WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy chemical manufacturers

  1. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  2. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  3. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  4. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  5. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  6. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  7. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  8. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote

  9. Additive Manufacturing: Unlocking the Evolution of Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakeyev, Adilet; Wang, Panfeng; Zhang, Li; Shu, Wenmiao; Wang, Huizhi; Xuan, Jin

    2017-10-01

    The global energy infrastructure is undergoing a drastic transformation towards renewable energy, posing huge challenges on the energy materials research, development and manufacturing. Additive manufacturing has shown its promise to change the way how future energy system can be designed and delivered. It offers capability in manufacturing complex 3D structures, with near-complete design freedom and high sustainability due to minimal use of materials and toxic chemicals. Recent literatures have reported that additive manufacturing could unlock the evolution of energy materials and chemistries with unprecedented performance in the way that could never be achieved by conventional manufacturing techniques. This comprehensive review will fill the gap in communicating on recent breakthroughs in additive manufacturing for energy material and device applications. It will underpin the discoveries on what 3D functional energy structures can be created without design constraints, which bespoke energy materials could be additively manufactured with customised solutions, and how the additively manufactured devices could be integrated into energy systems. This review will also highlight emerging and important applications in energy additive manufacturing, including fuel cells, batteries, hydrogen, solar cell as well as carbon capture and storage.

  10. Registered manufacturers of renewable energy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Registered manufacturers of renewable energy devices in India are listed. The list is arranged under the headings : solar water heating system, solar cooker, solar still and water pumping wind mill. In all 38 manufacturers are listed. The list gives the postal address, name of the contact person and phone number of each manufacturer. (M.G.B.)

  11. Simulation approach towards energy flexible manufacturing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph provides in-depth analysis and methods for aligning electricity demand of manufacturing systems to VRE supply. The book broaches both long-term system changes and real-time manufacturing execution and control, and the author presents a concept with different options for improved energy flexibility including battery, compressed air and embodied energy storage. The reader will also find a detailed application procedure as well as an implementation into a simulation prototype software. The book concludes with two case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of green manufacturing systems. .

  12. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  13. Energy use in the food manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    A survey was conducted to find the level of energy consumption in the food manufacturing industry, which is the food processing industry excluding meat, dairy, and brewing. Data were used from 74 factories. The manufacturing industry was divided into 14 industry groups and the 4 major energy consumers were found to be fruit and vegetable processing, sugar refining, animal feed production, and bread and pastry baking. The present report summarizes results from the survey. It determined the following: the sources of energy used by the insu industry and the annual consumption of each energy form; the consumption of fuel and electricity in the production of the various manufactured food products; the minimum practical energy requirement for processing the various food products; and the potential for conservation and the methods for achieving savings.

  14. Chemicals manufacture via biotechnology - the prospects for western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.; Kristiansen, B.

    1985-09-02

    The trend of European chemical and biotechnological companies to move away from low value, high volume bulk chemicals towards the manufacture of high value, low volume, fine and speciality chemicals will continue into the 21st century. The manufacture of fine chemicals (principally antibiotics, biopesticides, enzymes and organic acids) and commodity chemicals (principally butanol and industrial ethanol) necessitates 1.5Mt and 2-3 Mt of carbohydrate feedstocks for their production. Thus it is vital that the Common Agricultural Policy does not interfere with the progress of the biotechnology industry by maintaining carbohydrate feedstock prices at their present high levels.

  15. Computer integrated manufacturing in the chemical industry : Theory & practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Teelen, A.; Selen, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the possibilities of implementing Computer Integrated Manufacturing in the process industry, and the chemical industry in particular. After presenting some distinct differences of the process industry in relation to discrete manufacturing, a number of focal points are discussed.

  16. The exposure data landscape for manufactured chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeghy, Peter P; Judson, Richard; Gangwal, Sumit; Mosher, Shad; Smith, Doris; Vail, James; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing chemical screening and prioritization programs to evaluate environmental chemicals for potential risk to human health in a rapid and efficient manner. As part of these efforts, it is important to catalog available information on chemical toxicity and exposure from widely dispersed sources. The main objective of this analysis is to define important aspects of the exposure space and to catalog the available exposure information for chemicals being considered for analysis as part of the U.S. EPA ToxCast™ screening and prioritization program. Publicly available exposure data have been extracted into ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource), which combines information for hundreds of thousands of chemicals from >600 public sources. We use data from ACToR to assess the exposure data landscape for environmental chemicals. Of the roughly 100,000 chemicals that have at least limited toxicity information available, less than one-fifth also have exposure information - and for most of these the information is of limited utility (e.g., production volume). Readily accessible data on concentrations in exposure-related media are only available for a much smaller fraction. Among these, the largest number of chemicals is measured in water with over 1150 unique compounds, followed by 788 substances measured in soil, and 670 in air. These small numbers clearly reflect a focus of resources on those substances previously identified as possibly posing a hazard to human health. Exposure to a much broader number of chemicals will need to be measured in order to fully realize the envisioned goal of using exposure information to guide toxicity testing. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Leanergy(TM): how lean manufacturing can improve energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become a competitive issue for industrial companies. The evolution of energy prices and regulation will make this issue even more important in the future. For several years, the energy-intensive chemical industry has been implementing corrective actions. Helped by the absorption of base load energy consumption by larger production volumes, specific energy consumption (KWh per production unit) has been significantly reduced in recent years. However, most plants have reached the end of their first action plan based on improving the utilities performance. The Leanergy(TM) method developed by the consultancy company Okavango-energy, is a structured approach based on lean manufacturing which widens the scope of saving sources to process and operations. Starting from the analysis of actual production requirements, Okavango is able to adjust consumption to minimum requirements and so remove any energy consumption that does not contribute to the added value creation.

  18. The destiny of wind energy manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, Th.

    1996-01-01

    Today's market of wind energy manufacturers and its future development is analysed by use of a trend based scenario method, taking into account all future dynamics of the industry. The status quo of the industry is found to be fundamentally unstable and has already started to change its structure. Dependent on social acceptance of renewables and political behaviour (''conventional'' versus ''innovative'') four different extreme markets are described into which the development may go. Conclusions are drawn how to increase the probability of positive wind energy scenarios. Manufacturers of wind energy systems are categorised into four different groups: stars, problem children, dogs and cash cows. Each group is analysed based on its present market position, its innovative power and its capability to adapt to the requirements of the four considered ''futures''. The summary is that - wherever future developments will go - most of today's manufacturers will cease to exist in their present form, will leave the market, be merged into larger units or migrate to service providers. (author)

  19. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center Benchmark Report: Framework and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-23

    This report documents the CEMAC methodologies for developing and reporting annual global clean energy manufacturing benchmarks. The report reviews previously published manufacturing benchmark reports and foundational data, establishes a framework for benchmarking clean energy technologies, describes the CEMAC benchmark analysis methodologies, and describes the application of the methodologies to the manufacturing of four specific clean energy technologies.

  20. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I W; Yoon, K S; Cho, B W [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  2. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  3. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  4. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing: Summary of Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing will help policymakers and industry gain deeper understanding of global manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Increased knowledge of the product supply chains can inform decisions related to manufacturing facilities for extracting and processing raw materials, making the array of required subcomponents, and assembling and shipping the final product. This brochure summarized key findings from the analysis and includes important figures from the report. The report was prepared by the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) analysts at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  5. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Iucolano, Fabio; Liguori, Barbara; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS) supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL) have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications. PMID:28788372

  6. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Iucolano, Fabio; Liguori, Barbara; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-10-31

    Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS) supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL) have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications.

  7. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications.

  8. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  9. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  10. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. 2015 Research Highlights -- Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber.

  11. Efficiency and Innovation in U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-06-01

    The NAM has partnered with the Alliance to Save Energy to develop this booklet for manufacturers who want to achieve more strategic control over rising energy costs. Being better energy managers is important not only for each company, but is also an essential component in achieving a low-inflation, high-growth economy. We hope that the opportunities outlined in this booklet will encourage manufacturers to make energy efficiency a part of standard operating procedure.

  12. Measures of International Manufacturing and Trade of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Sandor, Debbie; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret

    2017-05-25

    The technologies that produce clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic panels and lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, are globally manufactured and traded. As demand and deployment of these technologies grows exponentially, the innovation to reach significant economies of scale and drive down energy production costs becomes less in the technology and more in the manufacturing of the technology. Manufacturing innovations and other manufacturing decisions can reduce costs of labor, materials, equipment, operating costs, and transportation, across all the links in the supply chain. To better understand the manufacturing aspect of the clean energy economy, we have developed key metrics for systematically measuring and benchmarking international manufacturing of clean energy technologies. The metrics are: trade, market size, manufacturing value-added, and manufacturing capacity and production. These metrics were applied to twelve global economies and four representative technologies: wind turbine components, crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic modules, vehicle lithium ion battery cells, and light emitting diode packages for efficient lighting and other consumer products. The results indicated that clean energy technologies are being developed via complex, dynamic, and global supply chains, with individual economies benefiting from different technologies and links in the supply chain, through both domestic manufacturing and global trade.

  13. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... in receiving information that relates to the relationship between energy efficiency and indoor air... higher energy efficiencies, and possible enforcement models for the DOE standards. This notice identifies...

  14. Cost, resources, and energy efficiency of additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Dudek Piotr; Zagórski Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of joining materials to make objects from Computer Aided Design (CAD) model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to using subtractive manufacturing methods. The use of rapid prototyping technologies has increased significantly in recent years. These new techniques, while still evolving, are projected to exert a profound impact on manufacturing. They can reduce energy use and time to market and offer industry new design flexibility. We include a...

  15. Energy content in manufacturing exports: A cross-country analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, João

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the energy content in manufacturing exports in a set of 30 advanced and emerging economies and examines its evolution from 1995 to 2005, combining information from the OECD input–output matrices and international trade data in 17 manufacturing sectors. In addition, the article suggests a methodology to disentangle export structure and sectoral energy efficiency effects, presenting results according to technological categories. The article concludes that Brazil, India and, mostly, China, present a high energy content in manufacturing exports, which has increased from 1995 to 2005. Conversely, many advanced economies, notably in Europe and North America, which showed energy contents below the world average in 1995, reinforced their position as exporters with relatively lower energy usage. The contribution of export structure and energy efficiency effects to explain differences in the energy content of exports draws attention to the situation of China. This country increased its relative energy usage in the exports of all technological categories of goods. This effect was reinforced by the stronger export specialization in high-tech products and hindered by a comparatively lower specialization in medium-high-tech products. - Highlights: ► We compare the energy content in manufacturing exports in advanced and emerging economies. ► We suggest a methodology to disentangle export structure and sectoral energy efficiency effects. ► Large emerging economies present high energy content in manufacturing exports. ► China increased its relative energy usage in the exports of all technological categories of goods.

  16. Estimating the rebound effect in US manufacturing energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The energy price shocks of the 1970s are usually assumed to have increased the search for new energy saving technologies where eventual gains in energy efficiencies will reduce the real per unit price of energy services and hence, the consumption of energy will rise and partially offset the initial reduction in the usage of energy sources. This is the 'rebound effect', which is estimated for the US manufacturing sector using time series data applying the dynamic OLS method (DOLS). When allowing for asymmetric price effects the rebound effect is found to be approximately 24% for the US manufacturing sector

  17. Evaluation of environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) for sustainable manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Seop; Park, Sun Joon; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing energy consumption has become a critical issue in manufacturing. The semiconductor industry in particular is confronted with environmental regulations on pollution associated with electric energy, chemical, and ultrapure water (UPW) consumptions. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a key process for planarization of dielectrics and metal films in ultra-large-scale integrated circuits. The steps in the CMP process are idling, conditioning, wetting, wafer loading/unloading, head dropping, polishing, and rinsing. The electric energy, CMP slurry, and UPW consumptions associated with the process and their impacts on global warming are evaluated from an environmental standpoint. The estimates of electric energy, slurry, and UPW consumptions as well as the associated greenhouse gas emissions presented in this paper will provide a technical aid for reducing the environmental burden associated with electricity consumption during the CMP process.

  18. Energy demand in Portuguese manufacturing: a two-stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, A.M.; Pereira, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    We use a two-stage model of factor demand to estimate the parameters determining energy demand in Portuguese manufacturing. In the first stage, a capital-labor-energy-materials framework is used to analyze the substitutability between energy as a whole and other factors of production. In the second stage, total energy demand is decomposed into oil, coal and electricity demands. The two stages are fully integrated since the energy composite used in the first stage and its price are obtained from the second stage energy sub-model. The estimates obtained indicate that energy demand in manufacturing responds significantly to price changes. In addition, estimation results suggest that there are important substitution possibilities among energy forms and between energy and other factors of production. The role of price changes in energy-demand forecasting, as well as in energy policy in general, is clearly established. (author)

  19. Method for producing chemical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2004-09-21

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles having a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer are prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  20. An analysis of buildings-related energy use in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niefer, M.J.; Ashton, W.B.

    1997-04-01

    This report presents research by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop improved estimates of buildings-related energy use in US manufacturing facilities. The research was supported by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The research scope includes only space conditioning and lighting end uses. In addition, this study also estimates the energy savings potential for application of selected commercial buildings technologies being developed by the BTS office to manufacturing and other industrial process facilities. 17 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. The role of chemical engineering in space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.; Erstfeld, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of factors involved in space manufacturing is presented. It is shown that it will be more economical to obtain the necessary raw materials from the moon than from earth due to earth's greater gravity and atmosphere. Discussion covers what resources can be mined and recovered from the moon and what ranges of industrial feedstock can be provided from lunar materials, noting that metallurgy will be different in space due to the lack of key elements such as H, C, Na, Cl, etc. Also covered are chemical plant design, space environmental factors such as vacuum and zero gravity, recycling requirments, reagent and equipment mass, and unit operations such as materials handling and phase separation. It is concluded that a pilot plant in space could be an economic boon to mankind.

  2. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) 2015 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Mone, Christopher; Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Das, Sujit; Mann, Margaret; Gossett, Scott

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber. This booklet summarizes key findings of CEMAC work to date, describes CEMAC's research methodology, and describes work to come.

  3. Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA)Users Manual (Version 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.

    2003-01-27

    The Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) is a software tool that predicts manufactured home energy consumption and recommends weatherization retrofit measures. It was developed to assist local weatherization agencies working with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. Whether new or experienced, employed within or outside the Weatherization Assistance Program, all users can benefit from incorporating MHEA into their manufactured home weatherization programs. DOE anticipates that the state weatherization assistance programs that incorporate MHEA into their programs will find significant growth in the energy and cost savings achieved from manufactured home weatherization. The easy-to-use MHEA uses a relatively standard Windows graphical interface for entering simple inputs and provides understandable, usable results. The user enters information about the manufactured home construction, heating equipment, cooling equipment appliances, and weather site. MHEA then calculates annual energy consumption using a simplified building energy analysis technique. Weatherization retrofit measures are evaluated based on the predicted energy savings after installation of the measure, the measure cost, and the measure life. Finally, MHEA recommends retrofit measures that are energy and cost effective for the particular home being evaluated. MHEA evaluates each manufactured home individually and takes into account local weather conditions, retrofit measure costs, and fuel costs. The recommended package of weatherization retrofit measures is tailored to the home being evaluated. More traditional techniques apply the same package of retrofit measures to all manufactured homes, often the same set of measures that are installed into site-built homes. Effective manufactured home weatherization can be achieved only by installing measures developed specifically for manufactured homes. The unique manufactured home construction characteristics require that

  4. Energy-efficiency based classification of the manufacturing workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumuşanu, G.; Afteni, C.; Badea, N.; Epureanu, A.

    2017-08-01

    EU Directive 92/75/EC established for the first time an energy consumption labelling scheme, further implemented by several other directives. As consequence, nowadays many products (e.g. home appliances, tyres, light bulbs, houses) have an EU Energy Label when offered for sale or rent. Several energy consumption models of manufacturing equipments have been also developed. This paper proposes an energy efficiency - based classification of the manufacturing workstation, aiming to characterize its energetic behaviour. The concept of energy efficiency of the manufacturing workstation is defined. On this base, a classification methodology has been developed. It refers to specific criteria and their evaluation modalities, together to the definition & delimitation of energy efficiency classes. The energy class position is defined after the amount of energy needed by the workstation in the middle point of its operating domain, while its extension is determined by the value of the first coefficient from the Taylor series that approximates the dependence between the energy consume and the chosen parameter of the working regime. The main domain of interest for this classification looks to be the optimization of the manufacturing activities planning and programming. A case-study regarding an actual lathe classification from energy efficiency point of view, based on two different approaches (analytical and numerical) is also included.

  5. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  6. Efficiency of manufacturing processes energy and ecological perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

     This monograph presents a reliable methodology for characterising the energy and eco-efficiency of unit manufacturing processes. The Specific Energy Consumption, SEC, will be identified as the key indicator for the energy efficiency of unit processes.  An empirical approach will be validated on different machine tools and manufacturing processes to depict the relationship between process parameters and energy consumptions. Statistical results and additional validation runs will corroborate the high level of accuracy in predicting the energy consumption. In relation to the eco-efficiency, the value and the associated environmental impacts of  manufacturing processes will also be discussed. The interrelationship between process parameters, process value and the associated environmental impact will be integrated in the evaluation of eco-efficiency. The book concludes with a further investigation of the results in order to develop strategies for further efficiency improvement. The target audience primarily co...

  7. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  8. Managing Your Energy; An Energy Star Guide for Identifying Energy Savings in Manufacturing Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Angelini, T.; Masanet, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, industry spends over $100 billion annually to power its manufacturing plants. Companies also spend on maintenance, capital outlay, and energy services. Improving energy efficiency is vital to reduce these costs and increase earnings. Many cost-effective opportunities to reduce

  9. 75 FR 7556 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... climatic differences should be addressed through a singular energy standard addressing manufactured homes... (e.g., ENERGY STAR) and/or the analysis that DOE should conduct in assessing such programs. (10... has concluded its review. DOE intends to develop a regulatory impact analysis (RIA), also identified...

  10. The Current State of Additive Manufacturing in Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmer, Sierra [Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), , Worcester, MA (United States); Lee, Dominic [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, Dale Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richardson, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Wind power is an inexhaustible form of energy that is being captured throughout the U.S. to power the engine of our economy. A robust, domestic wind industry promises to increase U.S. industry growth and competitiveness, strengthen U.S. energy security independence, and promote domestic manufacturing nationwide. As of 2016, ~82GW of wind capacity had been installed, and wind power now provides more than 5.5% of the nation’s electricity and supports more than 100,000 domestic jobs, including 500 manufacturing facilities in 43 States. To reach the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) 2015 Wind Vision study scenario of wind power serving 35% of the nation's end-use demand by 2050, significant advances are necessary in all areas of wind technologies and market. An area that can greatly impact the cost and rate of innovation in wind technologies is the use of advanced manufacturing, with one of the most promising areas being additive manufacturing (AM). Considering the tremendous promise offered by advanced manufacturing, it is the purpose of this report to identify the use of AM in the production and operation of wind energy systems. The report has been produced as a collaborative effort for the DOE Wind Energy Technology Office (WETO), between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  11. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

  12. First-Annual Global Clean Energy Manufacturing Report Shows Strong Domestic Benefits for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EERE Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) commissioned the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center to conduct the first-ever annual assessment of the economic state of global clean energy manufacturing. The report, Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing, makes economic data on clean energy technology widely available.

  13. Manufactured Doubt: The Campaign Against Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, N. L.

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear electricity is a CO2 free technology with a proven track record of large scale commercial deployment. For example, France generates 78% of its electrical power with nuclear plants. France has the lowest pre-tax cost of electricity in Europe at 4.75 eurocents per KWH and France is the world's largest exporter of electricity. There are large world reserves of uranium sufficient for hundreds of years, even without breeder technology. Additionally, thorium, another radioactive mineral is in even more plentiful supply. Although present-day nuclear technology has proven to be safe and reliable, waiting in the wings is new generation technology that promises great improvements in both safety and cost. Yet, there has been a calculated and sophisticated campaign in the later part of the 20th century to create doubt and fear concerning nuclear power. In the United States this campaign has essentially destroyed the nuclear industry. No new plants have been commissioned for decades. Leadership in the nuclear power field has been ceded to other countries. The great paradox is that the very organizations that express great alarm concerning CO2 emissions are the same organizations that led the campaign against nuclear power decades ago. Representatives of these organizations will say privately that they are taking a new look at nuclear power, but no major organization has reversed course and become a supporter of nuclear power. To do so would involve a loss of face and create doubts concerning the credibility of the organization. As recently as 2001 environmentalist lobbyists made great efforts to ensure that no credit could be given for nuclear power under the Kyoto accords and the associated clean development mechanism. They succeeded and nuclear power receives unfavorable treatment under the Kyoto accords even though it is a proven solution for reducing CO2 emissions. The technique used to destroy nuclear energy as a viable alternative in the United States had two

  14. Energy prices and substitution in United States manufacturing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Cheryl

    Persistent regional disparities in electricity prices, growth in wholesale power markets, and recent deregulation attempts have intensified interest in the performance of the U.S. electric power industry, while skyrocketing fuel prices have brought renewed interest in the effect of changes in prices of all energy types on the U.S. economy. This dissertation examines energy prices and substitution between energy types in U.S. manufacturing. I use a newly constructed database that includes information on purchased electricity and electricity expenditures for more than 48,000 plants per year and additional data on the utilities that supply electricity to study the distribution of electricity prices paid by U.S. manufacturing plants from 1963 to 2000. I find a large compression in the dispersion of electricity prices from 1963 to 1978 due primarily to a decrease in quantity discounts for large electricity purchasers. I also find that spatial dispersion in retail electricity prices among states, counties and utility service territories is large, rises over time for smaller purchasers, and does not diminish as wholesale power markets expand in the 1990s. In addition, I examine energy type consumption patterns, prices, and substitution in U.S. manufacturing plants. I develop a plant-level dataset for 1998 with data on consumption and expenditures on energy and non-energy production inputs, output, and other plant characteristics. I find energy type consumption patterns vary widely across manufacturing plants. Further, I find a large amount of dispersion across plants in the prices paid for electricity, oil, natural gas, and coal. These high levels of dispersion are accounted for by the plant's location, industry, and purchase quantity. Finally, I present estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for both the energy and non-energy production inputs.

  15. Energy, economy, and environment analysis and optimization on manufacturing plant energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lujia; Mears, Laine; Beaufort, Cleveland; Schulte, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are proposed. • Objectives of energy, economy, and environment are proved conflicting. • 3-input-5-output energy supply system of an automotive plant is studied. - Abstract: Increasing attention has recently been drawn to energy consumption in manufacturing plants. Facing the challenges from reducing emissions coupled with rising raw material prices and energy costs, manufacturers are trying to balance the energy usage strategy among the total energy consumption, economy, and environment, which can be self-conflicting at times. In this paper, energy systems in manufacturing environments are reviewed, and the current status of onsite energy system and renewable energy usage are discussed. Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are effectively formulated for making the best use of energy delivered to the production processes. Energy supply operation suggestions based on the optimization results are obtained. Finally, an example from an automotive assembly manufacturer is described to demonstrate the energy usage in the current manufacturing plants and how the optimization approaches can be applied to satisfy the energy management objectives. According to the optimization results, in an energy oriented operation, it takes 35% more in monetary cost; while in an economy oriented operation, it takes 17% more in megawatt hour energy supply and tends to rely more on the inexpensive renewable energy.

  16. Innovations in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Sustainable Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, nuclear energy will become increasingly important in providing the electricity and heat needed both by the presently industrialized countries and by those countries which are now developing their manufacturing industries. The twin concerns of global climate change and of the vulnerability of energy supplies caused by increasing international competition will lead to a greater reliance on nuclear energy for both electricity and process heat. Conservative estimates of new nuclear construction indicate a 50% increase in capacity by 2030. Other estimates predict a tripling of present capacity. Required machine tool technologies will include the improvements in the manufacture of standard LWR components, such as pressure vessels and pumps. Further in the future, technologies for working high temperature metals and ceramics will be needed and will require new machining capabilities.

  17. Innovations in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Sustainable Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Stephen Herring

    2010-10-01

    Abstract Over the next 50 years, nuclear energy will become increasingly important in providing the electricity and heat needed both by the presently industrialized countries and by those countries which are now developing their manufacturing industries. The twin concerns of global climate change and of the vulnerability of energy supplies caused by increasing international competition will lead to a greater reliance on nuclear energy for both electricity and process heat. Conservative estimates of new nuclear construction indicate a 50% increase in capacity by 2030. Other estimates predict a tripling of present capacity. Required machine tool technologies will include the improvements in the manufacture of standard LWR components, such as pressure vessels and pumps. Further in the future, technologies for working high temperature metals and ceramics will be needed and will require new machining capabilities.

  18. Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Danestig, Maria; Rohdin, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue

  19. Energy Efficiency Tracking in Thai Manufacturing Sector by Decomposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsapai Wongkot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of energy saving and changes in energy intensities in Thai manufacturing sector by Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition technique. This method includes three effects consists of the energy intensity effect, the structural effect and the effect of the economic growth on the energy consumption in Thailand by using the 25-year annual data from 1990 to 2014, carried out in four phases; (i before National Energy Conservation law, (ii during the effect of the law, (iii Transition period of the law from first to second version, and (iv during the effect of the law (No.2. We found that the most effective intensity effect is in the third phase due to the effect of the implementation of new energy efficient equipment from the second phase by enforcement of the law, especially in non-metallic sector, while the first phase illustrates the lowest intensity effect due to the energy conservation law had not been occurred. However, due to the highest economic growth of the country and change from agricultural to industrial development direction, the first phase presents the most effective structural effect, then this effect continuously decreased by time. We also conclude that the energy conservation law have direct effect to energy efficiency of the country however, strictly individual regulation which have target to enforce to energy intensive industries is still required for sustainable energy efficiency improvement.

  20. Managing Your Energy: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Identifying Energy Savings in Manufacturing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Angelini, Tana; Masanet, Eric

    2010-07-27

    In the United States, industry spends over $100 billion annually to power its manufacturing plants. Companies also spend on maintenance, capital outlay, and energy services. Improving energy efficiency is vital to reduce these costs and increase earnings. Many cost-effective opportunities to reduce energy consumption are available, and this Energy Guide discusses energy-efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be applied over a broad spectrum of companies. Strategies in the guide address hot water and steam, compressed air, pumps, motors, fans, lighting, refrigeration, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. This guide includes descriptions of expected energy and cost savings, based on real-world applications, typical payback periods, and references to more detailed information. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers achieve cost-effective energy reductions while maintaining product quality. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  1. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  2. LMDI Decomposition Analysis of Energy Consumption in the Korean Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyi Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption of Korea’s manufacturing sector has sharply increased over the past 20 years. This paper decomposes the factors influencing energy consumption in this sector using the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method and analyzes the specific characteristics of energy consumption from 1991 to 2011. The analysis reveals that the activity effect played a major role in increasing energy consumption. While the structure and intensity effects contributed to the reduction in energy consumption, the structure effect was greater than the intensity effect. Over the periods, the effects moved in opposite directions; that is, the structure effect decreased when the intensity effect increased and vice versa. The energy consumption by each industry is decomposed into two factors, activity and intensity effects. The increase of energy consumption due to the activity effect is largest in the petroleum and chemical industry, followed by the primary metal and non-ferrous industry, and the fabricated metal industry. The decrease of energy consumption due to the intensity effect is largest in the fabricated metal industry, followed by the primary metal and non-ferrous industry, and the non-metallic industry. The energy consumption due to intensity effect in the petroleum and chemical industry has risen. To save energy consumption more efficiently for addressing climate change in this sector, industrial restructuring and industry-specific energy saving policies should be introduced.

  3. Empirical investigation of energy efficiency barriers in Italian manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Worrell, Ernst; Pugliese, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The paper identifies and evaluates barriers to industrial energy efficiency through the investigation of 48 manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Northern Italy. The research provides interesting suggestions both for enterprises and energy policy-makers. Firstly, economic and information barriers are perceived as the major obstacles to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies, whilst behavioural barriers do not seem to affect enterprises very much. Nonetheless, despite what declared, the most relevant barriers are the lack of interest in energy efficiency and the existence of other priorities, thus showing that decision-makers tend to downgrade energy efficiency to a marginal issue. Furthermore, perceived barriers do not take place exclusively in implementing energy-efficient technologies, but, with comparable importance, also in generating the interest and knowledge of the opportunities. Moreover, the study highlights that relevant differences can be appreciated for both perceived and real barriers even among SMEs, that thus should not be bundled together. In addition to that, other factors affect barriers, stimulating future research: indeed, lower real barriers can be observed with higher complexity of the production, high variability of the demand and strong competitors. -- Highlights: ► Evidence of existing misalignments between perceived and real barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. ► Relevance of barriers to the generation of interest towards energy efficiency. ► Evidence of firm's size (within SMEs) and energy expenditures on barriers to energy efficiency. ► Importance, for energy efficiency barriers, of avoid bundling SMEs as a whole. ► Preliminary evidence of factors related to supply chain complexity affecting barriers to energy efficiency.

  4. Energy conservation and efficiency in manufacturing: Employee decisions and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Marla D.

    Energy conservation and intensity reduction efforts are becoming increasingly more prevalent and ultimately necessary, especially for energy-intensive manufacturing companies in particular to stay in business. Typical actions are to change technology, and thus, realize an energy cost savings in overall utilities. However, in today's competitive market, with climate change and other environmental impacts as well, it is necessary for the cost of energy to be valued as a cost of making a product, and thus, managed at the same level as the cost of labor or materials. This research assessed human behavior at the individual and organizational levels both at work and at home that either prompted or prohibited employees from taking daily action to conserve energy or develop greater energy efficient practices. Ultimately, the questions began with questions regarding employee views and knowledge of energy at work and at home and what drives both behaviors toward conservation or efficiency. And, the contribution identifies the key drivers, barriers, and/or incentives that affect those behaviors. The results of this study show that the key driver and motivator for energy conservation both at home and work is cost savings. The study showed that to further motivate individuals to conserve energy at home and work, more knowledge of the impact their actions have or could have as well as tools would be needed. The most poinient aspect of the research was the level of importance placed on energy conservation and the desire to conserve. The feedback given to the open ended questions was quite impressive regarding what employees have done and continue to do particularly within their homes to conserve energy. These findings brought about final recommendations that were in fact not expected but could significantly influence an increase in energy conservation at work by leveraging the existing desire to conserve which is a key component to decision making.

  5. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  6. 77 FR 43863 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on June 8, 2012, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals...

  7. 78 FR 39340 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on May 31, 2013, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals...

  8. Chemical constitution, physical properties, and biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Chan; Kim, Do-Hee; Hwang, In-Nam; Song, Sun-Ju; Park, Yeong-Joon; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Son, Ho-Hyun; Oh, Won-Mann

    2011-01-01

    An experimental Portland cement was manufactured with pure raw materials under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical constitution, physical properties, and biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured Portland cement with those of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement. The composition of the cements was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX). The setting time and compressive strength were tested. The biocompatibility was evaluated by using SEM and XTT assay. SEM and EDAX revealed the experimental Portland cement to have a similar composition to Portland cement. The setting time of the experimental Portland cement was significantly shorter than that of MTA and Portland cement. The compressive strength of the experimental Portland cement was lower than that of MTA and Portland cement. The experimental Portland cement showed a similar biocompatibility to MTA. The experimental Portland cement might be considered as a possible substitute for MTA in clinical usage after further testing. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture and processing in the special production area. All manufacturing, processing, and use operations... shape or design during manufacture, (ii) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part... production area, the ambient air concentration of the new chemical substance during manufacture, processing...

  10. 76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... 1117-AB24 Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic... for the List I chemicals ergotamine and ergonovine to illicitly manufacture the schedule I controlled..., due to growing concerns regarding its use for the illicit manufacture of LSD. [[Page 17779...

  11. Co-Extrusion: Advanced Manufacturing for Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Corie Lynn [PARC, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    The development of mass markets for large-format batteries, including electric vehicles (EVs) and grid support, depends on both cost reductions and performance enhancements to improve their economic viability. Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) has developed a multi-material, advanced manufacturing process called co-extrusion (CoEx) to remove multiple steps in a conventional battery coating process with the potential to simultaneously increase battery energy and power density. CoEx can revolutionize battery manufacturing across most chemistries, significantly lowering end-product cost and shifting the underlying economics to make EVs and other battery applications a reality. PARC’s scale-up of CoEx for electric vehicle (EV) batteries builds on a solid base of experience in applying CoEx to solar cell manufacturing, deposition of viscous ceramic pastes, and Li-ion battery chemistries. In the solar application, CoEx has been deployed commercially at production scale where multi-channel CoEx printheads are used to print viscous silver gridline pastes at full production speeds (>40 ft/min). This operational scale-up provided invaluable experience with the nuances of speed, yield, and maintenance inherent in taking a new technology to the factory floor. PARC has leveraged this experience, adapting the CoEx process for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery manufacturing. To date, PARC has worked with Li-ion battery materials and structured cathodes with high-density Li-ion regions and low-density conduction regions, documenting both energy and power performance. Modeling results for a CoEx cathode show a path towards a 10-20% improvement in capacity for an EV pouch cell. Experimentally, we have realized a co-extruded battery structure with a Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) cathode at print speeds equivalent to conventional roll coating processes. The heterogeneous CoEx cathode enables improved capacity in thick electrodes at higher C-rates. The proof-of-principle coin cells

  12. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA). State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets—like human capital and modern infrastructure–as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  13. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.; Doris, E.

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets--like human capital and modern infrastructure--as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  14. System for manufacturing ash products and energy from refuse waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutin, G.L.; Mahoney, P.F.

    1996-01-04

    The present invention provides a system of manufacturing energy and ash products from solid waste. The system includes apparatus for receiving solid waste for processing, apparatus for shredding the received solid waste, apparatus for removing ferrous material from the shredded solid waste to create processed refuse fuel (PRF) and apparatus for efficiently combusting the PRF. A conveyor transfers the PRF to the combusting apparatus such that the density of the PRF is always controlled for continuous non-problematic flow. Apparatus for recovering residual combustion particulate from the combustion residual gases and for recovering solid ash residue provides the system with the ability to generate steam and electrical energy, and to recover for reuse and recycling valuable materials from the solid ash residue. (author) figs.

  15. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L{sup -1}). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  16. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L -1 ). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  17. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L(-1)). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and mineral content), energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and ...

  19. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration

  20. Energy consumption of chemical uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, T.; Takeda, K.; Obanawa, H.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative study of chemical separation energy for enriching uranium-235 by the redox chromatography was conducted. Isotope exchange reactions between U 4+ -UO 2 2+ ions in the enrichment column are maintained by the redox reactions. The chemical separation energy is ultimately supplied by hydrogen and oxygen gas for regenerating redox agents. The redox energy for the isotope separation is theoretically predicted as a function of the dynamic enrichment factor observed in the chromatographic development of uranium adsorption band. Thermodynamic treatments of the equilibrium reactions implies and inverse redox reaction which can be enhanced by the chemical potential of the ion-exchange reaction of oxidant. Experimental results showed 30 to 90% recovery of the redox energy by the inverse reaction. These results will devise a simplified redox chromatography process where a number of columns in one module is reduced

  1. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  2. Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatt, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA's Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense programs toward environmental restoration and waste management has affected these newly forming process safety management programs within DOE. This paper describes the progress made in implementing effective process safety management programs required by the PSM Standard and discusses some of the trends that have supported efforts to reduce chemical process risks within the DOE. In June of 1994, a survey of chemicals exceeding OSHA PSM or EPA Risk Management Program threshold quantities (TQs) at DOE sites found that there were 22 processes that utilized toxic or reactive chemicals over TQs; there were 13 processes involving flammable gases and liquids over TQs; and explosives manufacturing occurred at 4 sites. Examination of the survey results showed that 12 of the 22 processes involving toxic chemicals involved the use of chlorine for water treatment systems. The processes involving flammable gases and liquids were located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Naval petroleum Reserve sites

  3. Energy-climate-manufacturing nexus: New insights from the regional and global supply chains of manufacturing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukvar, Murat; Cansev, Bunyamin; Egilmez, Gokhan; Onat, Nuri C.; Samadi, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi region input–output sustainability assessment model is developed. • Energy-climate-manufacturing nexus within the context of global supply chains is investigated. • Electricity, Gas, and Water Supply sector is the main contributor to energy and carbon impacts. • Turkish regional manufacturing accounts for approximately 40–60% of total carbon emissions. • China, USA, and Rest-of-the World have the largest shares in the Turkish global energy footprint. - Abstract: The main objectives of this research are to improve our understanding of energy-climate-manufacturing nexus within the context of regional and global manufacturing supply chains as well as show the significance of full coverage of entire supply chain tiers in order to prevent significant underestimations, which might lead to invalid policy conclusions. With this motivation, a multi region input–output (MRIO) sustainability assessment model is developed by using the World Input–Output Database, which is a dynamic MRIO framework on the world’s 40 largest economies covering 1440 economic sectors. The method presented in this study is the first environmentally-extended MRIO model that harmonizes energy and carbon footprint accounts for Turkish manufacturing sectors and a global trade-linked carbon and energy footprint analysis of Turkish manufacturing sectors is performed as a case study. The results are presented by distinguishing the contributions of five common supply chain phases such as upstream suppliers, onsite manufacturing, transportation, wholesale, and retail trade. The findings showed that onsite and upstream supply chains are found to have over 90% of total energy use and carbon footprint for all industrial sectors. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply sector is usually found to be as the main contributor to global climate change, and Coke, Refined Petroleum, and Nuclear Fuel sector is the main driver of energy use in upstream supply chains. Overall, the

  4. The energy future and the chemical fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockris, J.O'M.

    1976-01-01

    An account is first given of the origin of present chemical fuels, with particular reference to the lastingness of coal. Methods of estimation of these fuels are discussed and the greenhouse effect arising from the burning of coal is described. Consideration is then given to methods available for extending the uses of chemical fuels, including interfacing them with new inexhaustible, clean energy sources. Finally, accounts are given of the Hydrogen Economy and of the production of chemical fuels from wind energy in massive wind belts. The paper includes references to the part that nuclear power was expected to play in future energy policy. Problems of breeder reactor development and the safety and management of plutonium and radioactive wastes are discussed. (author)

  5. Advanced surface chemical analysis of continuously manufactured drug loaded composite pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akter; Nandi, Uttom; Fule, Ritesh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterise polymeric composite pellets by means of continuous melt extrusion techniques. Powder blends of a steroid hormone (SH) as a model drug and either ethyl cellulose (EC N10 and EC P7 grades) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC AS grade) as polymeric carrier were extruded using a Pharma 11mm twin screw extruder in a continuous mode of operation to manufacture extruded composite pellets of 1mm length. Molecular modelling study using commercial Gaussian 09 software outlined a possible drug-polymer interaction in the molecular level to develop solid dispersions of the drug in the pellets. Solid-state analysis conducted via a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses revealed the amorphous state of the drug in the polymer matrices. Surface analysis using SEM/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) of the produced pellets arguably showed a homogenous distribution of the C and O atoms in the pellet matrices. Moreover, advanced chemical surface analysis conducted via atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a homogenous phase system having the drug molecule dispersed onto the amorphous matrices while Raman mapping confirmed the homogenous single-phase drug distribution in the manufactured composite pellets. Such composite pellets are expected to deliver multidisciplinary applications in drug delivery and medical sciences by e.g. modifying drug solubility/dissolutions or stabilizing the unstable drug (e.g. hormone, protein) in the composite network. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Research progress about chemical energy storage of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haifeng; Xie, Gengxin; Jie, Zheng; Hui, Xiong; Yang, Duan; Du, Chaojun

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the application of solar energy has been shown obvious advantages. Solar energy is being discontinuity and inhomogeneity, so energy storage technology becomes the key to the popularization and utilization of solar energy. Chemical storage is the most efficient way to store and transport solar energy. In the first and the second section of this paper, we discuss two aspects about the solar energy collector / reactor, and solar energy storage technology by hydrogen production, respectively. The third section describes the basic application of solar energy storage system, and proposes an association system by combining solar energy storage and power equipment. The fourth section briefly describes several research directions which need to be strengthened.

  7. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chemicals which could be used to manufacture controlled substances. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Food and Drugs... manufacture controlled substances. (a) A Federal department or agency may not sell from the stocks of the... Administration, could be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, unless the Administrator certifies in...

  8. THE CLEAN ENERGY MANUFACTURING JOB MARKET AND ITS ROLE IN THE UNITED STATES ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Plaskacz, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of green jobs in the United States, with a focus on synthesizing various estimates of the current and future number of green jobs, and relating these to estimates of the future number of clean energy manufacturing jobs. In doing so, it answers the following two research questions: ?can lost manufacturing jobs become clean energy jobs?? and ?can existing manufacturing jobs be saved from disappearing by transforming into clean energy jobs?? By combining current f...

  9. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aneldavh

    116. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and amino acid availability of grain legumes for poultry. T.S. Brand. 1, 2,3#. , D.A. Brandt. 1, 2,4 and C.W. ... alternatives (Wiseman, 1987; Brand et al., 1995). ..... The Ca, P and trace element concentrations for lupins, faba beans and peas recorded in the present.

  10. Small wind in Canada's energy future : fostering domestic manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads-Weaver, H.; Gluckman, M.; Weis, T.; Moorhouse, J.; Taylor, A.; Maissan, J.; Sherwood, L.; Whittaker, S.

    2008-01-01

    While large-scale wind power projects are sustaining a 30 per cent annual growth rate, residential-scale wind power is increasingly being adopted in Germany, Japan, and the United States. This presentation discussed the benefits associated with fostering strong domestic wind turbine markets in Canada. Small wind turbine markets typically consist of grid-connected, net-metered turbines of less than 1 kW, off-grid micro-turbines used for battery charging, and net-metered, grid-connected, mid-sized turbines larger than 10 kW used in farming and small business applications. Continued energy price hikes are expected to cause the rapid growth of distributed generation, and nearly half of the world's 10 to 300 kW wind turbine generator manufacturers are located in Canada. However, federal support for small-scale distributed wind systems is lacking, and financial incentives are needed to mature the technology in Canada and leverage private investment. The use of decentralized energy will help to prevent line losses and reduce peak demands on the electricity grid. Use of the technology offers farms and small businesses a revenue stream and can reduce energy costs and demands. It is also expected that small wind jobs in Canada will grow from 50 to 640 by 2025. It was concluded that in order to ensure small wind development, capital cost incentive levels must be coupled with good interconnection and permitting policies. In addition, minimum safety and performance standards must be developed, along with rebate policies and siting analysis methods. tabs., figs

  11. Decoupling Economic Growth and Energy Use. An Empirical Cross-Country Analysis for 10 Manufacturing Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, P. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); De Groot, H.L.F. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of decoupling economic growth and energy use and its various determinants by exploring trends in energy- and labour productivity across 10 manufacturing sectors and 14 OECD countries for the period 1970-1997. We explicitly aim to trace back aggregate developments in the manufacturing sector to developments at the level of individual subsectors. A cross-country decomposition analysis reveals that in some countries structural changes contributed considerably to aggregate manufacturing energy-productivity growth and, hence, to decoupling, while in other countries they partly offset energy-efficiency improvements. In contrast, structural changes only play a minor role in explaining aggregate manufacturing labour-productivity developments. Furthermore, we find labour-productivity growth to be higher on average than energy-productivity growth. Over time, this bias towards labour-productivity growth is increasing in the aggregate manufacturing sector, while it is decreasing in most manufacturing subsectors.

  12. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP.

  13. Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, Andrea M. [Millennium Institute, 2111 Wilson Blvd, Suite 700, Arlington, VA 22201 (United States); University of Bergen, Postboks 7800, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Yudken, Joel S. [High Road Strategies, LLC, 104 N. Columbus Street, Arlington, VA 22203 (United States); Ruth, Matthias [University of Maryland, 3139 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study examines the impacts of energy price changes resulting from different carbon-pricing policies on the competitiveness of selected US energy-intensive industries. It further examines possible industry responses, and identifies and provides a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. The industry sectors investigated - steel, aluminum, chemicals and paper - are among the largest industrial users of fossil fuels in the US economy. The results of this examination show that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competitiveness of US energy-intensive manufacturing sectors over the next two decades, if climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies. The extent of these impacts will vary across industries, depending on their energy intensities, the mix of energy sources they rely on and how energy is used in production activities (heat and power, feedstock). Of relevance is also the speed and rigor with which industries adopt new technologies and retire (or replace) old ones. Other factors affecting these impacts include an industry's vulnerability to foreign imports and its ability to pass through cost increases to its customers in the face of international market competition. (author)

  14. Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Andrea M.; Yudken, Joel S.; Ruth, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impacts of energy price changes resulting from different carbon-pricing policies on the competitiveness of selected US energy-intensive industries. It further examines possible industry responses, and identifies and provides a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. The industry sectors investigated - steel, aluminum, chemicals and paper - are among the largest industrial users of fossil fuels in the US economy. The results of this examination show that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competitiveness of US energy-intensive manufacturing sectors over the next two decades, if climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies. The extent of these impacts will vary across industries, depending on their energy intensities, the mix of energy sources they rely on and how energy is used in production activities (heat and power, feedstock). Of relevance is also the speed and rigor with which industries adopt new technologies and retire (or replace) old ones. Other factors affecting these impacts include an industry's vulnerability to foreign imports and its ability to pass through cost increases to its customers in the face of international market competition.

  15. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, International Fact Sheet (Spanish)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This English/Spanish fact sheet describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  16. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies (English/Portuguese Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This English/Portuguese brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IN THE FOOD MANUFACTURING, CHEMICAL, AGRICULTURAL WHOLESALING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Maude Roucan-Kane

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify factors determining a business investment strategy (i.e., the choice of investment commitment and form of organizational structure) in the food manufacturing, chemical, agricultural wholesaling and biotechnology industries. Propositions regarding strategic alliance theories are tested on over 400 inter-firm collaborative agreements using secondary data from major US and European companies for the 1994-97 period. Results suggest that transactions with...

  18. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  19. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  20. E3: Economy - Energy - Environment; Supporting Manufacturing Leadership through Sustainability

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The E3 initiative is designed to help you thrive in a new business era focused on sustainability and, working together, to promote sustainable manufacturing and...

  1. Analytics for smart energy management tools and applications for sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seog-Chan

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the issues and problems that arise when implementing smart energy management for sustainable manufacturing in the automotive manufacturing industry and the analytical tools and applications to deal with them. It uses a number of illustrative examples to explain energy management in automotive manufacturing, which involves most types of manufacturing technology and various levels of energy consumption. It demonstrates how analytical tools can help improve energy management processes, including forecasting, consumption, and performance analysis, emerging new technology identification as well as investment decisions for establishing smart energy consumption practices. It also details practical energy management systems, making it a valuable resource for professionals involved in real energy management processes, and allowing readers to implement the procedures and applications presented.

  2. Thermodynamic chemical energy transfer mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Heui-Seol

    2015-01-01

    Chemical energy transfer mechanisms at finite temperature are explored by a chemical energy transfer theory which is capable of investigating various chemical mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium. Gibbs energy fluxes are obtained as a function of chemical potential, time, and displacement. Diffusion, convection, internal convection, and internal equilibrium chemical energy fluxes are demonstrated. The theory reveals that there are chemical energy flux gaps and broken discrete symmetries at the activation chemical potential, time, and displacement. The statistical, thermodynamic theory is the unification of diffusion and internal convection chemical reactions which reduces to the non-equilibrium generalization beyond the quasi-equilibrium theories of migration and diffusion processes. The relationship between kinetic theories of chemical and electrochemical reactions is also explored. The theory is applied to explore non-equilibrium chemical reactions as an illustration. Three variable separation constants indicate particle number constants and play key roles in describing the distinct chemical reaction mechanisms. The kinetics of chemical energy transfer accounts for the four control mechanisms of chemical reactions such as activation, concentration, transition, and film chemical reactions. - Highlights: • Chemical energy transfer theory is proposed for non-, quasi-, and equilibrium. • Gibbs energy fluxes are expressed by chemical potential, time, and displacement. • Relationship between chemical and electrochemical reactions is discussed. • Theory is applied to explore nonequilibrium energy transfer in chemical reactions. • Kinetics of non-equilibrium chemical reactions shows the four control mechanisms

  3. Energy use efficiency in the Indian manufacturing sector: An interstate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Kankana

    2008-01-01

    This paper approaches the measurement of energy efficiency from a production theoretic framework and uses Data Envelopment Analysis to measure energy efficiency in the Indian manufacturing sector. Using data from the Annual Survey of Industries for the years 1998-99 through 2003-04, the study compares the energy efficiency in manufacturing across states, based on several models. The results show considerable variation in energy efficiency across states. Comparing the results across our models, we find that the relative pricing of energy does not provide the appropriate incentives for energy conservation. A second-stage regression analysis reveals that states with a larger share of manufacturing output in energy-intensive industries have lower energy efficiency. Also, higher quality labor force associates with higher energy efficiency. Finally, the power sector reforms have not yet had any significant impact on achieving energy efficiency

  4. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-10-01

    Manufactured, or HUD-Code, homes comprise a growing share of the housing stock in the Northwest, as well as nationally. Their relatively low cost has made them especially attractive to lower income families, first-time home-buyers, and retired persons. The characteristics of manufactured home (MH) buyers, the unique energy consumption characteristics of the homes, and their increasing market share make this market an especially critical one for energy consumption and conservation planning in the Northwest. This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that can potentially assist the design of a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. This study has the objective of assisting BPA in the development of a regional approach in which numerous organizations and parties would participate to achieve conservation in new manufactured homes. A previous survey and information collected for this study from regional dealers and manufacturers provide an indication of the energy conservation options being sold to manufactured home buyers in the PNW. Manufacturers in the Northwest appear to sell homes that usually exceed the HUD thermal requirements. Manufacturers typically offer efficiency improvements in packages that include fixed improvements in insulation levels, glazing, and infiltration control. Wholesale costs of these packages range from about $100 to $1500. Typical packages include significant upgrades in floor insulation values with modest upgrades in ceilings and walls. This study identifies trends and impacts that a marketing plan should consider to adequately address the financial concerns of manufactured home buyers.

  5. The Role of Energy Reservoirs in Distributed Computing: Manufacturing, Implementing, and Optimizing Energy Storage in Energy-Autonomous Sensor Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Martin Andrew

    The world already hosts more internet connected devices than people, and that ratio is only increasing. These devices seamlessly integrate with peoples lives to collect rich data and give immediate feedback about complex systems from business, health care, transportation, and security. As every aspect of global economies integrate distributed computing into their industrial systems and these systems benefit from rich datasets. Managing the power demands of these distributed computers will be paramount to ensure the continued operation of these networks, and is elegantly addressed by including local energy harvesting and storage on a per-node basis. By replacing non-rechargeable batteries with energy harvesting, wireless sensor nodes will increase their lifetimes by an order of magnitude. This work investigates the coupling of high power energy storage with energy harvesting technologies to power wireless sensor nodes; with sections covering device manufacturing, system integration, and mathematical modeling. First we consider the energy storage mechanism of supercapacitors and batteries, and identify favorable characteristics in both reservoir types. We then discuss experimental methods used to manufacture high power supercapacitors in our labs. We go on to detail the integration of our fabricated devices with collaborating labs to create functional sensor node demonstrations. With the practical knowledge gained through in-lab manufacturing and system integration, we build mathematical models to aid in device and system design. First, we model the mechanism of energy storage in porous graphene supercapacitors to aid in component architecture optimization. We then model the operation of entire sensor nodes for the purpose of optimally sizing the energy harvesting and energy reservoir components. In consideration of deploying these sensor nodes in real-world environments, we model the operation of our energy harvesting and power management systems subject to

  6. Prioritization of manufacturing sectors in Serbia for energy management improvement – AHP method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanović, Bojana; Filipović, Jovan; Bakić, Vukman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We used AHP method to prioritize manufacturing sectors in Serbia. • Priorities for energy management improvement according to five criteria. • Rank 1 – “Manufacture of food products”. • Rank 2 – “Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers”. • Rank 3 – “Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products”. - Abstract: Manufacturing, which is destined to play the most significant role in the reindustrialization of Serbia is also one of the largest energy consumers and environmental polluters. In accordance with this, a large number of energy and environment management initiatives have been implemented over the years. In developed countries, these initiatives are at an advanced level, but not in Serbia. A group of manufacturers in Serbia has recognized the significance of the environmental initiatives implementation, but the interest in energy management improvement has remained low. Although these initiatives can be used to achieve cost reduction in industry, not all the manufacturing sectors equally value the importance of energy management improvement. Among all the manufacturing sectors, it is necessary to prioritize those with the potentials for energy management improvement, which can be done using different methods. In this paper, the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method was used to prioritize manufacturing sectors in Serbia in the area of energy management improvement. Using a created AHP questionnaires criteria weights were selected. These questionnaires were completed by the experts from the Serbian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, providing us with the opportunity to evaluate the Serbian manufacturing sectors based on the real life data. The results of the AHP method, which was used as the prioritization instrument, and their analysis are presented in the paper. As a part of a wider study, aimed at the improvement of the energy management in Serbia, the three manufacturing sectors with the highest

  7. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using an energy management strategy to drive improved business results and improve manufacturing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, Marc

    2010-09-15

    Energy typically represents the single largest controllable cost in manufacturing, and is under constant scrutiny by all levels of management. In this paper we will examine the role and components of an energy management strategy, and focus on the benefits of looking at the strategy from a business perspective. We will then examine the role that an effective program, either existing or new, can play in a collaborative manufacturing environment, and how these improvements can reduce energy requirements while maintaining, or improving productivity.

  9. Chemical metrology, strategic job for the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, Nuri; Munoz, Luis; Cortes, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The National Standardization Institute's (INN) Metrology unit prepared a study in 1996 to evaluate the impact of metrological activity in Chile. This study was based on a survey of the supply and demand of metrological services and on studies of the behavior of the production system and technological services in Chile during the period 1990-1996. With the information obtained in this study the economic impact resulting from the lack of a national metrology system could be evaluated. This impact was estimated to be a 5% loss in gross national product equal to 125-500 million dollars because of direct product rejection in the mining, fisheries, agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Chemical measurements are responsible for 50% of these losses. In response to this need and coordinated by the INN, a metrological network of reference laboratories began to operate in 1997 for the principal physical magnitudes (mass, temperature, longitude and force) and a CORFO-FDI project began in 2001 that includes the chemical magnitudes. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, aware of the problem's importance and the amount of economic damage that the country may suffer, as a result of these deficiencies, has formed a Chemical Metrology Unit to provide technical support. It aims to raise the standards of local analytical laboratories by providing international recognition to the export sector. Nuclear analytical techniques are used as reference methods. This work describes the laboratories that are included in this Chemical Metrology Unit and the historical contribution to the development of local analytical chemistry. The national and international projects are described together with the publications they have generated. The quality assurance program applied to the laboratories is described as well, which has led to the accreditation of the analytical chemical assays. The procedures used for validation and calculation of uncertain nuclear methodologies are described together with

  10. Minimum Energy Pathways for Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, S. P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such parameters as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method to obtain accurate energetics, gives useful results for a number of chemically important systems. The talk will focus on a number of applications to reactions leading to NOx and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion.

  11. Energy and environmental challenges to chemical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Research Council's report, Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, was written four years ago. Three high-priority research areas concerned with energy and the environment were identified in the report: in situ processing, liquid fuels for the future, and responsible management of hazardous wastes. As outlined in the recently released National Energy Strategy, in situ processing is viewed by the Department of Energy (DOE) primarily through its use in enhanced oil recovery, and some research is still funded. Industry, driven by the economics of low oil prices, is doing little research on in situ processing but much more on reservoir characterization, a prerequisite to processing. Research on liquid fuels for the future is driven more by environmental concerns now than by energy security concerns. It appears to be wise policy for the future to try to solve the alternative fuel problem as quickly and simply as possible. Otherwise, the nation will find itself with a costly and complex fuel and vehicle system that may have to be changed again in a generation. For the interim, we should look closely at reformulated gasoline followed by compressed natural gas, if necessary. In the long run, vehicle systems based on electricity seem most promising for the middle of the next century. To deliver this technology we need to capitalize on three new high-priority research areas: batteries, fuel cells, and nuclear power. For chemical engineers, future challenges of a different sort will be added to the technical challenges, among them are explaining to a skeptical public the wisdom of proceeding to design the interim system of alternative fuel(s) and to move expeditiously to a final solution

  12. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edward C.; Huxtable, Douglas D.

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  13. Fibre Laser Cutting and Chemical Etching of AZ31 for Manufacturing Biodegradable Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gökhan Demir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium-alloy stents shows promise as a less intrusive solution for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies as a result of the high biocompatibility of the material and its intrinsic dissolution in body fluids. However, in addition to requiring innovative solutions in material choice and design, these stents also require a greater understanding of the manufacturing process to achieve the desired quality with improved productivity. The present study demonstrates the manufacturing steps for the realisation of biodegradable stents in AZ31 magnesium alloy. These steps include laser microcutting with a Q-switched fibre laser for the generation of the stent mesh and subsequent chemical etching for the cleaning of kerf and surface finish. Specifically, for the laser microcutting step, inert and reactive gas cutting conditions were compared. The effect of chemical etching on the reduction in material thickness, as well as on spatter removal, was also evaluated. Prototype stents were produced, and the material composition and surface quality were characterised. The potentialities of combining nanosecond laser microcutting and chemical etching are shown and discussed.

  14. Additively Manufactured, Net Shape Powder Metallurgy Cans for Valves Used in Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, William H. [ORNL; Gandy, David [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Lannom, Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2018-01-01

    This CRADA NFE-14-05241 was conducted as a Technical Collaboration project within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) sponsored by the US Department of Energy Advanced Manufacturing Office (CPS Agreement Number 24761). Opportunities for MDF technical collaborations are listed in the announcement “Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Technology Collaborations for US Manufacturers in Advanced Manufacturing and Materials Technologies” posted at http://web.ornl.gov/sci/manufacturing/docs/FBO-ORNL-MDF-2013-2.pdf. The goal of technical collaborations is to engage industry partners to participate in short-term, collaborative projects within the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) to assess applicability and of new energy efficient manufacturing technologies. Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.ORNL would like to acknowledge the leadership of EPRI in pulling together the extensive team and managing the execution of the project. In addition, ORNL would like to acknowledge the other contributions of the team members associated with this project. Quintus provided time, access, expertise, and labor of their hydro forming capabilities to evaluate both conventional and additively manufactured tools through this process. Crane ChemPharma Energy provided guidance and information on valve geometries. Carpenter Powder Products was involved with the team providing information on powder processing as it pertains to the canning and hot isostatic pressing of powder. on providing powder and knowledge as it pertains to powder supply for hot isostatic pressing; they also provided powder for the test trials by the industrial team. Bodycote provided guidance on hot isostatic pressing and can requirements. They were also responsible for the hot isostatic pressing of the test valve

  15. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B.; Kumar Ray, Binay

    2011-01-01

    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO 2 emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: → The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. → It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. → The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO 2 emissions. → The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  16. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitive Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullenkamp, Patrick [Global WindNetwork, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The Global Wind Network (GLWN) assessed the key factors that determine wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to provide a better understanding of the factors that will help enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and reduce installed system costs.

  17. Enhanced anti-counterfeiting measures for additive manufacturing: coupling lanthanide nanomaterial chemical signatures with blockchain technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Zachary C.; Stephenson, David E.; Christ, Josef F.; Pope, Timothy R.; Arey, Bruce W.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2017-08-18

    The significant rise of additive manufacturing (AM) in recent years is in part due to the open sourced nature of the printing processes and reduced cost and capital barriers relative to traditional manufacturing. However, this democratization of manufacturing spurs an increased demand for producers and end-users to verify the authenticity and quality of individual parts. To this end, we introduce an anti-counterfeiting method composed of first embedding engineered nanomaterials into features of a 3D-printed part followed by non-destructive interrogation of these features to quantify a chemical signature profile. The part specific chemical signature data is then linked to a securitized, distributed, and time-stamped blockchain ledger entry. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, lanthanide-aspartic acid nanoscale coordination polymers (Ln3+- Asp NCs) / poly(lactic) acid (PLA) composites were formulated and transformed into a filament feedstock for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. In the present case, a quick-response (QR) code containing the doped Ln3+-Asp NCs was printed using a dual-extruder FDM printer into pure PLA parts. The QR code provides a searchable reference to an Ethereum-based blockchain entry. The QR code physical features also serve as defined areas to probe the signatures arising from the embedded Ln3+-Asp NCs. Visible fluorescence emission with UV-excitation was quantified in terms of color using a smartphone camera and incorporated into blockchain entries. Ultimately, linking unique chemical signature data to blockchain databases is anticipated to make the costs of counterfeiting AM materials significantly more prohibitive and transactions between those in the supply chain more trustworthy.

  18. Advanced chemical quality control techniques for use in the manufacture of (U-Pu) MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panakkal, J.P.; Prakash, Amrit

    2010-01-01

    Analytical chemistry plays a very important role for nuclear fuel cycle activities be it fuel fabrication, waste management or reprocessing. Nuclear fuels are selected based on the type of reactor. The nuclear fuel has to conform to various stringent chemical specifications like B, rare earths, H, O/M heavy metal content etc. Selection of technique is very important to determine the true specification. This is important particularly when the analyses has to be performed inside leak tight enclosure. The present paper describes the details of the advanced techniques being developed and used in the manufacture of (U,Pu) MOX fuels. (author)

  19. Chemical energy in electro arc furnace - examples from experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shushlevski, Ljupcho; Georgievski, Panche; Hadzhidaovski, Ilija

    2004-01-01

    Great competition on the market in steel-producing and chemical lack of electrical energy leads to realization of new project in section Steelworks AD 'Makstil' - Skopje named: 'Substitution of electrical energy i.e. entering of additional chemical energy in Electrical arc furnace for steel melting using fuels-naturual gas (CH 4 ), oxygen (O 2 ) and carbon (C)'. It is accumulate experience from two and one half year of intensive use of chemical energy with its accompanying problems, appropriate efficiency and economy in process for steel producing. In 2001 year we announced and described project for using of an additional alternative chemical energy in aggregate Electrical are furnace. In this work we will present realization, working experience and efficiency of the system for generating chemical energy. Practical realization needs serious approach in chemical energy usage The usage of chemical energy brings restrictions and needs many innovation for protection of equipment from shown aggressiveness during the combustion of fuel gasses. (Author)

  20. Low temperature radio-chemical energy conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomberg, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a radio-chemical method of converting radiated energy into chemical energy form comprising the steps of: (a) establishing a starting chemical compound in the liquid phase that chemically reacts endothermically to radiation and heat energy to produce a gaseous and a solid constituent of the compound, (b) irradiating the compound in its liquid phase free of solvents to chemically release therefrom in response to the radiation the gaseous and solid constituents, (c) physically separating the solid and gaseous phase constituents from the liquid, and (d) chemically processing the constituents to recover therefrom energy stored therein by the irradiation step (b)

  1. Simulation based energy-resource efficient manufacturing integrated with in-process virtual management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchasuwanmanee, Kanet; Cheng, Kai; Bateman, Richard

    2016-09-01

    As energy efficiency is one of the key essentials towards sustainability, the development of an energy-resource efficient manufacturing system is among the great challenges facing the current industry. Meanwhile, the availability of advanced technological innovation has created more complex manufacturing systems that involve a large variety of processes and machines serving different functions. To extend the limited knowledge on energy-efficient scheduling, the research presented in this paper attempts to model the production schedule at an operation process by considering the balance of energy consumption reduction in production, production work flow (productivity) and quality. An innovative systematic approach to manufacturing energy-resource efficiency is proposed with the virtual simulation as a predictive modelling enabler, which provides real-time manufacturing monitoring, virtual displays and decision-makings and consequentially an analytical and multidimensional correlation analysis on interdependent relationships among energy consumption, work flow and quality errors. The regression analysis results demonstrate positive relationships between the work flow and quality errors and the work flow and energy consumption. When production scheduling is controlled through optimization of work flow, quality errors and overall energy consumption, the energy-resource efficiency can be achieved in the production. Together, this proposed multidimensional modelling and analysis approach provides optimal conditions for the production scheduling at the manufacturing system by taking account of production quality, energy consumption and resource efficiency, which can lead to the key competitive advantages and sustainability of the system operations in the industry.

  2. Data-driven modeling and real-time distributed control for energy efficient manufacturing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Jing; Chang, Qing; Arinez, Jorge; Xiao, Guoxian

    2017-01-01

    As manufacturers face the challenges of increasing global competition and energy saving requirements, it is imperative to seek out opportunities to reduce energy waste and overall cost. In this paper, a novel data-driven stochastic manufacturing system modeling method is proposed to identify and predict energy saving opportunities and their impact on production. A real-time distributed feedback production control policy, which integrates the current and predicted system performance, is established to improve the overall profit and energy efficiency. A case study is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control policy. - Highlights: • A data-driven stochastic manufacturing system model is proposed. • Real-time system performance and energy saving opportunity identification method is developed. • Prediction method for future potential system performance and energy saving opportunity is developed. • A real-time distributed feedback control policy is established to improve energy efficiency and overall system profit.

  3. The Influence of Manufacturing Variations on a Crash Energy Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-24

    Crash Energy Management (CEM) systems protect passengers in the event of a train collision. A CEM system distributes crush throughout designated unoccupied crush zones of a passenger rail consist. This paper examines the influence of manufacturing va...

  4. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L., E-mail: michelle.pantoya@ttu.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock TX 79409 (United States); Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A. [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO{sub 4}) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO{sub 4} the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO{sub 4} increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO{sub 4}. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO{sub 4} concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO{sub 4} promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO{sub 4} adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  5. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Clark

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3 composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO4 additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO4 the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO4 increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO4. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO4 concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO4 promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO4 adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  6. Field Evaluation of Advances in Energy-Efficiency Practices for Manufactured Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Barker, G. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dadia, D. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Through field-testing and analysis, this project evaluated whole-building approaches and estimated the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use related to space conditioning in new manufactured homes. Three lab houses of varying designs were built and tested side-by-side under controlled conditions in Russellville, Alabama. The tests provided a valuable indicator of how changes in the construction of manufactured homes can contribute to significant reductions in energy use.

  7. Why do manufacturing industries invest in energy R&D?

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; Garcia-Quevedo, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Energy R&D can have major social and economic impacts and is a critical factor in addressing the challenges presented by climate change mitigation policies. As well as the energy utilities themselves, firms in other sectors also invest in energy R&D; however, while various studies have examined the determinants of R&D in the former, there are no analyses of energy R&D drivers in other industries. This paper seeks to fill this gap by examining the determinants of investment in energy R&D in no...

  8. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) / Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) Review and Applicability for Chemical Security Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iveson, Steven W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Chemical Security Threat Reduction

    2014-11-01

    Global chemical security has been enhanced through the determined use and integration of both voluntary and legislated standards. Many popular standards contain components that specifically detail requirements for the security of materials, facilities and other vital assets. In this document we examine the roll of quality management standards and how they affect the security culture within the institutions that adopt these standards in order to conduct business within the international market place. Good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices are two of a number of quality management systems that have been adopted as law in many nations. These standards are designed to protect the quality of drugs, medicines, foods and analytical test results in order to provide the world-wide consumer with safe and affective products for consumption. These standards provide no established security protocols and yet manage to increase the security of chemicals, materials, facilities and the supply chain via the effective and complete control over the manufacturing, the global supply chains and testing processes. We discuss the means through which these systems enhance security and how nations can further improve these systems with additional regulations that deal specifically with security in the realm of these management systems. We conclude with a discussion of new technologies that may cause disruption within the industries covered by these standards and how these issues might be addressed in order to maintain or increase the level of security within the industries and nations that have adopted these standards.

  9. An integrated DEA PCA numerical taxonomy approach for energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Amalnick, M.S.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Asadzadeh, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an integrated approach based on data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and numerical taxonomy (NT) for total energy efficiency assessment and optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors. Total energy efficiency assessment and optimization of the proposed approach considers structural indicators in addition conventional consumption and manufacturing sector output indicators. The validity of the DEA model is verified and validated by PCA and NT through Spearman correlation experiment. Moreover, the proposed approach uses the measure-specific super-efficiency DEA model for sensitivity analysis to determine the critical energy carriers. Four energy intensive manufacturing sectors are discussed in this paper: iron and steel, pulp and paper, petroleum refining and cement manufacturing sectors. To show superiority and applicability, the proposed approach has been applied to refinery sub-sectors of some OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. This study has several unique features which are: (1) a total approach which considers structural indicators in addition to conventional energy efficiency indicators; (2) a verification and validation mechanism for DEA by PCA and NT and (3) utilization of DEA for total energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization of energy intensive manufacturing sectors

  10. Conversion of concentrated solar thermal energy into chemical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaura, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    When a concentrated solar beam is irradiated to the ceramics such as Ni-ferrite, the high-energy flux in the range of 1500-2500 kW/m(2) is absorbed by an excess Frenkel defect formation. This non-equilibrium state defect is generated not by heating at a low heating-rate (30 K/min), but by irradiating high flux energy of concentrated solar beam rapidly at a high heating rate (200 K/min). The defect can be spontaneously converted to chemical energy of a cation-excess spinel structure (reduced-oxide form) at the temperature around 1773 K. Thus, the O(2) releasing reaction (α-O(2) releasing reaction) proceeds in two-steps; (1) high flux energy of concentrated solar beam absorption by formation of the non-equilibrium Frenkel defect and (2) the O(2) gas formation from the O(2-) in the Frenkel defect even in air atmosphere. The 2nd step proceeds without the solar radiation. We may say that the 1st step is light reaction, and 2nd step, dark reaction, just like in photosynthesis process.

  11. Low energy production processes in manufacturing of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Ion implantation and pulsed energy techniques are being combined for fabrication of silicon solar cells totally under vacuum and at room temperature. Simplified sequences allow very short processing times with small process energy consumption. Economic projections for fully automated production are excellent.

  12. Economic reform, energy, and development: the case of Mexican manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, Francisco; Gallagher, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Given increasing concern over global climate change and national security there is a burgeoning interest in examining the relationship between economic growth and energy use in developed and developing countries. More specifically, decoupling energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) has fast come to be seen as in the interests of national economies and the world as a whole. Recent attention has been paid to the dramatic decreases in the energy intensity of the Chinese economy, which fell by 55% between 1975 and 1995. Do other developing economies follow similar trajectories? This paper examines the energy intensity of the Mexican economy for the period 1988-1998. Although the long-term trend in Mexican energy intensity is rising, the energy intensity of the Mexican economy began to decline in 1988. This paper explores the factors that have contributed to this reduction. Diminishing Mexican energy use per unit of GDP has been driven by significant decreases in industrial energy intensity. We show that these changes have resulted from changes in the composition of Mexican industrial structure, and technological change

  13. Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittingham, M. Stanley [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The chemical reactions that occur in batteries are complex, spanning a wide range of time and length scales from atomic jumps to the entire battery structure. The NECCES team of experimentalists and theorists made use of, and developed new methodologies to determine how model compound electrodes function in real time, as batteries are cycled. The team determined that kinetic control of intercalation reactions (reactions in which the crystalline structure is maintained) can be achieved by control of the materials morphology and explains and allows for the high rates of many intercalation reactions where the fundamental properties might indicate poor behavior in a battery application. The small overvoltage required for kinetic control is technically effective and economically feasible. A wide range of state-of-the-art operando techniques was developed to study materials under realistic battery conditions, which are now available to the scientific community. The team also investigated the key reaction steps in conversion electrodes, where the crystal structure is destroyed on reaction with lithium and rebuilt on lithium removal. These so-called conversion reactions have in principle much higher capacities, but were found to form very reactive discharge products that reduce the overall energy efficiency on cycling. It was found that by mixing either the anion, as in FeOF, or the cation, as in Cu1-yFeyF2, the capacity on cycling could be improved. The fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring in electrode materials gained in this study will allow for the development of much improved battery systems for energy storage. This will benefit the public in longer lived electronics, higher electric vehicle ranges at lower costs, and improved grid storage that also enables renewable energy supplies such as wind and solar.

  14. Analysis of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Granel, R.; Vaquer, E.; Escrig, A.; Miralles, A.; Zaera, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ceramic tile manufacturing process is energy intensive since it contains several stages in which the product is subject to thermal treatment. The thermal energy used in the process is usually obtained by combustion of natural gas, which is a fossil fuel whose oxidation produces emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Energy costs account for 15% of the average direct manufacturing costs, and are strongly influenced by the price of natural gas, which has increased significantly in the last few years. Carbon dioxide emissions are internationally monitored and controlled in the frame of the Kyoto Protocol. Applicable Spanish law is based on the European Directive on emissions trading, and the assignment of emissions rights is based on historical values in the sectors involved. Legislation is scheduled to change in 2013, and the resulting changes will directly affect the Spanish ceramic tile manufacturing industry, since many facilities will become part of the emissions trading system. The purpose of this study is to determine current thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process. A comprehensive sectoral study has been carried out for this purpose on several levels: the first analyses energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the entire industry; the second determines energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in industrial facilities over a long period of time (several months); while the third level breaks down these values, determining energy consumption and emissions in terms of the product made and the manufacturing stage. (Author) 8 refs.

  15. Economic analysis of alternatives for optimizing energy use in manufacturing companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez-Piñero, Mayra Ivelisse; Colón-Vázquez, Melitza

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing companies are one of the main consumers of energy. The increment in global warming and the instability in the petroleum oil market have motivated companies to find alternatives to reduce energy use. In the academic literature several researchers have demonstrated that optimization models can be successfully used to reduce energy use. This research presents the use of an optimization model to identify feasible economic alternatives to reduce energy use. The economic analysis methods used were the payback and the internal rate of return. The optimization model developed in this research was applied and validated using an electronic manufacturing company case study. The results demonstrate that the main variables affecting the economic feasibility of the alternatives are the economic analysis method and the initial implementation costs. Several scenarios were analyzed and the best results show that the manufacturing company could save up to $78,000 in three years if the recommendations based on the optimization model results are implemented. - Highlights: • Evaluate top consumers of energy in manufacturing: A/C, compressed air, and lighting • Economic analysis of alternatives to optimize energy used in manufacturing • Comparison of payback method and internal rate of return method with real data • Results demonstrate that the company could generate savings in energy use

  16. Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Center for Electrical Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Chemical Sciences & Engineering DOE Logo CSE Home About CSE Research Facilities People Publications Awards News & Highlights Events Search Argonne ... Search Argonne Home > Chemical Sciences & Engineering > Fundamental Interactions Catalysis & Energy Conversion Electrochemical

  17. U.S. Department of Energy integrated manufacturing & processing predoctoral fellowships. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrochenkov, Margaret

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design. This is the final report to close out the contract.

  18. United States Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing & Processing Predoctoral Fellowships. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrochenkov, M.

    2003-03-31

    The objective of the program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design.

  19. Chemical and physical characteristics of tar samples from selected Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, J.; Taylor, B.; Mauro, D.; Young, M.

    1993-05-01

    A multiyear, multidisciplinary project concerning the toxicity of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) tarry residues was initiated by EPRI under the Environmental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) Program. This report concerns one portion of that work -- the collection and chemical characterization of tar samples from several former MGP sites. META Environmental, Inc. and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. were contracted by EPRI to collect several samples of tarry residues from former MGP sites with varied historical gas production processes and from several parts of the country. The eight tars collected during this program were physically very different. Some tars were fluid and easily pumped from existing wells, while other tars were thicker, semi-solid, or solid. Although care was taken to collect only tar, the nature of the residues at several sites made it impossible not to collect other material, such as soil, gravel, and plant matter. After the samples were collected, they were analyzed for 37 organic compounds, 8 metals, and cyanide. In addition, elemental analysis was performed on the tar samples for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen content and several physical/chemical properties were determined for each tar. The tars were mixed together in different batches and distributed to researchers for use in animal toxicity studies. The results of this work show that, although the tars were produced from different processes and stored in different manners, they had some chemical similarities. All of the tars, with the exception of one unusual solid tar, contained similar relative abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  20. 77 FR 34935 - Foreign-Trade Zone 161; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Siemens Energy, Inc., (Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket T-4-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 161; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Siemens Energy, Inc., (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Hubs); Notice of... temporary/interim manufacturing (T/IM) authority, on behalf of Siemens Energy, Inc., to manufacture wind...

  1. Energy Innovation Clusters and their Influence on Manufacturing: A Case Study Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hill, Derek [National Science Foundation (NSF), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Innovation clusters have been important for recent development of clean energy technologies and their emergence as mature, globally competitive industries. However, the factors that influence the co-location of manufacturing activities with innovation clusters are less clear. A central question for government agencies seeking to grow manufacturing as part of economic development in their location is how innovation clusters influence manufacturing. Thus, this paper examines case studies of innovation clusters for three different clean energy technologies that have developed in at least two locations: solar PV clusters in California and the province of Jiangsu in China, wind turbine clusters in Germany and the U.S. Great Lakes region, and ethanol clusters in the U.S. Midwest and the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. These case studies provide initial insight into factors and conditions that contribute to technology manufacturing facility location decisions.

  2. Washing of gel particles in wet chemical manufacture of reactor fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, H.

    1980-07-01

    In the manufacture of HTR fuel particles and particles of fertile material by wet chemical methods, the ammonium nitrate formed during the precipitation reaction must be washed out of the gel particles. This washing process has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. A counter-current washer has been developed which in particular takes account of the aspects of refabrication - such as compact construction and minimum waste. A counter-current washing column of 17 mm internal diameter and 640 mm length gives to gel particle throughput of 0.65 1/h. The volume ratio of wash water to gel particles is 5, and the residual nitrate concentration in the particles is 7 x 10 -3 mols of NO - 3 /1. (orig.) [de

  3. Selenium recovery from kiln powder of cement manufacturing by chemical leaching and bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, S; Hasegawa, A; Kuroda, M; Hanada, A; Yamashita, M; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel process by using chemical leaching followed by bacterial reductive precipitation was proposed for selenium recovery from kiln powder as a byproduct of cement manufacturing. The kiln powder at a slurry concentration of 10 w/v% with 0.25 M Na2CO3 at 28°C produced wastewater containing about 30 mg-Se/L selenium. The wastewater was diluted four-fold and adjusted to pH 8.0 as preconditioning for bioreduction. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NT-I, capable of reducing selenate and selenite into insoluble elemental selenium, could recover about 90% selenium from the preconditioned wastewater containing selenium of 5 mg-Se/L when supplemented with lactate or glycerol. The selenium concentrations in the treated wastewater were low around the regulated effluent concentration of 0.1 mg-Se/L in Japan.

  4. Web-Based Implementation of E-Marketing to Support Product Marketing of Chemical Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riswan Efendi Tarigan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many company’s marketing strategies are limited only to face-to-face communication, telephone, facsimile, company portfolio, and product brochures. However, those marketing strategies are well- known to have limited impacts. Therefore, the presence of e-marketing as one of the marketing strategies would be appropriate to cover the weaknesses and to solve a number of the marketing problems. The purpose of this study is to discuss matters related to marketing, such    as, proposing a marketing plan using website, expanding marketing segment, and introducing existing  products for a chemical manufacturing company. The adopted research method is a descriptive method where the study is directly performed on the research object to acquire necessary data. The collected data are further analyzed using the Porter’s Five Force and SWOT analysis. Fi- nally, the work provides a number of recommendations for implementing e-marketing strategies to support the company business.

  5. Designation of Alpha-Phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN), a Precursor Chemical Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Phenylacetone, Methamphetamine, and Amphetamine, as a List I Chemical. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-14

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the designation of the chemical alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) and its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers, as a list I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The DEA proposed control of APAAN, due to its use in clandestine laboratories to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substances phenylacetone (also known as phenyl-2-propanone or P2P), methamphetamine, and amphetamine. This rulemaking finalizes, without change, the control of APAAN as a list I chemical. This action does not establish a threshold for domestic and international transactions of APAAN. As such, all transactions involving APAAN, regardless of size, shall be regulated. In addition, chemical mixtures containing APAAN are not exempt from regulatory requirements at any concentration. Therefore, all transactions of chemical mixtures containing any quantity of APAAN shall be regulated pursuant to the CSA. However, manufacturers may submit an application for exemption for those mixtures that do not qualify for automatic exemption.

  6. Concepts for dynamic modelling of energy-related flows in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.J.; Oates, M.R.; Greenough, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modelling of the thermal flows in factories and processes is usually separate. ► We propose a set of key features for an integrated thermal model. ► Such models can be used to improve the efficiency of manufacturing processes. - Abstract: Industry uses around one third of the world’s energy, and accounts for about 40% of global carbon dioxide emissions. There is increasing economic and social pressure to improve efficiency and create closed-loop industrial systems, in which energy efficiency plays a key role. This paper describes some of the key concepts involved in modelling the energy flows in manufacturing, both for the building services and the industrial processes. Detailed dynamic energy simulation of buildings is well established and routinely used, working on a time series basis – but current tools are inadequate to model the energy flows of many industrial processes. There are also well-established models of manufacturing flows, used to optimise production efficiency, but typically not modelling energy, and usually representing production and material flows as event-driven processes. The THERM project has developed new software tools to model energy-related and other utility flows in manufacturing, incorporating these into existing thermal models of factory buildings. This makes it possible to map out the whole energy system, and hence to test efficiency measures, to understand the effect of processes on building energy use, to investigate recycling of heat or cooling into other processes or building conditioning, and so on. The paper describes some of the key concepts and modelling approaches involved in developing these models, and gives examples of some real processes modelled in factories. It concludes that such models are entirely feasible and potentially very useful, although to develop a tool which comprehensively models both energy and manufacturing flows would be a major undertaking

  7. Technology Roadmap for Energy Reduction in Automotive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), in collaboration with the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR), hosted a technology roadmap workshop in Troy, Michigan in May 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to explore opportunities for energy reduction, discuss the challenges and barriers that might need to be overcome, and identify priorities for future R&D. The results of the workshop are presented in this report.

  8. High energy laser optics manufacturing: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, E.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents concepts and methods, major conclusions, and major recommendations concerning the fabrication of high energy laser optics (HELO) that are to be machined by the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of concepts and methods proposed for metrological operations, polishing of reflective surfaces, mounting of optical components, construction of mirror substrates, and applications of coatings are included

  9. Decomposition analysis of the change of energy intensity of manufacturing industries in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chontanawat, Jaruwan; Wiboonchutikula, Paitoon; Buddhivanich, Atinat

    2014-01-01

    The study computes and analyses the sources of the change of energy intensity of the manufacturing industries in Thailand during the period (1991–2011) using the decomposition method. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index is computed and the results show that the energy intensity in the period (1991–2000) increased greatly from the increased energy intensity of each industry. In the more recent period (2000–2011) the energy intensity declined a little. However the decline was mainly from the structural change effect with negligible contribution from decreased energy intensity of each industry. The findings imply the need to balance industrial restructuring policies with efforts to reduce energy intensity for a sustainable economic development. Besides, there is much room for individual industries to improve their energy efficiency. Policies on restructuring energy prices and other non-price related measures should be devised to induce individual industries, particularly the highly energy intensive ones, to reduce their energy intensity. - Highlights: • Decomposing change of energy intensity of Thai manufacturing industries, 1991–2011. • 1991–2000 energy intensity rose due to increased energy intensity of each industry. • 2000–2011 energy intensity declined due mainly to the structural change effect. • Need to balance industrial restructuring policies to reduce energy intensity

  10. Closing the Energy Efficiency Gap—A Systematic Review of Empirical Articles on Drivers to Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Talseth Solnørdal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research has identified an extensive potential for energy efficiency within the manufacturing sector, which is responsible for a substantial share of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this study is to enhance the knowledge of vital drivers for energy efficiency in this sector by providing a critical and systematic review of the empirical literature on drivers to energy efficiency in manufacturing firms at the firm level. The systematic literature review (SLR is based on peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2016. The findings reveal that organizational and economic drivers are, from the firms’ perspective, the most prominent stimulus for energy efficiency and that they consider policy instruments and market drivers to be less important. Secondly, firm size has a positive effect on the firms’ energy efficiency, while the literature is inconclusive considering sectorial impact. Third, the studies are mainly conducted in the US and Western European countries, despite the fact that future increase in energy demand is expected outside these regions. These findings imply a potential mismatch between energy policy-makers’ and firm mangers’ understanding of which factors are most important for achieving increased energy efficiency in manufacturing firms. Energy policies should target the stimulation of management, competence, and organizational structure in addition to the provision of economic incentives. Further understanding about which and how internal resources, organizational capabilities, and management practices impact energy efficiency in manufacturing firms is needed. Future energy efficiency scholars should advance our theoretical understanding of the relationship between energy efficiency improvements in firms, the related change processes, and the drivers that affect these processes.

  11. Energy optimization and reduction of carbon footprint in cement manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallestey, Eduardo; Crosley, Gabriela; Wilson, Andrew; Maier, Urs; Hoppler, Rolf; Boerrnert, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Cement producers are large consumers of thermal and electrical energy, which are only available at steadily increasing costs. Efforts to reduce demands by using higher efficiency equipment and substituting -fuels and raw materials to lower production costs have been addressed in recent years. Under the Kyoto Protocol industrialised countries agreed to reduce their collective greenhouse gas emissions. Cement producers as some of the largest emitters of CO2 have been especially challenged to find new and innovative ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper summarise some ABB technologies developed to assist the cement industry to meet these goals.

  12. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  13. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura [Área de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Rivera, Ana Leonor, E-mail: analeonor.ventura.2016@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, DF (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  14. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura; Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz; Rivera, Ana Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  15. An Easy to Manufacture Micro Gas Preconcentrator for Chemical Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mitchell M; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Fung, Alexander G; LeVasseur, Michael K; Pedersen, Josephine M; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Aksenov, Alexander A; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-08-25

    We have developed a simple-to-manufacture microfabricated gas preconcentrator for MEMS-based chemical sensing applications. Cavities and microfluidic channels were created using a wet etch process with hydrofluoric acid, portions of which can be performed outside of a cleanroom, instead of the more common deep reactive ion etch process. The integrated heater and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were created with a photolithography-free technique enabled by laser etching. With only 28 V DC (0.1 A), a maximum heating rate of 17.6 °C/s was observed. Adsorption and desorption flow parameters were optimized to be 90 SCCM and 25 SCCM, respectively, for a multicomponent gas mixture. Under testing conditions using Tenax TA sorbent, the device was capable of measuring analytes down to 22 ppb with only a 2 min sample loading time using a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. Two separate devices were compared by measuring the same chemical mixture; both devices yielded similar peak areas and widths (fwhm: 0.032-0.033 min), suggesting reproducibility between devices.

  16. A survey of manufacturers of solar thermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N.; Slonski, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Sixty-seven firms that had received funding for development of solar thermal energy systems (STES) were surveyed. The effect of the solar thermal technology systems program in accelerating (STES) were assessed. The 54 firms still developing STES were grouped into a production typology comparing the three major technologies with three basic functions. It was discovered that large and small firms were developing primarily central receiver systems, but also typically worked on more than one technology. Most medium-sized firms worked only on distributed systems. Federal support of STES was perceived as necessary to allow producers to take otherwise unacceptable risks. Approximately half of the respondents would drop out of STES if support were terminated, including a disproportionate number of medium-sized firms. A differentiated view of the technology, taking into account differing firm sizes and the various stages of technology development, was suggested for policy and planning purposes.

  17. Building a wave energy policy focusing on innovation, manufacturing and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, G.; Gallachoir, B.P.O.

    2010-01-01

    The Irish Government has set a goal to make Ireland a world leader for research, development and deployment of ocean energy technologies. Ireland has a wave energy resource of 21 TWh and an ambition is to achieve at least 500 MW installed generating capacity from ocean energy by 2020. This paper investigates what is required to move from ambition to delivery. A successful wave energy strategy will require focused policies that will stimulate innovation to develop the technologies, manufacturing to produce the devices and deployment to build the required wave power plants. The paper draws on the successful policies in Ireland that have stimulated each of these dimensions, albeit for different sectors. From 2004 to 2008, successful policies in (ICT and biotech) innovation led to an increase in Ireland's Innovation Index score from 0.48 to 0.53. The policy focus on (food and pharmaceuticals) manufacturing in Ireland resulted in high levels of economic growth over the period 1998-2002, reaching >10% GDP growth levels per annum, and full employment. Successful wind energy policies deployment has accelerated rapidly since 2003 and reached 1.2 GW installed capacity in 2009 representing 15% of Ireland's total installed capacity. The paper draws on appropriate elements of these policies to build a successful wave energy policy for Ireland. It also draws on the successful policies adopted in Denmark for innovation, manufacturing and deployment of wind energy. The Danish wind turbine manufacturers hold a world market share of approximately 40%. The paper proposes establishing a wave energy strategy group to develop an action plan to deliver the 500 MW. It also proposes a novel extension of corporate tax specifically for wave energy companies, an initial 30% capital grant scheme for wave energy developers, a grid code for wave energy devices and fast tracking of planning decisions through an amended approach to strategic infrastructure. (author)

  18. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullenkamp, Patrick H; Holody, Diane S

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the project was to develop a greater understanding of the key factors determining wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and to reduce installed systems cost. Multiple stakeholders including DOE, turbine OEMs, and large component manufactures will all benefit by better understanding the factors determining domestic competitiveness in the emerging offshore and next generation land-based wind industries. Major objectives of this project were to: 1. Carry out global cost and process comparisons for 5MW jacket foundations, blades, towers, and permanent magnet generators; 2. Assess U.S. manufacturers’ competitiveness and potential for cost reduction; 3. Facilitate informed decision-making on investments in U.S. manufacturing; 4. Develop an industry scorecard representing the readiness of the U.S. manufacturers’ to produce components for the next generations of wind turbines, nominally 3MW land-based and 5MW offshore; 5. Disseminate results through the GLWN Wind Supply Chain GIS Map, a free website that is the most comprehensive public database of U.S. wind energy suppliers; 6. Identify areas and develop recommendations to DOE on potential R&D areas to target for increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness, per DOE’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI). Lists of Deliverables 1. Cost Breakdown Competitive Analyses of four product categories: tower, jacket foundation, blade, and permanent magnet (PM) generator. The cost breakdown for each component includes a complete Bill of Materials with net weights; general process steps for labor; and burden adjusted by each manufacturer for their process categories of SGA (sales general and administrative), engineering, logistics cost to a common U.S. port, and profit. 2. Value Stream Map Competitiveness Analysis: A tool that illustrates both information and material flow from the point of getting a

  19. Efficiency of Energy Transduction in a Molecular Chemical Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Kazuo; Kanada, Ryo; Amari, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    A simple model of the two-state ratchet type is proposed for molecular chemical engines that convert chemical free energy into mechanical work and vice versa. The engine works by catalyzing a chemical reaction and turning a rotor. Analytical expressions are obtained for the dependences of rotation and reaction rates on the concentrations of reactant and product molecules, from which the performance of the engine is analyzed. In particular, the efficiency of energy transduction is discussed in...

  20. Energy efficiency solutions for driers used in the glass manufacturing and processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pătrașcu Roxana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation is relevant to increasing efficiency in energy projects, by saving energy, by its’ rational use or by switching to other forms of energy. The goal is to secure energy supply on short and long term, while increasing efficiency. These are enforced by evaluating the companies’ energy status, by monitoring and adjusting energy consumption and organising a coherent energy management. The manufacturing process is described, starting from the state and properties of the raw material and ending with the glass drying technological processes involved. Raw materials are selected considering technological and economic criteria. Manufacturing is treated as a two-stage process, consisting of the logistic, preparation aspect of unloading, transporting, storing materials and the manufacturing process itself, by which the glass is sifted, shredded, deferrized and dried. The interest of analyzing the latter is justified by the fact that it has a big impact on the final energy consumption values, hence, in order to improve the general performance, the driers’ energy losses are to be reduced. Technological, energy and management solutions are stated to meet this problem. In the present paper, the emphasis is on the energy perspective of enhancing the overall efficiency. The case study stresses the effects of heat recovery over the efficiency of a glass drier. Audits are conducted, both before and after its’ implementation, to punctually observe the balance between the entering and exiting heat in the drying process. The reduction in fuel consumption and the increase in thermal performance and fuel usage performances reveal the importance of using all available exiting heat from processes. Technical faults, either in exploitation or in management, lead to additional expenses. Improving them is in congruence with the energy conservation concept and is in accordance with the Energy Efficiency Improvement Program for industrial facilities.

  1. Methodology to produce a water and energy stream map (WESM in the South African manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water and energy in South Africa, and the capacity constraints and restrictions of both resources, have led to a rapid increase in their cost. The manufacturing industry remains South Africa’s third-largest consumer of water and second- largest consumer of national energy. The improvement of water and energy efficiency is becoming an increasingly important theme for both organisational success and national economic sustainability. This paper presents the ‘lean based water and energy stream mapping framework’ developed for the manufacturing industry, with the specific objective of decreasing its water and energy intensity. As with the traditional value stream mapping tool, the water and energy stream mapping focuses on eliminating water- and energy-specific wastes within a process. Water and energy waste categories that will be used in conjunction with the framework will also be discussed. The key objective of this paper is to detail the process of creating the water and energy stream mapping, and the statistical forecasting methodology used to develop the baseline water and energy demand data. The outcome of the implementation of the framework is the future state water and energy stream mapping, which is effectively a blueprint for increased water and energy efficiency within a studied process.

  2. 40 CFR 723.50 - Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year, and chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section 3 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2602). (4) Environmental transformation product means any chemical... substance, any reasonably anticipated metabolites, environmental transformation products, or byproducts of... EPA under this section which the manufacturer claims to be confidential business information, the...

  3. Knowledge network model of the energy consumption in discrete manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Binzi; Wang, Yan; Ji, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    Discrete manufacturing system generates a large amount of data and information because of the development of information technology. Hence, a management mechanism is urgently required. In order to incorporate knowledge generated from manufacturing data and production experience, a knowledge network model of the energy consumption in the discrete manufacturing system was put forward based on knowledge network theory and multi-granularity modular ontology technology. This model could provide a standard representation for concepts, terms and their relationships, which could be understood by both human and computer. Besides, the formal description of energy consumption knowledge elements (ECKEs) in the knowledge network was also given. Finally, an application example was used to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. Energy paybacks of six-sigma: A case study of manufacturing industry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Industries, nowadays, are concerned about energy consumption and ever narrowing rules of emissions by the governments. Therefore, a race to clean; green and less energy consuming manufacturing is going on throughout the world. But in authors’ perspective, the major part of energy exploitation lies in the production of a rejected product. Therefore alongside the use of energy saving processes and machinery, industry should primarily look for rejection reduction. This, apart from energy saving and profitability, will add to the moral responsibility of every person toward nature. Here in this paper, authors describe a case study in which the increased rejection rate of a part of cycle chain assembly is controlled by the application of Six Sigma. Six Sigma, from many years has proved to be an ultimate solution when it comes to the application part in manufacturing industries. It’s very generic and easily applicable methodology has drawn tremendous positive results throughout the world. A financial gain of INR 0.267 million was yielded by implying six-sigma approach. In a move toward energy saving, the money saved by the project was used for green manufacturing to promote energy conservation.

  5. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  6. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Field Evaluation of Four Novel Roof Designs for Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States); Dentz, J. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, E. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States); Barker, G. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States); Dadia, D. [Levy Partnership Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A five-bay roof test structure was built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes. The roof structure in Jamestown, California was designed to examine how differences in roof construction impact space conditioning loads, wood moisture content and attic humidity levels. Conclusions are drawn from the data on the relative energy and moisture performance of various configurations of vented and sealed attics.

  8. Chemical effects of ionizing radiation and sonic energy in the context of chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron Mendoza, A.; Albarran, G.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and sonic energy are considered as sources for chemical evolution processes. These sources have still a modest place in the interdisciplinary approach for the prebiological synthesis of organic compounds. Studies in Radiation Chemistry and Sonochemistry can provide a deeper insight into the chemical processes that may have importance for prebiotic chemistry. The present work concerns the analysis of some chemical reactions induced by ionizing radiation or cavitation in aqueous media that may be relevant to chemical evolution studies. (author)

  9. Sustainable manufacturing by calculating the energy demand during turning of AISI 1045 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, R.; Nasrullah, B.; Suyuti, M. A.; Apollo

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable development will become important issues for many fields, including production, industry, and manufacturing. In order to achieve sustainable development, industry should be able to perform of sustainable production processes and environmentally friendly. Therefore, there is need to minimize the energy demand in the machining process. This paper presents a calculation method of energy consumption in the machining process, especially turning process which calculated by summing the number of energy consumption, such as the electric energy consumed during the machining preparation, the electrical energy during the cutting processes, and the electrical energy to produce a cutting tool. A case study was performed on dry turning of mild carbon steel using coated carbide. This approach can be used to determine the total amount of electrical energy consumed in the specific machining process. It concluded that the energy consumption will be an increase for using the high cutting speed as well as for the feed rate was increased.

  10. The climate change implications of manufacturing refrigerants. A calculation of 'production' energy contents of some common refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, N.J.; McCulloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) analysis has been shown to be a useful aid to quantifying the climate change effect of potential emissions from the operation of systems that involve the use of greenhouse gases and consume energy, so generating CO 2 emissions. It enables these systems to be optimized for minimum global warming impact. In previous studies, the energies required to manufacture the greenhouse gases themselves were not included; by analogy with other chemical manufacturing processes they were assumed to be small in the context of climate change. In the work described here, climate change impacts from the energy used to produce a number of common refrigerant fluids are evaluated. These impacts are compared with the potential impact on global warming from the other components of TEWI: use and disposal of the refrigerants, including direct release into the environment. It is shown that the implications for climate change of the production of traditional refrigerants like ammonia, hydrocarbons or CFC-12 and new refrigerating fluids, such as HFC-134a, are truly insignificant in comparison with other stages of the life cycle of a refrigerator and have no role in TEWI. (author)

  11. A calibrated energy end-use model for the U.S. chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozalp, N.; Hyman, B.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical industry is the second largest energy user after the petroleum industry in the United States. This paper provided a model for onsite steam and power generation in the chemical industry, as well as an end-use of the industrial gas manufacturing sector. The onsite steam and power generation model included the actual conversion efficiencies of prime movers in the sector. The energy end-use model also allocated combustible fuel and renewable energy inputs among generic end-uses including intermediate conversions through onsite power and steam generation. The model was presented in the form of a graphical depiction of energy flows. Results indicate that 35 per cent of the energy output from boilers is used for power generation, whereas 45 per cent goes directly to end-uses and 20 per cent to waste heat tanks for recovery in the chemical industry. The end-use model for the industrial gas manufacturing sector revealed that 42 per cent of the fuel input goes to onsite steam and power generation, whereas 58 per cent goes directly to end-uses. Among the end-uses, machine drive was the biggest energy user. It was suggested that the model is applicable to all other industries and is consistent with U.S. Department of Energy data for 1998. When used in conjunction with similar models for other years, it can be used to identify changes and trends in energy utilization at the prime mover level of detail. An analysis of the economic impact of energy losses can be based on the results of this model. Cascading of waste heat from high temperature processes to low temperature processes could be integrated into the model. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  13. Quantifying Adoption Rates and Energy Savings Over Time for Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter Petri, Alberta C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Riddle, Matt [Argonne National Laboratory; Graziano, Diane [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-10-09

    Energy-efficient manufacturing technologies can reduce energy consumption and lower operating costs for an individual manufacturing facility, but increased process complexity and the resulting risk of disruption means that manufacturers may be reluctant to adopt such technologies. In order to quantify potential energy savings at scales larger than a single facility, it is necessary to account for how quickly and how widely the technology will be adopted by manufacturers. This work develops a methodology for estimating energy-efficient manufacturing technology adoption rates using quantitative, objectively measurable technology characteristics, including energetic, economic and technical criteria. Twelve technology characteristics are considered, and each characteristic is assigned an importance weight that reflects its impact on the overall technology adoption rate. Technology characteristic data and importance weights are used to calculate the adoption score, a number between 0 and 1 that represents how quickly the technology is likely to be adopted. The adoption score is then used to estimate parameters for the Bass diffusion curve, which quantifies the change in the number of new technology adopters in a population over time. Finally, energy savings at the sector level are calculated over time by multiplying the number of new technology adopters at each time step with the technology's facility-level energy savings. The proposed methodology will be applied to five state-of-the-art energy-efficient technologies in the carbon fiber composites sector, with technology data obtained from the Department of Energy's 2016 bandwidth study. Because the importance weights used in estimating the Bass curve parameters are subjective, a sensitivity analysis will be performed on the weights to obtain a range of parameters for each technology. The potential energy savings for each technology and the rate at which each technology is adopted in the sector are quantified

  14. Energy consumption in the manufacture of sawn goods and wood-based panel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenius, A.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of energy consumption in 1979 and the possibilities of saving energy in the sawmill, plywood, particle board, fibreboard, joinery, wooden houses, glulam, and wood preservation industries. The energy consumption per product unit is minimum in sawmilling, 1.38 GJ/cubic meters and maximum in fibreboard manufacturing, 9.98 GJ/t. In plywood production, the energy consumption (6.95 GJ/cubic meters) is about double that in particleboard production (3.40 GJ/cubic meters). The main part of the energy (70-85%) is heat. In the drying process about 70-85% of total energy is used in individual processes. Over half (53.9%) of the total energy consumption is in the sawmill industry, 19.2% in the plywood industry, 12.2% in the particleboard industry, and 7.2% in the fibreboard industry.

  15. Energy demand and energy-related CO2 emissions in Greek manufacturing. Assessing the impact of a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floros, Nikolaos; Vlachou, Andriana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the demand for energy in two-digit manufacturing sectors of Greece and to evaluate the impact of a carbon tax on energy-related CO 2 emissions. The theoretical model utilized in the analysis is the two-stage translog cost function. The model is estimated using time series data over the period 1982-1998. The results indicate substitutability between electricity and liquid fuels (diesel and mazout), and substitutability between capital, energy and labor. A carbon tax of $50 per tonne of carbon results in a considerable reduction in direct and indirect CO 2 emissions from their 1998 level. This implies that a carbon tax on Greek manufacturing is an environmentally effective policy for mitigating global warming, although a costly one

  16. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  17. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district : a case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-res...

  18. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Dong-mei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Ke-feng; Zou, Tao; Wang, Dong; Qian, Xin-hua

    2016-01-01

    According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production proce...

  19. Retrospective and Prospective Decomposition Analysis of Chinese Manufacturing Energy Use, 1995-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Environmental Impacts Dept., China Energy Group; Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Environmental Impacts Dept., China Energy Group; Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Environmental Impacts Dept., China Energy Group; Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Environmental Impacts Dept., China Energy Group; Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Environmental Impacts Dept., China Energy Group

    2013-01-15

    In 2010, China was responsible for nearly 20 percent of global energy use and 25 percent of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Unlike most countries, China’s energy consumption pattern is unique because the industrial sector dominates the country’s total energy consumption, accounting for about 70 percent of energy use and 72 percent of CO2 emissions in 2010. For this reason, the development path of China’s industrial sector will greatly affect future energy demand and dynamics of not only China, but the entire world. A number of analyses of historical trends have been conducted, but careful projections of the key factors affecting China’s industry sector energy use over the next decade are scarce. This study analyzes industrial energy use and the economic structure of the Chinese manufacturing sector in detail. First, the study analyzes the energy use of and output from 18 industry sub-sectors. Then, retrospective (1995-2010) and prospective (2010-2020) decomposition analyses are conducted for these industrial sectors in order to show how different factors (production growth, structural change, and energy intensity change) influenced industrial energy use trends in China over the last 15 years and how they will do so over the next 10 years. The results of this study will allow policy makers to quantitatively compare the level of structural change in the past and in the years to come and adjust their policies if needed to move towards the target of less energy-intensive industries. The scenario analysis shows the structural change achieved through different paths and helps to understand the consequences of supporting or limiting the growth of certain manufacturing subsectors from the point of view of energy use and structural change. The results point out the industries that have the largest influence in such structural change

  20. 77 FR 70189 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cayman Chemical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... propylthiophenethylamine (7348). Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Mescaline (7381) I 3,4,5... manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to drug code 7370...

  1. 77 FR 47115 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...)-propylthiophenethylamine I (7348). Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Mescaline (7381) I 3,4,5... (1205) II The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In...

  2. Innovation and adoption of energy efficient technologies: An exploratory analysis of Italian primary metal manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Additional efforts will be needed by European countries to improve the energy efficiency, as with current trends the 20% objective will be missed. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) manufacturing sector is a promising field, as SMEs are less energy-efficient than larger enterprises. Several studies investigated the barriers to the diffusion of technologies and practices for industrial energy efficiency, but little attention has been paid to understand the factors affecting the perception of such barriers by SMEs. In this multiple case-study, we have investigated 20 Primary Metal manufacturing SMEs in Northern Italy. Economic and information barriers are perceived as the major issues. Interestingly, firm's size, innovativeness of the market in which enterprises operate, as well as product and process innovation are factors affecting barriers to energy efficiency. Differences have been observed within SMEs, especially for information and competence-related barriers. In particular, a more innovative external context in which enterprises operate and a greater production process complexity seem to reduce barriers. Moreover, more product innovative enterprises seem to have a lower perception of behavioral and technology-related barriers. The results of this exploratory investigation provide useful suggestions for policy design and further research on industrial energy efficiency. - highlights: • Economic and Information emerge as the most relevant barriers to energy efficiency. • Market, product and process innovation seem relevant factors affecting barriers. • Firm's size is a factor affecting barriers' perception

  3. Field Evaluation of Advances in Energy-Efficiency Practices for Manufactured Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States); Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, E. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States); Barker, G. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States); Dadia, D. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaboration, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Three side-by-side lab houses were built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes. The lab houses in Russellville, Alabama compared the performance of three homes built to varying levels of thermal integrity and HVAC equipment: a baseline HUD-code home equipped with an electric furnace and a split system air conditioner; an ENERGY STAR manufactured home with an enhanced thermal envelope and traditional split system heat pump; and a house designed to qualify for Zero Energy Ready Home designation with a ductless mini-split heat pump with transfer fan distribution system in place of the traditional duct system for distribution. Experiments were conducted in the lab houses to evaluate impact on energy and comfort of interior door position, window blind position and transfer fan operation. The report describes results of tracer gas and co-heating tests and presents calculation of the heat pump coefficient of performance for both the traditional heat pump and the ductless mini-split. A series of calibrated energy models was developed based on measured data and run in three locations in the Southeast to compare annual energy usage of the three homes.

  4. Biomass as feedstock for chemicals and energy on the threshold of the 21st. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    A historical background is first given in which the role of biomass is described in relation to its competition with fossil biomass for the production of chemicals and energy. Occurrences of reserves from both sources are then compared. Petrochemical and biomass routes are then analyzed in terms of their relative competitive advantages. The oleochemical and biotechnology cases are analyzed in more detail as examples of biomass utilization. Latin American examples of industrial manufacturing of biomass derived chemicals are then provided. Alcochemicals are analyzed in detail as well as essential oils and other chemicals. Finally, references are made to regional Latin American initiatives regarding biomass and the objectives, organization and nature of the initiative are presented

  5. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1988-01-01

    The minimum energy path for the addition of a hydrogen atom to N2 is characterized in CASSCF/CCI calculations using the (4s3p2d1f/3s2p1d) basis set, with additional single point calculations at the stationary points of the potential energy surface using the (5s4p3d2f/4s3p2d) basis set. These calculations represent the most extensive set of ab initio calculations completed to date, yielding a zero point corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation of approx. 8.5 kcal mol/1. The lifetime of the HN2 species is estimated from the calculated geometries and energetics using both conventional Transition State Theory and a method which utilizes an Eckart barrier to compute one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling effects. It is concluded that the lifetime of the HN2 species is very short, greatly limiting its role in both termolecular recombination reactions and combustion processes.

  6. EROI of crystalline silicon photovoltaics : Variations under different assumptions regarding manufacturing energy inputs and energy output

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Installed photovoltaic nameplate power have been growing rapidly around the worldin the last few years. But how much energy is returned to society (i.e. net energy) by this technology, and which factors contribute the most to the amount of energy returned? The objective of this thesis was to examine the importance of certain inputs and outputs along the solar panel production chain and their effect on the energy return on (energy) investment (EROI) for crystalline wafer-based photovoltaics. A...

  7. Production of chemical energy carriers by non-expendable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J

    1976-01-01

    The different forms of energy (radiation, high-temperature heat and electricity) arising from non-expendable energy sources like solar energy can be used for the production of chemical energy-carriers. Possible methods are the splitting of water by means of photolysis, thermochemical cycles and electrolysis, as well as the storage of energy in closed loop chemical systems. These methods are described and efficiencies and costs of the production of these energy carriers are specified. Special problems of the long-distance transportation of hydrogen produced by solar energy are described and the resulting costs are estimated.

  8. Electrochemical energy engineering: a new frontier of chemical engineering innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges facing humanity today is a safe, clean, and sustainable energy system where combustion no longer dominates. This review proposes that electrochemical energy conversion could set the foundation for such an energy system. It further suggests that a simple switch from an acid to a base membrane coupled with innovative cell designs may lead to a new era of affordable electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers, solar hydrogen generators, and redox flow batteries, for which recent progress is discussed using the authors' work as examples. It also notes that electrochemical energy engineering will likely become a vibrant subdiscipline of chemical engineering and a fertile ground for chemical engineering innovation. To realize this vision, it is necessary to incorporate fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering principles into the chemical engineering curriculum.

  9. Applicability of chemical vapour polishing of additive manufactured parts to meet production-quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method is the most rapidly growing Additive Manufacturing (AM) method[1]. FDM employs a 2.5D deposition scheme which induce a step-ladder shaped surface definition [2], with seams of the individual layers clearly visible[3]. This paper investigate to which...... of FDM manufactured parts can be taken from their current quality into the precision engineering domain....

  10. The patterns of energy use in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper was sculpted from a report commissioned by the Department of Energy to assess the impact of proposed energy taxes on energy use by the US chemical industry. The discussion of energy taxes is eliminated here, however the broader discussion of the impact of energy prices on energy use is retained. The US chemical industry is currently the world leader by many important measures, such as technology contributions and employment. This leadership traces to a slate of advantages: science base, low cost energy, large market and economic/political stability. The focus of this paper is on the patterns of energy use: (1) There is an optimum economic trade of capital against energy. Industry optimizes this trade to lower its costs. For the large volume chemicals which dominate energy use, this tradable capital cost exceeds energy cost by a factor of 1.5. (2) The capital/energy trade follows clearly defined rules. The basic rules are rooted in thermodynamics. (3) An increase in energy prices would result in a drop in process energy use: a doubling of process energy prices would cut process energy use by approximately 1/3 but the capital cost would be in excess of $100 billion if driven into a short time span, such as 5 years. This is because of the long useful lifetime of capital facilities. (4) Process energy is about half the total energy use, with feedstock being the balance. Feedstock use is much less sensitive to price. Restated, the doubling of energy price will result in roughly a 1/6 reduction in total energy use. (5) Technology progress will also reduce energy use. This reduction is distinct from the impact of energy price. Technological progress will be at least as important in reducing energy use as will energy pricing, for the foreseeable future. (6) Technology progress can be sorted into two themes: (a) Learning curve improvements, which are almost inherent in the production process and the nature of competition; and (b) Breakthroughs that happen in a

  11. Field Evaluation of Four Novel Roof Designs for Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dentz, J. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Barker, G. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dadia, D. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-12-03

    "9A five-bay roof test structure was built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes. The roof structure in Jamestown, California was designed to examine how differences in roof construction impact space conditioning loads, wood moisture content and attic humidity levels. Conclusions are drawn from the data on the relative energy and moisture performance of various configurations of vented and sealed attics.

  12. Towards energy and resource efficient manufacturing: A processes and systems approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duflou, Joost R.; Sutherland, John W.; Dornfeld, David

    2012-01-01

    , distinguishing different system scale levels, is applied: starting from a unit process focus, respectively the multi-machine, factory, multi-facility and supply chain levels are covered. Determined by the research contributions reported in literature, the de facto focus of the paper is mainly on energy related......This paper aims to provide a systematic overview of the state of the art in energy and resource efficiency increasing methods and techniques in the domain of discrete part manufacturing, with attention for the effectiveness of the available options. For this purpose a structured approach...

  13. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  14. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  15. The effect of additive manufacturing on global energy demand : An assessment using a bottom-up approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, L.A.; Budde, Bart; Chockalingam, Cindhuja; García Nodar, Brais; van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of disruptive technologies unrelated to the energy sector, such as additive manufacturing (AM), tends to be overlooked in energy scenarios. The present research assessed the potential effect of AM on the global energy demand in four energy scenarios for 2050 with extended versus

  16. Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control Systems: Achieving National Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    This project was part of a regional initiative in the five counties of Central New York (CNY) that received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and four other federal agencies through the 2012 Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (AMJIAC). The CNY initiative was focused on cultivating the emergent regional cluster in “Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control (AM-TEC).” As one component of the CNY AM-TEC initiative, the DOE-funded project supported five research & development seed projects that strategically targeted: 1) needs and opportunities of CNY AM-TEC companies, and 2) the goal of DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) to reduce energy consumption by 50% across product life-cycles over 10 years. The project also sought to fulfill the AMO mission of developing and demonstrating new, energy-efficient processing and materials technologies at a scale adequate to prove their value to manufacturers and spur investment. The five seed projects demonstrated technologies and processes that can reduce energy intensity and improve production as well as use less energy throughout their lifecycles. The project was conducted over three years in two 18-month budget periods. During the first budget period, two projects proposed in the original AMJAIC application were successfully completed: Seed Project 1 focused on saving energy in heat transfer processes via development of nano structured surfaces to significantly increase heat flux; Seed Project 2 addressed saving energy in data centers via subzero cooling of the computing processors. Also during the first budget period, a process was developed and executed to select a second round of seed projects via a competitive request for proposals from regional companies and university collaborators. Applicants were encouraged to form industry-academic partnerships to leverage experience and resources of public and private sectors in the CNY region. Proposals were

  17. Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischman, M.; Watters, J.C.; Cobourn, W.G.; Collins, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

  18. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78 FR 39340, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N... 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., to...

  19. Financial problems facing the manufacturers of small wind energy conversion systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, T G

    1979-11-01

    The financial barriers faced by the manufacturers of small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) are assessed and found to be similar to those faced by other start up businesses. However, these problems are found to be aggravated by the high expectations for accelerated SWECS industry growth in the face of moderate government support and lack of investment capital. The underlying conditions of limited SWECS entrepreneur business experience, the highly competitive venture capital market, the inability of existing financial institutions to aid infant busineses and public unawareness of SWECS are reviewed. Specific manufacturer-oriented recommendations and federal, state and regulatory policy-oriented recommendations are made. In addition, the dynamics of the SWECS commercialization process are assessed and the variety of financial institutions playing a role in this process is detailed. Issues related to inflation, tax policy, regulation and federal R and D procurement policies are analyzed.

  20. Revision of the energy conservation requirements in the manufactured home construction and safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C C; Lee, A D; Lucas, R G; Taylor, Z T

    1992-02-01

    Thermal requirements were developed for manufactured (mobile) homes in response to legislation requiring the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise its thermal standards for manufactured homes. A life-cycle cost minimization from the home owner's perspecetive was used to establish an optimum in a large number of cities for several prototype homes. The development of the economic, financial, and energy conservation measure parameters input into the life-cycle cost analysis was documented. The optimization results were aggregated to zones which were expressed as a maximum overall home U-value (thermal transmittance) requirement. The revised standard's costs, benefits, and net value to the consumer were quantified. 50 refs.

  1. Device for converting electromagnetic radiation energy into electrical energy and method of manufacturing such a device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Device (10) for converting electromagnetic radiation energy into electrical energy, comprising at least a photovoltaic element (11) with a radiation-sensitive surface, wherein a covering layer (12) of a material comprising a silicon compound, to which a rare earth element has been added, is present

  2. Energy conservation in ice manufacturing; Ahorro de energia en la fabricacion de hielo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This paper shows the results of the energy diagnosis study for ice manufacturing industries. The identified opportunities for conservation and efficient use of energy have allowed the reduction of the electric bill, modernizing at the same time, its installations and addressing inherent aspects of the use of energy producing items; in which the estimated investments are recovered in its major part in a period of a year, the goodness of the investments propitiate the growth and competitiveness required in these days. [Espanol] En este documento se exponen los resultados del estudio del diagnostico energetico para industrias productoras de hielo. Las oportunidades de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia identificadas, han permitido reducir la facturacion energetica, a la par de modernizar sus instalaciones y atender aspectos inherentes al uso de energeticos; en lo cual las inversiones estimadas se recuperan en su mayoria en un ano, las bondades de las inversiones propician un crecimiento y competitividad requerida en estos dias.

  3. Energy conservation in ice manufacturing; Ahorro de energia en la fabricacion de hielo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This paper shows the results of the energy diagnosis study for ice manufacturing industries. The identified opportunities for conservation and efficient use of energy have allowed the reduction of the electric bill, modernizing at the same time, its installations and addressing inherent aspects of the use of energy producing items; in which the estimated investments are recovered in its major part in a period of a year, the goodness of the investments propitiate the growth and competitiveness required in these days. [Espanol] En este documento se exponen los resultados del estudio del diagnostico energetico para industrias productoras de hielo. Las oportunidades de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia identificadas, han permitido reducir la facturacion energetica, a la par de modernizar sus instalaciones y atender aspectos inherentes al uso de energeticos; en lo cual las inversiones estimadas se recuperan en su mayoria en un ano, las bondades de las inversiones propician un crecimiento y competitividad requerida en estos dias.

  4. The Impact of Energy Prices on Employment and Environmental Performance: Evidence from French Manufacturing Establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Giovanni; Vona, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the historical influence of energy prices on a series of measures of environmental and economic performance for a panel of French manufacturing establishments over the period 1997-2010. The focus on energy prices is motivated by the fact that changes in environmental and energy policies have been dominated by substantial reductions in discounts for large consumers, making the evaluation of each policy in isolation exceedingly difficult. To identify price effects, we construct a shift-share instrument that captures only the exogenous variation in establishment-specific energy prices. Our results highlight a trade-off between environmental and economic goals: although a 10 percent increase in energy prices brings about a 6 percent reduction in energy consumption and to a 11 percent reduction in CO_2 emissions, such an increase also has a modestly negative impact on employment (-2.6 percent) and very small impact on wages and productivity. The negative employment effects are mostly concentrated in energy-intensive and trade-exposed sectors. Simulating the effect of a carbon tax, we show that job losses for the most exposed sectors can be quite large. However, these effects are upper bounds and we show that they are significantly mitigated in multi-plant firms by labor reallocation across establishments. (authors)

  5. ROBOTICALLY ENHANCED ADVANCED MANUFACTURING CONCEPTS TO OPTIMIZE ENERGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Keller; Joseph M. Pack; Robert V. Kolarik II

    2007-11-05

    In the first phase of the REML project, major assets were acquired for a manufacturing line for follow-on installation, capability studies and optimization. That activity has been documented in the DE-FC36-99ID13819 final report. In this the second phase of the REML project, most of the major assets have been installed in a manufacturing line arrangement featuring a green cell, a thermal treatment cell and a finishing cell. Most of the secondary and support assets have been acquired and installed. Assets have been integrated with a commercial, machine-tending gantry robot in the thermal treatment cell and with a low-mass, high-speed gantry robot in the finish cell. Capabilities for masterless gauging of product’s dimensional and form characteristics were advanced. Trial production runs across the entire REML line have been undertaken. Discrete event simulation modeling has aided in line balancing and reduction of flow time. Energy, productivity and cost, and environmental comparisons to baselines have been made. Energy The REML line in its current state of development has been measured to be about 22% (338,000 kVA-hrs) less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume of approximately 51,000 races. The reduction in energy consumption is largely attributable to the energy reduction in the REML thermal treatment cell where the heating devices are energized on demand and are appropriately sized to the heating load of a near single piece flow line. If additional steps such as power factor correction and use of high-efficiency motors were implemented to further reduce energy consumption, it is estimated, but not yet demonstrated, that the REML line would be about 30% less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume. Productivity The capital cost of an REML line would be roughly equivalent to the capital cost of a new conventional line. The

  6. Chemical energy conversion as enabling factor to move to a renewable energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abate, Salvatore; Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Mesina Univ. (Italy). Section Industrial Chemistry; ERIC aisbl and INSTM/CASPE, Messina (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The role of chemical energy storage and solar fuels as key elements for the sustainable chemical and energy production is discussed in this concept paper. It is shown how chemical energy storage, with the development of drop-in carbon-based solar fuels, will play a central role in the future low-carbon economy, but it is necessary to consider its out-of-the-grid use, rather than being limited to be a tool for smart grids. Related aspects discussed are the possibility to: (i) enable a system of trading renewable energy on a world scale (out-of-the-grid), including the possibility to exploit actually unused remote resources, (ii) develop a solar-driven and low-carbon chemical production, which reduces the use of fossil fuels and (iii) create a distributed energy production, going beyond the actual limitations and dependence on the grid.

  7. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensah John Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’ preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users. But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions

  8. Thermal energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in ceramic tile manufacture - Analysis of the Spanish and Brazilian industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Vaquer, E.; Mallol, G.; Alves, H. J.; Boschi, A. O.

    2012-01-01

    Spain and Brazil are two of the world's biggest ceramic tile producers. The tile manufacturing process consumes a great quantity of thermal energy that, in these two countries, is mainly obtained from natural gas combustion, which entails CO 2 emission, a greenhouse gas. This study presents a comparative analysis of the thermal energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the ceramic tile manufacturing process in Spain and Brazil, in terms of the different production technologies and different products made. The energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in ceramic tile manufacture by the wet process are very similar in both countries. In the dry process used in Brazil, less thermal energy is consumed and less CO 2 is emitted than in the wet process, but it is a process that is only used in manufacturing one particular type of product, which exhibits certain technical limitations. While in Spain the use of cogeneration systems in spray-dryers improves significantly the global energy efficiency. The average energy consumption in the different process stages, in both countries, lies within the range indicated in the Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry (BREF of the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry) of the European Union. (Author) 14 refs.

  9. Technical and allocative inefficiencies and factor elasticities of substitution. An analysis of energy waste in Iran's manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiabani, Nasser; Hasani, Karim [Department of Economics, Institute for Management and Planning Studies, Mokhtar Asgari Str.10, 19395, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ignoring technical and allocative inefficiencies or embedding one of them alone in a system of input demands may result in biased elasticities. We consider a comprehensive model including technical inefficiency (in input and output forms) and allocative inefficiency and apply it to panel data from Iran's manufacturing sector. The results show that the presence of both inefficiencies affects the computed elasticities of demand and substitution. Moreover, in spite of current waste of energy in Iran's manufacturing, the elimination of environmental constraints will prompt the manufacturing firms to increase the utilization of energy relative to both capital and labor. (author)

  10. Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs from conventional and alternative farming systems. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... This study was carried out to investigate the effect of conventional farming systems for laying hens (standard cage batteries) and new alternative systems ...

  11. 77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated July 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2012, 77 FR 43863, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N... has considered the factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Boehringer...

  12. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  13. Selective chemical detection by energy modulation of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, J.R.; Otagawa, T.

    1985-05-20

    A portable instrument for use in the field in detecting, identifying, and quantifying a component of a sampled fluid includes a sensor which chemically reacts with the component of interest or a derivative thereof, an electrical heating filament for heating the sample before it is applied to the sensor, and modulating means for continuously varying the temperature of the filament (and hence the reaction rate) between two values sufficient to produce the chemical reaction. In response to this thermal modulation, the sensor produces a modulated output signal, the modulation of which is a function of the activation energy of the chemical reaction, which activation energy is specific to the particular component of interest and its concentration. Microprocessor means compares the modulated output signal with standard responses for a plurality of components to identify and quantify the particular component of interest. 4 figs.

  14. Energy consumption for sugar manufacturing. Part I: Evaporation versus reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaeni, S.S.; Zereshki, S.

    2010-01-01

    Removing water from various feeds is usually carried out using evaporation process especially in food industry. Due to the high latent heat of water, this unit operation results in consumption of unacceptable amount of energy. Finding low energy consuming processes which could be replaced with this process is still a challenge. The processes with no phase inversion may be considered for concentration purposes with reasonable energy consumption in comparison with the other various separation procedures. Reverse osmosis and most of the other membrane technologies are separation techniques without any change in the phase and therefore consume low amount of energy. Concentrating the sugar thin juice in the classical sugar manufacturing procedure is carried out using conventional evaporation. Reverse osmosis membranes may be used as a pre-concentration step to partially separate water from the sugar thin juice in combination with this part of the plant. Final concentration and thick juice preparation for crystallization may be carried out in the evaporation unit. In this study, membranes were employed for sugar thin juice concentration using a two-stage reverse osmosis process in two different arrangements. The energy consumption was calculated and compared for conventional evaporation versus reverse osmosis combined with evaporation. The results indicate that the employment of reverse osmosis membranes for concentrating the sugar thin juice leads to sensibly lower energy requirements. Furthermore, there is no thermal loss of sugar in the membrane process.

  15. Utilisation of fly ash for the management of heavy metal containing primary chemical sludge generated in a leather manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G.; Rao, B.P.; Ghanamani, A.; Rajamani, S. [Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India). Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2003-07-01

    The present study aims at disposal of primary chemical sludge generated in the tanning industry by solidification and stabilization process using flyash generated from thermal power plant along with binders and also on evaluating the leachability of heavy metal from the solidified product. The primary chemical sludge containing heavy metals iron and chromium were obtained from a garment leather manufacturing company at Chennai in India. The sludge was dried in open environment and it was powdered to fine size in a grinder. Binding increases stabilization of heavy metal in calcined sludge with refractory binders such as clay, fly ash, lime and ordinary Portland cement. Fly ash can be considered as the additional binder for producing stronger bricks, with high metal fixation efficiency, and minimum rate of removal of heavy metal and minimum diffusion co-efficient. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2015-09-15

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  17. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH), which is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual percent savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  18. Evaluation of the impact energy of the samples produced by the additive manufacturing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobránsky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covered the evaluation of the impact energy, notch toughness and morphology of the fracture surfaces of the specimens manufactured by the Direct Metal Laser Sintering Technology. Specimens without heat treatment with no notch were not broken through in course of testing, therefore there was no fracture surface present. The heat treatment resulted in the increase in hardness values. The values of impact energy after the heat treatment was approximately 60 % lower. Ductile intergranular fracture with more or less segmented dimple morphology appeared in every specimen. At places where the internal plastic bond was resisting the test, cracks remaining after particles broke away from the surface can be seen as craters.

  19. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  20. What have pneumatic manufacturers tried in energy saving; Kukiatsu maker wa sho energy ni tsuite donoyona kokoromi wo shitekitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oneyama, N [SMC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-15

    Presented herein are new energy-saving type products by pneumatic manufacturers. The pneumatic slide rule was developed in 1974, when the whirlwind of energy-saving as a result of the oil crisis raved all over the industries. The word energy-saving for pneumatic systems is changed into the word air-saving, which is more straightforward and directly related to saved money, and the slide rule exhibits its ability as a diagnostic tool for air-saving without adversely affecting the system functions. Noting that output required by clamping, calking and conveyance as typical works for a double acting cylinder is generated only by the forward stroke, the PFC valve was developed, in which the return stroke is set at a minimum indispensable pressure. This reduces air consumption by 20 to 30%. The other products developed include energy-saving lifter and economy valve. A new cylinder driving method was developed to reduce air consumption. The system concept of the right pressure in the right place was proposed to provide a local compressor in a production line of low pressure and high capacity. It is necessary to develop in the future an index which allows direct comparison of an energy-saving system with other driving systems. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Thermal energy storage using thermo-chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, M.A.; Rossides, S.D.; Haj Khalil, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Understanding of the performance of thermo chemical heat pump. ► Tool for storing thermal energy. ► Parameters that affect the amount of thermal stored energy. ► Lithium chloride has better effect on storing thermal energy. - Abstract: A theoretical study was performed to investigate the potential of storing thermal energy using a heat pump which is a thermo-chemical storage system consisting of water as sorbet, and sodium chloride as the sorbent. The effect of different parameters namely; the amount of vaporized water from the evaporator, the system initial temperature and the type of salt on the increase in temperature of the salt was investigated and hence on the performance of the thermo chemical heat pump. It was found that the performance of the heat pump improves with the initial system temperature, with the amount of water vaporized and with the water remaining in the system. Finally it was also found that lithium chloride salt has higher effect on the performance of the heat pump that of sodium chloride.

  2. Desktop Systems for Manufacturing Carbon Nanotube Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuhn, David S

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties that could potentially transform such diverse fields as composites, electronics, cooling, energy storage, and biological sensing...

  3. SOME METHODS FOR SAVING HEAT ENERGY WHILE MANUFACTURING VERTICAL INSULATING GLASS UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shybeka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes and considers two constructive methods for saving heat energy while manufacturing vertical insulating glass units with various gas filling of inter-glass space. The first method presupposes manufacturing of insulating glass units having specific thickness which is calculated in accordance with specific features of convective heat exchange in the closed loop circuit. Value of the heat-exchange coefficient depends on gas properties which is filling a chamber capacity (coefficients of thermal conductivity, volumetric expansion, kinematic viscosity, thermometric conducivity, temperature difference on the boundary of interlayer and its thickness. It has been shown that while increasing thickness of gas layer convective heat exchange coefficient is initially decreasing up to specific value and then after insignificant increase it practically remains constant. In this connection optimum thicknesses of filled inter-layers for widely-spread gas in production (dry air, argon, krypton, xenon and for carbon dioxide have determined in the paper. Manufacturing of insulating glass units with large thickness of gas chamber practically does not lead to an increase in resistance to heat transfer but it will increase gas consumption rate. The second industrial economic method is interrelated with application of carbon dioxide СО2 as a filler of inter-glass space which has some advantages in comparison with other gases (small cost due to abundance, nontoxicity, transparency for visual light and absorption of heat rays. Calculations have shown that application of carbon dioxide will make it possible to increase resistance to heat transfer of one-chamber glass unit by 0.05 m²×K/W (with emissivity factor of internal glass – 0.837 or by 0.16 m²×K/W (with emission factor – 0.1 in comparison with the glass unit where a chamber is filled with dry air.

  4. Design, manufacturing and commissioning of mobile unit for EDF (Dow Chemical process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangini, D.; Cordier, J.P.; PEC Engineering, Osny, France)

    1985-01-01

    To process their spent ion exchange resins and the liquid wastes, EDF has ordered from PEC a mobile unit using the DOW CHEMICAL binder. This paper presents the EDF's design requirements as well as the new French regulation for waste embedding. The mobile unit was started in January 1983 and commissioned successfully in January 1985 in the TRICASTIN EDF's power plant

  5. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts for subse...

  6. Manufacturing of mushroom-shaped structures and its hydrophobic robustness analysis based on energy minimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yang, Xiaonan; Wang, Quandai; Yang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Hui; Lu, Bingheng

    2017-07-01

    The construction of stable hydrophobic surfaces has increasingly gained attention owing to its wide range of potential applications. However, these surfaces may become wet and lose their slip effect owing to insufficient hydrophobic stability. Pillars with a mushroom-shaped tip are believed to enhance hydrophobicity stability. This work presents a facile method of manufacturing mushroom-shaped structures, where, compared with the previously used method, the modulation of the cap thickness, cap diameter, and stem height of the structures is more convenient. The effects of the development time on the cap diameter and overhanging angle are investigated and well-defined mushroom-shaped structures are demonstrated. The effect of the microstructure geometry on the contact state of a droplet is predicted by taking an energy minimization approach and is experimentally validated with nonvolatile ultraviolet-curable polymer with a low surface tension by inspecting the profiles of liquid-vapor interface deformation and tracking the trace of the receding contact line after exposure to ultraviolet light. Theoretical and experimental results show that, compared with regular pillar arrays having a vertical sidewall, the mushroom-like structures can effectively enhance hydrophobic stability. The proposed manufacturing method will be useful for fabricating robust hydrophobic surfaces in a cost-effective and convenient manner.

  7. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production processes and gives the general solving method of each kind of model according to the production data. Then the energy plan implementation effect can be evaluated and also whether the system is running normally can be determined through the baseline model. Finally, this method is used on cracked gas compressor unit of ethylene plant in some petrochemical enterprise; it can be proven that this method is correct and practical.

  8. Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July-December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July-December 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications.

  9. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: April-June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-04-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during th eperiod April-June 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications.

  10. Transport of chemically bonded nuclear energy in a closed cycle with special consideration to energy disconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossami, S.

    1976-01-01

    The article describes the utilisation of nuclear energy in the form of 'nuclear long-distance energy'. Heat produced by nuclear fission is bonded to a reversible chemical reaction (cracking gas) which release the heat again at the place of comsumption by catalytic transformation. The article deals in particular with the process of methane cracking/methanisation, the disconnection of the energy (heat) by the methanisation process and the decisive role of the methanisation catalyzers. (orig.) [de

  11. Comparative study originated photoneutrons different energy linear accelerators, manufacturer and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposito, M. R.; Terron, J. A.; Domingo, C.; Amgarou, K.; Garcia-Fuente, M. J.; Gonzalez-Soto, J.; Legares, J. I.; Gomez, F.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.

    2011-01-01

    Pollution neutron radiotherapy with photon beams of energy greater than 10 MV represents a major inconvenience for patients in treatment, given the increased likelihood of developing a second radiation-induced cancer. Most of these neutrons are generated in the accelerator head as a result of the interaction of photons with heavy metals. As a result, knowledge of the effect on patients in the fields of neutrons from the accelerator should lead to improvements in design and selection of components from manufacturers. For this purpose, we have performed comparative measurements of the neutron fields present in both the patient (represented by an anthropomorphic phantom) and in the treatment room, considering almost all types of machines currently operating in the world.

  12. Reusing pretreated desulfurization slag to improve clinkerization and clinker grindability for energy conservation in cement manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Liang; Chang, Juu-En; Shih, Pai-Haung; Ko, Ming-Sheng; Chang, Yi-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Choung

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine the physical pretreatments of grinding, sieving, and magnetic-separation processes to reclaim iron-rich materials from the desulfurization slag, and to use the remainder for cement clinker production. The iron-rich materials can be separated out efficiently by grinding for 30 min and sieving with a 0.3 mm mesh. The non-magnetic fraction of the particles smaller than 0.3 mm was in the majority, and proved to be suitable for use as a cement raw material. The raw mixes prepared with a pretreated desulfurization slag had a relatively high reactivity, and the temperature at which alite forms was significantly reduced during the clinkerization process. The clinkers produced with 10% desulfurization slag had a high level of alite and good grindability. Generally, the improvements in clinkerization and clinker grindability are beneficial to energy conservation in cement manufacture. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF ELECTRIC HEATING OF REACTORS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF VARNISHES AND PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovajniansky L.L.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The drawbacks of the traditional design of the heaters, which make known imperfections in manufacturing processes, realized with the use of electric heating. This determines the need for a radically new design of the heating devices. Created by high-temperature ceramics, characterized by abnormally high thermal stability and clarified the parameters that allow a certain degree change its thermal conductivity. On this basis the contact type ceramic heaters that provide thermal flow direction using different materials in the body of the heater - of high thermal conductivity, the surface facing the heat transfer and low which differs opposite sides of the heater are designed to eliminate the dissipation of heat into the surrounding space. This made it possible to equip the modern production paint industry energy efficient heating equipment with explosion and fire heating system reactors.

  14. Wind turbine blades for harnessing energy from Malaysian low speed wind - manufacturing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Abd Wahab; Azmin Shakrine

    2000-01-01

    Blades for wind turbine to harness energy in the Malaysia low speed winds have been designed. During wind tunnel testing, wind turbine model using this type of blades has cut in speed of 1.5 m/s and turned at 450 rpm at 4 m/s wind. The blades, due to their critical dimensions of 1.2 m length, 5 cm thickness, tapered and 15 degree twist, were difficult to produce especially in large number. Several production methods have been studied but for economical mass production, fibreglass blades using CNC cutting mould were chosen. The blade and mould designs and the manufacturing processes are briefly outlined in this paper. (Author)

  15. Low accessibility and chemical activity of PAHs restrict bioremediation and risk of exposure in a manufactured gas plant soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichenberg, Fredrik; Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel; Gustafsson, Orjan; Long, Sara M.; Pritchard, Parmely H.; Mayer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Composting of manufactured gas plant soil by a commercial enterprise had removed most of its polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but concentrations remained above regulatory threshold levels. Several amendments and treatments were first tested to restart the PAH degradation, albeit with little success. The working hypothesis was then that PAHs were 'stuck' due to strong sorption to black carbon. Accessibility was measured with cyclodextrin extractions and on average only 4% of the PAHs were accessible. Chemical activity of the PAHs was measured by equilibrium sampling, which confirmed a low exposure level. These results are consistent with strong sorption to black carbon (BC), which constituted 59% of the total organic carbon. Composting failed to remove the PAHs, but it succeeded to minimize PAH accessibility and chemical activity. This adds to accumulating evidence that current regulatory thresholds based on bulk concentrations are questionable and alternative approaches probing actual risk should be considered. - Bioremediation of MGP soil failed to eliminate PAHs but it succeeded to limit their accessibility, chemical activity and the remaining risk of biological exposure.

  16. Studies on the utilization of agricultural residues in the manufacture of pulp and paper, and industrial chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, V.S.; Kamath, G.P.; Basu, S.

    1980-03-15

    While demand for pulp and paper products in India is increasing at the annual rate of 7 to 8%, availability of cellulosic raw material to meet the ever increasing demand is becoming a serious problem. It has been estimated that bamboo, the traditional source of cellulosic raw material in India, even after ensuring the most scientific and best possible exploitation, could provide less than 50% of the requirement. In a big agricultural country like India, agri-residues like straws and bagasse, along with jute sticks, available in huge quantity, could provide substantial amount of cellulosic resources to the pulp and paper industry. Realizing the importance of agri-residue utilization in Indian economy, a series of research projects have been initiated and completed during the last 15 years to study the techno-economic feasibility of manufacturing pulp, paper, and industrial chemicals, based on rice and wheat straws, bagasse, and jute sticks. The economic advantages of the mechano-chemical pulping process, as compared to the conventional pressure, pulping process, for the conversion of agri-residues into pulp and paer is evaluated. For highlighting the importance of agri-residues in the field of useful chemical recovery possibilities, experimental data are given on the saccarification of agri-residues into reducing sugars by the simple acid hydrolysis method with the help of concentrated sulfuric acid.

  17. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse

  18. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  19. Chemical Production of Graphene Catalysts for Electrochemical Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seselj, Nedjeljko

    by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), to investigate the nature of L-cysteine bonds on Au. Synthesized electrocatalysts were characterized by spectroscopic, microscopic and electrochemical techniques. Electrocatalysis was examined by electrochemical oxidation of formic acid, methanol and ethanol, and oxygen......Recently developed FC technology is among many approaches aiming at solving the global energy challenges. FCs are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy from fuel molecules into electrical energy via electrochemical reactions. FCs are, however, limited by the scarce and expensive...... was achieved via L-cysteine linker molecules that provided pathways for fast electron transfers during the electrocatalytic reactions. Electrochemical properties of selfassembled L-cysteine monolayers immobilized on single-crystal Au(111) surfaces were studied in ionic liquids and their structures imaged...

  20. Synthetic biology for manufacturing chemicals: constraints drive the use of non-conventional microbial platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Jeffrey; Wang, Qinhong; Wang, Yechun; Tang, Yinjie J

    2017-10-01

    Genetically modified microbes have had much industrial success producing protein-based products (such as antibodies and enzymes). However, engineering microbial workhorses for biomanufacturing of commodity compounds remains challenging. First, microbes cannot afford burdens with both overexpression of multiple enzymes and metabolite drainage for product synthesis. Second, synthetic circuits and introduced heterologous pathways are not yet as "robust and reliable" as native pathways due to hosts' innate regulations, especially under suboptimal fermentation conditions. Third, engineered enzymes may lack channeling capabilities for cascade-like transport of metabolites to overcome diffusion barriers or to avoid intermediate toxicity in the cytoplasmic environment. Fourth, moving engineered hosts from laboratory to industry is unreliable because genetic mutations and non-genetic cell-to-cell variations impair the large-scale fermentation outcomes. Therefore, synthetic biology strains often have unsatisfactory industrial performance (titer/yield/productivity). To overcome these problems, many different species are being explored for their metabolic strengths that can be leveraged to synthesize specific compounds. Here, we provide examples of non-conventional and genetically amenable species for industrial manufacturing, including the following: Corynebacterium glutamicum for its TCA cycle-derived biosynthesis, Yarrowia lipolytica for its biosynthesis of fatty acids and carotenoids, cyanobacteria for photosynthetic production from its sugar phosphate pathways, and Rhodococcus for its ability to biotransform recalcitrant feedstock. Finally, we discuss emerging technologies (e.g., genome-to-phenome mapping, single cell methods, and knowledge engineering) that may facilitate the development of novel cell factories.

  1. Animal use in the chemical and product manufacturing sectors - can the downtrend continue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Rodger

    2009-12-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, a number of manufacturing companies in the cosmetic, personal care and household product industries were able to substantially reduce their use of animals for testing (or to not use animals in the first place). These reductions were almost always the result of significant financial contributions to either direct, in-house alternatives research, or to support personnel whose duties were to understand and apply the current state-of-the-art for in vitro testing. They occurred almost exclusively in non-regulatory areas, and primarily involved acute topical toxicities. Over the last few years, the reduction in animal use has been much less dramatic, because some companies are still reluctant to change from the traditional animal studies, because systemic, repeat-dose toxicity is more difficult to model in vitro, and because many products still require animal testing for regulatory approval. Encouragingly, we are now observing an increased acceptance of non-animal methods by regulatory agencies. This is due to mounting scientific evidence from larger databases, agreement by companies to share data and testing strategies with regulatory agencies, and a focus on smaller domains of applicability. These changes, along with new emphasis and financial support for addressing systemic toxicities, promise to provide additional possibilities for industry to replace animals with in vitro methods, alone or in combination with in silico methods. However, the largest advance will not occur until more companies commit to using the non-animal test strategies that are currently available. 2009 FRAME.

  2. Assessment of a chemical pollutant on workers’ health in a vehicle manufacturing factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asadi-Lari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Occupational diseases impose considerable burden on public health, wherein chemical pollutants in working places play an important role. One of chemical pollutants  in vehicle's lock & key assembly factories is cyanoacrylate used in" loctite glue", which is assumed harmful to workers' eyes, respiratory tract and skin. This study investigates the side effects of loctite adhesive on workers' health.   Methods   Across sectional study was conducted on all of workers of the vehicle's lock & key  assembly factory (100 workers. A health check list was completed for demographic   characteristics, and physical examination for all of workers and then all data were analysed using  statistical tests.   Results   Mean age of workers was 30± 8. In physical exam, the most common dermatologic  disease was dermatitis (prevalence: 25% , in pulmonary exam the most common sign was airway hyper-responsiveness, which presented as cough and dispnea (prevalence: 10% and there was a significant relationship between workers' eye itching & burning , airway hyper-responsiveness  and loctite adhesive exposure (P<0.01.   Conclusion   Eye itching & burning and airway hyper-responsiveness are side effects of loctite  glue. In this study we observed a relationship between the glue and disorders, hence due to the influence of this chemical material on workers' health. Results indicated that a health promotion   plan and relevant interventions should be designed to reduce exposure to loctite adhesive.

  3. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  4. Thermo-electro-chemical storage (TECS) of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, Erez; Epstein, Michael; Kribus, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar plant with thermally regenerative battery unifies energy conversion and storage. • Storage is a flow battery with thermo-chemical charging and electro-chemical discharging. • Sodium-sulfur and zinc-air systems are investigated as candidate storage materials. • Theoretical solar to electricity efficiencies of over 60% are predicted. • Charging temperature can be lowered with hybrid carbothermic reduction. - Abstract: A new approach for solar electricity generation and storage is proposed, based on the concept of thermally regenerative batteries. Concentrated sunlight is used for external thermo-chemical charging of a flow battery, and electricity is produced by conventional electro-chemical discharge of the battery. The battery replaces the steam turbine, currently used in commercial concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, potentially leading to much higher conversion efficiency. This approach offers potential performance, cost and operational advantages compared to existing solar technologies, and to existing storage solutions for management of an electrical grid with a significant contribution of intermittent solar electricity generation. Here we analyze the theoretical conversion efficiency for new thermo-electro-chemical storage (TECS) plant schemes based on the electro-chemical systems of sodium-sulfur (Na-S) and zinc-air. The thermodynamic upper limit of solar to electricity conversion efficiency for an ideal TECS cycle is about 60% for Na-S at reactor temperature of 1550 K, and 65% for the zinc-air system at 1750 K, both under sunlight concentration of 3000. A hybrid process with carbothermic reduction in the zinc-air system reaches 60% theoretical efficiency at the more practical conditions of reaction temperature <1200 K and concentration <1000. Practical TECS plant efficiency, estimated from these upper limits, may then be much higher compared to existing solar electricity technologies. The technical and economical

  5. A study on the chemical characteristics changes throughout the manufacture and ripening of Lighvan cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirzae

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lighvan cheese is one of the traditional cheeses which have the most high quantity of use in Iran. It is produced in South East of Tabriz in North West of Iran. The raw milk of ewe together with 20% -30% of goat's milk, without yeast, are used for its production. Its taste is mild salty and its scent is pleasant. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical indexes changes including salt percentage, the degree of acidity, pH, dry mater, ashes, and protein during the production and ripening. For this purpose, after coordinating with 10 local cheese producers, one batch from each producer and from each batch 20 tins, weighing 1 kg, which in total was 200 newly packaged cheese were purchased randomly. The tins were kept in special caves for 30 days in the region and then 60 days in refrigerator. In each batch sample of the raw milk, clot after rising and before salting, the cheese during the package time in tin and the cheese sample on 15th, 30th, 60th, and 90th days of ripining was analyzed chemically. The results of the study from the initial days of production to the end of the ripening period indicated the following changes: the rate of fat from 6.8 ± 0.25 in milk to 24.55±0.95 in samples, pH from 5.94± 0.06 in milk to 4.4±0.11 in samples, acidity from 39.4 ± 5.99 D° in milk to 119.4±5.38 in samples, rate of ash from 1.77±0.23 in milk to 8.09±2.32 in samples, the percentage of dry mater from 16.52±0.74 in milk to 43.57±1.34 in samples, and finally the percentage of protein from 4.45±1/12 in milk to 14.2±1.4 in samples. This result suggests that Lighvan cheese has unique characteristics in terms of its alteration procedure and chemical characteristics and based on the standard criterion in Iran, 2344-1, it is white cheese ripened brine in terms of chemical characteristics and fatty cheese in terms of the percentage of fat.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ELECTROPLATING CHEMICAL PRODUCTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  7. Optimization of chemical composition in the manufacturing process of flotation balls based on intelligent soft sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dučić Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of computational intelligence in modeling and optimization of parameters of two related production processes - ore flotation and production of balls for ore flotation. It is proposed that desired chemical composition of flotation balls (Mn=0.69%; Cr=2.247%; C=3.79%; Si=0.5%, which ensures minimum wear rate (0.47 g/kg during copper milling is determined by combining artificial neural network (ANN and genetic algorithm (GA. Based on the results provided by neuro-genetic combination, a second neural network was derived as an ‘intelligent soft sensor’ in the process of white cast iron production. The proposed ANN 12-16-12-4 model demonstrated favourable prediction capacity, and can be recommended as a ‘intelligent soft sensor’ in the alloying process intended for obtaining favourable chemical composition of white cast iron for production of flotation balls. In the development of intelligent soft sensor data from the two real production processes was used. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35037 i br. TR35015

  8. Renewable Energy Technology—Is It a Manufactured Technology or an Information Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok L. Shum

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Socio-technical or strategic approach to renewable energy deployment all suggests that the uptake of renewable energy technology such as solar photovoltaic is as much a social issue as a technical issue. Among social issues, one most direct and immediate component is the cost of the renewable energy technology. Because renewable electricity provides no new functionality—a clean electron does the same work as a dirty electron does—but is relatively expensive compared with fossil fuel based electricity, there is currently an under-supply of renewable electricity. Policy instruments based on economics approaches are therefore developed to encourage the production and consumption of renewable electricity, aiming to remediate the market inefficiencies that stem from the failure in internalizing the environmental or social costs of fossil fuels. In this vein, the most discussed instruments are renewable portfolio standard or quota based system and the general category of feed-in tariff. Feed-in tariff is to support output or generation of the renewable electricity by subsidizing revenues. The existing discussions have all concerned about the relative effectiveness of these two instruments in terms of cost, prices and implementation efficiency. This paper attempts a different basis of evaluation of these two instruments in terms of cost and (network externality effects. The cost effect is driven by deploying the renewable as a manufactured technology, and the network externality effect is driven by deploying the renewable as an information technology. The deployment instruments are studied in terms of how these two effects are leveraged in the deployment process. Our formulation lends itself to evolutionary policy interpretation. Future research directions associated with this new energy policy framework is then suggested.

  9. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  10. ORC technology for waste-wood to energy conversion in the furniture manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of low and medium temperature thermal sources, in particular those based on biomass combustion and on industrial residual heat recovery, has been increasingly investigated in the last decades, accordingly to the growing interest towards reduction in primary energy consumption and environmental issues. Organic Rankine cycle technology allows designing power plants that are less demanding in terms of auxiliaries, safety systems, maintenance and operating costs when compared to conventional water steam power plants. To support the preliminary technical and economic design of this kind of plants in different contexts, a simulation code of part load and off-design operation of an organic Rankine cycle unit for combined heat and power has been developed. In the paper, taking the real situation of a furniture manufacturing factory as a starting point, it is shown how all energy flows occurring all year long inside the combined heat and power plant, can be estimated on the basis of the thermal user duty time profile, the available biomass flow rate and the adopted operation strategy. This information is the basis in order to correctly evaluate the energetic, economic and environmental advantages of the proposed technical solution, with respect to a particular context, as it is shown in the concluding part of the paper.

  11. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  12. A study on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical industry use (muscovite, sericite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Il; Shin, Hee-Young; Hwang, Seon-Kook; Ahn, Ji-Hwan; Bae, Kwang-Hyun [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    For the technical development on utilization of unused mineral resources, the study was carried out on the highly purification and mineral processing of domestic Sericite and Muscovite. This study was also carried out to make the functional materials for the use of fine chemical industry. Scope and content of study: 1) A study on the high purification and mineral processing for sericite and muscovite. 2) A study on the surface treatment of fine particles of sericite and muscovite. EDAX analysis on surface treated Mica shows that absorbed area on mica surface appears about 56 wt% when reaction period of 75 min. The result on image analysis on the surface treated mica comparing with that of EDAX analysis appears that the material was stabilized when passing the 1st yielding point. The dry process of surface modification on mica was applied by using {Theta}-composer. The result shows that whiteness of the mica increases upto 91 at 20 min. grinding period. Polymer microcapsulation was carried out on the mica surface. The result shows that materials appear excellent hydrophobic property which is one of important factors for making cosmetics. Based on the applying test of mineral processing on Dong-jin mica, the result shows that high quality mica is recovered. Especially, lithium mica produced in the mine will be further studied in the next year project. (author). 26 refs., 36 tabs., 61 figs.

  13. Use of KRS-XE positive chemically amplified resist for optical mask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Brian; Deverich, Christina; Rabidoux, Paul A.; Peck, Barbara; Petrillo, Karen E.; Angelopoulos, Marie; Huang, Wu-Song; Moreau, Wayne M.; Medeiros, David R.

    2002-03-01

    The traditional mask making process uses chain scission-type resists such as PBS, poly(butene-1-sulfone), and ZEP, poly(methyl a-chloroacrylate-co-a-methylstyrene) for making masks with dimensions greater than 180nm. PBS resist requires a wet etch process to produce patterns in chrome. ZEP was employed for dry etch processing to meet the requirements of shrinking dimensions, optical proximity corrections and phase shift masks. However, ZEP offers low contrast, marginal etch resistance, organic solvent development, and concerns regarding resist heating with its high dose requirements1. Chemically Amplified Resist (CAR) systems are a very good choice for dimensions less than 180nm because of their high sensitivity and contrast, high resolution, dry etch resistance, aqueous development, and process latitude2. KRS-XE was developed as a high contrast CA resist based on ketal protecting groups that eliminate the need for post exposure bake (PEB). This resist can be used for a variety of electron beam exposures, and improves the capability to fabricate masks for devices smaller than 180nm. Many factors influence the performance of resists in mask making such as post apply bake, exposure dose, resist develop, and post exposure bake. These items will be discussed as well as the use of reactive ion etching (RIE) selectivity and pattern transfer.

  14. FY 1998 annual report on the CO{sub 2} reduction by 30 manufacturing companies (plants) through energy conservation. Thailand; Seizogyo 30 sha (kojo) no sho energy ni yoru CO{sub 2} haishutsuryo sakugen 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Taikoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is aimed at energy-saving diagnosis of 30 energy-intensive manufacturing plants in Thailand, to draw the project plans and clarify, e.g., greenhouse effect gas reduction and cost-effectiveness effects, on the basis of transferring and applying the energy management and energy-saving equipment technologies now being used by the manufacturing sector in Japan. The 30 plants analyzed are 6 metal-related plants, 3 non-ferrous plants, 5 chemical plants, 6 ceramics plant, 4 textile plants, 4 food processing plants and 2 pulp plants. Two or more feasible energy-saving measures are studied for each plant. A total of 178 improvement measures (approximately 6 on the average for each plant) are identified as the ones related to energy-saving and operation controlling techniques. These measures could reduce CO2 emissions by 145,000 t/y from 1,370,000 t/y released from the 30 plants. The measures of high cost-effectiveness are (use of an appropriate pressure for air compressors) and (resting of transformers on non-working days). (NEDO)

  15. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.

  16. Studies on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical and electronic industry use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S K; Kim, B G; Chung, H S; Lee, J C [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Fine natural crystalline graphite which is used as a source material of a high electrically conductive film and an addition of advanced high functional solid lubricant. For use high electrically conductive film and advanced high functional solid lubricant, add new and advanced high functional properties to fine graphite powder through surface modification with gas and organic materials. Surface modification methods: 1) Searching for suitable surfactant to improve dispersing characteristics in aqueous system. 2) Adsorption with oxygen on graphite surface to improve dispersing characteristics in oil. 3) Mechanochemical process using hybridization system is to shape control and spontaneous re-arrangement of the surface layer and interaction between the particle surface and extraneous molecules. In aqueous system, the optimum conditions for graphite to disperse is with 0.3-0.5% concentrations of surfactant Lomar D PWA-40 at pH range 10-11. In order to improve dispersing characteristics in oil, the optimum conditions to adsorb over 3.5% with oxygen on graphite surface are as follows: - Tip speed {yields} 3.9 m/sec, - Reaction time {yields} at least 30 min. at 120 deg.C - inert gas and pressure {yields} dried air, 1 kgf/cm{sup 2}. The oxygen contents acts critical point for dispersing graphite in oil system so needs to control oxygen contents by use of air pressure in reacting mill. Chemical methods for coating with Stearic acid and Paraffin need above 15 weight % to graphite powders. Mechanochemical process using hybridization system is to shape control and spontaneous re-arrangement of the surface layer and interaction between the particle surface and extraneous molecules. (author). 45 refs., 9 tabs., 23 figs.

  17. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  18. Chemical energy powered nano/micro/macromotors and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2015-01-02

    The rise of miniaturized artificial self-powered devices, demonstrating autonomous motion, has brought in new considerations from the environmental perspective. This review addresses the interplay between these nano/micro/macromotors and the environment, recent advances, and their applications in pollution management. Such self-propelled devices are able to actuate chemical energy into mechanical motion in situ, adding another powerful dimension towards solving environmental problems. Use of synthetic nano/micro/macromotors has demonstrated potential in environmental remediation, both in pollutant removal and contaminant degradation, owing to motion-induced mixing. At the same time, the chemical environment exerts influence on the locomotion of the motors. These sensitized self-powered devices demonstrate capabilities for being deployed as sensors and their chemotactic behaviors show efficacy to act as first responders towards a chemical leakage. Thus, the notion of a self-propelling entity also entails further investigation into its inherent toxicity and possible implications as a pollutant. Future challenges and outlook of the use of these miniaturized devices are discussed, with specific regard to the fields of environmental remediation and monitoring, as we move towards their wider acceptance. We believe that these tiny machines will stand up to the task as solutions for environmental sustainability in the 21st century. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Chemical engineering challenges and investment opportunities in sustainable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The chemical and energy industries are transforming as they adjust to the new era of high-priced petroleum and severe global warming. As a result of the transformation, engineering challenges and investment opportunities abound. Rapid evolution and fast growth are expected in cathode and anode materials as well as polymeric electrolytes for vehicular batteries and in high-performance polymer-ceramic composites for wind turbines, fuel-efficient aircraft, and lighter and safer cars. Unique process-engineering opportunities exist in sand-oil, coal, and possibly also shale liquefaction to produce transportation fuel; and also in genetic engineering of photosynthesizing plants and other organisms for their processing into high-performance biodegradable polymers and high-value-added environmentally friendly chemicals. Also, research on the feasibility of mitigation of global warming through enhancement of CO(2) uptake by the southern oceans by fertilization with trace amounts of iron is progressing. Because chemical engineers are uniquely well trained in mathematical modeling of mass transport, flow, and mixing, and also in cost analysis, they are likely to join the oceanographers and marine biologists in this important endeavor.

  20. The chemical energy unit partial oxidation reactor operation simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakin, A. N.; Selivanov, A. A.; Batrakov, P. A.; Sotnikov, D. G.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical energy unit scheme for synthesis gas, electric and heat energy production which is possible to be used both for the chemical industry on-site facilities and under field conditions is represented in the paper. The partial oxidation reactor gasification process mathematical model is described and reaction products composition and temperature determining algorithm flow diagram is shown. The developed software product verification showed good convergence of the experimental values and calculations according to the other programmes: the temperature determining relative discrepancy amounted from 4 to 5 %, while the absolute composition discrepancy ranged from 1 to 3%. The synthesis gas composition was found out practically not to depend on the supplied into the partial oxidation reactor (POR) water vapour enthalpy and compressor air pressure increase ratio. Moreover, air consumption coefficient α increase from 0.7 to 0.9 was found out to decrease synthesis gas target components (carbon and hydrogen oxides) specific yield by nearly 2 times and synthesis gas target components required ratio was revealed to be seen in the water vapour specific consumption area (from 5 to 6 kg/kg of fuel).

  1. [The criterion prognostic significance of examinations of chemiluminescence of oral fluid under impact of chemical pollutants of manufacture of rubber and rubber technical production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiullina, E F; Valiev, A v; Kamilov, R F; Shakirov, D F; Buliakov, P T

    2013-12-01

    The article presents the results of studies concerning the effect of unfavorable factors of chemical nature on fluid of oral cavity among workers of the Ufa plant of elastomer materials, articles and structures. It is established that in persons contacting with chemical pollutants of manufacture of rubber and rubber technical production the indicators of chemiluminescence of saliva fluid are significantly expressed and depend on professional standing.

  2. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  3. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  4. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are well suited for waste-heat energy harvesting applications as opposed to primary energy generation. Commercially available thermoelectric modules are flat, inflexible and have limited sizes available. State-of-art manufacturing of TEG devices relies on assembling prefabricated parts with soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping. Furthermore, efforts to incorporate them onto curved surfaces such as exhaust pipes, pump housings, steam lines, mixing containers, reaction chambers, etc. require custom-built heat exchangers. This is costly and labor-intensive, in addition to presenting challenges in terms of space, thermal coupling, added weight and long-term reliability. Additive manufacturing technologies are beginning to address many of these issues by reducing part count in complex designs and the elimination of sub-assembly requirements. This work investigates the feasibility of utilizing such novel manufacturing routes for improving the manufacturing process of thermoelectric devices. Much of the research in thermoelectricity is primarily focused on improving thermoelectric material properties by developing of novel materials or finding ways to improve existing ones. Secondary to material development is improving the manufacturing process of TEGs to provide significant cost benefits. To improve the device fabrication process, this work explores additive manufacturing technologies to provide an integrated and scalable approach for TE device manufacturing directly onto engineering component surfaces. Additive manufacturing techniques like thermal spray and ink-dispenser printing are developed with the aim of improving the manufacturing process of TEGs. Subtractive manufacturing techniques like laser micromachining are also studied in detail. This includes the laser processing parameters for cutting the thermal spray materials efficiently by

  5. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  6. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: January-March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period January-March 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within nine major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Biotechnology, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies.

  7. Theory of the chemical effects of high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1978-01-01

    The general nature of radiation chemical yields arising from electron irradiations is examined. A relationship between the G value of an arbitrary radiation product and the initial electron energy (greater than 20 keV) in the form of an integro-differential equation is derived. G values for the water decomposition products in acid solution are obtained by numerical solution of the equation and the use of a model. A differential equation equivalent to the integro-differential equation for the case of Rutherford scattering is introduced and an approximate analytical solution is found (eq 10). The latter turns out to be in agreement with the numerical solution of the integro-differential equation obtained with the more accurate Moeller cross section. Experimental data for ferrous sulfate oxidation (Fricke dosimeter) are examined and found to be in agreement with the relationships obtained here. Primary yields of the water decomposition products are also given. 4 figures, 2 tables, 35 references

  8. From quantum chemical formation free energies to evaporation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric new particle formation is an important source of atmospheric aerosols. Large efforts have been made during the past few years to identify which molecules are behind this phenomenon, but the actual birth mechanism of the particles is not yet well known. Quantum chemical calculations have proven to be a powerful tool to gain new insights into the very first steps of particle formation. In the present study we use formation free energies calculated by quantum chemical methods to estimate the evaporation rates of species from sulfuric acid clusters containing ammonia or dimethylamine. We have found that dimethylamine forms much more stable clusters with sulphuric acid than ammonia does. On the other hand, the existence of a very deep local minimum for clusters with two sulfuric acid molecules and two dimethylamine molecules hinders their growth to larger clusters. These results indicate that other compounds may be needed to make clusters grow to larger sizes (containing more than three sulfuric acid molecules.

  9. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2009-01-01

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to 'heavy' industry; 'light' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency

  10. Energy use in the Greek manufacturing sector: A methodological framework based on physical indicators with aggregation and decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salta, Myrsine; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias [Energy Management Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81100 (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    A bottom-up methodological framework was developed and applied for the period 1985-2002, to selected manufacturing sub-sectors in Greece namely, food, beverages and tobacco, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals and paper. Disaggregate physical data were aggregated according to their specific energy consumption (SEC) values and physical energy efficiency indicators were estimated. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia index method was also used and the effects of the production, structure and energy efficiency to changes in sub-sectoral manufacturing energy use were further assessed. Primary physical energy efficiency improved by 28% for the iron and steel and by 9% for the non-metallic minerals industries, compared to the base year 1990. For the food, beverages and tobacco and the paper sub-sectors, primary efficiency deteriorated by 20% and by 15%, respectively; finally electricity efficiency deteriorated by 7% for the non-ferrous metals. Sub-sectoral energy use is mainly driven by production output and energy efficiency changes. Sensitivity analysis showed that alternative SEC values do not influence the results whereas the selected base year is more critical for this analysis. Significant efficiency improvements refer to ''heavy'' industry; ''light'' industry needs further attention by energy policy to modernize its production plants and improve its efficiency. (author)

  11. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  12. Energy Resources Intelligent Management using on line real-time simulation: A decision support tool for sustainable manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassettari, Lucia; Bendato, Ilaria; Mosca, Marco; Mosca, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new way to manage the self production of energy from RES in manufacturing industry. • Optimization in terms of both energy costs and environmental impact (CO_2 emissions). • The use of on-line real-time Discrete Event Simulation to manage the stochasticity. • The energy production plan is dynamically suited to weather and manufacturing needs. • The test case presented highlights the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: At a historic time when the eco-sustainability of industrial manufacturing is considered one of the cornerstones of relations between people and the environment, the use of energy from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has become a fundamental element of this new vision. After years of vain attempts to hammer out an agreement to significantly reduce CO_2 emissions produced by the burning of fossil fuels, a binding global accord was finally reached (Paris December 2015 - New York April 2016). As we know, however, some of the most commonly-used RES, such as solar or wind, present the problem of discontinuity in energy production due to the variability of weather and climatic conditions. For this reason, the authors thought it appropriate to study a new methodology capable of marrying industrial users’ instantaneous need for energy with the production capacity of Renewable Energy Sources, supplemented, when necessary, by energy created through self-production and possibly acquired from third-party suppliers. All of this in order to minimize CO_2 emissions and company energy costs. Given the massive presence of stochastic and sometimes aleatory elements, for the proposed energy management model we have used both Monte Carlo simulation and on-line real-time Discrete Event Simulation (DES), as well as appropriate predictive algorithms. A test conducted on a tannery located in southern Italy, equipped with a 700 KWp photovoltaic installation, showed extremely interesting results, both economically and

  13. Role of embodied energy in the European manufacturing industry: Application to short-term impacts of a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordigoni, Mathieu; Hita, Alain; Le Blanc, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Role of energy in the manufacturing industry is a major concern for energy and environmental policy design. Issues like energy prices, security of supply and carbon mitigation are often connected to the industry and its competitiveness. This paper examines the role and consequences of embodied energy in the European industry. To this end, a multi-regional input–output analysis including 59 industrial sectors for all European Union countries and 17 more aggregated industries for other regions of the World is developed. Other segments of the economy are not included. This base is combined with energy consumption, carbon emission as well as bilateral trade data for every sector in all included countries. Our main result is that embodied energy in manufactured products' imports represents a significant aspect of the energy situation in European industries, with quantities close to the direct energy consumption. These flows can further be broken down for detailed analysis at the sector level thanks to the number of distinct industries included. Results demonstrate that an important part of embodied energy inside European products is not concerned with domestic energy price changes. In addition, a European-wide carbon tax would induce an unbalanced burden on industries and countries. - Highlights: ► We calculate embodied energy and carbon flows in the European and World industry. ► A multi-regional input–output analysis is used with a detailed nomenclature. ► National industries' energy prices dependence is a domestic issue. ► With a European carbon tax energy-intensive industries would be penalised. ► Such a tax may also induce competition distortion among EU countries.

  14. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics: The case of the German basic chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Trudeau, N.; Gielen, D.J.; Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry’s energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry’s total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry’s final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them useable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry. -- Highlights: ► An advanced model was developed to estimate German chemical industry’s energy use. ► For the base year (2000), model covers 88% of the sector’s total final energy use. ► Sector’s energy efficiency improved between 2.2 and 3.5%/yr between 1995 and 2008. ► Improved energy statistics are required for accurate monitoring of improvements.

  15. Tuning the Emission Energy of Chemically Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor-Ul-Ain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuning the emission energy of graphene quantum dots (GQDs and understanding the reason of tunability is essential for the GOD function in optoelectronic devices. Besides material-based challenges, the way to realize chemical doping and band gap tuning also pose a serious challenge. In this study, we tuned the emission energy of GQDs by substitutional doping using chlorine, nitrogen, boron, sodium, and potassium dopants in solution form. Photoluminescence data obtained from (Cl- and N-doped GQDs and (B-, Na-, and K-doped GQDs, respectively exhibited red- and blue-shift with respect to the photoluminescence of the undoped GQDs. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS revealed that oxygen functional groups were attached to GQDs. We qualitatively correlate red-shift of the photoluminescence with the oxygen functional groups using literature references which demonstrates that more oxygen containing groups leads to the formation of more defect states and is the reason of observed red-shift of luminescence in GQDs. Further on, time resolved photoluminescence measurements of Cl- and N-GQDs demonstrated that Cl substitution in GQDs has effective role in radiative transition whereas in N-GQDs leads to photoluminescence (PL quenching with non-radiative transition to ground state. Presumably oxidation or reduction processes cause a change of effective size and the bandgap.

  16. Potential Co-Generation of Electrical Energy from Mill Waste: A Case Study of the Malaysian Furniture Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Furniture manufacturing in Malaysia is an established industry driven primarily by the availability of raw materials and labor. However, the industry suffers from the low-recovery rate of its materials, as it produces a substantial amount of waste during the manufacturing process. Although smaller waste fragments, or off-cuts, are recovered for other purposes, the splinters, shavings, and coarse dust have little economic value and are often discarded. Because wood is a well-established source of bioenergy, this study investigated the potential use of mill waste from the furniture-manufacturing industry for electrical energy generation. Waste from the rubberwood, bamboo, and rattan furniture industries was evaluated for its potential electrical energy generation, and the amount was compared with the electrical energy that was consumed by the furniture industry. The study also compared the emission of greenhouse gases from the combustion of these waste materials against fossil fuels used to generate electricity to assess its potential in terms of the environmental benefits. In conclusion, such mill waste could be utilized as substitute for fossil fuel to generate energy in the furniture industry.

  17. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basore, Paul; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade’s record of growth in the photovoltaic manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  18. Energy density enhancement of chemical heat storage material for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myagmarjav, Odtsetseg; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Ryu, Junichi; Kato, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    A novel candidate chemical heat storage material having higher reaction performance and higher thermal conductivity used for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump was developed in this study. The material, called EML, was obtained by mixing pure Mg(OH)_2 with expanded graphite (EG) and lithium bromide (LiBr), which offer higher thermal conductivity and reactivity, respectively. With the aim to achieve a high energy density, the EML composite was compressed into figure of the EML tablet (ϕ7.1 mm × thickness 3.5 mm). The compression force did not degrade the reaction conversion, and furthermore it enabled us to achieve best heat storage and output performances. The EML tablet could store heat of 815.4 MJ m_t_a_b"−"3 at 300 °C within 120 min, which corresponded to almost 4.4 times higher the heat output of the EML composite, and therefore, the EML tablet is the solution which releases more heat in a shorter time. A relatively larger volumetric gross heat output was also recorded for the EML tablet, which was greater than one attained for the EML composite at certain temperatures. As a consequence, it is expected that the EML tablet could respond more quickly to sudden demand of heat from users. It was concluded that the EML tablet demonstrated superior performances. - Highlights: • A new chemical heat storage material, donated as EML, was developed. • EML composite made from pure Mg(OH)_2, expanded graphite and lithium bromide. • EML tablet was demonstrated by compressing the EML composite. • Compression force did not degrade the conversion in dehydration and hydration. • EML tablet demonstrated superior heat storage and output performances.

  19. Changes in energy intensity in the manufacturing sector 1985--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-15

    In this report, energy intensity is defined as the ratio of energy consumption per unit of output. Output is measured as the constant dollar of value of shipments and receipts, and two measures of energy consumption are presented in British thermal units (Btu): Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy. A decrease in energy intensity from one period to another suggests an increase in energy efficiency, and vice versa. Energy efficiency can be defined and measured in various ways. Certain concepts of energy efficiency, especially those limited to equipment efficiencies, cannot be measured over time using changes in energy-intensity ratios. While improved energy efficiency will tend to reduce energy intensity, it is also true that a change in energy intensity can be due to factors unrelated to energy efficiency. For this report, energy intensity is used as a surrogate measure for energy efficiency, based on industry knowledge and current methodological analyses.

  20. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    OpenAIRE

    Prillia Ayudia; Rachmat Haris; Mulyana Tatang

    2017-01-01

    PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement are...

  1. Energy Performance Contract models for the diffusion of green-manufacturing technologies in China: A stakeholder analysis from SMEs’ perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Dillon K.; Xue, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are significant to China's emission reduction programme. This research aims to improve our understanding of the challenge of diffusing green-manufacturing technologies among SMEs in China. Specifically, this study examines the Chinese Government's effort to facilitate reduction of energy consumption among SMEs through Energy Performance Contracts (EPCs) to incentivize domestic manufacturers to adopt energy efficient measures (EEMs) in order to reduce demand for energy and corresponding drop in emissions. The data is gathered from relevant EPC stakeholders in the National Motor Upgrading Demonstration Project and its implementation in Dongguan city, which is based on 30 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions. Using stakeholder analysis, this study finds that guaranteed energy savings model is the favorite model in implementation, given the gained benefits outweigh committed resources, and the control capability overrides possible risks among the two core stakeholders. The outcomes of this study may allow the government to have a clear understanding of stakeholder perception of the different EPC models used in China so the design and deployment of these mechanisms can be improved. - Highlights: • Examine the barriers faced by green technologies when they are promoted to SMEs on a large scale. • Explain why green technology diffusion is thwarted when stakeholders cannot reach compromises. • Find that the guaranteed energy savings model is the best mechanism for upgrading SMEs. • Note that new EPC models and new policies are needed to increase stakeholders’ adoption rate.

  2. Chemical Disequilibria and Sources of Gibbs Free Energy Inside Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-photosynthetic organisms use chemical disequilibria in the environment to gain metabolic energy from enzyme catalyzed oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions. The presence of carbon dioxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, methanol, methane and other hydrocarbons in the eruptive plume of Enceladus [1] implies diverse redox disequilibria in the interior. In the history of the moon, redox disequilibria could have been activated through melting of a volatile-rich ice and following water-rock-organic interactions. Previous and/or present aqueous processes are consistent with the detection of NaCl and Na2CO3/NaHCO3-bearing grains emitted from Enceladus [2]. A low K/Na ratio in the grains [2] and a low upper limit for N2 in the plume [3] indicate low temperature (possibly enzymes if organisms were (are) present. The redox conditions in aqueous systems and amounts of available Gibbs free energy should have been affected by the production, consumption and escape of hydrogen. Aqueous oxidation of minerals (Fe-Ni metal, Fe-Ni phosphides, etc.) accreted on Enceladus should have led to H2 production, which is consistent with H2 detection in the plume [1]. Numerical evaluations based on concentrations of plume gases [1] reveal sufficient energy sources available to support metabolically diverse life at a wide range of activities (a) of dissolved H2 (log aH2 from 0 to -10). Formaldehyde, carbon dioxide [c.f. 4], HCN (if it is present), methanol, acetylene and other hydrocarbons have the potential to react with H2 to form methane. Aqueous hydrogenations of acetylene, HCN and formaldehyde to produce methanol are energetically favorable as well. Both favorable hydrogenation and hydration of HCN lead to formation of ammonia. Condensed organic species could also participate in redox reactions. Methane and ammonia are the final products of these putative redox transformations. Sulfates may have not formed in cold and/or short-term aqueous environments with a limited H2 escape. In contrast to

  3. Manufacturing a Porous Structure According to the Process Parameters of Functional 3D Porous Polymer Printing Technology Based on a Chemical Blowing Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. J.; Shin, B. S.; Kang, B. S.; Yun, D. H.; You, D. B.; Hong, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new porous polymer printing technology based on CBA(chemical blowing agent), and describe the optimization process according to the process parameters. By mixing polypropylene (PP) and CBA, a hybrid CBA filament was manufactured; the diameter of the filament ranged between 1.60 mm and 1.75 mm. A porous polymer structure was manufactured based on the traditional fused deposition modelling (FDM) method. The process parameters of the three-dimensional (3D) porous polymer printing (PPP) process included nozzle temperature, printing speed, and CBA density. Porosity increase with an increase in nozzle temperature and CBA density. On the contrary, porosity increase with a decrease in the printing speed. For porous structures, it has excellent mechanical properties. We manufactured a simple shape in 3D using 3D PPP technology. In the future, we will study the excellent mechanical properties of 3D PPP technology and apply them to various safety fields.

  4. Physico-chemical properties of manufactured nanomaterials - Characterisation and relevant methods. An outlook based on the OECD Testing Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Rauscher, Hubert; Mech, Agnieszka; Riego Sintes, Juan; Gilliland, Douglas; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Moss, Kenneth; Visser, Maaike; Groenewold, Monique; Bleeker, Eric A J

    Identifying and characterising nanomaterials require additional information on physico-chemical properties and test methods, compared to chemicals in general. Furthermore, regulatory decisions for chemicals are usually based upon certain toxicological properties, and these effects may not be

  5. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  6. Development of energy management system - Case study of Serbian car manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordic, Dusan; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Sustersic, Vanja; Koncalovic, Davor; Jelic, Dubravka

    2010-01-01

    The procedure of development of energy management system applied to an existing company (Serbian car producer 'Zastava') is shown in the paper. The aim of the paper is to provide a guideline for entrepreneurs in metal-working industry in implementing energy management system. First of all, paper includes: critical analysis of existing energy management system (energy matrix), principles of effective energy management organization (with energy manager and energy team in its structure) and energy management politics. Based on the results of energy auditing and performed technological and economical feasibility studies several energy saving measures related to different energy sources (steam, hot water, compressed air, electricity and water) were proposed, implemented and valuated. The proposed measures are not exclusively related to car assembly industry; they can be easily applied to other metal-working facilities with minor modifications. Such energy management system reduces energy costs and increase profitability of a factory.

  7. Climate policy and energy-intensive manufacturing: A comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of cost mitigation provisions in the American Energy and Security Act of 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Andrea M.; Yudken, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the ongoing climate policy debates, this study examines the cost impacts of carbon-pricing legislation on selected US energy-intensive manufacturing industries. Specifically, it evaluates output-based rebate measures and the border adjustment provision specified in the bill, and tests the effectiveness of cost containment features of the policy, such as the international offsets, under various market assumptions. Results of the examination confirm that in all policy cases or industries, the output-based rebates would effectively mitigate the manufacturers' carbon-pricing costs in the short-to-medium term. However as the rebates decline after 2020, especially in a case where low-carbon electricity generation or international offsets are not readily available or implemented, these industries would suffer greater declines in profitability. At the same time, the study's findings were mixed concerning the effectiveness of the border adjustment measure in reducing cost impacts after 2020. While border adjustments could reduce costs to US manufacturing sectors, at least temporarily, they could create problems for domestic downstream producers and exports, under cost pass-along conditions. However at best, the output-based rebates, international offset, and border adjustment and measures primarily buy time for manufacturers. The only long-term solution is for EITE industries to invest in energy-saving and next-generation low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: → The output-based rebates would effectively mitigate the costs of carbon-pricing for EITE industries. → After 2021 economic impacts on the EITE industries would escalate. → The BA measure would support US firms passing through their emissions costs to their US customers. → The BA measure would not alleviate the higher production costs of US. EITE exports. → In the medium term the only true solution is for US. EITE manufacturers to invest in energy-saving technologies.

  8. Sustainable chemical processing and energy-carbon dioxide management: review of challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Vooradi, Ramsagar; Bertran, Maria-Ona

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the available energy sources for consumption, their effects in terms of CO2-emission and its management, and sustainable chemical processing where energy-consumption, CO2-emission, as well as economics and environmental impacts are considered. Not all available...... energy sources are being utilized efficiently, while, the energy source causing the largest emission of CO2 is being used in the largest amount. The CO2 management is therefore looking at "curing" the problem rather than "preventing" it. Examples highlighting the synthesis, design and analysis...... of sustainable chemical processing in the utilization of biomass-based energy-chemicals production, carbon-capture and utilization with zero or negative CO2-emission to produce value added chemicals as well as retrofit design of energy intensive chemical processes with significant reduction of energy consumption...

  9. Benefits of Hot Isostatic Pressure/Powdered Metal (HIP/PM) and Additive Manufacturing (AM) To Fabricate Advanced Energy System Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Nancy [Energy Industries of Ohio, Cleveland, OH (United States); Sheppard, Roy [Energy Industries of Ohio, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-12-31

    Advanced Energy systems require large, complex components produced from materials capable of withstanding severe operating environments (high temperature, pressure, corrosivity). Such parts can be difficult to source, as conventional material processing technologies must be tailored to ensure a safe and cost effective approach to large-scale manufacture of quality structural advanced alloy components that meet the performance specifications of AE systems. (HIP/PM) has shown advantages over other manufacturing methods when working with these materials. For example, using HIP’ing in lieu of casting means significant savings in raw material costs, which for expensive, high-nickel alloys can be considerable for large-scale production. Use of HIP/PM also eliminates the difficulties resulting from reactivity of these materials in the molten state and facilitates manufacture of the large size requirements of the AE industry, producing a part that is defect and porosity free, thus further reducing or eliminating time and expense of post processing machining and weld repair. New advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques make it possible to further expand the benefits of HIP/PM in producing AE system components to create an even more robust manufacturing approach. Traditional techniques of welding and forming sheet metal to produce the HIP canisters can be time consuming and costly, with limitations on the complexity of part which can be achieved. A key benefit of AM is the freedom of design that it offers, so use of AM could overcome such challenges, ultimately enabling redesign of complete energy systems. A critical step toward this goal is material characterization of the required advanced alloys, for use in AM. Using Haynes 282, a high nickel alloy of interest to the Fossil Energy community, particularly for Advanced-UltraSuperCritical (AUSC) operating environments, as well as the crosscutting interests of the aerospace, defense and medical markets, this

  10. A novel application of exergy analysis: Lean manufacturing tool to improve energy efficiency and flexibility of hydrocarbon processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haragovics, Máté; Mizsey, Péter

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the techniques used in evaluating distillation structures from lean manufacturing point of view. Oil and gas industry has already started adopting lean manufacturing principles in different types of processes from information flow to processing technologies. Generally, energy costs are the most important factors in processing hydrocarbons. Introducing flexibility desired by lean principles to the system may conflict energy efficiency of the system. However, this does not mean that the economic optimum is the energetic optimum. Therefore all possible changes due to temporarily stopped or not fully utilised plants have to be investigated, resulting in a large amount of cases that have to be evaluated. For evaluation exergy analysis can be used as it involves all energy types, and evaluation is straightforward. In this paper plain distillation structures are investigated, and the boundaries of the systems are set up according to the status of the site. Four component case studies are presented that show that the very same distillation structure can be more or less efficient depending on the status of the industrial site. It is also shown that exergy analysis used with different boundaries on the same system can show flexibility of the system and reveals potentials. - Highlights: • The article focuses on the flexibility aspect of lean manufacturing. • Exergy analysis of distillation scheme alternatives, energy efficiency. • Different boundaries define different scenarios of the same system is investigated. • The energy efficiency of distillation schemes also depends on their operating mode. • The exergy reserves of a distillation system can be revealed with exergy analysis

  11. External Knowledge Sourcing and Green Innovation Growth with Environmental and Energy Regulations: Evidence from Manufacturing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the slacks-based measure-directional distance function (SBM-DDF, 2009 method for deriving the “Green Innovation Growth” rates of 28 manufacturing industries in China. The results indicate that the overall level of green innovation growth in China’s manufacturing is relatively low, with a declining trend. The tradeoffs among energy, environment and economy are rather sharp, and the “Porter Effect (1995” (environmental regulation will promote green technology innovation is not currently realized quickly in manufacturing. These evaluations imply an unsustainable development model in China, with significant differences among industries. By using a dynamic panel threshold model and employing an industry-level panel dataset for 2008–2014, we show that external knowledge sourcing has a significant negative impact on green innovation growth but with different constraints on R&D levels among industries. With the strengthening of R&D levels, gradually surpassing “critical mass”, the negative role of external knowledge sourcing in driving this mechanism becomes smaller and smaller; it has a non-linear relationship with the “threshold effect”. Consequently, we provide insights into the relationship among energy consumption, environmental pollution and technology innovation, and show how the heterogeneity of the R&D threshold affects differences in external knowledge sourcing and green innovation growth. These insights lead to a better understanding of the driving force, realizing path and policy design for green innovation growth.

  12. Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathway for Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such observables as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method with the Dunning correlation consistent basis sets to obtain accurate energetics, gives useful results for a number of chemically important systems. Applications to complex reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion are discussed.

  13. Manufacturing conductive polyaniline/graphite nanocomposites with spent battery powder (SBP) for energy storage: A potential approach for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xiaojuan; Deng, Jinxing; Wang, Xue; Guo, Jinshan [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: pliu@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Joint Research Center of Urban Resource Recycling Technology of Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University and Shenzhen Green Eco-Manufacturer High-Tech, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Potential approach to sustainable waste management was established. • Spent battery material was used for manufacturing conductive polymer. • The obtained nanocomposites possessed better electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A potential approach for sustainable waste management of the spent battery material (SBM) is established for manufacturing conductive polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites as electrode materials for supercapacitors, following the principle of “What comes from the power should be used for the power”. The ternary nanocomposites (G/MnO{sub 2}/PANI) containing PANI, graphite powder (G) and remanent MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the binary nanocomposites of polyaniline and graphite powder (G/PANI) are synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in hydrochloric aqueous solution with the MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the spent battery powder (SBP) as oxidant. The G/PANI sample, which was prepared with MnO{sub 2}/aniline mole ratio of 1:1 with 1.0 mL aniline in 50 mL of 1.0 mol L{sup −1} HCl, exhibits the electrical conductivity of 22.22 S cm{sup −1}, the highest specific capacitance up to 317 F g{sup −1} and the highest energy density of 31.0 Wh kg{sup −1}, with retention of as high as 84.6% of its initial capacitance after 1000 cycles, indicating good cyclic stability.

  14. Manufacturing conductive polyaniline/graphite nanocomposites with spent battery powder (SBP) for energy storage: A potential approach for sustainable waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Xiaojuan; Deng, Jinxing; Wang, Xue; Guo, Jinshan; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential approach to sustainable waste management was established. • Spent battery material was used for manufacturing conductive polymer. • The obtained nanocomposites possessed better electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A potential approach for sustainable waste management of the spent battery material (SBM) is established for manufacturing conductive polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites as electrode materials for supercapacitors, following the principle of “What comes from the power should be used for the power”. The ternary nanocomposites (G/MnO_2/PANI) containing PANI, graphite powder (G) and remanent MnO_2 nanoparticles and the binary nanocomposites of polyaniline and graphite powder (G/PANI) are synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in hydrochloric aqueous solution with the MnO_2 nanoparticles in the spent battery powder (SBP) as oxidant. The G/PANI sample, which was prepared with MnO_2/aniline mole ratio of 1:1 with 1.0 mL aniline in 50 mL of 1.0 mol L"−"1 HCl, exhibits the electrical conductivity of 22.22 S cm"−"1, the highest specific capacitance up to 317 F g"−"1 and the highest energy density of 31.0 Wh kg"−"1, with retention of as high as 84.6% of its initial capacitance after 1000 cycles, indicating good cyclic stability.

  15. Chemically and Thermally Stable High Energy Density Silicone Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal energy storage systems with 300 -- 1000 kJ/kg energy density through either phase changes or chemical heat absorption are sought by NASA. This proposed...

  16. Automation of an energy-autarkic manufacturing plant following IEC 61499; Automatisierung einer energieautarken Fertigungsanlage nach IEC 61499

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Christian; Hirsch, Martin; Hanisch, Hans-Michael [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Saale) (Germany). Lehrstuhl Automatisierungstechnik

    2009-07-01

    The requirements for future manufacturing plants are, beyond others, seamless reconfiguration, autonomy as far as possible as well as easy employment and maintenance for the end user. Within the EnAS project (Energy-Autarkic Actuators and Sensors), the group of the Automation Technology Lab in Halle has challenged the fulfillment of those requirements. Therefore, IEC 61499 compliant distributed controllers have been developed for the demonstrator-plant under particular consideration of reconfigurability. These controllers have been integrated into the process sequences of the demonstrator and afterwards several reconfiguration scenarios have been designed. The building of a Human-Machine-Interface for visualization and reconfiguration of the plant was an essential issue as well. The result is a highly flexible, easily reconfigurable system, which can be regarded as a prototype for automated manufacturing plants of a new generation. (orig.)

  17. Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathways for Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such parameters as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. For some dynamics methods, global potential energy surfaces are required. In this case, it is necessary to obtain the energy at a complete sampling of all the possible arrangements of the nuclei, which are energetically accessible, and then a fitting function must be obtained to interpolate between the computed points. In other cases, characterization of the stationary points and the reaction pathway connecting them is sufficient. These properties may be readily obtained using analytical derivative methods. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method to obtain accurate energetics, gives usefull results for a number of chemically important systems. The talk will focus on a number of applications including global potential energy surfaces, H + O2, H + N2, O(3p) + H2, and reaction pathways for complex reactions, including reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion.

  18. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July--September 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within nine major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Biotechnology, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information.

  19. Mesoscale simulations of shockwave energy dissipation via chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antillon, Edwin; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-02-28

    We use a particle-based mesoscale model that incorporates chemical reactions at a coarse-grained level to study the response of materials that undergo volume-reducing chemical reactions under shockwave-loading conditions. We find that such chemical reactions can attenuate the shockwave and characterize how the parameters of the chemical model affect this behavior. The simulations show that the magnitude of the volume collapse and velocity at which the chemistry propagates are critical to weaken the shock, whereas the energetics in the reactions play only a minor role. Shock loading results in transient states where the material is away from local equilibrium and, interestingly, chemical reactions can nucleate under such non-equilibrium states. Thus, the timescales for equilibration between the various degrees of freedom in the material affect the shock-induced chemistry and its ability to attenuate the propagating shock.

  20. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prillia Ayudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement area to be optimized and analyzed. Improvement plan at this stage that is focusing on energy area and technology. Thirdly is process applies by modifying the technology through implementing automation system on the punching machine so that there is an increase of green level on the process machine. The result obtained after implement the method can save cost on electrical energy consumption in the amount of Rp 1.068.159/day.

  1. Options for Water, Energy and Chemical Savings for Finitex, Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Zsig; Wenzel, Henrik

    An analysis of the options identified for saving of water, energy and chemicals was conducted at Finitex, Cape Town on the 18th October 2002. Cost savings were calculated from an estimation of the reduction in cost of water, energy and chemical usage associated with various interventions. Capital...

  2. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gee, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Menna, P. [National Agency for New Technologies Energy and Environment, Portici (Italy); Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V. [Intersolarcenter, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  3. Exploring drivers for energy efficiency within small- and medium-sized enterprises: First evidences from Italian manufacturing enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; Trianni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Allowances, public financing and external pressures as major external drivers. ► Ambitious decision-makers with great entrepreneurial mind as major internal drivers. ► Effect of firm’s size (even within SMEs) on drivers to industrial energy efficiency. ► Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s internal and external complexity. ► Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s innovation characteristics. - Abstract: Several studies have investigated the barriers to industrial energy efficiency, but few have focused on the most effective means (drivers) to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices. In this respect, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have been completely overlooked despite interesting consequences for their overall energy consumption and their concurrent low levels of adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Starting from insights garnered from the extant literature on the drivers of industrial energy efficiency, this paper presents an empirical investigation of 71 Italian manufacturing SMEs through a multiple case-study approach. The research highlights the importance of allowances or public financing for energy efficiency interventions, as well as the importance of external pressures such as increases in energy prices and the introduction or increasing of fees on both resources consumed and on emissions of pollutants. Moreover, enterprises look favourably upon energy-efficient technologies which are able to provide long-term benefits, evidence of their willingness to adopt seemingly radical solutions when these are able to improve their long-term competitiveness. Other drivers considered as strategic for increasing energy efficiency are the presence within the company of people with great ambition and entrepreneurial mind and the management sensitivity to the issue. This paper also provides a preliminary analysis of how factors such as firm size, sector, supply chain complexity, and

  4. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  5. 78 FR 21215 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... rule remains unchanged. AHAM argued that DOE has not explained what it considers to be de minimis, and... because the proposed amendments change what energy will be measured (i.e., the end of cycle energy... off of the ``Energy Star'' list, which may result in discontinuing production of the impacted models...

  6. Method for the manufacture of a thin film electrochemical energy source and device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the manuf. of a thin film electrochem. energy source. The invention also relates to a thin film electrochem. energy source. The invention also relates to an elec. device comprising such a thin film electrochem. energy source. The invention enables a more rapid

  7. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D. Final year report. Development of the measuring control technology supporting energy conservation in the manufacturing process of electronics (Design and trial manufacture of IMI); 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Denshi kikirui seizo process no sho energy shien keisoku seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu - IMI no sekkei to shisaku (saishu nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As measures taken for energy conservation in the manufacturing plant of electronic devices/equipment such as IC, the development was proceeded with a chlorine gas radio sensing system and a liquid crystal driver IC probe, according to the survey results that it is possible to control energy consumption in air conditioning by completely furnishing poisonous gas monitor in clean room and conserve energy related to the manufacture of IC and LSI tester by using Si for IC probe cards. The following four were carried out: 1) development/trial manufacture of chlorine sensing system; 2) development/trial manufacture of LCD (liquid crystal driver) IC probe; 3) support of trial manufacture of key element technology; 4) comprehensive investigational study of IMI (Intelligent Micro-Instrument). In FY 2000, study was focused on 1) and 2). In 1), a planar type micro-structure sensor was developed, and the trial-manufactured system brought favorable results in sensitivity, response speed and reproductivity. (NEDO)

  8. Estimating energy intensity and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potentials in the manufacturing sectors in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangskarn, P.; Khummongkol, P.; Schrattenholzer, L. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The final energy consumption in Thailand increased at about ten percent annually within the last 10 years. To slow the energy demand growth rate while maintaining the country`s economic advance and environmental sustainability, the Energy Conservation Promotion Act (ECPA) was adopted in 1992. With this Act, a comprehensive Energy Conservation Program (ENCON) was initiated. ENCON commits the government to promoting energy conservation, to developing appropriate regulations, and to providing financial and organizational resources for program implementation. Due to this existing ENCON program a great benefit is expected not only to reducing energy consumption, but also to decreasing GHGs emissions substantially. This study is a part of the ENCON research program which was supported by the German Federal Government under the program called Prompt-Start Measures to Implement the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The basic activities carried out during the project included (1) An assessment of Thailand`s total and specific energy consumption in the industrial sectors and commercial buildings; (2) Identification of existing and candidate technologies for GHG emission reduction and energy efficiency improvements in specific factories and commercial buildings; and (3) Identification of individual factories and commercial buildings as candidates for detailed further study. Although the energy assessment had been carried out for the commercial buildings also, this paper will cover only the work on the manufacturing sector. On the basis of these steps, 14 factories were visited by the project team and preliminary energy audits were performed. As a result, concrete measures and investments were proposed and classified into two groups according to their economic characteristics. Those investments with a payback time of less than four years were considered together in a Moderate scenario, and those with longer payback times in an Intensive scenario.

  9. Towards consistent and reliable Dutch and international energy statistics for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelis, M.L.; Pouwelse, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and reliable energy statistics are of vital importance for proper monitoring of energy-efficiency policies. In recent studies, irregularities have been reported in the Dutch energy statistics for the chemical industry. We studied in depth the company data that form the basis of the energy statistics in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2004 to find causes for these irregularities. We discovered that chemical products have occasionally been included, resulting in statistics with an inconsistent system boundary. Lack of guidance in the survey for the complex energy conversions in the chemical industry in the survey also resulted in large fluctuations for certain energy commodities. The findings of our analysis have been the basis for a new survey that has been used since 2007. We demonstrate that the annual questionnaire used for the international energy statistics can result in comparable problems as observed in the Netherlands. We suggest to include chemical residual gas as energy commodity in the questionnaire and to include the energy conversions in the chemical industry in the international energy statistics. In addition, we think the questionnaire should be explicit about the treatment of basic chemical products produced at refineries and in the petrochemical industry to avoid system boundary problems

  10. Drug development and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  11. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  12. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  13. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin

    2011-11-29

    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  14. Analysis of energy use and efficiency in Turkish manufacturing sector SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuet, Semih; Soner, Selin

    2007-01-01

    Small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) have an important role in the Turkish economy because of the workforce involved. According to the size of the industrial facilities, there are different cost components related to the total production costs. Energy cost is usually a small portion of the total production cost, but the Turkish industrial sector comprises approximately 35% of Turkey's total energy consumption and 98.8% of the total number of enterprises in Turkey constitutes the SMEs. Because of the uncertainty of energy costs in the world, it is important to take preventive measures to reduce energy costs and increase efficiencies in industry and consequently in SMEs. In this paper, medium sized enterprises are taken into consideration essentially. Because of getting homogeneity, enterprises with the number of workers between 100 and 200 in the metallic goods industry have been considered in the survey. Energy management includes increasing the profitability by reduced operational costs, and it is also a potential for improving market share. Many different evaluation models have been published in the energy management literature. However, there have not been so many systematic approaches to compare the relative efficiency of the systems. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a special linear programming model for deriving the comparative efficiency of multiple-input multiple-output decision making units (DMUs). An evaluation of energy efficiency in 20 medium sized companies has been conducted, and the results are discussed in this paper

  15. Energy reserch in the mechanical forest industry 1980-1982. Energy consumption in the manufacture of joinery products, wooden houses and in the further processing of sawn timber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.; Froeblom, J.

    1983-03-01

    Energy consumption in the mechanical forest industry in 1979 was studied by sending questionnairies to all the significant factories Information was requested on power and heat consumption and installed power in separate process phases. For background information, some aspects of the production process were also requested. The factories which answered the inquiry produced about one half of the doors and windows manufactured in 1979, one sixth of the finger jointed timber and about one third of other products in the branch. The total energy consumption in the branch was 1 556 TJ, 77% was heat. The share of the joinery industry (doors, windows and fixtures) in the total was 2/3, of which 86% was heat energy. The energy needed in the wooden house industry was 219 TJ, in planing works 137 TJ, in the gluelam industry 86 TJ, in finger jointing 76 TJ and in the production of roof trusses about 6 TJ. The investigated brances accounted for 7% of the energy consumption of the whole mechanical forest industry. The energy consumption in producing products of the same type in different factories varied very much. The differences were partially structural. However, there is considerable room for energy savings in many of the factories.

  16. High-energy chemical processes: Laser irradiation of aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.; Liu, A.D.; Loffredo, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies of the high-energy photochemical degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in solution have furthered our fundamental understanding of the way in which radiation interacts with matter. A new comprehensive mechanism that unifies many of the seemingly contradictory observations in radiation and photochemistry has been proposed on basis of evidence gathered using specialized techniques such as transient optical spectroscopy and transient dc conductivity. The PAH molecules were activated by two-photon ionization, and behavior of the transient ions were monitored as a function of photon energy. It was found that a greater percentage of ions retain sufficient energy to decompose when higher energy light was used. When these cations decompose they leave a trail of products that establish a ''high-energy'' decomposition pathway that involves proton transfer from the ion, a mechanism hitherto not considered in photoionization processes

  17. Chemical potential and internal energy of the noninteracting Fermi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    entropy by T, dV is the change in volume by p and µ is the chemical potential. When S .... thin films are actually not 2D objects, but fractals with Hausdorff dimensionalities between 2D ..... sharpness of the edge of the Fermi surface is lost. In the ...

  18. A reversible, unidirectional molecular rotary motor driven by chemical energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, SP; Dumur, F; Pollard, MM; Feringa, BL

    2005-01-01

    With the long-term goal of producing nanometer-scale machines, we describe here the unidirectional rotary motion of a synthetic molecular structure fueled by chemical conversions. The basis of the rotation is the movement,of a phenyl rotor relative to a naphthyl stator about a single bond axle. The

  19. Calculation of the energy consumed by the manufacturing and erection of a modern wind generator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grum-Schwensen, E.

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides a detailed comparative data on greenhouse gases emissions like methane and carbon dioxide from various energy sources including hydro power, wind power, solar power and fossil fuel power plants

  20. Advance Manufacturing Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) brings together manufacturers, research institutions, suppliers, and universities to investigate manufacturing processes, information, and materials technologies critical to advance domestic manufacturing of clean energy products, and to support energy productivity across the entire manufacturing sector.

  1. Development and Implementation of an Automatic Continuous Online Monitoring and Control Platform for Polymerization Reactions to Sharply Boost Energy and Resource Efficiency in Polymer Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Wayne [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Drenski, Michael [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Romagnoli, Jose [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    The project goal was to create an energy saving paradigm shift in how polymers are manufactured in the 21st century. It used Automatic Continuous Online Monitoring of Polymerization reactions (ACOMP) integrated for the first time with automatic active control to create the innovative ‘ACOMP/Control Interface’, or ‘ACOMP/CI’. ACOMP/CI will begin the transformation from old, inefficient processes into highly evolved, energy and resource efficient ones. The ACOMP platform is broadly applicable to many types of reactions and processes throughout the vast polymer industry. The industry provides materials for sectors such as automotive, aerospace, oil recovery, agriculture, paints, resins, adhesives, pharmaceuticals and therapeutic proteins, optics, electronics, lightweight building materials, and many more. The U.S. chemical industry is one of the last major sectors in which the U.S. has top global stature. It consumes 24% of all U.S. manufacturing energy, produces over $800B of product annually, supports 25% of the U.S. GDP and employs over 6 million people. It is also a major source of GHG emissions. Polymers make up approximately 30% of this sector. It is estimated that annually 60 TBtu of energy could be saved and 3 million tons less of GHG emissions produced by optimizing production in the polyolefin manufacturing sector alone. The project scope included first time design and prototyping of an ACOMP/CI, creation of active reaction controllers, and demonstration of control capabilities on ideal, low concentration polymerization reactions. All these elements of the scope were met, including advances and findings not originally anticipated. Extensions to more complex reactions, beyond the reactor capabilities of the current project ACOMP/CI, such as polyolefins and other high pressure/high temperature reactions, are being proposed in Fall 2017 to CESMII, a DoE based NNMI. The initial proposal was for a three year funded project, but this was reduced to a two

  2. physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    were performed to assess the energy characteristics of the collected wood .... Methods. Wood processing activities were physically observed for. 6 days/wk at the sawmills for 15weeks. ..... [10] Oladeji, J T “Fuel characterization of briquettes.

  3. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  4. Collaborative Business Models for Energy Efficient Solutions An Exploratory Analysis of Danish and German Manufacturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Brem, Alexander; Bogers, Marcel

    included the development of general performance and employee data, the competitive situation, green products and services, energy sources, innovation, sustainable investments and further. Here, our objective is to identify the successful cases of Danish and German firms, which consume less energy, emit...... the uniqueness of these cases in terms of collaborative activities, process innovation, product developments, which are fundamental parts of a firm’s business model. For the second stage, qualitative interviews in form of a focus group study will be carried out. In the first-stage screening 30 companies could...

  5. Industrial Energy Use and Interventions in Urban Form : Heavy Manufacturing versus New Service and Creative Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romein, A.

    2016-01-01

    Now that it becomes obvious that disregarding the seriousness of climate change and the exhaustibility of fossil fuels would have severe and unpredictable impacts, improvement of the efficiency of urban energy consumption is of utmost importance. Hence, a rather diverse spectrum of policies to

  6. 77 FR 76952 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... dishwashers. Given that 65 percent of all standard dishwashers currently on the market meet or exceed the..., standard, or criteria for that determination. It is a textbook arbitrary and capricious determination. As... the market meet or exceed the minimum energy conservation standards established in the direct final...

  7. Homogeneity Analysis of a MEMS-based PZT Thick Film Vibration Energy Harvester Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Borregaard, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a homogeneity analysis of a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibration energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak vibrations in the range of around 300Hz. A wafer with a yield of 91% (41/45 devices) has been...

  8. Minimizing the Free Energy: A Computer Method for Teaching Chemical Equilibrium Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Emerson F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a computer method for teaching chemical equilibrium concepts using material balance conditions and the minimization of the free energy. Method for the calculation of chemical equilibrium, the computer program used to solve equilibrium problems and applications of the method are also included. (HM)

  9. INFLUENCE OF TORREFACTION ON SOME CHEMICAL AND ENERGY PROPERTIES OF MARITIME PINE AND PEDUNCULATE OAK

    OpenAIRE

    Floran Pierre; Giana Almeida; José Otavio Brito; Patrick Perré

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition and energy properties of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). Samples were treated in a new experimental device at 220, 250, or 280 degrees C for 1 or 5 hours. Chemical and energy analyses were performed using standard methods. Our results clearly demonstrated an increased degradation of the material due to the combined effects of temperature and treatment duration. This mass los...

  10. Analysis of energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet with indirect combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jiang; Cheng, Kunlin; Zhang, Silong; Zhang, Duo; Bao, Wen; Han, Jiecai

    2016-01-01

    The working process of scramjet with regenerative cooling, which was actually the chemical recuperation process, was analyzed in view of energy cascade utilization. The indirect combustion was realized through pyrolysis reaction of fuel. The relative yields of thermal exergy obtained by indirect combustion have been predicted both assuming an ideal pyrolysis reaction and using the experimental results of thermal pyrolysis of n-decane. The results showed that the influence mechanism of regenerative cooling improved the scramjet engine performance by the energy cascade utilization, and the combustion process was supposed to be designed with the cooling process together to utilize the chemical energy of fuel in a more effective way. A maximum value of 11% of the relative yield was obtained with the ideal pyrolysis reaction while a value less than 3% existed in the thermal pyrolysis experiments because of the domination of chemical kinetics rather than chemical thermodynamics in the real experiments. In spite of the difference between the ideal and the present experimental results, the indirect combustion was prospective to achieve a better energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet if the pyrolysis reaction was further optimized. The results in this paper were beneficial for the performance optimization of a regenerative cooling scramjet. - Highlights: • A new method of energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet. • 11% exergy loss is reduced by ideal pyrolysis reaction with indirect combustion. • Regenerative cooling with chemical recuperation can improve engine performance.

  11. Photoassisted electrolysis of water - Conversion of optical to chemical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, M. S.; Bolts, J. M.; Kaiser, S. W.; Ellis, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of devices, termed photoelectrochemical cells, which can, in principle, be used to directly convert light to fuels and/or electricity. The fundamental principles on which the photoelectrochemical cell is based are related to the observation that irradiation of a semiconductor electrode in an electrochemical cell can result in the flow of an electric current in the external circuit. Attention is given to the basic mechanisms involved, the energy conversion efficiency, the advantages of photoelectrochemical cells, and the results of investigations related to the study of energy conversion via photoelectrochemical cells.

  12. Chemical Expansion: Implications for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishop, S.R.; Marrocchelli, D.; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Many energy-related materials rely on the uptake and release of large quantities of ions, for example, Li+ in batteries, H+ in hydrogen storage materials, and O2− in solid-oxide fuel cell and related materials. These compositional changes often result in large volumetric dilation of the material...

  13. Capacitive technology for energy extraction from chemical potential differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastos Sales, B.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis introduces the principle of Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan Potential (CDP) to exploit salinity gradients. It also shows the fundamental characterization and improvements of CDP. An alternative application of this technology aimed at thermal gradients was tested.

  14. Energy, chemicals and carbon: future options for the Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current Eucalyptus value chain and the possible drivers that may impact upon it. The potential consequences of climate change on the growth and yield of Eucalyptus are discussed and the impact of the security of oil reserves and increased costs of fossil-fuel-derived energy and raw materials upon ...

  15. Lignocellulosics to ethanol: The future of the chemical and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy and environmental issues are among the major concerns facing the global community today. Biofuel technology is now globally embraced as the promising technology to replace fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic waste biomass from forestry, agriculture and municipal sources are abundant, inexpensive and potential ...

  16. Research, climate, energy : Questions of destiny for the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastinen, A., email: aimo.kastinen@chemind.fi

    2010-07-01

    Registration for the first phase of Reach finishes at the end of November. Then we will see whether the standard of legislation has been set correctly in respect of the EU's operational ability. If it isn't, significant problems will result for the community's treatment of materials and the EU's competitiveness, and Reach's value as a global model will become questionable. Also, the CLP regulation concerning classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals will start to come into effect as from the beginning of December. In the first phase, the question is one of classification of substances, and gradually the requirements will be applied to mixtures too. At the same time, Safety Data Sheets shall be renewed in accordance with their own transition period. The current product legislation concerning chemicals shall be fully revised by the mid-point of the decade, but before then company safety officers will have to do lots of work to change the previous routines

  17. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  18. Chemical, sensory, and functional properties of whey-based popsicles manufactured with watermelon juice concentrated at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina P C; Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius S; Esmerino, Erick A; Moraes, Jeremias; Pimentel, Tatiana C; Rocha, Ramon S; Freitas, Mônica Q; Santos, Jânio S; Ranadheera, C Senaka; Rosa, Lana S; Teodoro, Anderson J; Mathias, Simone P; Silva, Márcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Couto, Silvia R M; Granato, Daniel; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-07-30

    The effects of the concentration of watermelon juice at different temperatures (45, 55, or 65 °C) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, antioxidant capacity, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of whey-based popsicles were investigated. Total phenolic content, lycopene, citrulline, VOCs, melting rate, instrumental colour, antioxidant capacity, and the sensory characteristics (hedonic test and free listing) were determined. The temperature led to a significant decrease in bioactive compounds (total phenolics, lycopene, and citrulline). The popsicle manufactured with reconstituted watermelon juice concentrated to 60 °Brix at 65 °C presented higher antioxidant capacity and was characterized by the presence of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and presented a similar acceptance to the untreated popsicle (except for flavour). It is possible to combine whey and concentrated watermelon juice for the manufacture of bioactive-rich popsicles, using the concentration temperature of 65 °C as a suitable processing condition for potential industrial applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An effective and optimal quality control approach for green energy manufacturing using design of experiments framework and evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Juan Alejandro

    Quality Control (QC) and Quality Assurance (QA) strategies vary significantly across industries in the manufacturing sector depending on the product being built. Such strategies range from simple statistical analysis and process controls, decision-making process of reworking, repairing, or scraping defective product. This study proposes an optimal QC methodology in order to include rework stations during the manufacturing process by identifying the amount and location of these workstations. The factors that are considered to optimize these stations are cost, cycle time, reworkability and rework benefit. The goal is to minimize the cost and cycle time of the process, but increase the reworkability and rework benefit. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to propose a cost estimation model that includes energy consumption, and (2) to propose an optimal QC methodology to identify quantity and location of rework workstations. The cost estimation model includes energy consumption as part of the product direct cost. The cost estimation model developed allows the user to calculate product direct cost as the quality sigma level of the process changes. This provides a benefit because a complete cost estimation calculation does not need to be performed every time the processes yield changes. This cost estimation model is then used for the QC strategy optimization process. In order to propose a methodology that provides an optimal QC strategy, the possible factors that affect QC were evaluated. A screening Design of Experiments (DOE) was performed on seven initial factors and identified 3 significant factors. It reflected that one response variable was not required for the optimization process. A full factorial DOE was estimated in order to verify the significant factors obtained previously. The QC strategy optimization is performed through a Genetic Algorithm (GA) which allows the evaluation of several solutions in order to obtain feasible optimal solutions. The GA

  20. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: October-December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-02-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period October--December 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within six major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of Hot Cell Operations included efforts to optimize the processing conditions for Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford tank sludge, the testing of candidate absorbers and ion exchangers under continuous-flow conditions using actual supernatant from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, and attempts to develop a cesium-specific spherical inorganic sorbent for the treatment of acidic high-salt waste solutions. Within the area of Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, the problem of solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge was addressed and experimental collaborative efforts with Russian scientists to determine the solidification conditions of yttrium barium, and copper oxides from their melts were completed.

  1. Energetic and chemical use of waste material and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, C.; Houmoeller, A.P. [ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The paper will begin with a summary of the Danish energy policies from the mid-1970s and until today when the focus is on national self-sufficiency and combined heat and power - including industrial combined heat and power and renewable energies with emphasis on wind turbines and biofuels. The planning conditions of the Danish electricity utilities will be discussed, i.e. 20 per cent CO{sub 2} reduction by 2005, continuous reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, and finally the conversion of 5 per cent of the fuel from coal to straw and wood chips. Afterwards, the status of biofuels in Denmark will be described with emphasis on resources and prices. The main biofuel in Denmark is surplus production from agriculture - straw or other biofuels with straw-like properties. (orig./GL)

  2. Energetic and chemical use of waste material and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, C; Houmoeller, A P [ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The paper will begin with a summary of the Danish energy policies from the mid-1970s and until today when the focus is on national self-sufficiency and combined heat and power - including industrial combined heat and power and renewable energies with emphasis on wind turbines and biofuels. The planning conditions of the Danish electricity utilities will be discussed, i.e. 20 per cent CO{sub 2} reduction by 2005, continuous reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, and finally the conversion of 5 per cent of the fuel from coal to straw and wood chips. Afterwards, the status of biofuels in Denmark will be described with emphasis on resources and prices. The main biofuel in Denmark is surplus production from agriculture - straw or other biofuels with straw-like properties. (orig./GL)

  3. The chemical composition, energy and amino acid digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent and true metabolisable energy (AMEn and TMEn) values ranged from 9.88 to 10.02 and 10.29 to 10.78 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The mean digestibilities of the AA's ranged from 72.8 to 81.0%, with methionine having the highest digestibility and lysine the lowest. Cowpeas appear to be suitable for use in poultry ...

  4. Simultaneous water and energy optimization in chemical plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, Thokozani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available flowrates and contaminant concentrations  Sinks with fixed flowrates and known maximum allowable concentration  Water regeneration units (known design parameters)  Freshwater source with known concentration and unlimited supply  Wastewater sink... with maximum allowable concentration and unlimited capacity  Determine:  Minimum flowrate of freshwater into sinks  Minimum wastewater flowrate  Optimum design variables of regenerators for minimal energy usage  Optimum water network...

  5. SLUG FLOW PROCESSING IN MICROREACTORS FOR BIO-BASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING: SYNTHESIS AND OXIDATION OF 5-HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL AS POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Deuss, Peter; Zhang, Zheng; Hommes, Arne; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing global demand on fossil resources that are limited in reserves has directed numerous research efforts recently towards the development of more sustainable feedstocks as the source for the production of fuels, chemicals and (performance) materials. Conversion of biomass

  6. Feasibility study on effective use of energy in the cement manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of a project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction by introducing the steam injection gas turbine generator to production facilities of the Siam Cement Industry Corporation (SCI) in Thailand. In the project, studies were made on the following: no purchases of electric power by introduction of the steam injection gas turbine generator; additional heating by gas turbine exhaust gas by introduction of the kiln combustion air heater; remodeling of the preheater of raw materials, and the partial calcination before kiln sintering by introduction of the calcination furnace. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 1,200 toe/y, and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was approximately 8,000 t-CO2/y, which led to the reserve power for increased production of clinker by about 18%. The size of investment was 314.5 million Baht in total. As to the evaluation of economical efficiency of the investment, the actual period of ROI was a little less than 5 years, and the internal earning rate was 17.7%, which substantially met with SCI's standards for equipment investment. However, there are problems on the gas supply infrastructure, recovery of the white cement demand, etc. (NEDO)

  7. Feasibility study on effective use of energy in the cement manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of a project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction by introducing the steam injection gas turbine generator to production facilities of the Siam Cement Industry Corporation (SCI) in Thailand. In the project, studies were made on the following: no purchases of electric power by introduction of the steam injection gas turbine generator; additional heating by gas turbine exhaust gas by introduction of the kiln combustion air heater; remodeling of the preheater of raw materials, and the partial calcination before kiln sintering by introduction of the calcination furnace. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 1,200 toe/y, and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was approximately 8,000 t-CO2/y, which led to the reserve power for increased production of clinker by about 18%. The size of investment was 314.5 million Baht in total. As to the evaluation of economical efficiency of the investment, the actual period of ROI was a little less than 5 years, and the internal earning rate was 17.7%, which substantially met with SCI's standards for equipment investment. However, there are problems on the gas supply infrastructure, recovery of the white cement demand, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Sustainable energy from biomass: Biomethane manufacturing plant location and distribution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bingqing; Sarker, Bhaba R.; Paudel, Krishna P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal strategy to locate biogas reactor and allocating feedstock. • Nonlinear mixed integer programming problem structure. • Real world supply chain of biogas production system. • Considers construction cost, transportation and labor costs. • Novel heuristic improves efficiency to obtain optimal solution. - Abstract: As an environment-friendly and renewable energy source, biomethane plays a significant role in the supply of sustainable energy. To facilitate the decision-making process of where to build a biomethane production system (BMPS) and how to allocate the resources for the BMPS, this paper develops an analytical method to find the solutions to location and allocation problems by minimizing the supply chain cost of the BMPS. The BMPS consists of the local farms for providing feedstock, the hubs for collecting and storing feedstock from farms, and the reactors for producing biomethane from feedstock. A mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) is introduced to model the supply chain by considering building, transportation, and labor costs. An alternative heuristic is proposed to obtain an optimal/sub-optimal solution from the MINLP. The validity of the proposed heuristic is proven by numerical examples that are abstracted from practical scenarios.

  9. CoCr F75 scaffolds produced by additive manufacturing: Influence of chemical etching on powder removal and mechanical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooreweder, Brecht Van; Lietaert, Karel; Neirinck, Bram; Lippiatt, Nicholas; Wevers, Martine

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allow carefully controlled production of complex porous structures such as scaffolds. These advanced structures can offer many interesting advantages over conventionally produced products in terms of biological response and patient specific design. The surface finish of AM parts is often poor because of the layer wise nature of the process and adhering particles. Loosening of these particles after implantation should be avoided, as this could put the patient's health at risk. In this study the use of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures for surface treatment of cobalt-chromium F75 scaffolds produced by SLM is investigated. A 27% HCl and 8% H 2 O 2 etchant proved effective in removing adhering particles while retaining the quasi-static and fatigue performance of the scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  11. Extraterrestrial fiberglass production using solar energy. [lunar plants or space manufacturing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D.; Sobon, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for fiberglass production systems in both lunar and space environments. The raw material, of lunar origin, will be plagioclase concentrate, high silica content slag, and calcium oxide. Glass will be melted by solar energy. The multifurnace in the lunar plant and the spinning cylinder in the space plant are unique design features. Furnace design appears to be the most critical element in optimizing system performance. A conservative estimate of the total power generated by solar concentrators is 1880 kW; the mass of both plants is 120 tons. The systems will reproduce about 90 times their total mass in fiberglass in 1 year. A new design concept would be necessary if glass rods were produced in space.

  12. Converting chemical energy into electricity through a functionally cooperating device with diving-surfacing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengmeng; Cheng, Mengjiao; Ju, Guannan; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2014-11-05

    A smart device that can dive or surface in aqueous medium has been developed by combining a pH-responsive surface with acid-responsive magnesium. The diving-surfacing cycles can be used to convert chemical energy into electricity. During the diving-surfacing motion, the smart device cuts magnetic flux lines and produces a current, demonstrating that motional energy can be realized by consuming chemical energy of magnesium, thus producing electricity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The world market of renewable energies. Trends on the long term for the solar, wind and hydraulic sectors - Which growth strategies for equipment manufacturers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This study first proposes an analysis of data related to the renewable energy market context. It aims at identifying the current and future impact of environmental factors on actors. It focuses on structural evolutions as opposed to cyclical factors. It also gives an overview of the evolution of World demand in the fields of conventional and renewable energies, and proposes a detailed analysis of three main segments: solar, wind, and hydraulic energy. The second part reports an analysis of the structure of the sector of electric equipment manufacturing for the production of energy by using clean or renewable sources, with a focus on solar, wind and hydraulic energies. Strategies are discussed, notably for the main operators (First Solar, Goldwind, Q-Cells, Suntech Power, Suzlon, and Vestas). The next part presents financial and economic data (and their evolution) for the world main equipment manufacturers (the above-mentioned ones and Alstom, Dongfang, General Electric, Siemens)

  14. Design and Manufacturing of Desalination System Powered by Solar Energy Using CDI Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Mohammad Sajjad; Khashehchi, Morteza; Pipelzadeh, Ehsan

    2017-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging energy efficient, low pressure and low capital intensive desalination process where ions are separated by a pure electrostatic force imposed by a small bias potential as low as 1 V That funded by an external Renewable (Solar) power supply to materials with high specific surface area. The main objective of this configuration is to separate the cation and anions on oppositely charged electrodes. One of the key parameters for commercial realization of CDI is the salt adsorption capacity of the electrodes. State-of-the-art electrode materials are based on porous activated carbon particles or carbon aerogels. Various electrode materials have been developed in the past, which have suffered from instability and lack of performance. Preliminary experimental results using carbon black, graphite powder, graphene ∖ graphite ∖ PTFE (Active ∖ Conductive ∖ binder) show that the graphene reduced via urea method is a suitable method to develop CDI electrode materials. Although some progress has been made, production of efficient and stable carbon based electrode materials for large scale desalination has not been fully realized. A new desalination technique using capacitive deionization.

  15. Allocation of fossil and nuclear fuels. Heat production from chemically and physically bound energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.

    2008-01-01

    The first part of the book presents the broad field of allocation, transformation, transport and distribution of the most important energy carriers in the modern power industry. The following chapters cover solid fossil fuel, liquid fuel, gaseous fuel and nuclear fuel. The final chapters concern the heat production from chemically and physically bound energy, including elementary analysis, combustion calculations, energy balance considerations in fossil fuel fired systems, and fundamentals of nuclear physics

  16. Chemical modification of polypropylene induced by high energy carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Chintalapudi, S.N. E-mail: snc@gamma.iuc.res.in

    2000-06-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energy using 3 MV Pelletron. The spectral changes owing to ion bombardment were investigated by UV-VIS and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A gradual increase in absorbance was observed around visible and near visible region with increase in fluence of bombarding ions. The difference absorption spectra show formation of chromophoric groups with wavelength maximum near 380 nm at lower fluence, but at high fluence a shift in peak is observed. The chromophoric groups are likely to be the extended conjugated polyene system and the red shift in peak position at high fluence may be attributed to the greater degree of conjugation. The formation of unsaturated linkage is confirmed by the FTIR spectra with observed stretching band around 1650 cm{sup -1} and its intensity was found to increase with increase in ion fluence studied. The gases (in the range 2-80 amu) which were evolved due to interaction of polypropylene with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions were measured with Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). A large number of gaseous components were detected. This shows that polymer chains break into some smaller fragments which concomitantly leads to extended conjugation.

  17. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  18. Biotechnology in China II. Chemicals, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab. Renewable Resources Engineering; Ouyang, Pingkai [Nanjing Univ. of Technology (China). College of Life Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering; Chen, Jian (eds.) [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Biotechnology

    2010-07-01

    , biochemists, molecular biologists, bioengineers, chemical engineers, and food and pharmaceutical chemists, environmental engineers working in industry, at universities or at public institutions. The volume editors and the authors of the individual chapters have been chosen for their recognized expertise and their contributions to the various fields of biotechnology. Their willingness to impart this knowledge to their colleagues forms the basis of the book and is gratefully acknowledged. Moreover, this work could not have been brought to fruition without the foresight and the constant and diligent support from the Springer. The seven chapters are organized by more than 20 outstanding biotechnological groups in China. The first chapter reviews the general development history and the perspectives of the industrial biotechnology in China. The next two chapters consider the biotechnological production of organic chemicals and biofuels in China. The fourth chapter summarizes the development of bioreactors and bioseparation. The fifth chapter gives a profile on the current status of environmental biotechnology in China. Special attention is given here to traditional Chinese biotechnology. The last chapter describes the new biotechnology in China. A carefully selected and distinguished Editorial Board stands behind the series. Its members come from key institutions representing scientific input from about 20 countries. We are grateful to Springer for publishing Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology with their customary excellence. Special thanks are due to Editorial Board, without whose constant efforts the volumes could not be published. Finally, the editors wish to thank the Chinese researchers working in the field for their diligence, courage and wisdom, which greatly facilitate the development of Chinese biotechnology. We believe that we have tried our best to draw a more comprehensive atlas for the development of biochemical engineering and biotechnology in China

  19. Alternative forms of energy transmission from OTEC plants. [Chemical and electrical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, A.; Biederman, N.; Talib, A.; Yudow, B.

    1977-01-01

    The transmission of OTEC-derived chemical and electrical energy is compared. The chemical energy-carriers considered are the following: gaseous and liquid hydrogen, liquid ammonia, methanol, gasoline, hydrazine hydrate, anhydrous hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), 1,7-Octadiyne, and tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene. The assessment assumes that each of the above energy carriers were transported by barge and/or pipeline. The delivered costs were then compared with transmission of electricity by submarine cables. Because chemical and electrical energy are not equivalent, however, their comparison can only be done after the outputs are converted to a common form. Thus, in addition to presenting the delivered cost and overall energy efficiency of the chemical energy-carriers, we have provided a discussion of the equipment, costs, and efficiencies of converting the hydrogen and ammonia delivered into electricity, and the electricity delivered into hydrogen and ammonia. A concise technical assessment and economic analysis of components associated with the conversion, storage, transportation, and shore-based receiving facilities for the conversion of OTEC mechanical energy to chemical energy is provided and compared to the conversion and transmission of electrical power. Results concerning the hydrogen and ammonia analysis were determined as part of the OTEC program at IGT from May 1975 through May 1976 under Contract No. NSF-C1008 (AER-75-00033) with the National Science Foundation and ERDA. Information concerning carbonaceous fuels and high-energy fuels production was developed as part of the current IGT OTEC program under Contract No. E(49-18)-2426 with ERDA.

  20. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area

  1. ENERGY CONVERSION FROM WOODY BIOMASS STUFF: POSSIBLE MANUFACTURE OF BRIQUETTED CHARCOAL FROM SAWMILL-GENERATED SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Roliadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available There are three dominant kinds of wood industries in Indonesia which consume huge amount of  wood materials as well as generate considerable amount of  woody waste stuffs, i.e. sawmills, plywood, and pulp/paper. For the two latest industries, their wastes to great extent have been reutilized in the remanufacturing process, or burnt under controlled condition to supplement their energy needs in the corresponding factories, thereby greatly alleviating environmental negative impacts.  However, wastes from sawmills (especially sawdust still often pose a serious environmental threat, since they as of this occasion are merely dumped on sites, discarded to the stream, or merely burnt, hence inflicting dreadful stream as well as air pollutions. One way to remedy those inconveniences is by converting the sawdust into useful product, i.e. briquetted charcoal, as has been experimentally tried. The charcoal was at first prepared by carbonizing the sawdust wastes containing a mixture of the ones altogether from the sawing of seven particular Indonesia's wood species, and afterwards was shaped into the briquette employing various concentrations of starch binder at two levels (3.0 and 5.0 % and also various hydraulic pressures (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 kg/cm2.  Further, the effect of those variations was examined on the yield and qualities of the resulting briquetted charcoal. The results revealed that the most satisfactory yield and qualities of the briquetted sawdustcharcoal were acquired at 3 % starch binder concentration with 5.0 kg/cm2 hydraulic pressure. As such, the briquette qualities were as follows: density at 0.60 gram/cm3, tensile strength 15.27 kg/cm2, moisture content 2.58 %, volatile matter 23.35 %, ash content 4.10 %, fixed carbon 72.55 %, and calorific value 5,426 cal/gram. Those qualities revealed that the experimented briquetted sawdust charcoal could be conveniently used as biomass-derived fuel.

  2. Implications for climate change policy of trends in exports and imports of energy commodities and manufactured goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Murray

    2005-11-01

    A number of formal and informal policy processes are underway to explore the issue of 'where to next' for the international climate change regime post-2012. Currently these are informed by data based mainly on production statistics only. A key purpose of this study and report is to raise issues associated with trade in energy commodities and manufactured goods, in order to ensure that important perspectives which can be discerned from considering this 'consumption side' are not overlooked. A number of previous studies and papers have explored issues regarding embodied greenhouse gas emissions in traded energy commodities and manufactured goods. This study draws out key messages from these. It also expands on the existing literature by covering some non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, and also by considering traded renewables-based commodities. This work is not intended to be a comprehensive resource of quantitative data. Rather, examples of data are selected to help articulate and elaborate key issues. Section 2 describes the nature of the data sets that have been researched and utilised in developing any quantitative results. It outlines some relevant limitations of the methodologies underlying these data sets, and the nature of uncertainties. It also describes the methodology used in this work to unpack and/or re-present data. Section 3 provides data and analysis addressing the key objective noted above, i.e. to identify 'significant instances where transferred benefits and avoided costs occur - and the extent to which the exporter is likely to be compensated in the absence of policies intended for this purpose'. Section 4 draws out some of the key policy-relevant 'messages' and issues from this data. It uses a number of example cases to help do this, in a manner that is intended to be thought provoking, but not judgemental or prejudicial. Appendix A lists the existing literature that has informed this report. Appendix B reproduces a paper written on a subject that

  3. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Chemical engineering of nanomaterials. Energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes and problems of their intensification. Processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics. Ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of nanomaterials, energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes, processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics, ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  4. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  5. How ERP (Enterprise-Resource-Planning) - systems reduce energy consumption during manufacturing; Wie ERP-Systeme in der Fertigung den Energieverbrauch reduzieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Reinhold [Gewatec Systemloesungen GmbH, Wehingen (Germany); Ruesing, Eduard

    2011-05-30

    A precision manufacturer is presented, who utilize energy management for data of machine tools and operational data acquisition. The pilot center shuts down automatically the ventilation system for exhaust air of CNC-machines during nighttime and weekend. (orig./GL)

  6. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamovich, D. [SUE MosSIA Radon, 2/14 7th Rostovsky lane, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation); Batorshin, G.; Logunov, M.; Musalnikov, A. [FSUE ' PO Mayak' , 31 av. Lenin, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456780 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating

  7. A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yingchun

    This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of

  8. Chemical Abundance Measurements of Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies Discovered by the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Simon, Joshua D.; Hansen, Terese; Li, Ting; Bernstein, Rebecca; Balbinot, Eduardo; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Pace, Andrew; Strigari, Louis; Pellegrino, Craig; DePoy, Darren L.; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Bechtol, Keith; Dark Energy Suvey

    2018-01-01

    We present chemical abundance analysis results derived from high-resolution spectroscopy of ultra-faint dwarfs discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies preserve a fossil record of the chemical abundance patterns imprinted by the first stars in the Universe. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of member stars in several recently discovered Milky Way satellites reveal a range of abundance patterns among ultra-faint dwarfs suggesting that star formation processes in the early Universe were quite diverse. The chemical content provides a glimpse not only of the varied nucleosynthetic processes and chemical history of the dwarfs themselves, but also the environment in which they were formed. We present the chemical abundance analysis of these objects and discuss possible explanations for the observed abundance patterns.

  9. Purposeful synthesis of chemical elements and ecologically pure mobile sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivitsky, V. A.; Gareev, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known [1] that the natural geo-transmutation of chemical elements occurs in the atmosphere and earth in the regions of a strong change in geo-, bio-, acoustic-, and electromagnetic fields. The mineral row materials contain the same accompanying chemical combinations which are independent of mineral deposit [2]. This means that the formation of chemical elements occurs in the same physical and chemical conditions. These conditions were simulated on the fundamental cooperative resonance synchronization principle [1]. The experimental facility was constructed on the basis of our model which provided with the calculated final chemical elements. These experimental results indicate new possibilities for, simulating, inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by low energy external fields. The borrowing from the geo-transmutation mechanisms of chemical elements creates the fundamental directions in low energy nuclear reaction researches for construction of new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent of oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. References [1] F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0610002 2006. [2] V.A. Krivzskii, Transmutazija ximicheskix elementov v evolyuzii Semli (in Russian), Moscow 2003

  10. Design and Manufacture of an Energy-saving LED Lantern with Paper-cut Figure Projection Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work designed and manufactured an energy-saving LED lantern adorned with a revolving circle of paper characters, showing the shadow-show function. It used the high-cooling performance LED lamp to light. A small motor was also installed in the lantern to rotate paper characters. Under the light of LED, the rotating paper characters in the lantern would play a shadow show. Many shadows of well-known characters ran on the skin surface of the lantern, being like to tell a story and having lots of fun. For example, “The Magical Monkey King” is the classic Chinese adventure tale. It is one of the favorites in our growing collection of Asian children's books. One can think about that it will touch your mind and return you back to the childhood when such shadows of well-known characters run on the skin surface of the lantern. Besides, it used a special assembly of aluminum-alloy pin-fin heat sinks to be the cooling device of LED lamp within the lantern. The configuration of the cooling device was a vertical hollow square cylinder. Many circular pin fins extended inwardly from the internal surfaces of the vertical cylinder. The LEDs were installed onto the external surfaces of the vertical cylinder. Therefore, the chimney effect of the free convection heat transfer would be formed. A series of experimental tests demonstrated that such cooling design enhanced the total heat-transfer capacity remarkably.

  11. Anisotropic microstructure and superelasticity of additive manufactured NiTi alloy bulk builds using laser directed energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimber, Beth A. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamilton, Reginald F., E-mail: rfh13@psu.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Keist, Jayme; Palmer, Todd A. [Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16804 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The microstructure and superelasticity in additive manufactured NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. Using elementally blended Ni and Ti powder feedstock, Ni-rich build coupons were fabricated via the laser-based directed energy deposition (LDED) technique. The build volumes were large enough to extract tensile and compressive test specimens from selected locations for spatially resolving microconstituents and the underlying stress-induced martensitic phase transformation (SIMT) morphology. In the as-deposited condition, X-ray diffraction identified the B2 atomic crystal structure of the austenitic parent phase in NiTi SMAs, and Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitates were the predominant microconstituent identified through scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure exhibited anisotropy, which was characterized by the Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitate morphology being coarsest nearest the substrate, while a finer morphology was observed farthest from the substrate. In-situ full-field deformation measurements calculated using digital image correlation confirmed that the SIMT predominately occurred in the finer precipitate morphology. Heat treatment reduced the degree of anisotropy, and DIC analysis revealed localized SIMT strains increased compared to the as-deposited condition.

  12. Free energy calculations, enhanced by a Gaussian ansatz, for the "chemical work" distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulougouris, Georgios C

    2014-05-15

    The evaluation of the free energy is essential in molecular simulation because it is intimately related with the existence of multiphase equilibrium. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is possible to evaluate the Helmholtz free energy using a single statistical ensemble along an entire isotherm by accounting for the "chemical work" of transforming each molecule, from an interacting one, to an ideal gas. In this work, we show that it is possible to perform such a free energy perturbation over a liquid vapor phase transition. Furthermore, we investigate the link between a general free energy perturbation scheme and the novel nonequilibrium theories of Crook's and Jarzinsky. We find that for finite systems away from the thermodynamic limit the second law of thermodynamics will always be an inequality for isothermal free energy perturbations, resulting always to a dissipated work that may tend to zero only in the thermodynamic limit. The work, the heat, and the entropy produced during a thermodynamic free energy perturbation can be viewed in the context of the Crooks and Jarzinsky formalism, revealing that for a given value of the ensemble average of the "irreversible" work, the minimum entropy production corresponded to a Gaussian distribution for the histogram of the work. We propose the evaluation of the free energy difference in any free energy perturbation based scheme on the average irreversible "chemical work" minus the dissipated work that can be calculated from the variance of the distribution of the logarithm of the work histogram, within the Gaussian approximation. As a consequence, using the Gaussian ansatz for the distribution of the "chemical work," accurate estimates for the chemical potential and the free energy of the system can be performed using much shorter simulations and avoiding the necessity of sampling the computational costly tails of the "chemical work." For a more general free energy perturbation scheme that the Gaussian ansatz may not be

  13. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July-September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    2001-04-16

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July-September 1999. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within ten major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Physical Properties Research, Biochemical Engineering, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structures and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of the Cell Operations involved the testing of two continuously stirred tank reactors in series to evaluate the Savannah River-developed process of small-tank tetraphenylborate precipitation to remove cesium, strontium and transuranics from supernatant. Within the area of Process Chemistry, various topics related to solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge were addressed. Saltcake dissolution efforts continued, including the development of a predictive algorithm. New initiatives for the section included modeling activities centered on detection of hydrogen in {sup 233}U storage wells and wax formation in petroleum mixtures, as well as support for the Spallation Neutron Source (investigation of transmutation products formed during operation). Other activities involved in situ grouting and evaluation of options for use (i.e., as castable shapes) of depleted uranium. In a continuation of activities of the preceding

  14. A hybrid solar and chemical looping combustion system for solar thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel solar–CLC hybrid system is proposed which integrates a CLC with solar thermal energy. ► The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for thermal energy storage. ► A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. ► The absorbed solar energy is stored in the particles to produce a base heat load. -- Abstract: A novel hybrid of a solar thermal energy and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system is proposed here, which employs the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system to provide diurnal thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. In taking advantage of the chemical and sensible energy storage systems that are an inherent part of a CLC system, this hybrid offers potential to achieve cost effective, base load power generation for solar energy. In the proposed system, three reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC system to allow storage of the oxygen carrier particles, while a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for the fuel reactor. The performance of the system is evaluated using ASPEN PLUS software, with the model being validated using independent simulation result reported previously. Operating temperature, solar efficiency, solar fraction, exergy efficiency and the fraction of the solar thermal energy stored for a based load power generation application are reported.

  15. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relativistic total energy and chemical potential of heavy atoms and positive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory, with a finite nucleus, is used to study the variation of the chemical potential μ with atomic number Z and number of electrons N (N <= Z). The difference between the total energy of positive ions and that of the corresponding neutral atom has been obtained. The scaling predictions are confirmed by numerical calculations. The first principles calculation of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi total energy of neutral atoms is also studied. (author)

  17. Control of electro-chemical processes using energy harvesting materials and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xie, Mengying; Adamaki, Vana; Khanbareh, Hamideh; Bowen, Chris R

    2017-12-11

    Energy harvesting is a topic of intense interest that aims to convert ambient forms of energy such as mechanical motion, light and heat, which are otherwise wasted, into useful energy. In many cases the energy harvester or nanogenerator converts motion, heat or light into electrical energy, which is subsequently rectified and stored within capacitors for applications such as wireless and self-powered sensors or low-power electronics. This review covers the new and emerging area that aims to directly couple energy harvesting materials and devices with electro-chemical systems. The harvesting approaches to be covered include pyroelectric, piezoelectric, triboelectric, flexoelectric, thermoelectric and photovoltaic effects. These are used to influence a variety of electro-chemical systems such as applications related to water splitting, catalysis, corrosion protection, degradation of pollutants, disinfection of bacteria and material synthesis. Comparisons are made between the range harvesting approaches and the modes of operation are described. Future directions for the development of electro-chemical harvesting systems are highlighted and the potential for new applications and hybrid approaches are discussed.

  18. Social manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hamalainen, Markko; Karjalainen, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    New business models harnessing the power of individuals have already revolutionized service industries and digital content production. In this study, we investigate whether a similar phenomenon is taking place in manufacturing industries. We start by conceptually defining two distinct forms of firm-individual collaboration in manufacturing industries: (1) social cloud manufacturing, in which firms outsource manufacturing to individuals, and (2) social platform manufacturing, in which firms pr...

  19. Chemical Denaturants Smoothen Ruggedness on the Free Energy Landscape of Protein Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Pooja; Jethva, Prashant N; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2017-08-08

    To characterize experimentally the ruggedness of the free energy landscape of protein folding is challenging, because the distributed small free energy barriers are usually dominated by one, or a few, large activation free energy barriers. This study delineates changes in the roughness of the free energy landscape by making use of the observation that a decrease in ruggedness is accompanied invariably by an increase in folding cooperativity. Hydrogen exchange (HX) coupled to mass spectrometry was used to detect transient sampling of local energy minima and the global unfolded state on the free energy landscape of the small protein single-chain monellin. Under native conditions, local noncooperative openings result in interconversions between Boltzmann-distributed intermediate states, populated on an extremely rugged "uphill" energy landscape. The cooperativity of these interconversions was increased by selectively destabilizing the native state via mutations, and further by the addition of a chemical denaturant. The perturbation of stability alone resulted in seven backbone amide sites exchanging cooperatively. The size of the cooperatively exchanging and/or unfolding unit did not depend on the extent of protein destabilization. Only upon the addition of a denaturant to a destabilized mutant variant did seven additional backbone amide sites exchange cooperatively. Segmentwise analysis of the HX kinetics of the mutant variants further confirmed that the observed increase in cooperativity was due to the smoothing of the ruggedness of the free energy landscape of folding of the protein by the chemical denaturant.

  20. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Simple Method to Calculate the Temperature Dependence of the Gibbs Energy and Chemical Equilibrium Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy and important quantities such as Henry's law constants, activity coefficients, and chemical equilibrium constants is usually calculated by using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Although, this is a well-known approach and traditionally covered as part of any physical chemistry course, the required…

  2. Chemical absorption of acoustic energy due to an eddy in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Acoustic energy losses due to chemical absorption, within the western Bay of Bengal, in the presence of a subsurface meso-scale cold core eddy has been analysed. These estimates, for two different frequencies - 400 Hz and 10 kHz, find applications...

  3. Conducting Polymers in the Fields of Energy, Environmental Remediation, and Chemical-Chiral Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G; Rincón, Marina E; Gutierrez-Granados, Silvia; Chahma, M'hamed; Jaramillo-Quintero, Oscar A; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A

    2018-05-09

    Conducting polymers (CPs), thanks to their unique properties, structures made on-demand, new composite mixtures, and possibility of deposit on a surface by chemical, physical, or electrochemical methodologies, have shown in the last years a renaissance and have been widely used in important fields of chemistry and materials science. Due to the extent of the literature on CPs, this review, after a concise introduction about the interrelationship between electrochemistry and conducting polymers, is focused exclusively on the following applications: energy (energy storage devices and solar cells), use in environmental remediation (anion and cation trapping, electrocatalytic reduction/oxidation of pollutants on CP based electrodes, and adsorption of pollutants) and finally electroanalysis as chemical sensors in solution, gas phase, and chiral molecules. This review is expected to be comprehensive, authoritative, and useful to the chemical community interested in CPs and their applications.

  4. The application of nuclear energy to the Canadian chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-03-01

    A study has been made to determine what role nuclear energy, either electrical or thermal, could play in the Canadian chemical process industry. The study was restricted to current-scale CANDU type power reactors. It is concluded that the scale of operation of the chemical industry is rarely large enough to use blocks of electrical power (e) of 500 MW or thermal power (t) of 1500 MW. Thus, with a few predictable exceptions, the role of nuclear energy in the Canadian chemical industry will be as a general thermal/electrical utility supplier, serving a variety of customers in a particular geographic area. This picture would change if nuclear steam generators of 20 to 50 MW(t) become available and are economically competitive. (author)

  5. Collisions of polyatomic ions with surfaces: incident energy partitioning and chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabka, J.; Roithova, J.; Dolejsek, Z.; Herman, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Collision of polyatomic ions with surfaces were investigated in ion-surface scattering experiments to obtain more information on energy partitioning in ion-surface collision and on chemical reactions at surfaces. Mass spectra, translation energy and angular distributions of product ions were measured in dependence on the incident energy and the incident angle of polyatomic projectiles. From these data distributions of energy fractions resulting in internal excitation of the projectile, translation energy of the product ions, and energy absorbed by the surface were determined. The surface investigated were a standard stainless steel surface, covered by hydrocarbons, carbon surfaces at room and elevated temperatures, and several surfaces covered by a self-assembled monolayers (C 12 -hydrocarbon SAM, C 11 -perfluorohydrocarbon SAM, and C 11 hydrocarbon with terminal -COOH group SAM). The main processes observed at collision energies of 10 - 50 eV were: neutralization of the ions at surfaces, inelastic scattering and dissociations of the projectile ions, quasi elastic scattering of the projectile ions, and chemical reactions with the surface material (usually hydrogen-atom transfer reactions). The ion survival factor was estimated to be a few percent for even-electron ions (like protonated ethanol ion, C 2 H 5 O + , CD 5 + ) and about 10 - 10 2 times lower for radical ions (like ethanol and benzene molecular ions, CD 4 + ). In the polyatomic ion -surface energy transfer experiments, the ethanol molecular ion was used as a well-characterized projectile ion. The results with most of the surfaces studied showed in the collision energy range of 13 - 32 eV that most collisions were strongly inelastic with about 6 - 8 % of the incident projectile energy transformed into internal excitation of the projectile (independent of the incident angle) and led partially to its further dissociation in a unimolecular way after the interaction with the surface. The incident energy

  6. Development of chemical profiles for U.S. Department of Energy low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Wilkins, B.D.; Meshkov, N.K.; Dolak, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical and radiological profiles of waste streams from US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed wastes (LLMWs) have been developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide technical support information for evaluating waste management alternatives in the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The chemical profiles were developed for LLMW generated from both Waste Management (WM) operations and from Environmental Restoration (ER) activities at DOE facilities. Information summarized in the 1994 DOE Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Automated Remedial Assessment Methodology (ARAM), and associated PNL supporting data on ER secondary waste streams that will be treated in WM treatment facilities were used as the sources for developing chemical profiles. The methodology for developing the LLMW chemical profiles is discussed, and the chemical profiles developed from data for contact-handled (CH) non-alpha LLMW are presented in this paper. The hazardous chemical composition of remote-handled (RH) LLMW and alpha LLMW follow the chemical profiles developed for CH non-alpha LLMW

  7. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  9. The Quest for Greater Chemical Energy Storage: A Deceiving Game of Nanometer Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C. Michael

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that modern energetic materials based on organic chemistry have nearly reached a plateau in performance with only ~ 40% improvement realized over the past half century. This fact has stimulated research on alternative chemical energy storage schema in various US government funded ``High Energy Density Materials'' (HEDM) programs since the 1950's. These efforts have examined a wide range of phenomena such as free radical stabilization, metallic hydrogen, metastable helium, polynitrogens, extended molecular solids, nanothermites, and others. In spite of the substantial research investments, significant improvements in energetic material performance have not been forthcoming. In this talk we will survey various fundamental modes of chemical energy storage, lesson's learned in the various HEDM programs, and areas that are being explored currently. A recurring theme in all of this work is the challenge to successfully manipulate and stabilize matter at the ~ 1 nm scale.

  10. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of energy use rationalization-oriented silicon manufacturing process (Development of silicon substrate manufacturing technology for high-quality solar cell); 2000 nendo shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko kyodo kenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu (Kohinshitsu taiyodenchiyou silicon kiban seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for enhancing productivity and energy conservation by rendering continuous and automatic the electromagnetic casting process for manufacturing polycrystalline silicon substrates for solar cells. In the manufacture of ingots for substrates by continuous electromagnetic casting, the chuck type system for feeding power to the melt plasma was replaced by a roller type system, and the power feeding position was moved to the high temperature region. Also, an on-line ingot slicing technique was established. In the manufacture of substrates at a slicing rate of 300 {mu}m/minute, productivity of 115,000 wafers/month, yield of 98%, and thickness tolerance of 30 {mu}m were achieved. A high-speed cleaning technique was developed using a jet stream, by which the cleaning time was reduced to 5 minutes and the slurry recovery rate was elevated to 95%. Based on these, substrate-related costs in the case of 100 MW/year production was calculated, which resulted in a cost of 98.8 yen/wafer (target: 103.3 yen/wafer) for manufacturing 15 cm square substrates from ingots and in a 15 cm square substrate slicing and cleaning cost of 135.1 yen/wafer (target: 135.4 yen/wafer). (NEDO)

  11. Measurement of discrete energy-level spectra in individual chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Bolotin, Kirill I; Shi, Su-Fei

    2008-01-01

    We form single-electron transistors from individual chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles, 5-15 nm in diameter, with monolayers of organic molecules serving as tunnel barriers. These devices allow us to measure the discrete electronic energy levels of individual gold nanoparticles that are......, by virtue of chemical synthesis, well-defined in their composition, size and shape. We show that the nanoparticles are nonmagnetic and have spectra in good accord with random-matrix-theory predictions taking into account strong spin-orbit coupling....

  12. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  13. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  14. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: January-March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-11-01

    This reports summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period January--March 1999. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within eight major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of Hot Cell Operations included column loading of cesium from Melton Valley Storage Tank supematants using an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate. A second task was to design and construct a continuously stirred tank reactor system to test the Savannah River-developed process of small-tank tetraphenylborate precipitation to remove cesium, strontium, and transuranics from supematant. Within the area of Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, the problem of solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge was addressed, including issues such as pipeline plugging and viscosity measurements. Investigation of solution conditions required to dissolve Hanford saltcake was also continued. MSRE Remediation Studies focused on recovery of {sup 233}U and its transformation into a stable oxide and radiolysis experiments to permit remediation of MSRE fuel salt. In the area of Chemistry Research, activities included studies relative to molecular imprinting for

  15. Energy crisis and changes in the structure of the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedov, A G

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the energy crisis together with higher prices and inflation on the chemical industry is reviewed. One effect has been the search for more energy-efficient processes and more widely available raw materials. Measures taken by the industry have included the control of expenses and losses, utilization of secondary materials and energy resources and the development of new technological growth of the industry and has shifted emphasis to small-scale rather than large-scale chemical production. Capital has also been used more for modernizing existing equipment and facilities than for new construction, and industrialized countries have invested more heavily in developing countries. Trade relations between socialist and western countries have also improved. Improvements have been made in the production of aromatic hydrocarbons by extraction with the use of more efficient solvents, in catalytic and thermic hydrodealkylation of toluene, in the chlorine and nitrogen industries, in phosphorus and phosphoric acid production and in benzene and butadiene production. A new scheme for hydroxylamine production and a new technology for styrene and methanol production have been developed. Direct hydration of propylene has been introduced into the production of isopropanol and propylene ammonolysis has been used to obtain acrylonitrile. Changes in the chemical industry have reduced energy consumption per production unit by 14.2% in the U.S.A. in 1977 in comparison with 1972 and by 14.0% in Common Market countries during 1970-1976.

  16. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  17. Energy Saving Potential, Costs and Uncertainties in the Industry: A Case Study of the Chemical Industry in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Guminski, Andrej; Gruber, Anna

    2017-01-01

    In Germany, 19.6 % of the industrial final energy consumption (FEC) can be allocated to the chemical industry. Energy efficiency measures with focus on the chemical industry could thus significantly contribute to reaching the German goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % in 2050 compared...

  18. Top management and the adoption of energy efficiency practices: Evidence from small and medium-sized manufacturing firms in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blass, Vered; Corbett, Charles J.; Delmas, Magali A.; Muthulingam, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Barriers to energy efficiency have been extensively discussed in the energy literature, but little is known about positive drivers. This paper investigates the role of top managers and more specifically of top operations managers on the adoption of energy-efficiency practices, based on 5779 energy efficiency recommendations made to 752 small and medium-sized manufacturing firms under the US Department of Energy's IACs (Industrial Assessment Centers) Program, through which teams of students and faculty from engineering schools provide free energy assessments. Top operations managers possess knowledge of production processes, for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods. We find that their involvement significantly increases the adoption of energy-efficiency initiatives, while involvement of general top managers without an operational role has little or no effect. Involvement of top operations managers increases the percentage of recommended energy savings that are implemented by 13.4% on average and increases the probability of adoption of more disruptive individual recommendations related to process and equipment change from 31% to 44%. Our findings imply that, in order to advance energy efficiency in SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises), it may be advisable to target managers who are sufficiently senior but still in a clearly operationally-focused position. - Highlights: • We examine how top managers influence the adoption of energy-efficiency practices. • Top operations managers implement 13.4% more of recommended savings. • Involvement of top managers without an operational role has little or no effect. • Top operations managers enhance adoption of recommendations that are disruptive

  19. Energy saving analysis and management modeling based on index decomposition analysis integrated energy saving potential method: Application to complex chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Zhiqiang; Gao, Huachao; Wang, Yanqing; Han, Yongming; Zhu, Qunxiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The integrated framework that combines IDA with energy-saving potential method is proposed. • Energy saving analysis and management framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. • This proposed method is efficient in energy optimization and carbon emissions of complex chemical processes. - Abstract: Energy saving and management of complex chemical processes play a crucial role in the sustainable development procedure. In order to analyze the effect of the technology, management level, and production structure having on energy efficiency and energy saving potential, this paper proposed a novel integrated framework that combines index decomposition analysis (IDA) with energy saving potential method. The IDA method can obtain the level of energy activity, energy hierarchy and energy intensity effectively based on data-drive to reflect the impact of energy usage. The energy saving potential method can verify the correctness of the improvement direction proposed by the IDA method. Meanwhile, energy efficiency improvement, energy consumption reduction and energy savings can be visually discovered by the proposed framework. The demonstration analysis of ethylene production has verified the practicality of the proposed method. Moreover, we can obtain the corresponding improvement for the ethylene production based on the demonstration analysis. The energy efficiency index and the energy saving potential of these worst months can be increased by 6.7% and 7.4%, respectively. And the carbon emissions can be reduced by 7.4–8.2%.

  20. Chemical freeze-out study in proton-proton collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sabita; Mishra, Debadeepti; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Chatterjee, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Particle multiplicities measured at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facilities can be used to understand the chemical freeze-out dynamics. At chemical freeze-out (CFO), inelastic collisions cease and the freeze-out parameters can be determined using measured particle multiplicities within the framework of a statistical model. The statistical model has proven to be quite successful in describing the particle production from elementary p-p and e"+e"- collisions up to heavy-ion collisions. It helps to do a systematic study of the centrality and energy dependence of freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions from lower SPS to higher LHC energies. The new data at LHC along with the RHIC data can be used to do such a systematic study in proton-proton collisions

  1. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 1, Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed an initial investigation of the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstocks relative to their performance in biomass energy conversion systems. Both biochemical conversion routes (anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation) and thermochemical routes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification) were included in the study. Related processes including chemical and physical pretreatment to improve digestibility, and size and density modification processes such as milling and pelletizing were also examined. This overview report provides background and discussion of feedstock and conversion relationships, along with recommendations for future research. The recommendations include (1) coordinate production and conversion research programs; (2) quantify the relationship between feedstock properties and conversion priorities; (3) develop a common framework for evaluating and characterizing biomass feedstocks; (4) include conversion effects as part of the criteria for selecting feedstock breeding programs; and (5) continue emphasis on multiple feedstock/conversion options for biomass energy systems. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Melo Menezes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels majorly contributes to the increase in global warming, and it represents 93% of greenhouse gases emissions in the chemical industry. Most of the energy demand in this sector is associated with steam systems, where 1/3 of the energy efficiency opportunities are located in its distribution system. However, most of the literature focuses on the design of new systems. Those that deal with existing systems, not always use simple and available methods. Furthermore, they address energy losses of steam systems only due to thermal insulation, ignoring those due to leakages of traps. Given this context, the purpose of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry, located in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Brazil. First, the energy lost in the steam distribution system through heat insulation and steam traps was estimated by applying thermodynamic principles, and technic consulting, respectively. Then, investments were estimated using commercial prices for new thermal insulation and steam traps. Finally, an economic evaluation of the improvement project was made, through the construction of a cash flow, and calculation of economic indicators: payback time, net present value (NPV, and internal rate of return (IRR. Economic indicators showed that the project is economically viable. The NPV and IRR reached approximately 5 million reais, and 66% per year, respectively. Additionally, this project also had social and environmental benefits, such as a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions, and increased local water availability.

  3. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  4. Quality in the chemical analysis of biological matrices by fluorescence X-ray by energy dispersive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Evely E. de; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Almeida, Macio E.S.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Hazin, Clovis A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain multielement analytical curves of high analytical rigor to the analysis of biological matrices by the technique of fluorescence x-ray energy dispersive - EDXRF. Calibration curves were constructed from the reference materials IAEA 140, IAEA 155, IAEA V8, V10 to the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, and SRM1515, SRM 1547, SRM 1570a, SRM 1573a, SEM 1567a, to the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST. After energy calibration, all samples were subjected to vacuum to the analyzes by 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltages used were respectively 15 keV for chemical elements with less than atomic number 22 and 50 keV for the others. After the construction of the curves, the analytical quality was assessed by the analysis of a portion-test of the reference material SRM 2976, also produced by NIST. Based on the number of certified reference materials used for construction of calibration curves in this work, quality analytical protocol was originated with considerable reliability for quantification of chemical elements in biological samples by EDXR

  5. How to promote energy conservation in China’s chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Long, Houyin

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuel consumption in China’s chemical industry accounted for 19.7% of the total industrial fossil fuel consumption, and the industry has become the second highest energy intensive sector in the country. Therefore, it is extremely urgent and important to study the problems related to fossil fuel consumption in the industry. This paper adopts the factor decomposition and the EG co-integration methods to investigate the influencing factors of fossil energy consumption and measure the saving potential of fossil fuel. The paper concludes that the influencing factors can be divided into positive driving factors (labor productivity effect and sector scale effect) and negative driving factors (energy intensity effect and energy structure effect). Among them, labor productivity and energy intensity are the main factors affecting fossil fuel demand. The largest saving potentials of fossil fuels are predicted to be 23.3 Mtce in 2015 and 70.6 Mtce in 2020 under the middle scenario and 46.8 Mtce in 2015 and 100.5 Mtce in 2020 under the ideal scenario, respectively. Finally, this paper provides some policy implications on fossil fuel conservation. - Highlights: • Labor productivity and energy intensity are crucial driving factors. • The relationship among variables is co-integrated. • The result of the EG co-integration is the same as that of LMDI. • ECM displays the short-term fluctuation of fossil fuel consumption. • Under the scenario analysis, there is a huge energy saving potential

  6. Generating Converged Accurate Free Energy Surfaces for Chemical Reactions with a Force-Matched Semiempirical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P; Pietrucci, Fabio; Saitta, Antonino Marco; Goldman, Nir

    2018-04-10

    We demonstrate the capability of creating robust density functional tight binding (DFTB) models for chemical reactivity in prebiotic mixtures through force matching to short time scale quantum free energy estimates. Molecular dynamics using density functional theory (DFT) is a highly accurate approach to generate free energy surfaces for chemical reactions, but the extreme computational cost often limits the time scales and range of thermodynamic states that can feasibly be studied. In contrast, DFTB is a semiempirical quantum method that affords up to a thousandfold reduction in cost and can recover DFT-level accuracy. Here, we show that a force-matched DFTB model for aqueous glycine condensation reactions yields free energy surfaces that are consistent with experimental observations of reaction energetics. Convergence analysis reveals that multiple nanoseconds of combined trajectory are needed to reach a steady-fluctuating free energy estimate for glycine condensation. Predictive accuracy of force-matched DFTB is demonstrated by direct comparison to DFT, with the two approaches yielding surfaces with large regions that differ by only a few kcal mol -1 .

  7. Compressed Air System Enhancement Increases Efficiency and Provides Energy Savings at a Circuit Board Manufacturer (Sanmina Plant, Oswego, New York): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-01-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the circuit board manufacturer (Sanmina Plant) project

  8. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district: A case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-resource industries. Furthermore, policies had different effects on the industry's output value and profit. In the long-term, developing alternative industries (AI) helps increase the industrial output value and profit. Decreasing value added tax (VAT) has immediate results and a distinctive effect on industrial short-term production value and profit, its long-term effect being limited. The effect of production limit (PL) on industrial profit is stronger than output value, and financial support (FS) is more conducive to improve the latter. However, coal mining and coal-chemical loan increases decrease the gross industrial profit level. Technology innovation (TI) has the best individual policy overall effect on production value and profits. Furthermore, the simultaneous implementation of PL, TI and AI can generate the synergy effect for each of them. And the simultaneous implementation of VAT and one or couple of other policies will generate the crowding-out effect both for VAT and other policies. - Highlights: • A system dynamics model of the coal-chemical industry district economy evolution in Ordos is constructed. • The impact of coal and oil prices slump on the output value and profit of each industry is revealed. • The differences in the effects especially cumulative effects of different response policies are clarified. • The crowding-out and synergy effects of policy implementation are analyzed.

  9. Energy efficient trace removal by extractive distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, M.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Separation processes contribute for about 40–70 % to the total energy requirements of the chemical process industry. Especially when trace removal is required to manufacture high purity products, traditional separation technologies become extremely expensive and are not providing satisfying

  10. Potential of Coproduction of Energy, Fuels and Chemicals from Biobased Renewable Resources. Transition Path 3. Co-production of Energy, Fuels and Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This report shows how in 2030, biobased alternatives can potentially cover up to 30% of the Netherlands' domestic energy and chemicals demand, effectively reducing CO2 emissions. Maximizing the economical potential of biobased alternatives seems the most attractive strategy. The method to compare various routes has been highly simplified and the conclusions of this report are only valid within the limitations of the underlying assumptions. Nevertheless, the Working group WISE BIOMAS of the Platform Biobased Raw Materials feels that the conclusions are valuable for Dutch policy makers and others interested in the use of biobased raw materials. In 2030, biobased alternatives are expected to be sufficiently competitive to fossil-based alternatives, even without subsidies. They are expected to play a significant role in an energy mix comprised of other renewables as well as 'clean' fossil energy sources. Presently, however, the Netherlands needs to step up its stimulation of biobased applications, through substantial investments in R and D programmes, demonstration plants, as well as measures to stimulate implementation. The whole package of tax reductions, local government purchases, etc., as well as direct financial support should amount to approximately 500 million euros per year. The simplified study presented here provides input for more realistic macro-economic scenario analysis taking actual and updated cost-availability relations including second generation biofuels and biochemicals, land use, international trade, etc., into account. Initial discussions with for instance the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (Centraal Plan Bureau or CPB) have taken place, but are not covered in this report. It is urgently suggested to update macro-economic scenarios for securing the best Netherlands' position among the accelerating global development towards biobased resources

  11. Chemical modifications of polymer films induced by high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiyong; Sun Youmei; Liu Changlong; Liu Jie; Jin Yunfan

    2002-01-01

    Polymer films including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated at room temperature with ions of 35 MeV/u 40 Ar, 25 MeV/u 84 Kr, 15.1 MeV/u 136 Xe and 11.4 MeV/u 238 U to fluences ranging from 9x10 9 to 5.5x10 12 ions/cm 2 . The radiation-induced chemical changes of the materials were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopies. It is found that the absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range induced by all irradiations follows a linear relationship with fluence. The radiation-induced absorbance normalized to one particle increases slowly with increasing of electronic energy loss below about 8 keV/nm followed by a sharp increase up to about 15 keV/nm above which saturation is reached. FTIR measurements reveal that the materials suffer serious degradation through bond breaking. The absorbance of the typical infrared bands decays exponentially with increase of ion fluence and the bond-disruption cross-section shows a sigmoid variation with electronic energy loss. In PET loss of crystallinity is attributed to the configuration transformation of the ethylene glycol residue from trans into the gauche. Alkyne end groups are induced in all the materials above certain electronic energy loss threshold, which is found to be about 0.8 keV/nm for PS and 0.4 keV/nm for PC. The production cross-section of alkyne end group increases with increasing of electronic energy loss and shows saturation at high electronic energy loss values. It is concluded that not only the physical processes but also the chemical processes of the energy deposition determine the modification of polymer

  12. Energy and chemical efficient nitrogen removal at a full-scale MBR water reuse facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With stringent wastewater discharge limits on nitrogen and phosphorus, membrane bioreactor (MBR technology is gaining popularity for advanced wastewater treatment due to higher effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, higher energy intensity required for MBR plants and increased operational costs for nutrient removal limit wide application of the MBR technology. Conventional nitrogen removal requires intensive energy inputs and chemical addition. There are drivers to search for new technology and process control strategies to treat wastewater with lower energy and chemical demand while still producing high quality effluent. The NPXpress is a patented technology developed by American Water engineers. This technology is an ultra-low dissolved oxygen (DO operation for wastewater treatment and is able to remove nitrogen with less oxygen requirements and reduced supplemental carbon addition in MBR plants. Jefferson Peaks Water Reuse Facility in New Jersey employs MBR technology to treat municipal wastewater and was selected for the implementation of the NPXpress technology. The technology has been proved to consistently produce a high quality reuse effluent while reducing energy consumption and supplemental carbon addition by 59% and 100%, respectively. Lab-scale kinetic studies suggested that NPXpress promoted microorganisms with higher oxygen affinity. Process modelling was used to simulate treatment performance under NPXpress conditions and develop ammonia-based aeration control strategy. The application of the ammonia-based aeration control at the plant further reduced energy consumption by additional 9% and improved treatment performance with 35% reduction in effluent total nitrogen. The overall energy savings for Jefferson Peaks was $210,000 in four years since the implementation of NPXpress. This study provided an insight in design and operation of MBR plants with NPXpress technology and ultra-low DO operations.

  13. Generalized Least Energy of Separation for Desalination and Other Chemical Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan H. Mistry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies driven by different combinations of heat, work, and chemical energy. This paper develops a consistent basis for comparing the energy consumption of such technologies using Second Law efficiency. The Second Law efficiency for a chemical separation process is defined in terms of the useful exergy output, which is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of product from a feed stream of a given composition. For a desalination process, this is the minimum least work of separation for producing one kilogram of product water from feed of a given salinity. While definitions in terms of work and heat input have been proposed before, this work generalizes the Second Law efficiency to allow for systems that operate on a combination of energy inputs, including fuel. The generalized equation is then evaluated through a parametric study considering work input, heat inputs at various temperatures, and various chemical fuel inputs. Further, since most modern, large-scale desalination plants operate in cogeneration schemes, a methodology for correctly evaluating Second Law efficiency for the desalination plant based on primary energy inputs is demonstrated. It is shown that, from a strictly energetic point of view and based on currently available technology, cogeneration using electricity to power a reverse osmosis system is energetically superior to thermal systems such as multiple effect distillation and multistage flash distillation, despite the very low grade heat input normally applied in those systems.

  14. Agrice 1994-2000 - Activity report. Agriculture for chemicals and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of new energy, chemicals and materials markets for agricultural products calls for an ongoing commitment to significant and stable funding for research. Even more importantly, these new markets also necessitate better coordination between the actors across the field, ranging from multidisciplinary research teams and agro-industrial companies to users in the petrochemicals, chemicals and materials sectors, and agricultural production. The need for this coordination is even greater today, in light of the key role that 'non-food' supply chains play in environmental protection: efforts to mitigate the greenhouse effect, reduction of VOC emissions, product safety and biodegradability, rational farming practices, etc. With these ends in mind the scientific interest group AGRICE- Agriculture for Chemicals and Energy- was created in France in 1994 by government bodies and eight partners. Today AGRICE includes the following members: the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), the Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA), the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME), professional organisations in oilseeds (ONIDOL), grains (AGPB) and beets (CGB), AVENTIS, TOTAL FINA ELF, LIMAGRAIN and EDF, the French ministries of Agriculture, Industry, Research, and Environment. AGRICE was founded for a six-year renewable term, and its management entrusted to ADEME. The group has worked to develop significant collaborative efforts across Europe, notably through the European Renewable Resources and Materials Association (ERRMA). AGRICE is due to be renewed with a broader base of partners in 2001. This report presents: 1 - the AGRICE profile, scope of activity (Biofuels vehicles (Ester/Oils, Ethanol/Ether) and non-vehicles (Energy crops, Processes), Biomolecules (Lubricants, Surfactants, Solvents, Other biomolecules), Biomaterials (Biopolymers, Agro-materials)), Financial report 1994

  15. Conversion of chemical energy in an explosive by a magnetohydrodynamic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, E.F.; Ostashev, V.E.; Svetsov, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine different methods for realizing the MHD method for converting chemical energy of a condensed explosive into pulsed electrical energy. It is shown that explosive MHD generators, which are compact sources of powerful pulses of electrical energy, are characterized by their relative simplicity, autonomy and maneuverability of firing and they are capable of operating in the frequency-periodic mode. A number of projects have been proposed for explosive MHD generators in the megajoule range. Practical experience has been gained in creating frequency-periodic action generators as well as autonomous setups using superconducting magnetic systems. The increase in the operational efficiency of an explosive MHD generator is primarily related to increasing the magnetic Reynolds number of the flow, which can be attained, in particular, by using different schemes for accumulating the energy of the explosion. The use of a metallic liner, which expands under the pressure of the detonation products, in an explosive MHD generator is, in the practical sense, apparently hopeless. The general information available on the parameters and properties of explosive MHD generators gives a basis for concluding that this generator is a promising source of powerful energy pulses. In a certain range of parameters, it can be an alternative to the use of conventional high-energy pulse devices

  16. Destruction of highly toxic chemical materials by using the energy of underground thermonuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutnev, Y.

    1991-01-01

    One of the main problems of modern technogenic civilisation is the evergrowing ecological crisis caused by the growth of industrial wastes harmful for biosphere. Among them the radioactive wastes of atomic energetics, worked out nuclear energy facilities and toxic wastes from various chemical plants begin to play a specific role. Traditional technologies of destruction and disposal of these wastes demand great investments up to many billions of dollars, enormous maintenance expenditures, occupation of substantial territories by new productions and security zones as well as many qualified specialists. On the other hand potential accidents during the conventional processes of waste reprocessing are fraught with the possibility of large ecological disasters, that are the reason of strong oppositions of population and 'green movement' to the foundation of such installations. So, rather progressive seem to be the technologies based on the utilisation of underground nuclear explosion energy for annihilations and disposal of high-level wastes of atomic energetics and nuclear facilities as well as for thermal decomposition of chemically toxic substances at extremely high temperatures. These technologies will be rather cheap, they will allow to process big amounts of materials in ecologically safe form far from the populated regions and will need a commercially beneficial if used for international purposes. The application of these technologies may be of great significance for realisation of disarmament process- destruction of chemical weapons and in future the nuclear warheads and some production components. (au)

  17. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  18. The role of chemical free energy and elastic strain in the nucleation of zirconium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Toffolon-Masclet, C.; Almer, J.; Daymond, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work a combination of synchrotron X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic modelling has been used to study the dissolution and precipitation of zirconium hydride in α-Zr establishing the role of elastic misfit strain and chemical free energy in the α → α + δ phase transformation. The nucleation of zirconium hydride is dominated by the chemical free energy where the chemical driving force for hydride precipitation is proportional to the terminal-solid solubility for precipitation and can be predicted by a function that is analogous to the universal nucleation parameter for the bainite transformation in ferrous alloys. The terminal-solid solubility for precipitation was found to be kinetically limited ⩾287 °C at a cooling rate of 5 °C min −1 or greater. The terminal solubilities were established using an offset method applied to the lattice strain data where a resolution of ∼10 wppm H can be achieved in the 〈c〉-direction. This is aided by the introduction of intra-granular strains in the 〈c〉-direction during cooling as a result of the thermal expansion anisotropy which increases the anisotropy associated with the misfitting H atoms within the α-Zr lattice

  19. A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipka, Undine; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2011-09-01

    Predicting the association of contaminants with both particulate and dissolved organic matter is critical in determining the fate and bioavailability of chemicals in environmental risk assessment. To date, the association of a contaminant to particulate organic matter is considered in many multimedia transport models, but the effect of dissolved organic matter is typically ignored due to a lack of either reliable models or experimental data. The partition coefficient to dissolved organic carbon (K(DOC)) may be used to estimate the fraction of a contaminant that is associated with dissolved organic matter. Models relating K(DOC) to the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) have not been successful for many types of dissolved organic carbon in the environment. Instead, linear solvation energy relationships are proposed to model the association of chemicals with dissolved organic matter. However, more chemically diverse K(DOC) data are needed to produce a more robust model. For humic acid dissolved organic carbon, the linear solvation energy relationship predicts log K(DOC) with a root mean square error of 0.43. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. The efficiency improvement potential for coal, oil and electricity in China's manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces an improved total-factor ESTR (energy-saving target ratio) index, which combines the sequence technique and the “energy direction” to a DEA (data envelopment analysis) model, in order to measure the possible energy saving potential of a manufacturing sector. Afterward, the energy saving potentials of four different energy carriers, namely coal, gasoline, diesel oil and electricity, for 27 manufacturing sectors during the period of 1998–2011 in China are calculated. The results and its policy implications are as follows: (1) the average ESTRs of coal, gasoline, diesel oil and electricity are 1.714%, 49.939%, 24.465% and 3.487% respectively. Hence, energy saving of manufacturing sectors should put more emphasis on gasoline and diesel oil. (2) The key sectors for gasoline saving is the energy-intensive sectors, while the key sectors for diesel oil saving is the equipment manufacturing sectors. (3) The manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products sector not only consumes a large amount of oil, but also has a low efficiency of oil usage. Therefore, it is the key sector for oil saving. (4) Manufacture of tobacco and manufacture of communication equipment, computers and other electronic equipment are the benchmark for the four major energy carriers of energy-saving ratios. - Highlights: • An improved total-factor energy-saving target ratio is proposed. • Energy saving potentials of energy carriers for sectors in 1998–2011 are calculated. • Policy implications for energy savings in sectors and energy carriers are discussed. • Some suggestions for the energy policies of China's economy are discussed

  1. Cost-time management for environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourr, B.R.; Owen, A.H.; Williamson, D.J. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nash, C.L. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-05-22

    Cost-time management methods have been developed by Westinghouse to examine business applications from a cost-time perspective. The initial application of cost-time management within Westinghouse was targeted at reducing cycle time in the manufacturing sector. As a result of the tremendous success of reduced cycle time in manufacturing, Westinghouse initiated application of the management technique to Environmental Restoration activities at its Government Owned Contractor Operated facilities. The Westinghouse initiative was proposed in support of the Department of Energy`s goals for cost effective Environmental Restoration activities. This paper describes the application of the cost-time method to Environmental Restoration work currently being performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO).

  2. Abstracts of the 54. Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference : Energy for the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The key energy challenges facing the chemical process industries were addressed at this international conference. Chemical engineering was shown to play a critical role in offering technical solutions to the challenges of climate change and pollution abatement on a global scale. The sessions addressed a variety of issues dealing with heavy oil processing and utilization, natural gas processing, reservoir engineering and biotechnology process systems. The presentations also addressed issues dealing with applied thermodynamics, new technologies, polymer engineering and other fundamental processes, including some used by the pulp and paper industry. The conference featured more than 500 presentations from around the world, including Canada, the United States, Asia and Europe. A total of 84 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  3. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Vanhatalo, Kari; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2017-07-01

    Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end-product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy. Results showed that high yields (380mL CH 4 /gVS) were achieved with bleached fibers which correlates with the lower presence of lignin. Filtrates from the hydrolysis process on the other hand, had the lowest yields (253mL CH 4 /gVS) due to the high amount of acid and lignin compounds that cause inhibition. Overall, substrates had a biodegradability above 50% which demonstrates that they can be subjected to efficient anaerobic digestion. An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Chemical Processes in the Transition to Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucki, S.; Palumbo, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Boulouchos, K.; Haas, O.; Scherer, G.G.; Siegwolf, R.; Wokaun, A

    2002-01-01

    Chemical science and engineering play a central role in improving the eco- efficiency of energy services, be it by optimizing fossil fuel utilization from the source to the sinks, be it by exploring new ways of replacing fossil fuels with renewable ones. Catalytic fuel processing is required for providing clean and easy to convert inputs from contaminated and/or high molecular weight primary resources into efficient energy conversion systems such as advanced combustion engines and fuel cells. The switch from conventional fossil fuel resources to renewables such as solar or biomass requires new approaches in chemical engineering. Efficiency vs. emissions trade-offs for improving the eco-performance of combustion engines need to be optimized with improved understanding of the complex chemistry taking place in flames. New materials for fuel cells and batteries provide a means of making these devices applicable, thereby drastically cutting down on emissions from energy systems. Chemistry is not only involved in fuel processing and conversion, but it is also important at the end of the pipe, i.e. in catalytic emission control devices, in the treatment of hazardous residues from the incineration of waste materials, and in the complex interactions of air pollutants with the biosphere. (author)

  5. Layer-by-Layer Enabled Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensing and Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Leonardo G.; Soler, Maria A. G.

    2013-06-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) technique is a wet chemical method for the assembly of ultrathin films, with thicknesses up to 100 nm. This method is based on the successive transfer of molecular layers to a solid substrate that is dipped into cationic and anionic solutions in an alternating fashion. The adsorption is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions so that many molecular and nanomaterial systems can be engineered under this method. Moreover, it is inexpensive, can be easily performed, and does not demand sophisticated equipment or clean rooms. The most explored use of the LbL technique is to build up molecular devices for chemical sensing and energy conversion. Both applications require ultrathin films where specific elements must be organized with high control of thickness and spatial distribution, preferably in the nanolength and mesolength scales. In chemical sensors, the LbL technique is employed to assemble specific sensoactive materials such as conjugated polymers, enzymes, and immunological elements onto appropriated electrodes. Molecular recognition events are thus transduced by the assembled sensoactive layer. In energy-conversion devices, the LbL technique can be employed to fabricate different device's parts including electrodes, active layers, and auxiliary layers. In both applications, the devices' performance can be fully modulated and improved by simply varying film thickness and molecular architecture. The present review article highlights the main features of the LbL technique and provides a brief description of different (bio)chemical sensors, solar cells, and organic light-emitting diodes enabled by the LbL approach.

  6. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  7. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  8. The quest for greater chemical energy storage in energetic materials: Grounding expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C. Michael; Fajardo, Mario E.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the performance of modern energetic materials based on organic chemistry has plateaued, with only ˜ 40% improvements realized over the past half century. This fact has stimulated research on alternative chemical energy storage schemes in various U.S. government funded "High Energy Density Materials" (HEDM) programs since the 1950's. These efforts have examined a wide range of phenomena such as free radical stabilization, metallic hydrogen, metastable helium, polynitrogens, extended molecular solids, nanothermites, and others. In spite of the substantial research investments, significant improvements in energetic material performance have not been forthcoming. This paper discusses the lessons learned in the various HEDM programs, the different degrees of freedom in which to store energy in materials, and the fundamental limitations and orders of magnitude of the energies involved. The discussion focuses almost exclusively on the topic of energy density and only mentions in passing other equally important properties of explosives and propellants such as gas generation and reaction rate.

  9. Evaluation of various feedstuffs of ruminants in terms of chemical composition and metabolisable energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the chemical composition and metabolisable energy (ME content of feedstuffs used in ruminant animals using in vitro method. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 feedstuffs used for ruminant feeding including cultivated non-leguminous fodders like maize, sorghum, pearl millet, and oat; leguminous fodders like cowpea and berseem; agro-industrial by-products such as wheat bran, deoiled rice bran, rice polish, wheat straw, and concentrates such as mustard oil cake, groundnut cake, soybean meal, cotton seed cake, grains like maize, oat, wheat, and barley were taken for this study. Chemical compositions and cell wall constituents of test feeds were determined in triplicate. The crude protein (CP content was calculated as nitrogen (N × 6.25. True dry matter digestibility (TDMD, true organic matter digestibility (TOMD, ME, and partitioning factor (PF values were determined by in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT. Results: The CP content of non-leguminous fodders varied from 7.29% (sorghum to 9.51% (maize, but leguminous fodders had less variation in CP. Oilseed cakes/meals had high CP and ether extract (EE content than other feedstuffs except rice polish, which had 12.80% EE. Wheat straw contained highest fiber fractions than the other ingredients. ME content was highest in grains (wheat-12.02 MJ/kg and lowest in wheat straw (4.65 MJ/kg and other roughages. TDMD of grains and oilseed cakes/meals were higher than the fodders and agro-industrial by-products. The same trend was observed for TOMD. Conclusions: It was concluded that the energy feeds showed a great variation in chemical composition and ME content. The results of this study demonstrated that the kinetics of gas production of energy feed sources differed among themselves. Evaluation of various feedstuffs is helpful in balanced ration formulation for field animals and under farm conditions for better utilization of these commonly available feed resources.

  10. Similarity Laws for the Lines of Ideal Free Energy and Chemical Potential in Supercritical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, E M; Vorob'ev, V S

    2017-09-21

    We have found the curves on the density-temperature plane, along which the values of free energy and chemical potential correspond to ideal gas quantities. At first, we have applied the van der Waals equation to construct them and to derive their equations. Then we have shown that the same lines for real substances (Ar, N 2 , CH 4 , SF 6 , H 2 , H 2 O) and for the model Lennard-Jones system constructed on the basis of the measurements data and calculations are well matched with the derived equations. The validity and deviations from the obtained similarity laws are discussed.

  11. On the topography of sputtered or chemically etched crystals: surface energies minimised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderton, L.T.; Cope, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The sputtering of single or polycrystalline metal surfaces by heavy ions gives rise to the characteristic topographical features of etch pits, ripples, and cones (pyramids). For cones and pyramids, in particular, no completely satisfactory explanation exists as to the origin of the basic geometry. Scanning electron micrographs are shown. It is proposed that for topographical features of both chemical etch and ion beam origin on single crystal surfaces, the presence of facets on cones and pyramids in particular, is due to the minimization of surface energy. (U.K.)

  12. Energy and environment efficiency analysis based on an improved environment DEA cross-model: Case study of complex chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, ZhiQiang; Dong, JunGen; Han, YongMing; Zhu, QunXiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An improved environment DEA cross-model method is proposed. •Energy and environment efficiency analysis framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. •This proposed method is efficient in energy-saving and emission reduction of complex chemical processes. -- Abstract: The complex chemical process is a high pollution and high energy consumption industrial process. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and evaluate the energy and environment efficiency of the complex chemical process. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of decision-making units (DMUs). However, the traditional DEA method usually cannot genuinely distinguish the effective and inefficient DMU due to its extreme or unreasonable weight distribution of input and output variables. Therefore, this paper proposes an energy and environment efficiency analysis method based on an improved environment DEA cross-model (DEACM) method. The inputs of the complex chemical process are divided into energy and non-energy inputs. Meanwhile, the outputs are divided into desirable and undesirable outputs. And then the energy and environment performance index (EEPI) based on the cross evaluation is used to represent the overall performance of each DMU. Moreover, the improvement direction of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of each inefficiency DMU is quantitatively obtained based on the self-evaluation model of the improved environment DEACM. The results show that the improved environment DEACM method has a better effective discrimination than the original DEA method by analyzing the energy and environment efficiency of the ethylene production process in complex chemical processes, and it can obtain the potential of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of ethylene plants, especially the improvement direction of inefficient DMUs to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emission.

  13. The Interconversion of Electrical and Chemical Energy: The Electrolysis of Water and the Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses some of the drawbacks of using a demonstration of the electrolysis of water to illustrate the interconversion between electrical and chemical energy. Illustrates a simple apparatus allowing demonstration of this concept while overcoming these drawbacks. (CW)

  14. Effect of Energy Input on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Aluminide Alloy Fabricated by the Additive Manufacturing Process of Electron Beam Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ashfaq; Alahmari, Abdulrahman M; Mohammed, Muneer Khan; Renganayagalu, Ravi Kottan; Moiduddin, Khaja

    2017-02-21

    Titanium aluminides qualify adequately for advanced aero-engine applications in place of conventional nickel based superalloys. The combination of high temperature properties and lower density gives an edge to the titanium aluminide alloys. Nevertheless, challenges remain on how to process these essentially intermetallic alloys in to an actual product. Electron Beam Melting (EBM), an Additive Manufacturing Method, can build complex shaped solid parts from a given feedstock powder, thus overcoming the shortcomings of the conventional processing techniques such as machining and forging. The amount of energy supplied by the electron beam has considerable influence on the final build quality in the EBM process. Energy input is decided by the beam voltage, beam scan speed, beam current, and track offset distance. In the current work, beam current and track offset were varied to reflect three levels of energy input. Microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated for these samples. The microstructure gradually coarsened from top to bottom along the build direction. Whereas higher energy favored lath microstructure, lower energy tended toward equiaxed grains. Computed tomography analysis revealed a greater amount of porosity in low energy samples. In addition, the lack of bonding defects led to premature failure in the tension test of low energy samples. Increase in energy to a medium level largely cancelled out the porosity, thereby increasing the strength. However, this trend did not continue with the high energy samples. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations were carried out to understand this non-linear behavior of the strength in the three samples. Overall, the results of this work suggest that the input energy should be considered primarily whenever any new alloy system has to be processed through the EBM route.

  15. Effect of Energy Input on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Aluminide Alloy Fabricated by the Additive Manufacturing Process of Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Titanium aluminides qualify adequately for advanced aero-engine applications in place of conventional nickel based superalloys. The combination of high temperature properties and lower density gives an edge to the titanium aluminide alloys. Nevertheless, challenges remain on how to process these essentially intermetallic alloys in to an actual product. Electron Beam Melting (EBM, an Additive Manufacturing Method, can build complex shaped solid parts from a given feedstock powder, thus overcoming the shortcomings of the conventional processing techniques such as machining and forging. The amount of energy supplied by the electron beam has considerable influence on the final build quality in the EBM process. Energy input is decided by the beam voltage, beam scan speed, beam current, and track offset distance. In the current work, beam current and track offset were varied to reflect three levels of energy input. Microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated for these samples. The microstructure gradually coarsened from top to bottom along the build direction. Whereas higher energy favored lath microstructure, lower energy tended toward equiaxed grains. Computed tomography analysis revealed a greater amount of porosity in low energy samples. In addition, the lack of bonding defects led to premature failure in the tension test of low energy samples. Increase in energy to a medium level largely cancelled out the porosity, thereby increasing the strength. However, this trend did not continue with the high energy samples. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations were carried out to understand this non-linear behavior of the strength in the three samples. Overall, the results of this work suggest that the input energy should be considered primarily whenever any new alloy system has to be processed through the EBM route.

  16. Linear solvation energy relationships for toxicity of selected organic chemicals to Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Dora R.M.; Hickey, James P.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1988-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, more than 300 contaminants have been identified in fish, other biota, water, and sediment. Current hazard assessment of these chemicals by the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes is based on their toxicity, occurrence in the environment, and source. Although scientists at the Center have tested over 70 chemicals with the crustacean Daphnia pulex, the number of experimental data needed to screen the huge array of chemicals in the Great Lakes exceeds the practical capabilities of conducting bioassays. This limitation can be partly circumvented, however, by using mathematical models based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to provide rapid, inexpensive estimates of toxicity. Many properties of chemicals, including toxicity, bioaccumulation and water solubility are well correlated and can be predicted by equations of the generalized linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). The equation we used to model solute toxicity is Toxicity = constant + mVI/100 + s (π* + dδ) + bβm + aαm where VI = intrinsic (Van der Waals) molar volume; π* = molecular dipolarity/polarizability; δ = polarizability 'correction term'; βm = solute hydrogen bond acceptor basicity; and αm = solute hydrogen bond donor acidity. The subscript m designates solute monomer values for α and β. We applied the LSER model to 48-h acute toxicity data (measured as immobilization) for six classes of chemicals detected in Great Lakes fish. The following regression was obtained for Daphnia pulex (concentration = μM): log EC50 = 4.86 - 4.35 VI/100; N = 38, r2 = 0.867, sd = 0.403 We also used the LSER modeling approach to analyze to a large published data set of 24-h acute toxicity for Daphnia magna; the following regression resulted, for eight classes of compounds (concentration = mM): log EC50 = 3.88 - 4.52 VI/100 - 1.62 π* + 1.66 βm - 0.916 αm; N = 62, r2 = 0.859, sd = 0.375 In addition we developed computer software that identifies

  17. Solvated electron: criticism of a suggested correlation of chemical potential with optical absorption energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhataziz, M.

    1984-01-01

    A recent theoretical treatment of the absorption spectrum of the solvated electron, e - sub(s), maintains that rigorously μ 0 >= -0.75 Esub(av), which gives empirical relationship, μ 0 >= -(0.93 +- 0.02)Esub(max). For e - sub(s) in a particular solvent at a temperature and pressure, μ 0 , Esub(av) and Esub(max) are standard chemical potential, average energy of the absorption spectrum and the energy at the absorption maximum respectively. The temperature and pressure effects on the absorption spectrum of e - sub(s) in water and liquid ammonia do not support the equality sign in the above cited relationships. The implications of inequality expressed above are discussed for e - sub(s) in water and liquid ammonia. (author)

  18. Barriers, drivers and decision-making process for industrial energy efficiency: A broad study among manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Farné, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Barriers and drivers vary along the decision-making process of EEM adoption. • Economic barriers, awareness and behavioural are most critical. • Beside economic drivers, major relevance of regulatory and vocational training. • Importance of stakeholders providing technical support. • Barriers and drivers are different according to several firm characteristics. - Abstract: Energy efficiency has been recognized as a primary means to increase the competitiveness of the industrial sector, and in particular for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), in which energy efficiency measures (EEMs) are scarcely implemented. For this reason, future policies should carefully address such issue. Hence, it is really crucial to have a precise and punctual knowledge of the barriers to be tackled in the decision-making process of adopting an EEM and the drivers to be promoted. This study discussed the findings from a broad investigation within 222 manufacturing SMEs located in a Northern Italy region. Beside economic issues particularly affecting SMEs, awareness and behavioural issues emerge as critical, affecting the very first steps of the decision-making process, related to the punctual identification and evaluation of plausible EEMs. The support from manufacturers, technology suppliers, installers and ESCOs supporting SMEs through vocational training drivers (e.g. technical support) is really important to tackle such issues. More generally, beside financial institutions, the supply chain of technologies is recognized as particularly useful for supporting enterprises in the adoption of EEMs. Additionally, having previously conducted energy audit and implemented EEMs are critical factors able to highlight non-economic barriers and drivers. Therefore, the promotion of EEMs will necessarily imply a further effort in pointing out the so-called non-energy benefits (NEBs) from the implementation of EEMs. Finally, our study reveals that smaller and non-energy

  19. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  20. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  1. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  2. The effects of high electronic energy loss on the chemical modification of polyimide

    CERN Document Server

    SunYouMei; Jin Yun Fan; Liu Chang Long; LiuJie; Wang Zhi Guang; Zhang Qi; Zhu Zhi Yong

    2002-01-01

    In order to observe the role of electronic energy loss (dE/dX) sub e on chemical modification of polyimide (PI), the multi-layer stacks (corresponding to different dE/dX) were irradiated by different swift heavy ions (1.37 GeV Ar sup 4 sup 0 , 1.98 GeV Kr sup 8 sup 4 , 1.755 GeV Xe sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 and 2.636 GeV U sup 2 sup 3 sup 8) under vacuum and room temperature. The chemical changes of modified PI films were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The degradation of PI was investigated in the fluence range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 0 to 5.5x10 sup 1 sup 2 ions/cm sup 2 and different electronic energy loss from 0.77 to 11.5 keV/nm. The FTIR results show the absorbance of the typical function group decrease exponentially as a function of fluence. The alkyne end group was found after irradiation and its formation radii were 5.6 and 5.9 nm corresponding to 8.8 and 11.5 keV/nm Xe irradiation respectively. UV/Vis analysis indicates the radiation induced...

  3. Capital-energy substitution in manufacturing for seven OECD countries: Learning about potential effects of climate policy and peak oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorito, G.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous influence of increasing oil scarcity, greenhouse gas control and renewable energy targets will result in a future of sustained energy prices. Whether modern economies can find a smooth path away from fossil fuels is a fundamental socio-economic and political question, which

  4. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  5. HIGH-TEMPERATURE VACUUM CEMENTATION – THE RESERVE TO REDUCE THE ENERGY INTENSITY OF MANUFACTURE AND IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF TRANSMISSIONS GEARWHEELS OF HIGH-ENERGY MACHINES

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Shipko; S. P. Rudenko; A. L. Valko; A. N. Chichin

    2016-01-01

    Results of research of influence of high-temperature vacuum chemical heat treatment on the amount of grain structural steels are presented. The efficiency of hereditary fine-grained steel for high temperature vacuum carburizing are shown.

  6. HIGH-TEMPERATURE VACUUM CEMENTATION – THE RESERVE TO REDUCE THE ENERGY INTENSITY OF MANUFACTURE AND IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF TRANSMISSIONS GEARWHEELS OF HIGH-ENERGY MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shipko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of influence of high-temperature vacuum chemical heat treatment on the amount of grain structural steels are presented. The efficiency of hereditary fine-grained steel for high temperature vacuum carburizing are shown.

  7. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of energy use rationalization-oriented silicon manufacturing process (Survey and study of analysis of commercialization of solar-grade silicon material manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko kyodo kenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu (Taiyodenchiyou silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The trend of technology development, problems harbored therein, trend of the market, and the like were investigated for supporting the development of technologies for the mass production and commercialization of solar-grade silicon materials. Concerning the future of production enhancement and cost reduction in the manufacture of polycrystalline silicon solar cells, studies were made from the technological viewpoint. The results are shown below. It is estimated that approximately 4,500 tons of material silicon will be necessary in 2005 and 6,500-10,700 tons in 2010. Since the melting purification method of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) now under development step by step toward commercialization as well as the conventional source will provide the necessary amount of material silicon, it is inferred that the development of solar cells will go on without any restraint originating in the semiconductor industry. With the commercialization of the technologies so far developed and the development/commercialization of the fast-acting high-performance solar cell technology, probabilities are high that the polycrystalline silicon solar cell manufacturing cost in 2010 will be as low as to be on the 100 yen/W (93-118 yen/W) level which is the level now held up as the goal. (NEDO)

  8. Binding energies and chemical shifts of least bound core electron excitations in cubic Asub(N)Bsub(8-N) semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechstedt, F.; Enderlein, R.; Wischnewski, R.

    1981-01-01

    Core electron binding energies Esup(B) with respect to the vacuum level and their chemical shifts are calculated for the least bound core levels of cations and anions of cubic Asub(N)Bsub(8-N) semiconductors. Starting from the HF-binding energy of the free atom absolute values of Esup(B) are obtained by adding core level shifts and relaxation energies. Core level shifts are calculated by means of an electrostatic model with ionic and bond charges according to Phillips' bond charge model. For the calculation of relaxation energies the linear dielectric theory of electronic polarization is applied. Valence and core electrons, and diagonal and non-diagonal screening are taken into account. The theoretical results for chemical shifts of binding energies are compared with experimental values from XPS-measurements corrected by work function data. Good agreement is obtained in all cases within the error limit of about one eV. Chemical and atomic trends of core level shifts, relaxation energies, and binding energies are discussed in terms of changes of atomic and solid state parameters. Chemical shifts and relaxation energies are predicted for various ternary Asub(N)Bsub(8-N) compounds. (author)

  9. Dissipation, generalized free energy, and a self-consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics of chemically driven open subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a system situated in a sustained environment with influx and efflux is usually treated as a subsystem in a larger, closed "universe." A question remains with regard to what the minimally required description for the surrounding of such an open driven system is so that its nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be established solely based on the internal stochastic kinetics. We provide a solution to this problem using insights from studies of molecular motors in a chemical nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) with sustained external drive through a regenerating system or in a quasisteady state (QSS) with an excess amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi). We introduce the key notion of minimal work that is needed, W(min), for the external regenerating system to sustain a NESS (e.g., maintaining constant concentrations of ATP, ADP and Pi for a molecular motor). Using a Markov (master-equation) description of a motor protein, we illustrate that the NESS and QSS have identical kinetics as well as the second law in terms of the same positive entropy production rate. The heat dissipation of a NESS without mechanical output is exactly the W(min). This provides a justification for introducing an ideal external regenerating system and yields a free-energy balance equation between the net free-energy input F(in) and total dissipation F(dis) in an NESS: F(in) consists of chemical input minus mechanical output; F(dis) consists of dissipative heat, i.e. the amount of useful energy becoming heat, which also equals the NESS entropy production. Furthermore, we show that for nonstationary systems, the F(dis) and F(in) correspond to the entropy production rate and housekeeping heat in stochastic thermodynamics and identify a relative entropy H as a generalized free energy. We reach a new formulation of Markovian nonequilibrium thermodynamics based on only the internal kinetic equation without further

  10. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Den

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass

  11. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Walter; Sharma, Virender K.; Lee, Mengshan; Nadadur, Govind; Varma, Rajender S.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass pretreatment step and the

  12. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Walter; Sharma, Virender K; Lee, Mengshan; Nadadur, Govind; Varma, Rajender S

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass pretreatment step and the

  13. Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Energy in Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taştan, Özgecan; Yalçınkaya, Eylem; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text instruction (CCT) in the context of energy in chemical reactions. The subjects of the study were 60, 10th grade students at a high school, who were in two different classes and taught by the same teacher. One of the classes was randomly selected as the experimental group in which CCT instruction was applied, and the other as the control group in which traditional teaching method was used. The data were obtained through the use of Energy Concept Test (ECT), the Attitude Scale towards Chemistry (ASC) and Science Process Skill Test (SPST). In order to find out the effect of the conceptual change text on students' learning of energy concept, independent sample t-tests, ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were used. Results revealed that there was a statistically significant mean difference between the experimental and control group in terms of students' ECT total mean scores; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control group in terms of students' attitude towards chemistry. These findings suggest that conceptual change text instruction enhances the understanding and achievement.

  14. Fully solar-powered photoelectrochemical conversion for simultaneous energy storage and chemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcheng; Tang, Jing; Peng, Zheng; Wang, Yuhang; Jia, Dingsi; Kong, Biao; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2014-06-11

    We report the development of a multifunctional, solar-powered photoelectrochemical (PEC)-pseudocapacitive-sensing material system for simultaneous solar energy conversion, electrochemical energy storage, and chemical detection. The TiO2 nanowire/NiO nanoflakes and the Si nanowire/Pt nanoparticle composites are used as photoanodes and photocathodes, respectively. A stable open-circuit voltage of ∼0.45 V and a high pseudocapacitance of up to ∼455 F g(-1) are obtained, which also exhibit a repeating charging-discharging capability. The PEC-pseudocapacitive device is fully solar powered, without the need of any external power supply. Moreover, this TiO2 nanowire/NiO nanoflake composite photoanode exhibits excellent glucose sensitivity and selectivity. Under the sun light illumination, the PEC photocurrent shows a sensitive increase upon different glucose additions. Meanwhile in the dark, the open-circuit voltage of the charged pseudocapacitor also exhibits a corresponding signal over glucose analyte, thus serving as a full solar-powered energy conversion-storage-utilization system.

  15. Impact of innovations on future energy supply - chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects an increase of global energy demand by one-third during next 20 years together with a change in the global energy mix. A key-influencing factor is a strong expected increase in oil and gas production in the United States driven by 'new' technologies such as hydraulic fracturing. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. In the case of polymer flooding with poly acrylamide, the number of full field implementations has increased in recent years. In the meantime new polymers have been developed to cover previously unmet needs - such polymers can be applied in fields of high salinity and high temperature. Use of surfactants is in an earlier stage, but pilot tests show promising results.

  16. A new type of power energy for accelerating chemical reactions: the nature of a microwave-driving force for accelerating chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jicheng; Xu, Wentao; You, Zhimin; Wang, Zhe; Luo, Yushang; Gao, Lingfei; Yin, Cheng; Peng, Renjie; Lan, Lixin

    2016-04-27

    The use of microwave (MW) irradiation to increase the rate of chemical reactions has attracted much attention recently in nearly all fields of chemistry due to substantial enhancements in reaction rates. However, the intrinsic nature of the effects of MW irradiation on chemical reactions remains unclear. Herein, the highly effective conversion of NO and decomposition of H2S via MW catalysis were investigated. The temperature was decreased by several hundred degrees centigrade. Moreover, the apparent activation energy (Ea') decreased substantially under MW irradiation. Importantly, for the first time, a model of the interactions between microwave electromagnetic waves and molecules is proposed to elucidate the intrinsic reason for the reduction in the Ea' under MW irradiation, and a formula for the quantitative estimation of the decrease in the Ea' was determined. MW irradiation energy was partially transformed to reduce the Ea', and MW irradiation is a new type of power energy for speeding up chemical reactions. The effect of MW irradiation on chemical reactions was determined. Our findings challenge both the classical view of MW irradiation as only a heating method and the controversial MW non-thermal effect and open a promising avenue for the development of novel MW catalytic reaction technology.

  17. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-06-07

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  18. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  19. Single-collision studies of hot atom energy transfer and chemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in the collision dynamics of translationally hot atoms, with funding with DOE for the project ''Single-Collision Studies of Hot Atom Energy Transfer and Chemical Reaction,'' Grant Number DE-FG03-85ER13453. The work reported here was done during the period September 9, 1988 through October 31, 1991. During this period this DOE-funded work has been focused on several different efforts: (1) experimental studies of the state-to-state dynamics of the H + RH → H 2 R reactions where RH is CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , or C 3 H 8 , (2) theoretical (quasiclassical trajectory) studies of hot hydrogen atom collision dynamics, (3) the development of photochemical sources of translationally hot molecular free radicals and characterization of the high resolution CARS spectroscopy of molecular free radicals, (4) the implementation of stimulated Raman excitation (SRE) techniques for the preparation of vibrationally state-selected molecular reactants

  20. Molecular Dynamics Study of Thermally Augmented Nanodroplet Motion on Chemical Energy Induced Wettability Gradient Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monojit; Chowdhury, Anamika; Bhusan, Richa; DasGupta, Sunando

    2015-10-20

    Droplet motion on a surface with chemical energy induced wettability gradient has been simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to highlight the underlying physics of molecular movement near the solid-liquid interface including the contact line friction. The simulations mimic experiments in a comprehensive manner wherein microsized droplets are propelled by the surface wettability gradient against forces opposed to motion. The liquid-wall Lennard-Jones interaction parameter and the substrate temperature are varied to explore their effects on the three-phase contact line friction coefficient. The contact line friction is observed to be a strong function of temperature at atomistic scales, confirming their experimentally observed inverse functionality. Additionally, the MD simulation results are successfully compared with those from an analytical model for self-propelled droplet motion on gradient surfaces.

  1. Chemical approaches toward graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Shaomin; Zhi, Linjie

    2012-03-12

    A 'gold rush' has been triggered all over the world for exploiting the possible applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. For this purpose, two important problems have to be solved; one is the preparation of graphene-based nanomaterials with well-defined structures, and the other is the controllable fabrication of these materials into functional devices. This review gives a brief overview of the recent research concerning chemical and thermal approaches toward the production of well-defined graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas, including solar cells, lithium ion secondary batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Overall efficiencies for conversion of solar energy to a chemical fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, J. D.

    A complete and consistent scheme for determining the overall efficiency of a generalized process for the conversion of solar energy into a chemical fuel (e.g. hydrogen) is developed and applied to seven conversion processes: thermal, thermochemical, photovoltaic, photogalvanic, photoelectrolysis, photosynthesis and photochemical conversion. It is demonstrated that the overall efficiency of each of these processes is determined by ten common factors: maximum theoretical efficiency, inherent absorption losses, inherent internal losses, rate limiting effects, reflection losses, transmission losses, coverage losses, system construction requirements, parasitic losses and harvesting and conversion losses. Both state-of-the-art and optimistic values are assigned to each factor for each of the seven conversion processes. State-of-the-art overall efficiencies ranged from 5% for thermal conversion down to essentially zero for thermochemical. Optimistic values in the range of about 10 to 15% are calculated for several of the processes.

  3. Chemical effects of low-energy electron impact on hydrocarbons in the gas phase. II. Propene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derai, R.; Danon, J.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical effects of low-energy (3.5 to 15.0 eV) electron impact on propene were investigated. The setup used for the irradiations has previously been described. Appearance curves for stable products were determined, from which correlations between products and precursors were deduced. In the excitation range, the main precursors are the triplet state at 4.4 eV and various singlet states around 7.0 and 9.0 eV. Above the ionization potential, contribution from superexcited molecules and ions was noted. Superexcited molecules are formed with a much higher cross section than excited molecules. A reaction scheme was proposed to account for the chemical effects associated with excited states and the yields of excited molecules in dissociating states were derived from experimental data. Results concerning the fragmentation of propene excited in singlet states conform to photolysis data. The following new results were obtained: the decomposition of propene excited in the triplet state at 4.4 eV involves mainly C--C bond rupture; the decomposition processes of superexcited and excited molecules are similar. A higher degree of fragmentation is observed in the case of superexcited molecules

  4. The biorefinery concept: Using biomass instead of oil for producing energy and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    A great fraction of worldwide energy carriers and material products come from fossil fuel refinery. Because of the on-going price increase of fossil resources, their uncertain availability, and their environmental concerns, the feasibility of oil exploitation is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, alternative solutions able to mitigate climate change and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels should be promoted. The replacement of oil with biomass as raw material for fuel and chemical production is an interesting option and is the driving force for the development of biorefinery complexes. In biorefinery, almost all the types of biomass feedstocks can be converted to different classes of biofuels and biochemicals through jointly applied conversion technologies. This paper provides a description of the emerging biorefinery concept, in comparison with the current oil refinery. The focus is on the state of the art in biofuel and biochemical production, as well as discussion of the most important biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies and final products. Through the integration of green chemistry into biorefineries, and the use of low environmental impact technologies, future sustainable production chains of biofuels and high value chemicals from biomass can be established. The aim of this bio-industry is to be competitive in the market and lead to the progressive replacement of oil refinery products. (author)

  5. New Source Review (NSR) Air Permitting and Energy Efficiency for Industrial Projects, IECA Manufacturers for Energy Efficiency Coalition Meeting (Presentation) – April 18, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides information about major new source review (NSR), including recent improvement changes and court rulings, flexible air permits rule, significant deterioration rules, and energy efficiency considerations.

  6. Low-Energy Electron Scattering Data for Chemical Plasma Treatment of Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marco A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from renewable sources is an important goal for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Many countries are already using few percent of ethanol in the gasoline and few of them, with more aggressive programs, have developed flex fuel engines that can run with any mixture of gasoline and ethanol. An important point is how to produce ethanol in a sustainable way and with which technology? Biomass is a good candidate since it has cellulose and hemicellulose as source of sugars. In order to liberate these sugars for fermentation, it is important to learn how to separate the main components. Chemical routes (acid treatment) and biological routes (enzymatic hydrolysis) are combined and used for these purposes. Atmospheric plasmas can be useful for attacking the biomass in a controlled manner and low-energy electrons may have an important role in the process. Recently we have been studying the interaction of electrons with lignin subunits (phenol, guaiacol, p-coumaryl alcohol), cellulose components, β-D-glucose and cellobiose (β(1 - 4) linked glucose dimer) and hemicellulose components (β-D-xylose). We also obtained results for the amylose subunits α-D-glucose and maltose (α(1 - 4) linked glucose dimer). Altogether, the resonance spectra of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose components establish a physical–chemical basis for electron-induced biomass pretreatment that could be applied to biofuel production. In my talk I will give a progress report on this matter. We will also discuss microsolvation effects on the electron-phenol scattering process and present our strategy to study molecular dissociation through electronic excitation of low energy triplet states. (author)

  7. Modular manufacturing processes : Status, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldea, Michael; Edgar, Thomas F.; Stanley, Bill L.; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical companies are constantly seeking new, high-margin growth opportunities, the majority of which lie in high-grade, specialty chemicals, rather than in the bulk sector. To realize these opportunities, manufacturers are increasingly considering decentralized, flexible production facilities:

  8. Energy use in two Italian and Chinese tile manufacturers: A comparison using an enterprise input–output model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhtz, Silvana; Zhou, Chaoying; Albino, Vito; Yazan, Devrim

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming evident that sustainable development methods are now being considered by governments and corporations from all countries at both local and global level. Firms are increasingly looking to strike a balance between profit, preserving the local environment, and energy savings, rather than

  9. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ENERGY VALUE IN THE MEAT OF THE MACEDONIAN AND OHRID TROUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar SAVESKI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis and to verify the quality properties of meat of the Macedonian trout (Salmo macedonicus and the Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica, from aquaculture production, bred on a fish farm under controlled conditions. In order to determine the quality of meat of the Macedonian and Ohrid trout, analyses of the chemical composition have been conducted: the amount of proteins, fat, water, minerals, as well as a determination of the energy value of the meat. The analyses have been made on samples from Macedonian and Ohrid trout, with size of consumption between 200g and 300g. By these analyses, it has been confirmed that in the meat of the Macedonian trout, the amount of water is 77.122%, 17.800% proteins, 3.333% fat and 1.667% minerals, whereas in the meat of the Ohrid trout 75.923% water, 16.783% proteins, 5.403% fat and 1.080% minerals. Though the established difference in the amount of water and fat is not significant, the differences determined in the contents of proteins and minerals are significant on a level p>0,05. The energy value of Macedonian trout meat is 435.29 KJ/100gm, i.e. and 498.49 KJ/100gm in the Ohrid trout meat.

  11. How to compute isomerization energies of organic molecules with quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Stefan; Steinmetz, Marc; Korth, Martin

    2007-03-16

    The reaction energies for 34 typical organic isomerizations including oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms are investigated with modern quantum chemical methods that have the perspective of also being applicable to large systems. The experimental reaction enthalpies are corrected for vibrational and thermal effects, and the thus derived "experimental" reaction energies are compared to corresponding theoretical data. A series of standard AO basis sets in combination with second-order perturbation theory (MP2, SCS-MP2), conventional density functionals (e.g., PBE, TPSS, B3-LYP, MPW1K, BMK), and new perturbative functionals (B2-PLYP, mPW2-PLYP) are tested. In three cases, obvious errors of the experimental values could be detected, and accurate coupled-cluster [CCSD(T)] reference values have been used instead. It is found that only triple-zeta quality AO basis sets provide results close enough to the basis set limit and that sets like the popular 6-31G(d) should be avoided in accurate work. Augmentation of small basis sets with diffuse functions has a notable effect in B3-LYP calculations that is attributed to intramolecular basis set superposition error and covers basic deficiencies of the functional. The new methods based on perturbation theory (SCS-MP2, X2-PLYP) are found to be clearly superior to many other approaches; that is, they provide mean absolute deviations of less than 1.2 kcal mol-1 and only a few (computational thermochemistry methods.

  12. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Homogeneity analysis of high yield manufacturing process of mems-based pzt thick film vibrational energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer...... to accurately define the thickness of the silicon part of the harvester and a silicon compatible PZT thick film screen-printing technique, we are able to fabricate energy harvesters on wafer scale with a yield higher than 90%. The characterization of the fabricated harvesters is focused towards the full wafer....../mass-production aspect; hence the analysis of uniformity in harvested power and resonant frequency....

  14. Nanocrystals manufacturing by ultra-low-energy ion-beam-synthesis for non-volatile memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, P. E-mail: p.normand@imel.demokritos.gr; Kapetanakis, E.; Dimitrakis, P.; Skarlatos, D.; Beltsios, K.; Tsoukalas, D.; Bonafos, C.; Ben Assayag, G.; Cherkashin, N.; Claverie, A.; Berg, J.A. van den; Soncini, V.; Agarwal, A.; Ameen, M.; Perego, M.; Fanciulli, M

    2004-02-01

    An overview of recent developments regarding the fabrication and structure of thin silicon dioxide films with embedded nanocrystals through ultra-low-energy ion-beam-synthesis (ULE-IBS) is presented. Advances in fabrication, increased understanding of structure formation processes and ways to control them allow for the fabrication of reproducible and attractive silicon-nanocrystal memory devices for a wide-range of memory applications as herein demonstrated in the case of low-voltage EEPROM-like applications.

  15. Nanocrystals manufacturing by ultra-low-energy ion-beam-synthesis for non-volatile memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, P.; Kapetanakis, E.; Dimitrakis, P.; Skarlatos, D.; Beltsios, K.; Tsoukalas, D.; Bonafos, C.; Ben Assayag, G.; Cherkashin, N.; Claverie, A.; Berg, J.A. van den; Soncini, V.; Agarwal, A.; Ameen, M.; Perego, M.; Fanciulli, M.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of recent developments regarding the fabrication and structure of thin silicon dioxide films with embedded nanocrystals through ultra-low-energy ion-beam-synthesis (ULE-IBS) is presented. Advances in fabrication, increased understanding of structure formation processes and ways to control them allow for the fabrication of reproducible and attractive silicon-nanocrystal memory devices for a wide-range of memory applications as herein demonstrated in the case of low-voltage EEPROM-like applications

  16. Energy Efficient Catalytic Activation of Hydrogen peroxide for Green Chemical Processes: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Terrence J.; Horwitz, Colin

    2004-11-12

    A new, highly energy efficient approach for using catalytic oxidation chemistry in multiple fields of technology has been pursued. The new catalysts, called TAML® activators, catalyze the reactions of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants for the exceptionally rapid decontamination of noninfectious simulants (B. atrophaeus) of anthrax spores, for the energy efficient decontamination of thiophosphate pesticides, for the facile, low temperature removal of color and organochlorines from pulp and paper mill effluent, for the bleaching of dyes from textile mill effluents, and for the removal of recalcitrant dibenzothiophene compounds from diesel and gasoline fuels. Highlights include the following: 1) A 7-log kill of Bacillus atrophaeus spores has been achieved unambiguously in water under ambient conditions within 15 minutes. 2) The rapid total degradation under ambient conditions of four thiophosphate pesticides and phosphonate degradation intermediates has been achieved on treatment with TAML/peroxide, opening up potential applications of the decontamination system for phosphonate structured chemical warfare agents, for inexpensive, easy to perform degradation of stored and aged pesticide stocks (especially in Africa and Asia), for remediation of polluted sites and water bodies, and for the destruction of chemical warfare agent stockpiles. 3) A mill trial conducted in a Pennsylvanian bleached kraft pulp mill has established that TAML catalyst injected into an alkaline peroxide bleach tower can significantly lower color from the effluent stream promising a new, more cost effective, energy-saving approach for color remediation adding further evidence of the value and diverse engineering capacity of the approach to other field trials conducted on effluent streams as they exit the bleach plant. 4) Dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), including 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, the most recalcitrant sulfur compounds in diesel and gasoline, can be completely removed from model gasoline

  17. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    . The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  18. Vib--rotational energy distributions and relaxation processes in pulsed HF chemical lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shaul, A.; Kompa, K.L.; Schmailzl, U.

    1976-01-01

    The rate equations governing the temporal evolution of photon densities and level populations in pulsed F+H 2 →HF+H chemical lasers are solved for different initial conditions. The rate equations are solved simultaneously for all relevant vibrational--rotational levels and vibrational--rotational P-branch transitions. Rotational equilibrium is not assumed. Approximate expressions for the detailed state-to-state rate constants corresponding to the various energy transfer processes (V--V, V--R,T, R--R,T) coupling the vib--rotational levels are formulated on the basis of experimental data, approximate theories, and qualitative considerations. The main findings are as follows: At low pressures, R--T transfer cannot compete with the stimulated emission, and the laser output largely reflects the nonequilibrium energy distribution in the pumping reaction. The various transitions reach threshold and decay almost independently and simultaneous lasing on several lines takes place. When a buffer gas is added in excess to the reacting mixture, the enhanced rotational relaxation leads to nearly single-line operation and to the J shift in lasing. Laser efficiency is higher at high inert gas pressures owing to a better extraction of the internal energy from partially inverted populations. V--V exchange enhances lasing from upper vibrational levels but reduces the total pulse intensity. V--R,T processes reduce the efficiency but do not substantially modify the spectral output distribution. The photon yield ranges between 0.4 and 1.4 photons/HF molecule depending on the initial conditions. Comparison with experimental data, when available, is fair

  19. EERE Quality Control Workshop Final Report: Proceedings from the EERE Quality Control Workshop, in support of the DOE Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative; Golden, Colorado, December 9-10, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) has recognized the cross-cutting, pre-competitive and enabling nature of quality control for a wide range of clean energy technologies. As such, the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, Solar Energy Technologies Office, Vehicle Technologies Office, Building Technologies Office, and Advanced Manufacturing Office decided to explore needs and potential cross-office synergies in this area by holding the EERE Quality Control Workshop, in support of the DOE Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative. This report summarizes the purpose and scope of the workshop; reviews the current status and state-of-the-art for in-line quality control; summarizes the results from three breakout sessions; and presents conclusions and recommendations.

  20. The external energy consumption in automobiles manufacturing; La consommation d'energie externe dans la fabrication d'automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, F.; Lesne, Ch.

    2003-03-01

    This analysis on the external energy consumption in the automotive industry aims at: estimating the energy consumed in the French territory by the overall transports linked with the automotive industry ('external' energy) and comparing it to the energy consumed in car factories ('internal' energy); estimating the CO{sub 2} emission levels linked with the transportation activity and evaluating the impact of these emissions on the main parameters of the automotive industry production (number of vehicles produced). The methodology is based on a first study carried out with the French car maker Renault at the European scale, and extended to the whole automotive industry of France. The first two chapters are devoted to a descriptive analysis of the car making process in an internationalization context. The methodology of estimation of external energy consumptions and of CO{sub 2} emissions is presented in the third chapter. Finally, a modeling at the scale of France is proposed in the last chapter. A synthesis of the results and the lessons learnt are summarized in the conclusion. (J.S.)

  1. The Importance of State and Plant Characteristics in Determining the Environmental Compliance Costs of Chemical Manufacturing Plants: Evidence from the PACE Survey, 1979-1990 Summary (1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of the author's dissertation: links the U.S. Census Bureau's Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures data on a plant-by-plant basis with the data in their Longitudinal Research Database (LRD) to examine chemical industry compliance costs.

  2. Nanostructured Thin Film Synthesis by Aerosol Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Tandeep S.

    Renewable energy sources offer a viable solution to the growing energy demand while mitigating concerns for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. This has led to a tremendous momentum towards solar and wind-based energy harvesting technologies driving efficiencies higher and costs lower. However, the intermittent nature of these energy sources necessitates energy storage technologies, which remain the Achilles heel in meeting the renewable energy goals. This dissertation focusses on two approaches for addressing the needs of energy storage: first, targeting direct solar to fuel conversion via photoelectrochemical water-splitting and second, improving the performance of current rechargeable batteries by developing new electrode architectures and synthesis processes. The aerosol chemical vapor deposition (ACVD) process has emerged as a promising single-step approach for nanostructured thin film synthesis directly on substrates. The relationship between the morphology and the operating parameters in the process is complex. In this work, a simulation based approach has been developed to understand the relationship and acquire the ability of predicting the morphology. These controlled nanostructured morphologies of TiO2 , compounded with gold nanoparticles of various shapes, are used for solar water-splitting applications. Tuning of light absorption in the visible-light range along with reduced electron-hole recombination in the composite structures has been demonstrated. The ACVD process is further extended to a novel single-step synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes directly on the current collector for applications as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, mainly for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The effect of morphology of the nanostructures has been investigated via experimental studies and electrochemical transport modelling. Results demonstrate the exceptional performance of the single crystal one-dimensional nanostructures over granular

  3. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  4. Feasibility study on the manufacture of rockwool insulation and low energy density gas from municipal, industrial and coal mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barham, D; Phillips, C R

    1978-01-01

    It appears technically feasible to produce mineral wool from Nova Scotian coal mine waste supplement by municipal solid waste, with limestone balancing the composition. A co-product of the process is a low energy density gas suitable for close-coupled combustion. An appropriate feed mixture of 117 ton/d of Lingan coal waste, 25 ton/d of municipal solid waste, and 71 ton/d of limestone would produce approximately 100 ton/d of rockwool melt. The amount of product in fibre form is less than this, and is determined by the spinning efficiency. The energy content of the offgas is expected to be low, somewhere in the range of 1.5-2.6 MJ per standard M/sub 3/ (40-70 Btu per standard ft/sub 3/). Constraints operating on the system are the availability of municipal solid wastes, estimated to be not more than 25 ton/d, and the variability of the composition of this waste, which causes variability in the composition of the slag. Since the furnace will also produce a small quantity of pig iron about 5.5 ton/d, the hearth should be carbon-lined. Sulphur will be emitted both as hydrogen sulphide and as sulphur dioxide, but in the event of closecoupled use of the offgas to raise steam or provide heat, it is expected that the ultimate sulphur dioxide concentrations will not cause environmental concern. In terms of profitability, conservative cost projections (based on operating costs only) indicate excess revenue of approximately $840,000 power annum for the plant scale cited above. Against this revenue must be offset the captial changes for the plant. 15 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Modeling the effects of cohesive energy for single particle on the material removal in chemical mechanical polishing at atomic scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongguang; Zhao Yongwu; An Wei; Wang Jun

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel mathematical model for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) based on interface solid physical and chemical theory in addition to energy equilibrium knowledge. And the effects of oxidation concentration and particle size on the material removal in CMP are investigated. It is shown that the mechanical energy and removal cohesive energy couple with the particle size, and being a cause of the non-linear size-removal rate relation. Furthermore, it also shows a nonlinear dependence of removal rate on removal cohesive energy. The model predictions are in good qualitative agreement with the published experimental data. The current study provides an important starting point for delineating the micro-removal mechanism in the CMP process at atomic scale

  6. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  7. 78 FR 77426 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Open... development and public perception of manufacturing; manufacturing energy policy; tax policy and export growth...

  8. 78 FR 63964 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open... subcommittees on workforce development and public perception of manufacturing; manufacturing energy policy; tax...

  9. Metabolic disruption in context: Clinical avenues for synergistic perturbations in energy homeostasis by endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The global epidemic of metabolic disease is a clear and present danger to both individual and societal health. Understanding the myriad factors contributing to obesity and diabetes is essential for curbing their decades-long expansion. Emerging data implicate environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The phenylsulfamide fungicide and anti-fouling agent tolylfluanid (TF) was recently added to the list of EDCs promoting metabolic dysfunction. Dietary exposure to this novel metabolic disruptor promoted weight gain, increased adiposity, and glucose intolerance as well as systemic and cellular insulin resistance. Interestingly, the increase in body weight and adipose mass was not a consequence of increased food consumption; rather, it may have resulted from disruptions in diurnal patterns of energy intake, raising the possibility that EDCs may promote metabolic dysfunction through alterations in circadian rhythms. While these studies provide further evidence that EDCs may promote the development of obesity and diabetes, many questions remain regarding the clinical factors that modulate patient-specific consequences of EDC exposure, including the impact of genetics, diet, lifestyle, underlying disease, pharmacological treatments, and clinical states of fat redistribution. Currently, little is known regarding the impact of these factors on an individual's susceptibility to environmentally-mediated metabolic disruption. Advances in these areas will be critical for translating EDC science into the clinic to enable physicians to stratify an individual's risk of developing EDC-induced metabolic disease and to provide direction for treating exposed patients.

  10. Predicting Hydride Donor Strength via Quantum Chemical Calculations of Hydride Transfer Activation Free Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alherz, Abdulaziz; Lim, Chern-Hooi; Hynes, James T; Musgrave, Charles B

    2018-01-25

    We propose a method to approximate the kinetic properties of hydride donor species by relating the nucleophilicity (N) of a hydride to the activation free energy ΔG ⧧ of its corresponding hydride transfer reaction. N is a kinetic parameter related to the hydride transfer rate constant that quantifies a nucleophilic hydridic species' tendency to donate. Our method estimates N using quantum chemical calculations to compute ΔG ⧧ for hydride transfers from hydride donors to CO 2 in solution. A linear correlation for each class of hydrides is then established between experimentally determined N values and the computationally predicted ΔG ⧧ ; this relationship can then be used to predict nucleophilicity for different hydride donors within each class. This approach is employed to determine N for four different classes of hydride donors: two organic (carbon-based and benzimidazole-based) and two inorganic (boron and silicon) hydride classes. We argue that silicon and boron hydrides are driven by the formation of the more stable Si-O or B-O bond. In contrast, the carbon-based hydrides considered herein are driven by the stability acquired upon rearomatization, a feature making these species of particular interest, because they both exhibit catalytic behavior and can be recycled.

  11. Chemical and mechanical instabilities in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G; Lavagno, A; Pigato, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the possible thermodynamic instability in a warm and dense nuclear medium where a phase transition from nucleonic matter to resonance-dominated Δ-matter can take place. Such a phase transition is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) and by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the isospin concentration) in asymmetric nuclear matter. Similarly to the liquid-gas phase transition, the nucleonic and the Δ-matter phase have a different isospin density in the mixed phase. In the liquid-gas phase transition, the process of producing a larger neutron excess in the gas phase is referred to as isospin fractionation. A similar effects can occur in the nucleon-Δ matter phase transition due essentially to a Δ − excess in the Δ-matter phase in asymmetric nuclear matter. In this context, we study the hadronic equation of state by means of an effective quantum relativistic mean field model with the inclusion of the full octet of baryons, the Δ-isobar degrees of freedom, and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector mesons. Finally, we will investigate the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where phases with different values of antibaryon-baryon ratios and strangeness content may coexist. Such a physical regime could be in principle investigated in the future high-energy compressed nuclear matter experiments where will make it possible to create compressed baryonic matter with a high net baryon density. (paper)

  12. A Gibbs Energy Minimization Approach for Modeling of Chemical Reactions in a Basic Oxygen Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskopf, Ari; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri

    2017-12-01

    In modern steelmaking, the decarburization of hot metal is converted into steel primarily in converter processes, such as the basic oxygen furnace. The objective of this work was to develop a new mathematical model for top blown steel converter, which accounts for the complex reaction equilibria in the impact zone, also known as the hot spot, as well as the associated mass and heat transport. An in-house computer code of the model has been developed in Matlab. The main assumption of the model is that all reactions take place in a specified reaction zone. The mass transfer between the reaction volume, bulk slag, and metal determine the reaction rates for the species. The thermodynamic equilibrium is calculated using the partitioning of Gibbs energy (PGE) method. The activity model for the liquid metal is the unified interaction parameter model and for the liquid slag the modified quasichemical model (MQM). The MQM was validated by calculating iso-activity lines for the liquid slag components. The PGE method together with the MQM was validated by calculating liquidus lines for solid components. The results were compared with measurements from literature. The full chemical reaction model was validated by comparing the metal and slag compositions to measurements from industrial scale converter. The predictions were found to be in good agreement with the measured values. Furthermore, the accuracy of the model was found to compare favorably with the models proposed in the literature. The real-time capability of the proposed model was confirmed in test calculations.

  13. Biogas crops grown in energy crop rotations: Linking chemical composition and methane production characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Methane production characteristics and chemical composition of 405 silages from 43 different crop species were examined using uniform laboratory methods, with the aim to characterise a wide range of crop feedstocks from energy crop rotations and to identify main parameters that influence biomass quality for biogas production. Methane formation was analysed from chopped and over 90 days ensiled crop biomass in batch anaerobic digestion tests without further pre-treatment. Lignin content of crop biomass was found to be the most significant explanatory variable for specific methane yields while the methane content and methane production rates were mainly affected by the content of nitrogen-free extracts and neutral detergent fibre, respectively. The accumulation of butyric acid and alcohols during the ensiling process had significant impact on specific methane yields and methane contents of crop silages. It is proposed that products of silage fermentation should be considered when evaluating crop silages for biogas production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of high-energy chemicals using solar energy heat. Project 8999, final report for the period September 1, 1977--May 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafler, J.R.; Sinnott, J.; Novil, M.; Yudow, B.D.; Rackoff, M.G.

    1978-12-01

    The first phase of a study to identify candidate processes and products suitable for future exploitation using high-temperature solar energy is presented. This phase has been principally analytical, consisting of techno-economic studies, thermodynamic assessments of chemical reactions and processes, and the determination of market potentials for major chemical commodities that use significant amounts of fossil resources today. The objective was to identify energy-intensive processes that would be suitable for the production of chemicals and fuels using solar energy process heat. Of particular importance was the comparison of relative costs and energy requirements for the selected solar product versus costs for the product derived from conventional processing. The assessment methodology used a systems analytical approach to identify processes and products having the greatest potential for solar energy-thermal processing. This approach was used to establish the basis for work to be carried out in subsequent phases of development. It has been the intent of the program to divide the analysis and process identification into the following three distinct areas: (1) process selection, (2) process evaluation, and (3) ranking of processes. Four conventional processes were selected for assessment namely, methanol synthesis, styrene monomer production, vinyl chloride monomer production, and terephthalic acid production.

  15. Manufacturing sector carbon dioxide emissions in nine OECD countries 1973--87: A Divisia index decomposition to changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, industry structure, energy intensities, and international structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, A.

    1990-11-01

    In this paper the reduction in energy-related manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions for nine OECD countries in the period 1973 to 1987 is analyzed. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from energy use data. The emphasis is on carbon dioxide intensities, defined as emissions divided by value added. The overall manufacturing carbon dioxide intensity for the nine OECD countries was reduced by 42% in the period 1973--1987. Five fuels are specified together with six subsectors of manufacturing. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from fossil fuel consumption, employing emissions coefficients for gas, oil and solids. In addition, electricity consumption is specified. For electricity use an emission coefficient index is calculated from the shares of fossil fuels, nuclear power and hydro power used to generate electricity, and the efficiency in electricity generation from these energy sources. A Divisia index approach is used to sort out the contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity from different components. The major finding is that the main contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity is from the general reduction in manufacturing energy intensity, most likely driven by economic growth and increased energy prices, giving incentives to invest in new technology and new industrial processes. There is also a significant contribution from reduced production in the most carbon dioxide intensive subsectors, and a contribution from higher efficiency in electricity generation together with a larger nuclear power share at the expense of oil. 19 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Understanding Chemical Equilibrium: The Role of Gas Phases and Mixing Contributions in the Minimum of Free Energy Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, J. Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The use of free energy plots to understand the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium has been shown to be of great pedagogical value in materials science. Although chemical equilibrium is also amenable to this kind of analysis, it is not part of the agenda of materials science textbooks. Something similar is found in chemistry branches, where free…

  17. Bio-based targeted chemical engineering education : Role and impact of bio-based energy and resourcedevelopment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Márquez Luzardoa; Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2012-01-01

    Avans University of Applied Sciences is redrafting its courses and curricula in view of sustainability. For chemical engineering in particular that implies a focus on 'green' and bio-based processes, products and energy. Avans is situated in the Southwest region of the Netherlands and specifically

  18. Nanostructured Semiconductor Electrodes for Solar Energy Conversion and Innovations in Undergraduate Chemical Lab Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sudarat

    This dissertation presents the methodology and discussion of preparing nanostructured, high aspect ratio p-type phosphide-based binary and ternary semiconductors via "top-down" anodic etching, a process which creates nanostructures from a large parent entity, and "bottom-up" vapor-liquid-solid growth, a mechanism which builds up small clusters of molecules block-by-block. Such architecture is particularly useful for semiconducting materials with incompatible optical absorption depth and charge carrier diffusion length, as it not only relaxes the requirement for high-grade crystalline materials, but also increases the carrier collection efficiencies for photons with energy greater than or equal to the band gap. The main focus of this dissertation is to obtain nanostructured p-type phosphide semiconductors for photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell applications. Chapter II in the thesis describes a methodology for creating high-aspect ratio p-GaP that function as a photocathode under white light illumination. Gallium phosphide (GaP, band gap: 2.26 eV) is a suitable candidate for solar conversion and energy storage due to its ability to generate large photocurrent and photovoltage to drive fuel-forming reactions. Furthermore, the band edge positions of GaP can provide sufficient kinetics for the reduction of protons and carbon dioxide. The structure is prepared by anodic etching, and the resulting macroporous structures are subsequently doped with Zn by thermally driving in Zn from conformal ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The key finding of this work is a viable doping strategy involving ALD ZnO films for making functioning p-type GaP nanostructures. Chapter III compares the GaP nanowires grown from gold (Au) and tin (Sn) VLS catalysts in a benign solid sublimation growth scheme in terms of crystal structure and photoactivity. Sn is less noble than Au, allowing complete removal of Sn metal catalysts from the nanowires through wet chemical etching which

  19. Optimizing the Binding Energy of Hydrogen on Nanostructured Carbon Materials through Structure Control and Chemical Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Liu

    2011-02-01

    The DOE Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE) was formed in 2005 to develop materials for hydrogen storage systems to be used in light-duty vehicles. The HSCoE and two related centers of excellence were created as follow-on activities to the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) Hydrogen Storage Grand Challenge Solicitation issued in FY 2003. The Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE) focuses on developing high-capacity sorbents with the goal to operate at temperatures and pressures approaching ambient and be efficiently and quickly charged in the tank with minimal energy requirements and penalties to the hydrogen fuel infrastructure. The work was directed at overcoming barriers to achieving DOE system goals and identifying pathways to meet the hydrogen storage system targets. To ensure that the development activities were performed as efficiently as possible, the HSCoE formed complementary, focused development clusters based on the following four sorption-based hydrogen storage mechanisms: 1. Physisorption on high specific surface area and nominally single element materials 2. Enhanced H2 binding in Substituted/heterogeneous materials 3. Strong and/or multiple H2 binding from coordinated but electronically unsatruated metal centers 4. Weak Chemisorption/Spillover. As a member of the team, our group at Duke studied the synthesis of various carbon-based materials, including carbon nanotubes and microporous carbon materials with controlled porosity. We worked closely with other team members to study the effect of pore size on the binding energy of hydrogen to the carbon –based materials. Our initial project focus was on the synthesis and purification of small diameter, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with well-controlled diameters for the study of their hydrogen storage properties as a function of diameters. We developed a chemical vapor deposition method that synthesized gram quantities of carbon nanotubes with

  20. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.