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Sample records for energy camera scans

  1. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  2. High resolution RGB color line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Theodore E.; Huettig, Fred

    1998-04-01

    A color line scan camera family which is available with either 6000, 8000 or 10000 pixels/color channel, utilizes off-the-shelf lenses, interfaces with currently available frame grabbers, includes on-board pixel by pixel offset correction, and is configurable and controllable via RS232 serial port for computer controlled or stand alone operation is described in this paper. This line scan camera is based on an available 8000 element monochrome line scan camera designed by AOA for OEM use. The new color version includes improvements such as better packaging and additional user features which make the camera easier to use. The heart of the camera is a tri-linear CCD sensor with on-chip color balancing for maximum accuracy and pinned photodiodes for low lag response. Each color channel is digitized to 12 bits and all three channels are multiplexed together so that the resulting camera output video is either a 12 or 8 bit data stream at a rate of up to 24Megpixels/sec. Conversion from 12 to 8 bit, or user-defined gamma, is accomplished by on board user-defined video look up tables. The camera has two user-selectable operating modes; lows speed, high sensitivity mode or high speed, reduced sensitivity mode. The intended uses of the camera include industrial inspection, digital archiving, document scanning, and graphic arts applications.

  3. Laser scanning camera inspects hazardous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryatt, A.; Miprode, C.

    1985-01-01

    Main operational characteristics of a new laser scanning camera are presented. The camera is intended primarily for low level high resolution viewing inside nuclear reactors. It uses a He-Ne laser beam raster; by detecting the reflected light by means of a phomultiplier, the subject under observation can be reconstructed in an electronic video store and reviewed on a conventional monitor screen

  4. Whole body scan system based on γ camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Tianyu; Jin Yongjie

    2001-01-01

    Most existing domestic γ cameras can not perform whole body scan protocol, which is of important use in clinic. The authors designed a set of whole body scan system, which is made up of a scan bed, an ISA interface card controlling the scan bed and the data acquisition software based on a data acquisition and image processing system for γ cameras. The image was obtained in clinical experiment, and the authors think it meets the need of clinical diagnosis. Application of this system in γ cameras can provide whole body scan function at low cost

  5. Using a laser scanning camera for reactor inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, I.A.; Adrain, R.S.; Klewe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Inspection of nuclear reactors is normally carried out using TV or film cameras. There are, however, several areas where these cameras show considerable shortcomings. To overcome these difficulties, laser scanning cameras have been developed. This type of camera can be used for general visual inspection as well as the provision of high resolution video images with high ratio on and off-axis zoom capability. In this paper, we outline the construction and operation of a laser scanning camera and give examples of how it has been used in various power stations, and indicate future potential developments. (author)

  6. Dark Energy Camera for Blanco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Gary A.; /Caltech /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    In order to make accurate measurements of dark energy, a system is needed to monitor the focus and alignment of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to be located on the Blanco 4m Telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. One new approach under development is to fit out-of-focus star images to a point spread function from which information about the focus and tilt of the camera can be obtained. As a first test of a new algorithm using this idea, simulated star images produced from a model of DECam in the optics software Zemax were fitted. Then, real images from the Mosaic II imager currently installed on the Blanco telescope were used to investigate the algorithm's capabilities. A number of problems with the algorithm were found, and more work is needed to understand its limitations and improve its capabilities so it can reliably predict camera alignment and focus.

  7. A digital gigapixel large-format tile-scan camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, M

    2011-01-01

    Although the resolution of single-lens reflex (SLR) and medium-format digital cameras has increased in recent years, applications for cultural-heritage preservation and computational photography require even higher resolutions. Addressing this issue, a large-format cameras' large image planes can achieve very high resolution without compromising pixel size and thus can provide high-quality, high-resolution images.This digital large-format tile scan camera can acquire high-quality, high-resolution images of static scenes. It employs unique calibration techniques and a simple algorithm for focal-stack processing of very large images with significant magnification variations. The camera automatically collects overlapping focal stacks and processes them into a high-resolution, extended-depth-of-field image.

  8. Image-scanning measurement using video dissection cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    A high speed dimensional measuring system capable of scanning a thin film network, and determining if there are conductor widths, resistor widths, or spaces not typical of the design for this product is described. The eye of the system is a conventional TV camera, although such devices as image dissector cameras or solid-state scanners may be used more often in the future. The analog signal from the TV camera is digitized for processing by the computer and is presented to the TV monitor to assist the operator in monitoring the system's operation. Movable stages are required when the field of view of the scanner is less than the size of the object. A minicomputer controls the movement of the stage, and communicates with the digitizer to select picture points that are to be processed. Communications with the system are maintained through a teletype or CRT terminal

  9. Distributing functionality in the Drift Scan Camera System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicinski, T.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; MacKinnon, B.; Petravick, D.; Pluquet, C.; Rechenmacher, R.; Sergey, G.

    1993-11-01

    The Drift Scan Camera (DSC) System acquires image data from a CCD camera. The DSC is divided physically into two subsystems which are tightly coupled to each other. Functionality is split between these two subsystems: the front-end performs data acquisition while the host subsystem performs near real-time data analysis and control. Yet, through the use of backplane-based Remote Procedure Calls, the feel of one coherent system is preserved. Observers can control data acquisition, archiving to tape, and other functions from the host, but, the front-end can accept these same commands and operate independently. The DSC meets the needs for such robustness and cost-effective computing

  10. Laser line scan underwater imaging by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyi; Luo, Meixing; Song, Xiyu; Wang, Dundong; He, Ning

    2017-12-01

    This work employs the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera to acquire images in a scanning manner for laser line scan (LLS) underwater imaging to alleviate backscatter impact of seawater. Two operating features of the CMOS camera, namely the region of interest (ROI) and rolling shutter, can be utilized to perform image scan without the difficulty of translating the receiver above the target as the traditional LLS imaging systems have. By the dynamically reconfigurable ROI of an industrial CMOS camera, we evenly divided the image into five subareas along the pixel rows and then scanned them by changing the ROI region automatically under the synchronous illumination by the fun beams of the lasers. Another scanning method was explored by the rolling shutter operation of the CMOS camera. The fun beam lasers were turned on/off to illuminate the narrow zones on the target in a good correspondence to the exposure lines during the rolling procedure of the camera's electronic shutter. The frame synchronization between the image scan and the laser beam sweep may be achieved by either the strobe lighting output pulse or the external triggering pulse of the industrial camera. Comparison between the scanning and nonscanning images shows that contrast of the underwater image can be improved by our LLS imaging techniques, with higher stability and feasibility than the mechanically controlled scanning method.

  11. PhC-4 new high-speed camera with mirror scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, A.O.; Belov, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    The description of the optical system and the construction of the high-speed PhC-4 photographic camera with mirror scanning of the continuously operating type is given. The optical system of the camera is based on the foursided rotating mirror, two optical inlets and two working sectors. The PhC-4 camera provides the framing rate up to 600 thousand frames per second. (author)

  12. Photometric Characterization of the Dark Energy Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, G. M.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Armstrong, R.; Burke, D. L.; Diehl, H. T.; Gruendl, R. A.; Johnson, M. D.; Li, T. S.; Rykoff, E. S.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.

    2018-05-01

    We characterize the variation in photometric response of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) across its 520 Mpix science array during 4 years of operation. These variations are measured using high signal-to-noise aperture photometry of >107 stellar images in thousands of exposures of a few selected fields, with the telescope dithered to move the sources around the array. A calibration procedure based on these results brings the rms variation in aperture magnitudes of bright stars on cloudless nights down to 2–3 mmag, with color corrections; and the use of an aperture-correction proxy. The DECam response pattern across the 2° field drifts over months by up to ±9 mmag, in a nearly wavelength-independent low-order pattern. We find no fundamental barriers to pushing global photometric calibrations toward mmag accuracy.

  13. Applications of a shadow camera system for energy meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Pascal; Wilbert, Stefan; Prahl, Christoph; Garsche, Dominik; Schüler, David; Haase, Thomas; Ramirez, Lourdes; Zarzalejo, Luis; Meyer, Angela; Blanc, Philippe; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Downward-facing shadow cameras might play a major role in future energy meteorology. Shadow cameras directly image shadows on the ground from an elevated position. They are used to validate other systems (e.g. all-sky imager based nowcasting systems, cloud speed sensors or satellite forecasts) and can potentially provide short term forecasts for solar power plants. Such forecasts are needed for electricity grids with high penetrations of renewable energy and can help to optimize plant operations. In this publication, two key applications of shadow cameras are briefly presented.

  14. 3D camera assisted fully automated calibration of scanning laser Doppler vibrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sels, Seppe; Ribbens, Bart; Mertens, Luc; Vanlanduit, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Scanning laser Doppler vibrometers (LDV) are used to measure full-field vibration shapes of products and structures. In most commercially available scanning laser Doppler vibrometer systems the user manually draws a grid of measurement locations on a 2D camera image of the product. The determination of the correct physical measurement locations can be a time consuming and diffcult task. In this paper we present a new methodology for product testing and quality control that integrates 3D imaging techniques with vibration measurements. This procedure allows to test prototypes in a shorter period because physical measurements locations will be located automatically. The proposed methodology uses a 3D time-of-flight camera to measure the location and orientation of the test-object. The 3D image of the time-of-flight camera is then matched with the 3D-CAD model of the object in which measurement locations are pre-defined. A time of flight camera operates strictly in the near infrared spectrum. To improve the signal to noise ratio in the time-of-flight measurement, a time-of-flight camera uses a band filter. As a result of this filter, the laser spot of most laser vibrometers is invisible in the time-of-flight image. Therefore a 2D RGB-camera is used to find the laser-spot of the vibrometer. The laser spot is matched to the 3D image obtained by the time-of-flight camera. Next an automatic calibration procedure is used to aim the laser at the (pre)defined locations. Another benefit from this methodology is that it incorporates automatic mapping between a CAD model and the vibration measurements. This mapping can be used to visualize measurements directly on a 3D CAD model. Secondly the orientation of the CAD model is known with respect to the laser beam. This information can be used to find the direction of the measured vibration relatively to the surface of the object. With this direction, the vibration measurements can be compared more precisely with numerical

  15. 3D camera assisted fully automated calibration of scanning laser Doppler vibrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sels, Seppe, E-mail: Seppe.Sels@uantwerpen.be; Ribbens, Bart; Mertens, Luc; Vanlanduit, Steve [Op3Mech Research Group, University of Antwerp, Salesianenlaan 90, 2660 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2016-06-28

    Scanning laser Doppler vibrometers (LDV) are used to measure full-field vibration shapes of products and structures. In most commercially available scanning laser Doppler vibrometer systems the user manually draws a grid of measurement locations on a 2D camera image of the product. The determination of the correct physical measurement locations can be a time consuming and diffcult task. In this paper we present a new methodology for product testing and quality control that integrates 3D imaging techniques with vibration measurements. This procedure allows to test prototypes in a shorter period because physical measurements locations will be located automatically. The proposed methodology uses a 3D time-of-flight camera to measure the location and orientation of the test-object. The 3D image of the time-of-flight camera is then matched with the 3D-CAD model of the object in which measurement locations are pre-defined. A time of flight camera operates strictly in the near infrared spectrum. To improve the signal to noise ratio in the time-of-flight measurement, a time-of-flight camera uses a band filter. As a result of this filter, the laser spot of most laser vibrometers is invisible in the time-of-flight image. Therefore a 2D RGB-camera is used to find the laser-spot of the vibrometer. The laser spot is matched to the 3D image obtained by the time-of-flight camera. Next an automatic calibration procedure is used to aim the laser at the (pre)defined locations. Another benefit from this methodology is that it incorporates automatic mapping between a CAD model and the vibration measurements. This mapping can be used to visualize measurements directly on a 3D CAD model. Secondly the orientation of the CAD model is known with respect to the laser beam. This information can be used to find the direction of the measured vibration relatively to the surface of the object. With this direction, the vibration measurements can be compared more precisely with numerical

  16. FDG scan on an ordinary coincidence gamma camera (CDET) -preliminary data in pulmonary or colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Ghazzar, N.; Younsi, N.; Kerrou, K.; Talbot, J.N. [Hopital Tenon, 75 - Paris (France). Services de Medecine Nucleaire; Wartski, M.; Zerbib, E. [Hopital Marie Lannelongue Le Plessis Robinson (France); Lumbroso, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy Villejuif (France)

    1997-12-31

    Full text. The purpose of this study to evaluate the impact of FDG scan performed on an ordinary CDET gamma camera on the therapeutic management of patients with pulmonary nodules or with suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma. Methods: two tomoscintigrams (thorax and abdomen) were acquired, using a PICKER Prism XP 2000 coincidence gamma camera, 45 m after i.v. injection of 100-150 MBq of {sup 18} F-FDG in fasting patients. The 21 pts were explored in July or August 1997. Preliminary results: among 12 patients with pulmonary nodules, the planed surgery was replaced by chemotherapy after visualization of unknown metastases accumulating FDG in 3 patients. In another one, the high uptake of FDG by a lung nodule which has been known for 6 years, led to surgery and objectivation of an adenocarcinoma. In one case, the absence of FDG uptake corresponded to an abscess (true negative result). In the other 7 patients, the indication of surgery was confirmed but the procedure was modified in 2 cases. In case of suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma (9 patients), the finding of a single focus of FDG uptake whereas CT scan was negative or inconclusive let do the decision of surgery in 3 patients. In one patient with pelvic pain without increase of tumor markers levels and with normal CT scan, a normal FDG scan confirmed the physician`s hypothesis of pain due to the previous therapy but do not recurrence. In one patient, the finding of 3 foci of uptake of FDG whereas CT scan was inconclusive confirmed the indication of chemotherapy. In 2 patients with FDG abdominal foci without morphologic abnormalities, the therapeutic strategy is not yet decided in 2 patients, no foci could be found. In conclusion, these preliminary results show that FDG scan has provided a help to the physician indecision-making for therapeutic strategy in 8 patients on 21 (38%) and a help to the surgeon in 2 more cases (48% as a whole)

  17. FDG scan on an ordinary coincidence gamma camera (CDET) -preliminary data in pulmonary or colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Ghazzar, N.; Younsi, N.; Kerrou, K.; Talbot, J.N.; Lumbroso, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The purpose of this study to evaluate the impact of FDG scan performed on an ordinary CDET gamma camera on the therapeutic management of patients with pulmonary nodules or with suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma. Methods: two tomoscintigrams (thorax and abdomen) were acquired, using a PICKER Prism XP 2000 coincidence gamma camera, 45 m after i.v. injection of 100-150 MBq of 18 F-FDG in fasting patients. The 21 pts were explored in July or August 1997. Preliminary results: among 12 patients with pulmonary nodules, the planed surgery was replaced by chemotherapy after visualization of unknown metastases accumulating FDG in 3 patients. In another one, the high uptake of FDG by a lung nodule which has been known for 6 years, led to surgery and objectivation of an adenocarcinoma. In one case, the absence of FDG uptake corresponded to an abscess (true negative result). In the other 7 patients, the indication of surgery was confirmed but the procedure was modified in 2 cases. In case of suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma (9 patients), the finding of a single focus of FDG uptake whereas CT scan was negative or inconclusive let do the decision of surgery in 3 patients. In one patient with pelvic pain without increase of tumor markers levels and with normal CT scan, a normal FDG scan confirmed the physician's hypothesis of pain due to the previous therapy but do not recurrence. In one patient, the finding of 3 foci of uptake of FDG whereas CT scan was inconclusive confirmed the indication of chemotherapy. In 2 patients with FDG abdominal foci without morphologic abnormalities, the therapeutic strategy is not yet decided in 2 patients, no foci could be found. In conclusion, these preliminary results show that FDG scan has provided a help to the physician indecision-making for therapeutic strategy in 8 patients on 21 (38%) and a help to the surgeon in 2 more cases (48% as a whole)

  18. Comparison of corneal measurements in keratoconic eyes using rotating Scheimpflug camera and scanning-slit topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naderan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the anterior segment measurements obtained by rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam and Scanning-slit topography (Orbscan IIz in keratoconic eyes. METHODS: A total of 121 patients, 71 males (58.7% and 50 females (41.3% (214 eyes with the diagnosis of keratoconus (KC were enrolled in this study. Following diagnosis of KC by slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination, central corneal thickness (CCT, thinnest corneal thickness (TCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and pupil diameter (PD were measured by a single examiner using successive instrumentation by Pentacam and Orbscan. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two instruments for the measurement of CCT and TCT. In contrast, scanning-slit topography measured ACD (3.46±0.40 mm vs. 3.38±0.33 mm, P=0.019 and PD (4.97±1.26 mm vs 4.08±1.19 mm, P<0.001 significantly larger than rotating Scheimpflug camera. The two devices made similar measurements for CCT (95% CI: -2.94 to 5.06, P=0.602. However, the mean difference for TCT was -6.28 (95% CI: -10.51 to -2.06, P=0.004 showing a thinner measurement by Orbscan than by Pentacam. In terms of the ACD, the mean difference was 0.08 mm (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.12, P<0.001 with Orbscan giving a slightly larger value than Pentacam. Similarly, Orbscan measurement for PD was longer than Pentacam (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.08, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: A good agreement was found between Pentacam and Orbscan concerning CCT measurement while comparing scanning-slit topography and rotating Scheimpflug camera there was an underestimation for TCT and overestimation for ACD and PD.

  19. Nondestructive evaluation using dipole model analysis with a scan type magnetic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinyi; Hwang, Jiseong

    2005-12-01

    Large structures such as nuclear power, thermal power, chemical and petroleum refining plants are drawing interest with regard to the economic aspect of extending component life in respect to the poor environment created by high pressure, high temperature, and fatigue, securing safety from corrosion and exceeding their designated life span. Therefore, technology that accurately calculates and predicts degradation and defects of aging materials is extremely important. Among different methods available, nondestructive testing using magnetic methods is effective in predicting and evaluating defects on the surface of or surrounding ferromagnetic structures. It is important to estimate the distribution of magnetic field intensity for applicable magnetic methods relating to industrial nondestructive evaluation. A magnetic camera provides distribution of a quantitative magnetic field with a homogeneous lift-off and spatial resolution. It is possible to interpret the distribution of magnetic field when the dipole model was introduced. This study proposed an algorithm for nondestructive evaluation using dipole model analysis with a scan type magnetic camera. The numerical and experimental considerations of the quantitative evaluation of several sizes and shapes of cracks using magnetic field images of the magnetic camera were examined.

  20. A design of a high speed dual spectrometer by single line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palawong, Kunakorn; Meemon, Panomsak

    2018-03-01

    A spectrometer that can capture two orthogonal polarization components of s light beam is demanded for polarization sensitive imaging system. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a high speed spectrometer for simultaneous capturing of two orthogonal polarization components, i.e. vertical and horizontal components, of light beam. The design consists of a polarization beam splitter, two polarization-maintain optical fibers, two collimators, a single line-scan camera, a focusing lens, and a reflection blaze grating. The alignment of two beam paths was designed to be symmetrically incident on the blaze side and reverse blaze side of reflection grating, respectively. The two diffracted beams were passed through the same focusing lens and focused on the single line-scan sensors of a CMOS camera. The two spectra of orthogonal polarization were imaged on 1000 pixels per spectrum. With the proposed setup, the amplitude and shape of the two detected spectra can be controlled by rotating the collimators. The technique for optical alignment of spectrometer will be presented and discussed. The two orthogonal polarization spectra can be simultaneously captured at a speed of 70,000 spectra per second. The high speed dual spectrometer can simultaneously detected two orthogonal polarizations, which is an important component for the development of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. The performance of the spectrometer have been measured and analyzed.

  1. An image scanning device using radiating energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Said invention relates to an image scanning device using radiating energy. More particularly, it relates to a device for generating a scanning beam of rectangular cross section from a γ or X-ray source. Said invention can be applied to radiographic units of the 'microdose' type used by airline staffs and others for the fast efficient inspection of luggage and parcels in view of detecting hidden things [fr

  2. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; Abbott, Timothy M.C.; Angstadt, Robert; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle, L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger.; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebbeca; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; /Fermilab /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /ANL /Texas A-M /Michigan U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Ohio State U. /University Coll. London /LBNL /SLAC /IFAE

    2012-06-29

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  3. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; McLean, Ian S.; Ramsay, Suzanne K.; Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Angstadt, Robert; Takami, Hideki; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; Briones, Jorge; Brooks, David; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Campa, Juila; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco; Castilla, Javier; Cease, Herman; Chappa, Steve; Chi, Edward C.; da Costa, Luis; DePoy, Darren L.; Derylo, Gregory; de Vincente, Juan; Diehl, H. Thomas; Doel, Peter; Estrada, Juan; Eiting, Jacob; Elliott, Anne E.; Finley, David A.; Flores, Rolando; Frieman, Josh; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gerdes, David; Gladders, Mike; Guarino, V.; Gutierrez, G.; Grudzinski, Jim; Hanlon, Bill; Hao, Jiangang; Holland, Steve; Honscheid, Klaus; Huffman, Dave; Jackson, Cheryl; Jonas, Michelle; Karliner, Inga; Kau, Daekwang; Kent, Steve; Kozlovsky, Mark; Krempetz, Kurt; Krider, John; Kubik, Donna; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuhlmann, Steve E.; Kuk, Kevin; Lahav, Ofer; Langellier, Nick; Lathrop, Andrew; Lewis, Peter M.; Lin, Huan; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Martinez, Gustavo; McKay, Timothy; Merritt, Wyatt; Meyer, Mark; Miquel, Ramon; Morgan, Jim; Moore, Peter; Moore, Todd; Neilsen, Eric; Nord, Brian; Ogando, Ricardo; Olson, Jamieson; Patton, Kenneth; Peoples, John; Plazas, Andres; Qian, Tao; Roe, Natalie; Roodman, Aaron; Rossetto, B.; Sanchez, E.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Scarpine, Vic; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe; Schmidt, Ricardo; Schmitt, Richard; Schubnell, Mike; Schultz, Kenneth; Selen, M.; Serrano, Santiago; Shaw, Terri; Simaitis, Vaidas; Slaughter, Jean; Smith, R. Christopher; Spinka, Hal; Stefanik, Andy; Stuermer, Walter; Sypniewski, Adam; Talaga, R.; Tarle, Greg; Thaler, Jon; Tucker, Doug; Walker, Alistair R.; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Wester, William; Woods, Robert J.; Worswick, Sue; Zhao, Allen

    2012-09-24

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  4. Energy independent uniformity improvement for gamma camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, K.

    1979-01-01

    In a gamma camera system having an array of photomultiplier tubes for detecting scintillation events and preamplifiers connecting each tube to a weighting resistor matrix for determining the position coordinates of the events, means are provided for summing the signals from all photomultipliers to obtain the total energy of each event. In one embodiment, at least two different percentages of the summed voltage are developed and used to change the gain of the preamplifiers as a function of total energy when energies exceed specific levels to thereby obtain more accurate correspondence between the true coordinates of the event and its coordinates in a display

  5. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Theresa; /FERMILAB; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; /Barcelona, IFAE; Chappa, Steve; /Fermilab; de Vicente, Juan; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; /Fermilab; Martinez, Gustavo; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  6. Comparison of the barium test meal and the gamma camera scanning technic in measuring gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkel, M.S.; Fajman, W.A.; Hersh, T.

    1981-09-01

    In 21 patients with nonresected stomachs and symptoms of delayed gastric emptying, obstruction was excluded by upper gastrointestinal series and upper endoscopy; all had abnormal results of barium test meal (BTM) study. Each had repeat BTM after the administration of 10 mg of metoclopramide. Each patient also had two gamma camera studies after a technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid labeled meal; normal saline or metoclopramide was administered before each test in a blinded and random manner. Half-time (T 1/2) and percentage of isotope remaining at six hours (GC6) were recorded. Ten asymptomatic controls had a gamma camera scanning study, and seven of these had a BTM. Nine of 19 patients had a T 1/2 in the normal range, and in 12 of 19 patients the GC6 was in the normal range. The magnitude of retention of barium at six hours on the BTM did not correlate with the T 1/2 (r = 0.076) or the GC6 (r = 0.296). Thus, these tests were not comparable in this study. By regression analysis, a significant reduction was shown in the amount of retained food and barium (P < .01), the T 1/2 (P < .01), and the GC6 (P < .01) after intramuscular administration of metoclopramide, indicating that both tests were able to evaluate the effects of this drug.

  7. Comparison of the barium test meal and the gamma camera scanning technic in measuring gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkel, M.S.; Fajman, W.A.; Hersh, T.; Moore, C.; Davidson, E.D.; Haun, C.

    1981-09-01

    In 21 patients with nonresected stomachs and symptoms of delayed gastric emptying, obstruction was excluded by upper gastrointestinal series and upper endoscopy; all had abnormal results of barium test meal (BTM) study. Each had repeat BTM after the administration of 10 mg of metoclopramide. Each patient also had two gamma camera studies after a technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid labeled meal; normal saline or metoclopramide was administered before each test in a blinded and random manner. Half-time (T1/2) and percentage of isotope remaining at six hours (GC6) were recorded. Ten asymptomatic controls had a gamma camera scanning study, and seven of these had a BTM. Nine of 19 patients had a T1/2 in the normal range, and in 12 of 19 patients the GC6 was in the normal range. The magnitude of retention of barium at six hours on the BTM did not correlate with the T1/2 (r . 0.076) or the GC6 (r. 0.296). Thus, these tests were not comparable in this study. By regression analysis, a significant reduction was shown in the amount of retained food and barium (P less than .01), the T1/2 (P less than .01), and the GC6 (P less than .01) after intramuscular administration of metoclopramide, indicating that both tests were able to evaluate the effects of this drug.

  8. Implementation of dual energy CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.; Hall, E.; Doost-Hoseini, A.; Alvarez, R.; Macovski, A.; Cassel, D.

    1984-01-01

    A prereconstruction method for dual energy (PREDECT) analysis of CT scans is described. In theory, this method can (a) eliminate beam hardening and produce an accuracy comparable with monoenergetic scans and (b) provide the effective atomic number and electron density of any voxel scanned. The implementation proves these statements and eliminates some of the objectionable noise. A phantom was constructed with a cylindrical sleeve-like compartment containing known amounts of high atomic number material simulating a removable skull. Conventional scans, with and without this beam hardener, were done of a water bath containing tubes of high electron and high atomic number material. Dual energy scans were then done for PREDECT. To increase the effective separation of the low and high energy beams by using more appropriate tube filtration, a beam filter changer was fabricated containing erbium, tungsten, aluminum, and steel. Erbium, tungsten, and steel were used at high energy and aluminum, steel, and erbium at low energy for data acquisition. The reconstructions were compared visually and numerically for noise levels with the original steel only filtration. A decrease was found in noise down to approximately one-half the prior level when erbium/aluminum or tungsten/aluminum replaced the steel/steel filter. Erbium and tungsten were equally effective. Steel/erbium and steel/aluminum also significantly reduced image noise. The noise in the photoelectric (P) and Compton (C) images is negatively correlated. At any pixel, if the noise is positive in the P image, it is most probably negative in the C. Using this fact, the noise was reduced by postreconstruction processing

  9. Robot calibration with a photogrammetric on-line system using reseau scanning cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diewald, Bernd; Godding, Robert; Henrich, Andreas

    1994-03-01

    The possibility for testing and calibration of industrial robots becomes more and more important for manufacturers and users of such systems. Exacting applications in connection with the off-line programming techniques or the use of robots as measuring machines are impossible without a preceding robot calibration. At the LPA an efficient calibration technique has been developed. Instead of modeling the kinematic behavior of a robot, the new method describes the pose deviations within a user-defined section of the robot's working space. High- precision determination of 3D coordinates of defined path positions is necessary for calibration and can be done by digital photogrammetric systems. For the calibration of a robot at the LPA a digital photogrammetric system with three Rollei Reseau Scanning Cameras was used. This system allows an automatic measurement of a large number of robot poses with high accuracy.

  10. 3D shape measurement for moving scenes using an interlaced scanning colour camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Senpeng; Cao, Yiping; Lu, Mingteng; Zhang, Qican

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform deinterlacing algorithm (FTDA) is proposed to eliminate the blurring and dislocation of the fringe patterns on a moving object captured by an interlaced scanning colour camera in phase measuring profilometry (PMP). Every frame greyscale fringe from three colour channels of every colour fringe is divided into even and odd field fringes respectively, each of which is respectively processed by FTDA. All of the six frames deinterlaced fringes from one colour fringe form two sets of three-step phase-shifted greyscale fringes, with which two 3D shapes corresponding to two different moments are reconstructed by PMP within a frame period. The deinterlaced fringe is identical with the exact frame fringe at the same moment theoretically. The simulation and experiments show its feasibility and validity. The method doubles the time resolution, maintains the precision of the traditional phase measurement profilometry, and has potential applications in the moving and online object’s 3D shape measurements. (paper)

  11. PAVEMENT DISTRESS DETECTION WITH PICUCHA METHODOLOGY FOR AREA-SCAN CAMERAS AND DARK IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reus Salini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The PICture Unsupervised Classification with Human Analysis (PICUCHA refers to a hybrid human-artificial intelligence methodology for pavement distresses assessment. It combines the human flexibility to recognize patterns and features in images with the neural network ability to expand such recognition to large volumes of images. In this study, the PICUCHA performance was tested with images taken with area-scan cameras and flash light illumination over a pavement with dark textures. These images are particularly challenging for the analysis because of the lens distortion and non-homogeneous illumination, generating artificial joints that happened at random positions inside the image cells. The chosen images were previously analyzed by other software without success because of the dark coluor. The PICUCHA algorithms could analyze the images with no noticeable problem and without any image pre-processing, such as contrast or brightness adjustments. Because of the special procedure used by the pavement engineer for the key patterns description, the distresses detection accuracy of the PICUCHA for the particular image set could reach 100%.

  12. Extrinsic Parameter Calibration for Line Scanning Cameras on Ground Vehicles with Navigation Systems Using a Calibration Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wendel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Line scanning cameras, which capture only a single line of pixels, have been increasingly used in ground based mobile or robotic platforms. In applications where it is advantageous to directly georeference the camera data to world coordinates, an accurate estimate of the camera’s 6D pose is required. This paper focuses on the common case where a mobile platform is equipped with a rigidly mounted line scanning camera, whose pose is unknown, and a navigation system providing vehicle body pose estimates. We propose a novel method that estimates the camera’s pose relative to the navigation system. The approach involves imaging and manually labelling a calibration pattern with distinctly identifiable points, triangulating these points from camera and navigation system data and reprojecting them in order to compute a likelihood, which is maximised to estimate the 6D camera pose. Additionally, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to estimate the uncertainty of the offset. Tested on two different platforms, the method was able to estimate the pose to within 0.06 m/1.05 ∘ and 0.18 m/2.39 ∘ . We also propose several approaches to displaying and interpreting the 6D results in a human readable way.

  13. Quantitative studies with the gamma-camera: correction for spatial and energy distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Raynaud, C.

    1977-01-01

    The gamma camera sensitivity distribution is an important source of error in quantitative studies. In addition, spatial distortion produces apparent variations in count density which degrades quantitative studies. The flood field image takes into account both effects and is influenced by the pile-up of the tail distribution. It is essential to measure separately each of these parameters. These were investigated using a point source displaced by a special scanning table with two X, Y stepping motors of 10 micron precision. The spatial distribution of the sensitivity, spatial distortion and photopeak in the field of view were measured and compared for different setting-up of the camera and PM gains. For well-tuned cameras, the sensitivity is fairly constant, while the variations appearing in the flood field image are primarily due to spatial distortion, the former more dependent than the latter on the energy window setting. This indicates why conventional flood field uniformity correction must not be applied. A correction technique to improve the results in quantitative studies has been tested using a continuously matched energy window at every point within the field. A method for correcting spatial distortion is also proposed, where, after an adequately sampled measurement of this error, a transformation can be applied to calculate the true position of events. The knowledge of the magnitude of these parameters is essential in the routine use and design of detector systems

  14. Overview of the low energy accelerator scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo Kwee Wah; Lojius Lombigit; Muhamad Zahidee Taat; Abu Bakar Ghazali; Mohd Rizal Ibrahim; Mohd Rizal Chulan Md Chulan; Azaman Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Rokiah Mohd Sabri

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the specification of the low energy accelerator (Baby-EBM; Electron Beam Machine) scanning system. It comprises a discussion of coil inductance measurement, power supply design and the test results. The scanning horn system was completely assembled and tested; it was found that the system is able to scan the beam across the scanning window with a required beam profile. (Author)

  15. Astrometric Calibration and Performance of the Dark Energy Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, G. M.; Armstrong, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Walker, A. R.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; Costa, L. N. da; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T. F.; Fernandez, E.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.

    2017-05-30

    We characterize the variation in photometric response of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) across its 520~Mpix science array during 4 years of operation. These variations are measured using high signal-to-noise aperture photometry of $>10^7$ stellar images in thousands of exposures of a few selected fields, with the telescope dithered to move the sources around the array. A calibration procedure based on these results brings the RMS variation in aperture magnitudes of bright stars on cloudless nights down to 2--3 mmag, with <1 mmag of correlated photometric errors for stars separated by $\\ge20$". On cloudless nights, any departures of the exposure zeropoints from a secant airmass law exceeding >1 mmag are plausibly attributable to spatial/temporal variations in aperture corrections. These variations can be inferred and corrected by measuring the fraction of stellar light in an annulus between 6" and 8" diameter. Key elements of this calibration include: correction of amplifier nonlinearities; distinguishing pixel-area variations and stray light from quantum-efficiency variations in the flat fields; field-dependent color corrections; and the use of an aperture-correction proxy. The DECam response pattern across the 2-degree field drifts over months by up to $\\pm7$ mmag, in a nearly-wavelength-independent low-order pattern. We find no fundamental barriers to pushing global photometric calibrations toward mmag accuracy.

  16. Streak electronic camera with slow-scanning storage tube used in the field of high-speed cineradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marilleau, J.; Bonnet, L.; Garcin, G.; Guix, R.; Loichot, R.

    The cineradiographic machine designed for measurements in the field of detonics consists of a linear accelerator associated with a braking target, a scintillator and a remote controlled electronic camera. The quantum factor of X-ray detection and the energetic efficiency of the scintillator are given. The electronic camera is built upon a deflection-converter tube (RCA C. 73 435 AJ) coupled by optical fibres to a photosensitive storage tube (TH-CSF Esicon) used in a slow-scanning process with electronic recording of the information. The different parts of the device are described. Some capabilities such as data processing numerical outputs, measurements and display are outlined. A streak cineradiogram of a typical implosion experiment is given [fr

  17. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  18. High Resolution Trichromatic Road Surface Scanning with a Line Scan Camera and Light Emitting Diode Lighting for Road-Kill Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Lopes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a road surface scanning system that operates with a trichromatic line scan camera with light emitting diode (LED lighting achieving road surface resolution under a millimeter. It was part of a project named Roadkills—Intelligent systems for surveying mortality of amphibians in Portuguese roads, sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. A trailer was developed in order to accommodate the complete system with standalone power generation, computer image capture and recording, controlled lighting to operate day or night without disturbance, incremental encoder with 5000 pulses per revolution attached to one of the trailer wheels, under a meter Global Positioning System (GPS localization, easy to utilize with any vehicle with a trailer towing system and focused on a complete low cost solution. The paper describes the system architecture of the developed prototype, its calibration procedure, the performed experimentation and some obtained results, along with a discussion and comparison with existing systems. Sustained operating trailer speeds of up to 30 km/h are achievable without loss of quality at 4096 pixels’ image width (1 m width of road surface with 250 µm/pixel resolution. Higher scanning speeds can be achieved by lowering the image resolution (120 km/h with 1 mm/pixel. Computer vision algorithms are under development to operate on the captured images in order to automatically detect road-kills of amphibians.

  19. High Resolution Trichromatic Road Surface Scanning with a Line Scan Camera and Light Emitting Diode Lighting for Road-Kill Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gil; Ribeiro, A Fernando; Sillero, Neftalí; Gonçalves-Seco, Luís; Silva, Cristiano; Franch, Marc; Trigueiros, Paulo

    2016-04-19

    This paper presents a road surface scanning system that operates with a trichromatic line scan camera with light emitting diode (LED) lighting achieving road surface resolution under a millimeter. It was part of a project named Roadkills-Intelligent systems for surveying mortality of amphibians in Portuguese roads, sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. A trailer was developed in order to accommodate the complete system with standalone power generation, computer image capture and recording, controlled lighting to operate day or night without disturbance, incremental encoder with 5000 pulses per revolution attached to one of the trailer wheels, under a meter Global Positioning System (GPS) localization, easy to utilize with any vehicle with a trailer towing system and focused on a complete low cost solution. The paper describes the system architecture of the developed prototype, its calibration procedure, the performed experimentation and some obtained results, along with a discussion and comparison with existing systems. Sustained operating trailer speeds of up to 30 km/h are achievable without loss of quality at 4096 pixels' image width (1 m width of road surface) with 250 µm/pixel resolution. Higher scanning speeds can be achieved by lowering the image resolution (120 km/h with 1 mm/pixel). Computer vision algorithms are under development to operate on the captured images in order to automatically detect road-kills of amphibians.

  20. Graph Structure-Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using a Hybrid Method of 2D Laser Scan and Monocular Camera Image in Environments with Laser Scan Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekjun Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Localization is an essential issue for robot navigation, allowing the robot to perform tasks autonomously. However, in environments with laser scan ambiguity, such as long corridors, the conventional SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping algorithms exploiting a laser scanner may not estimate the robot pose robustly. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel localization approach based on a hybrid method incorporating a 2D laser scanner and a monocular camera in the framework of a graph structure-based SLAM. 3D coordinates of image feature points are acquired through the hybrid method, with the assumption that the wall is normal to the ground and vertically flat. However, this assumption can be relieved, because the subsequent feature matching process rejects the outliers on an inclined or non-flat wall. Through graph optimization with constraints generated by the hybrid method, the final robot pose is estimated. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, real experiments were conducted in an indoor environment with a long corridor. The experimental results were compared with those of the conventional GMappingapproach. The results demonstrate that it is possible to localize the robot in environments with laser scan ambiguity in real time, and the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional approach.

  1. AlaScan: A Graphical User Interface for Alanine Scanning Free-Energy Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Vijayaraj; Dehez, François; Chipot, Christophe

    2016-06-27

    Computation of the free-energy changes that underlie molecular recognition and association has gained significant importance due to its considerable potential in drug discovery. The massive increase of computational power in recent years substantiates the application of more accurate theoretical methods for the calculation of binding free energies. The impact of such advances is the application of parent approaches, like computational alanine scanning, to investigate in silico the effect of amino-acid replacement in protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes, or probe the thermostability of individual proteins. Because human effort represents a significant cost that precludes the routine use of this form of free-energy calculations, minimizing manual intervention constitutes a stringent prerequisite for any such systematic computation. With this objective in mind, we propose a new plug-in, referred to as AlaScan, developed within the popular visualization program VMD to automate the major steps in alanine-scanning calculations, employing free-energy perturbation as implemented in the widely used molecular dynamics code NAMD. The AlaScan plug-in can be utilized upstream, to prepare input files for selected alanine mutations. It can also be utilized downstream to perform the analysis of different alanine-scanning calculations and to report the free-energy estimates in a user-friendly graphical user interface, allowing favorable mutations to be identified at a glance. The plug-in also assists the end-user in assessing the reliability of the calculation through rapid visual inspection.

  2. Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opachich, Y. P., E-mail: opachiyp@nv.doe.gov; Huffman, E.; Koch, J. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Hatch, B.; Landen, O. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Chen, N.; Gopal, A.; Udin, S. [Nanoshift LLC, Emeryville, California 94608 (United States); Feng, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have designed and fabricated a structured streak camera photocathode to provide enhanced efficiency for high energy X-rays (1–12 keV). This gold coated photocathode was tested in a streak camera and compared side by side against a conventional flat thin film photocathode. Results show that the measured electron yield enhancement at energies ranging from 1 to 10 keV scales well with predictions, and that the total enhancement can be more than 3×. The spatial resolution of the streak camera does not show degradation in the structured region. We predict that the temporal resolution of the detector will also not be affected as it is currently dominated by the slit width. This demonstration with Au motivates exploration of comparable enhancements with CsI and may revolutionize X-ray streak camera photocathode design.

  3. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  4. Exploring the Nuclear Phase Diagram with Beam Energy Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear phase diagram is mapped using beam energy scans of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. This mapping is possible because different collision energies develop along different trajectories through the phase diagram. High energy collisions will evolve though a crossover phase transition according to lattice QCD, but lower collision energies may traverse a first order phase transition. There are hints for this first order phase transition and its critical endpoint, but further measurements and theoretical guidance is needed. In addition to mapping the phase transition, beam energy scans allow us to see if we can turn off the signatures of deconfinement. If an observable is a real signature for the formation of the deconfined state called quark-gluon plasma, then it should turn off at sufficiently low collision energies. In this summary talk I will show the current state of the field using beam energy scan results from RHIC and SPS, I will show where precise theoretical guidance is needed for understanding recent measurements, and I will motivate the need for more data and new measurements from FAIR, NICA, RHIC, and the SPS. (paper)

  5. An energy-subtraction Compton scatter camera design for in vivo medical imaging of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, R.C.; Valentine, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    A Compton scatter camera (CSC) design is proposed for imaging radioisotopes used as biotracers. A clinical version may increase sensitivity by a factor of over 100, while maintaining or improving spatial resolution, as compared with existing Anger cameras that use lead collimators. This novel approach is based on using energy subtraction (ΔE = E 0 - E SC , where E 0 , ΔE, and E SC are the energy of the emitted gamma ray, the energy deposited by the initial Compton scatter, and the energy of the Compton scattered photon) to determine the amount of energy deposited in the primary system. The energy subtraction approach allows the requirement of high energy resolution to be placed on a secondary detector system instead of the primary detector system. Requiring primary system high energy resolution has significantly limited previous CSC designs for medical imaging applications. Furthermore, this approach is dependent on optimizing the camera design for data acquisition of gamma rays that undergo only one Compton scatter in a low-Z primary detector system followed by a total absorption of the Compton scattered photon in a high-Z secondary detector system. The proposed approach allows for a more compact primary detector system, a more simplified pulse processing interface, and a much less complicated detector cooling scheme as compared with previous CSC designs. Analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulation results for some specific detector materials and geometries are presented

  6. hepawk - A language for scanning high energy physics events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohl, T.

    1992-01-01

    We present the programming language hepawk, designed for convenient scanning of data structures arising in the simulation of high energy physics events. The interpreter for this language has been implemented in FORTRAN-77, therefore hepawk runs on any machine with a FORTRAN-77 compiler. (orig.)

  7. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in himematsutake was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). The atomic percentage of the metals was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Results show that the accumulation of ...

  8. Quick-E-scan: A methodology for the energy scan of SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, E.; Trucco, P.; Trianni, A.; Sala, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the Quick-E-Scan methodology that has been developed to achieve the operational energy efficiency of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), characterized by being scarcely disposed to long energy audits and by a limited budget for energy management programs. On one side, through dividing the firm into functional units - either service (lighting, HVAC, etc.) or production units - the main consuming areas are identified and a criticality index is defined; conversely, an enhancement index highlights the gap of each unit towards the best available techniques (BATs) in energy management programs. Finally, a priority index, created with the junction of the two indexes, points out the most profitable areas in which energy saving measures should be implemented. The methodology, particularly quick and simple, has been successfully tested in 38 SMEs in Northern Italy.

  9. Distribution of biomolecules in porous nitrocellulose membrane pads using confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-speed cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujawar, Liyakat Hamid; Maan, Abid Aslam; Khan, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal; Norde, Willem; van Amerongen, Aart

    2013-04-02

    The main focus of our research was to study the distribution of inkjet printed biomolecules in porous nitrocellulose membrane pads of different brands. We produced microarrays of fluorophore-labeled IgG and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on FAST, Unisart, and Oncyte-Avid slides and compared the spot morphology of the inkjet printed biomolecules. The distribution of these biomolecules within the spot embedded in the nitrocellulose membrane was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy in the "Z" stack mode. By applying a "concentric ring" format, the distribution profile of the fluorescence intensity in each horizontal slice was measured and represented in a graphical color-coded way. Furthermore, a one-step diagnostic antibody assay was performed with a primary antibody, double-labeled amplicons, and fluorophore-labeled streptavidin in order to study the functionality and distribution of the immune complex in the nitrocellulose membrane slides. Under the conditions applied, the spot morphology and distribution of the primary labeled biomolecules was nonhomogenous and doughnut-like on the FAST and Unisart nitrocellulose slides, whereas a better spot morphology with more homogeneously distributed biomolecules was observed on the Oncyte-Avid slide. Similar morphologies and distribution patterns were observed when the diagnostic one-step nucleic acid microarray immunoassay was performed on these nitrocellulose slides. We also investigated possible reasons for the differences in the observed spot morphology by monitoring the dynamic behavior of a liquid droplet on and in these nitrocellulose slides. Using high speed cameras, we analyzed the wettability and fluid flow dynamics of a droplet on the various nitrocellulose substrates. The spreading of the liquid droplet was comparable for the FAST and Unisart slides but different, i.e., slower, for the Oncyte-Avid slide. The results of the spreading of the droplet and the penetration behavior of the liquid in the

  10. Dual energy scanning beam laminographic x-radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.F.

    1998-04-21

    A multiple x-ray energy level imaging system includes a scanning x-ray beam and two detector design having a first low x-ray energy sensitive detector and a second high x-ray energy sensitive detector. The low x-ray energy detector is placed next to or in front of the high x-ray energy detector. The low energy sensitive detector has small stopping power for x-rays. The lower energy x-rays are absorbed and converted into electrical signals while the majority of the higher energy x-rays pass through undetected. The high energy sensitive detector has a large stopping power for x-rays as well as it having a filter placed between it and the object to absorb the lower energy x-rays. In a second embodiment; a single energy sensitive detector is provided which provides an output signal proportional to the amount of energy in each individual x-ray it absorbed. It can then have an electronic threshold or thresholds set to select two or more energy ranges for the images. By having multiple detectors located at different positions, a dual energy laminography system is possible. 6 figs.

  11. Some practical aspects of dual-energy CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, P.B.; Katz, D.E.; Stacey, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Using the dual-energy scanning method developed by Brooks (1977), and making slow x-ray scans at 100 kVp, 35 mA and 140 kVp, 20 mA, measurements were made of electron density and effective atomic number in the lumbar spines of 36 patients aged from 22 to 87 years, and not known to be suffering from conditions which result in osteoporosis or osteomalacia. The authors discuss in detail the sources of experimental error which contributed to the large measured spread of normal values of electron density and effective atomic number. (U.K.)

  12. Some practical aspects of dual-energy CT scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunscombe, P.B.; Katz, D.E.; Stacey, A.J. (Charing Cross Group of Hospitals, London (UK))

    1984-01-01

    Using the dual-energy scanning method developed by Brooks (1977), and making slow x-ray scans at 100 kVp, 35 mA and 140 kVp, 20 mA, measurements were made of electron density and effective atomic number in the lumbar spines of 36 patients aged from 22 to 87 years, and not known to be suffering from conditions which result in osteoporosis or osteomalacia. The authors discuss in detail the sources of experimental error which contributed to the large measured spread of normal values of electron density and effective atomic number.

  13. Probing Free-Energy Surfaces with Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2011-05-01

    Many aspects of protein folding can be understood in terms of projections of the highly dimensional energy landscape onto a few (or even only one) particularly relevant coordinates. These free-energy surfaces can be probed conveniently from experimental differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms, as DSC provides a direct relation with the protein partition function. Free-energy surfaces thus obtained are consistent with two fundamental scenarios predicted by the energy-landscape perspective: (a) well-defined macrostates separated by significant free-energy barriers, in some cases, and, in many other cases, (b) marginal or even vanishingly small barriers, which furthermore show a good correlation with kinetics for fast- and ultrafast-folding proteins. Overall, the potential of DSC to assess free-energy surfaces for a wide variety of proteins makes it possible to address fundamental issues, such as the molecular basis of the barrier modulations produced by natural selection in response to functional requirements or to ensure kinetic stability.

  14. Fast IMRT with narrow high energy scanned photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, Bjoern; Straaring t, Sara Janek; Holmberg, Rickard; Naefstadius, Peder; Brahme, Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Since the first publications on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the early 1980s almost all efforts have been focused on fairly time consuming dynamic or segmental multileaf collimation. With narrow fast scanned photon beams, the flexibility and accuracy in beam shaping increases, not least in combination with fast penumbra trimming multileaf collimators. Previously, experiments have been performed with full range targets, generating a broad bremsstrahlung beam, in combination with multileaf collimators or material compensators. In the present publication, the first measurements with fast narrow high energy (50 MV) scanned photon beams are presented indicating an interesting performance increase even though some of the hardware used were suboptimal. Methods: Inverse therapy planning was used to calculate optimal scanning patterns to generate dose distributions with interesting properties for fast IMRT. To fully utilize the dose distributional advantages with scanned beams, it is necessary to use narrow high energy beams from a thin bremsstrahlung target and a powerful purging magnet capable of deflecting the transmitted electron beam away from the generated photons onto a dedicated electron collector. During the present measurements the scanning system, purging magnet, and electron collimator in the treatment head of the MM50 racetrack accelerator was used with 3-6 mm thick bremsstrahlung targets of beryllium. The dose distributions were measured with diodes in water and with EDR2 film in PMMA. Monte Carlo simulations with geant4 were used to study the influence of the electrons transmitted through the target on the photon pencil beam kernel. Results: The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanned photon beam was 34 mm measured at isocenter, below 9.5 cm of water, 1 m from the 3 mm Be bremsstrahlung target. To generate a homogeneous dose distribution in a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field, the authors used a spot matrix of 100 equal intensity

  15. Scanning ion microscopy with low energy lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twedt, Kevin A.; Chen, Lei; McClelland, Jabez J.

    2014-01-01

    Using an ion source based on photoionization of laser-cooled lithium atoms, we have developed a scanning ion microscope with probe sizes of a few tens of nanometers and beam energies from 500 eV to 5 keV. These beam energies are much lower than the typical operating energies of the helium ion microscope or gallium focused ion beam systems. We demonstrate how low energy can be advantageous in ion microscopy when detecting backscattered ions, due to a decreased interaction volume and the potential for surface sensitive composition analysis. As an example application that demonstrates these advantages, we non-destructively image the removal of a thin residual resist layer during plasma etching in a nano-imprint lithography process. - Highlights: • We use an ion source based on photoionization of laser-cooled lithium atoms. • The ion source makes possible a low energy (500 eV to 5 keV) scanning ion microscope. • Low energy is preferred for ion microscopy with backscattered ions. • We use the microscope to image a thin resist used in nano-imprint lithography

  16. Practical Use of Scanning Low Energy Electron Microscope (SLEEM)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Ilona; Mikmeková, Eliška; Mikmeková, Šárka; Konvalina, Ivo; Frank, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1650-1651 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : scanning low energy * SLEEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  17. Virtual substitution scan via single-step free energy perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ying-Chih; Wang, Yi

    2016-02-05

    With the rapid expansion of our computing power, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations ranging from hundreds of nanoseconds to microseconds or even milliseconds have become increasingly common. The majority of these long trajectories are obtained from plain (vanilla) MD simulations, where no enhanced sampling or free energy calculation method is employed. To promote the 'recycling' of these trajectories, we developed the Virtual Substitution Scan (VSS) toolkit as a plugin of the open-source visualization and analysis software VMD. Based on the single-step free energy perturbation (sFEP) method, VSS enables the user to post-process a vanilla MD trajectory for a fast free energy scan of substituting aryl hydrogens by small functional groups. Dihedrals of the functional groups are sampled explicitly in VSS, which improves the performance of the calculation and is found particularly important for certain groups. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we employ VSS to compute the solvation free energy change upon substituting the hydrogen of a benzene molecule by 12 small functional groups frequently considered in lead optimization. Additionally, VSS is used to compute the relative binding free energy of four selected ligands of the T4 lysozyme. Overall, the computational cost of VSS is only a fraction of the corresponding multi-step FEP (mFEP) calculation, while its results agree reasonably well with those of mFEP, indicating that VSS offers a promising tool for rapid free energy scan of small functional group substitutions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Very low energy scanning electron microscopy in nanotechnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Ilona; Hovorka, Miloš; Mika, Filip; Mikmeková, Eliška; Mikmeková, Šárka; Pokorná, Zuzana; Frank, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, 8/9 (2012), s. 695-716 ISSN 1475-7435 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE08012; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA AV ČR IAA100650902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : scanning electron microscopy * very low energy electrons * cathode lens * grain contrast * strain contrast * imaging of participates * dopant contrast * very low energy STEM * graphene Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2012

  19. RF Phase Scan for Beam Energy Measurement of KOMAC DTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hansung; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Seonggu; Lee, Seokgeun; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The energy gain through the drift tube linac is a function of the synchronous phase, therefore, the output beam energy from DTL can be affected by the RF phase setting in low-level RF (LLRF) system. The DTL at Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) consists of 11 tanks and the RF phase setting in each tank should be matched for synchronous acceleration in successive tanks. That means a proper setting of RF phase in each DTL tank is critical for efficient and loss-free operation. The matching RF phase can be determined based on the output energy measurement from the DTL tank. The beam energy can be measured by several methods. For example, we can use a bending magnet to determine the beam energy because the higher momentum of beam means the less deflection angle in the fixed magnetic field. By measuring the range of proton beam through a material with known stopping power also can be utilized to determine the beam energy. We used a well-known time-of-flight method to determine the output beam energy from the DTL tank by measuring beam phase with a beam position monitor (BPM). Based on the energy measurement results, proper RF operating point could be obtained. We performed a RF phase scan to determine the output beam energy from KOMAC DTL by using a time-of-flight method and to set RF operating point precisely. The measured beam energy was compared with a beam dynamics simulation and showed a good agreement. RF phase setting is critical issue for the efficient operation of the proton accelerator, we have a plan to implement and integrate the RF phase measurement system into an accelerator control system for future need.

  20. A new scanning system for alpha decay events as calibration sources for range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, J.; Kinbara, S.; Mishina, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Soe, M. K.; Theint, A. M. M.; Tint, K. T.

    2017-03-01

    A new scanning system named "Vertex picker" has been developed to rapid collect alpha decay events, which are calibration sources for the range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion. A computer-controlled optical microscope scans emulsion layers exhaustively, and a high-speed and high-resolution camera takes their micrographs. A dedicated image processing picks out vertex-like shapes. Practical operations of alpha decay search were demonstrated by emulsion sheets of the KEK-PS E373 experiment. Alpha decays of nearly 28 events were detected in eye-check work on a PC monitor per hour. This yield is nearly 20 times more effective than that by the conventional eye-scan method. The speed and quality is acceptable for the coming new experiment, J-PARC E07.

  1. A new scanning system for alpha decay events as calibration sources for range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, J.; Kinbara, S.; Mishina, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Soe, M.K.; Theint, A.M.M.; Tint, K.T.

    2017-01-01

    A new scanning system named “Vertex picker” has been developed to rapid collect alpha decay events, which are calibration sources for the range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion. A computer-controlled optical microscope scans emulsion layers exhaustively, and a high-speed and high-resolution camera takes their micrographs. A dedicated image processing picks out vertex-like shapes. Practical operations of alpha decay search were demonstrated by emulsion sheets of the KEK-PS E373 experiment. Alpha decays of nearly 28 events were detected in eye-check work on a PC monitor per hour. This yield is nearly 20 times more effective than that by the conventional eye-scan method. The speed and quality is acceptable for the coming new experiment, J-PARC E07.

  2. Synthetic CT: Simulating low dose single and dual energy protocols from a dual energy scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Adam S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The choice of CT protocol can greatly impact patient dose and image quality. Since acquiring multiple scans at different techniques on a given patient is undesirable, the ability to predict image quality changes starting from a high quality exam can be quite useful. While existing methods allow one to generate simulated images of lower exposure (mAs) from an acquired CT exam, the authors present and validate a new method called synthetic CT that can generate realistic images of a patient at arbitrary low dose protocols (kVp, mAs, and filtration) for both single and dual energy scans. Methods: The synthetic CT algorithm is derived by carefully ensuring that the expected signal and noise are accurate for the simulated protocol. The method relies on the observation that the material decomposition from a dual energy CT scan allows the transmission of an arbitrary spectrum to be predicted. It requires an initial dual energy scan of the patient to either synthesize raw projections of a single energy scan or synthesize the material decompositions of a dual energy scan. The initial dual energy scan contributes inherent noise to the synthesized projections that must be accounted for before adding more noise to simulate low dose protocols. Therefore, synthetic CT is subject to the constraint that the synthesized data have noise greater than the inherent noise. The authors experimentally validated the synthetic CT algorithm across a range of protocols using a dual energy scan of an acrylic phantom with solutions of different iodine concentrations. An initial 80/140 kVp dual energy scan of the phantom provided the material decomposition necessary to synthesize images at 100 kVp and at 120 kVp, across a range of mAs values. They compared these synthesized single energy scans of the phantom to actual scans at the same protocols. Furthermore, material decompositions of a 100/120 kVp dual energy scan are synthesized by adding correlated noise to the initial material

  3. Design criteria for a high energy Compton Camera and possible application to targeted cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conka Nurdan, T.; Nurdan, K.; Brill, A. B.; Walenta, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    The proposed research focuses on the design criteria for a Compton Camera with high spatial resolution and sensitivity, operating at high gamma energies and its possible application for molecular imaging. This application is mainly on the detection and visualization of the pharmacokinetics of tumor targeting substances specific for particular cancer sites. Expected high resolution (animals with a human tumor xenograft which is one of the first steps in evaluating the potential utility of a candidate gene. The additional benefit of high sensitivity detection will be improved cancer treatment strategies in patients based on the use of specific molecules binding to cancer sites for early detection of tumors and identifying metastasis, monitoring drug delivery and radionuclide therapy for optimum cell killing at the tumor site. This new technology can provide high resolution, high sensitivity imaging of a wide range of gamma energies and will significantly extend the range of radiotracers that can be investigated and used clinically. The small and compact construction of the proposed camera system allows flexible application which will be particularly useful for monitoring residual tumor around the resection site during surgery. It is also envisaged as able to test the performance of new drug/gene-based therapies in vitro and in vivo for tumor targeting efficacy using automatic large scale screening methods.

  4. Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, N. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bitter, M.; Brandstetter, S.; Eikenberry, E.; Ellis, R.; Hill, K. W.; Hofer, P.; Schneebeli, M.

    2012-10-01

    A new energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera has been recently installed on Alcator C-Mod. This diagnostic is capable of 1D or 2D imaging with a spatial resolution of ≈1 cm, an energy resolution of ≈1 keV in the range of 3.5-15 keV and a maximum time resolution of 5 ms. A novel use of a Pilatus 2 hybrid-pixel x-ray detector [P. Kraft et al., J. Synchrotron Rad. 16, 368 (2009), 10.1107/S0909049509009911] is employed in which the lower energy threshold of individual pixels is adjusted, allowing regions of a single detector to be sensitive to different x-ray energy ranges. Development of this new detector calibration technique was done as a collaboration between PPPL and Dectris Ltd. The calibration procedure is described, and the energy resolution of the detector is characterized. Initial data from this installation on Alcator C-Mod is presented. This diagnostic provides line-integrated measurements of impurity emission which can be used to determine impurity concentrations as well as the electron energy distribution.

  5. Marginal and internal fit of CAD-CAM-fabricated composite resin and ceramic crowns scanned by 2 intraoral cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Silveira, Alessandra C; Chaves, Sacha B; Hilgert, Leandro A; Ribeiro, Ana Paula D

    2017-03-01

    The precision of fit of chairside computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) complete crowns is affected by digital impression and restorative material. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate by microcomputed tomography (μCT) the marginal and internal adaptation of composite resin and ceramic complete crowns fabricated with 2 different intraoral cameras and 2 restorative materials. Ten extracted human third molars received crown preparations. For each prepared molar, 2 digital impressions were made with different intraoral cameras of the CEREC system, Bluecam and Omnicam. Four groups were formed: LB (Lava Ultimate+Bluecam), EB (Emax+Bluecam), LO (Lava Ultimate+Omnicam), and EO (Emax+Omnicam). Before measuring the precision of fit, all crowns were stabilized with a silicone material. Each unit (crown + prepared tooth) was imaged with μCT, and marginal and internal discrepancies were analyzed. For the 2D analysis, 120 measurements were made of each crown for marginal adaptation, 20 for marginal discrepancy (MD), and 20 for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD); and for internal adaptation, 40 for axial space (AS) and 40 for occlusal space (OS). After reconstructing the 3D images, the average internal space (AIS) was calculated by dividing the total volume of the internal space by the contact surface. Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and quantile regression. Regarding marginal adaptation, no significant differences were observed among groups. For internal adaptation measured in the 2D evaluation, a significant difference was observed between LO and EO for the AS variable (Mann-Whitney test; POmnicam, and composite resin crowns showed less discrepancy than did ceramic crowns. The marginal adaptations assessed in all groups showed values within the clinically accepted range. Moreover, the composite resin blocks associated with the Bluecam intraoral camera demonstrated the best results for AIS compared with those of the other groups

  6. Testing an inversion method for estimating electron energy fluxes from all-sky camera images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An inversion method for reconstructing the precipitating electron energy flux from a set of multi-wavelength digital all-sky camera (ASC images has recently been developed by tomografia. Preliminary tests suggested that the inversion is able to reconstruct the position and energy characteristics of the aurora with reasonable accuracy. This study carries out a thorough testing of the method and a few improvements for its emission physics equations. We compared the precipitating electron energy fluxes as estimated by the inversion method to the energy flux data recorded by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during four passes over auroral structures. When the aurorae appear very close to the local zenith, the fluxes inverted from the blue (427.8nm filtered ASC images or blue and green line (557.7nm images together give the best agreement with the measured flux values. The fluxes inverted from green line images alone are clearly larger than the measured ones. Closer to the horizon the quality of the inversion results from blue images deteriorate to the level of the ones from green images. In addition to the satellite data, the precipitating electron energy fluxes were estimated from the electron density measurements by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. These energy flux values were compared to the ones of the inversion method applied to over 100 ASC images recorded at the nearby ASC station in Longyearbyen. The energy fluxes deduced from these two types of data are in general of the same order of magnitude. In 35% of all of the blue and green image inversions the relative errors were less than 50% and in 90% of the blue and green image inversions less than 100%. This kind of systematic testing of the inversion method is the first step toward using all-sky camera images in the way in which global UV images have recently been used to estimate the energy fluxes. The advantages of ASCs, compared to the space-born imagers, are

  7. An energy-optimized collimator design for a CZT-based SPECT camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Fenghua; Bagchi, Srijeeta; Zan, Yunlong; Huang, Qiu; Seo, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography, it is a challenging task to maintain reasonable performance using only one specific collimator for radiotracers over a broad spectrum of diagnostic photon energies, since photon scatter and penetration in a collimator differ with the photon energy. Frequent collimator exchanges are inevitable in daily clinical SPECT imaging, which hinders throughput while subjecting the camera to operational errors and damage. Our objective is to design a collimator, which is independent of the photon energy, performs reasonably well for commonly used radiotracers with low- to medium-energy levels of gamma emissions. Using the Geant4 simulation toolkit, we simulated and evaluated a parallel-hole collimator mounted to a CZT detector. With the pixel-geometry-matching collimation, the pitch of the collimator hole was fixed to match the pixel size of the CZT detector throughout this work. Four variables, hole shape, hole length, hole radius/width and the source-to-collimator distance were carefully studied. Scatter and penetration of the collimator, sensitivity and spatial resolution of the system were assessed for four radionuclides including "5"7Co, "9"9"mTc, "1"2"3I and "1"1"1In, with respect to the aforementioned four variables. An optimal collimator was then decided upon such that it maximized the total relative sensitivity (TRS) for the four considered radionuclides while other performance parameters, such as scatter, penetration and spatial resolution, were benchmarked to prevalent commercial scanners and collimators. Digital phantom studies were also performed to validate the system with the optimal square-hole collimator (23 mm hole length, 1.28 mm hole width, and 0.32 mm septal thickness) in terms of contrast, contrast-to-noise ratio and recovery ratio. This study demonstrates promise of our proposed energy-optimized collimator to be used in a CZT-based gamma camera, with comparable or even better imaging performance versus

  8. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory's Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison

  9. Double and triple isotope gamma camera studies with energy selection after data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; Raynaud, C.; Kacperek, A.; Kellershohn, C.; Sauce, M.; Zadje, C.

    1974-01-01

    A system comprising a Toshiba camera and a Informatek data processing system has been used to perform multiple isotope studies. A large window (30-550KeV) is used and the data can be manipulated after data collection, to form sets of dynamic frames for various energies. Linear combinations of matrices have been used to correct for scattering. Double isotope studies using 197Hg/198Au have been used to determine Hg renal uptake in man, and are compared to a previous technique requiring two separate data acquisitions. Animal (pig) renal experiments have been performed using 169 Yb/sup(99m)Tc/ 197 Hg. This pilot study gave good results and indicates the utility of the system for multiple isotope function studies in man [fr

  10. Three-layer GSO depth-of-interaction detector for high-energy gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Watabe, H.; Kawachi, N.; Fujimaki, S.; Kato, K.; Hatazawa, J.

    2014-01-01

    Using Ce-doped Gd 2 SiO 5 (GSO) of different Ce concentrations, three-layer DOI block detectors were developed to reduce the parallax error at the edges of a pinhole gamma camera for high-energy gamma photons. GSOs with Ce concentrations of 1.5 mol% (decay time ∼40 ns), 0.5 mol% crystal (∼60 ns), 0.4 mol% (∼80 ns) were selected for the depth of interaction (DOI) detectors. These three types of GSOs were optically coupled in the depth direction, arranged in a 22×22 matrix and coupled to a flat panel photomultiplier tube (FP-PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Sizes of these GSO cells were 1.9 mm×1.9 mm×4 mm, 1.9 mm×1.9 mm×5 mm, and 1.9 mm×1.9 mm×6 mm for 1.5 mol%, 0.5 mol%, and 0.4 mol%, respectively. With these combinations of GSOs, all spots corresponding to GSO cells were clearly resolved in the position histogram. Pulse shape spectra showed three peaks for these three decay times of GSOs. The block detector was contained in a 2-cm-thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator with a 0.5-mm aperture was mounted. With pulse shape discrimination, we separated the point source images of the Cs-137 for each DOI layer. The point source image of the lower layer was detected at the most central part of the field-of-view, and the distribution was the smallest. The point source image of the higher layer was detected at the most peripheral part of the field-of-view, and the distribution was widest. With this information, the spatial resolution of the pinhole gamma camera can be improved. We conclude that DOI detection is effective for pinhole gamma cameras for high energy gamma photons

  11. IMU and Multiple RGB-D Camera Fusion for Assisting Indoor Stop-and-Go 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky C.K. Chow

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM is an important topic in many engineering fields. Since stop-and-go systems are typically slow and full-kinematic systems may lack accuracy and integrity, this paper presents a novel hybrid “continuous stop-and-go” mobile mapping system called Scannect. A 3D terrestrial LiDAR system is integrated with a MEMS IMU and two Microsoft Kinect sensors to map indoor urban environments. The Kinects’ depth maps were processed using a new point-to-plane ICP that minimizes the reprojection error of the infrared camera and projector pair in an implicit iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF. A new formulation of the 5-point visual odometry method is tightly coupled in the implicit IEKF without increasing the dimensions of the state space. The Scannect can map and navigate in areas with textureless walls and provides an effective means for mapping large areas with lots of occlusions. Mapping long corridors (total travel distance of 120 m took approximately 30 minutes and achieved a Mean Radial Spherical Error of 17 cm before smoothing or global optimization.

  12. Transverse electric fields' effects in the Dark Energy Camera CCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, A A; Sheldon, E S; Bernstein, G M

    2014-01-01

    Spurious electric fields transverse to the surface of thick CCDs displace the photo-generated charges, effectively modifying the pixel area and producing noticeable signals in astrometric and photometric measurements. We use data from the science verification period of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to characterize these effects in the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs, where the transverse fields manifest as concentric rings (impurity gradients or ''tree rings'') and bright stripes near the boundaries of the detectors (''edge distortions'') with relative amplitudes of about 1% and 10%, respectively. Using flat-field images, we derive templates in the five DES photometric bands (grizY) for the tree rings and the edge distortions as a function of their position on each DECam detector. Comparison of the astrometric and photometric residuals confirms their nature as pixel-size variations. The templates are directly incorporated into the derivation of photometric and astrometric residuals. The results presented in these proceedings are a partial report of analysis performed before the workshop ''Precision Astronomy with Fully depleted CDDs'' at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Additional work is underway, and the final results and analysis will be published elsewhere (Plazas, Bernstein and Sheldon 2014, in prep.)

  13. Development of a dual MCP framing camera for high energy x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, N., E-mail: izumi2@llnl.gov; Hall, G. N.; Carpenter, A. C.; Allen, F. V.; Cruz, J. G.; Felker, B.; Hargrove, D.; Holder, J.; Lumbard, A.; Montesanti, R.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K.; Stone, G.; Thao, M.; Vern, R.; Zacharias, R.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-11-15

    Recently developed diagnostic techniques at LLNL require recording backlit images of extremely dense imploded plasmas using hard x-rays, and demand the detector to be sensitive to photons with energies higher than 50 keV [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011); G. N. Hall et al., “AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using ARC on the NIF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)]. To increase the sensitivity in the high energy region, we propose to use a combination of two MCPs. The first MCP is operated in a low gain regime and works as a thick photocathode, and the second MCP works as a high gain electron multiplier. We tested the concept of this dual MCP configuration and succeeded in obtaining a detective quantum efficiency of 4.5% for 59 keV x-rays, 3 times larger than with a single plate of the thickness typically used in NIF framing cameras.

  14. Deep Rapid Optical Follow-Up of Gravitational Wave Sources with the Dark Energy Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip

    2018-01-01

    The detection of an electromagnetic counterpart associated with a gravitational wave detection by the Advanced LIGO and VIRGO interferometers is one of the great observational challenges of our time. The large localization regions and potentially faint counterparts require the use of wide-field, large aperture telescopes. As a result, the Dark Energy Camera, a 3.3 sq deg CCD imager on the 4-m Blanco telescope at CTIO in Chile is the most powerful instrument for this task in the Southern Hemisphere. I will report on the results from our joint program between the community and members of the dark energy survey to conduct rapid and efficient follow-up of gravitational wave sources. This includes systematic searches for optical counterparts, as well as developing an understanding of contaminating sources on timescales not normally probed by traditional untargeted supernova surveys. I will additionally comment on the immense science gains to be made by a joint detection and discuss future prospects from the standpoint of both next generation wide-field telescopes and next generation gravitational wave detectors.

  15. A numerical algorithm to evaluate the transient response for a synchronous scanning streak camera using a time-domain Baum–Liu–Tesche equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Wu, Shengli, E-mail: slwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); He, Jiai [School of Computer and Communication, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China); Liu, Zhen [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The transient response is of great influence on the electromagnetic compatibility of synchronous scanning streak cameras (SSSCs). In this paper we propose a numerical method to evaluate the transient response of the scanning deflection plate (SDP). First, we created a simplified circuit model for the SDP used in an SSSC, and then derived the Baum–Liu–Tesche (BLT) equation in the frequency domain. From the frequency-domain BLT equation, its transient counterpart was derived. These parameters, together with the transient-BLT equation, were used to compute the transient load voltage and load current, and then a novel numerical method to fulfill the continuity equation was used. Several numerical simulations were conducted to verify this proposed method. The computed results were then compared with transient responses obtained by a frequency-domain/fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, and the accordance was excellent for highly conducting cables. The benefit of deriving the BLT equation in the time domain is that it may be used with slight modifications to calculate the transient response and the error can be controlled by a computer program. The result showed that the transient voltage was up to 1000 V and the transient current was approximately 10 A, so some protective measures should be taken to improve the electromagnetic compatibility.

  16. A numerical algorithm to evaluate the transient response for a synchronous scanning streak camera using a time-domain Baum–Liu–Tesche equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Tian, Jinshou; Wu, Shengli; He, Jiai; Liu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The transient response is of great influence on the electromagnetic compatibility of synchronous scanning streak cameras (SSSCs). In this paper we propose a numerical method to evaluate the transient response of the scanning deflection plate (SDP). First, we created a simplified circuit model for the SDP used in an SSSC, and then derived the Baum–Liu–Tesche (BLT) equation in the frequency domain. From the frequency-domain BLT equation, its transient counterpart was derived. These parameters, together with the transient-BLT equation, were used to compute the transient load voltage and load current, and then a novel numerical method to fulfill the continuity equation was used. Several numerical simulations were conducted to verify this proposed method. The computed results were then compared with transient responses obtained by a frequency-domain/fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, and the accordance was excellent for highly conducting cables. The benefit of deriving the BLT equation in the time domain is that it may be used with slight modifications to calculate the transient response and the error can be controlled by a computer program. The result showed that the transient voltage was up to 1000 V and the transient current was approximately 10 A, so some protective measures should be taken to improve the electromagnetic compatibility.

  17. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.; Kotschak, O.; Conrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera with a simplified setup as compared with the state of engineering is described permitting, apart from good localization, also energy discrimination. Behind the usual vacuum image amplifier a multiwire proportional chamber filled with trifluorine bromium methane is connected in series. Localizing of the signals is achieved by a delay line, energy determination by means of a pulse height discriminator. With the aid of drawings and circuit diagrams, the setup and mode of operation are explained. (ORU) [de

  18. Pension fund investments in Dutch sustainable energy. A quick scan; Beleggingen van pensioenfondsen in Nederlandse duurzame energie. Een quick scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gelder, J.W.; De Wilde, J. [Profundo, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    It was examined whether Dutch pension funds invest (part of) their private investments in sustainable energy in the Netherlands. If possible, investments in private renewable energy are specified as much as possible [Dutch] Er is onderzocht of Nederlandse pensioenfondsen (een deel van) hun private beleggingen in duurzame energie in Nederland beleggen. Indien mogelijk zijn de investeringen in private duurzame energie zoveel mogelijk gespecificeerd.

  19. Effects of Recording Food Intake Using Cell Phone Camera Pictures on Energy Intake and Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Rita; Long, JoAnn; Kazandjian, Chant; Gharibeh, Nathalie; Karam, Lina; Song, Huaxin; Boswell, Carol; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented increases in obesity and unhealthy dietary practices substantiate the need for evidence-based tools that can help people improve their dietary habits. The current spread of mobile phone-embedded cameras offers new opportunities for recording food intake. Moreover, the act of taking pictures of food consumed may enhance visual consciousness of food choice and quantity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of using cell phone pictures to record food intake on energy intake and food choice in college students. The effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording also was assessed. A repeated measures crossover design was used. One group of participants entered their food intake online during 3 days based on their memory, although a second group recorded their food intake using cell phone pictures as their reference. Participants then crossed over to complete 3 more days of diet recording using the alternate method. Focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording. Intake of meat and vegetable servings were significantly higher in the memory period compared with the cell phone period, regardless of the order. Results from the focus group indicated a positive attitude toward the use of cell phone pictures in recording food intake and an increased awareness of food choice and portion size. Cell phone pictures may be an easy, relevant, and accessible method of diet self-monitoring when aiming at dietary changes. Future trials should combine this technique with healthy eating education. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Radioisotope camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausch, L.M.; Kump, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic ciruit corrects distortions caused by the distance between the individual photomultiplier tubes of the multiple radioisotope camera on one hand and between the tube configuration and the scintillator plate on the other. For this purpose the transmission characteristics of the nonlinear circuits are altered as a function of the energy of the incident radiation. By this means the threshold values between lower and higher amplification are adjusted to the energy level of each scintillation. The correcting circuit may be used for any number of isotopes to be measured. (DG) [de

  1. Optimal energy window setting depending on the energy resolution for radionuclides used in gamma camera imaging. Planar imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Arao, Yuichi; Kawasaki, Masaaki; Takaki, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether the optimal energy window (EW) setting depending on an energy resolution of a gamma camera, which we previously proposed, is valid on planar scintigraphic imaging using Tl-201, Ga-67, Tc-99m, and I-123. Image acquisitions for line sources and paper sheet phantoms containing each radionuclide were performed in air and with scattering materials. For the six photopeaks excluding the Hg-201 characteristic x-rays' one, the conventional 20%-width energy window (EW20%) setting and the optimal energy window (optimal EW) setting (15%-width below 100 keV and 13%-width above 100 keV) were compared. For the Hg-201 characteristic x-rays' photopeak, the conventional on-peak EW20% setting was compared with the off-peak EW setting (73 keV-25%) and the wider off-peak EW setting (77 keV-29%). Image-count ratio (defined as the ratio of the image counts obtained with an EW and the total image counts obtained with the EW covered the whole photopeak for a line source in air), image quality, spatial resolutions (full width half maximum (FWHM) and full width tenth maximum (FWTM) values), count-profile curves, and defect-contrast values were compared between the conventional EW setting and the optimal EW setting. Except for the Hg-201 characteristic x-rays, the image-count ratios were 94-99% for the EW20% setting, but 78-89% for the optimal EW setting. However, the optimal EW setting reduced scatter fraction (defined as the scattered-to-primary counts ratio) effectively, as compared with the EW20% setting. Consequently, all the images with the optimal EW setting gave better image quality than ones with the EW20% setting. For the Hg-201 characteristic x-rays, the off-peak EW setting showed great improvement in image quality in comparison with the EW20% setting and the wider off-peak EW setting gave the best results. In conclusion, from our planar imaging study it was shown that although the optimal EW setting proposed by us gives less image-count ratio by

  2. Algorithm-enabled partial-angular-scan configurations for dual-energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Buxin; Zhang, Zheng; Xia, Dan; Sidky, Emil Y; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2018-05-01

    We seek to investigate an optimization-based one-step method for image reconstruction that explicitly compensates for nonlinear spectral response (i.e., the beam-hardening effect) in dual-energy CT, to investigate the feasibility of the one-step method for enabling two dual-energy partial-angular-scan configurations, referred to as the short- and half-scan configurations, on standard CT scanners without involving additional hardware, and to investigate the potential of the short- and half-scan configurations in reducing imaging dose and scan time in a single-kVp-switch full-scan configuration in which two full rotations are made for collection of dual-energy data. We use the one-step method to reconstruct images directly from dual-energy data through solving a nonconvex optimization program that specifies the images to be reconstructed in dual-energy CT. Dual-energy full-scan data are generated from numerical phantoms and collected from physical phantoms with the standard single-kVp-switch full-scan configuration, whereas dual-energy short- and half-scan data are extracted from the corresponding full-scan data. Besides visual inspection and profile-plot comparison, the reconstructed images are analyzed also in quantitative studies based upon tasks of linear-attenuation-coefficient and material-concentration estimation and of material differentiation. Following the performance of a computer-simulation study to verify that the one-step method can reconstruct numerically accurately basis and monochromatic images of numerical phantoms, we reconstruct basis and monochromatic images by using the one-step method from real data of physical phantoms collected with the full-, short-, and half-scan configurations. Subjective inspection based upon visualization and profile-plot comparison reveals that monochromatic images, which are used often in practical applications, reconstructed from the full-, short-, and half-scan data are largely visually comparable except for some

  3. Beam Energy Scan at RHIC and z-Scaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokarev, M. V.; Zborovský, Imrich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 245, DEC (2013), s. 231-238 ISSN 0920-5632. [7th Joint International Hadron Structure'13 Conference (HS 13). Tatranské Matliare, 30.06.2013-04.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : energy loss * nucleus-nucleus collisions * phase transition * scaling Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  4. Exploring the QCD Phase Structure with Beam Energy Scan in Heavy-ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xfluo@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Beam energy scan programs in heavy-ion collisions aim to explore the QCD phase structure at high baryon density. Sensitive observables are applied to probe the signatures of the QCD phase transition and critical point in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and SPS. Intriguing structures, such as dip, peak and oscillation, have been observed in the energy dependence of various observables. In this paper, an overview is given and corresponding physics implications will be discussed for the experimental highlights from the beam energy scan programs at the STAR, PHENIX and NA61/SHINE experiments. Furthermore, the beam energy scan phase II at RHIC (2019–2020) and other future experimental facilities for studying the physics at low energies will be also discussed.

  5. A new X-ray pinhole camera for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A new X-ray pinhole camera for the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution, was designed and developed. It consists of a back-illuminated and deep depleted CCD detector (composed of 1024 × 1024 pixels with a lateral size of 13 μm) coupled to a 70 μm laser-drilled pinhole-collimator, positioned between the sample under analysis and the CCD. The X-ray pinhole camera works in a coaxial geometry allowing a wide range of magnification values. The characteristic X-ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube working at a maximum power of 100 W (50 kV and 2 mA operating conditions). The spectroscopic capabilities of the X-ray pinhole camera were accurately investigated. Energy response and energy calibration of the CCD detector were determined by irradiating pure target-materials emitting characteristic X-rays in the energy working-domain of the system (between 3 keV and 30 keV). Measurements were performed by using a multi-frame acquisition in single-photon counting. The characteristic X-ray spectra were obtained by an automated processing of the acquired images. The energy resolution measured at the Fe–Kα line is 157 eV. The use of the X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D resolved elemental analysis was investigated by using reference-patterns of different materials and geometries. The possibility of the elemental mapping of samples up to an area of 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} was demonstrated. Finally, the spatial resolution of the pinhole camera was measured by analyzing the profile function of a sharp-edge. The spatial resolution determined at the magnification values of 3.2 × and 0.8 × (used as testing values) is about 90 μm and 190 μm respectively. - Highlights: • We developed an X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D X-ray fluorescence imaging. • X-ray spectra are obtained by a multi-frame acquisition in single photon mode. • The energy resolution in the X

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called a scintillation ... high as with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more ...

  7. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  8. Optimization of electrostatic lens systems for low-energy scanning microcolumn applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tae-Sik; Kim, Dae-Wook; Ahn, Seungjoon; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Ho-Seob; Ahn, Seong Joon

    2008-01-01

    The optimization of a low-energy scanning microcolumn is proposed by adopting a modified Einzel lens sandwiched between an aligner and a deflector. The modified Einzel lens is composed of four electrodes, and the two center electrodes are specially designed quadrupole lenses having keyhole type rather than circular apertures. The outer electrodes of the Einzel lens having circular apertures are grounded, and the quadrupole lens is operated by applying the quadrupole voltages. The effects of the separated deflector system and the static quadrupole lens were investigated by analyzing the scanning electron beam spot at the target, and the results show that the proposed system can improve the performance of the scanning microcolumn

  9. Application of dual-energy scanning technique with dual-source CT in pulmonary mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jie; Xu Yiming; He Bo; Xie Xiaojie; Han Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of DSCT dual-energy technique in pulmonary mass lesions. Methods: A total of 100 patients with pulmonary masses underwent conventional plain CT scan and dual-energy enhanced CT scan. The virtual non-contrast (VNC) images were obtained at post-processing workstation.The mean CT value,enhancement value,signal to noise ratio (SNR), image quality and radiation dose of pulmonary masses were compared between the two scan techniques using F or t test and the detectability of lesions was compared using Wilcoxon test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among VNC (A) (32.89 ± 12.58) HU,VNC (S) (30.86 ± 9.60) HU and conventional plain images (35.89 ± 9.99) HU in mean CT value of mass (F =2.08, P>0.05). There was statistically significant difference among VNC (A) (3.29 ± 1.45), VNC (S) (3.93 ± 1.49) and conventional plain image (4.61 ± 1.50) in SNR (F =6.01, P<0.05), which of conventional plain scan was higher than that of VNC.The enhancement value of mass in conventional enhanced scan (60.74 ± 13.9) HU and distribution of iodine from VNC (A) (58.26 ± 31.99) HU was no statistically significant difference (t=0.48, P>0.05), but there was a significant difference between conventional enhanced scan (56.51 ± 17.94) HU and distribution of iodine from VNC (S) (52.65 ± 16.78) HU (t=4.45, P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference among conventional plain scan (4.69 ± 0.06) and VNC (A) (4.60 ± 0.09), VNC (S) (4.61 ±0.11) in image quality at mediastinal window (F=3.014, P>0.05). The appearance, size, internal features of mass (such as necrosis, calcification and cavity) were showed the same in conventional plain scan, VNC (A) and VNC (S). Of 41 patients with hilar mass, 18 patients were found to have lobular and segmental perfusion decrease or defect. Perfusion defect area was found in 59 patients with peripheral lung mass. The radiation dose of dual-energy enhanced scan was lower than that of

  10. Note on an energy scanning system for a Van de Graaff or a tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplan, J.

    1987-01-01

    In a system including one electrostatic deflector, one magnet and a second electrostatic deflector used for energy scanning of particles outgoing from a tandem or a Van de Graaff accelerator, we derive equations linking positions and deflexions of the two deflectors. (orig.)

  11. Scanning probes for new energy materials: probing local structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balke, N.; Bonnell, D.; Ginger, D.S.; Kemerink, M.

    2012-01-01

    The design and control of materials properties, often at the nanoscale, are the foundation of many new strategies for energy generation, storage, and efficiency. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has evolved into a very large toolbox for the characterization of properties spanning size scales from

  12. SSC High Energy Booster resonance corrector and dynamic tune scanning simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P.; Machida, S.

    1993-05-01

    A resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSCL) was investigated by means of dynamic multiparticle tracking. In the simulation the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that the bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the half integer and third integer resonance correction system is demonstrated.

  13. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  14. Low Energy Scanned Electron-Beam Dose Distribution in Thin Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Hjortenberg, P. E.; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg

    1975-01-01

    Thin radiochromic dye film dosimeters, calibrated by means of calorimetry, make possible the determination of absorbed-dose distributions due to low-energy scanned electron beam penetrations in moderately thin coatings and laminar media. For electrons of a few hundred keV, calibrated dosimeters...... of about 30–60 μm thickness may be used in stacks or interleaved between layers of materials of interest and supply a sufficient number of experimental data points throughout the depth of penetration of electrons to provide a depth-dose curve. Depth doses may be resolved in various polymer layers...... on different backings (wood, aluminum, and iron) for scanned electron beams (Emax = 400 keV) having a broad energy spectrum and diffuse incidence, such as those used in radiation curing of coatings, textiles, plastics, etc. Theoretical calculations of such distributions of energy depositions are relatively...

  15. Scanning three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy using a high-energy microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Seno, Y.

    2016-01-01

    A scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscope apparatus with a high-energy microbeam was installed at the BL33XU Toyota beamline at SPring-8. The size of the 50 keV beam focused using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors was 1.3 μm wide and 1.6 μm high in full width at half maximum. The scanning 3DXRD method was tested for a cold-rolled carbon steel sheet sample. A three-dimensional orientation map with 37 "3 voxels was obtained.

  16. Scanning three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy using a high-energy microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: y-hayashi@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Hirose, Y.; Seno, Y. [Toyota Central R& D Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Nagakute Aichi 480-1192 Japan (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscope apparatus with a high-energy microbeam was installed at the BL33XU Toyota beamline at SPring-8. The size of the 50 keV beam focused using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors was 1.3 μm wide and 1.6 μm high in full width at half maximum. The scanning 3DXRD method was tested for a cold-rolled carbon steel sheet sample. A three-dimensional orientation map with 37 {sup 3} voxels was obtained.

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses ... camera, also called a scintillation camera, detects radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and ...

  18. Adaptive algorithms of position and energy reconstruction in Anger-camera type detectors: experimental data processing in ANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A; Fraga, F A F; Fraga, M M F R; Margato, L M S; Pereira, L [LIP-Coimbra and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra (Portugal); Defendi, I; Jurkovic, M [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TUM, Lichtenbergstr. 1, Garching (Germany); Engels, R; Kemmerling, G [Zentralinstitut für Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, Jülich (Germany); Gongadze, A; Guerard, B; Manzin, G; Niko, H; Peyaud, A; Piscitelli, F [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble (France); Petrillo, C; Sacchetti, F [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Unità di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, Perugia (Italy); Raspino, D; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M, E-mail: andrei@coimbra.lip.pt [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot (United Kingdom); others, and

    2013-05-01

    The software package ANTS (Anger-camera type Neutron detector: Toolkit for Simulations), developed for simulation of Anger-type gaseous detectors for thermal neutron imaging was extended to include a module for experimental data processing. Data recorded with a sensor array containing up to 100 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) in a custom configuration can be loaded and the positions and energies of the events can be reconstructed using the Center-of-Gravity, Maximum Likelihood or Least Squares algorithm. A particular strength of the new module is the ability to reconstruct the light response functions and relative gains of the photomultipliers from flood field illumination data using adaptive algorithms. The performance of the module is demonstrated with simulated data generated in ANTS and experimental data recorded with a 19 PMT neutron detector. The package executables are publicly available at http://coimbra.lip.pt/∼andrei/.

  19. Review of Dark Energy: Hitchcock’s Absolute Camera and the Physics of Cinematic Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Collamati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Skerry’s Dark Energy draws from astrophysics’ most popular and intriguing concepts—from Eisenstein’s theories of relativity to questions surrounding the expanding universe—and trace them metaphorically through Hitchcock’s films.

  20. The HURRA filter: An easy method to eliminate collimator artifacts in high-energy gamma camera images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, H; Barquero, R

    The correct determination and delineation of tumor/organ size is crucial in 2-D imaging in 131 I therapy. These images are usually obtained using a system composed of a Gamma camera and high-energy collimator, although the system can produce artifacts in the image. This article analyses these artifacts and describes a correction filter that can eliminate those collimator artifacts. Using free software, ImageJ, a central profile in the image is obtained and analyzed. Two components can be seen in the fluctuation of the profile: one associated with the stochastic nature of the radiation, plus electronic noise and the other periodically across the position in space due to the collimator. These frequencies are analytically obtained and compared with the frequencies in the Fourier transform of the profile. A specially developed filter removes the artifacts in the 2D Fourier transform of the DICOM image. This filter is tested using a 15-cm-diameter Petri dish with 131 I radioactive water (big object size) image, a 131 I clinical pill (small object size) image, and an image of the remainder of the lesion of two patients treated with 3.7GBq (100mCi), and 4.44GBq (120mCi) of 131 I, respectively, after thyroidectomy. The artifact is due to the hexagonal periodic structure of the collimator. The use of the filter on large-sized images reduces the fluctuation by 5.8-3.5%. In small-sized images, the FWHM can be determined in the filtered image, while this is impossible in the unfiltered image. The definition of tumor boundary and the visualization of the activity distribution inside patient lesions improve drastically when the filter is applied to the corresponding images obtained with HE gamma camera. The HURRA filter removes the artifact of high-energy collimator artifacts in planar images obtained with a Gamma camera without reducing the image resolution. It can be applied in any study of patient quantification because the number of counts remains invariant. The filter makes

  1. Clinical Application of Colour Modulation of Gamma Energy and Depth by Dual-Channel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.; Ben-Porath, M. [Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, IL (United States)

    1969-01-15

    A dual-channel scanning system has been described permitting the simultaneous imaging in individual color of the distribution of two gamma-emitting radioisotopes. In those cases where two organs are adjacent and concentrate the same isotope, they may be displayed in separate color if one of the organs concentrates another gamma-emitting isotope with a different energy. This is accomplished by individual color readout of this isotope and the display of the subtraction of this isotope from the common isotope in another color. By using two facing scintillation probes on either side of the individual being scanned, two overlapping organs at different depths concentrating the same isotope can be color differentiated by a dual-channel playout of each probe. The principal application of these dual-channel scanning methods to date has been the simultaneous display of the liver and pancreas in individual colors using {sup 198}Au and {sup 75}selenomethionine. Characteristic scans have been obtained which differentiate a number of disease states from the normal pancreas and liver. The pancreatic and liver diseases studied and characterized are carcinoma of the pancreas, pancreatic insufficiency, acute recurrent pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst and Laennec's cirrhosis, hepatoma and metastatic malignancy in the liver. The uptake of {sup 75}selenomethionine in malignant lesions in many instances produces positive scans of these tumors in contrasting color to the liver. Depth discrimination in color with the two-probe system has permitted the lateralization of intracranial lesions, the color of the display being proportional to the depth of the lesion. The discrimination of depth and gamma-ray energy by dual-channel color scanning and its general application in visualizing other organs has been accomplished. (author)

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The special camera and imaging techniques used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called a scintillation camera, detects radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and ...

  3. Lights, Camera, Action ... and Cooling - The case for centralized low carbon energy at Fox Studios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Fox Studios partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit two production stages and one of its central cooling plants, to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. Although this case study reports expected savings arising from proposed design recommendations for a unique building type and the unusual load characteristics associated with its use, the EEMs implemented for the central plant are applicable to any large campus, office and higher education facility. The intent is that by making the energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) set that were assessed as cost-effective from this project applicable to a larger number of buildings on the campus Fox Studios will be able to implement an integrated campus-wide energy strategy for the long term. The significant challenges for this project in the design phase included identifying how to assess and analyze multiple system types, develop a coherent strategy for assessment and analysis, implement the measurement and verification activities to collect the appropriate data (in terms of capturing ‘normal’ operating characteristics and granularity) and determine the best approach to providing cooling to the site buildings based on the nature of existing systems and the expected improvement in energy performance of the central cooling plant. The analytical framework adopted provides a blueprint for similar projects at other large commercial building campuses.

  4. A high count rate position decoding and energy measuring method for nuclear cameras using Anger logic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.H.; Li, H.; Uribe, J.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for processing signals from Anger position-sensitive detectors used in gamma cameras and PET is proposed for very high count-rate imaging where multiple-event pileups are the norm. This method is designed to sort out and recover every impinging event from multiple-event pileups while maximizing the collection of scintillation signal for every event to achieve optimal accuracy in the measurement of energy and position. For every detected event, this method cancels the remnant signals from previous events, and excludes the pileup of signals from following events. The remnant subtraction is exact even for multiple pileup events. A prototype circuit for energy recovery demonstrated that the maximum count rates can be increased by more than 10 times comparing to the pulse-shaping method, and the energy resolution is as good as pulse shaping (or fixed integration) at low count rates. At 2 x 10 6 events/sec on NaI(Tl), the true counts acquired with this method is 3.3 times more than the delay-line clipping method (256 ns clipping) due to events recovered from pileups. Pulse-height spectra up to 3.5 x 10 6 events/sec have been studied. Monte Carlo simulation studies have been performed for image-quality comparisons between different processing methods

  5. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  6. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai, E-mail: xuck@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xjun@ustc.edu.cn; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun, E-mail: xuck@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xjun@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-08-15

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  7. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  8. A quantitative theory of the Hounsfield unit and its application to dual energy scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R A

    1977-10-01

    A standard definition is proposed for the Hounsfield number. Any number in computed tomography can be converted to the Hounsfield scale after performing a simple calibration using air and water. The energy dependence of the Hounsfield number, H, is given by the expression H = (Hc + Hp Q)/(1 + Q), where Hc and Hp are the Compton and photoelectric coefficients of the material being measured, expressed in Hounsfield units, and Q is the "quality factor" of the scanner. Q can be measured by performing a scan of a single calibrating material, such as a potassium iodine solution. By applying this analysis to dual energy scans, the Compton and photoelectric coefficients of an unknown substance may easily be obtained. This can lead to a limited degree of chemical identification.

  9. The 2-ID-B intermediate-energy scanning X-ray microscope at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, I.; Paterson, D.; Arko, J.; Erdmann, M.; Goetze, K.; Ilinski, P.; Mooney, T.; Vogt, S.; Xu, S.; Frigo, S.P.; Stampfl, A.P.J.; Wang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The intermediate-energy scanning x-ray microscope at beamline 2-ID-B at the Advanced Photon Source is a dedicated instrument for materials and biological research. The microscope uses a zone plate lens to focus coherent 1-4 keV x-rays to a 60 nm focal spot of 10 9 photons/s onto the sample. It records simultaneous transmission and energy-resolved fluorescence images. We have used the microscope for nano-tomography of chips and micro-spectroscopy of cells. (authors)

  10. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  11. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  12. Picosecond camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroisette, Michel

    A Kerr cell activated by infrared pulses of a model locked Nd glass laser, acts as an ultra-fast and periodic shutter, with a few p.s. opening time. Associated with a S.T.L. camera, it gives rise to a picosecond camera allowing us to study very fast effects [fr

  13. Preprocessing of A-scan GPR data based on energy features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mesut; Turhan-Sayan, Gonul

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for noninvasive real-time detection and classification of buried objects in various civil and military applications. The problem of detection and annihilation of landmines is particularly important due to strong safety concerns. The requirement for a fast real-time decision process is as important as the requirements for high detection rates and low false alarm rates. In this paper, we introduce and demonstrate a computationally simple, timeefficient, energy-based preprocessing approach that can be used in ground penetrating radar (GPR) applications to eliminate reflections from the air-ground boundary and to locate the buried objects, simultaneously, at one easy step. The instantaneous power signals, the total energy values and the cumulative energy curves are extracted from the A-scan GPR data. The cumulative energy curves, in particular, are shown to be useful to detect the presence and location of buried objects in a fast and simple way while preserving the spectral content of the original A-scan data for further steps of physics-based target classification. The proposed method is demonstrated using the GPR data collected at the facilities of IPA Defense, Ankara at outdoor test lanes. Cylindrically shaped plastic containers were buried in fine-medium sand to simulate buried landmines. These plastic containers were half-filled by ammonium nitrate including metal pins. Results of this pilot study are demonstrated to be highly promising to motivate further research for the use of energy-based preprocessing features in landmine detection problem.

  14. Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea: video evidence from animal-borne cameras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G Heaslip

    Full Text Available The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19 in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h, and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata was the dominant prey (83-100%, but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models. Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001. Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1 but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1 corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1 (up to 840 kg • d(-1 or approximately 261 (up to 664 jellyfish • d(-1. Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1 equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to

  15. A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Santos, M.; Kessler, R.; Burger, E.; Annis, J.; Brout, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Chen, H.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Diehl, H.T.; Doctor, Z.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave (GW) event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO GW detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg(exp 2) area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in the i and z bands at 4-5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median 5(sigma) point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i = 22.5 and z = 21.8 mag. We processed the images through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg(exp 2), corresponding to a 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% in the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4-5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i = 21.5, 21.1, 20.1 for object colors (i-z)= 1, 0, -1, respectively. Our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.

  16. Calibration of gamma cameras for the evaluation of accidental intakes of high-energy photon emitting radionuclides by humans based on urine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, A.L.; Lucena, E.A.; Reis, A.A. dos; Souza, W.O.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2017-07-01

    The prompt response to emergency situations involving suspicion of intakes of radionuclides requires the use of simple and rapid methods of internal monitoring of the exposed individuals. The use of gamma cameras to estimate intakes and committed doses was investigated by the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) of the USA in 2010.The present study aims to develop a calibration protocol for gamma cameras to be applied on internal monitoring based on urine samples to evaluate the incorporation of high-energy photon emitting radionuclides in emergency situations. A gamma camera available in a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro was calibrated using a standard liquid source of {sup 152}Eu supplied by the LNMRI of the IRD.'Efficiency vs Energy' curves at 10 and 30 cm were obtained. Calibration factors, Minimum Detectable Activities and Minimum Detectable Effective Doses of the gamma camera were calculated for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The gamma camera evaluated in this work presents enough sensitivity to detect activities of such radionuclides at dose levels suitable to assess suspected accidental intakes. (author)

  17. Free energy and stability of macromolecules studied by the double scanning simulation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirovitch, H.; Vasquez, M.; Scheraga, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The double scanning method (DSM) is a computer simulation technique suggested recently by Meirovitch [J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2514 (1988)]. This method is a variant of the usual or ''single'' scanning method (SSM) of the same author, which was extended by us to polypeptides [Biopolymers 27, 1189 (1988); this paper is designated here as paper II]. The two methods are step-by-step construction procedures from which the entropy and the free energy can be estimated. The transition probabilities are obtained by scanning the so-called ''future'' chains, which are continuations of the chain in future steps up to a maximum of b steps. With the SSM, the process is carried out by exact enumeration of the future chains; this is time consuming, and therefore b is limited to small values. With the DSM, on the other hand, only a relatively small sample of the future chains is generated by applying an additional scanning procedure. This enables one to increase b at the expense of approximating the transition probabilities. Increasing of b, however, is important in order to treat medium- and long-range interactions more properly. In this paper (as in our paper II), we apply the DSM to a model of decaglycine without solvent, described by the potential energy function ECEPP at 100 and 300 K. Using the SSM with the maximal value, b=4, we found in paper II that, at 100 K, the α helix rather than the statistical coil is the most stable state. The present DSM simulation at T=100 K (based on b=5) is more efficient than the SSM, and a structure with significantly lower energy than that of the α helix is found. It is argued that b can be increased further to 7 at this temperature. At 300 K the DSM, like the SSM, shows that the statistical coil is the most stable state of decaglycine. However, the DSM is found to be less efficient than the SSM

  18. Determining the phonon energy of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by scanning tunneling microscope light emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Yoichi; Michimata, Junichi; Watanabe, Shota; Katano, Satoshi; Inaoka, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) light emission spectra of isolated single Ag nanoparticles lying on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The STM light emission spectra exhibited two types of spectral structures (step-like and periodic). Comparisons of the observed structures and theoretical predictions indicate that the phonon energy of the ZO mode of HOPG [M. Mohr et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 035439 (2007)] can be determined from the energy difference between the cutoff of STM light emission and the step in the former structure, and from the period of the latter structure. Since the role of the Ag nanoparticles does not depend on the substrate materials, this method will enable the phonon energies of various materials to be measured by STM light emission spectroscopy. The spatial resolution is comparable to the lateral size of the individual Ag nanoparticles (that is, a few nm).

  19. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, U.; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. The supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other through about 90 0 to a collimator exchange position. Each of the separate supports is swingable to a vertically aligned position, with limiting of the swinging movement and positioning of the support at the desired exchange position. The collimators are carried on the supports by means of a series of vertically disposed coil springs. Projections on the camera are movable from above into grooves of the collimator at the exchange position, whereupon the collimator is turned so that it is securely prevented from falling out of the camera head

  20. A proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karl; Murphy, Shane; Palmer, Richard E.

    2017-03-01

    A compact proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy measurements is described. Using the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as a field emission (FE) electron source in conjunction with this analyzer, which is placed at a glancing angle to the surface plane, FE sample current and electron reflectivity imaging may be performed simultaneously. This is demonstrated in measurements of Ag nanostructures prepared on graphite by electron-beam lithography, where a material contrast of 13% is observed, with a lateral resolution of 25 nm, between the silver and graphite in electron reflectivity images. Topological contrast mechanisms such as edge enhancement and shadowing are also observed, giving rise to additional features in the electron reflectivity images. The same instrument configuration has been used to measure electron energy loss spectra on bare graphite, where the zero loss peak, π band plasmon loss peak and secondary electron peaks are observed. Using this simple and compact analyzer an STM, with sufficient open access to the tip-sample junction, may easily be augmented to provide simultaneous elemental and topographic mapping, supplementing STM image measurements with FE sample current and electron reflectivity images, as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, in the same instrument.

  1. Energy gap and surface structure of superconducting diamond films probed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizaki, Terukazu; Takano, Yoshihiko; Nagao, Masanori; Takenouchi, Tomohiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Norio

    2007-01-01

    We have performed scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) experiments on (1 1 1)-oriented epitaxial films of heavily boron-doped diamond at T = 0.47 K. The STM topography shows two kinds of atomic structures: a hydrogenated 1 x 1 structure, C(1 1 1)1 x 1:H, and an amorphous structure. On the C(1 1 1)1 x 1:H region, the tunneling spectra show superconducting property with the energy gap Δ = 0.83 meV. The obtained gap ratio 2Δ/k B T c = 3.57 is consistent with the weak-coupling BCS theory

  2. A Study of the Magnetic Dipole Field of LEP during the 1995 Energy Scan

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, Bernd; Geitz, M A

    1996-01-01

    In preparation for the 1995 LEP energy scan additional instrumentation was installed in two tunnel dipoles to monitor the time evolution of the magnetic field during experimental fills. Significant increase of the bending field superimposed by day-time dependent fluctuations on a minute time scale were revealed. These unexpected features could be correlated with earth currents captured by the LEP vacuum chamber and the ground cable. The currents are produced in particular by trains circulating in the Geneva area. This study presents a summary of our understanding of the LEP dipole field.

  3. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each detector ring or offset ring includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and a plurality of scintillation crystals are positioned relative to the photomultiplier tubes whereby each tube is responsive to more than one crystal. Each alternate crystal in the ring is offset by one-half or less of the thickness of the crystal such that the staggered crystals are seen by more than one photomultiplier tube. This sharing of crystals and photomultiplier tubes allows identification of the staggered crystal and the use of smaller detectors shared by larger photomultiplier tubes thereby requiring less photomultiplier tubes, creating more scanning slices, providing better data sampling, and reducing the cost of the camera. The offset detector ring geometry reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  4. Evaluation in vitro of effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers irradiation on root canal wall, by stereoscopy, scanning electron micrography and thermographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goya, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the effects of Nd:YAG laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation in the root canal wall by SEM, evaluating the apical leakage and the temperature changes during the laser irradiation. Seventy four extracted human teeth were used, they were instrumented and divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each. The teeth were evaluated through stereoscopy, by SEM, and with the thermographic camera. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation parameters were 100 mJ/p, 15 Hz, and Er:YAG laser were 160 mJ/p and 10 Hz, the irradiation was 4 times at 2 mm/sec speed, with 20 sec interval. The apical leakage was not observed in the teeth irradiated by Nd:YAG laser alone or in association with Er:YAG laser. However in the teeth irradiated only by the Er:YAG laser we observed a little leakage. By SEM observation the Nd:YAG laser irradiation showed melting and recrystallization in the dentin surface closing dentinal tubules, and in the samples irradiated by Er:Y AG laser a clean surface, opened dentinal tubules, and the combination by two lasers, showed melting covering some dentinal tubules The thermographic study found the temperature increase was not more than 6 deg C. This study showed the safety parameters applications of Er:YAG laser in association with Nd:YAG laser in root canal treatment, in order to not cause thermal damages to the periodontal tissues. (author)

  5. Eine elektronische Linienkamera fuer die Tomografie von Brennelementen mit durchdringenden Strahlen. An electronic line scan camera for tomographic evaluation of fuel assemblies using penetrating radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbock, L.

    1988-01-01

    The described electronic line scan camaera saves time and costs in taking radiographs and tompgraphs in nuclear facilities. The pictures being taken on polaroid films, there is no need for expensive laboratory work as for the X-ray films. The immediate digitalisation of the signals (saves) expensive digitalisation of X-ray films and allows to record the data of the pictures on cheap magnetic or optical disc. The data can later be processed by the common image analysing methods. Spatial resolutions achieved up to now are about 0.3 mm both for shadow radiography and tomography. (orig.) [de

  6. Impact of liberalization on private financed energy research. From scan to image. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Graaff, R.J.; Dullens, M.; Benner, J.H.B.; Klaassen, M.A.W.; Schneider, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    The consequences of the liberalization process in the market for research and development in the Dutch electricity and natural gas sector are discussed. The main questions of the study are (1) what are the developments in those sectors, and (2) what can be learned from the experiences of liberalized energy markets in other countries and existing commercial petroleum and natural gas companies. The results are based on a literature study and interviews by telephone with experts in the field in seven countries (the 'scan-phase'). The results of the seven countries (Denmark, United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany, Norway, USA, Netherlands, and the European Union as a whole) are presented in the form of fact sheets. The most important leads and subjects were explored in detail by means of personal interviews with representatives from the energy sector in Sweden and England (the 'image-phase'). 52 refs

  7. Beam Energy Scan of Specific Heat Through Temperature Fluctuations in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sumit; Nandi, Basanta K.; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rupa; Nayak, Tapan

    2016-01-01

    Temperature fluctuations may have two distinct origins, first, quantum fluctuations that are initial state fluctuations, and second, thermodynamical fluctuations. We discuss a method of extracting the thermodynamic temperature from the mean transverse momentum of pions, by using controllable parameters such as centrality of the system, and range of the transverse momenta. Event-by-event fluctuations in global temperature over a large phase space provide the specific heat of the system. We present Beam Energy Scan of specific heat from data, AMPT and HRG model prediction. Experimental results from NA49, STAR, PHENIX, PHOBOS and ALICE are combined to obtain the specific heat as a function of beam energy. These results are compared to calculations from AMPT event generator, HRG model and lattice calculations, respectively.

  8. Note: Microelectrode-shielding tip for scanning probe electron energy spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Zhean; Xu, Chunkai; Liu, Jian; Xu, Chunye; Chen, Xiangjun

    2018-04-01

    We report a novel microelectrode-shielding tip (ME tip) for scanning probe electron energy spectroscopy (SPEES). The shielding effect of this tip is studied through comparing the detection efficiency with the normal tip by both experiment and simulation. The results show that the backscattering count rate detected by the SPEES instrument using the normal tip begins to decrease as the tip approaches to the sample surface within 21 μm, while that using the ME tip only starts to drop off within 1 μm. This indicates that the electron energy spectra can be measured with the ME tip at a much closer tip-sample distance. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the ME tip can be used to obtain topography of the sample surface in situ simultaneously.

  9. Design of scanning motion control system for high-energy X-ray industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Liming

    2008-01-01

    A scanning motion control system was developed for the high-energy X-ray industrial computerized tomography (CT). The system consists of an industrial control computer, a counter card, a control card, servo drivers, servo motors, working platforms, gratings and control software. Based on windows driver model(WDM) mode, the composition of the driver pro- gram for the system was studied. Took the motor control card as an example, the method to develop the driver program was researched, and the intercourse process between the device driver program and the user-program was analyzed. The real-time control of the system was implemented using the WDM driver. The real-time performance and reliability of the system can satisfy the requirement of high-energy X-ray industrial CT. (authors)

  10. Helium ion microscopy and energy selective scanning electron microscopy - two advanced microscopy techniques with complementary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, C.; Jepson, M. A. E.; Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.

    2014-06-01

    Both scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and helium ion microscopes (HeIM) are based on the same principle of a charged particle beam scanning across the surface and generating secondary electrons (SEs) to form images. However, there is a pronounced difference in the energy spectra of the emitted secondary electrons emitted as result of electron or helium ion impact. We have previously presented evidence that this also translates to differences in the information depth through the analysis of dopant contrast in doped silicon structures in both SEM and HeIM. Here, it is now shown how secondary electron emission spectra (SES) and their relation to depth of origin of SE can be experimentally exploited through the use of energy filtering (EF) in low voltage SEM (LV-SEM) to access bulk information from surfaces covered by damage or contamination layers. From the current understanding of the SES in HeIM it is not expected that EF will be as effective in HeIM but an alternative that can be used for some materials to access bulk information is presented.

  11. Energy-weighted dynamical scattering simulations of electron diffraction modalities in the scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Elena; Singh, Saransh; Callahan, Patrick G; Hourahine, Ben; Trager-Cowan, Carol; Graef, Marc De

    2018-04-01

    Transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) has been gaining momentum as a high resolution alternative to electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), adding to the existing electron diffraction modalities in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The image simulation of any of these measurement techniques requires an energy dependent diffraction model for which, in turn, knowledge of electron energies and diffraction distances distributions is required. We identify the sample-detector geometry and the effect of inelastic events on the diffracting electron beam as the important factors to be considered when predicting these distributions. However, tractable models taking into account inelastic scattering explicitly are lacking. In this study, we expand the Monte Carlo (MC) energy-weighting dynamical simulations models used for EBSD [1] and ECP [2] to the TKD case. We show that the foil thickness in TKD can be used as a means of energy filtering and compare band sharpness in the different modalities. The current model is shown to correctly predict TKD patterns and, through the dictionary indexing approach, to produce higher quality indexed TKD maps than conventional Hough transform approach, especially close to grain boundaries. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The structure of formate on TiO{sub 2}(110) by scanned-energy and scanned-angle photoelectron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, S.; Kim, Y.J.; Herman, G.S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    There is a considerable interest in understanding the interaction of small organic molecules with oxide surfaces. The chemistry of formate interactions with TiO{sub 2}(110) has been investigated by several groups, but there is little information on the structure of the adsorbate/surface complex. Recently the authors combined high-energy x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) measurements at PNNL with low-energy scanned-angle and scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction measurements at the ALS to investigate the structure of the formate ion on TiO{sub 2}(110) in detail. The high-energy XPD results reveal that formate binds through the oxygens in a bidentate fashion to Ti cation rows along the [001] direction with an O-C-O bond angle of about 126{degrees}. Low-energy photoelectron diffraction data, which is briefly described below, was used to identify the specific bonding geometry, including the bond length between the Ti cation and the oxygen in the formate.

  13. A simulation study on proton computed tomography (CT) stopping power accuracy using dual energy CT scans as benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David Christoffer; Seco, Joao; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2015-01-01

    Background. Accurate stopping power estimation is crucial for treatment planning in proton therapy, and the uncertainties in stopping power are currently the largest contributor to the employed dose margins. Dual energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) (clinically available) and proton CT (in...... development) have both been proposed as methods for obtaining patient stopping power maps. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of proton CT using dual energy CT scans of phantoms to establish reference accuracy levels. Material and methods. A CT calibration phantom and an abdomen cross section...... phantom containing inserts were scanned with dual energy and single energy CT with a state-of-the-art dual energy CT scanner. Proton CT scans were simulated using Monte Carlo methods. The simulations followed the setup used in current prototype proton CT scanners and included realistic modeling...

  14. Quick scan energy conservation investments in the social rental sector; Quick scan investeren in energiebesparing sociale huursector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    Through a brief examination it is inventoried to what extent Dutch government policy affects the number of projects and investment with regard to energy conservation in the social rental sector. June 2013, a brief questionnaire was sent by email to contacts of the Energy Team of the Dutch 'Woonbond' (association of (potential) tenants) to gain insight into the present situation. This report presents the results [Dutch] Via een kort onderzoek is geinventariseerd in hoeverre het kabinetsbeleid invloed heeft op het aantal projecten en investeringen in energiebesparing in de sociale huursector. In juni is via een korte vragenlijst per email onder contacten van het Energieteam van de Nederlandse Woonbond bij woningcorporaties gepeild wat de situatie is. In deze rapportage worden de resultaten weergegeven.

  15. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  16. Size-dependent energy levels of InSb quantum dots measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Vaxenburg, Roman; Liu, Wenyong; Rupich, Sara M; Lifshitz, Efrat; Efros, Alexander L; Talapin, Dmitri V; Sibener, S J

    2015-01-27

    The electronic structure of single InSb quantum dots (QDs) with diameters between 3 and 7 nm was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). In this size regime, InSb QDs show strong quantum confinement effects which lead to discrete energy levels on both valence and conduction band states. Decrease of the QD size increases the measured band gap and the spacing between energy levels. Multiplets of equally spaced resonance peaks are observed in the tunneling spectra. There, multiplets originate from degeneracy lifting induced by QD charging. The tunneling spectra of InSb QDs are qualitatively different from those observed in the STS of other III-V materials, for example, InAs QDs, with similar band gap energy. Theoretical calculations suggest the electron tunneling occurs through the states connected with L-valley of InSb QDs rather than through states of the Γ-valley. This observation calls for better understanding of the role of indirect valleys in strongly quantum-confined III-V nanomaterials.

  17. The Characterisation of Settled Dust by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilton, Vaughan; Giess, Paul; Mitchell, David; Williams, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Settled dust has been collected inside the main foyers oft hree University buildings in Wolverhampton City Centre,U.K. Two of the three buildings are located in a street canyon used almost exclusively by heavy duty diesel vehicles. The dust was collected on adhesive carbonspectro-tabs to be in a form suitable for analysis by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Using these analytical techniques, individual particle analysis was undertaken for morphology and chemistry. Seasonal variations and variations due to location were observed in both the morphological measurements and chemical analysis. Many of the differences appear attributable to the influence of road traffic, in particular, the heavy duty diesel vehicles, travelling along the street canyon

  18. A novel camera type for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderhub, H; Biland, A; Boller, A; Braun, I; Commichau, S; Commichau, V; Dorner, D; Gendotti, A; Grimm, O; Gunten, H von; Hildebrand, D; Horisberger, U; Kraehenbuehl, T; Kranich, D; Lorenz, E; Lustermann, W; Backes, M; Neise, D; Bretz, T; Mannheim, K

    2009-01-01

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) are promising new sensors for light detection in atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In this paper, the design and commissioning of a 36-pixel G-APD prototype camera is presented. The data acquisition is based on the Domino Ring Sampling (DRS2) chip. A sub-nanosecond time resolution has been achieved. Cosmic-ray induced air showers have been recorded using an imaging mirror setup, in a self-triggered mode. This is the first time that such measurements have been carried out with a complete G-APD camera.

  19. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry spine scans to determine abdominal fat in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, J W; Blew, R M; Going, S B; Hsu, C-H; Lee, M C; Lee, V R; Caan, B J; Kwan, M L; Lohman, T G

    2016-11-01

    Body composition may be a better predictor of chronic disease risk than body mass index (BMI) in older populations. We sought to validate spine fat fraction (%) from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine scans as a proxy for total abdominal fat. Total body DXA scan abdominal fat regions of interest (ROI) that have been previously validated by magnetic resonance imaging were assessed among healthy, postmenopausal women who also had antero-posterior spine scans (n = 103). ROIs were (1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and (2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC), manually selected by two independent raters, and (3) trunk, auto-selected by DXA software. Intra-class correlation coefficients evaluated intra and inter-rater reliability on a random subset (N = 25). Linear regression models, validated by bootstrapping, assessed the relationship between spine fat fraction (%) and total abdominal fat (%) ROIs. Mean age, BMI, and total body fat were 66.1 ± 4.8 y, 25.8 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 and 40.0 ± 6.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences within or between raters. Linear regression models adjusted for several participant and scan characteristics were equivalent to using only BMI and spine fat fraction. The model predicted L2-L4 (Adj. R 2 : 0.83) and L2-IC (Adj. R 2 : 0.84) abdominal fat (%) well; the adjusted R 2 for trunk fat (%) was 0.78. Model validation demonstrated minimal over-fitting (Adj. R 2 : 0.82, 0.83, and 0.77 for L2-L4, L2-IC, and trunk fat, respectively). The strong correlation between spine fat fraction and DXA abdominal fat measures make it suitable for further development in postmenopausal chronic disease risk prediction models. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:918-926, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... of scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera ...

  1. Scintillating camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasbloem, H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a scintillating camera and in particular to an apparatus for determining the position coordinates of a light pulse emitting point on the anode of an image intensifier tube which forms part of a scintillating camera, comprising at least three photomultipliers which are positioned to receive light emitted by the anode screen on their photocathodes, circuit means for processing the output voltages of the photomultipliers to derive voltages that are representative of the position coordinates; a pulse-height discriminator circuit adapted to be fed with the sum voltage of the output voltages of the photomultipliers for gating the output of the processing circuit when the amplitude of the sum voltage of the output voltages of the photomultipliers lies in a predetermined amplitude range, and means for compensating the distortion introduced in the image on the anode screen

  2. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  3. A design for a subminiature, low energy scanning electron microscope with atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D. A.; Edmondson, P.; Greene, S.; Donnelly, S.; Olsson, E.; Svensson, K.; Bleloch, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a type of scanning electron microscope that works by directly imaging the electron field-emission sites on a nanotip. Electrons are extracted from the nanotip through a nanoscale aperture, accelerated in a high electric field, and focused to a spot using a microscale Einzel lens. If the whole microscope (accelerating section and lens) and the focal length are both restricted in size to below 10 μm, then computer simulations show that the effects of aberration are extremely small and it is possible to have a system with approximately unit magnification at electron energies as low as 300 eV. Thus a typical emission site of 1 nm diameter will produce an image of the same size, and an atomic emission site will give a resolution of 0.1-0.2 nm (1-2 A). Also, because the beam is not allowed to expand beyond 100 nm in diameter, the depth of field is large and the contribution to the beam spot size from chromatic aberrations is less than 0.02 nm (0.2 A) for 500 eV electrons. Since it is now entirely possible to make stable atomic sized emitters (nanopyramids), it is expected that this instrument will have atomic resolution. Furthermore the brightness of the beam is determined only by the field emission and can be up to 1x10 6 times larger than in a typical (high energy) electron microscope. The advantages of this low energy, bright-beam electron microscope with atomic resolution are described and include the possibility of it being used to rapidly sequence the human genome from a single strand of DNA as well as being able to identify atomic species directly from the elastic scattering of electrons

  4. Scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction measurements at beamline 7.0.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomes, R.; Booth, N.A.; Woodruff, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report covers the results of the authors first experimental run, in May 1996, conducted to explore the advantages offered by the high spectral resolution available at the SpectroMicroscopy Facility on beam line 7.0 to conduct scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction (PhD). This technique is now a well-established method for the determination of local structure of atomic and molecular adsorbates on well-characterised surfaces. The directly-emitted component of an adsorbate core-level photoelectron wavefield interferes coherently with components of the same wavefield elastically scattered by surrounding atoms, leading to a modulation in the photoemission intensity as a function of kinetic energy in any specific emission direction. A series of such PhD modulation spectra, each typically covering energies from 50-500 eV, for a series of different emission directions, provides the basis for a quantitative structure determination of the emitter-scatterer geometry. Within the last years the authors have developed an integrated approach to extract the structural information from these photoelectron diffraction (PhD) spectra in a quantitative way. A direct data inversion technique (the so-called Projection method) provides a first-order estimate of the local adsorbate geometry in the form of an 'image' of the scatterer atoms which are nearest neighbours to the emitter. This information is then used as a starting model for optimisation of the structural parameters by comparing the experimental PhD spectra with the results of multiple scattering simulations using a code developed by Fritzsche. The optimisation uses an automated trial-and-error procedure by minimising a reliability factor which provides an objective measure of the quality of agreement between experiment and theory. The authors have successfully applied this approach to the structure determination of about 30 adsorption systems

  5. Scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction measurements at beamline 7.0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomes, R.; Booth, N.A.; Woodruff, D.P. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    This report covers the results of the authors first experimental run, in May 1996, conducted to explore the advantages offered by the high spectral resolution available at the SpectroMicroscopy Facility on beam line 7.0 to conduct scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction (PhD). This technique is now a well-established method for the determination of local structure of atomic and molecular adsorbates on well-characterised surfaces. The directly-emitted component of an adsorbate core-level photoelectron wavefield interferes coherently with components of the same wavefield elastically scattered by surrounding atoms, leading to a modulation in the photoemission intensity as a function of kinetic energy in any specific emission direction. A series of such PhD modulation spectra, each typically covering energies from 50-500 eV, for a series of different emission directions, provides the basis for a quantitative structure determination of the emitter-scatterer geometry. Within the last years the authors have developed an integrated approach to extract the structural information from these photoelectron diffraction (PhD) spectra in a quantitative way. A direct data inversion technique (the so-called Projection method) provides a first-order estimate of the local adsorbate geometry in the form of an `image` of the scatterer atoms which are nearest neighbours to the emitter. This information is then used as a starting model for optimisation of the structural parameters by comparing the experimental PhD spectra with the results of multiple scattering simulations using a code developed by Fritzsche. The optimisation uses an automated trial-and-error procedure by minimising a reliability factor which provides an objective measure of the quality of agreement between experiment and theory. The authors have successfully applied this approach to the structure determination of about 30 adsorption systems.

  6. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The light pulse output of a scintillator, on which incident collimated gamma rays impinge, is detected by an array of photoelectric tubes each having a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to outputs of the phototubes develops the scintillation event position coordinate electrical signals with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as is possible to obtain less distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar photocathode gamma cameras

  7. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Ulivieri, Fabio M. [Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Maggiore, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Milano (Italy); Mai, Alessandro [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Tecniche di Radiologia Medica, per Immagini e Radioterapia, Milano (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-12

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 x CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm{sup -1}) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable. (orig.)

  8. Is scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) quantitative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2013-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a widely applied elemental microanalysis method capable of identifying and quantifying all elements in the periodic table except H, He, and Li. By following the "k-ratio" (unknown/standard) measurement protocol development for electron-excited wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), SEM/EDS can achieve accuracy and precision equivalent to WDS and at substantially lower electron dose, even when severe X-ray peak overlaps occur, provided sufficient counts are recorded. Achieving this level of performance is now much more practical with the advent of the high-throughput silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS). However, three measurement issues continue to diminish the impact of SEM/EDS: (1) In the qualitative analysis (i.e., element identification) that must precede quantitative analysis, at least some current and many legacy software systems are vulnerable to occasional misidentification of major constituent peaks, with the frequency of misidentifications rising significantly for minor and trace constituents. (2) The use of standardless analysis, which is subject to much broader systematic errors, leads to quantitative results that, while useful, do not have sufficient accuracy to solve critical problems, e.g. determining the formula of a compound. (3) EDS spectrometers have such a large volume of acceptance that apparently credible spectra can be obtained from specimens with complex topography that introduce uncontrolled geometric factors that modify X-ray generation and propagation, resulting in very large systematic errors, often a factor of ten or more. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Forensic applications of scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analyser in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y S

    1982-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX) has been applied in casework for more than a year in the Forensic Division, Government Laboratory of Hong Kong. The types of samples being analysed are summarised and three cases of scientific interest are described. The first case applies SEM/EDX to characterize microscopic gold particles recovered from clothing of suspects involved in goldsmith robberies. Both elemental and morphological results obtained were used as supporting evidence. The second case describes the three types of beaded ends on fibres found in a single cloth sample. These beaded ends are different in shape and surface features and can be used as an additional parameter in fibre identification. The final case shows the application of vacuum evaporation of graphite on a document sample to reveal the area of paper which has been skillfully mechanically erased. Both the image intensity and the composition of the ink are used to differentiate between original and altered characters on the document.

  10. A simulation study on proton computed tomography (CT) stopping power accuracy using dual energy CT scans as benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David C; Seco, Joao; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer; Wildberger, Joachim E; Verhaegen, Frank; Landry, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Accurate stopping power estimation is crucial for treatment planning in proton therapy, and the uncertainties in stopping power are currently the largest contributor to the employed dose margins. Dual energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) (clinically available) and proton CT (in development) have both been proposed as methods for obtaining patient stopping power maps. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of proton CT using dual energy CT scans of phantoms to establish reference accuracy levels. A CT calibration phantom and an abdomen cross section phantom containing inserts were scanned with dual energy and single energy CT with a state-of-the-art dual energy CT scanner. Proton CT scans were simulated using Monte Carlo methods. The simulations followed the setup used in current prototype proton CT scanners and included realistic modeling of detectors and the corresponding noise characteristics. Stopping power maps were calculated for all three scans, and compared with the ground truth stopping power from the phantoms. Proton CT gave slightly better stopping power estimates than the dual energy CT method, with root mean square errors of 0.2% and 0.5% (for each phantom) compared to 0.5% and 0.9%. Single energy CT root mean square errors were 2.7% and 1.6%. Maximal errors for proton, dual energy and single energy CT were 0.51%, 1.7% and 7.4%, respectively. Better stopping power estimates could significantly reduce the range errors in proton therapy, but requires a large improvement in current methods which may be achievable with proton CT.

  11. Control system for gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    An improved gamma camera arrangement is described which utilizing a solid state detector, formed of high purity germanium. the central arrangement of the camera operates to effect the carrying out of a trapezoidal filtering operation over antisymmetrically summed spatial signals through gated integration procedures utilizing idealized integrating intervals. By simultaneously carrying out peak energy evaluation of the input signals, a desirable control over pulse pile-up phenomena is achieved. Additionally, through the use of the time derivative of incoming pulse or signal energy information to initially enable the control system, a low level information evaluation is provided serving to enhance the signal processing efficiency of the camera

  12. Bulk properties of the medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the beam energy scan program

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Federičová, P.; Harlenderová, A.; Kocmánek, Martin; Kvapil, J.; Lidrych, J.; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šaur, Miroslav; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Trzeciak, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 044904. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * RHIC * Beam Energy Scan Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  13. Depth profiling: RBS versus energy-dispersive X-ray imaging using scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is known to be one of the techniques ideal for analysis of thin films. Elemental concentrations of matrix components and impurities can be investigated as well as depth profiles of almost each element of the periodic table. Best of all, RBS has both a high sensitivity and a high depth resolution, and is a non-destructive analysis technique that does not require specific sample preparation. Solid-state samples are mounted without preparation inside a high-vacuum analysis chamber. However, depth-related interpretation of elemental depth profiles requires the material density of the specimen and stopping power values to be taken into consideration. In many cases, these parameters can be estimated with sufficient precision. However, the assumed density can be inaccurate for depth scales in the nanometer range. For example, in the case of Ge nanoclusters in 500 nm thick SiO 2 layers, uncertainty is related to the actual position of a very thin Ge nanocluster band. Energy-dispersive X-ray emission (EDX) spectroscopy, using a high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can assist in removing this uncertainty. By preparing a thin section of the specimen, EDX can be used to identify the position of the Ge nanocluster band very precisely, by correlating the Ge profile with the depth profiles of silicon and oxygen. However, extraction of the concentration profiles from STEM-EDX spectra is in general not straightforward. Therefore, a combination of the two very different analysis techniques is often the best and only successful way to extract high-resolution concentration profiles

  14. Errors in dual-energy X-ray scanning of the hip because of nonuniform fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothill, Peter; Weir, Nicholas; Loveland, John

    2014-01-01

    The variable proportion of fat in overlying soft tissue is a potential source of error in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of bone mineral. The effect on spine scanning has previously been assessed from cadaver studies and from computed tomography (CT) scans of soft tissue distribution. We have now applied the latter technique to DXA hip scanning. The CT scans performed for clinical purposes were used to derive mean adipose tissue thicknesses over bone and background areas for total hip and femoral neck. The former was always lower. More importantly, the fat thickness differences varied among subjects. Errors because of bone marrow fat were deduced from CT measurements of marrow thickness and assumed fat proportions of marrow. The effect of these differences on measured bone mineral density was deduced from phantom measurements of the bone equivalence of fat. Uncertainties of around 0.06g/cm(2) are similar to those previously reported for spine scanning and the results from cadaver measurements. They should be considered in assessing the diagnostic accuracy of DXA scanning. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New nuclear medicine gamma camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villacorta, Edmundo V.

    1997-01-01

    with the existing three gamma cameras, one with fixed opposed dual-head, these new gamma cameras are capable of entire patient coverage for general imaging procedures as well as for SPECT and anterior/posterior whole body scanning using low, medium, and high energies such as Technetium 99m, Gallium 67 and Iodine 131. Imaging procedures done in MMC include thyroid, bone, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, brain, and others: hepatobiliary, parathyroid, testicles, detection for gastrointestinal bleeding and abscesses, etc. An added new equipment in the nuclear laboratory is a Packard COBRA single detector automatic gamma well counter as a backup for our 5 detector counter of the same brand

  16. Augmentation of Quick-EXAFS measurement facility at the energy scanning EXAFS beamline at INDUS-2 SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poswal, A. K., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Agrawal, Ankur; Bhattachryya, D.; Jha, S. N.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai -400085 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In this paper implementation of Quick-EXAFS data acquisition facility at the Energy Scanning EXAFS beamline(BL-09) at INDUS-2 synchrotron source, Indore is presented. By adopting a continuous-scan mode in the Double Crystal monochromator (DCM), a high signal-to-noise ratio is maintained and the acquisition time is reduced to few seconds. The quality of spectra and repeatability is checked by measuring standards. The present mode of data acquisition would enable EXAFS measurement for in-situ studies even in fluorescence mode.

  17. Structure determination of Ga As (110) p (1 x 1) - Sb using scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascolani, H.; Asensio, M.C.; Fritzsche, W.

    1996-01-01

    Photoelectron diffraction (PD) in the scanned-energy mode has proven to be a powerfull tool for structural determination of the first few surface layers. The scanned-energy mode involves the measurement of the intensity of photoelectrons emitted from a core level as a function of the incident photon energy for different emission directions. The atom specificity of PD allows the investigation of the local structure of adsorbed atoms without interference of the substrate. In addition, if a measurable chemical shift exists, this technique is also able to discriminate between atoms of the same species adsorbed in inequivalent sites. The Ga As (110) p (1x1)-Sb (1 ML) surface represents a prototype system to study atom adsorption on III-V semiconductors. The epitaxial continued layer structure (ECLS) is generally accepted as the geometry corresponding to this surface, although some authors have claimed that the p 3 model forms a stable geometry equivalent to the ECLS, and that it provides an equally good description of their experimental results. So far, the conclusions about the atomic structure of this surface had been derived on the basis of indirect methods. This work exploits to the utmost the possibilities of analysis offered by the scanned-energy PD technique, namely, chemical shift analysis and direct inversion. The energy spectrum of Sb-4d photoelectrons emitted from the Ga As (110)-p (1x1) Sb surface has two chemically-shifted components. We have inverted the scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction data corresponding to these two components to obtain the positions of the Ga and As atoms which are nearest neighbors of two inequivalent Sb atoms. Our results contradict various models proposed for this surface and are consistent only with the ECLS. For a more detailed atomic structure determination, the best fit between experiment and multiple-scattering calculations was determined by a trial-and-error procedure. (author)

  18. Nanoscale Energy-Filtered Scanning Confocal Electron Microscopy Using a Double-Aberration-Corrected Transmission Electron Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Behan, Gavin; Kirkland, Angus I.; Nellist, Peter D.; Takeguchi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Shimojo, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that a transmission electron microscope fitted with two spherical-aberration correctors can be operated as an energy-filtered scanning confocal electron microscope. A method for establishing this mode is described and initial results showing 3D chemical mapping with nanoscale sensitivity to height and thickness changes in a carbon film are presented. Importantly, uncorrected chromatic aberration does not limit the depth resolution of this technique and moreover performs an energy-filtering role, which is explained in terms of a combined depth and energy-loss response function.

  19. WE-DE-BRA-10: Development of a Novel Scanning Beam Low-Energy Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (SBIORT) System for Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wears, B; Mohiuddin, I; Flynn, R; Waldron, T; Kim, Y; Allen, B; Xia, J [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Developing a compact collimator system and validating a 3D surface imaging module for a scanning beam low-energy x-ray radiation therapy (SBIORT) system that enables delivery of non-uniform radiation dose to targets with irregular shapes intraoperatively. Methods: SBIORT consists of a low energy x-ray source, a custom compact collimator module, a robotic arm, and a 3D surface imaging module. The 3D surface imaging system (structure sensor) is utilized for treatment planning and motion monitoring of the surgical cavity. SBIORT can deliver non-uniform dose distributions by dynamically moving the x-ray source assembly along optimal paths with various collimator apertures. The compact collimator utilizes a dynamic shutter mechanism to form a variable square aperture. The accuracy and reproducibility of the collimator were evaluated using a high accuracy encoder and a high resolution camera platform. The dosimetrical characteristics of the collimator prototype were evaluated using EBT3 films with a Pantak Therapax unit. The accuracy and clinical feasibility of the 3D imaging system were evaluated using a phantom and a cadaver cavity. Results: The SBIORT collimator has a compact size: 66 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness with the maximum aperture of 20 mm. The mechanical experiment indicated the average accuracy of leaf position was 0.08 mm with a reproducibility of 0.25 mm at 95% confidence level. The dosimetry study indicated the collimator had a penumbra of 0.35 mm with a leaf transmission of 0.5%. 3D surface scans can be acquired in 5 seconds. The average difference between the acquired 3D surface and the ground truth is 1 mm with a standard deviation of 0.6 mm. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of the compact collimator and 3D scanning system for the SBIORT. SBIORT is a way of delivering IORT with a compact system that requires minimum shielding of the procedure room. This research is supported by the University of Iowa Internal Funding

  20. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Heinzelmann, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    A gamma camera is described which obviates the distortion of locating signals generally caused by the varied light conductive capacities of the light conductors in that the flow of light through each light conductor may be varied by means of a shutter. A balancing of the flow of light through each of the individual light conductors, in effect, collective light conductors may be balanced on the basis of their light conductive capacities or properties, so as to preclude a distortion of the locating signals caused by the varied light conductive properties of the light conductors. Each light conductor has associated therewith two, relative to each other, independently adjustable shutters, of which one forms a closure member and the other an adjusting shutter. In this embodiment of the invention it is thus possible to block all of the light conductors leading to a photoelectric transducer, with the exception of those light conductors which are to be balanced. The balancing of the individual light conductors may then be obtained on the basis of the output signals of the photoelectric transducer. (auth)

  1. Scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioni, J.; Klein, Y.; Inbar, D.

    1975-01-01

    The scintillation camera is to make pictures of the density distribution of radiation fields created by the injection or administration radioactive medicaments into the body of the patient. It contains a scintillation crystal, several photomultipliers and computer circuits to obtain an analytical function at the exits of the photomultiplier which is dependent on the position of the scintillations at the time in the crystal. The scintillation crystal is flat and spatially corresponds to the production site of radiation. The photomultipliers form a pattern whose basic form consists of at least three photomultipliers. They are assigned to at least two crossing parallel series groups where a vertical running reference axis in the crystal plane belongs to each series group. The computer circuits are each assigned to a reference axis. Each series of a series group assigned to one of the reference axes in the computer circuit has an adder to produce a scintillation dependent series signal. Furthermore, the projection of the scintillation on this reference axis is calculated. A series signal is used for this which originates from a series chosen from two neighbouring photomultiplier series of this group. The scintillation must have appeared between these chosen series. They are termed as basic series. The photomultiplier can be arranged hexagonally or rectangularly. (GG/LH) [de

  2. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  3. Optimal Scanning Protocols for Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Stents: An in Vitro Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Almutairi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the optimal dual-energy computed tomography (DECT scanning protocol for peripheral arterial stents while achieving a low radiation dose, while still maintaining diagnostic image quality, as determined by an in vitro phantom study. Methods: Dual-energy scans in monochromatic spectral imaging mode were performed on a peripheral arterial phantom with use of three gemstone spectral imaging (GSI protocols, three pitch values, and four kiloelectron volts (keV ranges. A total of 15 stents of different sizes, materials, and designs were deployed in the phantom. Image noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR, and the four levels of monochromatic energy for DECT imaging of peripheral arterial stents were measured and compared to determine the optimal protocols. Results: A total of 36 scans with 180 datasets were reconstructed from a combination of different protocols. There was a significant reduction of image noise with a higher SNR from monochromatic energy images between 65 and 70 keV in all investigated preset GSI protocols (p < 0.05. In addition, significant effects were found from the main effect analysis for these factors: GSI, pitch, and keV (p = 0.001. In contrast, there was significant interaction on the unstented area between GSI and ASIR (p = 0.015 and a very high significant difference between keV and ASIR (p < 0.001. A radiation dose reduction of 50% was achieved. Conclusions: The optimal scanning protocol and energy level in the phantom study were GSI-48, pitch value 0.984, and 65 keV, which resulted in lower image noise and a lower radiation dose, but with acceptable diagnostic images.

  4. Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis in dermatology--an up-date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forslind, B.

    1988-01-01

    Dermatological papers comprising scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis data published 1983 through 1986 in international journals are reviewed, as an update to our 1984 paper on Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis in dermatology. The present paper not only deals with a review of recent publications in this area but also presents the application of microincineration to hair and cryosectioned freeze-dried skin specimens. Examples of the increased contrast obtained in hair cross sections are presented and a discussion on the feasibility of microincineration at analysis of hair and skin cross sections is given. Particle probe analysis (EDX: energy dispersive X-ray analysis and PMP: proton microprobe analysis) as applied to hair and skin samples are presented with stress put on the proton probe analysis. The complementarity of EDX and PMP is demonstrated and future applications are suggested. 75 references

  5. Analysis of the response dependence of Ebt3 radiochromic film with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scanning mode and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon M, E. Y.; Camacho L, M. A.; Herrera G, J. A.; Garcia G, O. A.; Villarreal B, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    With the development of new modalities in radiotherapy treatments, the use of radiochromic films has increased considerably. Because the characteristics that presented, they are suitable for quality control and dose measurement. In this work and analysis of the dependence of the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scan mode and humidity, for a dose range of 0-70 Gy is presented. According to the results, the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films has low dependence on energy, dose rate, scan mode and humidity. However, the sensitivity of the response Ebt3 radiochromic films has a high dependence on the wavelength of the optical system used for reading. (Author)

  6. Sub-nanometre resolution imaging of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic blends using energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Robert C; Pearson, Andrew J; Glen, Tom S; Sasam, Fabian-Cyril; Li, Letian; Dapor, Maurizio; Donald, Athene M; Lidzey, David G; Rodenburg, Cornelia

    2015-04-24

    The resolution capability of the scanning electron microscope has increased immensely in recent years, and is now within the sub-nanometre range, at least for inorganic materials. An equivalent advance has not yet been achieved for imaging the morphologies of nanostructured organic materials, such as organic photovoltaic blends. Here we show that energy-selective secondary electron detection can be used to obtain high-contrast, material-specific images of an organic photovoltaic blend. We also find that we can differentiate mixed phases from pure material phases in our data. The lateral resolution demonstrated is twice that previously reported from secondary electron imaging. Our results suggest that our energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy approach will be able to make major inroads into the understanding of complex, nano-structured organic materials.

  7. Sub-nanometre resolution imaging of polymer–fullerene photovoltaic blends using energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Robert C.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Glen, Tom S.; Sasam, Fabian-Cyril; Li, Letian; Dapor, Maurizio; Donald, Athene M.; Lidzey, David G.; Rodenburg, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The resolution capability of the scanning electron microscope has increased immensely in recent years, and is now within the sub-nanometre range, at least for inorganic materials. An equivalent advance has not yet been achieved for imaging the morphologies of nanostructured organic materials, such as organic photovoltaic blends. Here we show that energy-selective secondary electron detection can be used to obtain high-contrast, material-specific images of an organic photovoltaic blend. We also find that we can differentiate mixed phases from pure material phases in our data. The lateral resolution demonstrated is twice that previously reported from secondary electron imaging. Our results suggest that our energy-filtered scanning electron microscopy approach will be able to make major inroads into the understanding of complex, nano-structured organic materials. PMID:25906738

  8. Local secondary-electron emission spectra of graphite and gold surfaces obtained using the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E

    2009-01-01

    Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.

  9. Local secondary-electron emission spectra of graphite and gold surfaces obtained using the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E, E-mail: R.E.Palmer@bham.ac.u [Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-25

    Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.

  10. [Application of second generation dual-source computed tomography dual-energy scan mode in detecting pancreatic adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hua-dan; Liu, Wei; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Yu; Su, Bai-yan; Sun, Zhao-yong; Chen, Fang; Jin, Zheng-yu

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the clinical value of multiple sequences derived from dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) dual-energy scan mode in detecting pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Totally 23 patients with clinically or pathologically diagnosed pancreatic cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study. DSCT (Definition Flash) was used and dual-energy scan mode was used in their pancreatic parenchyma phase scan (100kVp/230mAs and Sn140kVp/178mAs) . Mono-energetic 60kev, mono-energetic 80kev, mono-energetic 100kev, mono-energetic 120kev, linear blend image, non-linear blend image, and iodine map were acquired. pancreatic parenchyma-tumor CT value difference, ratio of tumor to pancreatic parenchyma, and pancreatic parenchyma-tumor contrast to noise ratio were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used for the comparison of diagnostic values of the above eight different dual-energy derived sequences for pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic parenchyma-tumor CT value difference, ratio of tumor to pancreatic parenchyma, and pancreatic parenchyma-tumor contrast to noise ratio were significantly different among eight sequences (P<0.05) . Mono-energetic 60kev image showed the largest parenchyma-tumor CT value [ (77.53 ± 23.42) HU] , and iodine map showed the lowest tumor/parenchyma enhancement ratio (0.39?0.12) and the largest contrast to noise ratio (4.08 ± 1.46) . Multiple sequences can be derived from dual-energy scan mode with DSCT via multiple post-processing methods. Integration of these sequences may further improve the sensitivity of the multislice spiral CT in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Wave Optical Calculation of Probe Size in Low Energy Scanning Electron Microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radlička, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 212-217 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : scanning electron microscope * optical calculation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  12. A study of effects of scattered reaction on physical parameters of a new gamma camera used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Martine.

    1979-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of the performance of a new gamma camera. This camera is characterized by the introduction of an image amplifier between the crystal detector and the localization system which compound four photomultipliers. The appreciation of performances of this new instrument is based on the measure of the physical parameters usually studied in this purpose: energy resolution, spatial resolution, modulation transfert fonction and contrast, sensitivity and deadtime. Furthermore, we have studied the influence of scattered radiation on the value of these parameters. Two studies complete this work: the artificial deterioration of the energy resolution of the camera inserting a noise, to estimate the importance of the energy resolution on the image contrast; the scanning of pulse amplitude spectra obtained from brain of patients in order to evaluate the participation of scattered radiation in the peak's constitution. We present, at last, a quality control programm for scintillation camera [fr

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and converts it into an image. The gamma camera itself does not emit any ... of the gamma camera heads around the patient's body to produce more detailed, three-dimensional images. A computer aids in creating the images from ...

  14. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  15. Front-illuminated versus back-illuminated photon-counting CCD-based gamma camera: important consequences for spatial resolution and energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, Jan W T; Westra, Albert H; Linotte, Peter M; Ligtvoet, Kees M; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Beekman, Freek J

    2007-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) coupled to scintillation crystals can be used for high-resolution imaging with x-rays and gamma rays. When the CCD images can be read out fast enough, the energy and interaction position of individual gamma quanta can be estimated by a real-time image analysis of the scintillation light flashes ('photon-counting mode'). The electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) is well suited for fast read out, since even at high frame rates it has extremely low read-out noise. Back-illuminated (BI) EMCCDs have much higher quantum efficiency than front-illuminated (FI) EMCCDs. Here we compare the spatial and energy resolution of gamma cameras based on FI and BI EMCCDs. The CCDs are coupled to a 1000 μm thick columnar CsI(Tl) crystal for the purpose of Tc-99m and I-125 imaging. Intrinsic spatial resolutions of 44 μm for I-125 and 49 μm for Tc-99m were obtained when using a BI EMCCD, which is an improvement by a factor of about 1.2-2 over the FI EMCCD. Furthermore, in the energy spectrum of the BI EMCCD, the I-125 signal could be clearly separated from the background noise, which was not the case for the FI EMCCD. The energy resolution of a BI EMCCD for Tc-99m was estimated to be approximately 36 keV, full width at half maximum, at 141 keV. The excellent results for the BI EMCCD encouraged us to investigate the cooling requirements for our setup. We have found that for the BI EMCCD, the spatial and energy resolution, as well as image noise, remained stable over a range of temperatures from -50 deg. C to -15 deg. C. This is a significant advantage over the FI EMCCD, which suffered from loss of spatial and especially energy resolution at temperatures as low as -40 deg. C. We conclude that the use of BI EMCCDs may significantly improve the imaging capabilities and the cost efficiency of CCD-based high-resolution gamma cameras. (note)

  16. Bulk properties of the medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the beam energy scan program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We present measurements of bulk properties of the matter produced in Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=7.7 ,11.5 ,19.6 ,27 , and 39 GeV using identified hadrons (π±, K±, p , and p ¯) from the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Midrapidity (|y |<0.1 ) results for multiplicity densities d N /d y , average transverse momenta 〈pT〉 , and particle ratios are presented. The chemical and kinetic freeze-out dynamics at these energies are discussed and presented as a function of collision centrality and energy. These results constitute the systematic measurements of bulk properties of matter formed in heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of energy (or baryon chemical potential) at RHIC.

  17. Estimation of Energy Balance Components over a Drip-Irrigated Olive Orchard Using Thermal and Multispectral Cameras Placed on a Helicopter-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ortega-Farías

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out to implement a remote sensing energy balance (RSEB algorithm for estimating the incoming solar radiation (Rsi, net radiation (Rn, sensible heat flux (H, soil heat flux (G and latent heat flux (LE over a drip-irrigated olive (cv. Arbequina orchard located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile (35°25′S; 71°44′W; 90 m above sea level. For this study, a helicopter-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was equipped with multispectral and infrared thermal cameras to obtain simultaneously the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and surface temperature (Tsurface at very high resolution (6 cm × 6 cm. Meteorological variables and surface energy balance components were measured at the time of the UAV overpass (near solar noon. The performance of the RSEB algorithm was evaluated using measurements of H and LE obtained from an eddy correlation system. In addition, estimated values of Rsi and Rn were compared with ground-truth measurements from a four-way net radiometer while those of G were compared with soil heat flux based on flux plates. Results indicated that RSEB algorithm estimated LE and H with errors of 7% and 5%, respectively. Values of the root mean squared error (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE for LE were 50 and 43 W m−2 while those for H were 56 and 46 W m−2, respectively. Finally, the RSEB algorithm computed Rsi, Rn and G with error less than 5% and with values of RMSE and MAE less than 38 W m−2. Results demonstrated that multispectral and thermal cameras placed on an UAV could provide an excellent tool to evaluate the intra-orchard spatial variability of Rn, G, H, LE, NDVI and Tsurface over the tree canopy and soil surface between rows.

  18. Fully integrated digital GAMMA camera-computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.J.; Eisner, R.L.; Gober, A.; Plankey, M.; Fajman, W.

    1985-01-01

    Although most of the new non-nuclear imaging techniques are fully digital, there has been a reluctance in nuclear medicine to abandon traditional analog planar imaging in favor of digital acquisition and display. The authors evaluated a prototype digital camera system (GE STARCAM) in which all of the analog acquisition components are replaced by microprocessor controls and digital circuitry. To compare the relative effects of acquisition matrix size on image quality and to ascertain whether digital techniques could be used in place of analog imaging, Tc-99m bone scans were obtained on this digital system and on a comparable analog camera in 10 patients. The dedicated computer is used for camera setup including definition of the energy window, spatial energy correction, and spatial distortion correction. The display monitor, which is used for patient positioning and image analysis, is 512/sup 2/ non-interlaced, allowing high resolution imaging. Data acquisition and processing can be performed simultaneously. Thus, the development of a fully integrated digital camera-computer system with optimized display should allow routine utilization of non-analog studies in nuclear medicine and the ultimate establishment of fully digital nuclear imaging laboratories

  19. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Nonconductive Specimens at Critical Energies in a Cathode Lens System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk; Zadražil, Martin; Müllerová, Ilona

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2001), s. 36-50 ISSN 0161-0457 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/96/0961; GA ČR GA202/99/0008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : scanning electron microscopy * specimen charging * nonconductive specimens Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2001

  20. Scanned beams of high-energy charged particles and features of their collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zor'ko, K.I.; Kudoyarov, M.F.; Matyukov, A.V.; Mukhin, S.A.; Patrova, M.Ya.

    2007-01-01

    The coordinate distributions of the accelerated charged particle flux density that are simultaneously formed by sinusoidal scanning and collimation are analyzed. Under certain formation conditions, the edge portions of these distributions are shown to take a two-humped shape. The experimental data obtained are in good agreement with the calculation. Recommendations are made about practical use of these beams in view of the above effects [ru

  1. Recent results on event-by-event fluctuations from the RHIC Beam Energy Scan program in the STAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Nihar Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations of global observables in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are studied as probes for the QCD phase transition and as tools to search for critical phenomena near the phase boundary. Dynamical fluctuations in mean transverse momentum, identified particle ratios and conserved quantities (such as net-charge, net-baryon) are expected to provide signatures of a de-confined state of matter. Non-monotonic behavior in the higher-moments of conserved quantities as a function of beam energy and collision centrality are proposed as signatures of the QCD critical point. To study the QCD phase transition and locate the critical point, the STAR experiment at RHIC has collected a large amount of data for Au+Au collisions from √S_N_N = 7.7 - 200 GeV in the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program. We present the recent beam energy scan results on dynamical fluctuations of particle ratios and two-particle transverse momentum correlations at mid-rapidity. Higher-moments of the net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of beam energy will be presented. We give a summary of what has been learnt so far and future prospectives for the BES-II program.

  2. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  3. Comparison of myocardial perfusion imaging between the new high-speed gamma camera and the standard anger camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Chikamori, Taishiro; Hida, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state detectors have been recently introduced into the field of myocardial perfusion imaging. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of the CZT high-speed gamma camera (Discovery NM 530c) with that of the standard 3-head gamma camera in the same group of patients. The study group consisted of 150 consecutive patients who underwent a 1-day stress-rest 99m Tc-sestamibi or tetrofosmin imaging protocol. Image acquisition was performed first on a standard gamma camera with a 15-min scan time each for stress and for rest. All scans were immediately repeated on a CZT camera with a 5-min scan time for stress and a 3-min scan time for rest, using list mode. The correlations between the CZT camera and the standard camera for perfusion and function analyses were strong within narrow Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Using list mode analysis, image quality for stress was rated as good or excellent in 97% of the 3-min scans, and in 100% of the ≥4-min scans. For CZT scans at rest, similarly, image quality was rated as good or excellent in 94% of the 1-min scans, and in 100% of the ≥2-min scans. The novel CZT camera provides excellent image quality, which is equivalent to standard myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography, despite a short scan time of less than half of the standard time. (author)

  4. Simulations and measurements in scanning electron microscopes at low electron energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walker, C.; Frank, Luděk; Müllerová, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 6 (2016), s. 802-818 ISSN 0161-0457 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 606988 - SIMDALEE2 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Monte Carlo modeling * scanned probe * computer simulation * electron-solid interactions * surface analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2016

  5. Scanning of irradiated silicon detectors using $\\alpha$ particles and low energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G L; Glaser, M; Kohout, Z; Konícek, J; Lemeilleur, F; Leroy, C; Linhart, V; Mares, J J; Pospísil, S; Roy, P; Sopko, B; Sinor, M; Svejda, J; Vorobel, V; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    In a spectroscopic study of non-irradiated and proton-irradiated silicon diodes, the detectors were illuminated from the front side and from the rear side by various alpha particle sources (mainly ThC') and by monoenergetic protons with energies from 1.0 to 2.5~MeV. Their response characteristics have been studied as a function of the incoming particle energy and the applied bias voltage. The charge collection efficiency was determined as a function of fluence

  6. MgB2 energy gap determination by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitmann, T W; Bu, S D; Kim, D M; Choi, J H; Giencke, J; Eom, C B; Regan, K A; Rogado, N; Hayward, M A; He, T; Slusky, J S; Khalifah, P; Haas, M; Cava, R J; Larbalestier, D C; Rzchowski, M S

    2004-01-01

    We report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) measurements of the gap properties of both ceramic MgB 2 and c-axis oriented epitaxial MgB 2 thin films. Both show a temperature dependent zero bias conductance peak and evidence for two superconducting gaps. We report tunnelling spectroscopy of superconductor-insulator-superconductor (S-I-S) junctions formed in two ways in addition to normal metal-insulator-superconductor (N-I-S) junctions. We find a gap δ = 2.2-2.8 meV, with spectral features and temperature dependence that are consistent between S-I-S junction types. In addition, we observe evidence of a second, larger gap, δ 7.2 meV, consistent with a proposed two-band model

  7. Assessment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: use of low-dose whole pancreatic CT perfusion and individualized dual-energy CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hai-ou; Guo, Jun; Li, Xiao; Qi, Yao-dong; Wang, Xi-ming; Xu, Zhuo-dong; Liu, Cheng; Chen, Jiu-hong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the value of low-dose whole pancreatic computed tomography (CT) perfusion integrated with individualized dual-energy CT (DECT) scanning in the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Twenty patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma underwent pancreatic CT perfusion as well as individualized dual-phase DECT pancreatic scans. Perfusion characteristics of non-tumourous pancreatic parenchyma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma were analysed. Weighted-average 120 kVp images and the optimal monoenergetic images in dual phase were reconstructed and the contrast noise ratio (CNR) of pancreas-to-tumour were compared. There were significant difference on blood flow as well as blood volume between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and the non-tumourous pancreatic parenchyma (P < 0.05), whereas no difference on permeability (P > 0.05). CNRs of pancreas-to-tumour in individualized pancreatic phase were significantly higher than those in venous phase (P < 0.05), and CNRs of optimal monoenergetic images were higher than those on weighted-average 120 kVp images (P < 0.05) in both phase. Total effective radiation dose of CT examination was around 9.32–13.75 mSv. Low-dose whole pancreatic CT perfusion can provide functional information, and the individualized pancreatic phase DECT scan is the optimal method for detecting pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The integration of the two techniques has great value in clinical application.

  8. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma camera system having control components operating in conjunction with a solid state detector is described. The detector is formed of a plurality of discrete components which are associated in geometrical or coordinate arrangement defining a detector matrix to derive coordinate signal outputs. These outputs are selectively filtered and summed to form coordinate channel signals and corresponding energy channel signals. A control feature of the invention regulates the noted summing and filtering performance to derive data acceptance signals which are addressed to further treating components. The latter components include coordinate and enery channel multiplexers as well as energy-responsive selective networks. A sequential control is provided for regulating the signal processing functions of the system to derive an overall imaging cycle

  9. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry spine scans to determine abdominal fat in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, J. W.; Blew, R. M.; Going, S. B.; Hsu, C-H; Lee, M. C.; Lee, V. R.; Caan, B.J.; Kwan, M.L.; Lohman, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Body composition may be a better predictor of chronic disease risk than body mass index (BMI) in older populations. Objectives We sought to validate spine fat fraction (%) from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine scans as a proxy for total abdominal fat. Methods Total body DXA scan abdominal fat regions of interest (ROI) that have been previously validated by magnetic resonance imaging were assessed among healthy, postmenopausal women who also had antero-posterior spine scans (n=103). ROIs were 1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and 2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC), manually selected by two independent raters, and 3) trunk, auto-selected by DXA software. Intra-class correlation coefficients evaluated intra and inter-rater reliability on a random subset (N=25). Linear regression models, validated by bootstrapping, assessed the relationship between spine fat fraction (%) and total abdominal fat (%) ROIs. Results Mean age, BMI and total body fat were: 66.1 ± 4.8y, 25.8 ± 3.8kg/m2 and 40.0 ± 6.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences within or between raters. Linear regression models adjusted for several participant and scan characteristics were equivalent to using only BMI and spine fat fraction. The model predicted L2-L4 (Adj. R2: 0.83) and L2-IC (Adj.R2:0.84) abdominal fat (%) well; the adjusted R2 for trunk fat (%) was 0.78. Model validation demonstrated minimal over-fitting (Adj. R2: 0.82, 0.83, and 0.77 for L2-L4, L2-IC, and trunk fat respectively). Conclusions The strong correlation between spine fat fraction and DXA abdominal fat measures make it suitable for further development in post-menopausal chronic disease risk prediction models. PMID:27416964

  10. Supervised Mineral Classification with Semi-automatic Training and Validation Set Generation in Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Images of Thin Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesche, Harald; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of classifying minerals common in siliciclastic and carbonate rocks. Twelve chemical elements are mapped from thin sections by energy dispersive spectroscopy in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Extensions to traditional multivariate statistical methods...

  11. Making Ceramic Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  12. Advantages of computer cameras over video cameras/frame grabbers for high-speed vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gaylord G.; Walker, Jo N.

    1997-09-01

    Cameras designed to work specifically with computers can have certain advantages in comparison to the use of cameras loosely defined as 'video' cameras. In recent years the camera type distinctions have become somewhat blurred, with a great presence of 'digital cameras' aimed more at the home markets. This latter category is not considered here. The term 'computer camera' herein is intended to mean one which has low level computer (and software) control of the CCD clocking. These can often be used to satisfy some of the more demanding machine vision tasks, and in some cases with a higher rate of measurements than video cameras. Several of these specific applications are described here, including some which use recently designed CCDs which offer good combinations of parameters such as noise, speed, and resolution. Among the considerations for the choice of camera type in any given application would be such effects as 'pixel jitter,' and 'anti-aliasing.' Some of these effects may only be relevant if there is a mismatch between the number of pixels per line in the camera CCD and the number of analog to digital (A/D) sampling points along a video scan line. For the computer camera case these numbers are guaranteed to match, which alleviates some measurement inaccuracies and leads to higher effective resolution.

  13. Characterizing high-energy-formed particulates with the scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer system. Progress report, March--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, A.W.; Biermann, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is being sought that will allow the differentiation between particulates formed in implosions and particulates formed in explosions. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS) were used to measure and compare particle size, shape, surface morphology, and composition. Implosion and explosion detonations yielded spherical, smooth particles within the same size range. Although the particle size, shape, and morphology were the same for comparable samples of different detonation type, there were distinct differences in composition. It is not certain whether differences in composition reflect differences in device components or differences in the nature of the detonation

  14. Adapting Virtual Camera Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen- er...

  15. Improved positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullani, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of rings of detectors positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom, and a plurality of scintillation crystals positioned relative to the photomultiplier tubes whereby each tube is responsive to more than one crystal. Each alternate crystal in the ring may be offset by one-half or less of the thickness of the crystal such that the staggered crystals are seen by more than one photomultiplier tube. This sharing of crystals and photomultiplier tubes allows identification of the staggered crystal and the use of smaller detectors shared by larger photomultiplier tubes thereby requiring less photomultiplier tubes, creating more scanning slices, providing better data sampling, and reducing the cost of the camera. (author)

  16. Composition measurement in substitutionally disordered materials by atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Taplin, D J; Weyland, M; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy invites the question of whether its success in precision composition determination at lower magnifications can be replicated in the atomic resolution regime. In this paper, we explore, through simulation, the prospects for composition measurement via the model system of Al x Ga 1-x As, discussing the approximations used in the modelling, the variability in the signal due to changes in configuration at constant composition, and the ability to distinguish between different compositions. Results are presented in such a way that the number of X-ray counts, and thus the expected variation due to counting statistics, can be gauged for a range of operating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy - useful tools in the analysis of pharmaceutical products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Balwierz, Radoslaw; Ostrozka-Cieslik, Aneta; Dyja, Renata; Lukowiec, Dariusz; Jankowski, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The quality of the drug, its purity and identification of degradation products provide the highest quality of pharmaceutical products. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) method analyses the percentage of each element form as well as their distribution, and morphological characteristics of the drug form. We analysed the usefulness of EDS method in testing orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) with trimetazidine hydrochloride with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM, SUPRA25 Carl Zeiss company) with spectrophotometer equipped with an X-ray energy dispersion (EDAX Company). The samples of the analysed tablets were imaged after applying conductive layers of gold on their surface. In the EDS analysis the compositions of each sample of the obtained tablets were observed to be virtually identical. The differences in the content of carbon and oxygen came from differences in the composition of particular tablets. The presence of gold in the composition resulted from the sputtering the surface of tablets with gold during the analysis. Knowing the composition of the tablet, SEM-EDS method helps to locate and identify the impurities and degradation products of the compounds, leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms of their formation.

  18. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The objects of this invention are first to reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Secondly, to provide a scintillation camera system to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a known radiation source without sacrificing spatial resolution. Thirdly to reduce the scanning time without loss of image clarity. The system described comprises a scintillation camera detector, means for moving this in orbit about a cranial-caudal axis relative to a patient and a collimator having septa defining apertures such that gamma rays perpendicular to the axis are admitted with high spatial resolution, parallel to the axis with low resolution. The septa may be made of strips of lead. Detailed descriptions are given. (U.K.)

  19. Radiation camera exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.

    1976-01-01

    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  20. GRACE star camera noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nate

    2016-08-01

    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  1. FPS camera sync and reset chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    The sync and reset chassis provides all the circuitry required to synchronize an event to be studied, a remote free-running focus projection and scanning (FPS) data-acquisition TV camera, and a video signal recording system. The functions, design, and operation of this chassis are described in detail

  2. A compact sub-Kelvin ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope with high energy resolution and high stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Miyamachi, T; Tomanić, T; Dehm, R; Wulfhekel, W

    2011-10-01

    We designed a scanning tunneling microscope working at sub-Kelvin temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) in order to study the magnetic properties on the nanoscale. An entirely homebuilt three-stage cryostat is used to cool down the microscope head. The first stage is cooled with liquid nitrogen, the second stage with liquid (4)He. The third stage uses a closed-cycle Joule-Thomson refrigerator of a cooling power of 1 mW. A base temperature of 930 mK at the microscope head was achieved using expansion of (4)He, which can be reduced to ≈400 mK when using (3)He. The cryostat has a low liquid helium consumption of only 38 ml/h and standing times of up to 280 h. The fast cooling down of the samples (3 h) guarantees high sample throughput. Test experiments with a superconducting tip show a high energy resolution of 0.3 meV when performing scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The vertical stability of the tunnel junction is well below 1 pm (peak to peak) and the electric noise floor of tunneling current is about 6fA/√Hz. Atomic resolution with a tunneling current of 1 pA and 1 mV was achieved on Au(111). The lateral drift of the microscope at stable temperature is below 20 pm/h. A superconducting spilt-coil magnet allows to apply an out-of-plane magnetic field of up to 3 T at the sample surface. The flux vortices of a Nb(110) sample were clearly resolved in a map of differential conductance at 1.1 K and a magnetic field of 0.21 T. The setup is designed for in situ preparation of tip and samples under UHV condition.

  3. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  4. Diagnosis of electrocution: The application of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visonà, S D; Chen, Y; Bernardi, P; Andrello, L; Osculati, A

    2018-03-01

    Deaths from electricity, generally, do not have specific findings at the autopsy. The diagnosis is commonly based on the circumstances of the death and the morphologic findings, above all the current mark. Yet, the skin injury due to an electrocution and other kinds of thermal injuries often cannot be differentiated with certainty. Therefore, there is a great interest in finding specific markers of electrocution. The search for the metallization of the skin through Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) probe is of special importance in order to achieve a definite diagnosis in case of suspected electrocution. We selected five cases in which the electrocution was extremely likely considering the circumstances of the death. In each case a forensic autopsy was performed. Then, the skin specimens were stained with Hematoxylin Eosin and Perls. On the other hand, the skin lesions were examined with a scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS probe in order to evaluate the morphological ultrastructural features and the presence of deposits on the surface of the skin. The typical skin injury of the electrocution (current mark) were macroscopically detected in all of the cases. The microscopic examination of the skin lesions revealed the typical spherical vacuoles in the horny layer and, in the epidermis, the elongation of the cell nuclei as well as necrosis. Perls staining was negative in 4 out 6 cases. Ultrastructural morphology revealed the evident vacuolization of the horny layer, elongation of epidermic cells, coagulation of the elastic fibers. In the specimens collected from the site of contact with the conductor of case 1 and 2, the presence of the Kα peaks of iron was detected. In the corresponding specimens taken from cases 2, 4, 5 the microanalysis showed the Kα peaks of titanium. In case 3, titanium and carbon were found. In the suspicion of electrocution, the integrated use of different tools is recommended

  5. Stereo Cameras for Clouds (STEREOCAM) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Oktem, Rusen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The three pairs of stereo camera setups aim to provide synchronized and stereo calibrated time series of images that can be used for 3D cloud mask reconstruction. Each camera pair is positioned at approximately 120 degrees from the other pair, with a 17o-19o pitch angle from the ground, and at 5-6 km distance from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Central Facility at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) observatory to cover the region from northeast, northwest, and southern views. Images from both cameras of the same stereo setup can be paired together to obtain 3D reconstruction by triangulation. 3D reconstructions from the ring of three stereo pairs can be combined together to generate a 3D mask from surrounding views. This handbook delivers all stereo reconstruction parameters of the cameras necessary to make 3D reconstructions from the stereo camera images.

  6. Head-positioning scintillation camera and head holder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A holder for immobilizing the head of a patient undergoing a vertex brain scan by a Gamma Scintillation Camera is described. The holder has a uniquely designed shape capable of comfortably supporting the head. In addition, this holder can be both adjustably and removably utilized in combination with the scintillation camera so as to enable the brain scan operation to take place while the patient is in the seated position

  7. Cameras in mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, Ville; Viinikanoja, Jarkko; Alakarhu, Juha

    2006-04-01

    One of the fastest growing markets in consumer markets today are camera phones. During past few years total volume has been growing fast and today millions of mobile phones with camera will be sold. At the same time resolution and functionality of the cameras has been growing from CIF towards DSC level. From camera point of view the mobile world is an extremely challenging field. Cameras should have good image quality but in small size. They also need to be reliable and their construction should be suitable for mass manufacturing. All components of the imaging chain should be well optimized in this environment. Image quality and usability are the most important parameters to user. The current trend of adding more megapixels to cameras and at the same time using smaller pixels is affecting both. On the other hand reliability and miniaturization are key drivers for product development as well as the cost. In optimized solution all parameters are in balance but the process of finding the right trade-offs is not an easy task. In this paper trade-offs related to optics and their effects to image quality and usability of cameras are discussed. Key development areas from mobile phone camera point of view are also listed.

  8. Ultrasound scans and dual energy CT identify tendons as preferred anatomical location of MSU crystal depositions in gouty joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Xiang, Xi; Yuan, Tong-Ling; Qiu, Li; Liu, Yi; Luo, Yu-Bin; Zhao, Y; Herrmann, Martin

    2018-05-01

    The present study was performed to localize the articular deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal in joints. We compare the detection efficiencies of dual-energy CT (DECT) and ultrasound scans. Analyses by DECT and ultrasound were performed with 184 bilateral joints of the lower limbs of 54 consecutive gout patients. All joints were categorized into (1) knee, (2) ankle, (3) MTP1, and (4) MTP2, and sorted into those with and those without detectable MSU deposition. The comparison of the positive rate between DECT and ultrasound and the agreement was performed using the McNemar test and the Cohen's κ coefficient, respectively. Next, we listed the MSU crystal deposition as assessed by ultrasound between the DECT-positive and -negative joints according to their interior structure. We included tendons, synovia, cartilage, subcutaneous tissue, etc. RESULTS: Among all joints, the percentages with MSU crystal deposition detected by DECT (99/184, 53.8%) and ultrasound (106/184, 57.6%) were comparable (P = 0.530 > 0.05). For MTP1 (21/34, 61.8%; 12/34, 35.3%; P efficient, respectively. The data concordance in 46 of 50 joints (92.00%; κ = 0.769, P location of MSU crystal deposition. The tendons are the most frequent anatomical location of MSU crystal depositions. The concordance rate of knee joints and MTP2-5 joints shows good agreement between DECT and ultrasound depending on the location.

  9. An adaptive surface filter for airborne laser scanning point clouds by means of regularization and bending energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Han; Ding, Yulin; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Bo; Lin, Hui; Du, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yeting; Zhang, Yunsheng

    2014-06-01

    The filtering of point clouds is a ubiquitous task in the processing of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data; however, such filtering processes are difficult because of the complex configuration of the terrain features. The classical filtering algorithms rely on the cautious tuning of parameters to handle various landforms. To address the challenge posed by the bundling of different terrain features into a single dataset and to surmount the sensitivity of the parameters, in this study, we propose an adaptive surface filter (ASF) for the classification of ALS point clouds. Based on the principle that the threshold should vary in accordance to the terrain smoothness, the ASF embeds bending energy, which quantitatively depicts the local terrain structure to self-adapt the filter threshold automatically. The ASF employs a step factor to control the data pyramid scheme in which the processing window sizes are reduced progressively, and the ASF gradually interpolates thin plate spline surfaces toward the ground with regularization to handle noise. Using the progressive densification strategy, regularization and self-adaption, both performance improvement and resilience to parameter tuning are achieved. When tested against the benchmark datasets provided by ISPRS, the ASF performs the best in comparison with all other filtering methods, yielding an average total error of 2.85% when optimized and 3.67% when using the same parameter set.

  10. Characterization of wood dust from furniture by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Yepes, Milena Elizabeth; Cremades, Lázaro V

    2011-01-01

    Study characterized and analyzed form factor, elementary composition and particle size of wood dust, in order to understand its harmful health effects on carpenters in Quindío (Colombia). Once particle characteristics (size distributions, aerodynamic equivalent diameter (D(α)), elemental composition and shape factors) were analyzed, particles were then characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXRA). SEM analysis of particulate matter showed: 1) cone-shaped particle ranged from 2.09 to 48.79 µm D(α); 2) rectangular prism-shaped particle from 2.47 to 72.9 µm D(α); 3) cylindrically-shaped particle from 2.5 to 48.79 µm D(α); and 4) spherically-shaped particle from 2.61 to 51.93 µm D(α). EDXRA reveals presence of chemical elements from paints and varnishes such as Ca, K, Na and Cr. SEM/EDXRA contributes in a significant manner to the morphological characterization of wood dust. It is obvious that the type of particles sampled is a complex function of shapes and sizes of particles. Thus, it is important to investigate the influence of particles characteristics, morphology, shapes and D(α) that may affect the health of carpenters in Quindío.

  11. Thermal Cameras and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently the price has dropped, significantly opening up...... a broader field of applications. Deploying this type of sensor in vision systems eliminates the illumination problems of normal greyscale and RGB cameras. This survey provides an overview of the current applications of thermal cameras. Applications include animals, agriculture, buildings, gas detection......, industrial, and military applications, as well as detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Moreover, this survey describes the nature of thermal radiation and the technology of thermal cameras....

  12. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  13. Morphometric Optic Nerve Head Analysis in Glaucoma Patients: A Comparison between the Simultaneous Nonmydriatic Stereoscopic Fundus Camera (Kowa Nonmyd WX3D and the Heidelberg Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (HRT III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Mariacher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the agreement between morphometric optic nerve head parameters assessed with the confocal laser ophthalmoscope HRT III and the stereoscopic fundus camera Kowa nonmyd WX3D retrospectively. Methods. Morphometric optic nerve head parameters of 40 eyes of 40 patients with primary open angle glaucoma were analyzed regarding their vertical cup-to-disc-ratio (CDR. Vertical CDR, disc area, cup volume, rim volume, and maximum cup depth were assessed with both devices by one examiner. Mean bias and limits of agreement (95% CI were obtained using scatter plots and Bland-Altman analysis. Results. Overall vertical CDR comparison between HRT III and Kowa nonmyd WX3D measurements showed a mean difference (limits of agreement of −0.06 (−0.36 to 0.24. For the CDR < 0.5 group (n=24 mean difference in vertical CDR was −0.14 (−0.34 to 0.06 and for the CDR ≥ 0.5 group (n=16 0.06 (−0.21 to 0.34. Conclusion. This study showed a good agreement between Kowa nonmyd WX3D and HRT III with regard to widely used optic nerve head parameters in patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. However, data from Kowa nonmyd WX3D exhibited the tendency to measure larger CDR values than HRT III in the group with CDR < 0.5 group and lower CDR values in the group with CDR ≥ 0.5.

  14. Measurement of cerebral blood flow the blood sampling method using 99mTc-ECD. Simultaneous scintigram scanning of arterial blood samples and the brain with a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Takenori; Inugami, Atsushi; Iida, Hidehiro; Mizuta, Yoshihiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Inoue, Minoru

    1999-01-01

    To measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by blood sampling using 99m Tc-ECD we devised a method of measuring the radioactive concentration in arterial blood sample with a gamma camera. In this method the head and a blood sample are placed within the same visual field to record the SPECT data of both specimens simultaneously. The results of an evaluation of the counting rate performance, applying the 30 hours decaying method using 99m Tc solution showed that this method is not comparable to the well-type scintillation counter and in clinical cases the active concentration in arterial blood sample remained well within the dynamic range. In addition, examination of the influence of scattered radiation from the brain by the dilution method showed that it was negligible at a distance of more than 7.5 cm between the brain and the arterial blood sample. In the present study we placed a head-shaped phantom next to the sample. The results of the examinations suggested that this method is suitable for clinical application, and because it does not require a well-type scintillation counter, it is expected to find wide application. (author)

  15. Emission Trading System in the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. Macro-economic calculation by means of WorldScan; ETS in het SER Energieakkoord. Macro-economische doorrekening met WorldScan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, C. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    The Dutch National Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth aims at strengthening the European system for emissions trading by a more strict emission ceiling. Also, the agreement aims at guarantee the competitiveness of global energy intensive businesses by adjusting the allocation method for emission rights. In the calculations for the energy agreement this is reflected in the adjustment of the ETS pricing path. In this memo the calculations with the equilibrium model WordlScan are described and presented [Dutch] Het Nationaal Energieakkoord voor Duurzame Groei zet in op een versterking van het Europees systeem voor emissiehandel (ETS) door aanscherpen van het emissieplafond. Verder wil het akkoord de concurrentiepositie van het mondiaal opererende energie-intensieve bedrijfsleven borgen door aanpassing van de allocatiemethode voor emissierechten. In de doorrekening van het Energieakkoord is deze inzet tot uitdrukking gebracht in een aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad. Deze notitie beschrijft de berekeningen met het algemeen evenwichtsmodel WorldScan waar deze aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad op is gebaseerd.

  16. Towards next generation 3D cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit

    2017-03-01

    We are in the midst of a 3D revolution. Robots enabled by 3D cameras are beginning to autonomously drive cars, perform surgeries, and manage factories. However, when deployed in the real-world, these cameras face several challenges that prevent them from measuring 3D shape reliably. These challenges include large lighting variations (bright sunlight to dark night), presence of scattering media (fog, body tissue), and optically complex materials (metal, plastic). Due to these factors, 3D imaging is often the bottleneck in widespread adoption of several key robotics technologies. I will talk about our work on developing 3D cameras based on time-of-flight and active triangulation that addresses these long-standing problems. This includes designing `all-weather' cameras that can perform high-speed 3D scanning in harsh outdoor environments, as well as cameras that recover shape of objects with challenging material properties. These cameras are, for the first time, capable of measuring detailed (robotic inspection and assembly systems.

  17. Principle of some gamma cameras (efficiencies, limitations, development)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.; Bourdel, J.; Gariod, R.; Laval, M.; Levy, G.; Thomas, G.

    1975-01-01

    The quality of scintigraphic images is shown to depend on the efficiency of both the input collimator and the detector. Methods are described by which the quality of these images may be improved by adaptations to either the collimator (Fresnel zone camera, Compton effect camera) or the detector (Anger camera, image amplification camera). The Anger camera and image amplification camera are at present the two main instruments whereby acceptable space and energy resolutions may be obtained. A theoretical comparative study of their efficiencies is carried out, independently of their technological differences, after which the instruments designed or under study at the LETI are presented: these include the image amplification camera, the electron amplifier tube camera using a semi-conductor target CdTe and HgI 2 detector [fr

  18. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curt Allen; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Ronald Justin; Bruce Marshall; Oliver Sweningsen; Perry Bell; Roger Griffith; Karla Hagans; Richard Lerche

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses that are suitable for temporal calibrations

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form of gamma rays. Special cameras detect this energy, and with the help of a computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is usually performed on an outpatient ...

  20. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  1. Evaluation in vitro of effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers irradiation on root canal wall, by stereoscopy, scanning electron micrography and thermographic camera; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da irradiacao laser de Er:YAG e Nd:YAG na parede dentinaria do canal radicular, sob observacao do estereoscopio, da micrografia eletronica e da camera termografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goya, Claudia

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the effects of Nd:YAG laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation in the root canal wall by SEM, evaluating the apical leakage and the temperature changes during the laser irradiation. Seventy four extracted human teeth were used, they were instrumented and divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each. The teeth were evaluated through stereoscopy, by SEM, and with the thermographic camera. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation parameters were 100 mJ/p, 15 Hz, and Er:YAG laser were 160 mJ/p and 10 Hz, the irradiation was 4 times at 2 mm/sec speed, with 20 sec interval. The apical leakage was not observed in the teeth irradiated by Nd:YAG laser alone or in association with Er:YAG laser. However in the teeth irradiated only by the Er:YAG laser we observed a little leakage. By SEM observation the Nd:YAG laser irradiation showed melting and recrystallization in the dentin surface closing dentinal tubules, and in the samples irradiated by Er:Y AG laser a clean surface, opened dentinal tubules, and the combination by two lasers, showed melting covering some dentinal tubules The thermographic study found the temperature increase was not more than 6 deg C. This study showed the safety parameters applications of Er:YAG laser in association with Nd:YAG laser in root canal treatment, in order to not cause thermal damages to the periodontal tissues. (author)

  2. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  3. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.; Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  4. Determination of some elements along the length of pine needles by means of the scanning energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.; Katkevics, J.; Nulle, S.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXDF) is used to measure the distribution of trace elements along the length of single pine needles. The current set up allows simultaneous determination up to 15 trace elements. The pilot experiments showed that the distribution of some elements varied along length of the pine needle. Concentration variations of trace elements with the needle age and needle position within the foliage crown were also observed. This could be one way of studying the annual physiological cycle of needles. The scanning EDXRF method was compared with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). (authors)

  5. Neutron cameras for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Batistoni, P.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron cameras with horizontal and vertical views have been designed for ITER, based on systems used on JET and TFTR. The cameras consist of fan-shaped arrays of collimated flight tubes, with suitably chosen detectors situated outside the biological shield. The sight lines view the ITER plasma through slots in the shield blanket and penetrate the vacuum vessel, cryostat, and biological shield through stainless steel windows. This paper analyzes the expected performance of several neutron camera arrangements for ITER. In addition to the reference designs, the authors examine proposed compact cameras, in which neutron fluxes are inferred from 16 N decay gammas in dedicated flowing water loops, and conventional cameras with fewer sight lines and more limited fields of view than in the reference designs. It is shown that the spatial sampling provided by the reference designs is sufficient to satisfy target measurement requirements and that some reduction in field of view may be permissible. The accuracy of measurements with 16 N-based compact cameras is not yet established, and they fail to satisfy requirements for parameter range and time resolution by large margins

  6. Imaging capabilities of germanium gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidley, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative methods of analysis based on the use of a computer simulation were developed and used to investigate the imaging capabilities of germanium gamma cameras. The main advantage of the computer simulation is that the inherent unknowns of clinical imaging procedures are removed from the investigation. The effects of patient scattered radiation were incorporated using a mathematical LSF model which was empirically developed and experimentally verified. Image modifying effects of patient motion, spatial distortions, and count rate capabilities were also included in the model. Spatial domain and frequency domain modeling techniques were developed and used in the simulation as required. The imaging capabilities of gamma cameras were assessed using low contrast lesion source distributions. The results showed that an improvement in energy resolution from 10% to 2% offers significant clinical advantages in terms of improved contrast, increased detectability, and reduced patient dose. The improvements are of greatest significance for small lesions at low contrast. The results of the computer simulation were also used to compare a design of a hypothetical germanium gamma camera with a state-of-the-art scintillation camera. The computer model performed a parametric analysis of the interrelated effects of inherent and technological limitations of gamma camera imaging. In particular, the trade-off between collimator resolution and collimator efficiency for detection of a given low contrast lesion was directly addressed. This trade-off is an inherent limitation of both gamma cameras. The image degrading effects of patient motion, camera spatial distortions, and low count rate were shown to modify the improvements due to better energy resolution. Thus, based on this research, the continued development of germanium cameras to the point of clinical demonstration is recommended

  7. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  8. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  9. A wide field X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, M.; Turner, M.J.L.; Willingale, R.

    1980-01-01

    A wide field of view X-ray camera based on the Dicke or Coded Mask principle is described. It is shown that this type of instrument is more sensitive than a pin-hole camera, or than a scanning survey of a given region of sky for all wide field conditions. The design of a practical camera is discussed and the sensitivity and performance of the chosen design are evaluated by means of computer simulations. The Wiener Filter and Maximum Entropy methods of deconvolution are described and these methods are compared with each other and cross-correlation using data from the computer simulations. It is shown that the analytic expressions for sensitivity used by other workers are confirmed by the simulations, and that ghost images caused by incomplete coding can be substantially eliminated by the use of the Wiener Filter and the Maximum Entropy Method, with some penalty in computer time for the latter. The cyclic mask configuration is compared with the simple mask camera. It is shown that when the diffuse X-ray background dominates, the simple system is more sensitive and has the better angular resolution. When sources dominate the simple system is less sensitive. It is concluded that the simple coded mask camera is the best instrument for wide field imaging of the X-ray sky. (orig.)

  10. Commercialization of radiation tolerant camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Sun Ku; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Bung Hun; Lee, Nam Ho; Byun, Eiy Gyo; Yoo, Seun Wook; Choi, Bum Ki; Yoon, Sung Up; Kim, Hyun Gun; Sin, Jeong Hun; So, Suk Il

    1999-12-01

    In this project, radiation tolerant camera which tolerates 10{sup 6} - 10{sup 8} rad total dose is developed. In order to develop radiation tolerant camera, radiation effect of camera components was examined and evaluated, and camera configuration was studied. By the result of evaluation, the components were decided and design was performed. Vidicon tube was selected to use by image sensor and non-browning optics and camera driving circuit were applied. The controller needed for CCTV camera system, lens, light, pan/tilt controller, was designed by the concept of remote control. And two type of radiation tolerant camera were fabricated consider to use in underwater environment or normal environment. (author)

  11. Commercialization of radiation tolerant camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Sun Ku; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Bung Hun; Lee, Nam Ho; Byun, Eiy Gyo; Yoo, Seun Wook; Choi, Bum Ki; Yoon, Sung Up; Kim, Hyun Gun; Sin, Jeong Hun; So, Suk Il

    1999-12-01

    In this project, radiation tolerant camera which tolerates 10 6 - 10 8 rad total dose is developed. In order to develop radiation tolerant camera, radiation effect of camera components was examined and evaluated, and camera configuration was studied. By the result of evaluation, the components were decided and design was performed. Vidicon tube was selected to use by image sensor and non-browning optics and camera driving circuit were applied. The controller needed for CCTV camera system, lens, light, pan/tilt controller, was designed by the concept of remote control. And two type of radiation tolerant camera were fabricated consider to use in underwater environment or normal environment. (author)

  12. Calcium detection in secretion granules of avian oviduct by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, T.; Hatsuoka, M.; Sugi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Secretion granules in the shell gland, isthmus, and albumin-secreting region of the hen oviduct were analyzed with WET-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX, a combination of wide-angle backscattered electron detector (BED) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDX). Glutaraldehyde-fixed but unhydrated, unstained, and uncoated samples were analyzed; Ca was localized in all secretion granules in all three sections of the hen oviduct studied

  13. Contrast Dose and Radiation Dose Reduction in Abdominal Enhanced Computerized Tomography Scans with Single-phase Dual-energy Spectral Computerized Tomography Mode for Children with Solid Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Yu; Jun Gao; Zhi-Min Liu; Qi-Feng Zhang; Yong Liu; Ling Jiang; Yun Peng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Contrast dose and radiation dose reduction in computerized tomography (CT) scan for adult has been explored successfully, but there have been few studies on the application of low-concentration contrast in pediatric abdominal CT examinations. This was a feasibility study on the use of dual-energy spectral imaging and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) for the reduction of radiation dose and iodine contrast dose in pediatric abdominal CT patients with solid tumors...

  14. Selective-imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Landa, Joseph; Cha, Jae H.; Krapels, Keith A.

    2015-05-01

    How can we design cameras that image selectively in Full Electro-Magnetic (FEM) spectra? Without selective imaging, we cannot use, for example, ordinary tourist cameras to see through fire, smoke, or other obscurants contributing to creating a Visually Degraded Environment (VDE). This paper addresses a possible new design of selective-imaging cameras at firmware level. The design is consistent with physics of the irreversible thermodynamics of Boltzmann's molecular entropy. It enables imaging in appropriate FEM spectra for sensing through the VDE, and displaying in color spectra for Human Visual System (HVS). We sense within the spectra the largest entropy value of obscurants such as fire, smoke, etc. Then we apply a smart firmware implementation of Blind Sources Separation (BSS) to separate all entropy sources associated with specific Kelvin temperatures. Finally, we recompose the scene using specific RGB colors constrained by the HVS, by up/down shifting Planck spectra at each pixel and time.

  15. Automatic Segmentation of Abdominal Fat in MRI-Scans, Using Graph-Cuts and Image Derived Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Larsen, Christian Thode; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2017-01-01

    For many clinical studies changes in the abdominal distribution of fat is an important measure. However, the segmentation of abdominal fat in MRI scans is both difficult and time consuming using manual methods. We present here an automatic and flexible software package, that performs both bias fi...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  17. Scanning by use of TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevermann, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of TV read out for scanning and measuring holographic pictures seems to give less problems than the use of optical projection as is usual for conventional bubble chamber photos. Whereas the measuring of conventional bubble chamber pictures seems to give no problems, it is not clear whether scanning by use of TV is possible. Therefore scanning pictures from experiment NA16 (taken in LEBC) with TV only was tried using the TV system of ERASME, where the CRT system is used as a camera. It should be mentioned that this system, being a flying spot device, cannot be adapted for holography. (author)

  18. Underwater Inspection of Navigation Structures with an Acoustic Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    the camera with a slow angular speed while recording the images. 5. After the scanning has been performed, review recorded data to determine the...Core x86) or newer  2GB RAM  120GB disc space Operating system requirements  Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7, 32/64 bit Java requirements  Sun... Java JDK, Version 1.6, Update 16 or newer, for installation Limitations and tips for proper scanning  Best results are achieved when scanning in

  19. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...

  20. The world's fastest camera

    CERN Multimedia

    Piquepaille, Roland

    2006-01-01

    This image processor is not your typical digital camera. It took 6 years to 20 people and $6 million to build the "Regional Calorimeter Trigger"(RCT) which will be a component of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, one of the detectors on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland (1 page)

  1. Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.

    1982-02-01

    The way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particularly in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. The IEC document 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' is discussed

  2. Camera network video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rameswar; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K.

    2017-05-01

    Networks of vision sensors are deployed in many settings, ranging from security needs to disaster response to environmental monitoring. Many of these setups have hundreds of cameras and tens of thousands of hours of video. The difficulty of analyzing such a massive volume of video data is apparent whenever there is an incident that requires foraging through vast video archives to identify events of interest. As a result, video summarization, that automatically extract a brief yet informative summary of these videos, has attracted intense attention in the recent years. Much progress has been made in developing a variety of ways to summarize a single video in form of a key sequence or video skim. However, generating a summary from a set of videos captured in a multi-camera network still remains as a novel and largely under-addressed problem. In this paper, with the aim of summarizing videos in a camera network, we introduce a novel representative selection approach via joint embedding and capped l21-norm minimization. The objective function is two-fold. The first is to capture the structural relationships of data points in a camera network via an embedding, which helps in characterizing the outliers and also in extracting a diverse set of representatives. The second is to use a capped l21-norm to model the sparsity and to suppress the influence of data outliers in representative selection. We propose to jointly optimize both of the objectives, such that embedding can not only characterize the structure, but also indicate the requirements of sparse representative selection. Extensive experiments on standard multi-camera datasets well demonstrate the efficacy of our method over state-of-the-art methods.

  3. Estimation of stature and length of limb segments in children and adolescents from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamyan, Davit O.; Gazarian, Aram; Braillon, Pierre M.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropometric standards vary among different populations, and renewal of these reference values is necessary. To produce formulae for the assessment of limb segment lengths. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of 413 Caucasian children and adolescents (170 boys, 243 girls) aged from 6 to 18 years were retrospectively analysed. Body height and the lengths of four long bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) were measured. The validity (concurrent validity) and reproducibility (intraobserver reliability) of the measurement technique were tested. High linear correlations (r > 0.9) were found between the mentioned five longitudinal measures. Corresponding linear regression equations for the most important relationships were derived. The tests of validity and reproducibility revealed a good degree of precision of the applied technique. The reference formulae obtained from the analysis of whole-body DEXA scans will be useful for anthropologists, and forensic and nutrition specialists, as well as for prosthetists and paediatric orthopaedic surgeons. (orig.)

  4. Using the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer to do mineral identification and compositional point counting on unconsolidated marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid and accurate method of point-counting sands and silt-size in unconsolidated open-ocean sediments. As traditional techniques for this operation cannot be employed on the fine-grained material which frequently forms the bulk of deep sea marine sediments, an alternative method has been sought. The method described makes use of equipment known as QUANTEX-RAY comprising a computerised data acquisition and reduction system designed for use in X-ray energy spectrometry and used in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Grains that cannot be identified by their visual morphology in the scanning electron microscope are analysed by X-ray spectrometry. Spectra are acquired in 200 seconds or less and processed by a sequence of software routines under semi-automatic control producing a listing of oxide concentrations as the final result. Each user must customize the control programme and operating conditions to suit his requirements

  5. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  6. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-04-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  7. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each ring contains a plurality of scintillation detectors which are positioned around an inner circumference with a septum ring extending inwardly from the inner circumference along each outer edge of each ring. An additional septum ring is positioned in the middle of each ring of detectors and parallel to the other septa rings, whereby the inward extent of all the septa rings may be reduced by one-half and the number of detectors required in each ring is reduced. The additional septa reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  8. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)

  9. NSTX Tangential Divertor Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Ted Biewer; Johnson, D.; Zweben, S.J.; Nobuhiro Nishino; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strong magnetic field shear around the divertor x-point is numerically predicted to lead to strong spatial asymmetries in turbulence driven particle fluxes. To visualize the turbulence and associated impurity line emission near the lower x-point region, a new tangential observation port has been recently installed on NSTX. A reentrant sapphire window with a moveable in-vessel mirror images the divertor region from the center stack out to R 80 cm and views the x-point for most plasma configurations. A coherent fiber optic bundle transmits the image through a remotely selected filter to a fast camera, for example a 40500 frames/sec Photron CCD camera. A gas puffer located in the lower inboard divertor will localize the turbulence in the region near the x-point. Edge fluid and turbulent codes UEDGE and BOUT will be used to interpret impurity and deuterium emission fluctuation measurements in the divertor

  10. Performance assessment of gamma cameras. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, A.T.; Short, M.D.; Potter, D.C.; Barnes, K.J.

    1980-11-01

    The Dept. of Health and Social Security and the Scottish Home and Health Dept. has sponsored a programme of measurements of the important performance characteristics of 15 leading types of gamma cameras providing a routine radionuclide imaging service in hospitals throughout the UK. Measurements have been made of intrinsic resolution, system resolution, non-uniformity, spatial distortion, count rate performance, sensitivity, energy resolution and shield leakage. The main aim of this performance assessment was to provide sound information to the NHS to ease the task of those responsible for the purchase of gamma cameras. (U.K.)

  11. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  12. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The principal problem in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning is the length of time required to obtain meaningful data. Patient movement and radioisotope migration during the scanning period can cause distortion of the image. The object of this invention is to reduce the scanning time without degrading the images obtained. A system is described in which a scintillation camera detector is moved to an orbit about the cranial-caudal axis relative to the patient. A collimator is used in which lead septa are arranged so as to admit gamma rays travelling perpendicular to this axis with high spatial resolution and those travelling in the direction of the axis with low spatial resolution, thus increasing the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable without sacrificing spatial resolution. (author)

  13. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  14. Comparison of polarimetric cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget , Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...polarimetric camera, remote sensing, space systems 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 93 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18...2016. Hermann Hall, Monterey, CA. The next data in Figure 37. were collected on 01 December 2016 at 1226 PST on the rooftop of the Marriot Hotel in

  15. Determination of the bonding of alkyl monolayers to the Si(111) surface using chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.; Linford, M.R.; Wigren, C.; Cao, R.; Pianetta, P.; Chidsey, C.E. [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The bonding of alkyl monolayers to Si(111) surfaces has been studied by conventional x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction (PED) using synchrotron radiation. Two very different wet-chemical methods have been used to prepare the alkyl monolayers: (i) olefin insertion into the H{endash}Si bond on the H{endash}Si(111) surface, and (ii) replacement of Cl on the Cl{endash}Si(111) surface by an alkyl group from an alkyllithium reagent. In both cases, XPS has revealed a C 1s signal chemically shifted to lower binding energy, which we have assigned to carbon bonded to silicon. PED has shown that both preparative methods result in carbon bonded in an atop site with the expected C{endash}Si bond length of 1.85{plus_minus}0.05{Angstrom}. Chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction is a particularly valuable probe of local structure at surfaces that contain the same element in multiple, chemically distinct environments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Determination of the bonding of alkyl monolayers to the Si(111) surface using chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.; Linford, M.R.; Wigren, C.; Cao, R.; Pianetta, P.; Chidsey, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The bonding of alkyl monolayers to Si(111) surfaces has been studied by conventional x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction (PED) using synchrotron radiation. Two very different wet-chemical methods have been used to prepare the alkyl monolayers: (i) olefin insertion into the H endash Si bond on the H endash Si(111) surface, and (ii) replacement of Cl on the Cl endash Si(111) surface by an alkyl group from an alkyllithium reagent. In both cases, XPS has revealed a C 1s signal chemically shifted to lower binding energy, which we have assigned to carbon bonded to silicon. PED has shown that both preparative methods result in carbon bonded in an atop site with the expected C endash Si bond length of 1.85±0.05 Angstrom. Chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction is a particularly valuable probe of local structure at surfaces that contain the same element in multiple, chemically distinct environments. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Improved scFv Anti-HIV-1 p17 Binding Affinity Guided from the Theoretical Calculation of Pairwise Decomposition Energies and Computational Alanine Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panthip Tue-ngeun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational approaches have been used to evaluate and define important residues for protein-protein interactions, especially antigen-antibody complexes. In our previous study, pairwise decomposition of residue interaction energies of single chain Fv with HIV-1 p17 epitope variants has indicated the key specific residues in the complementary determining regions (CDRs of scFv anti-p17. In this present investigation in order to determine whether a specific side chain group of residue in CDRs plays an important role in bioactivity, computational alanine scanning has been applied. Molecular dynamics simulations were done with several complexes of original scFv anti-p17 and scFv anti-p17mutants with HIV-1 p17 epitope variants with a production run up to 10 ns. With the combination of pairwise decomposition residue interaction and alanine scanning calculations, the point mutation has been initially selected at the position MET100 to improve the residue binding affinity. The calculated docking interaction energy between a single mutation from methionine to either arginine or glycine has shown the improved binding affinity, contributed from the electrostatic interaction with the negative favorably interaction energy, compared to the wild type. Theoretical calculations agreed well with the results from the peptide ELISA results.

  18. Contrast Dose and Radiation Dose Reduction in Abdominal Enhanced Computerized Tomography Scans with Single-phase Dual-energy Spectral Computerized Tomography Mode for Children with Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Gao, Jun; Liu, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Qi-Feng; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Ling; Peng, Yun

    2017-04-05

    Contrast dose and radiation dose reduction in computerized tomography (CT) scan for adult has been explored successfully, but there have been few studies on the application of low-concentration contrast in pediatric abdominal CT examinations. This was a feasibility study on the use of dual-energy spectral imaging and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) for the reduction of radiation dose and iodine contrast dose in pediatric abdominal CT patients with solid tumors. Forty-five patients with solid tumors who had initial CT (Group B) and follow-up CT (Group A) after chemotherapy were enrolled. The initial diagnostic CT scan (Group B) was performed using the standard two-phase enhanced CT with 320 mgI/ml concentration contrast, and the follow-up scan (Group A) was performed using a single-phase enhanced CT at 45 s after the beginning of the 270 mgI/ml contrast injection using spectral mode. Forty percent ASiR was used for the images in Group B and monochromatic images with energy levels ≥60 keV in Group A. In addition, filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction was used for monochromatic images hounsfield unit (HU). The abdominal organs of Groups A and B had similar degrees of absolute and relative enhancement (t = 0.36 and -1.716 for liver, -0.153 and -1.546 for pancreas, and 2.427 and 0.866 for renal cortex, all P> 0.05). Signal-to-noise ratio of the abdominal organs was significantly lower in Group A than in Group B (t = -8.11 for liver, -7.83 for pancreas, and -5.38 for renal cortex, all P 3, indicating clinically acceptable image quality. Single-phase, dual-energy spectral CT used for children with solid abdominal tumors can reduce contrast dose and radiation dose and can also maintain clinically acceptable image quality.

  19. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  20. Fog camera to visualize ionizing charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo A, L.; Rodriguez R, N. I.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The human being can not perceive the different types of ionizing radiation, natural or artificial, present in the nature, for what appropriate detection systems have been developed according to the sensibility to certain radiation type and certain energy type. The objective of this work was to build a fog camera to visualize the traces, and to identify the trajectories, produced by charged particles with high energy, coming mainly of the cosmic rays. The origin of the cosmic rays comes from the solar radiation generated by solar eruptions where the protons compose most of this radiation. It also comes, of the galactic radiation which is composed mainly of charged particles and gamma rays that comes from outside of the solar system. These radiation types have energy time millions higher that those detected in the earth surface, being more important as the height on the sea level increases. These particles in their interaction produce secondary particles that are detectable by means of this cameras type. The camera operates by means of a saturated atmosphere of alcohol vapor. In the moment in that a charged particle crosses the cold area of the atmosphere, the medium is ionized and the particle acts like a condensation nucleus of the alcohol vapor, leaving a visible trace of its trajectory. The built camera was very stable, allowing the detection in continuous form and the observation of diverse events. (Author)

  1. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Abedi, Iraj; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft) and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) using a Dual-Energy X-ra...

  2. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  3. Joint Calibration of 3d Laser Scanner and Digital Camera Based on Dlt Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Li, M.; Xing, L.; Liu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Design a calibration target that can be scanned by 3D laser scanner while shot by digital camera, achieving point cloud and photos of a same target. A method to joint calibrate 3D laser scanner and digital camera based on Direct Linear Transformation algorithm was proposed. This method adds a distortion model of digital camera to traditional DLT algorithm, after repeating iteration, it can solve the inner and external position element of the camera as well as the joint calibration of 3D laser scanner and digital camera. It comes to prove that this method is reliable.

  4. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...

  5. SCANNING ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF THE FRACTURED SURFACES OF CANINE CALCULI FROM SUBSTRATA WITH DIFFERENT SURFACE FREE-ENERGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    UYEN, HMW; JONGEBLOED, WL; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1991-01-01

    The strength of adhesion between dental calculus and enamel or dentin surfaces determines the ease with which the calculus can be removed by brushing or professional dental treatment. In this study, we examined the adhesion of canine calculi formed on substrata with different surface free energies

  6. Collimator trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, Ronald J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved collimator is provided for a scintillation camera system that employs a detector head for transaxial tomographic scanning. One object of this invention is to significantly reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Another is to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a radiation source of known strength without sacrificing spatial resolution. A further object is to reduce the necessary scanning time without degrading the images obtained. The collimator described has apertures defined by septa of different radiation transparency. The septa are aligned to provide greater radiation shielding from gamma radiation travelling within planes perpendicular to the cranial-caudal axis and less radiation shielding from gamma radiation travelling within other planes. Septa may also define apertures such that the collimator provides high spatial resolution of gamma rays traveling within planes perpendicular to the cranial-caudal axis and directed at the detector and high radiation sensitivity to gamma radiation travelling other planes and indicated at the detector. (LL)

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging techniques used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called a scintillation camera, detects radioactive ...

  8. Preliminary study on the differentiation between parapelvic cyst and hydronephrosis with non-calculous using only pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Ma, Guangming; Wei, Lequn; Ren, Chenglong; Zhou, Jieli; Shen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of using the quantitative parameters from only the pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT imaging for distinguishing between parapelvic cyst and hydronephrosis with non-calculous (HNC). Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. 28 patients with parapelvic cyst and 24 patients with HNC who underwent standard pre-contrast and multiphase contrast-enhanced dual-energy spectral CT imaging were retrospectively identified. The parapelvic cyst and HNC were identified using the contrast-enhanced scans, and their CT number in the 70-keV monochromatic images, effective atomic number (Zeff), iodine concentration (IC) and water concentration in the pre-contrast images were measured. The slope of the spectral curve (λ) was calculated. The difference in the measurements between parapelvic cyst and HNC was statistically analyzed using SPSS® v. 19.0 (IBM Corp., New York, NY; formerly SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) statistical software. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Results: The CT numbers in the 70-keV images, Zeff and IC values were statistically different between parapelvic cyst and HNC (all p  0.05). Conclusion: The quantitative parameters obtained in the pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT imaging may be used to differentiate between parapelvic cyst and HNC. Advances in knowledge: The pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT scans may be used to screen parapelvic cysts for patients who are asymptomatic, thereby avoiding contrast-enhanced CT or CT urography examination for these patients to reduce ionizing radiation dose and contrast dose. PMID:28281789

  9. Quality control of plane and tomographic gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.; Roussi, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the authors present different methods of gamma camera quality control in matters of uniformity, spatial resolution, spatial linearity, sensitivity, energy resolution, counting rate performance, SPECT parameters. The authors refer mainly to NEMA standards. 14 figs., 8 tabs

  10. A genome-wide linkage scan for dietary energy and nutrient intakes: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaku, Agron; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Leon, Arthur S; Rao, D C; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Bouchard, Claude

    2004-05-01

    A poor diet is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. Twin and family studies suggest that genetic factors potentially influence energy and nutrient intakes. We sought to identify genomic regions harboring genes affecting total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes. We performed a genomic scan in 347 white sibling pairs and 99 black sibling pairs. Dietary energy and nutrient intakes were assessed by using Willett's food-frequency questionnaire. Single-point and multipoint Haseman-Elston regression techniques were used to test for linkage. These subjects were part of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, a multicenter project undertaken by 5 laboratories. In the whites, the strongest evidence of linkage appeared for dietary energy and nutrient intakes on chromosomes 1p21.2 (P = 0.0002) and 20q13.13 (P = 0.00007), and that for fat intake appeared on chromosome 12q14.1 (P = 0.0013). The linkage evidence on chromosomes 1 and 20 related to total energy intake rather than to the intake of specific macronutrients. In the blacks, promising linkages for macronutrient intakes occurred on chromosomes 12q23-q24.21, 1q32.1, and 7q11.1. Several potential candidate genes are encoded in and around the linkage regions on chromosomes 1p21.2, 12q14.1, and 20q13.13. These are the first reported human quantitative trait loci for dietary energy and macronutrient intakes. Further study may refine these quantitative trait loci to identify potential candidate genes for energy and specific macronutrient intakes that would be amenable to more detailed molecular studies.

  11. A novel simultaneous streak and framing camera without principle errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingzhen, L.; Fengshan, S.; Ningwen, L.; Xiangdong, G.; Bin, H.; Qingyang, W.; Hongyi, C.; Yi, C.; Xiaowei, L.

    2018-02-01

    A novel simultaneous streak and framing camera with continuous access, the perfect information of which is far more important for the exact interpretation and precise evaluation of many detonation events and shockwave phenomena, has been developed. The camera with the maximum imaging frequency of 2 × 106 fps and the maximum scanning velocity of 16.3 mm/μs has fine imaging properties which are the eigen resolution of over 40 lp/mm in the temporal direction and over 60 lp/mm in the spatial direction and the framing frequency principle error of zero for framing record, and the maximum time resolving power of 8 ns and the scanning velocity nonuniformity of 0.136%~-0.277% for streak record. The test data have verified the performance of the camera quantitatively. This camera, simultaneously gained frames and streak with parallax-free and identical time base, is characterized by the plane optical system at oblique incidence different from space system, the innovative camera obscura without principle errors, and the high velocity motor driven beryllium-like rotating mirror, made of high strength aluminum alloy with cellular lateral structure. Experiments demonstrate that the camera is very useful and reliable to take high quality pictures of the detonation events.

  12. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and inter-camera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Eendebak, Pieter T.; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.

    2015-10-01

    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many cameras, or for frequent ad-hoc deployments of cameras, the cost of this calibration is high. This creates a barrier for the use of video analytics. Automating the calibration allows for a short configuration time, and the use of video analytics in a wider range of scenarios, including ad-hoc crisis situations and large scale surveillance systems. We show an autocalibration method entirely based on pedestrian detections in surveillance video in multiple non-overlapping cameras. In this paper, we show the two main components of automatic calibration. The first shows the intra-camera geometry estimation that leads to an estimate of the tilt angle, focal length and camera height, which is important for the conversion from pixels to meters and vice versa. The second component shows the inter-camera topology inference that leads to an estimate of the distance between cameras, which is important for spatio-temporal analysis of multi-camera tracking. This paper describes each of these methods and provides results on realistic video data.

  13. Design and tests of a portable mini gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, F.; Benlloch, J.M.; Escat, B.; Pavon, N.; Porras, E.; Kadi-Hanifi, D.; Ruiz, J.A.; Mora, F.J.; Sebastia, A.

    2004-01-01

    Design optimization, manufacturing, and tests, both laboratory and clinical, of a portable gamma camera for medical applications are presented. This camera, based on a continuous scintillation crystal and a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube, has an intrinsic spatial resolution of ≅2 mm, an energy resolution of 13% at 140 keV, and linearities of 0.28 mm (absolute) and 0.15 mm (differential), with a useful field of view of 4.6 cm diameter. Our camera can image small organs with high efficiency and so it can address the demand for devices of specific clinical applications like thyroid and sentinel node scintigraphy as well as scintimammography and radio-guided surgery. The main advantages of the gamma camera with respect to those previously reported in the literature are high portability, low cost, and weight (2 kg), with no significant loss of sensitivity and spatial resolution. All the electronic components are packed inside the minigamma camera, and no external electronic devices are required. The camera is only connected through the universal serial bus port to a portable personal computer (PC), where a specific software allows to control both the camera parameters and the measuring process, by displaying on the PC the acquired image on 'real time'. In this article, we present the camera and describe the procedures that have led us to choose its configuration. Laboratory and clinical tests are presented together with diagnostic capabilities of the gamma camera

  14. On the Progress of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Imaging in a Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Müller, Erich; Meffert, Matthias; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2018-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with low-energy electrons has been recognized as an important addition to the family of electron microscopies as it may avoid knock-on damage and increase the contrast of weakly scattering objects. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are well suited for low-energy electron microscopy with maximum electron energies of 30 keV, but they are mainly used for topography imaging of bulk samples. Implementation of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector and a charge-coupled-device camera for the acquisition of on-axis transmission electron diffraction (TED) patterns, in combination with recent resolution improvements, make SEMs highly interesting for structure analysis of some electron-transparent specimens which are traditionally investigated by TEM. A new aspect is correlative SEM, STEM, and TED imaging from the same specimen region in a SEM which leads to a wealth of information. Simultaneous image acquisition gives information on surface topography, inner structure including crystal defects and qualitative material contrast. Lattice-fringe resolution is obtained in bright-field STEM imaging. The benefits of correlative SEM/STEM/TED imaging in a SEM are exemplified by structure analyses from representative sample classes such as nanoparticulates and bulk materials.

  15. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese individuals: The possibility to estimate whole body composition from DXA half-body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, K.; Neovius, M.; Grigorenko, A.; Nordenstroem, J.; Roessner, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Because of its high accuracy, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become one of the most frequently used methods for estimating human body composition. One limiting factor concerning measuring obese people with the DXA technique is the size of the scanning area. Objective: To explore the possibility of estimating whole body composition from half-body scans before and after weight reduction, and compare the results with densitometry measurements. Design: Intervention study of 15 obese adults (age 47.2 ± 13.4; BMI 35.9 ± 3.1) who were measured with full- and half-body DXA scans before and after a 7-week weight loss program. On both occasions, body composition was also assessed with air-displacement plethysmography (ADP). Results: The mean weight loss at follow-up was 14.9 ± 4.1 kg (5.0 kg/m 2 ), corresponding to a 14% decrease in body weight. When comparing the results from full- and half-body DXA, between 96% and 98% of the variance was explained. At baseline, %Body Fat (%BF) did not differ significantly between full and half-body measurements (0.6, -0.1-1.3), but the half-body method overestimated it by 1.0% (0.2-1.8) at follow-up. On the contrary, the difference between DXA and ADP in the assessment of %BF was both significant and of large magnitude (5.2; 2.4-8.0) at baseline, while non-significant and near zero (0.4; -1.3-2.2) at follow-up when the subjects had lost a significant amount of weight. Conclusion: The results obtained from half-body DXA scans can accurately predict whole body composition, as measured by full-body DXA, before and after significant weight reduction, in obese patients who barely fit into the scanning area. However, increasing discordance between DXA and ADP with increasing adiposity was seen, indicating that the measurements might not be as reliable on extreme obese subjects as on normal and overweight ditto

  16. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese individuals: The possibility to estimate whole body composition from DXA half-body scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: kent.lundqvist@karolinska.se; Neovius, M. [Obesity Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Grigorenko, A. [Research and Development Unit, YLab Wellcare Institute, SE-113 60 Stockholm (Sweden); Nordenstroem, J. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Roessner, S. [Obesity Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Background: Because of its high accuracy, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become one of the most frequently used methods for estimating human body composition. One limiting factor concerning measuring obese people with the DXA technique is the size of the scanning area. Objective: To explore the possibility of estimating whole body composition from half-body scans before and after weight reduction, and compare the results with densitometry measurements. Design: Intervention study of 15 obese adults (age 47.2 {+-} 13.4; BMI 35.9 {+-} 3.1) who were measured with full- and half-body DXA scans before and after a 7-week weight loss program. On both occasions, body composition was also assessed with air-displacement plethysmography (ADP). Results: The mean weight loss at follow-up was 14.9 {+-} 4.1 kg (5.0 kg/m{sup 2}), corresponding to a 14% decrease in body weight. When comparing the results from full- and half-body DXA, between 96% and 98% of the variance was explained. At baseline, %Body Fat (%BF) did not differ significantly between full and half-body measurements (0.6, -0.1-1.3), but the half-body method overestimated it by 1.0% (0.2-1.8) at follow-up. On the contrary, the difference between DXA and ADP in the assessment of %BF was both significant and of large magnitude (5.2; 2.4-8.0) at baseline, while non-significant and near zero (0.4; -1.3-2.2) at follow-up when the subjects had lost a significant amount of weight. Conclusion: The results obtained from half-body DXA scans can accurately predict whole body composition, as measured by full-body DXA, before and after significant weight reduction, in obese patients who barely fit into the scanning area. However, increasing discordance between DXA and ADP with increasing adiposity was seen, indicating that the measurements might not be as reliable on extreme obese subjects as on normal and overweight ditto.

  17. Dosimetric implications of shifts in linear accelerator electron beam energy detected in routine constancy checks: a scanning film densitometry detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.; Wang, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of change in electron beam energy are primarily manifest by changes in the range parameters of the depth ionisation/dose curve. Even for a change of up to 10% in the mean energy at the surface, E O , the dose to the depth of maximum on the central axis changes by less than 1%. Using as a limit of acceptability that the change in the therapeutic range (R 85 ) should not be more than ±1.5 mm, the precision required by beam energy checking is that a change of 0.4 MeV in E O should be detectable for all electron beams provided by the accelerator. To satisfy this criterion a routine method is proposed that uses therapy verification film exposed to the electron beam under a perspex wedge. The automatically processed film is then scanned with the densitometer of a beam data acquisition system (BDAS). The optical density versus distance plot is analysed using the BDAS computer that converts it to a quasi-depth dose curve and then calculates E O and E p,0 from the range parameters. The results for electron beams from console energies of 5 to 14 MeV show that the test criterion is within the capability of the method, and that the method is very practical for routine use in a quality assurance program. 9 refs., 5 tab., 2 figs

  18. A model for environmental scanning oriented for the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Fabiane dos Reis

    1997-01-01

    Presently, all the organizations involved with nuclear activities must be one step ahead of what happens in the specific activity areas in order to avoid surprises, to guarantee their activity continuity and the objective extents, and taking into account the external environment influence exercised by the organization on their activities. So, it is necessary a continuous follow up of their transformations. This paper aims to structure a model of the environmental monitoring system oriented to the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, as function of that new informational needs viewing the fulfilment of that observed gap. (author)

  19. Characterisation of microfocused beam for synchrotron powder diffraction using a new X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C; Potter, J; Tang, C C; Lennie, A R

    2012-01-01

    The powder diffraction beamline I11, Diamond Light Source, is being continually upgraded as requirements of the user community evolve. Intensities of X-rays from the I11 in-vacuum electron undulator in the 3 GeV synchrotron fall off at higher energies. By focusing higher energy X-rays, we can overcome flux limitations, and open up new diffraction experiments. Here, we describe characterisation of microfocusing using compound refractive lenses (CRL). For a relatively modest outlay, we have developed an experimental setup and a novel X-ray camera with good sensitivity and a resolution specification suitable for characterising these focusing optics. We show that vertical oscillations in the focused beam compromise resolution of the source imaged by the CRL. Nevertheless, we have measured CRL focusing properties, and demonstrate the use of energy scanning to determine lens alignment. Real benefits of the intensity gain are illustrated.

  20. MOCCA: A 4k-Pixel Molecule Camera for the Position- and Energy-Resolving Detection of Neutral Molecule Fragments at CSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, L.; Schulz, D.; Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Kempf, S.; Krantz, C.; Novotný, O.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present the design of MOCCA, a large-area particle detector that is developed for the position- and energy-resolving detection of neutral molecule fragments produced in electron-ion interactions at the Cryogenic Storage Ring at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg. The detector is based on metallic magnetic calorimeters and consists of 4096 particle absorbers covering a total detection area of 44.8 mathrm {mm} × 44.8 mathrm {mm}. Groups of four absorbers are thermally coupled to a common paramagnetic temperature sensor where the strength of the thermal link is different for each absorber. This allows attributing a detector event within this group to the corresponding absorber by discriminating the signal rise times. A novel readout scheme further allows reading out all 1024 temperature sensors that are arranged in a 32 × 32 square array using only 16+16 current-sensing superconducting quantum interference devices. Numerical calculations taking into account a simplified detector model predict an energy resolution of Δ E_mathrm {FWHM} le 80 mathrm {eV} for all pixels of this detector.

  1. Configurations of the Re-scan Confocal Microscope (RCM) for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Luca, G. M. R.; Desclos, E.; Breedijk, R. M. P.; Dolz-Edo, L.; Smits, G. J.; Bielefeld, P.; Picavet, L.; Fitzsimons, C. P.; Hoebe, R.; Manders, E. M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The new high-sensitive and high-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), is based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan detection unit. The re-scan unit includes a pair of re-scanning mirrors that project the emission light onto a camera in a scanning manner. The

  2. Configurations of the Re-scan Confocal Microscope (RCM) for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.M.R.; Desclos, E.; Breedijk, R.M.P.; Dolz-Edo, L.; Smits, G.J.; Nahidiazar, L.; Bielefeld, P.; Picavet, L.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; Hoebe, R.; Manders, E.M.M.

    The new high-sensitive and high-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), is based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan detection unit. The re-scan unit includes a pair of re-scanning mirrors that project the emission light onto a camera in a scanning manner. The

  3. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  4. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  5. Video Chat with Multiple Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    MacCormick, John

    2012-01-01

    The dominant paradigm for video chat employs a single camera at each end of the conversation, but some conversations can be greatly enhanced by using multiple cameras at one or both ends. This paper provides the first rigorous investigation of multi-camera video chat, concentrating especially on the ability of users to switch between views at either end of the conversation. A user study of 23 individuals analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of permitting a user to switch between views at...

  6. A Motionless Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Omniview, a motionless, noiseless, exceptionally versatile camera was developed for NASA as a receiving device for guiding space robots. The system can see in one direction and provide as many as four views simultaneously. Developed by Omniview, Inc. (formerly TRI) under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, the system's image transformation electronics produce a real-time image from anywhere within a hemispherical field. Lens distortion is removed, and a corrected "flat" view appears on a monitor. Key elements are a high resolution charge coupled device (CCD), image correction circuitry and a microcomputer for image processing. The system can be adapted to existing installations. Applications include security and surveillance, teleconferencing, imaging, virtual reality, broadcast video and military operations. Omniview technology is now called IPIX. The company was founded in 1986 as TeleRobotics International, became Omniview in 1995, and changed its name to Interactive Pictures Corporation in 1997.

  7. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector planes positioned side-by-side around a patient area to detect radiation. Each plane includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and at least two rows of scintillation crystals on each photomultiplier tube extend across to adjacent photomultiplier tubes for detecting radiation from the patient area. Each row of crystals on each photomultiplier tube is offset from the other rows of crystals, and the area of each crystal on each tube in each row is different than the area of the crystals on the tube in other rows for detecting which crystal is actuated and allowing the detector to detect more inter-plane slides. The crystals are offset by an amount equal to the length of the crystal divided by the number of rows. The rows of crystals on opposite sides of the patient may be rotated 90 degrees relative to each other

  8. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...

  9. Automatic locking radioisotope camera lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The lock of the present invention secures the isotope source in a stored shielded condition in the camera until a positive effort has been made to open the lock and take the source outside of the camera and prevents disconnection of the source pigtail unless the source is locked in a shielded condition in the camera. It also gives a visual indication of the locked or possible exposed condition of the isotope source and prevents the source pigtail from being completely pushed out of the camera, even when the lock is released. (author)

  10. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P; Griffith, R; Hagans, K; Lerche, R; Allen, C; Davies, T; Janson, F; Justin, R; Marshall, B; Sweningsen, O

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses1 (optical comb generators) that are suitable for temporal calibrations. These optical comb generators (Figure 1) are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced, optical pulses. Comb generators have been produced with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 10-GHz pulse trains of 780-nm wavelength light with individual pulse durations of ∼25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector. Signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fibers. At the NIF, ultra-fast streak-cameras are used by the Laser Fusion Program experimentalists to record fast transient optical signals. Their temporal resolution is unmatched by any other transient recorder. Their ability to spatially discriminate an image along the input slit allows them to function as a one-dimensional image recorder, time-resolved spectrometer, or multichannel transient recorder. Depending on the choice of photocathode, they can be made sensitive to photon energies from 1.1 eV to 30 keV and beyond. Comb generators perform two important functions for LLNL streak-camera users. First, comb generators are used as a precision time-mark generator for calibrating streak camera sweep rates. Accuracy is achieved by averaging many streak camera images of comb generator signals. Time-base calibrations with portable comb generators are easily done in both the calibration laboratory and in situ. Second, comb signals are applied

  11. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Abedi, Iraj; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft) and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93) and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87) for men with BMI osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.

  12. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI and bone mineral density (BMD, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight <25.0 kg/m2 and overweight and obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93 and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87 for men with BMI < 25. It was noted that BMI and weight was associated with a high BMD, compatible with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.

  13. Nanometer-scale, quantitative composition mappings of InGaN layers from a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, K; Voss, P L; Ougazzaden, A; Patriarche, G; Largeau, L; Mauguin, O; Troadec, D; Gautier, S; Moudakir, T; Suresh, S

    2012-01-01

    Using elastic scattering theory we show that a small set of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements is sufficient to experimentally evaluate the scattering function of electrons in high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission microscopy (HAADF-STEM). We then demonstrate how to use this function to transform qualitative HAADF-STEM images of InGaN layers into precise, quantitative chemical maps of the indium composition. The maps obtained in this way combine the resolution of HAADF-STEM and the chemical precision of EDX. We illustrate the potential of such chemical maps by using them to investigate nanometer-scale fluctuations in the indium composition and their impact on the growth of epitaxial InGaN layers. (paper)

  14. SpineAnalyzer™ is an accurate and precise method of vertebral fracture detection and classification on dual-energy lateral vertebral assessment scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, C.; Knapp, K.; Hopkins, S.; Gallimore, S.; Rock, B.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures of the spine are associated with significant morbidity, are highly predictive of hip fractures, but frequently do not present clinically. When there is a low to moderate clinical suspicion of vertebral fracture, which would not justify acquisition of a radiograph, vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) offers a low-dose opportunity for diagnosis. Different approaches to the classification of vertebral fractures have been documented. The aim of this study was to measure the precision and accuracy of SpineAnalyzer™, a quantitative morphometry software program. Lateral vertebral assessment images of 64 men were analysed using SpineAnalyzer™ and standard GE Lunar software. The images were also analysed by two expert readers using a semi-quantitative approach. Agreement between groups ranged from 95.99% to 98.60%. The intra-rater precision for the application of SpineAnalyzer™ to vertebrae was poor in the upper thoracic regions, but good elsewhere. SpineAnalyzer™ is a reproducible and accurate method for measuring vertebral height and quantifying vertebral fractures from VFA scans. - Highlights: • Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) offers a low-dose opportunity for diagnosis. • Agreement between VFA software (SpineAnalyzer™) and expert readers is high. • Intra-rater precision of SpineAnalyzer™ applied to upper thoracic vertebrae is poor, but good elsewhere. • SpineAnalyzer™ is reproducible and accurate for vertebral height measurement and fracture quantification from VFA scans

  15. Linearity correction device for a scintillation camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Kai

    1978-06-16

    This invention concerns the scintillation cameras still called gamma ray camera. The invention particularly covers the improvement in the resolution and the uniformity of these cameras. Briefly, in the linearity correction device of the invention, the sum is made of the voltage signals of different amplitudes produced by the preamplifiers of all the photomultiplier tubes and the signal obtained is employed to generate bias voltages which represent predetermined percentages of the sum signal. In one design mode, pairs of transistors are blocked when the output signal of the corresponding preamplifier is under a certain point on its gain curve. When the summation of the energies of a given scintillation exceeds this level which corresponds to a first percentage of the total signal, the first transistor of each pair of each line is unblocked, thereby modifying the gain and curve slop. When the total energy of an event exceeds the next preset level, the second transistor is unblocked to alter the shape again, so much so that the curve shows two break points. If needs be, the device can be designed so as to obtain more break points for the increasingly higher levels of energy. Once the signals have been processed as described above, they may be used for calculating the co-ordinates of the scintillation by one of the conventional methods.

  16. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape and position of the thyroid gland. The ...

  18. A New Technique for Scanning the Pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ephraiem, K. H. [Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1969-05-15

    The difficulties in visualizing the pancreas are partly caused by the high uptake of seleno-methionine in the liver. A simple technique has been developed to prevent data registration during the time the detector is moving above the liver. The technique is based on the fact that both {sup 75}Se and {sup 99m}Tc emit gamma rays of 140-keV energy. The pulses, normally going from the single-channel analyser to the registrating units, are deviated through a ratemeter to an API contactless optical meter relay (model API-compack I) and then passed on to the registrating units. The patient is given the normal dose of Se-methionine and everything is prepared for normal pancreas scanning with only one exception: The window of the single-channel analyser is tuned in on the 140-keV photopeak. The patient is given 2 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc colloid intravenously and the controls on the meter relay are adjusted in such a way that no pulse from the single-channel analyser passes to the registrating units unless the activity is beneath the activity level in the liver. Then the scanning machine is started. The author developed this inexpensive technique to help smaller clinical isotope laboratories which cannot afford the combination of a gamma camera with a special-purpose computer. (author)

  19. Technical Note: Range verification system using edge detection method for a scintillator and a CCD camera system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saotome, Naoya, E-mail: naosao@nirs.go.jp; Furukawa, Takuji; Hara, Yousuke; Mizushima, Kota; Tansho, Ryohei; Saraya, Yuichi; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji [Department of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional irradiation with a scanned carbon-ion beam has been performed from 2011 at the authors’ facility. The authors have developed the rotating-gantry equipped with the scanning irradiation system. The number of combinations of beam properties to measure for the commissioning is more than 7200, i.e., 201 energy steps, 3 intensities, and 12 gantry angles. To compress the commissioning time, quick and simple range verification system is required. In this work, the authors develop a quick range verification system using scintillator and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and estimate the accuracy of the range verification. Methods: A cylindrical plastic scintillator block and a CCD camera were installed on the black box. The optical spatial resolution of the system is 0.2 mm/pixel. The camera control system was connected and communicates with the measurement system that is part of the scanning system. The range was determined by image processing. Reference range for each energy beam was determined by a difference of Gaussian (DOG) method and the 80% of distal dose of the depth-dose distribution that were measured by a large parallel-plate ionization chamber. The authors compared a threshold method and a DOG method. Results: The authors found that the edge detection method (i.e., the DOG method) is best for the range detection. The accuracy of range detection using this system is within 0.2 mm, and the reproducibility of the same energy measurement is within 0.1 mm without setup error. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the authors’ range check system is capable of quick and easy range verification with sufficient accuracy.

  20. Technical Note: Range verification system using edge detection method for a scintillator and a CCD camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saotome, Naoya; Furukawa, Takuji; Hara, Yousuke; Mizushima, Kota; Tansho, Ryohei; Saraya, Yuichi; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Three-dimensional irradiation with a scanned carbon-ion beam has been performed from 2011 at the authors’ facility. The authors have developed the rotating-gantry equipped with the scanning irradiation system. The number of combinations of beam properties to measure for the commissioning is more than 7200, i.e., 201 energy steps, 3 intensities, and 12 gantry angles. To compress the commissioning time, quick and simple range verification system is required. In this work, the authors develop a quick range verification system using scintillator and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and estimate the accuracy of the range verification. Methods: A cylindrical plastic scintillator block and a CCD camera were installed on the black box. The optical spatial resolution of the system is 0.2 mm/pixel. The camera control system was connected and communicates with the measurement system that is part of the scanning system. The range was determined by image processing. Reference range for each energy beam was determined by a difference of Gaussian (DOG) method and the 80% of distal dose of the depth-dose distribution that were measured by a large parallel-plate ionization chamber. The authors compared a threshold method and a DOG method. Results: The authors found that the edge detection method (i.e., the DOG method) is best for the range detection. The accuracy of range detection using this system is within 0.2 mm, and the reproducibility of the same energy measurement is within 0.1 mm without setup error. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the authors’ range check system is capable of quick and easy range verification with sufficient accuracy.

  1. Improving Photometric Calibration of Meteor Video Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Steven; Kingery, Aaron; Suggs, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of new calibration tests performed by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) designed to help quantify and minimize systematic uncertainties in meteor photometry from video camera observations. These systematic uncertainties can be categorized by two main sources: an imperfect understanding of the linearity correction for the MEO's Watec 902H2 Ultimate video cameras and uncertainties in meteor magnitudes arising from transformations between the Watec camera's Sony EX-View HAD bandpass and the bandpasses used to determine reference star magnitudes. To address the first point, we have measured the linearity response of the MEO's standard meteor video cameras using two independent laboratory tests on eight cameras. Our empirically determined linearity correction is critical for performing accurate photometry at low camera intensity levels. With regards to the second point, we have calculated synthetic magnitudes in the EX bandpass for reference stars. These synthetic magnitudes enable direct calculations of the meteor's photometric flux within the camera bandpass without requiring any assumptions of its spectral energy distribution. Systematic uncertainties in the synthetic magnitudes of individual reference stars are estimated at approx. 0.20 mag, and are limited by the available spectral information in the reference catalogs. These two improvements allow for zero-points accurate to 0.05 - 0.10 mag in both filtered and unfiltered camera observations with no evidence for lingering systematics. These improvements are essential to accurately measuring photometric masses of individual meteors and source mass indexes.

  2. The "All Sky Camera Network"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Andy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the "All Sky Camera Network" came to life as an outreach program to connect the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS) exhibit "Space Odyssey" with Colorado schools. The network is comprised of cameras placed strategically at schools throughout Colorado to capture fireballs--rare events that produce meteorites.…

  3. The Eye of the Camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Vonk, Dorette J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of security cameras on prosocial behavior. Results from previous studies indicate that the presence of others can trigger helping behavior, arising from the need for approval of others. Extending these findings, the authors propose that security cameras can likewise

  4. Medical Radioisotope Scanning, Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20-24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  5. ISPA - a high accuracy X-ray and gamma camera Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    ISPA offers ... Ten times better resolution than Anger cameras High efficiency single gamma counting Noise reduction by sensitivity to gamma energy ...for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

  6. Resolution recovery for Compton camera using origin ensemble algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, A; Celler, A; Ozsahin, I; Sitek, A

    2016-08-01

    with resolution recovery. The quality of images and their contrast are similar to those obtained from the OE reconstructions from scans simulated with perfect energy and spatial resolutions.

  7. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The invention provides a composite solid state detector for use in deriving a display, by spatial coordinate information, of the distribution or radiation emanating from a source within a region of interest, comprising several solid state detector components, each having a given surface arranged for exposure to impinging radiation and exhibiting discrete interactions therewith at given spatially definable locations. The surface of each component and the surface disposed opposite and substantially parallel thereto are associated with impedence means configured to provide for each opposed surface outputs for signals relating the given location of the interactions with one spatial coordinate parameter of one select directional sense. The detector components are arranged to provide groupings of adjacently disposed surfaces mutually linearly oriented to exhibit a common directional sense of the spatial coordinate parameter. Means interconnect at least two of the outputs associated with each of the surfaces within a given grouping for collecting the signals deriving therefrom. The invention also provides a camera system for imaging the distribution of a source of gamma radiation situated within a region of interest

  8. Quantitatively accurate activity measurements with a dedicated cardiac SPECT camera: Physical phantom experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmoghaddas, Amir, E-mail: apour@ottawaheart.ca; Wells, R. Glenn [Physics Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada and Cardiology, The University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y4W7 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Recently, there has been increased interest in dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners with pinhole collimation and improved detector technology due to their improved count sensitivity and resolution over traditional parallel-hole cameras. With traditional cameras, energy-based approaches are often used in the clinic for scatter compensation because they are fast and easily implemented. Some of the cardiac cameras use cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detectors which can complicate the use of energy-based scatter correction (SC) due to the low-energy tail—an increased number of unscattered photons detected with reduced energy. Modified energy-based scatter correction methods can be implemented, but their level of accuracy is unclear. In this study, the authors validated by physical phantom experiments the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility of easily implemented correction techniques applied to {sup 99m}Tc myocardial imaging with a CZT-detector-based gamma camera with multiple heads, each with a single-pinhole collimator. Methods: Activity in the cardiac compartment of an Anthropomorphic Torso phantom (Data Spectrum Corporation) was measured through 15 {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT acquisitions. The ratio of activity concentrations in organ compartments resembled a clinical {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scan and was kept consistent across all experiments (1.2:1 heart to liver and 1.5:1 heart to lung). Two background activity levels were considered: no activity (cold) and an activity concentration 1/10th of the heart (hot). A plastic “lesion” was placed inside of the septal wall of the myocardial insert to simulate the presence of a region without tracer uptake and contrast in this lesion was calculated for all images. The true net activity in each compartment was measured with a dose calibrator (CRC-25R, Capintec, Inc.). A 10 min SPECT image was acquired using a dedicated cardiac camera with CZT detectors (Discovery NM530c, GE

  9. Investigating the collision energy dependence of η /s in the beam energy scan at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider using Bayesian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Jussi; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.; Karpenko, Iurii

    2018-04-01

    We determine the probability distributions of the shear viscosity over the entropy density ratio η /s in the quark-gluon plasma formed in Au + Au collisions at √{sN N}=19.6 ,39 , and 62.4 GeV , using Bayesian inference and Gaussian process emulators for a model-to-data statistical analysis that probes the full input parameter space of a transport + viscous hydrodynamics hybrid model. We find the most likely value of η /s to be larger at smaller √{sN N}, although the uncertainties still allow for a constant value between 0.10 and 0.15 for the investigated collision energy range.

  10. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, M.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized tomographic scanning apparatus suitable for diagnosis and for improving target identification in stereotactic neurosurgery is described. It consists of a base, a source of penetrating energy, a detector which produces scanning signals and detector positioning means. A frame with top and bottom arms secures the detector and source to the top and bottom arms respectively. A drive mechanism rotates the frame about an axis along which the frame may also be moved. Finally, the detector may be moved relative to the bottom arm in a direction contrary to the rotation of the frame. (U.K.)

  11. Image-converter streak cameras with very high gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A new camera is described with slit scanning and very high photonic gain (G=5000). Development of the technology of tubes and microchannel plates has enabled integration of such an amplifying element in an image converter tube which does away with the couplings and the intermediary electron-photon-electron conversions of the classical converter systems having external amplification. It is thus possible to obtain equal or superior performance while retaining considerable gain for the camera, great compactness, great flexibility in use, and easy handling. (author)

  12. Feasibility of Single Scan for Simultaneous Evaluation of Regional Krypton and Iodine Concentrations with Dual-Energy CT: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sae Rom; Chang, Suyon; Im, Dong Jin; Suh, Young Joo; Hong, Yoo Jin; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Hye-Jeong

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of a simultaneous single scan of regional krypton and iodine concentrations by using dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional animal experimental committee. An airway obstruction model was first made in 10 beagle dogs, and a pulmonary arterial occlusion was induced in each animal after 1 week. For each model, three sessions of dual-energy CT (80% krypton ventilation [krypton CT], 80% krypton ventilation with iodine enhancement [mixed-contrast agent CT], and iodine enhancement [iodine CT]) were performed. Krypton maps were made from krypton and mixed-contrast agent CT, and iodine maps were made from iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT. Observers measured overlay Hounsfield units of the diseased and contralateral segments on each map. Values were compared by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results In krypton maps of airway obstruction, overlay Hounsfield units of diseased segments were significantly decreased compared with those of contralateral segments in both krypton and mixed-contrast agent CT (P = .005 for both). However, the values of mixed-contrast agent CT were significantly higher than those of krypton CT for both segments (P = .005 and .007, respectively). In iodine maps of pulmonary arterial occlusion, values were significantly lower in diseased segments than in contralateral segments for both iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT (P = .005 for both), without significant difference between iodine and mixed-contrast agent CT for both segments (P = .126 and .307, respectively). Conclusion Although some limitations may exist, it might be feasible to analyze regional krypton and iodine concentrations simultaneously by using dual-energy CT. © RSNA, 2016.

  13. New Parameters for Higher Accuracy in the Computation of Binding Free Energy Differences upon Alanine Scanning Mutagenesis on Protein-Protein Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Inês C M; Costa, Inês P D; Coimbra, João T S; Ramos, Maria J; Fernandes, Pedro A

    2017-01-23

    Knowing how proteins make stable complexes enables the development of inhibitors to preclude protein-protein (P:P) binding. The identification of the specific interfacial residues that mostly contribute to protein binding, denominated as hot spots, is thus critical. Here, we refine an in silico alanine scanning mutagenesis protocol, based on a residue-dependent dielectric constant version of the Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area method. We have used a large data set of structurally diverse P:P complexes to redefine the residue-dependent dielectric constants used in the determination of binding free energies. The accuracy of the method was validated through comparison with experimental data, considering the per-residue P:P binding free energy (ΔΔG binding ) differences upon alanine mutation. Different protocols were tested, i.e., a geometry optimization protocol and three molecular dynamics (MD) protocols: (1) one using explicit water molecules, (2) another with an implicit solvation model, and (3) a third where we have carried out an accelerated MD with explicit water molecules. Using a set of protein dielectric constants (within the range from 1 to 20) we showed that the dielectric constants of 7 for nonpolar and polar residues and 11 for charged residues (and histidine) provide optimal ΔΔG binding predictions. An overall mean unsigned error (MUE) of 1.4 kcal mol -1 relative to the experiment was achieved in 210 mutations only with geometry optimization, which was further reduced with MD simulations (MUE of 1.1 kcal mol -1 for the MD employing explicit solvent). This recalibrated method allows for a better computational identification of hot spots, avoiding expensive and time-consuming experiments or thermodynamic integration/ free energy perturbation/ uBAR calculations, and will hopefully help new drug discovery campaigns in their quest of searching spots of interest for binding small drug-like molecules at P:P interfaces.

  14. Development of underwater camera using high-definition camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kenji; Watanabe, Masato; Takashima, Masanobu; Kawamura, Shingo; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the time for core verification or visual inspection of BWR fuels, the underwater camera using a High-Definition camera has been developed. As a result of this development, the underwater camera has 2 lights and 370 x 400 x 328mm dimensions and 20.5kg weight. Using the camera, 6 or so spent-fuel IDs are identified at 1 or 1.5m distance at a time, and 0.3mmφ pin-hole is recognized at 1.5m distance and 20 times zoom-up. Noises caused by radiation less than 15 Gy/h are not affected the images. (author)

  15. Polarizing aperture stereoscopic cinema camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Lenny

    2012-07-01

    The art of stereoscopic cinematography has been held back because of the lack of a convenient way to reduce the stereo camera lenses' interaxial to less than the distance between the eyes. This article describes a unified stereoscopic camera and lens design that allows for varying the interaxial separation to small values using a unique electro-optical polarizing aperture design for imaging left and right perspective views onto a large single digital sensor, the size of the standard 35 mm frame, with the means to select left and right image information. Even with the added stereoscopic capability, the appearance of existing camera bodies will be unaltered.

  16. Neutron television camera detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron area detector system is being developed at the Institut Laue-Langevin which is based on a system for x-rays. The system has a large counting rate capability; this is extremely important where the total background count exceeds the total counts in the signals of interest. Its spatial resolution is of the order of one mm, while the screen size is 400 mm. The main limitation of the system is its limited counting efficiency, and this is directly attributable to the optical self-absorption of the neutron phosphor. All coherent noise in the system, i.e., all noise synchronized with the TV scans, has to be kept lower than the first bit threshold. However, this requirement can be relaxed when dealing with diffraction patterns, such as those from single crystals, for which a local background is subtracted from the pattern

  17. Delay line clipping in a scintillation camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, K.F.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel base line restoring circuit and a novel delay line clipping circuit in a scintillation camera system. Single and double delay line clipped signal waveforms are generated for increasing the operational frequency and fidelity of data detection of the camera system by base line distortion such as undershooting, overshooting, and capacitive build-up. The camera system includes a set of photomultiplier tubes and associated amplifiers which generate sequences of pulses. These pulses are pulse-height analyzed for detecting a scintillation having an energy level which falls within a predetermined energy range. Data pulses are combined to provide coordinates and energy of photopeak events. The amplifiers are biassed out of saturation over all ranges of pulse energy level and count rate. Single delay line clipping circuitry is provided for narrowing the pulse width of the decaying electrical data pulses which increase operating speed without the occurrence of data loss. (JTA)

  18. Environmental scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Trends in current affairs and public policy that emerged in 1988 are analyzed to provide a tool for Atomic Energy of Canada's decision makers. This issue provides a general overview of the economic and energy environments; and international review of nuclear policies, equipment orders, and trends that will position Canada and AECL within the global nuclear community; a precis of Canadian public opinion polls on economic, environmental and energy issues; a summary of major trends identifies by Canadian opinion leaders from the public and private sectors; a review of opinions and recommendations of influential Canadian policy institutes; a report on government policies and actions that affect AECL directly or indirectly; an analysis of new coverage by print and electronic media; a review of anti-nuclear organizations; and conclusions and recommendations

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, ... slight pain and redness which should rapidly resolve. Women should always inform their physician or radiology technologist ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer to provide information about ... emissions from the radiotracer are detected by a special camera or imaging device that produces pictures and ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are detected by a special camera or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The ... camera. A probe is a small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or area of the body being examined. Radioactive emissions from the radiotracer are detected by a special ... medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called ...

  3. Astronomy and the camera obscura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, M.

    2000-02-01

    The camera obscura (from Latin meaning darkened chamber) is a simple optical device with a long history. In the form considered here, it can be traced back to 1550. It had its heyday during the Victorian era when it was to be found at the seaside as a tourist attraction or sideshow. It was also used as an artist's drawing aid and, in 1620, the famous astronomer-mathematician, Johannes Kepler used a small tent camera obscura to trace the scenery.

  4. The future of consumer cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Moltisanti, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades multimedia, and in particular imaging devices (camcorders, tablets, mobile phones, etc.) have been dramatically diffused. Moreover the increasing of their computational performances, combined with an higher storage capability, allows them to process large amount of data. In this paper an overview of the current trends of consumer cameras market and technology will be given, providing also some details about the recent past (from Digital Still Camera up today) and forthcoming key issues.

  5. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  6. Computing camera heading: A study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, John Jiaxiang

    2000-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the motion of a camera is a crucial first step for the 3D reconstruction of sites, objects, and buildings from video. Solutions to the camera heading problem can be readily applied to many areas, such as robotic navigation, surgical operation, video special effects, multimedia, and lately even in internet commerce. From image sequences of a real world scene, the problem is to calculate the directions of the camera translations. The presence of rotations makes this problem very hard. This is because rotations and translations can have similar effects on the images, and are thus hard to tell apart. However, the visual angles between the projection rays of point pairs are unaffected by rotations, and their changes over time contain sufficient information to determine the direction of camera translation. We developed a new formulation of the visual angle disparity approach, first introduced by Tomasi, to the camera heading problem. Our new derivation makes theoretical analysis possible. Most notably, a theorem is obtained that locates all possible singularities of the residual function for the underlying optimization problem. This allows identifying all computation trouble spots beforehand, and to design reliable and accurate computational optimization methods. A bootstrap-jackknife resampling method simultaneously reduces complexity and tolerates outliers well. Experiments with image sequences show accurate results when compared with the true camera motion as measured with mechanical devices.

  7. Isotope, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectrometer studies of heterogeneous zircons from radioactive granites in the Grenville structural province, Quebec and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimsaite, J.

    1981-01-01

    Heterogeneous zircons yielded discordant Pb-U, Pb-Th, and 207 Pb- 206 Pb isotopic ages. Most data points fall below the concordia curve, implying losses of daughter elements, bqt they define a discordia line that intersects the concordia at approximately 90 Ma and 1020 Ma. To obtain evidence for mobilization of U and radiogenic Pb, zircon grains were studied using a scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer. High magnification backscattered and secondary electron images of the zircon revealed narrow fractures, zoning and diverse mineral inclusions. Three groups of mineral inclusions observed were: 1) those predating zoned zircon and apparently serving as a nucleus; 2) uraninite, feldspar, and apatite associated with the growth and zoning of the host zircon; and 3) fracture-fillings that postdate crystallization of the host zircon. The U- and Pb-rich inclusions incorporated into the zircon grains during and after its crystallization markedly affect isotopic ages of the host zircon. Migration of Pb and U have occurred along fractures in zircon. Zircon, uraninite, and other associated minerals have decomposed and complex reactions have taken place between the liberated Zr, U, Th and other elements to produce overgrowths on mineral grains and unidentified Zr-bearing material in fractures

  8. Lateral ordering of PTCDA on the clean and the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Fiedler, Benjamin; Bauer, Oliver; Marele, Antonela; Sokolowski, Moritz M

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) on the clean and on the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface [referred to as (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100)] by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Our results confirm the (4√2 × 5√2)R45° superstructure of PTCDA/Cu(100) reported by A. Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99,11770-11779]. However, contrary to Schmidt et al., we have no indication for a dissociation of the PTCDA upon adsorption, and we propose a detailed structure model with two intact PTCDA molecules within the unit cell. Domains of high lateral order are obtained, if the deposition is performed at 400 K. For deposition at room temperature, a significant density of nucleation defects is found pointing to a strong interaction of PTCDA with Cu(100). Quite differently, after preadsorption of oxygen and formation of the (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100) superstructure on Cu(100), PTCDA forms an incommensurate monolayer with a structure that corresponds well to that of PTCDA bulk lattice planes.

  9. Characterization of the ashes from the 2014-2015 Turrialba Volcano eruptions by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucke, Oscar H.; Calderon, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    The Turrialba Volcano is a stratovolcano located approximately 35 km northwest from San Jose, Costa Rica's capital city. A series of eruptions since October 29, 2014 until at least late 2015, has represented the most significant activity of this volcano since the 1860s. A significant volume of ash was dispersed with this eruptions that reached the most populous areas of the country. The characteristics of the ash particles are analyzed in order to establish the nature of the eruptive events that occurred on 2014 and 2015, and to monitor the evolution of the eruptive processes. The analysis was carried out utilizing optical microscopy and stereomicroscopy techniques, as well as novel scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods that involve imaging and element composition analysis by means of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The evolution of the Turrialba eruptions is showed from phreatic events in 2014, with ashes composed entirely of non-juvenile fragments, to phreatomagmatic events starting on March 12, 2015 with the appearance of a significant fraction of juvenile components in the ash. (author)

  10. Morphological and chemical changes in dentin after using endodontic agents: Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abraha~o.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2012-07-01

    We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μEDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. μEDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (pNT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The SEM images in the EDTA-treated groups had the highest number of open tubules. Erosion in the tubules was observed in CHX and SH5E groups. Endodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.

  11. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis of Set CEM Cement after Application of Different Bleaching Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Mohammad; Janani, Maryam; Vahdati, Amin; Alemzadeh, Yalda; Bahari, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated the element distribution in completely set calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement after application of 35% carbamide peroxide, 40% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate as commercial bleaching agents using an energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX) system. The surface structure was also observed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Twenty completely set CEM cement samples, measuring 4×4 mm 2 , were prepared in the present in vitro study and randomly divided into 4 groups based on the preparation technique as follows: the control group; 35% carbamide peroxide group in contact for 30-60 min for 4 times; 40% hydrogen peroxide group with contact time of 15-20 min for 3 times; and sodium perborate group, where the powder and liquid were mixed and placed on CEM cement surface 4 times. Data were analyzed at a significance level of 0.05 through the one Way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. EDX showed similar element distribution of oxygen, sodium, calcium and carbon in CEM cement with the use of carbamide peroxide and hydroxide peroxide; however, the distribution of silicon was different ( P structure. Sodium perborate was similar to control group due to its weak oxidizing properties. Globular structures and numerous woodpecker holes were observed on the even surface on the carbamide peroxide group. The mean elemental distribution of completely set CEM cement was different when exposed to sodium perborate, carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  12. Rigorous quantitative elemental microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) with spectrum processing by NIST DTSA-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E.; Ritchie, Nicholas W. M.

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative electron-excited x-ray microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/silicon drift detector energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM/SDD-EDS) is capable of achieving high accuracy and high precision equivalent to that of the high spectral resolution wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer even when severe peak interference occurs. The throughput of the SDD-EDS enables high count spectra to be measured that are stable in calibration and resolution (peak shape) across the full deadtime range. With this high spectral stability, multiple linear least squares peak fitting is successful for separating overlapping peaks and spectral background. Careful specimen preparation is necessary to remove topography on unknowns and standards. The standards-based matrix correction procedure embedded in the NIST DTSA-II software engine returns quantitative results supported by a complete error budget, including estimates of the uncertainties from measurement statistics and from the physical basis of the matrix corrections. NIST DTSA-II is available free for Java-platforms at: http://www.cstl.nist.gov/div837/837.02/epq/dtsa2/index.html).

  13. Investigations on chloride-induced high temperature corrosion of iron-, nickel-, cobalt-base alloys by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microspot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.; Umland, F.

    1984-01-01

    The direct oxidation at 900 0 C in air and the corrosion of alloys in air after short exposure to chloride have been compared under identical conditions. Chloride destroys the original oxide layers by recristallisation and modifies the following scale growing in such a manner that no firmly sticking layers can be rebuilt. After a chloride induction therefore all other following corrosions will be enhanced. Experiments in a closed system, a so called transport furnace, showed that the chloride also acts as a gas phase carrier transporting firstly the oxide layer, under reducing conditions metals, too, as volatile chloro metal gas complexes in this case from hot to cold region of the furnace. Cobalt base alloys are less attacked than iron or nickel base alloys. As chloride is not found implicitly on the treated surface the identification of the chloride induced corrosion is difficult. However the scanning electron microscopy combined with quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis has been proved as an appropriate method for early detection. As the phenomena depend on the type of alloy, respectively, an illustration and interpretation catalogue is necessary. (orig.) [de

  14. Lateral ordering of PTCDA on the clean and the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100 surface investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gärtner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the adsorption of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA on the clean and on the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100 surface [referred to as (√2 × 2√2R45° – 2O/Cu(100] by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and low energy electron diffraction (LEED. Our results confirm the (4√2 × 5√2R45° superstructure of PTCDA/Cu(100 reported by A. Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99,11770–11779]. However, contrary to Schmidt et al., we have no indication for a dissociation of the PTCDA upon adsorption, and we propose a detailed structure model with two intact PTCDA molecules within the unit cell. Domains of high lateral order are obtained, if the deposition is performed at 400 K. For deposition at room temperature, a significant density of nucleation defects is found pointing to a strong interaction of PTCDA with Cu(100. Quite differently, after preadsorption of oxygen and formation of the (√2 × 2√2R45° – 2O/Cu(100 superstructure on Cu(100, PTCDA forms an incommensurate monolayer with a structure that corresponds well to that of PTCDA bulk lattice planes.

  15. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (SEM/EDX): A Rapid Diagnostic Tool to Aid the Identification of Burnt Bone and Contested Cremains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingham, Sarah T D; Thompson, Tim J U; Islam, Meez

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the use of Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) as a diagnostic tool for the determination of the osseous origin of samples subjected to different temperatures. Sheep (Ovis aries) ribs of two experimental groups (fleshed and defleshed) were burned at temperatures of between 100°C and 1100°C in 100°C increments and subsequently analyzed with the SEM-EDX to determine the atomic percentage of present elements. Three-factor ANOVA analysis showed that neither the exposure temperature, nor whether the burning occurred with or without soft tissue present had any significant influence on the bone's overall elemental makeup (p > 0.05). The Ca/P ratio remained in the osseous typical range of between 1.6 and 2.58 in all analyzed samples. This demonstrates that even faced with high temperatures, the overall gross elemental content and atomic percentage of elements in bone remain stable, creating a unique "fingerprint" for osseous material, even after exposure to extreme conditions. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Multichannel scanning spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    A spectrophotometer designed in the Crimea astrophysical observatory is described. The spectrophotometer is intended for the installation at the telescope to measure energy distribution in the star spectra in the 3100-8550 A range. The device is made according to the scheme with a fixed diffraction lattice. The choice of the optical kinematic scheme is explained. The main design elements are shown. Some singularities of the scanning drive kinematics are considered. The device performance is given

  17. Applying the computer code ''beam scanning' for obtaining the electron beam energy spectrum and monitoring the beam scanning system with a faraday cup and edge current sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The results of experiments simulation, obtained in the development of technique for controlling the parameters of the electron beam in a compact radiation sterilization installation are presented. Calculations were performed with a help of a computer code ''BEAM SCANNING'', developed in MRTI. Proposed a method to obtain the spectrum of the electron beam by simulation the experiments in which a Faraday cup waveforms were measured. Preliminary results are presented. Also the results of the experiments and calculations obtained in the development of the amplitude angle sensors are presented. The experiments for the beam irradiation of lead plates proposed as current sensors were modeled. Results are presented in comparison with experimental data. Also are presented the simulation results for the device designed to control scanning system.

  18. Experience with dedicated ultra fast solid state cardiac gamma camera: technologist perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parab, Anil; Gaikar, Anil; Patil, Kashinath; Lele, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: To describe technologist perspective of working with ultra fast solid state gamma camera and comparison with conventional dual head gamma camera. Material and Methods: 900 Myocardial Perfusion scan were carried out on dedicated solid state detector cardiac camera between 1st February 2010 till 29th August 2010. 27 studies were done back to back on a conventional dual head gamma camera. In 2 cases dual head isotope imaging was done (Thallium+ 99m Tc-tetrofosmin). Rest stress protocol was used in 600 patients and stress - rest protocol was used in 300. 1:3 ratio of injected activity was maintained for both protocols (5 mCi for 1st study and 15 mCi for second study). For Rest - Stress protocol, 5 mCi of 99m Tc - Tetrofosmin was injected at rest, 40 minutes later, 5 min image was acquired on the solid state detector. Patient was then stressed. 15 mCi 99m Tc - Tetrofosmin was injected at peak stress. Images were acquired 20 minutes later for 3 minutes (total duration of study 90-100 min). For stress rest protocol, 5 mCi 99m Tc - Tetrofosmin was injected at peak stress. 5 mCi images were acquired 20 minutes later. Rest injection of 15 mCi was given 1 hour post stress injection. Rest images were acquired 40 minutes after rest injection (total duration of study 110-120 min). Results: We observed even with lesser amount activity and acquisition time of 5 min/cardiac scan it showed high sensitivity count rate over 2.2-4.7 kcps (10 times more counts than standard gamma camera). System gives better energy resolution < 7%. Better image contrast. Dual isotope imaging can be possible. Spatial resolution 4.3-4.9 mm. Excellent quality images were obtained using low activities (5 mCi/15 mCi) using 1/3rd the acquisition time compared to conventional dual head gamma camera Even in obese patients 7 mCi/21 mCi activity yielded excellent images at 1/3 rd acquisition time Quick acquisition resulted in greater patient comfort and no motion artifact also due to non rotation of

  19. Crystal Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Braverman, Joshua B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fabris, Lorenzo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Stand-off detection is one of the most important radiation detection capabilities for arms control and the control of illicit nuclear materials. For long range passive detection one requires a large detector and a means of “seeing through” the naturally occurring and varying background radiation, i.e. imaging. Arguably, Compton imaging is the best approach over much of the emission band suitable for long range detection. It provides not only imaging, but more information about the direction of incidence of each detected gamma-ray than the alternate approach of coded-aperture imaging. The directional information allows one to reduce the background and hence improve the sensitivity of a measurement. However, to make an efficient Compton imager requires localizing and measuring the simultaneous energy depositions when gamma-rays Compton scatter and are subsequently captured within a single, large detector volume. This concept has been demonstrated in semi-conductor detectors (HPGe, CZT, Si) but at ~ $1k/cm3 these materials are too expensive to build the large systems needed for standoff detection. Scintillator detectors, such as NaI(Tl), are two orders of magnitude less expensive and possess the energy resolution required to make such an imager. However, they do not currently have the ability to localize closely spaced, simultaneous energy depositions in a single large crystal. In this project we are applying a new technique that should, for the first time ever, allow cubic-millimeter event localization in a bulk scintillator crystal.

  20. Distributed embedded smart cameras architectures, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Velipasalar, Senem

    2014-01-01

    This publication addresses distributed embedded smart camerascameras that perform onboard analysis and collaborate with other cameras. This book provides the material required to better understand the architectural design challenges of embedded smart camera systems, the hardware/software ecosystem, the design approach for, and applications of distributed smart cameras together with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The authors concentrate on the architecture, hardware/software design, realization of smart camera networks from applications to architectures, in particular in the embedded and mobile domains. •                    Examines energy issues related to wireless communication such as decreasing energy consumption to increase battery-life •                    Discusses processing large volumes of video data on an embedded environment in real-time •                    Covers design of realistic applications of distributed and embedded smart...

  1. ePix100 camera: Use and applications at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, G. A., E-mail: carini@slac.stanford.edu; Alonso-Mori, R.; Blaj, G.; Caragiulo, P.; Chollet, M.; Damiani, D.; Dragone, A.; Feng, Y.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.; Hasi, J.; Herbst, R.; Herrmann, S.; Kenney, C.; Lemke, H.; Manger, L.; Markovic, B.; Mehta, A.; Nelson, S.; Nishimura, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); and others

    2016-07-27

    The ePix100 x-ray camera is a new system designed and built at SLAC for experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The camera is the first member of a family of detectors built around a single hardware and software platform, supporting a variety of front-end chips. With a readout speed of 120 Hz, matching the LCLS repetition rate, a noise lower than 80 e-rms and pixels of 50 µm × 50 µm, this camera offers a viable alternative to fast readout, direct conversion, scientific CCDs in imaging mode. The detector, designed for applications such as X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) in the energy range from 2 to 10 keV and above, comprises up to 0.5 Mpixels in a very compact form factor. In this paper, we report the performance of the camera during its first use at LCLS.

  2. PC-AT to gamma camera interface Anugami-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Sonalkar, S.Y.; Kataria, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The gamma camera interface ANUGAMI-S is an image acquisition system used in nuclear medicine centres and hospitals. The state of the art design of the interface provides quality improvement in addition to image acquisition, by applying on-line uniformity correction which is very essential for gamma camera applications in nuclear medicine. The improvement in the quality of the image has been achieved by image acquisition in positionally varying and sliding energy window. It supports all acquisition modes viz. static, dynamic and gated acquisition modes with and without uniformity correction. The user interface provides the acquisition in various user selectable parameters with image display and related acquisition parameter display. It is a universal system which provides a modern, cost effective and easily maintainable solution for interfacing any gamma camera to PC or upgradation of analog gamma camera. The paper describes the system details and gated acquisition achieved on the present system. (author)

  3. Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.

    1980-01-01

    The actual way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method mostly brings best performance parameters for cameras but it has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particular in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. Therefore it is important to have test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices, that will approach as best as practicable the measuring conditions in clinical applications. It is therefore a good news that the International Electrochemical Commission IEC has prepared a draft 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' which is now submitted to the national committees for formal approval under the Six Months' Rule. Some essential points of this document are discussed in the paper. (orig.) [de

  4. Calibration of gamma camera systems for a multicentre European {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT normal database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossici-Bolt, Livia [Southampton Univ. Hospitals NHS Trust, Dept. of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and Univ. College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [Univ. of Szeged, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Nijs, Robin de [Rigshospitalet and Univ. of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bagnara, Maria Claudia [Az. Ospedaliera Universitaria S. Martino, Medical Physics Unit, Genoa (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Scheepers, Egon [Univ. of Amsterdam, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zito, Felicia [Fondazione IRCCS Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Seese, Anita [Univ. of Leipzig, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [Univ. of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Dept., Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Koole, Michel [Univ. Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Raith, Maria [Medical Univ. of Vienna, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); George, Jean [Univ. Catholique Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Mont-Godinne (Belgium); Lonsdale, Markus Nowak [Bispebjerg Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muenzing, Wolfgang [Univ. of Munich, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Tatsch, Klaus [Univ. of Munich, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc., Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); Varrone, Andrea [Center for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska Inst., Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    A joint initiative of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Neuroimaging Committee and EANM Research Ltd. aimed to generate a European database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of healthy controls. This study describes the characterization and harmonization of the imaging equipment of the institutions involved. {sup 123}I SPECT images of a striatal phantom filled with striatal to background ratios between 10:1 and 1:1 were acquired on all the gamma cameras with absolute ratios measured from aliquots. The images were reconstructed by a core lab using ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) without corrections (NC), with attenuation correction only (AC) and additional scatter and septal penetration correction (ACSC) using the triple energy window method. A quantitative parameter, the simulated specific binding ratio (sSBR), was measured using the ''Southampton'' methodology that accounts for the partial volume effect and compared against the actual values obtained from the aliquots. Camera-specific recovery coefficients were derived from linear regression and the error of the measurements was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (COV). The relationship between measured and actual sSBRs was linear across all systems. Variability was observed between different manufacturers and, to a lesser extent, between cameras of the same type. The NC and AC measurements were found to underestimate systematically the actual sSBRs, while the ACSC measurements resulted in recovery coefficients close to 100% for all cameras (AC range 69-89%, ACSC range 87-116%). The COV improved from 46% (NC) to 32% (AC) and to 14% (ACSC) (p < 0.001). A satisfactory linear response was observed across all cameras. Quantitative measurements depend upon the characteristics of the SPECT systems and their calibration is a necessary prerequisite for data pooling. Together with accounting for partial volume, the

  5. Sub-Camera Calibration of a Penta-Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.; Gerke, M.

    2016-03-01

    Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test) of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors for corresponding

  6. Gamma camera investigations using an on-line computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikterloef, K.J.; Beckman, K.-W.; Berne, E.; Liljenfors, B.

    1974-01-01

    A computer system for use with a gamma camera has been developed by Oerebro Regional Hospital and Nukab AB using a PDP 8/e with a 12K core memory connected to a Selektronik gamma camera. It is possible to register, without loss, pictures of high (5kcps) pulse frequency, two separate channels with identical coordinates, fast dynamic functions down to 5 pictures/second, and to perform statistical smoothing and subtraction of two separate pictures. Experience has shown these possibilities to be so valuable that one has difficulty in thinking of a scanning system without them. This applies not only to sophisticated investigations, e.g. dual isotope registration, but also in conventional scanning for avoiding false positive interpretations and increasing the precision. It is possible at relatively low cost to add a dosage planning system. (JIW)

  7. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  8. The development of an automatic scanning method for CR-39 neutron dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Hiroko; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro; Sasaki, Shin-ichi; Hozumi, Ken-ichi

    1989-01-01

    A method of measuring low level neutron dose has been developed with CR-39 track detectors using an automatic scanning system. It is composed of the optical microscope with a video camera, an image processor and a personal computer. The focus point of the microscope and the X-Y stage are controlled from the computer. The minimum detectable neutron dose is estimated at 4.6 mrem in the uniform field of neutron with equivalent energy spectrum to Am-Be source from the results of automatic measurements. (author)

  9. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  10. Event detection intelligent camera development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szappanos, A.; Kocsis, G.; Molnar, A.; Sarkozi, J.; Zoletnik, S.

    2008-01-01

    A new camera system 'event detection intelligent camera' (EDICAM) is being developed for the video diagnostics of W-7X stellarator, which consists of 10 distinct and standalone measurement channels each holding a camera. Different operation modes will be implemented for continuous and for triggered readout as well. Hardware level trigger signals will be generated from real time image processing algorithms optimized for digital signal processor (DSP) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) architectures. At full resolution a camera sends 12 bit sampled 1280 x 1024 pixels with 444 fps which means 1.43 Terabyte over half an hour. To analyse such a huge amount of data is time consuming and has a high computational complexity. We plan to overcome this problem by EDICAM's preprocessing concepts. EDICAM camera system integrates all the advantages of CMOS sensor chip technology and fast network connections. EDICAM is built up from three different modules with two interfaces. A sensor module (SM) with reduced hardware and functional elements to reach a small and compact size and robust action in harmful environment as well. An image processing and control unit (IPCU) module handles the entire user predefined events and runs image processing algorithms to generate trigger signals. Finally a 10 Gigabit Ethernet compatible image readout card functions as the network interface for the PC. In this contribution all the concepts of EDICAM and the functions of the distinct modules are described

  11. Characterization of particulate matter from the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martiez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Avila-Perez, P.; Carapio-Morales, L.; Zarazua, G.; Tejeda, S.

    2005-01-01

    The urban air pollution issue is a concern in many Mega cities, because of hazardous effect to human health. The Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (MZMV) is one of the ten largest urban areas around the World with a population of 24.4 million people by the year 2000. One or the 'six criteria pollutants' regulated by Norm (because the hazardous effect to human health) are those commonly designed as Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Respirable Particles (RP) lower than 10 μm (coarse, PM10 and fine PM2.5). Particulate matter consists of solids or liquid aerosol particles suspended in the air and has diverse chemical composition related to the sources. Under ambient conditions of sampling analysis particulate matter exists almost exclusively in solid phase but can include liquid aerosols such as the heavier components of diesel combustion products and nitric acid. In general particulate matter includes dust, dirt, soot, smoke and liquid droplets emitted in the air by sources such as factories, power plants, cars, fire, construction activities, aircrafts and winds blown dust. In this work the survey of TSP particles an PM10 was carried out with an automatic high volume sampler with an average flow rate of 1.5 m 3 min -1 during 24 h in five monitoring stations of the national network system chosen trying to cover the fourth cardinal directions and the central zone: Xalostoc (XAL) at NE; Tlanepantla (TLA) at NW; Merced (MER) at the downtown; Cerro de la Estrella (CES) at SE and Pedregal (PED) at SW. A sample of l cm 2 was cut from each filter and mounted with a graphite tape on an aluminum sample-holder. The analysis of 100 induvidual particles of each sample were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The analysis was performed using a scanning electron microscope PHILLIPS Model XL-30. X-ray analysis is carried out with an energy-dispersive Si(Li) detector Model Saphire, SUTW (super ultra thin window), allowing

  12. Video camera use at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, M.L.; Langan, M.O.; Owen, D.E.

    1990-08-01

    A survey of US nuclear power plants was conducted to evaluate video camera use in plant operations, and determine equipment used and the benefits realized. Basic closed circuit television camera (CCTV) systems are described and video camera operation principles are reviewed. Plant approaches for implementing video camera use are discussed, as are equipment selection issues such as setting task objectives, radiation effects on cameras, and the use of disposal cameras. Specific plant applications are presented and the video equipment used is described. The benefits of video camera use --- mainly reduced radiation exposure and increased productivity --- are discussed and quantified. 15 refs., 6 figs

  13. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis of ceramõmetal interface at different firing temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Porcelain chipping from porcelain fused to metal restoration has been Achilles heel till date. There has been advent of newer ceramics in past but but none of them has been a panacea for Porcelain fracture. An optimal firing is thus essential for the clinical success of the porcelain-fused to metal restoration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ceramo-metal interface at different firing temperature using XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. Clinical implication of the study was to predict the optimal firing temperature at which porcelain should be fused with metal in order to possibly prevent the occasional failure of the porcelain fused to metal restorations. Materials and Methods: To meet the above-mentioned goal, porcelain was fused to metal at different firing temperatures (930-990°C in vacuum. The microstructural observations of interface between porcelain and metal were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results: Based on the experimental investigation of the interaction zone of porcelain fused to metal samples, it was observed that as the firing temperature was increased, the pores became less in number as well as the size of the pores decreased at the porcelain/metal interface upto 975°C but increased in size at 990°C. The least number of pores with least diameter were found in samples fired at 975°C. Several oxides like Cr 2 O 3 , NiO, and Al 2 O 3 and intermetallic compounds (CrSi 2 , AlNi 3 were also formed in the interaction zone. Conclusions : It is suggested that the presence of pores may trigger the crack propagation along the interface, causing the failure of the porcelain fused to metal restoration during masticatory action.

  14. Orthogonal identification of gunshot residue with complementary detection principles of voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: sample, screen, and confirm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Aoife M; Samek, Izabela A; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-19

    Field-deployable voltammetric screening coupled with complementary laboratory-based analysis to confirm the presence of gunshot residue (GSR) from the hands of a subject who has handled, loaded, or discharged a firearm is described. This protocol implements the orthogonal identification of the presence of GSR utilizing square-wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV) as a rapid screening tool along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to confirm the presence of the characteristic morphology and metal composition of GSR particles. This is achieved through the judicious modification of the working electrode of a carbon screen-printed electrode (CSPE) with carbon tape (used in SEM analysis) to fix and retain a sample. A comparison between a subject who has handled and loaded a firearm and a subject who has had no contact with GSR shows the significant variations in voltammetric signals and the presence or absence of GSR-consistent particles and constituent metals. This initial electrochemical screening has no effect on the integrity of the metallic particles, and SEM/EDX analysis conducted prior to and postvoltammetry show no differences in analytical output. The carbon tape is instrumental in retaining the GSR sample after electrochemical analysis, supported by comparison with orthogonal detection at a bare CSPE. This protocol shows great promise as a two-tier detection system for the presence of GSR from the hands of a subject, whereby initial screening can be conducted rapidly onsite by minimally trained operators; confirmation can follow at the same substrate to substantiate the voltammetric results.

  15. A critical evaluation of quantitative and qualitative analysis by means of energy-dispersive X-ray measurement in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, F.

    1978-12-01

    The bombardment of solids in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) by means of energetic electrons results in the generation and emission of various signals that carry information about the characteristics of the target. Those signals which are related to the present context, e.g. the secondary and backscattered electrons as well as the characteristic and continuous X-radiation, are discussed. The brief description of the SEM and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer is followed by a discussion of various obstacles affecting the reliability of X-ray intensity measurements and data reduction procedures. The observed relative X-ray intensities from pure elements were determined as a function of the atomic number. These functional dependence curves, which were established under standard conditions, served as reliable reference data for the purpose of quantitative corrections. The performance limits of a typical SEM-EDX analytical system were assessed by analysing quantitatively various types of standard reference materials and inhomogeneous samples. A brief discussion of the X-ray source is given in order to estimate whether the recorded X-ray intensities are representative of the electron bombarded areas. This is of importance when microanalyses are performed on inclusions or near phase boundaries. The use of oxide glasses which are suitable to evaluate and interrelative SEM-EDX systems is discussed. The analysis of metal alloys, which developed exaggerated surface topography when sputtered in an ion microprobe mass analyser or glow discharge lamp, is presented as a typical example for the investigation of rough-surface samples [af

  16. The GISMO-2 Bolometer Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Hilton, Gene; Irwin, Kent D.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kovacs, Attila; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Timothy M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera) which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISM0-2 will operate Simultaneously in the 1 mm and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a 32 x 40 TES-based Backshort Under Grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a 16 x 16 BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISM0-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2 mm bolometer camera which is successfully operating at the 30m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regular IRAM call for proposals.

  17. Perceptual Color Characterization of Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vazquez-Corral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Color camera characterization, mapping outputs from the camera sensors to an independent color space, such as \\(XYZ\\, is an important step in the camera processing pipeline. Until now, this procedure has been primarily solved by using a \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix obtained via a least-squares optimization. In this paper, we propose to use the spherical sampling method, recently published by Finlayson al., to perform a perceptual color characterization. In particular, we search for the \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix that minimizes three different perceptual errors, one pixel based and two spatially based. For the pixel-based case, we minimize the CIE \\(\\Delta E\\ error, while for the spatial-based case, we minimize both the S-CIELAB error and the CID error measure. Our results demonstrate an improvement of approximately 3for the \\(\\Delta E\\ error, 7& for the S-CIELAB error and 13% for the CID error measures.

  18. EDICAM (Event Detection Intelligent Camera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP RMI, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary); Szabolics, T., E-mail: szabolics.tamas@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP RMI, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary); Kocsis, G.; Szepesi, T.; Dunai, D. [Wigner RCP RMI, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We present EDICAM's hardware modules. ► We present EDICAM's main design concepts. ► This paper will describe EDICAM firmware architecture. ► Operation principles description. ► Further developments. -- Abstract: A new type of fast framing camera has been developed for fusion applications by the Wigner Research Centre for Physics during the last few years. A new concept was designed for intelligent event driven imaging which is capable of focusing image readout to Regions of Interests (ROIs) where and when predefined events occur. At present these events mean intensity changes and external triggers but in the future more sophisticated methods might also be defined. The camera provides 444 Hz frame rate at full resolution of 1280 × 1024 pixels, but monitoring of smaller ROIs can be done in the 1–116 kHz range even during exposure of the full image. Keeping space limitations and the harsh environment in mind the camera is divided into a small Sensor Module and a processing card interconnected by a fast 10 Gbit optical link. This camera hardware has been used for passive monitoring of the plasma in different devices for example at ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS with the first version of its firmware. The new firmware and software package is now available and ready for testing the new event processing features. This paper will present the operation principle and features of the Event Detection Intelligent Camera (EDICAM). The device is intended to be the central element in the 10-camera monitoring system of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator.

  19. The Sydney University PAPA camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Peter R.

    1994-04-01

    The Precision Analog Photon Address (PAPA) camera is a photon-counting array detector that uses optical encoding to locate photon events on the output of a microchannel plate image intensifier. The Sydney University camera is a 256x256 pixel detector which can operate at speeds greater than 1 million photons per second and produce individual photon coordinates with a deadtime of only 300 ns. It uses a new Gray coded mask-plate which permits a simplified optical alignment and successfully guards against vignetting artifacts.

  20. Streak cameras and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernet, J.M.; Imhoff, C.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last several years, development of various measurement techniques in the nanosecond and pico-second range has led to increased reliance on streak cameras. This paper will present the main electronic and optoelectronic performances of the Thomson-CSF TSN 506 cameras and their associated devices used to build an automatic image acquisition and processing system (NORMA). A brief survey of the diversity and the spread of the use of high speed electronic cinematography will be illustrated by a few typical applications [fr

  1. Modeling and simulation of gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kataria, S.K.; Samuel, A.M.

    2002-08-01

    Simulation techniques play a vital role in designing of sophisticated instruments and also for the training of operating and maintenance staff. Gamma camera systems have been used for functional imaging in nuclear medicine. Functional images are derived from the external counting of the gamma emitting radioactive tracer that after introduction in to the body mimics the behavior of native biochemical compound. The position sensitive detector yield the coordinates of the gamma ray interaction with the detector and are used to estimate the point of gamma ray emission within the tracer distribution space. This advanced imaging device is thus dependent on the performance of algorithm for coordinate computing, estimation of point of emission, generation of image and display of the image data. Contemporary systems also have protocols for quality control and clinical evaluation of imaging studies. Simulation of this processing leads to understanding of the basic camera design problems. This report describes a PC based package for design and simulation of gamma camera along with the options of simulating data acquisition and quality control of imaging studies. Image display and data processing the other options implemented in SIMCAM will be described in separate reports (under preparation). Gamma camera modeling and simulation in SIMCAM has preset configuration of the design parameters for various sizes of crystal detector with the option to pack the PMT on hexagon or square lattice. Different algorithm for computation of coordinates and spatial distortion removal are allowed in addition to the simulation of energy correction circuit. The user can simulate different static, dynamic, MUGA and SPECT studies. The acquired/ simulated data is processed for quality control and clinical evaluation of the imaging studies. Results show that the program can be used to assess these performances. Also the variations in performance parameters can be assessed due to the induced

  2. PC-AT to gamma camera interface ANUGAMI-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    PC-AT to gamma camera interface is an image acquisition system used in nuclear medicine centres and hospitals. The interface hardware and acquisition software have been designed and developed to meet most of the routine clinical applications using gamma camera. The state of the art design of the interface provides quality improvement in addition to image acquisition, by applying on-line uniformity correction which is very essential for gamma camera applications in nuclear medicine. The improvement in the quality of the image has been achieved by image acquisition in positionally varying and sliding energy window. It supports all acquisition modes viz. static, dynamic and gated acquisition modes with and without uniformity correction. The user interface provides the acquisition in various user selectable frame sizes, orientation and colour palettes. A complete emulation of camera console has been provided along with persistence scope and acquisition parameter display. It is a universal system which provides a modern, cost effective and easily maintainable solution for interfacing any gamma camera to PC or upgradation of analog gamma camera. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  3. Development and evaluation of a Gamma Camera tuning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, E. J.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Correct operation of conventional analogue Gamma Cameras implies a good conformation of the position signals that correspond to a specific photo-peak of the radionuclide of interest. In order to achieve this goal the energy spectrum from each photo multiplier tube (PMT) has to be set within the same energy window. For this reason a reliable tuning system is an important part of all gamma cameras processing systems. In this work is being tested and evaluated a new prototype of tuning card that was developed and setting up for this purpose. The hardware and software of the circuit allow the regulation if each PMT high voltage. By this means a proper gain control for each of them is accomplished. The Tuning Card prototype was simulated in a virtual model and its satisfactory operation was proven in a Siemens Orbiter Gamma Camera. (Author)

  4. High-speed holographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, Marc

    The high-speed holographic camera is a disgnostic instrument using holography as an information storing support. It allows us to take 10 holograms, of an object, with exposures times of 1,5ns, separated in time by 1 or 2ns. In order to get these results easily, no mobile part is used in the set-up [fr

  5. The Camera Comes to Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Leola

    After the Lindbergh kidnapping trial in 1935, the American Bar Association sought to eliminate electronic equipment from courtroom proceedings. Eventually, all but two states adopted regulations applying that ban to some extent, and a 1965 Supreme Court decision encouraged the banning of television cameras at trials as well. Currently, some states…

  6. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  7. Multiple Sensor Camera for Enhanced Video Capturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Hajime; Kanki, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yoshio; Yachida, Masahiko

    A resolution of camera has been drastically improved under a current request for high-quality digital images. For example, digital still camera has several mega pixels. Although a video camera has the higher frame-rate, the resolution of a video camera is lower than that of still camera. Thus, the high-resolution is incompatible with the high frame rate of ordinary cameras in market. It is difficult to solve this problem by a single sensor, since it comes from physical limitation of the pixel transfer rate. In this paper, we propose a multi-sensor camera for capturing a resolution and frame-rate enhanced video. Common multi-CCDs camera, such as 3CCD color camera, has same CCD for capturing different spectral information. Our approach is to use different spatio-temporal resolution sensors in a single camera cabinet for capturing higher resolution and frame-rate information separately. We build a prototype camera which can capture high-resolution (2588×1958 pixels, 3.75 fps) and high frame-rate (500×500, 90 fps) videos. We also proposed the calibration method for the camera. As one of the application of the camera, we demonstrate an enhanced video (2128×1952 pixels, 90 fps) generated from the captured videos for showing the utility of the camera.

  8. Information-theoretical feature selection using data obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer for the classification of glass traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Daniel; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A selection of the best features for multivariate forensic glass classification using SEM-EDX was performed. → The feature selection process was carried out by means of an exhaustive search, with an Empirical Cross-Entropy objective function. → Results show remarkable accuracy of the best variables selected following the proposed procedure for the task of classifying glass fragments into windows or containers. - Abstract: In this work, a selection of the best features for multivariate forensic glass classification using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with an Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) has been performed. This has been motivated by the fact that the databases available for forensic glass classification are sparse nowadays, and the acquisition of SEM-EDX data is both costly and time-consuming for forensic laboratories. The database used for this work consists of 278 glass objects for which 7 variables, based on their elemental compositions obtained with SEM-EDX, are available. Two categories are considered for the classification task, namely containers and car/building windows, both of them typical in forensic casework. A multivariate model is proposed for the computation of the likelihood ratios. The feature selection process is carried out by means of an exhaustive search, with an Empirical Cross-Entropy (ECE) objective function. The ECE metric takes into account not only the discriminating power of the model in use, but also its calibration, which indicates whether or not the likelihood ratios are interpretable in a probabilistic way. Thus, the proposed model is applied to all the 63 possible univariate, bivariate and trivariate combinations taken from the 7 variables in the database, and its performance is ranked by its ECE. Results show remarkable accuracy of the best variables selected following the proposed procedure for the task of classifying glass fragments into windows (from cars or buildings) or containers

  9. Neutron imaging system based on a video camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.

    2004-01-01

    The non-destructive testing with cold, thermal, epithermal or fast neutrons is nowadays more and more useful because the world-wide level of industrial development requires considerably higher standards of quality of manufactured products and reliability of technological processes especially where any deviation from standards could result in large-scale catastrophic consequences or human loses. Thanks to their properties, easily obtained and very good discrimination of the materials that penetrate, the thermal neutrons are the most used probe. The methods involved for this technique have advanced from neutron radiography based on converter screens and radiological films to neutron radioscopy based on video cameras, that is, from static images to dynamic images. Many neutron radioscopy systems have been used in the past with various levels of success. The quality of an image depends on the quality of the neutron beam and the type of the neutron imaging system. For real time investigations there are involved tube type cameras, CCD cameras and recently CID cameras that capture the image from an appropriate scintillator through the agency of a mirror. The analog signal of the camera is then converted into digital signal by the signal processing technology included into the camera. The image acquisition card or frame grabber from a PC converts the digital signal into an image. The image is formatted and processed by image analysis software. The scanning position of the object is controlled by the computer that commands the electrical motors that move horizontally, vertically and rotate the table of the object. Based on this system, a lot of static image acquisitions, real time non-destructive investigations of dynamic processes and finally, tomographic investigations of the small objects are done in a short time. A system based on a CID camera is presented. Fundamental differences between CCD and CID cameras lie in their pixel readout structure and technique. CIDs

  10. Patient restraining device for the pinhole collimator and gamma scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    A patient restraining device for use with the pinhole collimator of a conventional Gamma Scintillation Camera, the restraining device being made of an adapter ring and a patient holder. The adapter ring is secured directly to the pinhole collimator while the holder is adjustably mounted on the adapter. The adapter ring is so designed to accommodate a variety of holders so as to enable the scanning of many different areas of a patient's anatomy by the scintillation camera

  11. Resolution recovery for Compton camera using origin ensemble algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreyev, A. [Philips Healthcare, Highland Heights, Ohio 44143 (United States); Celler, A. [Medical Imaging Research Group, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9 (Canada); Ozsahin, I.; Sitek, A., E-mail: sarkadiu@gmail.com [Gordon Center for Medical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    resolution provided by the OE reconstructions with resolution recovery. The quality of images and their contrast are similar to those obtained from the OE reconstructions from scans simulated with perfect energy and spatial resolutions.

  12. Resolution recovery for Compton camera using origin ensemble algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreyev, A.; Celler, A.; Ozsahin, I.; Sitek, A.

    2016-01-01

    resolution provided by the OE reconstructions with resolution recovery. The quality of images and their contrast are similar to those obtained from the OE reconstructions from scans simulated with perfect energy and spatial resolutions.

  13. The upgrade of the H.E.S.S. cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavitto, Gianluca; Ashton, Terry; Balzer, Arnim; Berge, David; Brun, Francois; Chaminade, Thomas; Delagnes, Eric; Fontaine, Gerard; Füßling, Matthias; Giebels, Berrie; Glicenstein, Jean-Francois; Gräber, Tobias; Hinton, Jim; Jahnke, Albert; Klepser, Stefan; Kossatz, Marko; Kretzschmann, Axel; Lefranc, Valentin; Leich, Holger; Lüdecke, Hartmut; Lypova, Iryna; Manigot, Pascal; Marandon, Vincent; Moulin, Emmanuel; Naurois, Mathieu de; Nayman, Patrick; Ohm, Stefan; Penno, Marek; Ross, Duncan; Salek, David; Schade, Markus; Schwab, Thomas; Simoni, Rachel; Stegmann, Christian; Steppa, Constantin; Thornhill, Julian; Toussnel, Francois

    2017-12-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) is an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) located in the Khomas highland in Namibia. It was built to detect Very High Energy (VHE > 100 GeV) cosmic gamma rays. Since 2003, HESS has discovered the majority of the known astrophysical VHE gamma-ray sources, opening a new observational window on the extreme non-thermal processes at work in our universe. HESS consists of four 12-m diameter Cherenkov telescopes (CT1-4), which started data taking in 2002, and a larger 28-m telescope (CT5), built in 2012, which lowers the energy threshold of the array to 30 GeV . The cameras of CT1-4 are currently undergoing an extensive upgrade, with the goals of reducing their failure rate, reducing their readout dead time and improving the overall performance of the array. The entire camera electronics has been renewed from ground-up, as well as the power, ventilation and pneumatics systems, and the control and data acquisition software. Only the PMTs and their HV supplies have been kept from the original cameras. Novel technical solutions have been introduced, which will find their way into some of the Cherenkov cameras foreseen for the next-generation Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. In particular, the camera readout system is the first large-scale system based on the analog memory chip NECTAr, which was designed for CTA cameras. The camera control subsystems and the control software framework also pursue an innovative design, exploiting cutting-edge hardware and software solutions which excel in performance, robustness and flexibility. The CT1 camera has been upgraded in July 2015 and is currently taking data; CT2-4 have been upgraded in fall 2016. Together they will assure continuous operation of HESS at its full sensitivity until and possibly beyond the advent of CTA. This contribution describes the design, the testing and the in-lab and on-site performance of all components of the newly upgraded HESS

  14. Typical effects of laser dazzling CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianmin; Shao, Bibo; Cheng, Deyan; Ye, Xisheng; Feng, Guobin

    2015-05-01

    In this article, an overview of laser dazzling effect to buried channel CCD camera is given. The CCDs are sorted into staring and scanning types. The former includes the frame transfer and interline transfer types. The latter includes linear and time delay integration types. All CCDs must perform four primary tasks in generating an image, which are called charge generation, charge collection, charge transfer and charge measurement. In camera, the lenses are needed to input the optical signal to the CCD sensors, in which the techniques for erasing stray light are used. And the electron circuits are needed to process the output signal of CCD, in which many electronic techniques are used. The dazzling effects are the conjunct result of light distribution distortion and charge distribution distortion, which respectively derive from the lens and the sensor. Strictly speaking, in lens, the light distribution is not distorted. In general, the lens are so well designed and fabricated that its stray light can be neglected. But the laser is of much enough intensity to make its stray light obvious. In CCD image sensors, laser can induce a so large electrons generation. Charges transfer inefficiency and charges blooming will cause the distortion of the charge distribution. Commonly, the largest signal outputted from CCD sensor is restricted by capability of the collection well of CCD, and can't go beyond the dynamic range for the subsequent electron circuits maintaining normal work. So the signal is not distorted in the post-processing circuits. But some techniques in the circuit can make some dazzling effects present different phenomenon in final image.

  15. Multi-spectral CCD camera system for ocean water color and seacoast observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Shiping; Wu, Yanlin; Huang, Qiaolin; Jin, Weiqi

    2001-10-01

    One of the earth observing instruments on HY-1 Satellite which will be launched in 2001, the multi-spectral CCD camera system, is developed by Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics & Electricity (BISME), Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). In 798 km orbit, the system can provide images with 250 m ground resolution and a swath of 500 km. It is mainly used for coast zone dynamic mapping and oceanic watercolor monitoring, which include the pollution of offshore and coast zone, plant cover, watercolor, ice, terrain underwater, suspended sediment, mudflat, soil and vapor gross. The multi- spectral camera system is composed of four monocolor CCD cameras, which are line array-based, 'push-broom' scanning cameras, and responding for four spectral bands. The camera system adapts view field registration; that is, each camera scans the same region at the same moment. Each of them contains optics, focal plane assembly, electrical circuit, installation structure, calibration system, thermal control and so on. The primary features on the camera system are: (1) Offset of the central wavelength is better than 5 nm; (2) Degree of polarization is less than 0.5%; (3) Signal-to-noise ratio is about 1000; (4) Dynamic range is better than 2000:1; (5) Registration precision is better than 0.3 pixel; (6) Quantization value is 12 bit.

  16. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  17. Gamma Camera with Image Amplifier: Application in Nuclear Medicine; Camera Gamma a Amplificateur d'Image: Application en Medecine Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellershohn, C.; Vernejoul, P. de; Desgrez, A. [CEA, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Lequais, J.; Roux, G.; Lansiart, A. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    1969-05-15

    The camera described has an optical system consisting of a lead grid collimator with 649 cylindrical channels 130 mm long and 5.5 mm in diameter; a detector consisting of a mosaic of 700 NaI(Tl) crystals with an effective diameter of 5.5 mm, length 20 mm, and a distance of 7.5 mm between the axes; and a light amplification device consisting of an initial image amplifier (No. 9463 of the French Thomson-Houston Company), the photocathode of which is in optical contact with the detector and is itself optically coupled to a second, high-gain light amplifier (P 829A, from English Electric Valve). In accordance with a principle first laid down during the preceding Conference on Medical Isotope Scanning organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, this second amplifier may also be used as an electronic shutter operated by a photomultiplier which selects the light originating in the radio active source under examination. This device very effectively suppresses the background from the first amplifier tube. With reference to applications, the camera is used for two types of operation: firstly for the activation of the electronic shutter device, the rate of whose opening and shutting may reach 10 kHz; the background is almost entirely eliminated and it is possible with trace doses of conventional radionuclides to obtain images of such organs as the thyroid, liver, kidney, etc., in very short exposure times by comparison with customary scanning; secondly, by utilizing radionuclides of very short half-life with very high activities (of the order of several mCi), it is no longer necessary to effect suppression of the background whose repetition frequency is limited to 10 kHz. One can thus obtain ultrashort exposure times, e.g., about 1/20th of a second for an amount of 10 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc; such exposure times make cinematography possible. Various examples are supplied of applications making use of {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 137m}Ba and {sup 133}Xe in the field of vascular and

  18. A model for environmental scanning oriented for the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN); Um modelo de monitoramento ambiental (environmental scanning) orientado para o planejamento estrategico da CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Fabiane dos Reis

    1997-07-01

    Presently, all the organizations involved with nuclear activities must be one step ahead of what happens in the specific activity areas in order to avoid surprises, to guarantee their activity continuity and the objective extents, and taking into account the external environment influence exercised by the organization on their activities. So, it is necessary a continuous follow up of their transformations. This paper aims to structure a model of the environmental monitoring system oriented to the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, as function of that new informational needs viewing the fulfilment of that observed gap. (author)

  19. Architectural Design Document for Camera Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta

    1998-01-01

    Architecture of camera simulator models and data interface for the Maneuvering of Inspection/Servicing Vehicle (MIV) study.......Architecture of camera simulator models and data interface for the Maneuvering of Inspection/Servicing Vehicle (MIV) study....

  20. Selecting a digital camera for telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricoski, Chris; Ferguson, A Stewart

    2009-06-01

    The digital camera is an essential component of store-and-forward telemedicine (electronic consultation). There are numerous makes and models of digital cameras on the market, and selecting a suitable consumer-grade camera can be complicated. Evaluation of digital cameras includes investigating the features and analyzing image quality. Important features include the camera settings, ease of use, macro capabilities, method of image transfer, and power recharging. Consideration needs to be given to image quality, especially as it relates to color (skin tones) and detail. It is important to know the level of the photographer and the intended application. The goal is to match the characteristics of the camera with the telemedicine program requirements. In the end, selecting a digital camera is a combination of qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) analysis. For the telemedicine program in Alaska in 2008, the camera evaluation and decision process resulted in a specific selection based on the criteria developed for our environment.

  1. 21 CFR 886.1120 - Opthalmic camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1120 Opthalmic camera. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic camera is an AC-powered device intended to take photographs of the eye and the surrounding area...

  2. Vehicular camera pedestrian detection research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiahui

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology, it has made great development, but at the same time of highway traffic more convenient in highway traffic and transportation. However, in the meantime, traffic safety accidents occur more and more frequently in China. In order to deal with the increasingly heavy traffic safety. So, protecting the safety of people's personal property and facilitating travel has become a top priority. The real-time accurate pedestrian and driving environment are obtained through a vehicular camera which are used to detection and track the preceding moving targets. It is popular in the domain of intelligent vehicle safety driving, autonomous navigation and traffic system research. Based on the pedestrian video obtained by the Vehicular Camera, this paper studies the trajectory of pedestrian detection and its algorithm.

  3. Performance and quality control of scintillation cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.; Iachetti, D.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptance testing, quality and control assurance of gamma-cameras are a part of diagnostic quality in clinical practice. Several parameters are required to achieve a good diagnostic reliability: intrinsic spatial resolution, spatial linearity, uniformities, energy resolution, count-rate characteristics, multiple window spatial analysis. Each parameter was measured and also estimated by a test easy to implement in routine practice. Material required was a 4028 multichannel analyzer linked to a microcomputeur, mini-computers and a set of phantoms (parallel slits, diffusing phantom, orthogonal hole transmission pattern). Gamma-cameras on study were:CGR 3400, CGR 3420, G.E.4000. Siemens ZLC 75 and large field Philips. Several tests proposed by N.E.M.A. and W.H.O. have to be improved concerning too punctual spatial determinations during distortion measurements with multiple window. Contrast control of image need to be monitored with high counting rate. This study shows the need to avoid punctual determinations and the interest to give sets of values of the same parameter on the whole field and to report mean values with their standard variation [fr

  4. Characterization of a direct detection device imaging camera for transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare, E-mail: amilazzo@ncmir.ucsd.edu [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Moldovan, Grigore [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lanman, Jason [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Klienfelder, Stuart [University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Peltier, Steven T.; Ellisman, Mark H. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kirkland, Angus I. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Xuong, Nguyen-Huu [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The complete characterization of a novel direct detection device (DDD) camera for transmission electron microscopy is reported, for the first time at primary electron energies of 120 and 200 keV. Unlike a standard charge coupled device (CCD) camera, this device does not require a scintillator. The DDD transfers signal up to 65 lines/mm providing the basis for a high-performance platform for a new generation of wide field-of-view high-resolution cameras. An image of a thin section of virus particles is presented to illustrate the substantially improved performance of this sensor over current indirectly coupled CCD cameras.

  5. Characterization of a direct detection device imaging camera for transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Moldovan, Grigore; Lanman, Jason; Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C.; Klienfelder, Stuart; Peltier, Steven T.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Kirkland, Angus I.; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu

    2010-01-01

    The complete characterization of a novel direct detection device (DDD) camera for transmission electron microscopy is reported, for the first time at primary electron energies of 120 and 200 keV. Unlike a standard charge coupled device (CCD) camera, this device does not require a scintillator. The DDD transfers signal up to 65 lines/mm providing the basis for a high-performance platform for a new generation of wide field-of-view high-resolution cameras. An image of a thin section of virus particles is presented to illustrate the substantially improved performance of this sensor over current indirectly coupled CCD cameras.

  6. Graphic design of pinhole cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. B.; Chu, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a graphic technique for the analysis and optimization of pinhole size and focal length. The technique is based on the use of the transfer function of optical elements described by Scott (1959) to construct the transfer function of a circular pinhole camera. This transfer function is the response of a component or system to a pattern of lines having a sinusoidally varying radiance at varying spatial frequencies. Some specific examples of graphic design are presented.

  7. The MVACS Robotic Arm Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Hartwig, H.; Kramm, R.; Koschny, D.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Thomas, N.; Fernades, M.; Smith, P. H.; Reynolds, R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Weinberg, J.; Marcialis, R.; Tanner, R.; Boss, B. J.; Oquest, C.; Paige, D. A.

    2001-08-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is one of the key instruments newly developed for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor payload of the Mars Polar Lander. This lightweight instrument employs a front lens with variable focus range and takes images at distances from 11 mm (image scale 1:1) to infinity. Color images with a resolution of better than 50 μm can be obtained to characterize the Martian soil. Spectral information of nearby objects is retrieved through illumination with blue, green, and red lamp sets. The design and performance of the camera are described in relation to the science objectives and operation. The RAC uses the same CCD detector array as the Surface Stereo Imager and shares the readout electronics with this camera. The RAC is mounted at the wrist of the Robotic Arm and can characterize the contents of the scoop, the samples of soil fed to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer, the Martian surface in the vicinity of the lander, and the interior of trenches dug out by the Robotic Arm. It can also be used to take panoramic images and to retrieve stereo information with an effective baseline surpassing that of the Surface Stereo Imager by about a factor of 3.

  8. Coaxial fundus camera for opthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Luciana; Castro, Guilherme; Castro Neto, Jarbas C.

    2015-09-01

    A Fundus Camera for ophthalmology is a high definition device which needs to meet low light illumination of the human retina, high resolution in the retina and reflection free image1. Those constraints make its optical design very sophisticated, but the most difficult to comply with is the reflection free illumination and the final alignment due to the high number of non coaxial optical components in the system. Reflection of the illumination, both in the objective and at the cornea, mask image quality, and a poor alignment make the sophisticated optical design useless. In this work we developed a totally axial optical system for a non-midriatic Fundus Camera. The illumination is performed by a LED ring, coaxial with the optical system and composed of IR of visible LEDs. The illumination ring is projected by the objective lens in the cornea. The Objective, LED illuminator, CCD lens are coaxial making the final alignment easily to perform. The CCD + capture lens module is a CCTV camera with autofocus and Zoom built in, added to a 175 mm focal length doublet corrected for infinity, making the system easily operated and very compact.

  9. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  10. Development of an all-optical framing camera and its application on the Z-pinch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Peng, Bodong; Wang, Hong-Xing; Song, Guzhou; Li, Binkang; Yue, Zhiqin; Li, Yang; Sun, Tieping; Xu, Qing; Ma, Jiming; Sheng, Liang; Han, Changcai; Duan, Baojun; Yao, Zhiming; Yan, Weipeng

    2017-12-11

    An all-optical framing camera has been developed which measures the spatial profile of photons flux by utilizing a laser beam to probe the refractive index change in an indium phosphide semiconductor. This framing camera acquires two frames with the time resolution of about 1.5 ns and the inter frame separation time of about 13 ns by angularly multiplexing the probe beam on to the semiconductor. The spatial resolution of this camera has been estimated to be about 140 μm and the spectral response of this camera has also been theoretically investigated in 5 eV-100 KeV range. This camera has been applied in investigating the imploding dynamics of the molybdenum planar wire array Z-pinch on the 1-MA "QiangGuang-1" facility. This framing camera can provide an alternative scheme for high energy density physics experiments.

  11. Characterization of toners and inkjets by laser ablation spectrochemical methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Tatiana; Corzo, Ruthmara; Subedi, Kiran; Almirall, José

    2014-02-01

    Detection and sourcing of counterfeit currency, examination of counterfeit security documents and determination of authenticity of medical records are examples of common forensic document investigations. In these cases, the physical and chemical composition of the ink entries can provide important information for the assessment of the authenticity of the document or for making inferences about common source. Previous results reported by our group have demonstrated that elemental analysis, using either Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) or Laser Ablation Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), provides an effective, practical and robust technique for the discrimination of document substrates and writing inks with minimal damage to the document. In this study, laser-based methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods were developed, optimized and validated for the forensic analysis of more complex inks such as toners and inkjets, to determine if their elemental composition can differentiate documents printed from different sources and to associate documents that originated from the same printing source. Comparison of the performance of each of these methods is presented, including the analytical figures of merit, discrimination capability and error rates. Different calibration strategies resulting in semi-quantitative and qualitative analysis, comparison methods (match criteria) and data analysis and interpretation tools were also developed. A total of 27 black laser toners originating from different manufacturing sources and/or batches were examined to evaluate the discrimination capability of each method. The results suggest that SEM-EDS offers relatively poor discrimination capability for this set (~ 70.7% discrimination of all the possible comparison pairs or a 29.3% type II error rate). Nonetheless, SEM-EDS can still be used as a complementary method of analysis since it has

  12. Characterization of toners and inkjets by laser ablation spectrochemical methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejos, Tatiana; Corzo, Ruthmara; Subedi, Kiran; Almirall, José

    2014-01-01

    Detection and sourcing of counterfeit currency, examination of counterfeit security documents and determination of authenticity of medical records are examples of common forensic document investigations. In these cases, the physical and chemical composition of the ink entries can provide important information for the assessment of the authenticity of the document or for making inferences about common source. Previous results reported by our group have demonstrated that elemental analysis, using either Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) or Laser Ablation Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), provides an effective, practical and robust technique for the discrimination of document substrates and writing inks with minimal damage to the document. In this study, laser-based methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods were developed, optimized and validated for the forensic analysis of more complex inks such as toners and inkjets, to determine if their elemental composition can differentiate documents printed from different sources and to associate documents that originated from the same printing source. Comparison of the performance of each of these methods is presented, including the analytical figures of merit, discrimination capability and error rates. Different calibration strategies resulting in semi-quantitative and qualitative analysis, comparison methods (match criteria) and data analysis and interpretation tools were also developed. A total of 27 black laser toners originating from different manufacturing sources and/or batches were examined to evaluate the discrimination capability of each method. The results suggest that SEM-EDS offers relatively poor discrimination capability for this set (∼ 70.7% discrimination of all the possible comparison pairs or a 29.3% type II error rate). Nonetheless, SEM-EDS can still be used as a complementary method of analysis since it has

  13. Characterization of toners and inkjets by laser ablation spectrochemical methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trejos, Tatiana, E-mail: trejost@fiu.edu; Corzo, Ruthmara, E-mail: rcorz001@fiu.edu; Subedi, Kiran, E-mail: ksube001@fiu.edu; Almirall, José, E-mail: almirall@fiu.edu

    2014-02-01

    Detection and sourcing of counterfeit currency, examination of counterfeit security documents and determination of authenticity of medical records are examples of common forensic document investigations. In these cases, the physical and chemical composition of the ink entries can provide important information for the assessment of the authenticity of the document or for making inferences about common source. Previous results reported by our group have demonstrated that elemental analysis, using either Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) or Laser Ablation Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), provides an effective, practical and robust technique for the discrimination of document substrates and writing inks with minimal damage to the document. In this study, laser-based methods and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods were developed, optimized and validated for the forensic analysis of more complex inks such as toners and inkjets, to determine if their elemental composition can differentiate documents printed from different sources and to associate documents that originated from the same printing source. Comparison of the performance of each of these methods is presented, including the analytical figures of merit, discrimination capability and error rates. Different calibration strategies resulting in semi-quantitative and qualitative analysis, comparison methods (match criteria) and data analysis and interpretation tools were also developed. A total of 27 black laser toners originating from different manufacturing sources and/or batches were examined to evaluate the discrimination capability of each method. The results suggest that SEM-EDS offers relatively poor discrimination capability for this set (∼ 70.7% discrimination of all the possible comparison pairs or a 29.3% type II error rate). Nonetheless, SEM-EDS can still be used as a complementary method of analysis since it has

  14. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk still...

  15. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrester, Tavis; O'Brien, Tim; Fegraus, Eric; Jansen, P.A.; Palmer, Jonathan; Kays, Roland; Ahumada, Jorge; Stern, Beth; McShea, William

    2016-01-01

    Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an

  16. A camera specification for tendering purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, M.J.; Davies, M.D.; Kenyon, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    A standardized document is described which is suitable for sending to companies which are being invited to tender for the supply of a gamma camera. The document refers to various features of the camera, the performance specification of the camera, maintenance details, price quotations for various options and delivery, installation and warranty details. (U.K.)

  17. Fundamental radiological and geometric performance of two types of proton beam modulated discrete scanning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, J B; Dessy, F; De Wilde, O; Bietzer, O; Schönenberg, D

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare and contrast the measured fundamental properties of two new types of modulated proton scanning systems. This provides a basis for clinical expectations based on the scanned beam quality and a benchmark for computational models. Because the relatively small beam and fast scanning gave challenges to the characterization, a secondary purpose was to develop and apply new approaches where necessary to do so. The following performances of the proton scanning systems were investigated: beamlet alignment, static in-air beamlet size and shape, scanned in-air penumbra, scanned fluence map accuracy, geometric alignment of scanning system to isocenter, maximum field size, lateral and longitudinal field uniformity of a 1 l cubic uniform field, output stability over time, gantry angle invariance, monitoring system linearity, and reproducibility. A range of detectors was used: film, ionization chambers, lateral multielement and longitudinal multilayer ionization chambers, and a scintillation screen combined with a digital video camera. Characterization of the scanned fluence maps was performed with a software analysis tool. The resulting measurements and analysis indicated that the two types of delivery systems performed within specification for those aspects investigated. The significant differences were observed between the two types of scanning systems where one type exhibits a smaller spot size and associated penumbra than the other. The differential is minimum at maximum energy and increases inversely with decreasing energy. Additionally, the large spot system showed an increase in dose precision to a static target with layer rescanning whereas the small spot system did not. The measured results from the two types of modulated scanning types of system were consistent with their designs under the conditions tested. The most significant difference between the types of system was their proton spot size and associated resolution

  18. Fundamental radiological and geometric performance of two types of proton beam modulated discrete scanning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, J. B.; Schoenenberg, D. [Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen, Universitaetsklinikum-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen (Germany); Dessy, F.; De Wilde, O.; Bietzer, O. [Ion Beam Applications, Chemin du Cyclotron, 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to compare and contrast the measured fundamental properties of two new types of modulated proton scanning systems. This provides a basis for clinical expectations based on the scanned beam quality and a benchmark for computational models. Because the relatively small beam and fast scanning gave challenges to the characterization, a secondary purpose was to develop and apply new approaches where necessary to do so.Methods: The following performances of the proton scanning systems were investigated: beamlet alignment, static in-air beamlet size and shape, scanned in-air penumbra, scanned fluence map accuracy, geometric alignment of scanning system to isocenter, maximum field size, lateral and longitudinal field uniformity of a 1 l cubic uniform field, output stability over time, gantry angle invariance, monitoring system linearity, and reproducibility. A range of detectors was used: film, ionization chambers, lateral multielement and longitudinal multilayer ionization chambers, and a scintillation screen combined with a digital video camera. Characterization of the scanned fluence maps was performed with a software analysis tool.Results: The resulting measurements and analysis indicated that the two types of delivery systems performed within specification for those aspects investigated. The significant differences were observed between the two types of scanning systems where one type exhibits a smaller spot size and associated penumbra than the other. The differential is minimum at maximum energy and increases inversely with decreasing energy. Additionally, the large spot system showed an increase in dose precision to a static target with layer rescanning whereas the small spot system did not.Conclusions: The measured results from the two types of modulated scanning types of system were consistent with their designs under the conditions tested. The most significant difference between the types of system was their proton

  19. Can we Use Low-Cost 360 Degree Cameras to Create Accurate 3d Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, L.; Previtali, M.; Roncoroni, F.

    2018-05-01

    360 degree cameras capture the whole scene around a photographer in a single shot. Cheap 360 cameras are a new paradigm in photogrammetry. The camera can be pointed to any direction, and the large field of view reduces the number of photographs. This paper aims to show that accurate metric reconstructions can be achieved with affordable sensors (less than 300 euro). The camera used in this work is the Xiaomi Mijia Mi Sphere 360, which has a cost of about 300 USD (January 2018). Experiments demonstrate that millimeter-level accuracy can be obtained during the image orientation and surface reconstruction steps, in which the solution from 360° images was compared to check points measured with a total station and laser scanning point clouds. The paper will summarize some practical rules for image acquisition as well as the importance of ground control points to remove possible deformations of the network during bundle adjustment, especially for long sequences with unfavorable geometry. The generation of orthophotos from images having a 360° field of view (that captures the entire scene around the camera) is discussed. Finally, the paper illustrates some case studies where the use of a 360° camera could be a better choice than a project based on central perspective cameras. Basically, 360° cameras become very useful in the survey of long and narrow spaces, as well as interior areas like small rooms.

  20. Soft x-ray streak camera for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    This thesis reviews the development and significance of the soft x-ray streak camera (SXRSC) in the context of inertial confinement fusion energy development. A brief introduction of laser fusion and laser fusion diagnostics is presented. The need for a soft x-ray streak camera as a laser fusion diagnostic is shown. Basic x-ray streak camera characteristics, design, and operation are reviewed. The SXRSC design criteria, the requirement for a subkilovolt x-ray transmitting window, and the resulting camera design are explained. Theory and design of reflector-filter pair combinations for three subkilovolt channels centered at 220 eV, 460 eV, and 620 eV are also presented. Calibration experiments are explained and data showing a dynamic range of 1000 and a sweep speed of 134 psec/mm are presented. Sensitivity modifications to the soft x-ray streak camera for a high-power target shot are described. A preliminary investigation, using a stepped cathode, of the thickness dependence of the gold photocathode response is discussed. Data from a typical Argus laser gold-disk target experiment are shown

  1. Spectroscopic gamma camera for use in high dose environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Yuichiro, E-mail: yuichiro.ueno.bv@hitachi.com [Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan); Takahashi, Isao; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Okada, Koichi; Nagumo, Yasushi [Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan); Fujishima, Yasutake; Kometani, Yutaka [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuhiko [Measuring Systems Engineering Dept., Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd., Ome-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Umegaki, Kikuo [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-06-21

    We developed a pinhole gamma camera to measure distributions of radioactive material contaminants and to identify radionuclides in extraordinarily high dose regions (1000 mSv/h). The developed gamma camera is characterized by: (1) tolerance for high dose rate environments; (2) high spatial and spectral resolution for identifying unknown contaminating sources; and (3) good usability for being carried on a robot and remotely controlled. These are achieved by using a compact pixelated detector module with CdTe semiconductors, efficient shielding, and a fine resolution pinhole collimator. The gamma camera weighs less than 100 kg, and its field of view is an 8 m square in the case of a distance of 10 m and its image is divided into 256 (16×16) pixels. From the laboratory test, we found the energy resolution at the 662 keV photopeak was 2.3% FWHM, which is enough to identify the radionuclides. We found that the count rate per background dose rate was 220 cps h/mSv and the maximum count rate was 300 kcps, so the maximum dose rate of the environment where the gamma camera can be operated was calculated as 1400 mSv/h. We investigated the reactor building of Unit 1 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using the gamma camera and could identify the unknown contaminating source in the dose rate environment that was as high as 659 mSv/h.

  2. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM). In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  3. Relative camera localisation in non-overlapping camera networks using multiple trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John, V.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present an automatic camera calibration algorithm using multiple trajectories in a multiple camera network with non-overlapping field-of-views (FOV). Visible trajectories within a camera FOV are assumed to be measured with respect to the camera local co-ordinate system.

  4. Magnification bone scan of knees for knee pain evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Park, Chan H.; Yoon, Seok Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Knee pain is one of the common complaints of patients seen in our orthopedic clinic. Routine anterior and posterior views of whole body bone scan (WBBS) is often not sufficient in the evaluation of these patients. An ideal bone scan using pinhole collimator or single photon emission tomography (SPECT), however, is impractical and time consuming in busy nuclear medicine department with limited resources. Therefore, the aim of the study is to assess limited bone scan of knees with magnification (LNSKM) for knee pain evaluation. Technical aspect of LBSKM and diagnostic efficacy are discussed on this poster. Adult patients with knee pain were reffered for LBSKM from an orthopedic surgen specializing knees. Four hundred fifteen LBSKMs were performed since 1999. patients were given 740 MBq (20mCi) Tc-99m MDP intravenously and 3 hours later LBSKM was performed using a low energy high resolution parallel hole collimator and Siemens Orbitor camera. (Simens medical systems. Inc., Hoffman Estates, III., USA). Anterior view of the knees was taken for 5 min, without magnification and both lateral views of symptomatic knees were obtained with electronic magnification (1.25, upto 2.0) for 8 min each. Disease processes such as DJD, traumatic arthritis, P-F tendonitis, SONK, meniscus tear are detected and illustrated along with normal knee scan finding. We believe LBSKM may not be as good as SPECT or pinhole imaging of the knees in the evaluation of knee pain but superior to routine WBBS in the nuclear medicine department with limited resources of instrumentation and manpower

  5. Stereo Pinhole Camera: Assembly and experimental activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmário Barbosa Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the assembling of a stereo pinhole camera for capturing stereo-pairs of images and proposes experimental activities with it. A pinhole camera can be as sophisticated as you want, or so simple that it could be handcrafted with practically recyclable materials. This paper describes the practical use of the pinhole camera throughout history and currently. Aspects of optics and geometry involved in the building of the stereo pinhole camera are presented with illustrations. Furthermore, experiments are proposed by using the images obtained by the camera for 3D visualization through a pair of anaglyph glasses, and the estimation of relative depth by triangulation is discussed.

  6. Single Camera Calibration in 3D Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caius SULIMAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Camera calibration is a necessary step in 3D vision in order to extract metric information from 2D images. A camera is considered to be calibrated when the parameters of the camera are known (i.e. principal distance, lens distorsion, focal length etc.. In this paper we deal with a single camera calibration method and with the help of this method we try to find the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters. The method was implemented with succes in the programming and simulation environment Matlab.

  7. Carbon-11 in Bone and Lung Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, W. G.; Hunter, Jr., W. W. [Ohio State University Health Center, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1969-05-15

    Radiocarbon-11 decays with 20.3-min half-life by emitting positrons with 1.0-MeV maximum energy. Two 511-keV {sup {+-}}{gamma}-photons almost always are emitted coincidentally with each disintegration, at 180 Degree-Sign to each other. This 'back-to-back' relationship makes it possible readily to locate small accumulations of {sup 11}C in vivo by opposed detectors connected by coincidence circuitry. The calculated narrow-beam half-thickness in water is more than 7 cm, to provide good penetration from deep organs, and with little scatter. Multimillicurie amounts of a mixture of {sup 11}CO and {sup 11}CO{sub 2} are generated readily in our small cyclotron when probe targets of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} are bombarded with protons, deuterons, or {sup 3}He{sup ++} ions. The {sup 11}CO is oxidized to {sup 11}CO{sub 2} by hopcalite placed in the vacuum line. Dogs with primary or metastatic bone tumours received {sup 11}CO{sub 2}, either by inhalation in a closed system, or in slightly basic solution in travenously. Scintigraphs, that were obtained within 10-20 min by means of a Nuclear-Chicago focused-collimator scanning machine, revealed significant accumulations of {sup 11}C at sites where bone erosion was demonstrable roentgenographically. Good pictures of dog lungs were obtained either with the mechanical scanner, or with our Nuclear-Chicago scintillation camera, after intravenous injection of 4-12 {mu}m diam. smoothly-rounded aggregates of SrCO{sub 3} that were formed in dextran-saline solution. These 'photon-carrier' aggregates have been made either with {sup 11}C; or with 2.8-h {sup 87m}Sr, which emits 388-keV gamma-rays. Alternatively, they might be made to 'carry' the 231-keV gamma-rays of 70-m in {sup 85m}Sr, that are advantageous for scintigraphy. The advent of Anger's positron camera, with choice of plane of prime interest, will provide opportunities to emphasize the maximum target/nontarget ratio in pictures of localized accumulations of {sup 11}C, as well as of {sup

  8. First PET scans in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    First PET scans in Estonia were performed on 25th November 2002 in North Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn. Six patients with melanoma underwent scanning with FDG. This event was a result of thorough extensive preparations first started in 2000 during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine congress in Paris. During the congress first contacts were made with providers of mobile PET units. At the same time negotiations were begun with potential FDG suppliers. For the introduction of PET in Estonia mobile truckmounted scanning technology was chosen due to low level of initial investments. Of particular importance was also availability of maintenance personnel from the device providers. A significant prerequisite was potential availability of FDG from the neighbourhood - Finland and Sweden. The latter avoided the necessity for investments into local cyclotrons and local FDG production. For the first scanning experience the dedicated truckmounted PET-camera Accel, Siemens was brought by the International Hospital Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The device arrived by ferry from Stockholm to Tallinn harbour at 10 o'clock in the morning and left by ferry for Helsinki at 23 o'clock. The team-on-truck consisted of one technician for device operation, two drivers and two company representatives. North Estonia Regional Hospital provided three additional technicians for patient preparation and FDG injection, one nuclear medicine doctor and one specialist of biomedical engineering and medical physics. The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, Helsinki, Finland. The shipments were made by air. This was possible due to small distance between Tallinn and Helsinki of approximately 80 km due to the regular flight connections between the two cities. The FDG was shipped in two lots with a time interval of 4 hours. The patient selection was based on clinical and histopathology data. In all six patients the exam was justified for detailied staging and

  9. Reducing flicker due to ambient illumination in camera captured images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwoong; Bengtson, Kurt; Li, Lisa; Allebach, Jan P.

    2013-02-01

    The flicker artifact dealt with in this paper is the scanning distortion arising when an image is captured by a digital camera using a CMOS imaging sensor with an electronic rolling shutter under strong ambient light sources powered by AC. This type of camera scans a target line-by-line in a frame. Therefore, time differences exist between the lines. This mechanism causes a captured image to be corrupted by the change of illumination. This phenomenon is called the flicker artifact. The non-content area of the captured image is used to estimate a flicker signal that is a key to being able to compensate the flicker artifact. The average signal of the non-content area taken along the scan direction has local extrema where the peaks of flicker exist. The locations of the extrema are very useful information to estimate the desired distribution of pixel intensities assuming that the flicker artifact does not exist. The flicker-reduced images compensated by our approach clearly demonstrate the reduced flicker artifact, based on visual observation.

  10. Testing of camera performance standards at steady and local overloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keszthelyine Landori, S.; Adorjanne Farkas, M.; Csirik, J.

    1983-01-01

    Camera performance standards are usually given for low count rates and uniform irradiation. A conventional analog gamma camera system (Gamma MB 9100 manufactured under the know-how of Picker DC 4/12 in Hungary) was studied on the basis of the Picker test procedure and the NEMA standard system. Uniformity, linearity, spatial and energy resolution were measured at high count rates and uniform irradiation (steady overloading). Linearity was studied at local overloading. Linearity, spatial and energy resolution were measured by a 1024-channel analyzer-computer system of KFKI, Hungary. The data were evaluated on the basis of NEMA standards, while uniformity was measured by the Gamma data processing system and evaluated by special SEGAMS programs. Performance variations were studied between 7500 cps and 75.000 cps pulse rates. Spatial and energy resolution were influenced strongly, uniformity slightly by pulse rates, while linearity did not change at all. Linearity was not influenced even by local overloading. (author)

  11. Collimator changer for scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupa, E.C.; Meeder, R.L.; Richter, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    A collimator changing assembly mounted on the support structure of a scintillation camera is described. A vertical support column positioned proximate the detector support column with a plurality of support arms mounted thereon in a rotatable cantilevered manner at separate vertical positions. Each support arm is adapted to carry one of the plurality of collimators which are interchangeably mountable on the underside of the detector and to transport the collimator between a store position remote from the detector and a change position underneath said detector

  12. Robot Tracer with Visual Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar Lubis, Abdul; Dwi Lestari, Yuyun; Dafitri, Haida; Azanuddin

    2017-12-01

    Robot is a versatile tool that can function replace human work function. The robot is a device that can be reprogrammed according to user needs. The use of wireless networks for remote monitoring needs can be utilized to build a robot that can be monitored movement and can be monitored using blueprints and he can track the path chosen robot. This process is sent using a wireless network. For visual robot using high resolution cameras to facilitate the operator to control the robot and see the surrounding circumstances.

  13. Bring your own camera to the trap: An inexpensive, versatile, and portable triggering system tested on wild hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Mickley, James

    2017-07-01

    The study of animals in the wild offers opportunities to collect relevant information on their natural behavior and abilities to perform ecologically relevant tasks. However, it also poses challenges such as accounting for observer effects, human sensory limitations, and the time intensiveness of this type of research. To meet these challenges, field biologists have deployed camera traps to remotely record animal behavior in the wild. Despite their ubiquity in research, many commercial camera traps have limitations, and the species and behavior of interest may present unique challenges. For example, no camera traps support high-speed video recording. We present a new and inexpensive camera trap system that increases versatility by separating the camera from the triggering mechanism. Our system design can pair with virtually any camera and allows for independent positioning of a variety of sensors, all while being low-cost, lightweight, weatherproof, and energy efficient. By using our specialized trigger and customized sensor configurations, many limitations of commercial camera traps can be overcome. We use this system to study hummingbird feeding behavior using high-speed video cameras to capture fast movements and multiple sensors placed away from the camera to detect small body sizes. While designed for hummingbirds, our application can be extended to any system where specialized camera or sensor features are required, or commercial camera traps are cost-prohibitive, allowing camera trap use in more research avenues and by more researchers.

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... camera heads are oriented at a 90 degree angle and placed over the patient's body. SPECT involves ... images of the thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for brief ...

  15. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... placed over the patient's body. SPECT involves the rotation of the gamma camera heads around the patient's ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... placed over the patient's body. SPECT involves the rotation of the gamma camera heads around the patient's ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... camera heads, which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached ... the patient's body. In contrast, nuclear medicine procedures use a radioactive material, called a radiopharmaceutical or radiotracer, ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... computer aids in creating the images from the data obtained by the gamma camera. A probe is ... at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates ... examination table with your head tipped backward and neck extended. The gamma camera will then take a ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I ... imaging techniques used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... called gamma camera heads, which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minutes prior to the test. When it is time for the imaging to begin, you will lie ... need to remain still for brief periods of time while the camera is taking pictures. When the ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer to provide information about your thyroid’s size, shape, ... to produce more detailed, three-dimensional images. A computer aids in creating the images from the data ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at ... camera heads, which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... placed over the patient's body. SPECT involves the rotation of the gamma camera heads around the patient's ... by other imaging techniques. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head ...

  6. Step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for investigating chemical reactions of energy-related materials. Final report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyring, E.M.

    1997-11-04

    Two step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers were purchased with URI-DOE funds by the University of Utah. These infrared spectrometers have been used to carry out the following investigations: the determination of strength of adsorption of organic molecules at the liquid-solid interface of coated attenuated total reflectance (ATR) elements, the kinetic study of the photoinitiated polymerization of a dental resin, the exploration of the kinetics of photochemical reactions of organic molecules in solution, and the development of a stopped-flow FTIR interface for measuring rates and mechanisms of reactions in solution that are not photoinitiated and do not have convenient ultraviolet-visible spectral features.

  7. Using DSLR cameras in digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Zuluaga, Diego; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge; García-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    In Digital Holography (DH), the size of the bidimensional image sensor to record the digital hologram, plays a key role on the performance of this imaging technique; the larger the size of the camera sensor, the better the quality of the final reconstructed image. Scientific cameras with large formats are offered in the market, but their cost and availability limit their use as a first option when implementing DH. Nowadays, DSLR cameras provide an easy-access alternative that is worthwhile to be explored. The DSLR cameras are a wide, commercial, and available option that in comparison with traditional scientific cameras, offer a much lower cost per effective pixel over a large sensing area. However, in the DSLR cameras, with their RGB pixel distribution, the sampling of information is different to the sampling in monochrome cameras usually employed in DH. This fact has implications in their performance. In this work, we discuss why DSLR cameras are not extensively used for DH, taking into account the problem reported by different authors of object replication. Simulations of DH using monochromatic and DSLR cameras are presented and a theoretical deduction for the replication problem using the Fourier theory is also shown. Experimental results of DH implementation using a DSLR camera show the replication problem.

  8. Human tracking over camera networks: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Wan, Wanggen; Hwang, Jenq-Neng; Muhammad, Rizwan; Yang, Mingyang; Han, Kang

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, automated human tracking over camera networks is getting essential for video surveillance. The tasks of tracking human over camera networks are not only inherently challenging due to changing human appearance, but also have enormous potentials for a wide range of practical applications, ranging from security surveillance to retail and health care. This review paper surveys the most widely used techniques and recent advances for human tracking over camera networks. Two important functional modules for the human tracking over camera networks are addressed, including human tracking within a camera and human tracking across non-overlapping cameras. The core techniques of human tracking within a camera are discussed based on two aspects, i.e., generative trackers and discriminative trackers. The core techniques of human tracking across non-overlapping cameras are then discussed based on the aspects of human re-identification, camera-link model-based tracking and graph model-based tracking. Our survey aims to address existing problems, challenges, and future research directions based on the analyses of the current progress made toward human tracking techniques over camera networks.

  9. Image compensation for camera and lighting variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Wayne D.; Britton, Douglas F.

    1996-12-01

    With the current trend of integrating machine vision systems in industrial manufacturing and inspection applications comes the issue of camera and illumination stabilization. Unless each application is built around a particular camera and highly controlled lighting environment, the interchangeability of cameras of fluctuations in lighting become a problem as each camera usually has a different response. An empirical approach is proposed where color tile data is acquired using the camera of interest, and a mapping is developed to some predetermined reference image using neural networks. A similar analytical approach based on a rough analysis of the imaging systems is also considered for deriving a mapping between cameras. Once a mapping has been determined, all data from one camera is mapped to correspond to the images of the other prior to performing any processing on the data. Instead of writing separate image processing algorithms for the particular image data being received, the image data is adjusted based on each particular camera and lighting situation. All that is required when swapping cameras is the new mapping for the camera being inserted. The image processing algorithms can remain the same as the input data has been adjusted appropriately. The results of utilizing this technique are presented for an inspection application.

  10. Development of a Compton camera for prompt-gamma medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawood, S.; Thirolf, P. G.; Miani, A.; Böhmer, M.; Dedes, G.; Gernhäuser, R.; Lang, C.; Liprandi, S.; Maier, L.; Marinšek, T.; Mayerhofer, M.; Schaart, D. R.; Lozano, I. Valencia; Parodi, K.

    2017-11-01

    A Compton camera-based detector system for photon detection from nuclear reactions induced by proton (or heavier ion) beams is under development at LMU Munich, targeting the online range verification of the particle beam in hadron therapy via prompt-gamma imaging. The detector is designed to be capable to reconstruct the photon source origin not only from the Compton scattering kinematics of the primary photon, but also to allow for tracking of the secondary Compton-scattered electrons, thus enabling a γ-source reconstruction also from incompletely absorbed photon events. The Compton camera consists of a monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillation crystal, read out by a multi-anode PMT acting as absorber, preceded by a stacked array of 6 double-sided silicon strip detectors as scatterers. The detector components have been characterized both under offline and online conditions. The LaBr3:Ce crystal exhibits an excellent time and energy resolution. Using intense collimated 137Cs and 60Co sources, the monolithic scintillator was scanned on a fine 2D grid to generate a reference library of light amplitude distributions that allows for reconstructing the photon interaction position using a k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) algorithm. Systematic studies were performed to investigate the performance of the reconstruction algorithm, revealing an improvement of the spatial resolution with increasing photon energy to an optimum value of 3.7(1)mm at 1.33 MeV, achieved with the Categorical Average Pattern (CAP) modification of the k-NN algorithm.

  11. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair S Glen

    Full Text Available Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1 trigger speed, 2 passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3 white vs. infrared flash, and 4 still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea, feral cats (Felis catus and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus. Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  12. Applications of a Ga-68/Ge-68 generator system to brain imaging using a multiwire proportional chamber positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattner, R.S.; Lim, C.B.; Swann, S.J.; Kaufman, L.; Chu, D.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1976-01-01

    A Ge-68/Ga-68 generator system has been applied to brain imaging in conjunction with a novel coincidence detection based positron camera. The camera consists of two opposed large area multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) detectors interfaced to multichannel lead converter plates. Event localization is effected of delay lines. Ten patients with brain lesions have been studied 1-2 hours after the administration of Ga-68 formulated as DTPA. The images were compared to conventional brain scans, and to x-ray section scans (CAT). The positron studies have shown significant mitigation of confusing superficial activity resulting from craniotomy compared to conventional brain scans. Central necrosis of lesions observed in positron images, but not in the conventional scans has been confirmed in CAT. The economy of MWPC positron cameras combined with the ideal characteristics of the Ge-68/Ga-68 generator promise a cost efficient imaging system for the future

  13. Assessing the Potential of Low-Cost 3D Cameras for the Rapid Measurement of Plant Woody Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nock

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed 3D plant architectural data have numerous applications in plant science, but many existing approaches for 3D data collection are time-consuming and/or require costly equipment. Recently, there has been rapid growth in the availability of low-cost, 3D cameras and related open source software applications. 3D cameras may provide measurements of key components of plant architecture such as stem diameters and lengths, however, few tests of 3D cameras for the measurement of plant architecture have been conducted. Here, we measured Salix branch segments ranging from 2–13 mm in diameter with an Asus Xtion camera to quantify the limits and accuracy of branch diameter measurement with a 3D camera. By scanning at a variety of distances we also quantified the effect of scanning distance. In addition, we also test the sensitivity of the program KinFu for continuous 3D object scanning and modeling as well as other similar software to accurately record stem diameters and capture plant form (<3 m in height. Given its ability to accurately capture the diameter of branches >6 mm, Asus Xtion may provide a novel method for the collection of 3D data on the branching architecture of woody plants. Improvements in camera measurement accuracy and available software are likely to further improve the utility of 3D cameras for plant sciences in the future.

  14. The use of optical scanning for analysis of casting shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieczorowski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the use of optical scanning for inspection of casting shape and its accuracy was described. Optical system applied todigitization of objects determines all dimensions and shape of inspected object. This technology is used in quality control and reverse engineering. System is based on triangulation: sensor head performs projection of different patterns of fringes onto measured object and scanner tracks their distribution with two cameras. Basing on optical transform equations, a processing unit automatically and with remarkable accuracy calculates 3D coordinates for every pixel of camera. Depending on camera resolution the result of such a scan is acloud of points with up to 5 million points for every image. In the paper examples of applications for castings with different designationwas presented.

  15. Point-of-Care Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density Measurement Can Reduce the Need of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanning in Danish Women at Risk of Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Teresa; Bech, Mickael; Gram, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Identifying persons with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures remains a challenge. DXA uptake in women with elevated risk of osteoporosis seems to be depending on distance to scanning facilities. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a small portable scanner in identifying women...... with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and to define triage thresholds for pre-selection. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and phalangeal BMD by radiographic absorptiometry in 121 Danish women with intermediate or high 10-year fracture probability (aged 61...... and only 6 % of women in the low-risk group would be false negatives....

  16. SU-F-J-140: Using Handheld Stereo Depth Cameras to Extend Medical Imaging for Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C; Xing, L; Yu, S [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A correct body contour is essential for the accuracy of dose calculation in radiation therapy. While modern medical imaging technologies provide highly accurate representations of body contours, there are times when a patient’s anatomy cannot be fully captured or there is a lack of easy access to CT/MRI scanning. Recently, handheld cameras have emerged that are capable of performing three dimensional (3D) scans of patient surface anatomy. By combining 3D camera and medical imaging data, the patient’s surface contour can be fully captured. Methods: A proof-of-concept system matches a patient surface model, created using a handheld stereo depth camera (DC), to the available areas of a body contour segmented from a CT scan. The matched surface contour is then converted to a DICOM structure and added to the CT dataset to provide additional contour information. In order to evaluate the system, a 3D model of a patient was created by segmenting the body contour with a treatment planning system (TPS) and fabricated with a 3D printer. A DC and associated software were used to create a 3D scan of the printed phantom. The surface created by the camera was then registered to a CT model that had been cropped to simulate missing scan data. The aligned surface was then imported into the TPS and compared with the originally segmented contour. Results: The RMS error for the alignment between the camera and cropped CT models was 2.26 mm. Mean distance between the aligned camera surface and ground truth model was −1.23 +/−2.47 mm. Maximum deviations were < 1 cm and occurred in areas of high concavity or where anatomy was close to the couch. Conclusion: The proof-of-concept study shows an accurate, easy and affordable method to extend medical imaging for radiation therapy planning using 3D cameras without additional radiation. Intel provided the camera hardware used in this study.

  17. Bone scan and serum CA 15-3 in bone metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, G.; Cano, R.; Morales, R.; Guzman, C.

    1996-01-01

    CA 15-3 is a tumor marker useful in evolution control of breast cancer, being the serum levels trend the most important parameter. The purpose of this study was to report our experience and show the concordance of bone scan and CA 15-3 in patients with breast cancer attending the Breast and Bone Department of INEN from June to December 1993. One hundred patients had serum CA 15-3 quantification between June and December of 1993 in Nuclear Medicine Center (Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy and National Institute of Neoplasic Diseases). We selected 52 patients which simultaneously had a bone scan performed. Patients age ranged from 21 to 67 years (media of 44,57 years). 99m Tc methylenediphosphonate produced by IPEN was the radiopharmaceutical employed. A GE AZS-400 gamma camera was utilized to obtain the bone scans. Ca 15-5 quantification was performed with ELSA-CA 15-3 (CIS bio France) IRMA kit. Bone scan and CA 15-3 media of 17,06 U/ml (DS 15,4). Eight patients had a positive bone scan with a CA 15-3 media of 41,6 U/ml (SD 23,0). CA 15-3 levels ranged between 4,6 and 96,0 U/ml in the first group and 10,1 U/ml to 75,0 U/ml in the second group. Using a cut-off point of 30 U/ml the sensitivity of CA 15-3 was 62,5% and the specificity 93,2% respectively. Mean CA 15-3 values of the negative and positive bone scan groups were significantly different (p=0,0361). The high negative predictive value of CA 15-3 may help to establish which patients will benefit from bone scan procedure. (authors) 42 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Real-time vehicle matching for multi-camera tunnel surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelača, Vedran; Niño Castañeda, Jorge Oswaldo; Frías-Velázquez, Andrés; Pižurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2011-03-01

    Tracking multiple vehicles with multiple cameras is a challenging problem of great importance in tunnel surveillance. One of the main challenges is accurate vehicle matching across the cameras with non-overlapping fields of view. Since systems dedicated to this task can contain hundreds of cameras which observe dozens of vehicles each, for a real-time performance computational efficiency is essential. In this paper, we propose a low complexity, yet highly accurate method for vehicle matching using vehicle signatures composed of Radon transform like projection profiles of the vehicle image. The proposed signatures can be calculated by a simple scan-line algorithm, by the camera software itself and transmitted to the central server or to the other cameras in a smart camera environment. The amount of data is drastically reduced compared to the whole image, which relaxes the data link capacity requirements. Experiments on real vehicle images, extracted from video sequences recorded in a tunnel by two distant security cameras, validate our approach.

  19. Pseudo real-time coded aperture imaging system with intensified vidicon cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.S.; Berzins, G.J.

    1977-01-01

    A coded image displayed on a TV monitor was used to directly reconstruct a decoded image. Both the coded and the decoded images were viewed with intensified vidicon cameras. The coded aperture was a 15-element nonredundant pinhole array. The coding and decoding were accomplished simultaneously during the scanning of a single 16-msec TV frame

  20. Studies on silica deposition in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. ) using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, neutron activation analysis, and light microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, P B; Takeoka, Y; Carlson, T J; Bigelow, W C; Jones, J D; Moore, P H; Ghosheh, N S [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA)

    1979-06-01

    Marked differences in silicon content in internodes of two sugarcane cultivars as revealed by neutron activation analysis, were closely correlated with number of silica cells per unit area in the epidermal system of the internodes of the two cultivars, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Light microscopy of epidermal peels showed that silica cells are capable of transmitting significantly more light through themselves than do other types of adjacent epidermal cells. This could be of great significance to total amount of carbon fixed by photosynthesizing mesophyll cells in leaves and cortical cells in internodes below the epidermis, especially in sugarcane cultivars with high densities of silica cells in their shoot epidermal systems. This has led to propose a window hypothesis, which indicates that silica cells in sugarcane, and in other grasses, act like windows in the epidermal system, allowing more light to be transmitted to photosynthetic tissue below than would occur if silica cells were absent.

  1. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to ov...

  2. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  3. Performance analysis for gait in camera networks

    OpenAIRE

    Michela Goffredo; Imed Bouchrika; John Carter; Mark Nixon

    2008-01-01

    This paper deploys gait analysis for subject identification in multi-camera surveillance scenarios. We present a new method for viewpoint independent markerless gait analysis that does not require camera calibration and works with a wide range of directions of walking. These properties make the proposed method particularly suitable for gait identification in real surveillance scenarios where people and their behaviour need to be tracked across a set of cameras. Tests on 300 synthetic and real...

  4. Explosive Transient Camera (ETC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, George

    1991-01-01

    Since the inception of the ETC program, a wide range of new technologies was developed to support this astronomical instrument. The prototype unit was installed at ETC Site 1. The first partially automated observations were made and some major renovations were later added to the ETC hardware. The ETC was outfitted with new thermoelectrically-cooled CCD cameras and a sophisticated vacuum manifold, which, together, made the ETC a much more reliable unit than the prototype. The ETC instrumentation and building were placed under full computer control, allowing the ETC to operate as an automated, autonomous instrument with virtually no human intervention necessary. The first fully-automated operation of the ETC was performed, during which the ETC monitored the error region of the repeating soft gamma-ray burster SGR 1806-21.

  5. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  6. Approximations to camera sensor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaodan; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2013-02-01

    Noise is present in all image sensor data. Poisson distribution is said to model the stochastic nature of the photon arrival process, while it is common to approximate readout/thermal noise by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Other sources of signal-dependent noise such as Fano and quantization also contribute to the overall noise profile. Question remains, however, about how best to model the combined sensor noise. Though additive Gaussian noise with signal-dependent noise variance (SD-AWGN) and Poisson corruption are two widely used models to approximate the actual sensor noise distribution, the justification given to these types of models are based on limited evidence. The goal of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive characterization of random noise. We concluded by presenting concrete evidence that Poisson model is a better approximation to real camera model than SD-AWGN. We suggest further modification to Poisson that may improve the noise model.

  7. Comparative evaluation of consumer grade cameras and mobile phone cameras for close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikatsu, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoji

    2009-08-01

    The authors have been concentrating on developing convenient 3D measurement methods using consumer grade digital cameras, and it was concluded that consumer grade digital cameras are expected to become a useful photogrammetric device for the various close range application fields. On the other hand, mobile phone cameras which have 10 mega pixels were appeared on the market in Japan. In these circumstances, we are faced with alternative epoch-making problem whether mobile phone cameras are able to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras in close range photogrammetric applications. In order to evaluate potentials of mobile phone cameras in close range photogrammetry, comparative evaluation between mobile phone cameras and consumer grade digital cameras are investigated in this paper with respect to lens distortion, reliability, stability and robustness. The calibration tests for 16 mobile phone cameras and 50 consumer grade digital cameras were conducted indoors using test target. Furthermore, practability of mobile phone camera for close range photogrammetry was evaluated outdoors. This paper presents that mobile phone cameras have ability to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras, and develop the market in digital photogrammetric fields.

  8. Decision about buying a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    A large part of the referral to a nuclear medicine department is usually for imaging studies. Sooner or later, the nuclear medicine specialist will be called upon to make a decision about when and what type of gamma camera to buy. There is no longer an option of choosing between a rectilinear scanner and a gamma camera as the former is virtually out of the market. The decision that one has to make is when to invest in a gamma camera, and then on what basis to select the gamma camera 1 tab., 1 fig

  9. Object tracking using multiple camera video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Rojas, Diego; McLauchlan, Lifford

    2010-05-01

    Two synchronized cameras are utilized to obtain independent video streams to detect moving objects from two different viewing angles. The video frames are directly correlated in time. Moving objects in image frames from the two cameras are identified and tagged for tracking. One advantage of such a system involves overcoming effects of occlusions that could result in an object in partial or full view in one camera, when the same object is fully visible in another camera. Object registration is achieved by determining the location of common features in the moving object across simultaneous frames. Perspective differences are adjusted. Combining information from images from multiple cameras increases robustness of the tracking process. Motion tracking is achieved by determining anomalies caused by the objects' movement across frames in time in each and the combined video information. The path of each object is determined heuristically. Accuracy of detection is dependent on the speed of the object as well as variations in direction of motion. Fast cameras increase accuracy but limit the speed and complexity of the algorithm. Such an imaging system has applications in traffic analysis, surveillance and security, as well as object modeling from multi-view images. The system can easily be expanded by increasing the number of cameras such that there is an overlap between the scenes from at least two cameras in proximity. An object can then be tracked long distances or across multiple cameras continuously, applicable, for example, in wireless sensor networks for surveillance or navigation.

  10. Scintillation camera for high activity sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arseneau, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The invention described relates to a scintillation camera used for clinical medical diagnosis. Advanced recognition of many unacceptable pulses allows the scintillation camera to discard such pulses at an early stage in processing. This frees the camera to process a greater number of pulses of interest within a given period of time. Temporary buffer storage allows the camera to accommodate pulses received at a rate in excess of its maximum rated capability due to statistical fluctuations in the level of radioactivity of the radiation source measured. (U.K.)

  11. Decision about buying a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A large part of the referral to a nuclear medicine department is usually for imaging studies. Sooner or later, the nuclear medicine specialist will be called upon to make a decision about when and what type of gamma camera to buy. There is no longer an option of choosing between a rectilinear scanner and a gamma camera as the former is virtually out of the market. The decision that one has to make is when to invest in a gamma camera, and then on what basis to select the gamma camera

  12. Streak camera recording of interferometer fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.L.; Chau, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The use of an electronic high-speed camera in the streaking mode to record interference fringe motion from a velocity interferometer is discussed. Advantages of this method over the photomultiplier tube-oscilloscope approach are delineated. Performance testing and data for the electronic streak camera are discussed. The velocity profile of a mylar flyer accelerated by an electrically exploded bridge, and the jump-off velocity of metal targets struck by these mylar flyers are measured in the camera tests. Advantages of the streak camera include portability, low cost, ease of operation and maintenance, simplified interferometer optics, and rapid data analysis

  13. Evaluation of efficiency of a semiconductor gamma camera

    CERN Document Server

    Otake, H; Takeuchi, Y

    2002-01-01

    We evaluation basic characteristics of a compact type semiconductor gamma camera (eZ-SCOPE AN) of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe). This new compact gamma camera has 256 semiconductors representing the same number of pixels. Each semiconductor is 2 mm square and is located in 16 lines and rows on the surface of the detector. The specific performance characteristics were evaluated in the study referring to National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) standards; intrinsic energy resolution, intrinsic count rate performance, integral uniformity, system planar sensitivity, system spatial resolution, and noise to the neighboring pixels. The intrinsic energy resolution measured 5.7% as full width half maximum (FWHM). The intrinsic count rate performance ranging from 17 kcps to 1,285 kcps was evaluated, but the highest intrinsic count rate was not observed. Twenty percents count loss was recognized at 1,021 kcps. The integral uniformity was 1.3% with high sensitivity collimator. The system planar sensitivity w...

  14. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  16. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  18. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  19. Linking world scan and image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, H.; Alcamo, J.; Bollen, J.; Gielen, A.; Gerlach, R.; Den Ouden, A.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    In march 1994 the Central Planning Bureau (CPB) in the Hague, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven and the Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) in Amsterdam started the first phase of a joint research program aimed at creating integrated scenarios of the global economy, GHG emissions, and climate impacts. The goal of the first phase of this project was to design and test a linked version of the economic model WORLD SCAN of the former, and the climate model IMAGE 2 of the latter institute. This first phase has resulted in the planned test runs with an operational version of the linked models by May 1995. The experiences in the first year were encouraging, both in the scientific and the organizational sense. In a sense, a link was made between scientific disciplines: a coupling of disciplines concerning with global economic development and the global physical climate system is difficult and novel. The goal of the project was to integrate long-term economic developments and effects of climate change. Both the WORLD SCAN model and IMAGE 2 provide a consistent analysis of the global system, but from different perspectives. IMAGE 2 simulates climate change and its effects in a global context but treats the economic system as exogenous. WORLD SCAN covers the world economic system in a consistent manner but does not take into account the global environment. The links are constructed in the area of agriculture and energy. The basic idea is that WORLD SCAN determines demand and supply on economic principles, while IMAGE 2 provides information on changes of land area and average quality of productive land, and other damage costs based on its three sub-systems. The demand for energy is fed into IMAGE 2's Energy Industry subsystem (EIS), which in turn determines emissions of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, some additional output from WORLD SCAN on activity levels, prices and capital structure can be used to determine

  20. Compton camera study for high efficiency SPECT and benchmark with Anger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Létang, J. M.; Ley, J.-L.; Testa, É.

    2017-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is at present one of the major techniques for non-invasive diagnostics in nuclear medicine. The clinical routine is mostly based on collimated cameras, originally proposed by Hal Anger. Due to the presence of mechanical collimation, detection efficiency and energy acceptance are limited and fixed by the system’s geometrical features. In order to overcome these limitations, the application of Compton cameras for SPECT has been investigated for several years. In this study we compare a commercial SPECT-Anger device, the General Electric HealthCare Infinia system with a High Energy General Purpose (HEGP) collimator, and the Compton camera prototype under development by the French collaboration CLaRyS, through Monte Carlo simulations (GATE—GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission—version 7.1 and GEANT4 version 9.6, respectively). Given the possible introduction of new radio-emitters at higher energies intrinsically allowed by the Compton camera detection principle, the two detectors are exposed to point-like sources at increasing primary gamma energies, from actual isotopes already suggested for nuclear medicine applications. The Compton camera prototype is first characterized for SPECT application by studying the main parameters affecting its imaging performance: detector energy resolution and random coincidence rate. The two detector performances are then compared in terms of radial event distribution, detection efficiency and final image, obtained by gamma transmission analysis for the Anger system, and with an iterative List Mode-Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (LM-MLEM) algorithm for the Compton reconstruction. The results show for the Compton camera a detection efficiency increased by a factor larger than an order of magnitude with respect to the Anger camera, associated with an enhanced spatial resolution for energies beyond 500 keV. We discuss the advantages of Compton camera application

  1. X-ray image intensifier camera tubes and semiconductor targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A semiconductor target for use in an image intensifier camera tube and a camera using the target are described. The semiconductor wafer for converting an electron image onto electrical signal consists mainly of a collector region, preferably n-type silicon. It has one side for receiving the electron image and an opposite side for storing charge carriers generated in the collector region by high energy electrons forming a charge image. The first side comprises a highly doped surface layer covered with a metal buffer layer permeable to the incident electrons and thick enough to dissipate some of the incident electron energy thereby improving the signal-to-noise ratio. This layer comprises beryllium on niobium on the highly doped silicon surface zone. Low energy Kα X-ray radiation is generated in the first layer, the radiation generated in the second layer (mainly Lα radiation) is strongly absorbed in the silicon layer. A camera tube using such a target with a photocathode for converting an X-ray image into an electron image, means to project this image onto the first side of the semiconductor wafer and means to read out the charge pattern on the second side are also described. (U.K.)

  2. Infrared Imaging Camera Final Report CRADA No. TC02061.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nebeker, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This was a collaborative effort between the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Cordin Company (Cordin) to enhance the U.S. ability to develop a commercial infrared camera capable of capturing high-resolution images in a l 00 nanoseconds (ns) time frame. The Department of Energy (DOE), under an Initiative for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) project, funded the Russian Federation Nuclear Center All-Russian Scientific Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) in Sarov. VNIIEF was funded to develop a prototype commercial infrared (IR) framing camera and to deliver a prototype IR camera to LLNL. LLNL and Cordin were partners with VNIIEF on this project. A prototype IR camera was delivered by VNIIEF to LLNL in December 2006. In June of 2007, LLNL and Cordin evaluated the camera and the test results revealed that the camera exceeded presently available commercial IR cameras. Cordin believes that the camera can be sold on the international market. The camera is currently being used as a scientific tool within Russian nuclear centers. This project was originally designated as a two year project. The project was not started on time due to changes in the IPP project funding conditions; the project funding was re-directed through the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), which delayed the project start by over one year. The project was not completed on schedule due to changes within the Russian government export regulations. These changes were directed by Export Control regulations on the export of high technology items that can be used to develop military weapons. The IR camera was on the list that export controls required. The ISTC and Russian government, after negotiations, allowed the delivery of the camera to LLNL. There were no significant technical or business changes to the original project.

  3. Pothole Detection System Using a Black-box Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngtae Jo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging roads and poor road-maintenance systems result a large number of potholes, whose numbers increase over time. Potholes jeopardize road safety and transportation efficiency. Moreover, they are often a contributing factor to car accidents. To address the problems associated with potholes, the locations and size of potholes must be determined quickly. Sophisticated road-maintenance strategies can be developed using a pothole database, which requires a specific pothole-detection system that can collect pothole information at low cost and over a wide area. However, pothole repair has long relied on manual detection efforts. Recent automatic detection systems, such as those based on vibrations or laser scanning, are insufficient to detect potholes correctly and inexpensively owing to the unstable detection of vibration-based methods and high costs of laser scanning-based methods. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a new pothole-detection system using a commercial black-box camera. The proposed system detects potholes over a wide area and at low cost. We have developed a novel pothole-detection algorithm specifically designed to work with the embedded computing environments of black-box cameras. Experimental results are presented with our proposed system, showing that potholes can be detected accurately in real-time.

  4. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  5. Kinect Fusion improvement using depth camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliari, D.; Menna, F.; Roncella, R.; Remondino, F.; Pinto, L.

    2014-06-01

    Scene's 3D modelling, gesture recognition and motion tracking are fields in rapid and continuous development which have caused growing demand on interactivity in video-game and e-entertainment market. Starting from the idea of creating a sensor that allows users to play without having to hold any remote controller, the Microsoft Kinect device was created. The Kinect has always attract researchers in different fields, from robotics to Computer Vision (CV) and biomedical engineering as well as third-party communities that have released several Software Development Kit (SDK) versions for Kinect in order to use it not only as a game device but as measurement system. Microsoft Kinect Fusion control libraries (firstly released in March 2013) allow using the device as a 3D scanning and produce meshed polygonal of a static scene just moving the Kinect around. A drawback of this sensor is the geometric quality of the delivered data and the low repeatability. For this reason the authors carried out some investigation in order to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the depth measured delivered by the Kinect. The paper will present a throughout calibration analysis of the Kinect imaging sensor, with the aim of establishing the accuracy and precision of the delivered information: a straightforward calibration of the depth sensor in presented and then the 3D data are correct accordingly. Integrating the depth correction algorithm and correcting the IR camera interior and exterior orientation parameters, the Fusion Libraries are corrected and a new reconstruction software is created to produce more accurate models.

  6. Kinect Fusion improvement using depth camera calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagliari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scene's 3D modelling, gesture recognition and motion tracking are fields in rapid and continuous development which have caused growing demand on interactivity in video-game and e-entertainment market. Starting from the idea of creating a sensor that allows users to play without having to hold any remote controller, the Microsoft Kinect device was created. The Kinect has always attract researchers in different fields, from robotics to Computer Vision (CV and biomedical engineering as well as third-party communities that have released several Software Development Kit (SDK versions for Kinect in order to use it not only as a game device but as measurement system. Microsoft Kinect Fusion control libraries (firstly released in March 2013 allow using the device as a 3D scanning and produce meshed polygonal of a static scene just moving the Kinect around. A drawback of this sensor is the geometric quality of the delivered data and the low repeatability. For this reason the authors carried out some investigation in order to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the depth measured delivered by the Kinect. The paper will present a throughout calibration analysis of the Kinect imaging sensor, with the aim of establishing the accuracy and precision of the delivered information: a straightforward calibration of the depth sensor in presented and then the 3D data are correct accordingly. Integrating the depth correction algorithm and correcting the IR camera interior and exterior orientation parameters, the Fusion Libraries are corrected and a new reconstruction software is created to produce more accurate models.

  7. Improving Situational Awareness in camera surveillance by combining top-view maps with camera images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Zeeders, R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the experiment described is to improve today's camera surveillance in public spaces. Three designs with the camera images combined on a top-view map were compared to each other and to the current situation in camera surveillance. The goal was to test which design makes spatial

  8. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and intercamera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, R.J.M. den; Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Rest, J.H.C. van

    2015-01-01

    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many

  9. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  10. Ultra fast x-ray streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.; McConaghy, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    A unique ultrafast x-ray sensitive streak camera, with a time resolution of 50psec, has been built and operated. A 100A thick gold photocathode on a beryllium vacuum window is used in a modified commerical image converter tube. The X-ray streak camera has been used in experiments to observe time resolved emission from laser-produced plasmas. (author)

  11. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavis Forrester

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an open data standard for storing and sharing camera trap data, developed by experts from a variety of organizations. The standard captures information necessary to share data between projects and offers a foundation for collecting the more detailed data needed for advanced analysis. The data standard captures information about study design, the type of camera used, and the location and species names for all detections in a standardized way. This information is critical for accurately assessing results from individual camera trapping projects and for combining data from multiple studies for meta-analysis. This data standard is an important step in aligning camera trapping surveys with best practices in data-intensive science. Ecology is moving rapidly into the realm of big data, and central data repositories are becoming a critical tool and are emerging for camera trap data. This data standard will help researchers standardize data terms, align past data to new repositories, and provide a framework for utilizing data across repositories and research projects to advance animal ecology and conservation.

  12. Single chip camera active pixel sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Timothy (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Olson, Brita (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Panicacci, Roger A. (Inventor); Mansoorian, Barmak (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A totally digital single chip camera includes communications to operate most of its structure in serial communication mode. The digital single chip camera include a D/A converter for converting an input digital word into an analog reference signal. The chip includes all of the necessary circuitry for operating the chip using a single pin.

  13. Securing Embedded Smart Cameras with Trusted Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Camera systems are used in many applications including video surveillance for crime prevention and investigation, traffic monitoring on highways or building monitoring and automation. With the shift from analog towards digital systems, the capabilities of cameras are constantly increasing. Today's smart camera systems come with considerable computing power, large memory, and wired or wireless communication interfaces. With onboard image processing and analysis capabilities, cameras not only open new possibilities but also raise new challenges. Often overlooked are potential security issues of the camera system. The increasing amount of software running on the cameras turns them into attractive targets for attackers. Therefore, the protection of camera devices and delivered data is of critical importance. In this work we present an embedded camera prototype that uses Trusted Computing to provide security guarantees for streamed videos. With a hardware-based security solution, we ensure integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of videos. Furthermore, we incorporate image timestamping, detection of platform reboots, and reporting of the system status. This work is not limited to theoretical considerations but also describes the implementation of a prototype system. Extensive evaluation results illustrate the practical feasibility of the approach.

  14. Centering mount for a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkhodzhaev, A.Kh.; Kuznetsov, N.K.; Ostryj, Yu.E.

    1988-01-01

    A device for centering a γ-camera detector in case of radionuclide diagnosis is described. It permits the use of available medical coaches instead of a table with a transparent top. The device can be used for centering a detector (when it is fixed at the low end of a γ-camera) on a required area of the patient's body

  15. Digital airborne camera introduction and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sandau, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen great innovations on the airborne camera. This book is the first ever written on the topic and describes all components of a digital airborne camera ranging from the object to be imaged to the mass memory device.

  16. Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose...

  17. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2001-01-01

    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  18. Rosetta Star Tracker and Navigation Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta

    1998-01-01

    Proposal in response to the Invitation to Tender (ITT) issued by Matra Marconi Space (MSS) for the procurement of the ROSETTA Star Tracker and Navigation Camera.......Proposal in response to the Invitation to Tender (ITT) issued by Matra Marconi Space (MSS) for the procurement of the ROSETTA Star Tracker and Navigation Camera....

  19. Wavefront analysis for plenoptic camera imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Yin-Sen; Xu Bing; Yang Ping; Tang Guo-Mao

    2017-01-01

    The plenoptic camera is a single lens stereo camera which can retrieve the direction of light rays while detecting their intensity distribution. In this paper, to reveal more truths of plenoptic camera imaging, we present the wavefront analysis for the plenoptic camera imaging from the angle of physical optics but not from the ray tracing model of geometric optics. Specifically, the wavefront imaging model of a plenoptic camera is analyzed and simulated by scalar diffraction theory and the depth estimation is redescribed based on physical optics. We simulate a set of raw plenoptic images of an object scene, thereby validating the analysis and derivations and the difference between the imaging analysis methods based on geometric optics and physical optics are also shown in simulations. (paper)

  20. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out......In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  1. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  2. New knowledge about the bremsstrahlung image of strontium-89 with the scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Hiroto; Hirase, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Strontium-89 ( 89 Sr) chloride has been used to treat metastases in bone. A method to visualize the distribution of 89 Sr chloride with a scintillation camera was developed in 1996. Studies using bremsstrahlung imaging have shown that 89 Sr accumulates in bone and that the bremsstrahlung generated from biological tissue surrounding bone does not exceed 30 keV. However, it was not clear how low-energy bremsstrahlung from bone can produce peak energy levels of around 75 keV. We speculate that a different (unidentified) factor is involved. The energy spectrum of an 89 Sr source was acquired with a scintillation camera with or without a low-to-medium-energy general-purpose collimator. The energy window was set at 20-650 keV for 4 windows. A 50-mm thick acrylic block was placed between the scintillation camera and the 89 Sr source to exclude the effects of bremsstrahlung. The energy spectrum of 89 Sr covered with lead was acquired using the scintillation camera without a collimator. With the collimator the energy spectrum curve was similar to that without the 50 mm of acrylic. The energy spectrum curve showed peaks at about 75, 170, and 520 keV. Without the collimator the energy spectrum showed a similar curve but no peak at 75 keV peak. The curve was similar to that obtained with the scintillation camera and the collimator; however, the curve obtained when the 89 Sr source had been placed in a lead container was similar to that obtained when the source was unshielded, and the collimator was not attached to the scintillation camera. If bremsstrahlung of 89 Sr produces an image, a low-energy spectrum region should decrease when acrylic is placed between the 89 Sr source and the scintillation camera. However, similar curves were obtained both with the acrylic in place and without the acrylic. Therefore, we believe that the radiation detected by the scintillation camera was not bremsstrahlung due to the beta rays of 89 Sr. Most 89 Sr preparations are contaminated by 85 Sr

  3. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chang; Moyers, Michael F; Gao, Mingcheng; Mah, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0-226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter.

  4. Development of high-speed video cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, Takeharu G.; Takehara, Kohsei; Okinaka, Tomoo; Takano, Yasuhide; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Poggemann, Dirk

    2001-04-01

    Presented in this paper is an outline of the R and D activities on high-speed video cameras, which have been done in Kinki University since more than ten years ago, and are currently proceeded as an international cooperative project with University of Applied Sciences Osnabruck and other organizations. Extensive marketing researches have been done, (1) on user's requirements on high-speed multi-framing and video cameras by questionnaires and hearings, and (2) on current availability of the cameras of this sort by search of journals and websites. Both of them support necessity of development of a high-speed video camera of more than 1 million fps. A video camera of 4,500 fps with parallel readout was developed in 1991. A video camera with triple sensors was developed in 1996. The sensor is the same one as developed for the previous camera. The frame rate is 50 million fps for triple-framing and 4,500 fps for triple-light-wave framing, including color image capturing. Idea on a video camera of 1 million fps with an ISIS, In-situ Storage Image Sensor, was proposed in 1993 at first, and has been continuously improved. A test sensor was developed in early 2000, and successfully captured images at 62,500 fps. Currently, design of a prototype ISIS is going on, and, hopefully, will be fabricated in near future. Epoch-making cameras in history of development of high-speed video cameras by other persons are also briefly reviewed.

  5. Cloud Computing with Context Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, A. J.; Rosing, W. E.

    2016-05-01

    We summarize methods and plans to monitor and calibrate photometric observations with our autonomous, robotic network of 2m, 1m and 40cm telescopes. These are sited globally to optimize our ability to observe time-variable sources. Wide field "context" cameras are aligned with our network telescopes and cycle every ˜2 minutes through BVr'i'z' filters, spanning our optical range. We measure instantaneous zero-point offsets and transparency (throughput) against calibrators in the 5-12m range from the all-sky Tycho2 catalog, and periodically against primary standards. Similar measurements are made for all our science images, with typical fields of view of ˜0.5 degrees. These are matched against Landolt, Stetson and Sloan standards, and against calibrators in the 10-17m range from the all-sky APASS catalog. Such measurements provide pretty good instantaneous flux calibration, often to better than 5%, even in cloudy conditions. Zero-point and transparency measurements can be used to characterize, monitor and inter-compare sites and equipment. When accurate calibrations of Target against Standard fields are required, monitoring measurements can be used to select truly photometric periods when accurate calibrations can be automatically scheduled and performed.

  6. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.; Patschan, O.; Nagele, U.; Stenzl, A.; Ketelsen, D.; Tsiflikas, I.; Reimann, A.; Brodoefel, H.; Claussen, C.; Kopp, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Buchgeister, M.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  7. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C; Patschan, O; Ketelsen, D; Tsiflikas, I; Reimann, A; Brodoefel, H; Buchgeister, M; Nagele, U; Stenzl, A; Claussen, C; Kopp, A; Heuschmid, M; Schlemmer, H-P

    2009-06-01

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo.

  8. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Patschan, O.; Nagele, U.; Stenzl, A. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Urology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ketelsen, D.; Tsiflikas, I.; Reimann, A.; Brodoefel, H.; Claussen, C.; Kopp, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schlemmer, H.P. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Buchgeister, M. [University of Tuebingen, Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  9. Towards Adaptive Virtual Camera Control In Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2011-01-01

    Automatic camera control aims to define a framework to control virtual camera movements in dynamic and unpredictable virtual environments while ensuring a set of desired visual properties. We inves- tigate the relationship between camera placement and playing behaviour in games and build a user...... model of the camera behaviour that can be used to control camera movements based on player preferences. For this purpose, we collect eye gaze, camera and game-play data from subjects playing a 3D platform game, we cluster gaze and camera information to identify camera behaviour profiles and we employ...... camera control in games is discussed....

  10. Intra-event correlations and the statistical moments of the identified particle multiplicity distributions in the RHIC beam energy scan data collected by STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llope, W. J.; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Specific products of the statistical moments of the multiplicity distributions of identified particles can be directly compared to susceptibility ratios obtained from lattice QCD calculations. They may also diverge for nuclear systems formed close to a possible QCD critical point due to the phenomenon of critical opalescence. Of particular interest are the moments products for net-protons, net-kaons, and net-charge, as these are considered proxies for conserved quantum numbers. The moments products have been measured by the STAR experiment for Au+Au collisions at seven beam energies ranging from 7.7 to 200 GeV. In this presentation, the experimental results are compared to data-based calculations in which the intra-event correlations of the numbers of positive and negative particles are broken by construction. The importance of intra-event correlations to the moments products values for net-protons, net-kaons, and net-charge can thus be evaluated. Work supported by the U.S. Dept of Energy under grant DE-PS02-09ER09.

  11. Reducing the Variance of Intrinsic Camera Calibration Results in the ROS Camera_Calibration Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Geoffrey Nelson

    The intrinsic calibration of a camera is the process in which the internal optical and geometric characteristics of the camera are determined. If accurate intrinsic parameters of a camera are known, the ray in 3D space that every point in the image lies on can be determined. Pairing with another camera allows for the position of the points in the image to be calculated by intersection of the rays. Accurate intrinsics also allow for the position and orientation of a camera relative to some world coordinate system to be calculated. These two reasons for having accurate intrinsic calibration for a camera are especially important in the field of industrial robotics where 3D cameras are frequently mounted on the ends of manipulators. In the ROS (Robot Operating System) ecosystem, the camera_calibration package is the default standard for intrinsic camera calibration. Several researchers from the Industrial Robotics & Automation division at Southwest Research Institute have noted that this package results in large variances in the intrinsic parameters of the camera when calibrating across multiple attempts. There are also open issues on this matter in their public repository that have not been addressed by the developers. In this thesis, we confirm that the camera_calibration package does indeed return different results across multiple attempts, test out several possible hypothesizes as to why, identify the reason, and provide simple solution to fix the cause of the issue.

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minutes prior to the test. When it is time for the imaging to begin, you will lie down on a moveable examination table with your head tipped backward and neck extended. The gamma camera will then take a series of images, capturing images of the thyroid gland ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  15. Camera Concepts for the Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuk Otte, Adam

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Gamma-Ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a concept for the next generation observatory in ground-based very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Design goals are ten times better sensitivity, higher angular resolution, and a lower energy threshold than existing Cherenkov telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a camera that detects and records the Cherenkov-light flashes from air showers. The camera is comprised of a pixelated focal plane of blue sensitive and fast (nanosecond) photon detectors that detect the photon signal and convert it into an electrical one. The incorporation of trigger electronics and signal digitization into the camera are under study. Given the size of AGIS, the camera must be reliable, robust, and cost effective. We are investigating several directions that include innovative technologies such as Geiger-mode avalanche-photodiodes as a possible detector and switched capacitor arrays for the digitization.

  16. SU-F-BRB-05: Collision Avoidance Mapping Using Consumer 3D Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardan, R; Popple, R [Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a fast and economical method of scanning a patient’s full body contour for use in collision avoidance mapping without the use of ionizing radiation. Methods: Two consumer level 3D cameras used in electronic gaming were placed in a CT simulator room to scan a phantom patient set up in a high collision probability position. A registration pattern and computer vision algorithms were used to transform the scan into the appropriate coordinate systems. The cameras were then used to scan the surface of a gantry in the treatment vault. Each scan was converted into a polygon mesh for collision testing in a general purpose polygon interference algorithm. All clinically relevant transforms were applied to the gantry and patient support to create a map of all possible collisions. The map was then tested for accuracy by physically testing the collisions with the phantom in the vault. Results: The scanning fidelity of both the gantry and patient was sufficient to produce a collision prediction accuracy of 97.1% with 64620 geometry states tested in 11.5 s. The total scanning time including computation, transformation, and generation was 22.3 seconds. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate an economical system to generate collision avoidance maps. Future work includes testing the speed of the framework in real-time collision avoidance scenarios. Research partially supported by a grant from Varian Medical Systems.

  17. Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) improves the resolution of confocal microscopy and increases the sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Luca, Giulia; Breedijk, Ronald; Hoebe, Ron; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new super-resolution technique based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan unit in the detection path that projects the emitted light onto a sensitive camera. In this paper the fundamental properties of RCM, lateral resolution, axial

  18. Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) improves the resolution of confocal microscopy and increases the sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.; Breedijk, R.; Hoebe, R.; Stallinga, S.; Manders, E.

    Re-scan confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new super-resolution technique based on a standard confocal microscope extended with a re-scan unit in the detection path that projects the emitted light onto a sensitive camera. In this paper the fundamental properties of RCM, lateral resolution, axial

  19. Developing a CCD camera with high spatial resolution for RIXS in the soft X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, M. R.; Hall, D. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) at the Swiss Light Source contains a high resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Using the current CCD-based camera system, the energy-dispersive spectrometer has an energy resolution (E/ΔE) of approximately 12,000 at 930 eV. A recent study predicted that through an upgrade to the grating and camera system, the energy resolution could be improved by a factor of 2. In order to achieve this goal in the spectral domain, the spatial resolution of the CCD must be improved to better than 5 μm from the current 24 μm spatial resolution (FWHM). The 400 eV-1600 eV energy X-rays detected by this spectrometer primarily interact within the field free region of the CCD, producing electron clouds which will diffuse isotropically until they reach the depleted region and buried channel. This diffusion of the charge leads to events which are split across several pixels. Through the analysis of the charge distribution across the pixels, various centroiding techniques can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of the X-ray interaction to the sub-pixel level, greatly improving the spatial resolution achieved. Using the PolLux soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source, a beam of X-rays of energies from 200 eV to 1400 eV can be focused down to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Scanning this spot across the 16 μm square pixels allows the sub-pixel response to be investigated. Previous work has demonstrated the potential improvement in spatial resolution achievable by centroiding events in a standard CCD. An Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) has been used to improve the signal to effective readout noise ratio achieved resulting in a worst-case spatial resolution measurement of 4.5±0.2 μm and 3.9±0.1 μm at 530 eV and 680 eV respectively. A method is described that allows the contribution of the X-ray spot size to be deconvolved from these

  20. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)