity generation costs of nuclear and fossil fired power plants are reviewed and compared. On the basis of actual operating experience, nuclear power has been demonstrated to be economically competitive with other base load generation options, and international studies project that this economic competitiveness will be largely maintained in the future, over a range of conditions and in a number of countries. However, retaining and improving this competitiveness position requires concerted efforts to ensure that nuclear plants are constructed within schedule and budget, and are operated reliably and efficiently. Relevant cost impacting factors are identified, and conclusions for successful nuclear power plant construction and operation are drawn. The desire to attain sustainable development with balanced resource use and control of the environmental and climatic impacts of energy systems could lead to renewed interest in nuclear power as an energy source that does not emit greenhouse gases, thus contributing to a revival of the nuclear option. In this regard also, mitigation of emissions from fossil fuelled power plants could lead to restrictions of fossil fuel use and/or result in higher costs of fossil based generation, thus improving the economic competitiveness of nuclear power. (author). 19 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Bioenergy, its present and future competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Erik

    1999-01-01

    The thesis deals with aspects of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The central aim is to develop a number of concepts that enables an extended analysis. The thesis is composed of four studies. In study 1 and 2 the emphasis is put on two institutional frameworks within the forest company, i.e. the framework around the forest fuel operations and the framework around the industrial timber operations. Depending on which of the two institutional frameworks that makes up the basis for the understanding of forest fuel operations, the forest fuel operations will be given different roles and different priorities. Different goals and the process of integrating the forest fuel operations into the forest company will therefore be carried out with different means, different feelings and different resources. Study 3 examines the conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold. The study presents the concept of logic, which is an institutionalised conception of the competitiveness of bioenergy. Logics can be seen as the dominating conceptions within the energy system and are decisive in determining the factors and parameters that state the competitiveness of different forms of energy. Study 4 argues that the strategical work concerning the competitiveness of bioenergy in the long-run to a great extent is about understanding, shaping and utilising the conceptions that affect the bioenergy system. The study problematises strategies that are used to develop bioenergy by introducing the uncertainty of the future into the analysis. The uncertainty of the future is captured in different scenarios

  20. Trait-abundance relation in response to nutrient addition in a Tibetan alpine meadow: The importance of species trade-off in resource conservation and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiying; Li, Ying; Ren, Fei; Lin, Li; Zhu, Wenyan; He, Jin-Sheng; Niu, Kechang

    2017-12-01

    In competition-dominated communities, traits promoting resource conservation and competitive ability are expected to have an important influence on species relative abundance (SRA). Yet, few studies have tested the trait-abundance relations in the line of species trade-off in resource conservation versus acquisition, indicating by multiple traits coordination. We measured SRA and key functional traits involving leaf economic spectrum (SLA, specific leaf area; LDMC, leaf dry matter content; LCC, leaf carbon concentration; LNC, leaf nitrogen concentration; LPC, leaf phosphorus concentration; Hs, mature height) for ten common species in all plots subjected to addition of nitrogen fertilizer (N), phosphorus fertilizer (P), or both of them (NP) in a Tibetan alpine meadow. We test whether SRA is positively related with traits promoting plant resource conservation, while negatively correlated with traits promoting plant growth and resource acquisition. We found that species were primarily differentiated along a trade-off axis involving traits promoting nutrient acquisition and fast growth (e.g., LPC and SLA) versus traits promoting resource conservation and competition ability (e.g., large LDMC). We further found that SRA was positively correlated with plant height, LDMC, and LCC, but negatively associated with SLA and leaf nutrient concentration irrespective of fertilization. A stronger positive height-SRA was found in NP-fertilized plots than in other plots, while negative correlations between SRA and SLA and LPC were found in N or P fertilized plots. The results indicate that species trade-off in nutrient acquisition and resource conservation was a key driver of SRA in competition-dominated communities following fertilization, with the linkage between SRA and traits depending on plant competition for specific soil nutrient and/or light availability. The results highlight the importance of competitive exclusion in plant community assembly following fertilization and

  1. Concentration and Competition in Turkish Banking Industry: The Evidence from 2000 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Kuzucu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry worldwide has been transformed due to globalization, financial liberalization, technological developments, government policies, deregulation of financial services, financial crises and increase in mergers and acquisitions since 1980. With these changes, there is a trend towards decrease in the number of banks and increase in banking concentration. Increase in banking concentration might affect competition conditions in banking industry. The decrease in the number of banks and the increase in banking concentration dominate the Turkish banking industry after the banking crises in 2000 and 2001. This paper examines the relationship between concentration and competition in Turkish banking industry. I measure the size of banking concentration by concentration ratios and Herfindahl-Hirschman index with the data of commercial deposit banks in Turkey from 2000 to 2012. Competition degree is measured by using Panzar Rosse model. The results of the study suggest that there is no permanent relation between banking concentration and competition in Turkish banks.

  2. Regulation and competition issues in Thai electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisuttisak, Pornchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the issues related to regulatory reform and liberalisation leading toward competition in the Thai electricity sector, which is still under the monopoly control of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Following an overview of the current market structure of the Thai electricity sector, the process of liberalisation and deregulation that contributes to the uncompetitive market structure under SOEs’ control is examined. The author asserts that there are problems within the Energy Commission and the Energy Industry Act BE 2550 (2007) that contribute to the continuance of an uncompetitive electricity supply. Possible reforms to the Thai electricity regulation are proposed with the aim of creating market competition and efficiency in the Thai electricity sector. - Highlights: ► Author studies on the regulatory reform and a development of liberalisation plans on Thai electricity sector. ► The paper presents that the liberalisation plan was affected by the government implementation on electricity corporatisation. ► The paper asserts that the current energy regulation will not lead to market reform and competition in electricity. ► The paper also discusses on the current monopoly structure of Thai electricity sector under state owned enterprises. ► The paper concludes that Thailand needs an appropriate regulatory reform for building competition in electricity sector.

  3. LEGS data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVine, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The data acquisition facility for the LEGS medium energy photonuclear beam line is composed of an auxiliary crate controller (ACC) acting as a front-end processor, loosely coupled to a time-sharing host computer based on a UNIX-like environment. The ACC services all real-time demands in the CAMAC crate: it responds to LAMs generated by data acquisition modules, to keyboard commands, and it refreshes the graphics display at frequent intervals. The host processor is needed only for printing histograms and recording event buffers on magnetic tape. The host also provides the environment for software development. The CAMAC crate is interfaced by a VERSAbus CAMAC branch driver

  4. Defense Acquisition Policy and Defense Industrial Base Reinforcement Strategy - Enhancing the International Competitiveness of the Korean National Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Dae O

    2008-01-01

    ...) through competitiveness analysis is required. Thus, it is necessary to develop appropriate models for analyzing the Korean NDI and to conduct competitiveness analysis by using the developed model...

  5. Competition between electronic energy transfer and relaxation in Xe doped Ar and Ne matrices studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwentner, N.; Koch, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    Thin films of solid Ar and Ne doped with 1% Xe were excited with photons in the energy range from 10 eV to 20 eV in order to measure the energy distribution of the emitted electrons. Binding energies of th host and guest levels are deduced. When host excitons are excited, strong emission of electrons is observed indicating an efficient transfer of the host exciton energy to the Xe guest atoms. The energy of the free excitons is transferred, as can be deduced from the kinetic energy of the photoemitted electrons, rather than the energy of the bound (self-trapped) excitons which are observed in luminescence experiments. Furthermore, there is a striking difference between the Ar and the Ne matrix: In the Ne matrix a fast relaxation from the n = 2 to the n = 1 state was observed and only the energy of the n = 1 exciton is transferred even when higher excitons are excited, in contrast to Ar, where the transferred energy is higher for excitation of the n = 2 excitons than for n = 1. From these observations, time hierarchies for the competition between electronic energy transfer and relaxation are deduced. (orig.) [de

  6. 48 CFR 908.7101 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 908.7101 Section 908.7101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7101 Motor vehicles. ...

  7. Study 3: Energy, alimentation and competition for soils use: problematic and safety principles; Etude 3: energie, alimentation et concurrence d'usage des sols: problematique et principes de prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monot, C. [Solagral (France)

    2000-07-01

    For long-dated, the development of energies resulting from the biomass should aggravate the risks of soils use competition. On one hand the energy crops increase on fertile soils will limit the surfaces devoted to the alimentation and on the other hand intensive energy crops will risk to degrade the soils (erosion, pollution). The energy policies have to preserve from now onwards, the fossil energies resources, to limit the greenhouse effect and the nuclear wastes proliferation, but also to manage the soils resources to produce the bio-energies. This study tries to answer the following questions: Is there enough soils to produce the bio-energies in substitution to the fossil energies and food the humanity? Which is the policy that will participate to a good soils management, in order to preserve the alimentary potential? (A.L.B.)

  8. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... competitiveness of U.S. wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydropower, waste-to-energy, smart grid, and energy... technologies--has been largely undeveloped. Chile's new National Energy Strategy contains six pillars: Energy efficiency; renewable energy; traditional fossil fuels; smart grid; competition in electricity distribution...

  9. NL-Netherlands: No permit required for Fox Entertainment Group’s Acquisition of Dutch Soccer Broadcasting Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, K.

    2013-01-01

    On 29 November 2012, the Raad van Bestuur (Board of Directors) of the Nederlandse Mededingingsautoriteit (Competition Authority - NMa) decided that the acquisition of Eredivisie Media & Marketing (EMM), exploiter of the Dutch premier league soccer broadcasting rights on behalf of the top league

  10. 48 CFR 909.406 - Debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Debarment. 909.406 Section 909.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 909.406 Debarment. ...

  11. Challenges of Iran's energy conversion agreements in future competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhiyah, M.H.; Kashtiban, Y.Kh.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive need for electricity and lack of enough governmental resources for the development of related infrastructures forced the Iranian Government to invite private investors and to sign Energy Conversion Agreement (ECA) in the form of build-operate-transfer (BOT) and build-operate-own (BOO) contracts with them. Accordingly, electricity purchase would be based on a guaranteed price. Changes in some laws in 2007 caused the management of the ECAs and electricity purchase based on guaranteed price to face challenges. Shortening the commercial operation period of the earlier ECAs and signing some new short-term ECAs were the steps taken by the authorities to resolve the problems. By shortening the ECAs' commercial operation period, it is likely to cause serious problems concerning the payments of the project companies, because of shortages in the government's financial resources. The findings of the present viewpoint suggest signing of new long-term contracts (20 years long) in the form of a combinational agreement for buying the produced electricity with a guaranteed price (in the first 5 years) and supplying it in the competitive power market (for the following years) would be a better way to reduce the problems

  12. A new theory of plant-microbe nutrient competition resolves inconsistencies between observations and model predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Riley, William J; Tang, Jinyun

    2017-04-01

    Terrestrial plants assimilate anthropogenic CO 2 through photosynthesis and synthesizing new tissues. However, sustaining these processes requires plants to compete with microbes for soil nutrients, which therefore calls for an appropriate understanding and modeling of nutrient competition mechanisms in Earth System Models (ESMs). Here, we survey existing plant-microbe competition theories and their implementations in ESMs. We found no consensus regarding the representation of nutrient competition and that observational and theoretical support for current implementations are weak. To reconcile this situation, we applied the Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation (ECA) theory to plant-microbe nitrogen competition in a detailed grassland 15 N tracer study and found that competition theories in current ESMs fail to capture observed patterns and the ECA prediction simplifies the complex nature of nutrient competition and quantitatively matches the 15 N observations. Since plant carbon dynamics are strongly modulated by soil nutrient acquisition, we conclude that (1) predicted nutrient limitation effects on terrestrial carbon accumulation by existing ESMs may be biased and (2) our ECA-based approach may improve predictions by mechanistically representing plant-microbe nutrient competition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression.

  14. Energy - a cluster with competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Production of energy technology is one of the world economy's growth areas, and its role in trade within the OECD has grown steadily. There are several reasons for this trend. First among these is the fact that the markets for energy technology and energy production have opened up significantly in recent years. Specialist producers investing more in R and D and providing ancillary services are also winning market share at the expense of more traditional local suppliers. Added to this, economic grown has been focused on countries that do not have their own energy technology production and are dependent on imported technology. Specialization in energy technology is still at an early stage, and only a few countries such as Finland and Japan have staked a real claim to this market. And even in the Finnish case things are happening rapidly. Energy technology accounted for only 3.5% of Finnish exports a little more than 10 years ago, while they already accounted for over 7% in 1998. The manufacturing of energy equipment in Finland embraces energy production, transmission and distribution, and energy technologies

  15. Plasticity in carbon acquisition of the heterophyllous Luronium natans: an endangered freshwater species in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Luronium natans (L.) Raf. (Floating Water-plantain) is an endangered amphibious freshwater species endemic to Europe. We examined the plasticity in carbon acquisition and photosynthesis in L. natans to assess if lack of plasticity could contribute to explain the low competitive ability...... rates of photosynthesis in water. The study did not support the hypothesis that the low competitive ability of L. natans is caused by inefficient photosynthesis or a lack of plasticity in photosynthesis. However, the somewhat low photosynthetic performance of the submerged leaves may be a contributing...

  16. [Policies encouraging price competition in the generic drug market: Lessons from the European experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    To describe alternative policies aimed at encouraging price competition in generic drug markets in countries with strict price regulation, and to present some case studies drawn from the European experience. Systematic literature review of articles and technical reports published after 1999. The shortcomings in consumer price competition observed in some European generic markets, including Spain, may be reduced through three types of public reimbursement or financing reforms: policies aimed at improving the design of current maximum reimbursement level policies; policies aimed at monitoring competitive prices in order to reimburse real acquisition cost to pharmacies; and, more radical and market-oriented policies such as competitive tendering of public drug purchases. The experience of recent reforms adopted in Germany, Belgium, Holland, Norway, and Sweden offers a useful guide for highly price-regulated European countries, such as Spain, currently characterized by limited consumer price competition and the high discounts offered to pharmacy purchases. Direct price regulation and/or the generic reference pricing systems used to reduce generic drug prices in many European countries can be successfully reformed by adopting measures more closely aimed at encouraging consumer price competition in generic drug markets. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where the United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy resources and investments can help the United States achieve or maintain a competitive advantage. The report focuses on four application areas--wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels--that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are also particularly relevant to EERE's mission. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components, all contributing to a competitiveness assessment that addresses the United States' role in future industry growth. This report was prepared by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center.

  18. The SEAD global efficiency medal competition: accelerating market transformation for efficient televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bennich, Peter [Swedish Energy Agency (Sweden); Cockburn, John [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Doi, Naoko [Institute of Energy Economics (Japan); Garg, Sandeep [United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY (United States); Garnaik, S.P. [ICF International (India); Holt, Shane [Energy and Tourism, Canberra (Australia); Walker, Mike [Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom); Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth [Natural Resources, Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency; Lising, Anna [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Pantano, Steve [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Khare, Amit [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.

  19. Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O; Heinesch, B

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation....

  20. Competition in the electric utility sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O.J.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.; Skytte, K.

    2000-01-01

    The book analyses some important problems for the liberaliaction of the electricity market in Denmark and its neighbouring countries. Will the competition and its potential for a more cost-effective electric supply be prevented by the electric companies' many possibilities to utilize market power? Can competition be combined with ambitious energy policy aims about reducing the environmental impacts of the electric supply? Does the Danish tradition for consumer ownership constitute an important supplement to the protection of the smaller consumers in a world of international competition? The intention with the book is not to take concrete position to the many topical problems in the Danish political discussion of restructurns of the electric sector, but to give a theoretical analysis to understand and analyse the development. On this basis the conclusion is, that the competition will work even in combination with ambitious environmental aims. (EHS)

  1. Comet-Narval acquisition notice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bris, J.; Sellem, R.; Artiges, J.C.; Clavelin, J.F.; Du, S.; Grave, X.; Hubert, O.; Sauvage, J.; Roussiere, B.

    2006-01-01

    The COMET cards (encoding and time marking) serve to determine the energies and the time correlations of radiations detected during a multiparameter experiment while avoiding any extra specific module like coincidence circuits or delays) to set this time correlation. For each detected radiation, the arrival time information as well as the amplitude of the detected signal, are encoded. The results of these amplitude and time coding are associated to create an event. In this way, each detector is an independent source which provides a building block of the general information obtained by all the detectors. The COMET cards are associated with a NARVAL data acquisition system. This document is the instruction booklet of the COMET-NARVAL acquisition system

  2. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  3. Liberalizaiton of Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions in Korea: Economic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Wang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Most OECD Member countries have made the main part of the world's direct investment - international mergers and acquisitions (M & A completely liberalized, on the contrary, South Korea still has several limitations to this. Investment agreement is expected to take effect in the multi-January 1999, South Korea's liberalization of the international merger and acquisition system will grow significantly. Especially with the securities and investment liberalization, hostile of M&A transactions (which is also called male-fide merger and acquiring will be liberalized. It is expected that the liberalization of international mergers and acquisitions will make foreign direct investment increase substantially. Upon the foreign superior enterprises penetration into the Korean market, there will positive effects which likely improve market competition, the domestic industrial restructuring accelerated, advanced technology and advanced management concept allows the transfer of advanced technology companies in Korea. In addition, in response to the liberalization of hostile international acquisitions, and in order to make the business more efficient and reasonable way to gain a firm foothold, we should develop ideal model for company controlling that takes into account the specifics of Korea as the country in whole and economy apart.

  4. The future of the ''intelligent Energy for Europe'' programme stakeholders consultation on the framework programme for competitiveness and innovation (CIP) Energie-Cites Opinion; L'Avenir du Programme ''Energie Intelligente Europe'' consultation des acteurs sur le programme pour la competitivite et l nnovation Avis d nergie-Cites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    The European Commission has launched a Consultation relative to the integration of support programmes to energy efficiency (EIE Programme) in the Competitiveness and Innovative Programme (CIP), this one being integrated in the Lisbon process. This consultation offers the opportunity to Energie-Cites to define its opinion on the relationships between Sustainable energy, Competitiveness and Innovation. - If Europe is to become the most competitive and innovative region in the world, it must consider this objective from the angle of sustainable growth, that is, by promoting the efficient use of fossil resources and by controlling the effluents and waste that are generated by the transformation of energy. What is at stake for Europe is its capacity to propose an energy model (consumption and production) that can be reproducible in the rest of the world. In other hands, the integration of energy efficiency and renewable energy support programmes into a broader scheme (CIP) covering very different areas, with no links between them and with no clear information regarding both the financial amounts and sources involved, entails a major risk, that of reducing, or even suppressing support at a time when we need it most. From the current understanding of the situation, Energie-Cites is not favourable to such integration. (A.L.B.)

  5. Competition and the hydrogen market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues of competition in the hydrogen market. The major drivers for the hydrogen-based economy are industrial growth, environmental and health benefits from improved air quality and reduced greenhouse gases as well as diversification of energy supply and security

  6. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  7. University of Calgary students in 2011 solar home competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This article described a solar home designed by University of Calgary students for the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition hosted by the United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The home features an Aboriginal design that will produces at least as much energy as it consumes. Designed as a collaborative project between First Nations, industry, and the University of Calgary, the entry will compete against teams from throughout the world. The entry will be judged in several categories, including architecture, engineering, affordability, and market appeal. In 2009, students from the university collaborated with other Canadian educational facilities to place sixth overall in the competition. 1 fig.

  8. Electric power's new competitive marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornick, R.; Zeppieri, J.; Rudden, K.

    1993-01-01

    Currently, competition is limited primarily to power generation, the sale of wholesale bulk power, and fuel substitution at the point of end use. However, within the next several years, the rivalry will focus on large, energy-intensive industrial and large commercial customers. Driven by the disparity in rates among neighboring and regional utilities, large users are expected to lobby aggressively for retail wheeling and access to new supplies. New competitors will provide customers with additional supply options, forcing traditional utilities to offer better prices and or service. Competition at the point of end use also will increase as the natural gas industry develops new end-use technologies, gas utilities compete more aggressively, and some state regulatory commissions promote fuel switching as part of integrated resource planning (IRP) and demand-side management (DSM). However, as long as electric utilities are subject to cost-based rate of return regulation within price-sensitive markets, they will be a competitive disadvantage. The paper discusses the following: competitive risks by market segment, wholesale markets, industrial markets, commercial markets, residential markets, and franchise markets

  9. A Study on Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions and Their Implications to Market Contestability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Wang

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate the industry and market to transfer from old to new one, we should activate enterprise's going in and out of the market. Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A is an important method for their going in & out to be more flexible and for the whole market to improve its competitiveness. But if the purpose of M&A is to exclude competitiveness, we have to work out some control measures from the prospect of competition policy in order to make sure the M&A does not stand in the way of the competitiveness of the whole market. On the other side, it is predictable that after the financial crisis, multi-national M&A will not only be the channel for foreign investment preparation, but also will help transfer the monopolistic and closed market structure in Korea to be an more competitive and open one, thus make positive effects to the Korean market. Especially in terms of International market competitiveness, it is expected that the liberalization of multi-national M&A is more and more important as the motive power for leading world's economy to unite together.

  10. Triggering and data acquisition general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Joel N.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a general introduction to trigger and data acquisition systems in High Energy Physics. We emphasize the new possibilities and new approaches that have been made possible by developments in computer technology and networking

  11. Evolution Of The Operational Energy Strategy And Its Consideration In The Defense Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Figure 12. PPBE Process Flowchart . Source: AcqNotes (2016). We comment above that once a program manager has completed his major Defense...acquisition system: 1) acquisition, 2) requirements and 3) planning, programming , budgeting, and execution (PPBE). We looked at the evolution of...to gain traction or improve promulgation of key guidance and documentation for new-starts and/or upgrades to weapon system acquisition programs

  12. The Role of Overconfidence in Romantic Desirability and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean C; von Hippel, William; Dubbs, Shelli L; Angilletta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S; Trivers, Robert; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2015-08-01

    Four studies and a computer simulation tested the hypothesis that people who are overconfident in their self-assessments may be more successful in attracting mates. In Study 1, overconfident people were perceived as more confident in their dating profiles, and this perceived confidence predicted increased romantic desirability. Study 2 revealed that overconfident people also tend to be perceived as arrogant, which counteracts the positive effects of perceived confidence. However, Study 3 revealed that overconfidence might confer an advantage in intrasexual competition, as people were less likely to compete with overconfident individuals by virtue of their perceived confidence and arrogance. Study 4 showed that overconfident raters were also more likely to choose to compete for romantic partners. In Study 5, agent-based modeling incorporating the coefficients from these studies suggested that overconfidence facilitates mate acquisition in the presence of intrasexual competition. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Competition for nitrogen between European beech and sycamore maple shifts in favour of beech with decreasing light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Judy; Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Plant species use different strategies for maximizing growth and fitness under changing environmental conditions. At the ecosystem level, seedlings in particular compete with other vegetation components for light and nitrogen (N), which often constitute growth-limiting resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of light availability on the competition for N between seedlings of European beech and sycamore maple and analysed the consequences of this competition for the composition of N metabolites in fine roots. Our results show different strategies in N acquisition between beech and sycamore maple. Both species responded to reduced light availability by adapting their morphological and physiological traits with a decrease in biomass and net assimilation rate and an increase in specific leaf area and leaf area ratio. For beech seedlings, competition with sycamore maple led to a reduction in organic N uptake capacity. Reduced light availability led to a decrease in ammonium, but an increase in glutamine-N uptake capacity in sycamore maple. However, this response was stronger compared with that of beech and was accompanied by reduced growth. Thus, our results suggest better adaptation of N acquisition to reduced light availability in beech compared with sycamore maple seedlings.

  14. Regulation and competition in United Kingdom electricity and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, F.

    1992-01-01

    Focussing on the role of regulation in developing competition, this paper reviews the development of a regulation system to monitor and control prices, as well as, quality of service, in the UK's recently privatized electricity and gas industries. The review covers: the control mechanisms applied to the natural gas tariff and contract markets in the area of common carriage; performance monitoring and the concept of yardstick competition in the electric power industry; and the management and control, by OFFER (Office of Electricity Regulation), of the total 'pool' of generated electricity. It is noted that whereas Great Britain's particular energy supply situation permits this nation to attempt privatization/competition regulation, the energy balances of other European countries make similar attempts, for them, risky. The UK experience with privatization/competition regulation so far has shown that regulation is indispensable in guaranteeing competition, and that the incorporation of the controlling board within the framework of anti-trust legislation and the granting of full autonomy to this board has greatly favoured its effectiveness

  15. Interdependencies of acquisition, detection, and reconstruction techniques on the accuracy of iodine quantification in varying patient sizes employing dual-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Daniele; Pratts-Emanuelli, Jose J.; Mileto, Achille; Bashir, Mustafa R.; Nelson, Rendon C.; Boll, Daniel T. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Husarik, Daniela B. [University Hospital Zurich, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-03

    To assess the impact of patient habitus, acquisition parameters, detector efficiencies, and reconstruction techniques on the accuracy of iodine quantification using dual-source dual-energy CT (DECT). Two phantoms simulating small and large patients contained 20 iodine solutions mimicking vascular and parenchymal enhancement from saline isodensity to 400 HU and 30 iodine solutions simulating enhancement of the urinary collecting system from 400 to 2,000 HU. DECT acquisition (80/140 kVp and 100/140 kVp) was performed using two DECT systems equipped with standard and integrated electronics detector technologies. DECT raw datasets were reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP), and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE I/V). Accuracy for iodine quantification was significantly higher for the small compared to the large phantoms (9.2 % ± 7.5 vs. 24.3 % ± 26.1, P = 0.0001), the integrated compared to the conventional detectors (14.8 % ± 20.6 vs. 18.8 % ± 20.4, respectively; P = 0.006), and SAFIRE V compared to SAFIRE I and FBP reconstructions (15.2 % ± 18.1 vs. 16.1 % ± 17.6 and 18.9 % ± 20.4, respectively; P ≤ 0.003). A significant synergism was observed when the most effective detector and reconstruction techniques were combined with habitus-adapted dual-energy pairs. In a second-generation dual-source DECT system, the accuracy of iodine quantification can be substantially improved by an optimal choice and combination of acquisition parameters, detector, and reconstruction techniques. (orig.)

  16. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  17. Implementation of Electricity Business Competition Framework with Economic Dispatch Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Sabri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Technically, electricity business under competition structure is more complex than that of vertically integrated one. The main prolems here are how to create an applicable competition framework and to solve electric calculations very quickly to obtain an optimal energi pricing, cost of losses, congestion and transportation costs by less than 15 minutes. This paper proposes a competition framework with the electric calculations, where a bilateral contract has been accommodated. Optimal energy price in the paper is calculated based on direct method of economic dispatch to obtain the result very quickly. The proposed method has been simulated to a 4-bus system. The simulation results show that the method works well and complies with the expectation. Therefore, electric power business under competition structure can be well realized by the proposed method.

  18. The System of Public Acquisitions by Means of Electronic Bids in the Light of European Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantin Roman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce can lead in many different ways to cost reduction in case of a supplier and can subsequently increase the competition potential of a company. As for the competition mechanism, such changes produce significant modifications within a market economy. The Internet renders the possibility of creating business contacts in a rapid and geographically independent manner, as well as possibilities of obtaining data and realizing transactions within the world’s economy. Public acquisitions by means of dynamic systems and electronic bids are currently one of the significant areas of electronic commerce.

  19. Data acquisition in the EUDET project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with emphasis on issues related to data acquisition for future test beam experiments. Keywords. ... working in the field of high energy physics. In addition .... processor for gas detectors, Open Access article, Published in: IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

  20. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Seppälä

    Full Text Available Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability. We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability.

  1. Data acquisition for X ray microprobe. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A modified data acquisition software for X ray microprobe was developed by the Physics Group, Instrumentation Unit, IAEA Laboratories at Seibersdorf, with assistance from M. Bogovac, Croatia. The software consists of data acquisition (scanning and calibration), automatic positioning and micro-movement of sample, data reduction and evaluation. The acquisition software was designed in order to support different measurement set-ups which are applied in low-energy nuclear physics. The modification was done in 1999-2000 under the projects Nuclear Spectrometry and Utilization of Particle Accelerators. The manual supersedes the first version entitled Microanalysis Data Acquisition and Control Program published under Computer Manual Series, No. 9 in 1996. The software described in this manual is freely available from the IAEA upon request

  2. Data acquisition system for LHCb calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gang; Gong Guanghua; Shao Beibei

    2007-01-01

    LHCb Calorimeter system is mainly used to identify and measure the energy of the photon, electron, hadron produced by the collision of proton. TELL1 is a common data acquisition platform based on FPGA for LHCb experiment. It is used to adopt custom data acquisition and process method for every detector and provide the data standard for the CPU matrix. This paper provides a novel DAQ and data process model in VHDL for Calorimeter. According to this model. We have built an effective Calorimeter DAQ system, which would be used in LHCb Experiment. (authors)

  3. A night on the town: when the importance of mate acquisition overrides intrasexual competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buunk Abraham P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: It is argued that, while men may be intrasexually more competitive than women, to attract potential mates, men will, more than women, associate with same-sex friends who are attractive to the opposite sex. Therefore, more than women, men will choose more physically attractive and dominant companions in a mating context than in a neutral context.

  4. Competition and Cooperation of Distributed Generation and Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Masatoshi; Nanahara, Toshiya

    Advances in distributed generation technologies together with the deregulation of an electric power industry can lead to a massive introduction of distributed generation. Since most of distributed generation will be interconnected to a power system, coordination and competition between distributed generators and large-scale power sources would be a vital issue in realizing a more desirable energy system in the future. This paper analyzes competitions between electric utilities and cogenerators from the viewpoints of economic and energy efficiency based on the simulation results on an energy system including a cogeneration system. First, we examine best response correspondence of an electric utility and a cogenerator with a noncooperative game approach: we obtain a Nash equilibrium point. Secondly, we examine the optimum strategy that attains the highest social surplus and the highest energy efficiency through global optimization.

  5. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old. Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73; however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their

  6. 48 CFR 908.1104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 908.1104 Section 908.1104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Leasing of Motor Vehicles 908.1104 Contract clauses. (f...

  7. Competitivity of biofuels in heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyktman, M.

    1996-01-01

    The competitivity of indigenous fuels in heating of residential houses in comparison with imported fuels, and both electricity and district heating, has been studied in this research, ordered by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. Heating plants of residential house scale (20-1000 kW) have been investigated in the research. Only the new heating plants are included in the investigation. The heat generation calculations concerning the residential heating plants have been made for following indigenous fuels: sod peat, fuel-chips, peat and wood pellets, firewood and straw. In addition to these, the calculations have been made for light fuel-oil, electric heating, district heating and natural gas. The local energy tariffs have to be taken into account in electric heating, district heating and natural gas heating. A calculation model, based on flowsheet calculation, forms the main result of the project. By using the model it is possible to update the competitivity data rapidly. Of all the indigenous fuels, sod peat and fuel-chips appeared to be competitive with electric and district heating costs in nearly all scales investigated. The construction of the heat generation costs of solid indigenous fuels differs remarkably from those of electric and district heating. The main part of the heating costs of wood chips and sod peat is formed of fixed costs; i.e. of investment costs and of the costs of heating and control work. The energy costs are the highest costs items in electric an district heating, as well as in the oil heating. It is possible to improve the competitivity of biofuels by developing cheaper boilers and fuel processing and storage devices

  8. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems; Energia nuclear y competitividad economica en varios sistemas normativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  9. Retail competition in electricity markets. Expectations, outcomes and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In 'Retail competition in electricity markets' (Energy Policy, 37(2), February 2009, Pages 377-386) it is argued by Defeuilly that the introduction of retail competition into electricity markets gave rise to great expectations that it failed to meet, and that this was primarily the fault of Austrian economic thinking. The main purpose of this note is to explain why both of these propositions are incorrect. A few further comments challenge his subsequent suggestion that the competitive process in electricity is so constrained by the limitations of consumer decision-making and electricity technology as to cast doubt on the policy of opening the retail market to competition

  10. Social Network Mixing Patterns In Mergers & Acquisitions - A Simulation Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world of global business and continuously growing competition, organizations tend to use mergers and acquisitions to enforce their position on the market. The future organization’s design is a critical success factor in such undertakings. The field of social network analysis can enhance our uderstanding of these processes as it lets us reason about the development of networks, regardless of their origin. The analysis of mixing patterns is particularly useful as it provides an insight into how nodes in a network connect with each other. We hypothesize that organizational networks with compatible mixing patterns will be integrated more successfully. After conducting a simulation experiment, we suggest an integration model based on the analysis of network assortativity. The model can be a guideline for organizational integration, such as occurs in mergers and acquisitions.

  11. Planning competitiveness on the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennicke, P.

    1991-01-01

    The book reviews the concept of least cost planning which can be applied in all stages of energy management. It is a system-analytical concept of planning, cost optimisation, and application of investment alternatives in energy supply and energy conversion. In particular, the authors discuss inhowfar the positive results achieved in the USA with cost saving programmes based on least-cost planning can be applied to the situation of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is shown that least-cost planning could make a key contribution to operations scheduling of public utilities, in the establishment and implementation of local and regional energy concepts, and especially in the theory and practice of state supervision of the energy sector. The 14 contributions can be found as separate records in this database. (orig./HP) With 31 figs [de

  12. Greening the Department of Energy through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition. Strategic plan to implement Executive Order 13101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-11-01

    This Plan provides strategies and milestones to implement Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and to achieve the new Secretarial goals for 2005 and 2010. It serves as the principal Secretarial guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Field Offices, and laboratory and contractor staff to improve sanitary waste prevention, recycling, and the purchase and use of recycled content and environmentally preferable products and services in the DOE.

  13. 30 CFR 285.210 - How does MMS initiate the competitive leasing process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS initiate the competitive leasing... OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Process § 285.210 How does MMS initiate the competitive leasing process? The MMS may publish in the Federal Register a public notice of Request for Interest to...

  14. Carbon pricing and the competitiveness of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Marcantonini, C.

    2011-01-01

    A recent NEA study entitled Carbon Pricing, Power Markets and the Competitiveness of Nuclear Energy assesses the competitiveness of nuclear power against coal- and gas-fired power generation in liberalised electricity markets with either CO 2 trading or carbon taxes. It uses daily price data for electricity, gas, coal and carbon from 2005 to 2010, which encompasses the first years of the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), the world's foremost carbon trading framework. The study shows that even with modest carbon pricing, competition for new investment in electricity markets will take place between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power struggling to be profitable. The data and analyses contained in the study provide a robust framework for assessing cost and investment issues in liberalised electricity markets with carbon pricing, even in the post-Fukushima context. A summary of the publication main elements is provided in this paper

  15. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Adarsh

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the cannons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme

  16. 10 CFR 603.875 - Foreign access to technology and U.S. competitiveness provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign access to technology and U.S. competitiveness... Foreign access to technology and U.S. competitiveness provisions. (a) Consistent with the objective of enhancing national security and United States competitiveness by increasing the public's reliance on the...

  17. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  18. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  19. THE STRATEGIC RELEVANCE OF TECHNOLOGY-RELATED VARIABLES TO THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL - TO MEDIUM-SIZED FURNITURE MANUFACTURERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens, A. S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To survive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-plan

  20. Harvesting Transition? Energy Policy Cooperation or Competition around the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulman, L.; Boot, P.; Van der Linde, C.; De Jong, J.; Werring, L.

    2012-01-15

    The Northwest European electricity markets are increasingly becoming intertwined with the advance of the internal market. A more integrated market – through investments in cross-border transmission capacity and measures which promote the efficient use of it – implies that national fuel mix policies increasingly have cross-national implications. Not only the electricity price, but also the (physical) security of supply level and potentially the CO2 price, can be influenced by neighbouring countries' policy decisions. Moreover, large energy companies base their generation investment decisions on their European-wide portfolio, in which comparative and absolute advantages play a role. The recent German decision to phase out nuclear energy brought home the message that integration in Northwest Europe has become more than just a paper affair but is part of daily life. The long gestation period of a Belgian nuclear exit possibly has cross-border implications, too, particularly because it is highly debatable as to whether domestic replacement capacities will be ready (on time). Lack of clarity about the continuation of French policy, which has produced lowpriced nuclear generated electricity exports, has an impact on investment decisions in neighbouring countries. These few examples illustrate that the policy space of countries is increasingly overlapping due to the internal energy market. With policy spaces overlapping, the question arises as how to best harvest the benefits of coordination among the Northwest European countries and how best to avoid the cost of policy competition. The transition to a near-zero carbon emitting electricity system forty years hence potentially increases the benefits of policy coordination. Adding more variable renewable (RES) power to the system intensifies the need for back-up capacity and requires new investment in the grid. Coordination between Northwest European countries could lead to significant synergy and cost reductions

  1. Harvesting Transition? Energy Policy Cooperation or Competition around the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulman, L; Boot, P; Van der Linde, C; De Jong, J; Werring, L

    2012-01-15

    The Northwest European electricity markets are increasingly becoming intertwined with the advance of the internal market. A more integrated market – through investments in cross-border transmission capacity and measures which promote the efficient use of it – implies that national fuel mix policies increasingly have cross-national implications. Not only the electricity price, but also the (physical) security of supply level and potentially the CO2 price, can be influenced by neighbouring countries' policy decisions. Moreover, large energy companies base their generation investment decisions on their European-wide portfolio, in which comparative and absolute advantages play a role. The recent German decision to phase out nuclear energy brought home the message that integration in Northwest Europe has become more than just a paper affair but is part of daily life. The long gestation period of a Belgian nuclear exit possibly has cross-border implications, too, particularly because it is highly debatable as to whether domestic replacement capacities will be ready (on time). Lack of clarity about the continuation of French policy, which has produced lowpriced nuclear generated electricity exports, has an impact on investment decisions in neighbouring countries. These few examples illustrate that the policy space of countries is increasingly overlapping due to the internal energy market. With policy spaces overlapping, the question arises as how to best harvest the benefits of coordination among the Northwest European countries and how best to avoid the cost of policy competition. The transition to a near-zero carbon emitting electricity system forty years hence potentially increases the benefits of policy coordination. Adding more variable renewable (RES) power to the system intensifies the need for back-up capacity and requires new investment in the grid. Coordination between Northwest European countries could lead to significant synergy and cost reductions. It

  2. COMPETITIVENESS AND COMPETITIVE ORIENTATIONS: EVALUATION OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Efimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Education of a competitive student is a strategically significant problem of the system of higher education in modern social and economic conditions. Personal competitiveness and competitive orientations – priority quality of future expert for successful future professional experience.The aim of the present research is to study factors of competitive orientations formation and criteria for evaluation of competitiveness of student’s youth in the Russian society.Methodology and research methods. Results of theoretical researches of Russian and foreign researchers are generalized; secondary analysis of data based on results of sociological researches and analysis of official statistical data are carried out. The results of the sociological survey undertaken in 2017 on the basis of statistical methods were processed and studied by the instrumentality of IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program; 1196 students of institutions of higher and secondary vocational education of the Tyumen region took part.Results and scientific novelty. It is stated that senior students feel themselves more competitive. It is revealed that a quarter of students who took part in the survey, generally men, count themselves competitive. A continuous distance of goal-setting is recorded among these respondents; in every third case they have plans of professional growth for five and more years that allows them to build attractive competitive strategy.The level of the competitiveness is directly connected with such indicators as “social stratum”, “overall life satisfaction”, “self-esteem of health”, “tendency to lead a healthy lifestyle” and “the level of trust in the surrounding people”. Mostly the students oriented on competition look into the future with confidence and optimism.Respondents focused on the competitiveness were more tend to demonstrate their abilities and cause admiration, have a creative approach towards work, be ready for surprises

  3. Impurity Induced Phase Competition and Supersolidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Madhuparna; Ganesh, R.

    2017-12-01

    Several material families show competition between superconductivity and other orders. When such competition is driven by doping, it invariably involves spatial inhomogeneities which can seed competing orders. We study impurity-induced charge order in the attractive Hubbard model, a prototypical model for competition between superconductivity and charge density wave order. We show that a single impurity induces a charge-ordered texture over a length scale set by the energy cost of the competing phase. Our results are consistent with a strong-coupling field theory proposed earlier in which superconducting and charge order parameters form components of an SO(3) vector field. To discuss the effects of multiple impurities, we focus on two cases: correlated and random distributions. In the correlated case, the CDW puddles around each impurity overlap coherently leading to a "supersolid" phase with coexisting pairing and charge order. In contrast, a random distribution of impurities does not lead to coherent CDW formation. We argue that the energy lowering from coherent ordering can have a feedback effect, driving correlations between impurities. This can be understood as arising from an RKKY-like interaction, mediated by impurity textures. We discuss implications for charge order in the cuprates and doped CDW materials such as NbSe2.

  4. The integration of gas and electricity: potential effects on competition in markets; La integracion vertical de los negocios de gas y electricidad: Posibles efectos sobre la competencia en los mercados afectados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Milla, J.

    2007-07-01

    During the last years, an increasing number of gas and electricity companies have integrated their activities in both sectors. Following this trend, several Mergers and Acquisitions between gas and electricity companies have emerged, and some of them have been cross-borders operations that have given rise to multinational enterprises. This paper analyses the causes of the integration of gas and electricity activities, and examines its implications on regulation and competition policy, showing that these changes in the energy industry raise new challenges and compel to adopt new measures in that field of the economic policy. (Author) 25 refs.

  5. Energy 2020. A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Communication defines the energy priorities for the next ten years and sets the actions to be taken in order to tackle the challenges of saving energy, achieving a market with competitive prices and secure supplies, boosting technological leadership, and effectively negotiate with our international partners. On the basis of these priorities and the action presented, the Commission will come forward with concrete legislative initiatives and proposals within the next 18 months. This communication also sets the agenda for the discussion by Heads of States and Governments at the very first EU Summit on Energy on 4 February 2011.

  6. Ship Acquisition of Shipping Companies by Sale & Purchase Activities for Sustainable Growth: Exploratory Fuzzy-AHP Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Sik Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening sale and purchase (S&P capacity has become a fundamental requirement for sustainable growth and corporate competitiveness in the modern shipping market. However, there is a lack of research related to S&P and its priority when shipping companies attempt to implement ship acquisition through S&P activities. To fill this gap, this paper conducts an empirical analysis to analyze priority factors during the acquisition of second-hand ships from the perspective of shipping companies. Business criteria are considered to be the most important factors in the analysis of the priority of ship acquisition and investment in shipping companies. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first exploration covering Korean shipping companies’ ship acquisition through S&P activities. This study is expected to contribute to the better understanding of the role of S&P in ensuring the sustainability of shipping companies and to provide stakeholders with valuable insights.

  7. Economic competitiveness of windmills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapin, E E

    1977-01-01

    The conditions under which windmills become competitive with the generation of electric power from fossil fuels are examined. The influence of cost of construction, financing arrangements, and the future cost of fuels is shown. Energy storage and network arrangements for mills are considered briefly, as are alternate uses for mills, e.g., the utilization of mill output directly for heating or for the production of a fuel.

  8. Multicriteria Selection of Optimal Location of TCSC in a Competitive Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq I.

    2010-05-01

    The paper investigates selection of the best location of thyristor-controlled series compensator (TCSC) in a transmission system from many candidate locations in a competitive energy market such that the TCSC causes a net valuable impact on congestion management outcome, transmission utilization, transmission losses, voltage stability, degree of fulfillment of spot market contracts, and system security. The problem is treated as a multicriteria decision-making process such that the candidate locations of TCSC are the alternatives and the conflicting objectives are the outcomes of the dispatch process, which may have different importance weights. The paper proposes some performance indices that the dispatch decision-making entity can use to measure market dispatch outcomes of each alternative. Based on agreed-upon preferences, the measures presented may help the decision maker compare and rank dispatch scenarios to ultimately decide which location is the optimal one. To solve the multicriteria decision, we use the preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations (PROMETHEE), which is a multicriteria decision support method that can handle complex conflicting-objective decision-making processes.

  9. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  10. Which new competitive dynamics in France and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The sixth issue of the annual energy conference organized by 'Les Echos' journal was devoted to the opening of energy markets to competition, and in particular to the electric power and natural gas markets. The main question debated during this day was the dynamics created by this market opening: choice of suppliers, development of infrastructures and transportation networks, multi-energy offers, gas-electric power convergence.. (J.S.)

  11. Homogeneous competitive assay of ligand affinities based on quenching fluorescence of tyrosine/tryptophan residues in a protein via Főrster-resonance-energy-transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanling; Yang, Xiaolan; Pu, Jun; Zhao, Yunsheng; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Guoming; Zheng, Jun; Yuan, Huidong; Liao, Fei

    2010-11-01

    A new homogeneous competitive assay of ligand affinities was proposed based on quenching the fluorescence of tryptophan/tyrosine residues in a protein via Főrster-resonance-energy-transfer using a fluorescent reference ligand as the acceptor. Under excitation around 280 nm, the fluorescence of a protein or a bound acceptor was monitored upon competitive binding against a nonfluorescent candidate ligand. Chemometrics for deriving the binding ratio of the acceptor with either fluorescence signal was discussed; the dissociation constant ( Kd) of a nonfluorescent candidate ligand was calculated from its concentration to displace 50% binding of the acceptor. N-biotinyl-N'-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine (BNEDA) and N-biotinyl-N'-dansyl-ethylenediamine (BDEDA) were used as the reference ligands and acceptors to streptavidin to test this new homogeneous competitive assay. Upon binding of an acceptor to streptavidin, there were the quench of streptavidin fluorescence at 340 nm and the characteristic fluorescence at 430 nm for BNEDA or at 525 nm for BDEDA. Kd of BNEDA and BDEDA was obtained via competitive binding against biotin. By quantifying BNEDA fluorescence, Kd of each tested nonfluorescent biotin derivative was consistent with that by quantifying streptavidin fluorescence using BNEDA or BDEDA as the acceptor. The overall coefficients of variation were about 10%. Therefore, this homogeneous competitive assay was effective and promising to high-throughput-screening.

  12. Energy transition? A lever for competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institut Montaigne

    2013-01-01

    At a time when the 'energy transition' is being hotly debated by the nation, the right energy policy will he based on three pillars: supply private and business consumers at attractive prices; contain the risks associated with excessively high dependence on external sources of supply; finally reduce environmental pollution. Making these fully operative will require that all prices reflect costs at national level and that a full-fledged energy policy be put in place by the European Union over the time frame 2030-2050. (author)

  13. Economic competitiveness of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chuanwen

    2005-01-01

    Development of nuclear power in China has made a good progress. Currently, economic competitiveness of nuclear power compared to fossil-fuelled power plants is one of the major problems which hamper its development. This article presents the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in China with two-level analyses. First, levelized lifetime cost method is adopted for electricity generation cost comparisons. Important factors influencing economic competitiveness of nuclear power are described. Furthermore, a broad economic evaluation of the full fuel chain of nuclear power and fossil-fuelled plants is discussed concerning macro social-economic issues, environmental and health impacts. The comprehensive comparative assessment would be carried out for decision making to implement nuclear power programme. In consideration of external costs and carbon value, the economic competitiveness of nuclear power would be further improved. Facing swift economic growth, huge energy demand and heavy environmental burden, nuclear power could play a significant role in sustainable development in China. (authors)

  14. Behavioural Motives of Acquisition of Solar-driven Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkurupska Iryna O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies needs of the target group, namely structure of motives, which justify making a decision to buy, in order to create efficient marketing strategy of an enterprise, which sell solar-driven equipment in Ukraine. There are five segments in the domestic market of helio-systems: individual consumers, recreation industry, agrarian industry, construction and social spheres. The article allocates 15 motives of acquisition of the solar-driven equipment for these segments, the most important of which are price, availability of solar energy, alternative price and energy saving. Besides, the structure of such motives is determined for each segment individually. In order to choose specific marketing instruments in the policy of promotion of solar-driven equipment, the article identifies differences in the form of goals of use and motives of acquisition between the specified consumer segments. The article reveals certain barriers that interfere with acquisition of solar-driven equipment – low level of trust into helio-systems, conservatism of consumers, absence of free applications for consumers – overcoming which is only possible with the help of certain marketing actions.

  15. The Science of Racing against Opponents: Affordance Competition and the Regulation of Exercise Intensity in Head-to-Head Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Florentina J; Konings, Marco J; Pepping, Gert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Athlete-environment interactions are crucial factors in understanding the regulation of exercise intensity in head-to-head competitions. Previously, we have proposed a framework based on the interdependence of perception and action, which allows us to explore athletic behavior in the more complex pacing situations occurring when athletes need to respond to actions of their opponents. In the present perspective we will further explore whether opponents, crucial external factors in competitive sports, could indeed be perceived as social invitations for action. Decisions regarding how to expend energy over the race are based on internal factors such as the physiological/biomechanical capacity of the athlete in relation to external factors such as those presented by opponents. For example: Is the athlete able to overtake competitors, or not? We present several experimental studies that demonstrate that athletes regulate their exercise intensity differently in head-to-head competition compared to time-trial exercises: Relational athlete-environment aspects seem to outweigh benefits of the individual optimal energy distribution. Also, the behavior of the opponents has been shown to influence pacing strategies of competing athletes, again demonstrating the importance of relational athlete-environment aspects in addition to strictly internal factors. An ecological perspective is presented in which opponents are proposed to present social affordances, and decision-making is conceptualized as a resultant of affordance-competition. This approach will provide novel insights in tactical decision-making and pacing behavior in head-to-head competitions. Future research should not only focus on the athlete's internal state, but also try to understand opponents in the context of the social affordances they provide.

  16. Individual competitiveness within the labour market: essence and classification of its elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Sabetova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the phenomenon of competitiveness in the labor market. It is noted that this phenomenon receives considerable attention in the fields of psychology, sociology, and pedagogy, but the economic researches of it are insufficient which proves the relevance of the suggested topic. The competitiveness of any subject means its ability to resist rivalry with similar subjects within certain environment. It implies the necessity to study employee competitiveness in the labor market on the basis of rivalry research. The term ‘competition’ has various definitions and the author demonstrates that the one most suitable for the labor market is the one provided by the conduct-based approach. The author also suggests that all features of the competitiveness in general and in the labor market should be studied and interpreted taking into account the specific pair of competitiveness bearer and consumer of his product or service, in case of labor market meaning labor service. Besides, the author agrees in this article with the opinion that competitiveness of an individual comprises of the total of his abilities, competencies and motives, which brings about the possibility that the elements forming individual’s competitiveness may be applied or disused at the moment of research or within a period of any duration. Considerable part of the article is devoted to the ways and methods of competency acquisitions. All this makes the author suggest a complex, multi-bases classification of characteristics included in the idea of an employee’s competitiveness in the target segment of the labor market. It is stated, that despite the impossibility of making the complete list of qualities useful for some professional activity, their classifications in terms of sources, effort input, and period of formation; methods and areas of application; inclusion in the various personality sub-systems may be successfully applied for various research or practical

  17. Trade, Foreign Direct Investment or Acquisition: Optimal Entry Modes for Multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Theo Eicher; Jong Woo Kang

    2004-01-01

    We examine multinationals’ optimal entry modes into foreign markets as a function of market size, FDI fixed costs, tariffs and transport costs. Our results highlight why large countries are more likely to attract acquisition investment, while intermediate-sized countries may be served predominantly through trade, even in the presence of high tariffs. Small countries are most likely to experience either FDI or no entry. We also show how these results vary with the competition intensity in th...

  18. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  19. Economic requirements for competitive laser fusion power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    An economic model of a laser fusion commercial power plant is used to identify the design and operating regimes of the driver, target and reaction chamber that will result in economic competitiveness with future fission and coal plants. The authors find that, for a plant with a net power of 1 GW/sub e/, the cost of the driver must be less than $0.4 to 0.6 B, and the recirculating power fraction must be less than 25%. Target gain improvements at low driver energy are the most beneficial but also the most difficult to achieve. The optimal driver energy decreases with increasing target technology. The sensitivity of the cost of electricity to variations in cost and performance parameters decreases with increasing target technology. If chamber pulse rates of a few Hz can be achieved, then gains of 80-100 are sufficient, and higher pulse rates do not help much. Economic competitiveness becomes more difficult with decreasing plant size. Finally, decreasing the cost of the balance of plant has the greatest beneficial effect on economic competitiveness

  20. Husky Energy Inc. : 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Financial information from Husky Energy Inc. was presented in this first annual report and a review of their 2000 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Husky Energy is an integrated energy and energy-related company. With the acquisition of Renaissance Energy Ltd. in August 2000, Husky Energy became one of Canada's largest petroleum companies in terms of production and the value of its asset base. Upstream activities were focused in Western Canada, offshore Eastern Canada and in China. Sales and operating revenues in 2000 were $5,090 million, up 82 per cent from 1999. Strong commodity prices increased production volumes from new developments and acquisitions. The midstream business contributed to the profitability of the company. The acquisition of Renaissance Energy provided proved reserves of 390 million boe. The acquisition cost of reserves was about $6.50 per boe on a proved plus half-probable basis. Annual production volumes in 2000 averaged 176,800 boe per day, up considerably from 1999 due to the acquisition of the Valhalla and Wapiti properties in Western Canada. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  1. Real-time UNIX in HEP data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, S.; Gaponenko, I.; Jones, R.; Mapelli, L.; Mornacchi, G.; Prigent, D.; Sanchez-Corral, E.; Skiadelli, M.; Toppers, A.; Duval, P.Y.; Ferrato, D.; Le Van Suu, A.; Qian, Z.; Rondot, C.; Ambrosini, G.; Fumagalli, G.; Aguer, M.; Huet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Today's experimentation in high energy physics is characterized by an increasing need for sensitivity to rare phenomena and complex physics signatures, which require the use of huge and sophisticated detectors and consequently a high performance readout and data acquisition. Multi-level triggering, hierarchical data collection and an always increasing amount of processing power, distributed throughout the data acquisition layers, will impose a number of features on the software environment, especially the need for a high level of standardization. Real-time UNIX seems, today, the best solution for the platform independence, operating system interface standards and real-time features necessary for data acquisition in HEP experiments. We present the results of the evaluation, in a realistic application environment, of a Real-Time UNIX operating system: the EP/LX real-time UNIX system. ((orig.))

  2. Electric-utility DSM programs in a competitive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1994-04-01

    During the past few years, the costs and effects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs have grown sharply. In 1989, US electric utilities spent 0.5% of revenues on such programs and cut total electricity consumption by 0.6%. By 1992, these numbers had increased to 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Utility projections, as of early 1993, of DSM expenditures and energy savings for 1997 were 1.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Whether this projected growth comes to pass may depend on current debates about deregulation of, and increased competition in, the electric-utility industry. This report examines the factors likely to affect utility DSM programs in a more competitive environment. The electric-utility industry faces two forces that may conflict with each other. One is the pressure to open up both wholesale and retail markets for competition. The net effect of such competition, especially at the retail level, would have much greater emphasis on electricity prices and less emphasis on energy services. Such an outcome would force a sharp reduction in the scale of DSM programs that are funded by customers in general. The second force is increased concern about environmental quality and global warming. Because utilities are major contributors to US carbon dioxide emissions, the Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan calls on utilities to reduce such emissions. DSM programs are one key way to do that and, in the process, to cut customer electric bills and improve economic productivity. This report discusses the forms of competition and how they might affect DSM programs. It examines the important roles that state regulatory commissions could play to affect retail competition and utility DSM programs. The report also considers the effects of DSM programs on retail electricity prices.

  3. A Multi-Agent Energy Trading Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Block (Carsten); J. Collins (John); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); C. Weinhardt (Christof)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe energy sector will undergo fundamental changes over the next ten years. Prices for fossil energy resources are continuously increasing, there is an urgent need to reduce CO2 emissions, and the United States and European Union are strongly motivated to become more independent from

  4. Preparation for the competitive European electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mombauer, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy - alongside knowledge, creativity and capital - is one of the fundamental necessities of humankind. Modern life is indeed dependent on energy, especially electricity and natural gas, the grid-connected energies, for its power, heating, cooling and traffic. To ensure security in the supply of energy, world energy hunger must be taken into account. Competition for primary energy resources will increase and the processes for their transformation from raw materials into consumable energy will have to be made more efficient, environmentally friendly and sustainable. Research into new sources of energy has to continue. After the respectable results of the industrial sector to decouple growth and energy consumption in future the transport and building sectors will have to intensify their efforts to reduce energy use intensity

  5. Acquisition Path Analysis as a Collaborative Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, A.; Grundule, R.; Gushchyn, K.; El Gebaly, A.; Higgy, R.; Tsvetkov, I.; Mandl, W.

    2015-01-01

    In the International Atomic Energy Agency, acquisition path analysis (APA) is indispensable to safeguards implementation. It is an integral part of both State evaluation process and the development of State level safeguards approaches, all performed through ongoing collaborative analysis of all available safeguards relevant information by State evaluation groups (SEG) with participation of other contributors, as required. To perform comprehensive State evaluation, to develop and revise State-level safeguards approaches, and to prepare annual implementation plans, the SEG in its collaborative analysis follows accepted safeguards methodology and guidance. In particular, the guide ''Performing Acquisition Path Analysis for the Development of a State-level Safeguards Approach for a State with a CSA'' is used. This guide identifies four major steps of the APA process: 1. Consolidating information about the State's past, present and planned nuclear fuel cycle-related capabilities and infrastructure; 2. Identifying and visually presenting technically plausible acquisition paths for the State; 3. Assessing acquisition path steps (State's technical capabilities and possible actions) along the identified acquisition paths; and 4. Assessing the time needed to accomplish each identified technically plausible acquisition path for the State. The paper reports on SEG members' and other contributors' experience with APA when following the above steps, including the identification of plausible acquisition pathways, estimation of time frames for all identified steps and determination of the time needed to accomplish each acquisition path. The difficulties that the SEG encountered during the process of performing the APA are also addressed. Feedback in the form of practical suggestions for improving the clarity of the acquisition path step assessment forms and a proposal for software support are also included. (author)

  6. Physiological responses and performance in a simulated trampoline gymnastics competition in elite male gymnasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Physiological responses and performance were examined during and after a simulated trampoline competition (STC). Fifteen elite trampoline gymnasts participated, of which whereas eight completed two routines (EX1 and EX2) and a competition final (EX3). Trampoline-specific activities were...... gymnastic competition includes a high number of repeated explosive and energy demanding jumps, which impairs jump performance during and 24 h post-competition....

  7. The impact of competitive bidding on the market prospects for renewable electric technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B G

    1993-09-01

    This report examines issues regarding the ability of renewable-energy-based generation projects to compete fossil-fuel-based projects in competitive bidding solicitations. State and utility bidding results revealed that on a relative basis, utilities contract for less renewable-energy-based capacity under competitive bidding than under past methods of qualifying facility contracting. It was concluded that renewables are not being chosen more often under competitive bidding because it emphasizes price and operating considerations over other attributes of renewables, such as environmental considerations, fuel diversity, and fuel price stability. Examples are given of bidding approaches used by some states and utilities that have resulted in renewables-based projects winning generation bids. In addition, the appendix summarizes, by state, competitive bidding activities and results for supply-side solicitations that were open to all fuels and technologies.

  8. The Energy Market 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  9. The Energy Market 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  10. DAPHNE: a parallel multiprocessor data acquisition system for nuclear physics. [Data Acquisition by Parallel Histogramming and NEtworking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a project to meet these data acquisition needs for a new accelerator, ATLAS, being built at Argonne National Laboratory. ATLAS is a heavy-ion linear superconducting accelerator providing beam energies up to 25 MeV/A with a relative spread in beam energy as good as .0001 and a time spread of less than 100 psec. Details about the hardware front end, command language, data structure, and the flow of event treatment are covered.

  11. Reflections on Competition, Competition Regulation and the Current Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert; Wigger, Angela

    2013-01-01

    competition came to enjoy such an exalted status in Europe and then challenges conventional wisdom by bringing into focus the downsides of competition. It argues that excessive competition and neoliberal competition regulation have contributed to intensify the economic, political, social and environmental...

  12. Do higher-priced generic medicines enjoy a competitive advantage under reference pricing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    In many countries with generic reference pricing, generic producers and distributors compete by means of undisclosed discounts offered to pharmacies in order to reduce acquisition costs and to induce them to dispense their generic to patients in preference over others. The objective of this article is to test the hypothesis that under prevailing reference pricing systems for generic medicines, those medicines sold at a higher consumer price may enjoy a competitive advantage. Real transaction prices for 179 generic medicines acquired by pharmacies in Spain have been used to calculate the discount rate on acquisition versus reimbursed costs to pharmacies. Two empirical hypotheses are tested: the discount rate at which pharmacies acquire generic medicines is higher for those pharmaceutical presentations for which there are more generic competitors; and, the discount rate at which pharmacies acquire generic medicines is higher for those pharmaceutical forms for which the consumer price has declined less in relation to the consumer price of the brand drug before generic entry (higher-priced generic medicines). An average discount rate of 39.3% on acquisition versus reimbursed costs to pharmacies has been observed. The magnitude of the discount positively depends on the number of competitors in the market. The higher the ratio of the consumer price of the generic to that of the brand drug prior to generic entry (i.e. the smaller the price reduction of the generic in relation to the brand drug), the larger the discount rate. Under reference pricing there is intense price competition among generic firms in the form of unusually high discounts to pharmacies on official ex-factory prices reimbursed to pharmacies. However, this effect is highly distorting because it favours those medicines with a higher relative price in relation to the brand price before generic entry.

  13. Optimizing Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions: An Eleven-Agency FY 2012 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report focuses on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) fiscal year (FY) 2012 effort that used the NREL Optimal Vehicle Acquisition (NOVA) analysis to identify optimal vehicle acquisition recommendations for eleven diverse federal agencies. Results of the study show that by following a vehicle acquisition plan that maximizes the reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, significant progress is also made toward the mandated complementary goals of acquiring alternative fuel vehicles, petroleum use reduction, and alternative fuel use increase.

  14. Root plasticity buffers competition among plants: theory meets experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffers, Katja; Tielbörger, Katja; Tietjen, Britta; Jeltsch, Florian

    2011-03-01

    Morphological plasticity is a striking characteristic of plants in natural communities. In the context of foraging behavior particularly, root plasticity has been documented for numerous species. Root plasticity is known to mitigate competitive interactions by reducing the overlap of the individuals' rhizospheres. But despite its obvious effect on resource acquisition, plasticity has been generally neglected in previous empirical and theoretical studies estimating interaction intensity among plants. In this study, we developed a semi-mechanistic model that addresses this shortcoming by introducing the idea of compensatory growth into the classical-zone-of influence (ZOI) and field-of-neighborhood (FON) approaches. The model parameters describing the belowground plastic sphere of influence (PSI) were parameterized using data from an accompanying field experiment. Measurements of the uptake of a stable nutrient analogue at distinct distances to the neighboring plants showed that the study species responded plastically to belowground competition by avoiding overlap of individuals' rhizospheres. An unexpected finding was that the sphere of influence of the study species Bromus hordeaceus could be best described by a unimodal function of distance to the plant's center and not with a continuously decreasing function as commonly assumed. We employed the parameterized model to investigate the interplay between plasticity and two other important factors determining the intensity of competitive interactions: overall plant density and the distribution of individuals in space. The simulation results confirm that the reduction of competition intensity due to morphological plasticity strongly depends on the spatial structure of the competitive environment. We advocate the use of semi-mechanistic simulations that explicitly consider morphological plasticity to improve our mechanistic understanding of plant interactions.

  15. Prebiotic Competition between Information Variants, With Low Error Catastrophe Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Popa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During competition for resources in primitive networks increased fitness of an information variant does not necessarily equate with successful elimination of its competitors. If variability is added fast to a system, speedy replacement of pre-existing and less-efficient forms of order is required as novel information variants arrive. Otherwise, the information capacity of the system fills up with information variants (an effect referred as “error catastrophe”. As the cost for managing the system’s exceeding complexity increases, the correlation between performance capabilities of information variants and their competitive success decreases, and evolution of such systems toward increased efficiency slows down. This impasse impedes the understanding of evolution in prebiotic networks. We used the simulation platform Biotic Abstract Dual Automata (BiADA to analyze how information variants compete in a resource-limited space. We analyzed the effect of energy-related features (differences in autocatalytic efficiency, energy cost of order, energy availability, transformation rates and stability of order on this competition. We discuss circumstances and controllers allowing primitive networks acquire novel information with minimal “error catastrophe” risks. We present a primitive mechanism for maximization of energy flux in dynamic networks. This work helps evaluate controllers of evolution in prebiotic networks and other systems where information variants compete.

  16. Meeting the challenge of competition in the energy marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.A. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the electric utility business are reviewed which have been leading the industry away from its traditional monopolistic position to a more competitive situation similar to that experienced in other industries. In many areas of the USA and other countries where deregulation or market liberalization has occurred, the trend is toward encouragement of independent power producers to enter monopolisitic generation areas and generate power in competition with established utilities. Large-scale users may be able to solicit bids for power from a choice of suppliers, as the British example illustrates. In addition, since most utilities are fairly mature industries experiencing growth of only 2-3%/y, another trend is for utilities to seek international business opportunities and to encourage local industrial development. For example, Alabama Power played a prominent role in attracting a new automobile plant to the state. Other revenue-generating opportunities for utilities are noted in the areas of wheeling, selling and servicing of electric appliances, analysis of customer power quality problems, building mine-mouth power plants, forming cogeneration supply companies, using real-time pricing, and even making use of communications infrastructure to provide such services as cable television, remote monitoring of building security, remote metering, and facsimile transmission

  17. Effects of an accelerated liberalization. Consequences of accelerated liberalization for the competitiveness of Dutch energy companies; Effecten van de versnelde liberalisering. Consequenties van de versnelde liberalisering voor de concurrentiepositie van Nederlandse energiebedrijven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaal, M.B.T. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-08-01

    One of the conclusions of the Dutch Energy Report, published at the end of 1999, was that it would be feasible to speed up the pace of liberalization in the Netherlands. This conclusion will lead to the liberalization of the retail customers in 2004 and the market for renewable energy in 2001. This will be an incentive to more competition and put a greater pressure on energy companies to concentrate in order to benefit from economies of scale. Less preparation time implies also that there will be less layers of isolation against cost leaders and hence a more intense (price-based) competition. The central question in this report is whether and to what extent the effects of policy, in particular the accelerated liberalization, affect the strategic behavior and competitiveness of the Dutch Regional Electricity Companies (RECs). To address this question four face-to-face interviews have been held with experts from the four major RECs. In these interviews the experts gave their opinion about the Dutch policy regarding the accelerated liberalization and the rate and extent of the privatization. Subsequently, their perspective on the impact of the policy on their competitiveness and their analysis of the Dutch energy market was recorded. After that, the experts exposed their outlook on the future energy market and the ambition and most likely direction of their companies. The data collection was complemented with numerous relevant public interviews of experts derived from various newspapers and energy magazines. The data thus collected were analyzed by means of a theoretical framework consisting of the insights of Porter, Prahalad and Hamel and at a more detailed level marketing theories regarding positioning and branding. This resulted in an overview of the current market position of the Dutch RECs and an outlook for the years to come. 27 refs.

  18. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  19. New energy paradigm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The rise of oil prices, the difficulties in markets liberalization, and the poor results of competition have convinced many that a new energy paradigm is necessary. Taking the original definition of scientific paradigm, it doesn't seem that a practical solution could be found outside the present paradigm of energy policy, made of privatisation, liberalisation and competition [it

  20. Joint energy and reserve dispatch in a multi-area competitive market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    proposed for solving the multi-product, multi-area market dispatch problem with ... In a competitive environment, several new concepts are applied to the ...... Combining of chaotic differential evolution and quadratic programming for economic.

  1. U.S. Clean Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies: A Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullenkamp, Patrick [Westside Industrial Retention & Expansion Network, Cleveland, OH (United States); Holody, Diane [Westside Industrial Retention & Expansion Network, Cleveland, OH (United States); James, Brian [Strategic Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Wheeler, Douglas [DJW Technology, Dublin, OH (United States); Hart, David [E4tech, London (United Kingdom); Lehner, Franz [E4tech, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-10

    The objectives of this project are a 1) Global Competitiveness Analysis of hydrogen and fuel cell systems and components manufactured including 700 bar compressed hydrogen storage system in the U.S., Europe, Asia, and other key areas to be identified to determine the global cost leaders, the best current manufacturing processes, the key factors determining competitiveness, and the potential means of cost reductions; and an 2) Analysis to assess the status of global hydrogen and fuel cell markets. The analysis of units, megawatts by country and by application will focus on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems (automotive and stationary).

  2. 78 FR 29247 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Part 952 RIN 1990-AA37 Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations; Correction AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The... (78 FR 25795). In this document, DOE revised existing regulations covering contractor legal management...

  3. Competition Law and the Nuclear Sector: An EU Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Ferro, M.

    2010-01-01

    Competition law essentially aims at preventing harmful distortions of competition in the market which may be caused by agreements between companies, by the abusive behaviour of dominant companies, by structural changes in the market due to mergers or by state aid.1 However, often such practices and measures are actually necessary to render certain services viable, to obtain new or better products, to pursue other policies for the greater benefit of the collective, etc. Occasionally, this raises interesting issues in the nuclear sector. This paper aims to provide European competition law practitioners with a summary of the leading legal issues and precedents in this domain, alerting them to relevant specifics. It also aims to introduce nuclear lawyers to the reality and potential of antitrust enforcement in this sector. For the purposes of this paper, the 'nuclear sector' shall be broadly defined so as to include any activity which, given its link to nuclear energy or to ionizing radiation, is (at least partially) subject to special regulation under nuclear law. While many nuclear-related activities will not, in principle, require a special analysis beyond the usual parameters of competition law enforcement, others present distinct challenges to practitioners. Some of these challenges are specific to the European legal order and justify the restriction of the scope of this analysis to the European Union. That being said, the extensive harmonization of the national competition law of member states, as well as the fact that national competition authorities are required to enforce EU competition law, makes it advisable to look simultaneously at European-wide and national antitrust enforcement. The relationship between EU competition law and the nuclear sector remains somewhat shrouded in mystery - perhaps excessively so. The issue has been tackled to some extent in general works on competition law and energy law. As one would expect, research developed in the framework

  4. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: International Trade... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee, Attention: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy and...

  5. Lyon is preparing the launching of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the 6. national energy sittings, which took place in Grenoble from February 1 to February 3, 2005, A. Guilhot, head of the 'energy management service' of Lyon city, presents in this article a testimony of her experience in energy purchase in the context of opening of energy markets to competition. The approach followed is, first, the creation of a working group gathering all technical directions and services of the city concerned by electricity purchase and cost saving, and a transverse approach with a progressive analysis of each parameter: contracts, tariffs, consumptions, forecasting, invoices, internal procedures etc.. (J.S.)

  6. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Gullì, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets provides a study of environmental regulation when energy markets are imperfectly competitive. This theoretical treatment focuses on three relevant cases of energy markets. First, the residential space heating sector where hybrid regulation such as taxation and emissions trading together are possible. Second, the electricity market where transactions are organized in the form of multi-period auctions. Third, namely natural gas (input) and electricity (output) markets where there is combined imperfect competition in vertical related energy markets.   The development of free or low carbon technologies supported by energy policies, aiming at increasing security of supply, is also explored whilst considering competition policies that reduce market power in energy markets thus improving market efficiency. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets discusses the key issues of whether imperfect competition can lessen the ability of environmen...

  7. Seeking the competitive advantage: it's more than cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, S F

    1999-01-01

    Most organizations focus considerable time and energy on reducing operating costs as a way to attain marketplace advantage. This strategy was not inappropriate in the past. To be competitive in the future, however, focus must be placed on other issues, not just cost reduction. The near future will be dominated by service industries, knowledge management, and virtual partnerships, with production optimization and flexibility, innovation, and strong partnerships defining those organizations that attain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage will reside in clarifying the vision and strategic plan, reviewing and redesigning work processes to optimize resources and value-added work, and creating change-ready environments and empowered workforces.

  8. Solar vision 2025 : beyond market competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    Canada's reputation as an energy superpower is based on its abundant traditional energy resources. The Canadian Solar Industries Association (CanSIA) has presented a vision of Canada's future solar energy industry. Rising demands for energy, along with the high cost of replacing Canada's aging generation facilities may provide an opportunity for the development of renewable energy sources and a more diversified energy system. The vision focused on creating high quality energy solutions while reducing the high cost of solar energy equipment. Studies have suggested that the solar photovoltaic energy will be market competitive by 2020. By 2025, it is hoped that the solar industry will support more than 35,000 jobs in the economy, and displace 15 to 31 million tonnes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per year. The economic benefits of solar energy were outlined, and new technologies were presented. The export potential of solar energy was discussed. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 40 figs.

  9. Challenges of Iran's energy conversion agreements in future competitive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhiyah, M.H.; Kashtiban, Y.Kh. [Project Management Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalale Ale-Ahmad Avenue, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-08-15

    Extensive need for electricity and lack of enough governmental resources for the development of related infrastructures forced the Iranian Government to invite private investors and to sign Energy Conversion Agreement (ECA) in the form of build-operate-transfer (BOT) and build-operate-own (BOO) contracts with them. Accordingly, electricity purchase would be based on a guaranteed price. Changes in some laws in 2007 caused the management of the ECAs and electricity purchase based on guaranteed price to face challenges. Shortening the commercial operation period of the earlier ECAs and signing some new short-term ECAs were the steps taken by the authorities to resolve the problems. By shortening the ECAs' commercial operation period, it is likely to cause serious problems concerning the payments of the project companies, because of shortages in the government's financial resources. The findings of the present viewpoint suggest signing of new long-term contracts (20 years long) in the form of a combinational agreement for buying the produced electricity with a guaranteed price (in the first 5 years) and supplying it in the competitive power market (for the following years) would be a better way to reduce the problems. (author)

  10. The competitive ability of pea–barley intercrops against weeds and the interactions with crop productivity and soil N availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corre-Hellou, G.; Dibet, A.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    high levels of weed suppression, even with a low percentage of barley in the total biomass. Despite a reduced leaf area in the case of a low soil N availability, the barley sole crops and intercrops displayed high weed suppression, probably because of their strong competitive capability to absorb soil...... (2003–2005). The weed biomass was three times higher under the pea sole crops than under both the intercrops and barley sole crops at maturity. The inclusion of joint experiments in several countries and various growing conditions showed that intercrops maintain a highly asymmetric competition over...... N. Higher soil N availabilities entailed increased leaf areas and competitive ability for light, which contributed to the overall competitive ability against weeds for all of the treatments. The contribution of the weeds in the total dry matter and soil N acquisition was higher in the pea sole crop...

  11. Competition between excited core states and 1homega single-particle excitations at comparable energies in {sup 207}Pb from photon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietralla, N., E-mail: pietralla@ikp.tu-darmstadt.d [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Nuclear Structure Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Li, T.C. [Nuclear Structure Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Fritzsche, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ahmed, M.W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ahn, T.; Costin, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Nuclear Structure Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Enders, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Li, J. [Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mueller, S.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Pinayev, I.V. [Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Savran, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tonchev, A.P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Werner, V. [A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory (WNSL), Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Wu, Y.K. [Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Zilges, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2009-10-26

    The Pb(gamma{sup -}>,gamma{sup '}) photon scattering reaction has been studied with the nearly monochromatic, linearly polarized photon beams at the High Intensity gamma-ray Source (HIgammaS) at the DFELL. Azimuthal scattering intensity asymmetries measured with respect to the polarization plane of the beam have been used for the first time to assign both the spin and parity quantum numbers of dipole excited states of {sup 206,207,208}Pb at excitation energies in the vicinity of 5.5 MeV. Evidence for dominant particle-core coupling is deduced from these results along with information on excitation energies and electromagnetic transition matrix elements. Implications of the existence of weakly coupled states built on highly excited core states in competition with 1homega single particle (hole) excitations at comparable energies are discussed.

  12. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  13. Energy: nuclear energy; Energies: l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  14. Abusive behaviour of grid operators within concession procedures and grid acquisitions with respect to paragraph paragraph 30, 32 EnWG; Missbraeuchliches Verhalten von Netzbetreibern bei Konzessionierungsverfahren und Netzuebernahmen nach paragraph paragraph 30, 32 EnWG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Peter [ZNER (Germany); Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany). Energierecht; Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany); Templin, Wolf [Kanzlei Boos Hummel und Wegerich, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The competition for the power distribution systems has inflamed all over in the Federal Republic of Germany due to the fact that concession contracts have a running time of only twenty years and end not later than 31st December, 1994. Those concession contracts will end currently. Thus the old affiliated companies have to fear for their market position. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the abusive behaviour of grid operators at licensing procedures and grid acquisitions with respect to paragraph paragraph 30, 32 Energy Economy Law. The authors report on the unilateral monopole consideration of the authorities and court as well as on the abusive behaviour of the old concessionaires from the standpoint of energy law and cartel law.

  15. Assessment of renewable energy potential and policy in Turkey – Toward the acquisition period in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basaran, Senem Teksoy; Dogru, A. Ozgur; Balcik, Filiz Bektas; Ulugtekin, N. Necla; Goksel, Cigdem; Sozen, Seval

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Turkey has a geographical advantage increasing its potential on renewable energy sources. • Turkey targets at least 30% of total electricity from renewables by 2023. • Turkey's 2023 targets include putting 3000 MW solar and 20,000 MW wind power capacity in operation. • The main policy priority relies on the support of local wind terminal and solar panel production. • Turkey aims to make the energy available to consumers in a cost efficient, timely manner meeting the demand. - Abstract: This paper aims to assess the renewable energy capacity of Turkey in order to consider main priorities in the energy policy of Turkey. In this paper, renewable energy potential and regulatory conditions are discussed in Turkey in comparison with European Union. The results of the study implemented within the framework of EnviroGRIDS project indicated a promising yet very susceptible future for the implementation of renewable energy power plants in Turkey. The forecasts have shown that the solar power potential utilization is becoming more significant after 2020. The projections for 2050 indicate that electricity consumption from small and medium renewable energy sources including solar and wind will constitute 15% of the total, whereas the solar thermal will constitute around 16%. Geothermal and other renewables will remain around 3%. According to the high demand scenario, in 2050 the share of hydropower in overall electricity generation will be 12%, followed by solar power at 7% and wind power at 3%. Additionally, renewable energy policy and regulations in Turkey and in EU are overviewed in this study. On the contrary to EU, the constant feed-in tariff amount does not consider capital investments of specific energy sources in Turkey that brings disadvantage to the implementation. However, new regulations published and currently applied should be accepted as milestones in acquisition period of Turkey in EU

  16. Minicomputer evaluation for HEP data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, R.P.

    1979-12-01

    In 1978, a comprehensive market survey was carried out to select a computer for on-line data acquisition in a High Energy Physics particle experiment. Working parties consisting of Rutherford Laboratory personnel and UK based minicomputer users at CERN, were set up at RL and CERN to (a) compile a technical specification of the 'ideal' minicomputer for data acquisition, (b) prepare a technical questionnaire based on that specification for issue to computer manufacturers and (c) make recommendations based on the manufacturers' responses to the questionnaire. This paper outlines the criteria used in writing the specification and includes, as appendices, the specification and questionnaire as useful guidelines in any future exercise of this kind. (author)

  17. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  18. COMPUTER-AIDED DATA ACQUISITION FOR COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article describes the use of computer-aided data acquisition techniques to aid the research program of the Combustion Research Branch (CRB) of the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in Research Triangle Park, NC, in particular on CRB's bench-sca...

  19. European chemistry for growth. Unlocking a competitive, low carbon and energy efficient future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The long term role of the chemical industry as Europe progresses to an energy efficient and low GHG emission future, and the sector's potential to assist Europe in meeting its decarbonisation targets is investigated. The timeline for deploying existing and new technologies from 2020 to 2050 and their potential impact on energy efficiency and GHG emission levels, as well as the competitive position of the European chemical industry is assessed. Cefic commissioned Ecofys to perform analyses and bring forward key conclusions and recommendations from their independent viewpoint, in close collaboration with the sector. As a strategic orientation for this industry and a high level priority for Cefic's Board, this Roadmap meets the need for the European chemical industry to develop a new, longer term strategic approach to energy and climate policy and contributes to the debate on the post-2020 policy framework. This Roadmap has three main objectives: (1) Provide quantitative and more qualitative evidence on the options available to the European chemical industry to contribute to the EU's long term GHG emissions reduction goals. These options apply to technologies and product development for the sector itself and for other sectors of the EU economy; (2) Based on this evidence, define a long term vision for the European chemical industry within a European Union that progresses to a low GHG emission future by defining a number of plausible scenarios in the context of global market developments; (3) Formulate recommendations externally to policy makers and internally to the European chemical industry based on the scenarios studied. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the European chemical industry, while Chapter 3 describes the current policy landscape for the European chemical industry. Chapter 4 focuses on the European chemical industry as an enabler of energy efficiency and emissions reduction for sectors across the economy. In Chapter 5, the energy efficiency

  20. Competitive intelligence as an enabler for firm competitiveness: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview, from literature, about how competitive intelligence can be an enabler towards a firm’s competitiveness. This overview is done under the background of intense global competition that firms are currently experiencing. This paper used a qualitative content analysis as a data collection methodology on all identified journal articles on competitive intelligence and firm competitiveness. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability and trustworthiness, peer-reviewed journal articles and triangulation were used. The paper found that competitive intelligence is an important enabler of firm competitiveness. The findings from this paper will assist business managers to understand and improve their outlook of competitive intelligence as an enabler of firm competitiveness and will be of great academic value.

  1. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Adarsh [Hull Univ., School of Economic Studies, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the canons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme. (Author)

  2. Urban Smartness Vs Urban Competitiveness: A Comparison of Italian Cities Rankings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a part of the research carried out by the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering (DICEA of the University of Naples “Federico II”, within the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory, financed by PON 04a2_E R&C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015. Today that the idea of smart city draws the attention of urban planners and policy makers and, at the same time, global competitiveness is considered essential for the success of a city, the paper aims to investigate the relationship between the concept of smart city and that of competitive city, identifying common characteristics and differences and answer the question: is “smartness” a new concept for urban studies? The analysis has been conducted in the Italian context, comparing the competitive structure of Italian provinces with their performance as smart cities. To rank Italian provinces because of their level of competitiveness, a previous ranking, carried out in 1995, has been updated with the most recent data available and the new hierarchy, thus obtained, has been compared with that of Italian smartest cities proposed by Forum PA.  The benchmarking shows that smartness and competitiveness are strictly connected: today, a city needs to improve its smart quotient in order to be more attractive and so more competitive, in fact, the efficiency and livability of cities, sought by potential citizens, can be improved by using ICTs, as supported by the advocates of smart cities, and represent a strategic factor for gaining a competitive advantage.

  3. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... programs support the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency companies, to review...

  4. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries, including specific challenges...

  5. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and...

  6. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of U.S. renewable [[Page 6784

  7. Electric power distribution: in the direction of a competitive market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.R.A. de.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of electric power sector deregulation, occurred in several countries, frequently followed of privatization, which the aim is activate the competition and, consequently, the efficiency between the companies of the electric power sector. The competition in the supply market of electric power, by the Great Britain, France, Spain and United States are shown as an example of this energy policy. (C.G.C.)

  8. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-07-01

    may basically collapse into a system of per unit subsidies. In essay 4 a simple analytic equilibrium model is used to describe a mixed oligopoly market in which a public firm operates with private firms. The authorities have to choose whether public firms shall be involved in acquisitions. We consider two acquisition strategies: 1) a public firm acquires shares in one of its privately owned competitors; and 2) one of the private companies acquires shares in the public company. The analysis shows that acquisitions in either direction will generate a welfare gain as compared with a strategy with no acquisitions. Second, given that the authorities maximize social surplus, their choice between Strategy 1 and 2 depends on the degree of competition in the market.

  9. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-01-01

    basically collapse into a system of per unit subsidies. In essay 4 a simple analytic equilibrium model is used to describe a mixed oligopoly market in which a public firm operates with private firms. The authorities have to choose whether public firms shall be involved in acquisitions. We consider two acquisition strategies: 1) a public firm acquires shares in one of its privately owned competitors; and 2) one of the private companies acquires shares in the public company. The analysis shows that acquisitions in either direction will generate a welfare gain as compared with a strategy with no acquisitions. Second, given that the authorities maximize social surplus, their choice between Strategy 1 and 2 depends on the degree of competition in the market

  10. Electricity between monopoly and competition. Selling at the marginal cost. The rational guidance of electric energy consumption by tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Within the perspective of the introduction of competition, the first article comments the issues related to the different professions: distribution (which solutions as multiple grids would be too expensive?), interconnection and transport grids (same questions), and production. The author outlines some characteristics of electricity: it cannot be stored, is a rigid product, has a price elasticity almost null on the short term. Then he discusses different problems to be solved: transport tolls, competition for production, difference between customers (big clients, households, handicraft). In the second article, the author discusses the issue of pricing (why selling at cost price or at marginal cost price?) and discusses the definition of this marginal cost. In the third article, the author comments the common use of tariffs by electricity distribution companies as an incentive for a rational use of electric energy by consumers. He describes how prices are factors of economic choice, the implication of selling at cost price and at marginal cost price. He discusses the relationship between marginal cost price and budget balance, and the practical adaptation of tariffs

  11. Energy vectors - Perennial guidebook for energy choices; Vecteurs d'energie - Guide perenne pour les choix energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caseau, P.; Ruelle, G.; Bacher, P.; Bamberger, Y.; Castillon, P.; Decomps, B.; Dhers, J.; Jarry, B.; Lefaudeux, F.; Mudry, F.; Saunier, B. [Academie des Technologies, Grand Palais des Champs Elysees - Porte C - Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt - 75008 Paris (France); Careme, F.; Rogeaux, B. [EdF, 22-30, avenue de Wagram 75008 Paris (France); Choux, G. [Total, 2, place Jean Millier La Defense 6, 92400 Courbevoie (France); Morel, H. [CNRS, 3 Rue Michel-Ange, 75016 Paris (France)

    2011-11-17

    Energy vector means the distributed form of energy which is paid by the end-user: the automotive fuel at the gas station, the electricity at the plug. Vectors are characterized by two essential properties: they are structured in networks allowing a large access to users and a geographical and time adjustment of the demand thanks to transport and storage facilities. The link they create between sources and needs allows to introduce both upstream and downstream competitions (what usage is the most profitable? What source or vector is the most economical?). These two properties of vectors allow to use the economical and ecological competitions to help the decision-makers in the choice of the energy mix. This book explores these competitions with a double compass: ecological (greenhouse gases abatement) and economical (the less cost). The parametrical structure of the study allows to use it according to various hypotheses concerning the future evolution of energy source and CO{sub 2} prices. Therefore, it represents a perennial guidebook of energy choices. (J.S.)

  12. Comparative study of economic competitive for nuclear seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing

    2001-01-01

    The method of levelized discounted production water cost and the new desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP1.1) are used. Many cases of seawater desalination by nuclear energy or fossil energy combined with reverse osmosis (RO), Multi-effect distillation (MED) or multi-stage flash (MSF) technology in south-east Asia is performed and their economic competitive is analyzed. Their results indicate, the nuclear desalination plants have stronger economic competitive comparing to the fossil in the RO, MED and MSF technology. The desalination water cost is very changeable depending on the difference of desalination technology and water plant size. Its range is 0.56 dollar · m -3 - 1.89 dollar · m -3 , the lowest desalination water cost is product by RO and the highest is by MSF. The sensitive factors of the economic competitive are orderly the discounted rate, desalination plant size, seawater temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS), fossil fuel price and specific power plant investment. The highest rate of water cost is about 19.3% comparing to base case

  13. Increase of the competition on the electric power french market: 6000 MW for the concurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the energy market deregulation in France, EDF became wedded to three objectives: encourage the competition in France, contribute to the development of a unique energy market in Europe and and allowed the EDF group development in the same conditions of the concurrence. In this mind, EDF put 6000 MW for auction. An economic analysis of the EDF group policy facing the competition of the new energy de-regulated market is proposed. (A.L.B.)

  14. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC.... competitiveness in exporting renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services, such as access...

  15. DOE Energy Challenge Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Murray; Michael Schaepe

    2009-04-24

    Project Objectives: 1. Promote energy efficiency concepts in undergraduate and graduate education. 2. Stimulate and interest in pulp and paper industrial processes, which promote and encourage activities in the area of manufacturing design efficiency. 3. Attract both industrial and media attention. Background and executive Summary: In 1997, the Institute of Paper Science and Technology in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy developed a university design competition with an orientation to the Forest Products Industry. This university design competition is in direct alignment with DOE’s interests in instilling in undergraduate education the concepts of developing energy efficient processes, minimizing waste, and providing environmental benefits and in maintaining and enhancing the economic competitiveness of the U.S. forest products industry in a global environment. The primary focus of the competition is projects, which are aligned with the existing DOE Agenda 2020 program for the industry and the lines of research being established with the colleges comprising the Pulp and Paper Education and Research Alliance (PPERA). The six design competitions were held annually for the period 1999 through 2004.

  16. Competition between roots and microorganisms for nitrogen: mechanisms and ecological relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Xu, Xingliang

    2014-05-01

    Demand of all living organisms on the same nutrients forms the basis for interspecific competition between plants and microorganisms in soils. This competition is especially strong in the rhizosphere. To evaluate competitive and mutualistic interactions between plants and microorganisms and to analyse ecological consequences of these interactions, we analysed 424 data pairs from 41 15N-labelling studies that investigated 15N redistribution between roots and microorganisms. Calculated Michaelis-Menten kinetics based on Km (Michaelis constant) and Vmax (maximum uptake capacity) values from 77 studies on the uptake of nitrate, ammonia, and amino acids by roots and microorganisms clearly showed that, shortly after nitrogen (N) mobilization from soil organic matter and litter, microorganisms take up most N. Lower Km values of microorganisms suggest that they are especially efficient at low N concentrations, but can also acquire more N at higher N concentrations (Vmax) compared with roots. Because of the unidirectional flow of nutrients from soil to roots, plants are the winners for N acquisition in the long run. Therefore, despite strong competition between roots and microorganisms for N, a temporal niche differentiation reflecting their generation times leads to mutualistic relationships in the rhizosphere. This temporal niche differentiation is highly relevant ecologically because it: protects ecosystems from N losses by leaching during periods of slow or no root uptake; continuously provides roots with available N according to plant demand; and contributes to the evolutionary development of mutualistic interactions between roots and microorganisms.

  17. DoD Use of Commercial Acquisition Practices When They Apply and When They Do Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Defense AT&L: September–October 2015 2 From the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology , and Logistics DoD Use of...that an item is offered as a commercial product; next, the need to access cutting-edge commercial technologies ; and, finally, those cases where we...For purely commercial items widely and competitively sold on the open market, this is easy. For thousands of items, from office furniture to cleaning

  18. District heating systems between competition protection and climate protection; Die Fernwaermenetze zwischen Wettbewerbs- und Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, Torsten [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Buergerliches Recht, Kartellrecht, Versicherungs-, Gesellschafts- und Regulierungsrecht

    2012-10-15

    In principle, district heating systems come in the application area of paragraph 19 sect. 4 no. 4 GWB (law against competitive restrictions). However, this regulation has to be interpreted with respect to the legislation of the Court of Justice of the European Union (Luxemburg) to 'essential facilities'. According to this, the claim for antitrust access can be affirmed only in exceptional circumstances. Within the application of this regulation, property rights, competition protection, investment competition, innovation competition as well as energy political evaluations of the energy law under special consideration of ecologic and climate political targets are considered. This has to occur within the testing of the reasonability with respect to paragraph 19 sect. 4 no. 2 GWB. The particularities of the district heating.

  19. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEADING PORTS OF LATVIA: COMPETITIVENESS OF LIEPAJA PORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diāna Līduma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 10 operating ports in Latvia and 3 of them – Liepaja, Ventspils and Riga ports are regarded as the leading commercial ports. Role of port operation in the economics of region and country is essential from the point of view of employment and entrepreneurship. This is based with data on investment of operation of Latvian ports in GDP, on average it is assessed to be 5-7% annually. In the context of employment, Liepaja Port gives work to 6.9% of human resources of the city. However, concern about the competitiveness of Liepaja Port influenced by the proximity of more developed competitive ports, technical possibilities of the port and dynamics of freight turnover has occurred in recent years. Therewith in framework of this article in the context of such criteria as location of ports and their technical parameters, volumes of freight, specialization and costs of ports, the operation of leading ports of Latvia is intercompared and analyzed by clarifying whether Liepaja Port is competitive among other ports of Latvia. Opinions of port experts on perspectives of port development and statistical data of ports from 2011-2013 are analyzed within the framework of the article. The aim of the research is to clarify the comparative advantages of ports of Latvia. The research revealed that the provision of competitiveness of Liepaja Port is to be related with application of the available free territories, advantages of location in relation to the Scandinavian market, and the necessity to develop the cooperation among ports of Latvia to offer joint freight acquisition, distributions and unified logistics solution and strengthen the position of ports in the circumstances of international competition.