WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy budget study

  1. Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an "all of the above" energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE 27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget "reflects some tough choices," Chu said. The proposed budget would cut 4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

  2. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following exceptions: The Energy Use Budget shall be stated in units of Btu/ft2/yr and the simulation tool... case by case calculation of the Energy Use Budget, the designer may construct Energy Use Budget tables... corresponding Energy Use Budgets calculated on a case by case basis according to this section. Energy Use Budget...

  3. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  4. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, Ken; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  6. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The two major aims of our lab are as follows: First, to develop and field-test general mechanistic models that predict animal life history characteristics as influenced by climate and the physical, physiological behavioral characteristics of species. This involves: understanding how animal time and energy budgets are affected by climate and animal properties; predicting growth and reproductive potential from time and energy budgets; predicting mortality based on climate and time and energy budgets; and linking these individual based models to population dynamics. Second to conduct empirical studies of animal physiological ecology, particularly the effects of temperature on time and energy budgets. The physiological ecology of individual animals is the key link between the physical environment and population-level phenomena. We address the macroclimate to microclimate linkage on a broad spatial scale; address the links between individuals and population dynamics for lizard species; test the endotherm energetics and behavior model using beaver; address the spatial variation in climate and its effects on individual energetics, growth and reproduction; and address patchiness in the environment and constraints they may impose on individual energetics, growth and reproduction. These projects are described individually in the following section. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Physiological performance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa (L.): from Static to Dynamic Energy Budgets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    v.d. Veer, H.; Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Peck, M.A.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, various body size scaling relationships describing the physiological performance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa (L.) were derived using a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model and compared with allometric relationships derived from a static energy budget (SEB) model. Results

  8. Energy Budget: Earth's Most Important and Least Appreciated Planetary Attribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lin; Bethea, Katie

    2013-01-01

    The energy budget involves more than one kind of energy. People can sense this energy in different ways, depending on what type of energy it is. We see visible light using our eyes. We feel infrared energy using our skin (such as around a campfire). We know some species of animals can see ultraviolet light and portions of the infrared spectrum. NASA satellites use instruments that can "see" different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to observe various processes in the Earth system, including the energy budget. The Sun is a very hot ball of plasma emitting large amounts of energy. By the time it reaches Earth, this energy amounts to about 340 Watts for every square meter of Earth on average. That's almost 6 60-Watt light bulbs for every square meter of Earth! With all of that energy shining down on the Earth, how does our planet maintain a comfortable balance that allows a complex ecosystem, including humans, to thrive? The key thing to remember is the Sun - hot though it is - is a tiny part of Earth's environment. Earth's energy budget is a critical but little understood aspect of our planetary home. NASA is actively studying this important Earth system feature, and sharing data and knowledge about it with the education community.

  9. Comparative energetics of the 5 fish classes on the basis of dynamic energy budgets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Lika, K.

    2014-01-01

    The eco-physiology of taxa in an evolutionary context can best be studied by a comparison of parameter values of the energy budget that accounts for the inter-relationships of all endpoints of energy allocation. To this end, the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model have been

  10. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  11. First-Principles Definition and Measurement of Planetary Electromagnetic-Energy Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Lock, James A.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The imperative to quantify the Earths electromagnetic-energy budget with an extremely high accuracy has been widely recognized but has never been formulated in the framework of fundamental physics. In this paper we give a first-principles definition of the planetary electromagnetic-energy budget using the Poynting- vector formalism and discuss how it can, in principle, be measured. Our derivation is based on an absolute minimum of theoretical assumptions, is free of outdated notions of phenomenological radiometry, and naturally leads to the conceptual formulation of an instrument called the double hemispherical cavity radiometer (DHCR). The practical measurement of the planetary energy budget would require flying a constellation of several dozen planet-orbiting satellites hosting identical well-calibrated DHCRs.

  12. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  13. Phase Offsets and the Energy Budgets of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel C.; Kashner, Zane; Jovmir, Diana; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal phase curves of short-period planets on circular orbits provide joint constraints on the fraction of incoming energy that is reflected (Bond albedo) and the fraction of absorbed energy radiated by the night hemisphere (heat recirculation efficiency). Many empirical studies of hot Jupiters have implicitly assumed that the dayside is the hottest hemisphere and the nightside is the coldest hemisphere. For a given eclipse depth and phase amplitude, an orbital lag between a planet’s peak brightness and its eclipse—a phase offset—implies that planet’s nightside emits greater flux. To quantify how phase offsets impact the energy budgets of short-period planets, we compile all infrared observations of the nine planets with multi-band eclipse depths and phase curves. Accounting for phase offsets shifts planets to lower Bond albedo and greater day-night heat transport, usually by ≲1σ. For WASP-12b, the published phase variations have been analyzed in two different ways, and the inferred energy budget depends sensitively on which analysis one adopts. Our fiducial scenario supports a Bond albedo of {0.27}-0.13+0.12, significantly higher than the published optical geometric albedo, and a recirculation efficiency of {0.03}-0.02+0.07, following the trend of larger day-night temperature contrast with greater stellar irradiation. If instead we adopt the alternative analysis, then WASP-12b has a Bond albedo consistent with zero and a much higher recirculation efficiency. To definitively determine the energy budget of WASP-12b, new observational analyses will be necessary.

  14. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. The extent of these urban areas across the world can be seen in an image of city lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. In many areas of North America and Europe, it is difficult to separate individual cities because of the dramatic growth and sprawl of urbanized areas. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. One of the earliest recognized and measured phenomena of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) which was reported as early as 1833 for London and 1862 for Paris. The urban heat island results from the energy that is absorbed by man-made materials during the day and is released at night resulting in the heating of the air within the urban area. The magnitude of the air temperature difference between the urban and surrounding countryside is highly dependent on the structure of the urban area, amount of solar immolation received during the day, and atmospheric conditions during the night. These night time air temperature differences can be in the range of 2 to 5 C. or greater. Although day time air temperature differences between urban areas and the countryside exists during the day, atmospheric mixing and stability reduce the magnitude. This phenomena is not limited to large urban areas, but also occurs in smaller metropolitan areas. The UHI has significant impacts on the urban air quality, meteorology, energy use, and human health. The UPI can be mitigated through increasing the amount of vegetation and modification of urban surfaces using high albedo materials for roofs and paved surfaces. To understand why the urban heat island phenomenon exists it is useful to define the surface in terms of the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and albedo is a major component of

  15. Urbanization Process and Variation of Energy Budget of Land Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Gardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are increasing at a rate much higher than human population growth in many part of the world; actually more than 73 towns in the world are larger than 1000 km2. The European Environmental Agency indicates an urban area average growth rate, over the last 20 years, of 20%. The urbanization process, and the consequent soil sealing, determines not only the losses of the ecological functions of the soil, but also a variation of the energy budget of land surfaces, that affect the microclimatic conditions (heat islands. The alteration of the energy budget are determined by the variations of albedo and roughness of surfaces, but especially by the net losses of evapotranspirating areas. In the present research we have assessed the variation of Parma territory energy budget, induced by the change in land use over the last 122 years. The urban area increase between 1881 and 2003 was 535%.

  16. Alterations in the energy budget of Arctic benthic species exposed to oil-related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway) and Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: gho@akvaplan.niva.noph; Sva, Eirin [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Carroll, JoLynn [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, Lionel [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Smolders, Roel [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Environmental Toxicology, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Overaas, Helene [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Multiconsult AS, Hoffsveien 1, N-0275 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2007-06-15

    We studied cellular energy allocation (CEA) in three Arctic benthic species (Gammarus setosus (Amphipoda), Onisimus litoralis (Amphipoda), and Liocyma fluctuosa (Bivalvia)) exposed to oil-related compounds. The CEA biomarker measures the energy budget of organisms by biochemically assessing changes in energy available (carbohydrates, protein and lipid content) and the integrated energy consumption (electron transport system activity (ETS) as the cellular aspect of respiration). Energy budget was measured in organisms subjected to water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and drill cuttings (DC) to evaluate whether these compounds affect the energy metabolism of the test species. We observed significantly lower CEA values and higher ETS activity in G. setosus subjected to WAF treatment compared to controls (p {<=} 0.03). Higher CEA value and lower cellular respiration were observed in O. litoralis exposed to DC compared to controls (p = 0.02). No difference in the energy budget of L. fluctuosa was observed between the treatments (p {>=} 0.19). Different responses to oil-related compounds between the three test species are likely the result of differences in feeding and burrowing behavior and species-specific sensitivity to petroleum-related compounds.

  17. Energy budget in collimated gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudose, Valeriu; Biermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the existence of collimation in some, if not most, of the gamma-ray bursts. This would have direct implications, for instance, on the energy budget, the rate of events, but also indirect consequences for the theoretical models because it provides a tool to differentiate between their predictions. We consider the case of a structured jet, i.e. we assume the energy within the jet varies as a power-law, being a function of the angle between the jet axis and an arbitrary direction. We analyze first the situation in which the jet axis and the line of sight have a particular orientation, then we relax this assumption by allowing for an arbitrary viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis of the jet. A qualitative study of the total energy content of the jet is performed. It turns out that the 'real' energy could be higher than what is inferred from observations. (authors)

  18. Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2016-01-01

    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.

  19. Energy budget and propagation of faults via shearing and opening using work optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth H.; Cooke, Michele L.; McBeck, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    We present numerical models of faults propagating by work optimization in a homogeneous medium. These simulations allow quantification and comparison of the energy budgets of fault growth by shear versus tensile failure. The energy consumed by growth of a fault, Wgrow, propagating by in-line shearing is 76% of the total energy associated with that growth, while 24% is spent on frictional work during propagation. Wgrow for a fault propagating into intact rock by tensile failure, at an angle to the parent fault, consumes 60% of the work budget, while only 6% is consumed by frictional work associated with propagation. Following the conservation of energy, this leaves 34% of the energy budget available for other activities and suggests that out-of-plane propagation of faults in Earth's crust may release energy for other processes, such as permanent damage zone formation or rupture acceleration. Comparison of these estimates of Wgrow with estimates of the critical energy release rate and earthquake fracture energy at several scales underscores their theoretical similarities and their dependence on stress drop.

  20. Micrometeorological data for energy-budget studies near Rogers Spring, Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye County, Nevada, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, W.D.; Rapp, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    The data were collected at two sites near Rogers Spring for use in energy-budget studies beginning in 1994. The data collected at each site included net radiation, air temperature at two heights, dew- point temperature at two heights, windspeed at two heights, soil heat flux, and soil temperature in the interval between the land surface and the buried heat-flux plates

  1. Fiscal 1988 draft budget for nuclear energy up 1.9% to yen 369 billion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    AT the cabinet meeting held on December 28, the government approved the fiscal 1988 draft budget, with a general account of yen 56.6 trillion. The nuclear energy related budget is yen 181.124 billion from the general account and yen 186.098 billion from the special account for power sources development, totalling yen 367.222 billion, up 1.9% on the previous year. The largest appropriation goes to the Science and Technology Agency (STA) totaling yen 271 billion. The STA is promoting safety studies and R and D for extensive nuclear energy utilization but the budget shows a 0.7% decrease from the previous year, reflecting completion of the construction of JT-60, which is one of the Agency's major projects. MITI, with its budget of yen 91 billion will carry on policies related to the promotion of commercial nuclear power program as well as support for the industrialization program of the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear related budget of Ministry of Foreign Affairs is yen 2.8 billion, consisting mainly of IAEA subscriptions and contributions and OECD/NEA subscriptions. Besides these three government agencies, a large sum of yen 1.2 billion is allocated to the Okinawa Development Agency for the prevention and elimination of melon-flies in Kume Island and islands around Okinawa main island. The draft government budget will be submitted to the ordinary session of the Diet when it resumes towards the end of January. After deliberation in the Budget Committees of the House of Representatives and the House of Councilors, the draft budget will be put to the vote in the plenary session. Assuming that all proceeds smoothly, the budget is expected to be approved by the end of March without any major revision. (author)

  2. The eddy kinetic energy budget in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng; Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Yao, Fengchao; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Guo, Daquan; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The budget of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the Red Sea, including the sources, redistributions and sink, is examined using a high-resolution eddy-resolving ocean circulation model. A pronounced seasonally varying EKE is identified, with its maximum

  3. A perspective on the states` role in the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management budget process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.P.; Hinman, P. [Carter, Brock & Hinman, Boise, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Responding in 1994 to proposed budget reductions and predicted funding shortfalls, the Office of Environmental Management at the Department of Energy began working closely with its regulators and stakeholders to prioritize activities. In a series of national and site specific meetings held with representatives of states, the Environmental Protection Agency, Indian tribes and the public, the Department of Energy brought regulators and other stakeholders into its budget development process in a {open_quotes}bottoms up{close_quotes} approach to the prioritization of activities at each of its sites. This paper presents an overview of this process which began last year and will highlight its unique cooperative nature. This paper will assess ways of institutionalizing this process. It also identifies issues to be addressed in resolving matters related to future budgets. Areas of concern to the Department of Energy`s host states and their regulators will be identified as they relate to waste management, cleanup and facility transition activities.

  4. Energy budget of the volcano Stromboli, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.; Chouet, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analyses of movies of eruptions at Stromboli, Italy, and other available data are used to discuss the question of its energy partitioning among various energy transport mechanisms. Energy is transported to the surface from active volcanoes in at least eight modes, viz. conduction (and convection) of the heat through the surface, radiative heat transfer from the vent, acoustical radiation in blast and jet noise, seismic radiation, thermal energy of ejected particles, kinetic energy of ejected particles, thermal energy of ejected gas, and kinetic energy of ejected gas. Estimated values of energy flux from Stromboli by these eight mechanisms are tabulated. The energy budget of Stromboli in its normal mode of activity appears to be dominated by heat conduction (and convection) through the ground surface. Heat carried by eruption gases is the most important of the other energy transfer modes. Radiated heat from the open vent and heat carried by ejected lava particles also contribute to the total flux, while seismic energy accounts for about 0.5% of the total. All other modes are trivial by comparison.

  5. Study of the uranium effects on energy budget and population dynamics in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarin, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to study effects of uranium on energy budget and population dynamics in Daphnia magna a representative micro-crustacean of freshwater ecosystems. An experimental study of uranium toxicity on physiology (nutrition, respiration) and life history (survival, growth and reproduction) of D. magna was carried out, based on exposures over one, two or three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) started with neonates from 1. or 5. brood, at 0, 10, 25 and 75 μg U.L -1 . Results showed that toxic effects increased across generations (partially due to daphnid exposure during embryogenesis) and that individuals from 1. brood were more sensitive than individuals from 5. brood. Significant reductions in assimilation rates, measured using a radio-tracing method with 14 C-labelled food, allowed us to identify an effect on assimilation as the mode of action for uranium, in agreement with important damages in the integrity of intestinal epithelium observed by optic microscopy. Integrating results in a dynamic energy budget model (DEBtox) yielded estimated no effect concentrations (NEC) of 9.37, 8.21 and 2.31 μg U.L -1 above which organism functions were altered in generations F0, F1 and F2, respectively. Combining DEBtox with matrix models allowed us to extrapolate consequences on asymptotic population growth rate (λ), a relevant endpoint in an ecological context. Simulations predicted an increase in uranium impact across generations with reduction of λ in F0 and population extinctions at 51-59 μg U.L -1 in F1 and 39-41 μg U.L -1 in F2. Simulations emphasized the importance of considering the most sensitive individuals while determining population response. (author)

  6. Fish energy budget under ocean warming and flame retardant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Patrícia; Figueiredo, Cátia; Baptista, Miguel; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Valente, Luísa M P; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2018-07-01

    Climate change and chemical contamination are global environmental threats of growing concern for the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Yet, the impacts and interactions of both stressors (particularly ocean warming and emerging chemical contaminants) on physiological responses of marine organisms remain unclear and still require further understanding. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effects of warming (+ 5 °C) and accumulation of a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-209, brominated flame retardant) through dietary exposure on energy budget of the juvenile white seabream (Diplodus sargus). Specifically, growth (G), routine metabolism (R), excretion (faecal, F and nitrogenous losses, U) and food consumption (C) were calculated to obtain the energy budget. The results demonstrated that the energy proportion spent for G dominated the mode of the energy allocation of juvenile white seabream (56.0-67.8%), especially under the combined effect of warming plus BDE-209 exposure. Under all treatments, the energy channelled for R varied around 26% and a much smaller percentage was channelled for excretion (F: 4.3-16.0% and U: 2.3-3.3%). An opposite trend to G was observed to F, where the highest percentage (16.0 ± 0.9%) was found under control temperature and BDE-209 exposure via diet. In general, the parameters were significantly affected by increased temperature and flame retardant exposure, where higher levels occurred for: i) wet weight, relative growth rate, protein and ash contents under warming conditions, ii) only for O:N ratio under BDE-209 exposure via diet, and iii) for feed efficiency, ammonia excretion rate, routine metabolic rate and assimilation efficiency under the combination of both stressors. On the other hand, decreased viscerosomatic index was observed under warming and lower fat content was observed under the combined effect of both stressors. Overall, under future

  7. 3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.

  8. Computing energy budget within a crop canopy from Penmann's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    Computing energy budget within a crop canopy from. Penmann's formulae. Mahendra Mohan∗ and K K Srivastava∗∗. ∗Radio and Atmospheric Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012, India. ∗∗Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

  9. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-05-15

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  10. Energy and variance budgets of a diffusive staircase with implications for heat flux scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, M.; Carpenter, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Diffusive convection, the mode of double-diffusive convection that occur when both temperature and salinity increase with increasing depth, is commonplace throughout the high latitude oceans and diffusive staircases constitute an important heat transport process in the Arctic Ocean. Heat and buoyancy fluxes through these staircases are often estimated using flux laws deduced either from laboratory experiments, or from simplified energy or variance budgets. We have done direct numerical simulations of double-diffusive convection at a range of Rayleigh numbers and quantified the energy and variance budgets in detail. This allows us to compare the fluxes in our simulations to those derived using known flux laws and to quantify how well the simplified energy and variance budgets approximate the full budgets. The fluxes are found to agree well with earlier estimates at high Rayleigh numbers, but we find large deviations at low Rayleigh numbers. The close ties between the heat and buoyancy fluxes and the budgets of thermal variance and energy have been utilized to derive heat flux scaling laws in the field of thermal convection. The result is the so called GL-theory, which has been found to give accurate heat flux scaling laws in a very wide parameter range. Diffusive convection has many similarities to thermal convection and an extension of the GL-theory to diffusive convection is also presented and its predictions are compared to the results from our numerical simulations.

  11. Public budgets for energy RD&D and the effects on energy intensity and pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre, Daniel; Álvarez, Agustín; Cantos, José María

    2015-04-01

    This study, based on the N-shaped cubic model of the environmental Kuznets curve, analyzes the evolution of per capita greenhouse gas emissions (GHGpc) using not just economic growth but also public budgets dedicated to energy-oriented research development and demonstration (RD&D) and energy intensity. The empirical evidence, obtained from an econometric model of fixed effects for 28 OECD countries during 1994-2010, suggests that energy innovations help reduce GHGpc levels and mitigate the negative impact of energy intensity on environmental quality. When countries develop active energy RD&D policies, they can reduce both the rates of energy intensity and the level of GHGpc emissions. This paper incorporates a moderating variable to the econometric model that emphasizes the effect that GDP has on energy intensity. It also adds a variable that reflects the difference between countries that have made a greater economic effort in energy RD&D, which in turn corrects the GHG emissions resulting from the energy intensity of each country.

  12. Ripple Effects: Budgets Grow Modestly, but Energy Costs Cloud the Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports the ripple effects of the energy squeeze due to Hurricane Katrina and other factors that sent energy costs skyrocketing. Energy costs are a good part of why budget growth, which has been steady over the past five years, has been slowing down. The projected change from FY2005 to FY2006 is only 3.3%, compared to…

  13. Analysis of Changes in the Lorenz Energy Budget of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, T. D.

    2009-12-01

    Several recent papers have addressed the topic of changes in global precipitation rates related to changes in Earth's global energy balance. Less studied are the processes that may be governing the large-scale regional distribution of precipitation around the globe. This study uses the energy budget partition paradigm first put forth by Lorenz (1955) and follows the methodology of Arpé et al. (1986) and Oriol (1982) to identify latitude bands where the partition of energy amongst zonal and eddy kinetic and potential energy bins may account for the spatial patterns of precipitation change predicted by many IPCC AR4 models. In doing so, this study may help to identify whether or not the climate change predicted by these models is indeed creating enhanced baroclinic storms in the mid-latitudes or if there are other mechanisms at work producing the patterns of precipitation change.

  14. Energy management in the budget proposal for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1987-01-01

    In the item 32.55 of the state budget proposal for the year 1988 the total amount of FIM 182 million has been reserved for energy management. This is over FIM 10 million less than the corresponding appropriation in 1987. In addition to this direct financing the state promotes and develops the Finnish energy management indirectly e.g. through energy research funded by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. In the article the use of the appropriation is described

  15. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth’s radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth’s magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth’s magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth’s radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  16. UV Diagnostics for the Energy Budget of Flares and CMEs J. C. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2003-11-04

    Nov 4, 2003 ... The energy budget of solar flares and coronal mass ejections ... Vourlidas (2007) measured the kinetic energies for several CMEs and estimated the .... along the UVCS slit from the pre-CME intensities of the O VI lines, the ...

  17. Commensurate comparisons of models with energy budget observations reveal consistent climate sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.

    2017-12-01

    Global energy budget observations have been widely used to constrain the effective, or instantaneous climate sensitivity (ICS), producing median estimates around 2°C (Otto et al. 2013; Lewis & Curry 2015). A key question is whether the comprehensive climate models used to project future warming are consistent with these energy budget estimates of ICS. Yet, performing such comparisons has proven challenging. Within models, values of ICS robustly vary over time, as surface temperature patterns evolve with transient warming, and are generally smaller than the values of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). Naively comparing values of ECS in CMIP5 models (median of about 3.4°C) to observation-based values of ICS has led to the suggestion that models are overly sensitive. This apparent discrepancy can partially be resolved by (i) comparing observation-based values of ICS to model values of ICS relevant for historical warming (Armour 2017; Proistosescu & Huybers 2017); (ii) taking into account the "efficacies" of non-CO2 radiative forcing agents (Marvel et al. 2015); and (iii) accounting for the sparseness of historical temperature observations and differences in sea-surface temperature and near-surface air temperature over the oceans (Richardson et al. 2016). Another potential source of discrepancy is a mismatch between observed and simulated surface temperature patterns over recent decades, due to either natural variability or model deficiencies in simulating historical warming patterns. The nature of the mismatch is such that simulated patterns can lead to more positive radiative feedbacks (higher ICS) relative to those engendered by observed patterns. The magnitude of this effect has not yet been addressed. Here we outline an approach to perform fully commensurate comparisons of climate models with global energy budget observations that take all of the above effects into account. We find that when apples-to-apples comparisons are made, values of ICS in models are

  18. When do mixotrophs specialize? Adaptive dynamics theory applied to a dynamic energy budget model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, T.A.; Kooi, B.W.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    In evolutionary history, several events have occurred at which mixotrophs specialized into pure autotrophs and heterotrophs. We studied the conditions under which such events take place, using the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory for physiological rules of the organisms' metabolism and Adaptive

  19. Energy budgets and resistances to energy transport in sparsely vegetated rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning available energy between plants and bare soil in sparsely vegetated rangelands will allow hydrologists and others to gain a greater understanding of water use by native vegetation, especially phreatophytes. Standard methods of conducting energy budget studies result in measurements of latent and sensible heat fluxes above the plant canopy which therefore include the energy fluxes from both the canopy and the soil. One-dimensional theoretical numerical models have been proposed recently for the partitioning of energy in sparse crops. Bowen ratio and other micrometeorological data collected over phreatophytes growing in areas of shallow ground water in central Nevada were used to evaluate the feasibility of using these models, which are based on surface and within-canopy aerodynamic resistances, to determine heat and water vapor transport in sparsely vegetated rangelands. The models appear to provide reasonably good estimates of sensible heat flux from the soil and latent heat flux from the canopy. Estimates of latent heat flux from the soil were less satisfactory. Sensible heat flux from the canopy was not well predicted by the present resistance formulations. Also, estimates of total above-canopy fluxes were not satisfactory when using a single value for above-canopy bulk aerodynamic resistance. ?? 1992.

  20. Effects of monetary reserves and rate of gain on human risky choice under budget constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Cynthia J; Searcy, Gabriel D; Huitema, Brad E; Brandt, Andrew E

    2008-07-01

    The energy-budget rule is an optimal foraging model that predicts that choice should be risk averse when net gains plus reserves meet energy requirements (positive energy-budget conditions) and risk prone when net gains plus reserves fall below requirements (negative energy-budget conditions). Studies have shown that the energy-budget rule provides a good description of risky choice in humans when choice is studied under economic conditions (i.e., earnings budgets) that simulate positive and negative energy budgets. In previous human studies, earnings budgets were manipulated by varying earnings requirements, but in most nonhuman studies, energy budgets have been manipulated by varying reserves and/or mean rates of reinforcement. The present study therefore investigated choice in humans between certain and variable monetary outcomes when earnings budgets were manipulated by varying monetary reserves and mean rates of monetary gain. Consistent with the energy-budget rule, choice tended to be risk averse under positive-budget conditions and risk neutral or risk prone under negative-budget conditions. Sequential choices were also well described by a dynamic optimization model, especially when expected earnings for optimal choices were high. These results replicate and extend the results of prior experiments in showing that humans' choices are generally consistent with the predictions of the energy-budget rule when studied under conditions analogous to those used in nonhuman energy-budget studies, and that choice patterns tend to maximize reinforcement.

  1. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  2. Developing an Earth system Inverse model for the Earth's energy and water budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Thomas, C.; Liu, C.; Allan, R. P.; Carneiro, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The CONCEPT-Heat project aims at developing a consistent energy budget for the Earth system in order to better understand and quantify global change. We advocate a variational "Earth system inverse" solution as the best methodology to bring the necessary expertise from different disciplines together. L'Ecuyer et al (2015) and Rodell et al (2015) first used a variational approach to adjust multiple satellite data products for air-sea-land vertical fluxes of heat and freshwater, achieving closed budgets on a regional and global scale. However their treatment of horizontal energy and water redistribution and its uncertainties was limited. Following the recent work of Liu et al (2015, 2017) which used atmospheric reanalysis convergences to derive a new total surface heat flux product from top of atmosphere fluxes, we have revisited the variational budget approach introducing a more extensive analysis of the role of horizontal transports of heat and freshwater, using multiple atmospheric and ocean reanalysis products. We find considerable improvements in fluxes in regions such as the North Atlantic and Arctic, for example requiring higher atmospheric heat and water convergences over the Arctic than given by ERA-Interim, thereby allowing lower and more realistic oceanic transports. We explore using the variational uncertainty analysis to produce lower resolution corrections to higher resolution flux products and test these against in situ flux data. We also explore the covariance errors implied between component fluxes that are imposed by the regional budget constraints. Finally we propose this as a valuable methodology for developing consistent observational constraints on the energy and water budgets in climate models. We take a first look at the same regional budget quantities in CMIP5 models and consider the implications of the differences for the processes and biases active in the models. Many further avenues of investigation are possible focused on better valuing

  3. Constraints and trade-offs in climate-dependent adaptation: energy budgets and growth in a latitudinal cline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans O. Pörtner

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of temperature-dependent metabolic adaptation as well as their implications for associated changes in energy budgets are analysed based on comparisons of fish and invertebrates from various latitudinal clines in northern and southern hemispheres and on integrated ecological and physiological approaches. To identify putative “bottlenecks” of adaptation and for a general cause and effect understanding, the temperature sensitivity of growth as a key energy budget component is investigated, considering underlying processes at population, whole animal and cellular levels. Available data support the hypothesis that natural selection favours individuals for energy efficiency and maximised growth, but is subject to constraints of limited energy availability and temperature. According to emerging relationships between energy turnover, temperature variability and thermal tolerance, the notion that selection should favour a certain metabolic rate according to mean temperature is too simplistic. Within the energy budget, savings in maintenance costs set free energy for growth, visible as growth increments at a low standard metabolic rate. Such energy savings are maximised at the permanently low temperature of the Antarctic. However, some variability persists as pelagic lifestyles in the Antarctic are fuelled by higher metabolic rates at the expense of reduced growth. Temperature variability in the cold, as in the Subarctic, causes a rise in maintenance costs at the expense of growth, but in favour of exercise and thus foraging capacity. Such transitions in energy cost between sub-polar and polar areas are not visible in the southern hemisphere, where there is less temperature variability. However, these patterns—as well as many of the underlying mechanisms—still remain incompletely investigated, especially with respect to the suggested hierarchy in energy allocation to energy budget components.

  4. A trait based dynamic energy budget approach to explore emergent microalgal community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Karaoz, U.; Geng, H.; Lane, T.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Mayali, X.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae play important roles in the global carbon budget. Phytoplankton, including microalgae, are responsible for around 50% of global primary production, and also hold promise as a viable renewable biofuel source. Research has been underway for decades to realize the full potential of algal biofuels at the commercial scale, however, uni-algal ponds are typically threatened by collapse due to microalgal grazing and parasite invasions. Recently, it has been proposed that functionally diverse microalgal-bacterial communities can achieve high biomass and/or lipid yields, and are more stable (less susceptible to invasion) than a monoculture. Similar positive diversity-productivity relationships have been observed in a wide range of ecosystem studies, but the purposeful maintenance of a diverse microbiome is less common in managed systems. In our work, a trait based dynamic energy budget model was developed to explore emergent microalgal community structure under various environmental (e.g. light, temperature, nutrient availability) conditions. The complex algal community can be reduced into functional groups (guilds). Each guild (algae or bacteria) is characterized by distinct physiological traits (e.g. nutrient requirement, growth rate, substrate affinity, lipid production) constrained by biochemical trade-offs. These trait values are derived from literature and information encoded in genomic data. Metabolism of the algae and the bacterial species (symbiotic or non-symbiotic) are described within a dynamic energy budget framework. The model offers a mechanistic framework to predict the optimal microalgal community assemblage towards high productivity and resistance to invasion under prevailing environmental conditions.

  5. Dynamic fracture network around faults: implications for earthquake ruptures, ground motion and energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, K.; Bhat, H. S.; Rougier, E.; Lei, Z.; Knight, E. E.; Klinger, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that spontaneous earthquake ruptures can dynamically induce failure in secondary fracture network, regarded as damage zone around faults. The feedbacks of such fracture network play a crucial role in earthquake rupture, its radiated wave field and the total energy budget. A novel numerical modeling tool based on the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM), which accounts for the main rupture propagation and nucleation/propagation of secondary cracks, was used to quantify the evolution of the fracture network and evaluate its effects on the main rupture and its associated radiation. The simulations were performed with the FDEM-based software tool, Hybrid Optimization Software Suite (HOSSedu) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. We first modeled an earthquake rupture on a planar strike-slip fault surrounded by a brittle medium where secondary cracks can be nucleated/activated by the earthquake rupture. We show that the secondary cracks are dynamically generated dominantly on the extensional side of the fault, mainly behind the rupture front, and it forms an intricate network of fractures in the damage zone. The rupture velocity thereby significantly decreases, by 10 to 20 percent, while the supershear transition length increases in comparison to the one with purely elastic medium. It is also observed that the high-frequency component (10 to 100 Hz) of the near-field ground acceleration is enhanced by the dynamically activated fracture network, consistent with field observations. We then conducted the case study in depth with various sets of initial stress state, and friction properties, to investigate the evolution of damage zone. We show that the width of damage zone decreases in depth, forming "flower-like" structure as the characteristic slip distance in linear slip-weakening law, or the fracture energy on the fault, is kept constant with depth. Finally, we compared the fracture energy on the fault to the energy

  6. Energy budget for the cultured, zooxanthellate octocoral Sinularia flexibilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Mohammad K; Beeftink, H H; Wijffels, R H

    2011-12-01

    The zooxanthellate octocoral Sinularia flexibilis is a producer of potential pharmaceutically important metabolites such as antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. Controlled rearing of the coral, as an alternative for commercial exploitation of these compounds, requires the study of species-specific growth requirements. In this study, phototrophic vs. heterotrophic daily energy demands of S. flexibilis was investigated through light and Artemia feeding trials in the laboratory. Rate of photosynthetic oxygen by zooxanthellae in light (≈200 μmol quanta m⁻² s⁻¹) was measured for the coral colonies with and without feeding on Artemia nauplii. Respiratory oxygen was measured in the dark, again with and without Artemia nauplii. Photosynthesis-irradiance curve at light intensities of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μmol quanta m⁻² s⁻¹ showed an increase in photosynthetic oxygen production up to a light intensity between 100 and 200 μmol quanta m⁻² s⁻¹. The photosynthesis to respiration ratio (P/R > 1) confirmed phototrophy of S. flexibilis. Both fed and non-fed colonies in the light showed high carbon contribution by zooxanthellae to animal (host) respiration values of 111-127%. Carbon energy equivalents allocated to the coral growth averaged 6-12% of total photosynthesis energy (mg C g⁻¹ buoyant weight day⁻¹ and about 0.02% of the total daily radiant energy. "Light utilization efficiency (ε)" estimated an average ε value of 75% 12 h⁻¹ for coral practical energetics. This study shows that besides a fundamental role of phototrophy vs. heterotrophy in daily energy budget of S. flexibilis, an efficient fraction of irradiance is converted to useable energy.

  7. Quasi-real-time monitoring of SW radiation budget using geostationary satellite for Climate study and Renewable energy. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Kuze, H.; Takamura, T.; Pinker, R. T.; Nakajima, T.

    2013-12-01

    Solar radiation is the only source of energy that drives the weather and climate of the Earth's surface. Earth is warmed by incoming solar radiation, and emitted energy to space by terrestrial radiation due to its temperature. It has been kept to the organisms viable environment by the effect of heating and cooling. Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation and also can keep the Earth warm by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. They are important in the energy balance at the Earth surface and the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and are connected complicatedly into the Earth system as well as other climate feedback processes. Thus it is important to estimate Earth's radiation budget for better understanding of climate and environmental change. We have shared several topics related to climate change. Energy issues close to the climate change, it is an environmental problems. Photovoltaics is one of the power generation method to converts from solar radiation to electric power directly. It does not emit greenhouse gases during power generation. Similarly, drainage, exhaust, vibration does not emit. PV system can be distributed as a small power supply in urban areas and it can installed to near the power demand points. Also solar thermal is heat generator with high efficiency. Therefor it is an effective energy source that the solar power is expected as one of the mitigation of climate change (IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation). It is necessary to real-time-monitoring of the surface solar radiation for safety operation of electric power system. We introduce a fusion analysis of renewable energy and Quasi-real-time analysis of SW radiation budget. Sample of estimated PV power mapping using geostationary satellite.

  8. Passenger transport modal split based on budgets and implication for energy consumption: Approach and application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Liu, Deshun; Jiang, Kejun

    2007-01-01

    Transport will be the strongest growing energy demand sector in the future, especially in developing countries like China, and it needs more attention. The evolution of transport structure is very important in the dynamic of transport development, and therefore worth emphasis. In this study, a modal split model maximizing spatial welfare and constrained by travel money budget and time budget is developed. This approach differs from the general econometric-based approach used in most existing macro transport studies and deals with the cost and speed of transport modes as important variables explicitly. The model is then applied to China's transport sector together with sensitivity test despite many data problems. The decomposition of energy consumption generated from bottom-up model based on this modal split identified the importance of modal split and turnover expansion in the next 30 years, which should be a stronger area of focus in transportation studies. (author)

  9. Spatiotemporal Variability of Turbulence Kinetic Energy Budgets in the Convective Boundary Layer over Both Simple and Complex Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Raj K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Berg, Larry K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Pekour, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Kosovic, Branko [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Mirocha, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Ennis, Brandon L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    2017-12-01

    The assumption of sub-grid scale (SGS) horizontal homogeneity within a model grid cell, which forms the basis of SGS turbulence closures used by mesoscale models, becomes increasingly tenuous as grid spacing is reduced to a few kilometers or less, such as in many emerging high-resolution applications. Herein, we use the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation to study the spatio-temporal variability in two types of terrain—complex (Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study [CBWES] site, north-eastern Oregon) and flat (ScaledWind Farm Technologies [SWiFT] site, west Texas) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In each case six-nested domains (three domains each for mesoscale and large-eddy simulation [LES]) are used to downscale the horizontal grid spacing from 10 km to 10 m using the WRF model framework. The model output was used to calculate the values of the TKE budget terms in vertical and horizontal planes as well as the averages of grid cells contained in the four quadrants (a quarter area) of the LES domain. The budget terms calculated along the planes and the mean profile of budget terms show larger spatial variability at CBWES site than at the SWiFT site. The contribution of the horizontal derivative of the shear production term to the total production shear was found to be 45% and 15% of the total shear, at the CBWES and SWiFT sites, respectively, indicating that the horizontal derivatives applied in the budget equation should not be ignored in mesoscale model parameterizations, especially for cases with complex terrain with <10 km scale.

  10. Electron energy budget in the high-latitude ionosphere during Viking/EISCAT coordinated measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilensten, J.; Kofman, W.; Lathuillere, C.; Fontaine, D.; Eliasson, L.; Oran, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetospheric electron fluxes precipitating at the top of the auroral ionosphere contribute to the production of ionization, to the excitation of atmospheric constituents, and to the heating of the ambient electrons. This last process occurs essentially when the energy of the initial precipitated electrons and photoelectrons has been degraded to values lower than approximately 10 eV. The heated ambient electron gas loses this energy to the neutral gas and ambient ions. Finally, the temperature gradient produced in the ionospheric plasma induces a heat flux. In the absence of an electric field and for stationary conditions, the energy budget of ionospheric electrons results from the balance between these processes of heating, cooling, and heat conduction. The intensity of these different processes is quantitatively computed at each altitude in the ionosphere by combining simultaneous EISCAT and Viking in situ measurements, and by means of an electron transport model. The stationary electron flux, which leads to the heating rate, is computed, and remaining differences in the energy budget are discussed

  11. Mass and energy budget of the northern hemisphere. Der Massen- und Energiehaushalt der Nordhemisphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, J M

    1981-01-01

    Seasonal budgets of moist static energy, dry static energy, latent energy, and mass m are calculated for mass-equal finite elements (boxes) over the northern hemisphere. For this purpose the hemispheric atmosphere is divided into 4 meridional belts, 12 zonal sectors and 4 vertical layers, which results in 48 atmospheric columns and a total of 192 boxes.

  12. 1996: BMBF expenditures for energy resrearch. Draft of the departmental federal budget 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Departmental budget 30 of the 1996 draft federal budget covers the activities of the German Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology (BMBF). The Ministry is the result of an amalgamation, in 1994, of the former Ministry for Education and Science (BMBW) and the former Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). For this reason, the total budget as indicated in the figures for 1995 and 1996 cannot be compared directly. The 1996 departmental budget No. 30 comprises a total of DM 15.62 (1995: 15.53) billion. Nuclear technology and nuclear research have desappeared almost completely as budgetary items and can be found only under the headings of Safety Research (DM 81/78 million) and Decommissioning (DM 259/232 million). A similar development was observed in recent years also with the change in names of German national research centers. However, this does not mean that the BMBF has completely withdrawn from nuclear research. These activities are now covered under more general items, such as 'Renewable Energies, Economical Use of Energy, Conversion and Combustion Technologies', for which expenditures of DM 290 (285) million have been earmarked in 1996. The BMBF makes available approx. DM 303 (290) million for investments into research centers, and approx. DM 1.32 (1.31) billion DM to cover their operating costs. The nuclear research share in these funds decreases steadily. DM 467 (472) million have been earmarked for basic research. (orig.) [de

  13. Energy budget of the convective boundary layer over an urban and rural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschgens, M J; Hacker, J M

    1985-05-01

    The results of a two day field study in and around the city of Bonn (50/sup 0/ 42'N, 7/sup 0/ 2'E) are presented. The study was designed to compare the energy balances at the top of the rural and urban canopy layer, and to get estimates of the various terms of the budgets of sensible and latent heat. The synoptic situation during the experiment was dominated by a high pressure cell leading to mostly undisturbed conditions with a convective boundary layer under a subsidence inversion. The measurements of several ground-based instruments, a radiosonde, two tethered sondes and a motorglider were combined to give a comprehensive picture of the contrasts between the urban and rural conditions. Main results of the study are: a confirmation of the previously supposed relation between the strength of the urban heat and moisture anomaly and the mean wind; a correlation between the Bowen ratio of the canopy fluxes and the fractional amount of green space in urban areas; a negligible difference in the net radiative fluxes and their divergences between the urban and rural environment; significant differences in the energy budgets of the two regions, especially in the divergences of the turbulent vertical heat fluxes and the advection mechanisms and time-height cross sections of the Bulk-Richardson number for two sites upwind and downwind of the city.

  14. Atmospheric components of the surface energy budget over young sea ice: Results from the N-ICE2015 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Von P.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Cohen, Lana; Murphy, Sarah Y.; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-08-01

    The Norwegian young sea ice campaign obtained the first measurements of the surface energy budget over young, thin Arctic sea ice through the seasonal transition from winter to summer. This campaign was the first of its kind in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic. This study describes the atmospheric and surface conditions and the radiative and turbulent heat fluxes over young, thin sea ice. The shortwave albedo of the snow surface ranged from about 0.85 in winter to 0.72-0.80 in early summer. The near-surface atmosphere was typically stable in winter, unstable in spring, and near neutral in summer once the surface skin temperature reached 0°C. The daily average radiative and turbulent heat fluxes typically sum to negative values (-40 to 0 W m-2) in winter but then transition toward positive values of up to nearly +60 W m-2 as solar radiation contributes significantly to the surface energy budget. The sensible heat flux typically ranges from +20-30 W m-2 in winter (into the surface) to negative values between 0 and -20 W m-2 in spring and summer. A winter case study highlights the significant effect of synoptic storms and demonstrates the complex interplay of wind, clouds, and heat and moisture advection on the surface energy components over sea ice in winter. A spring case study contrasts a rare period of 24 h of clear-sky conditions with typical overcast conditions and highlights the impact of clouds on the surface radiation and energy budgets over young, thin sea ice.

  15. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs: FY 2006 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norland, D.; Jenkin, T.

    2005-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads the Federal Government's efforts to provide reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for America, through its 11 research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs. EERE invests in high-risk, high-value research and development (R&D) that, conducted in partnership with the private sector and other government agencies, accelerates the development and facilitates the deployment of advanced clean energy technologies and practices. EERE designs its RDD&D activities to improve the Nation's readiness for addressing current and future energy needs. This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2006 Budget Request. EERE has adopted a benefits framework developed by the National Research Council (NRC) to represent the various types of benefits resulting from the energy efficiency technology improvements and renewable energy technology development supported by EERE programs. Specifically, EERE's benefits analysis focuses on three main categories of energy-linked benefits--economic, environmental, and security.

  16. Explaining Earths Energy Budget: CERES-Based NASA Resources for K-12 Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K.; Marvel, M. T.; Ruhlman, K.; LaPan, J.; Lewis, P.; Madigan, J.; Oostra, D.; Taylor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Among atmospheric scientists, the importance of the Earth radiation budget concept is well understood. Papers have addressed the topic for over 100 years, and the large Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (among others), with its multiple on-orbit instruments, is working hard to quantify the details of its various parts. In education, Earth's energy budget is a concept that generally appears in middle school and Earth science curricula, but its treatment in textbooks leaves much to be desired. Students and the public hold many misconceptions, and very few people have an appreciation for the importance of this energy balance to the conditions on Earth. More importantly, few have a correct mental model that allows them to make predictions and understand the effect of changes such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. As an outreach element of the core CERES team at NASA Langley, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, educators, graphic artists, writers, and web developers has been developing and refining graphics and resources to explain the Earth's Energy budget over the last few decades. Resources have developed through an iterative process involving ongoing use in front of a variety of audiences, including students and teachers from 3rd to 12th grade as well as public audiences.

  17. Passenger transport modal split based on budgets and implication for energy consumption: Approach and application in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Liu, Deshun [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM) and Institute of Energy, Environment, and Economy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Kejun [Energy Research Institute, National Development and Reform Commission, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-09-15

    Transport will be the strongest growing energy demand sector in the future, especially in developing countries like China, and it needs more attention. The evolution of transport structure is very important in the dynamic of transport development, and therefore worth emphasis. In this study, a modal split model maximizing spatial welfare and constrained by travel money budget and time budget is developed. This approach differs from the general econometric-based approach used in most existing macro transport studies and deals with the cost and speed of transport modes as important variables explicitly. The model is then applied to China's transport sector together with sensitivity test despite many data problems. The decomposition of energy consumption generated from bottom-up model based on this modal split identified the importance of modal split and turnover expansion in the next 30 years, which should be a stronger area of focus in transportation studies. (author)

  18. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  19. STUDY CONCERNING THE EXECUTION OF LOCAL BUDGETS REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of local budget revenues is a very important sub-phase of the local budgetary process its correct accomplishment ensures regularity and efficiency in revenue collection, which will cover the local budget expenditures. Through this scientific approach we intended to achieve an analysis of the implementation of revenues mobilized to the local budgets in Romania. The study started with fixing the concept of execution of budget revenues and defining its phases, and followed with the analysis of the implementation of local budget revenues in three levels, namely: the overall local budgets in Romania, at the city level and at the community level. We have to mention that the analysis of the execution of local budgets was done in 2011, based on existing data in the last occurrence of the Romanian Statistical Yearbook for 2012. The paper concluded with some considerations regarding the execution of local budgets revenues and some proposals for improving the collection of local income.

  20. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlar, Joseph; Tjernstroem, Michael; Leck, Caroline [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mauritsen, Thorsten [Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Shupe, Matthew D.; Persson, P.O.G. [University of Colorado, NOAA-ESRL-PSD, Boulder, CO (United States); Brooks, Ian M.; Birch, Cathryn E. [University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds (United Kingdom); Sirevaag, Anders [University of Bergen, Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Nicolaus, Marcel [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsoe (Norway); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5 N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), from August to early September 2008. Surface temperature indicated four distinct temperature regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermodynamic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt-season regime was interrupted by a 3-day cold regime where temperatures dropped from near zero to -7 C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero for 1 week until once again temperatures dropped rapidly and the energy budget residuals became negative. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlled by the cloudiness. Variable heat, moisture and cloud distributions were associated with changing air-masses. Surface cloud radiative forcing, the net radiative effect of clouds on the surface relative to clear skies, is estimated. Shortwave cloud forcing ranged between -50 W m{sup -2} and zero and varied significantly with surface albedo, solar zenith angle and cloud liquid water. Longwave cloud forcing was larger and generally ranged between 65 and 85 W m{sup -2}, except when the cloud fraction was tenuous or contained little liquid water; thus the net effect of the clouds was to warm the surface. Both cold periods occurred under tenuous, or altogether absent, low-level clouds containing little liquid water, effectively reducing the cloud greenhouse effect. Freeze-up progression was enhanced by a combination of increasing solar zenith angles and surface albedo, while inhibited by a large, positive surface cloud forcing until a new air-mass with considerably less cloudiness advected over the experiment area. (orig.)

  1. Coastal polynyas in the southern Weddell Sea: Variability of the surface energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Ian A.; King, John C.; Markus, Thorsten

    2002-06-01

    The surface energy budget of coastal polynyas in the southern Weddell Sea has been evaluated for the period 1992-1998 using a combination of satellite observations, meteorological data, and simple physical models. The study focuses on polynyas that habitually form off the Ronne Ice Shelf. The coastal polynya areal data are derived from an advanced multichannel polynya detection algorithm applied to passive microwave brightness temperatures. The surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are calculated via a fetch-dependent model of the convective-thermal internal boundary layer. The radiative fluxes are calculated using well-established empirical formulae and an innovative cloud model. Standard meteorological variables that are required for the flux calculations are taken from automatic weather stations and from the National Centers for Environmental Production/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalyses. The 7 year surface energy budget shows an overall oceanic warming due to the presence of coastal polynyas. For most of the period the summertime oceanic warming, due to the absorption of shortwave radiation, is approximately in balance with the wintertime oceanic cooling. However, the anomalously large summertime polynya of 1997-1998 allowed a large oceanic warming of the region. Wintertime freezing seasons are characterized by episodes of high heat fluxes interspersed with more quiescent periods and controlled by coastal polynya dynamics. The high heat fluxes are primarily due to the sensible heat flux component, with smaller complementary latent and radiative flux components. The average freezing season area-integrated energy exchange is 3.48 × 1019 J, with contributions of 63, 22, and 15% from the sensible, latent, and radiative components, respectively. The average melting season area-integrated energy exchange is -5.31 × 1019 J, almost entirely due to the radiative component. There is considerable interannual variability in the surface energy budget

  2. Effects of soil tillage on the energy budget of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casa, R.; Cascio, B. lo

    1997-01-01

    The different terms of the energy budget were measured by the Bowen ratio method on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown on a conventional tillage and a direct drilling system. The differences found in the energy budgets varied according to the degree of fractional ground cover and of soil water availability. Soil heat flux was greater for the direct drilling treatment, although soil heating was slower as compared to the conventional tillage. Comparisons for well watered and dry conditions revealed that the conventional tillage system used as latent heat a fraction of net radiation greater than the direct drilling treatment only in well watered conditions. In dry conditions the differences in latent heat fluxes and canopy resistances between the two tillage systems were smaller [it

  3. The May October energy budget of a Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Kessler, A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes measurements of the Hartheim forest energy budget for the 157-day period of May 11 Oct. 14, 1992. Data were collected as 30-min means. Energy available to the forest was measured with net radiometers and soil heat flux discs; sensible heat exchange between the canopy and atmosphere was measured with two “One-Propeller Eddy Correlation” (OPEC) systems, and latent energy (evapotranspiration or ET) was determined as a residual in the surface energy balance equation. Net rediation, change in thermal storage, and sensible heat flux were verified by independent measurements during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX, May 11 12), and again during the “HartX2” experiment over 20 days late in the summer (Sep. 10 29). Specifically, sensible heat estimates from the two adjacent OPEC sensor sets were in close agreement throughout the summer, and in excellent agreement with measurements of sonic eddy correlation systems in May and September. The eddy correlation/energy balance technique was observed to overestimate occurrence of dew, leading to an underestimate of daily ET of about 5%. After taking dew into account, estimates of OPEC ET totaled 358 mm over the 5.1-month period, which is in quite good agreement with an ET estimate of 328 mm from a hydrologic water balance. An observed decrease in forest ET in July and August was clearly associated with low rainfall and increased soil water deficit. The OPEC system required only modest technical supervision, and generated a data yield of 99.5% over the period DOY 144 288. The documented verification and precision of this energy budget appears to be unmatched by any other long-term forest study reported to date.

  4. Validation of a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model for the blue mussel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saraiva, S.; van der Meer, J.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Witbaard, R.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Hippler, D.; Parker, R.

    2012-01-01

    A model for bivalve growth was developed and the results were tested against field observations. The model is based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory and includes an extension of the standard DEB model to cope with changing food quantity and quality. At 4 different locations in the North Sea

  5. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... Design. 504.2The form, orientation, occupancy and use profiles for the Prototype Building shall be fixed...

  6. Rough estimate demand of atomic energy-related budget for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagishi, Tatsuro

    1996-01-01

    The rough estimate demand of the budget for fiscal year 1996 of eight atomic energy-related ministries and agencies was determined at about 494,879 million yen, which is 2.4% growth as compared with that for the previous year. Concretely, the general account is 204,594 million yen, 2.2% growth, and the special account is 290,285 million yen, 2.6% growth. The budget is 357,060 million yen and 3.7% growth for Science and Technology Agency, 130, 787 million yen and 2% decrease for Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and 7,032 million yen and 29.2% increase for other six ministries and agencies. Emphasis is placed on the research of upgrading LWRs including the disassembling of reactors, the performance test for fuel, the improvement of reactor technology and the verifying test of practical reactor decommissioning facilities, and the research and development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology. Also the technical development of waste treatment and disposal including high level radioactive waste is carried out with 40.3 billion yen. Atomic Energy Commission exerts efforts for the development of atomic energy policy for the peaceful utilization, the establishment of coordinative LWR power generation system, the development of nuclear fuel recycling and the strengthening of the basic research on atomic energy. (K.I.)

  7. Study of surface energy budget and test of a newly developed fast photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer in field campaign Szeged (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatrai, David; Nikov, Daniella; Zsolt Jász, Ervin; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Weidinger, Tamás; András Gyöngyösi, Zénó; Kiss, Melinda; Józsa, János; Simó Diego, Gemma; Cuxart Rodamilans, Joan; Wrenger, Burkhart; Bottyán, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    A micrometeorological field measurement campaign dedicated to study the surface energy budget and the structure of the boundary layer focusing on the transient layer forming periods during night-time was organized in the period of 10th of November to 3rd of December 2013 in the nearby of Szeged, Hungary. A temporary micrometeorological measurement station was set up at the coordinates N:46.239943; E:20.089758, approximately 1700 m far from a national meteorology station (N:46.255711; E:20.09052). In the experimental micrometeorological site different types of instruments were installed to measure numerous parameters: standard meteorological measurements (p, T, wet, wind speed and direction at three different levels, relative humidity at two levels and absolute humidity at one level) radiation budget components surface temperature and leaf wetness soil temperature, moisture and heat flux into the deeper soil layer eddy-covariance measurements (t, H, LE CO2) at 3 m level using Campbell open-path IRGA (EC150) system. At the national meteorology station (http://adatok.geo.u-szeged.hu/?lang=eng) besides their standard measurement equipment and measurement routine a SODAR was installed and continuously operated. These ground based measurements were combined with and supported by UAV, quadcopter and tethered balloon based vertical profile measurements of p, T, rh. For this measurement campaign as a modification of a previously developed airborne ready dual channel hygrometer, a fast photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer was developed for absolute humidity measurements. The estimated response time of the system is faster than 15 Hz, which was achieved by the replacement of the data acquisition system and by recording the raw photoacoustic signal sampled at rate of 48 kHz for post-processing. During the campaign this new system was compared to a TDL system commercially available at Li-COR Inc. Besides the testing of the newly developed fast photoacoustic hygrometer

  8. 1998: BMBF expenditures for energy research. Draft of the departmental federal budget No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Departmental budget No. 30 in the 1998 draft federal budget covers the activities of the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF). Its level of DM 14 950 million represents a 0,9% increase from the funds earmarked for the current year of 1997. DM 70 million is to be spent on safety research for nuclear plants, and DM 228 million has been planned for decommissioning and demolition of nuclear experimental and demonstration plants. The operation of, and investments into, the research centers are funded to the tune of DM 1307 million and DM 339 million, respectively. Institutions of basic research will receive DM 434 million, and renewable energies, economical energy uses, conversion and combustion technologies will be funded in the amount of DM 238 million. (orig.) [de

  9. Exploring the effects of temperature and resource limitation on mercury bioaccumulation in Fundulus heteroclitus using dynamic energy budget modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population survival and growth. To explore this approach, we conducted growth and bioaccumulation studies that contribute t...

  10. Parameterising a generic model for the dynamic energy budget of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, T.; Ravagnan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory is a generic and comprehensive framework for understanding bioenergetics over the entire life cycle of an organism. Here, we apply a simplified model derived from this theory (DEBkiss) to Antarctic krill Euphausia superba. The model was parameterised using growth

  11. The eddy kinetic energy budget in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2016-06-09

    The budget of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the Red Sea, including the sources, redistributions and sink, is examined using a high-resolution eddy-resolving ocean circulation model. A pronounced seasonally varying EKE is identified, with its maximum intensity occurring in winter, and the strongest EKE is captured mainly in the central and northern basins within the upper 200 m. Eddies acquire kinetic energy from conversion of eddy available potential energy (EPE), from transfer of mean kinetic energy (MKE), and from direct generation due to time-varying (turbulent) wind stress, the first of which contributes predominantly to the majority of the EKE. The EPE-to-EKE conversion occurs almost in the entire basin, while the MKE-to-EKE transfer appears mainly along the shelf boundary of the basin (200 miso-bath) where high horizontal shear interacts with topography. The EKE generated by the turbulent wind stress is relatively small and limited to the southern basin. All these processes are intensified during winter, when the rate of energy conversion is about four to five times larger than that in summer. The EKE is redistributed by the vertical and horizontal divergence of energy flux and the advection of the mean flow. As a main sink of EKE, dissipation processes is ubiquitously found in the basin. The seasonal variability of these energy conversion terms can explain the significant seasonality of eddy activities in the Red Sea. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface energy budget and turbulent fluxes at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Persson, Ola; Uttal, Taneil; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Determination of the surface energy budget (SEB) and all SEB components at the air-surface interface are required in a wide variety of applications including atmosphere-land/snow simulations and validation of the surface fluxes predicted by numerical models over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, comparisons of net surface energy budgets at two Arctic sites are made using long-term near-continuous measurements of hourly averaged surface fluxes (turbulent, radiation, and soil conduction). One site, Eureka (80.0 N; Nunavut, Canada), is located in complex topography near a fjord about 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. The other site, Tiksi (71.6 N; Russian East Siberia), is located on a relatively flat coastal plain less than 1 km from the shore of Tiksi Bay, a branch of the Arctic Ocean. We first analyzed diurnal and annual cycles of basic meteorological parameters and key SEB components at these locations. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located on different continents and at different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and SEB components are qualitatively similar. Surface energy balance closure is a formulation of the conservation of energy principle. Our direct measurements of energy balance for both Arctic sites show that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes and the ground (conductive) heat flux systematically underestimate the net radiation by about 25-30%. This lack of energy balance closure is a fundamental and pervasive problem in micrometeorology. We discuss a variety of factors which may be responsible for the lack of SEB closure. In particular, various storage terms (e.g., air column energy storage due to radiative and/or sensible heat flux divergence, ground heat storage above the soil flux plate, energy used in photosynthesis, canopy biomass heat storage). For example, our observations show that the photosynthesis storage term is relatively small (about 1-2% of the net radiation), but about 8-12% of the

  13. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs: FY 2005 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2004-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads the Federal Government's efforts to provide reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for America, through its 11 research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs. EERE invests in high-risk, high-value research and development (R&D) that, conducted in partnership with the private sector and other government agencies, accelerates the development and facilitates the deployment of advanced clean energy technologies and practices. This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2005 Budget Request. EERE has adopted a benefits framework developed by the National Research Council (NRC) to represent the various types of benefits resulting from the energy efficiency technology improvements and renewable energy technology development prompted by EERE programs. EERE's benefits analysis focuses on three main categories of energy-linked benefits-economic, environmental, and security. These metrics are not a complete representation of the benefits or market roles of efficiency and renewable technologies, but provide an indication of the range of benefits provided. EERE has taken steps to more fully represent the NRC framework, including two key improvements to the FY 2005 analysis-adding an electricity security metric and extending the analysis through the year 2050.

  14. Bats on a Budget: Torpor-Assisted Migration Saves Time and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Liam P.; Jonasson, Kristin A.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Bats and birds must balance time and energy budgets during migration. Migrating bats face similar physiological challenges to birds, but nocturnality creates special challenges for bats, such as a conflict between travelling and refueling, which many birds avoid by feeding in daylight and flying at night. As endothermic animals, bats and birds alike must expend substantial amounts of energy to maintain high body temperatures. For migratory birds refueling at stopovers, remaining euthermic during inactive periods reduces the net refuelling rate, thereby prolonging stopover duration and delaying subsequent movement. We hypothesized that bats could mitigate similar ambient-temperature dependent costs by using a torpor-assisted migration strategy. We studied silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans during autumn migration using a combination of respirometry and temperature-sensitive radiotelemetry to estimate energy costs incurred under ambient temperature conditions, and the energy that bats saved by using torpor during daytime roosting periods. All bats, regardless of sex, age, or body condition used torpor at stopover and saved up to 91% of the energy they would have expended to remain euthermic. Furthermore, bats modulated use of torpor depending on ambient temperature. By adjusting the time spent torpid, bats achieved a rate of energy expenditure independent of the ambient temperature encountered at stopover. By lowering body temperature during inactive periods, fuel stores are spared, reducing the need for refuelling. Optimal migration models consider trade-offs between time and energy. Heterothermy provides a physiological strategy that allows bats to conserve energy without paying a time penalty as they migrate. Although uncommon, some avian lineages are known to use heterothermy, and current theoretical models of migration may not be appropriate for these groups. We propose that thermoregulatory strategies should be an important consideration of future

  15. INTERPRETING ERUPTIVE BEHAVIOR IN NOAA AR 11158 VIA THE REGION'S MAGNETIC ENERGY AND RELATIVE-HELICITY BUDGETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Liu Yang

    2013-01-01

    In previous works, we introduced a nonlinear force-free method that self-consistently calculates the instantaneous budgets of free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in solar active regions (ARs). Calculation is expedient and practical, using only a single vector magnetogram per computation. We apply this method to a time series of 600 high-cadence vector magnetograms of the eruptive NOAA AR 11158 acquired by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory over a five-day observing interval. Besides testing our method extensively, we use it to interpret the dynamical evolution in the AR, including eruptions. We find that the AR builds large budgets of both free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity, sufficient to power many more eruptions than the ones it gave within the interval of interest. For each of these major eruptions, we find eruption-related decreases and subsequent free-energy and helicity budgets that are consistent with the observed eruption (flare and coronal mass ejection (CME)) sizes. In addition, we find that (1) evolution in the AR is consistent with the recently proposed (free) energy-(relative) helicity diagram of solar ARs, (2) eruption-related decreases occur before the flare and the projected CME-launch times, suggesting that CME progenitors precede flares, and (3) self terms of free energy and relative helicity most likely originate from respective mutual terms, following a progressive mutual-to-self conversion pattern that most likely stems from magnetic reconnection. This results in the non-ideal formation of increasingly helical pre-eruption structures and instigates further research on the triggering of solar eruptions with magnetic helicity firmly placed in the eruption cadre

  16. Impacts of Climate Change and Land use Changes on Land Surface Radiation and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface radiation and energy budgets are critical to address a variety of scientific and application issues related to climate trends, weather predictions, hydrologic and biogeophysical modeling, and the monitoring of ecosystem health and agricultural crops. This is an introductory paper to t...

  17. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  18. The forgotten R and D budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.; Mohsberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The research and development budget for hydropower has dwindled in recent years. Increased R and D funding could improve hydropower's effectiveness. Of the $1.5 trillion US budget for 1992, only $1 million was devoted to research and development (R and D) for hydroelectric generation. This is because hydropower has been branded a mature technology no longer in need of R and D. Nevertheless, as the source of nearly 10 percent of all US electricity, hydropower offers the nation's best opportunity for significant increased renewable energy production in the near future. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated an additional 50,000 MW of hydropower capacity is potentially developable. Of the total $3 billion R and D budget for all DOE programs in 1992, the combined R and D amount for the other primary renewable energy resources was $161.3 million. Whether mature or not, all methods of producing electricity have attendant problems and development needs that must be addressed with sufficient R and D if the US is to remain energy independent, competitive and safe as a nation. In comparing R and D budget trends for electrical generating resources during the past 10 years there are several questions to be asked: Are other mature technologies, such as coal and nuclear power, receiving budget treatment similar to hydropower? What is the intended use of the R and D funds for these mature technologies? Is any technology - medical, communications, electrical generating or other - ever so mature as to be unable to benefit from R and D? What use could the hydropower industry make of additional R and D funding? What is the commitment of the administration and Congress to developing renewable energy resources when the source of 85 percent of current renewable energy receives only $1 million for R and D of the $3 billion DOE R and D budget? This article addresses these questions

  19. Large eddy simulation study of turbulent kinetic energy and scalar variance budgets and turbulent/non-turbulent interface in planar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoaki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Nagata, Koji; Ito, Yasumasa

    2016-04-01

    Spatially developing planar jets with passive scalar transports are simulated for various Reynolds (Re = 2200, 7000, and 22 000) and Schmidt numbers (Sc = 1, 4, 16, 64, and 128) by the implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) using low-pass filtering as an implicit subgrid-scale model. The budgets of resolved turbulent kinetic energy k and scalar variance are explicitly evaluated from the ILES data except for the dissipation terms, which are obtained from the balance in the transport equations. The budgets of k and in the ILES agree well with the DNS and experiments for both high and low Re cases. The streamwise decay of the mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate obeys the power low obtained by the scaling argument. The mechanical-to-scalar timescale ratio C ϕ is evaluated in the self-similar region. For the high Re case, C ϕ is close to the isotropic value (C ϕ = 2) near the jet centerline. However, when Re is not large, C ϕ is smaller than 2 and depends on the Schmidt number. The T/NT interface is also investigated by using the scalar isosurface. The velocity and scalar fields near the interface depend on the interface orientation for all Re. The velocity toward the interface is observed near the interface facing in the streamwise, cross-streamwise, and spanwise directions in the planar jet in the resolved velocity field.

  20. Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Pardyjak, Eric; Mahrt, Larry; Darbieu, Clara

    2016-07-01

    The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon period from midday until zero-buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign for 10 intensive observation period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and mesoscale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near-surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near-surface production of TKE is compensated for by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of -0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE budget terms are normalized with

  1. BALTEX water and energy budgets in the NCEP/DOE reanalysis II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roads, J. [Experimental Climate Prediction Center, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Raschke, E. [Meteorologisches Institut der Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); Rocke, B. [Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Water and energy budgets from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Dept. of Energy (NCEP/DOE) reanalysis II (NCEPRII) are described for the Baltic Sea catchment and sea (BALTEX). Annually, NCEPRII shows 0.7 mm d{sup -1} of atmospheric moisture converged into the land region with a corresponding runoff of 0.7 mm d{sup -1} to the Baltic Sea, consistent with observations. However, precipitation is too low; evaporation is too large; runoff does not have an appropriate winter minimum and spring maximum; the assimilation and surface nudging are too large. Important hydroclimatic characteristics can still be discerned. During summer, atmospheric water vapor, precipitation, evaporation, and surface and atmospheric radiative heating increase and the atmospheric radiative cooling, dry static energy convergence decrease. There are large contrasts between the sea and land; during winter sensible heat is transferred from the sea to the atmosphere and sea evaporation and precipitation are largest during the fall and winter; somewhat opposite behavior occurs over land. (orig.)

  2. Climatology and energy budget of the northern hemisphere middle stratosphere during 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahnk, W R [Air Force Geophysics Lab., Bedforo, MA; Newell, R E

    1975-01-01

    The 10-2 mb (approx. 30 to 40 km) layer of the atmosphere in winter receives energy from two different sources: mechanical energy is carried up from the troposphere and lower stratosphere while energy is generated in situ by the gradients of radiative heating and cooling. We show here from data for 1972 that the latter primarily governs the energy budget of the middle stratosphere in early winter while the former becomes of comparable size, and often dominates, in the middle and late winter. Radiative energy sources for the summer hemisphere are very small, as there is considerable compensation between solar heating through ozone absorption and infrared cooling by carbon dioxide and ozone. Standing and travelling waves are quite clear-cut at 5 and 2 mb in winter, as much of the chaos of lower regions is filtered out in the lower stratosphere; the standing waves at 2 mb may reflect surface properties more effectively than flow patterns at lower levels. A westward-travelling wave, with a period of about a month, was evident in early 1972.

  3. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  4. Development of a dynamic energy budget modeling approach to investigate the effects of temperature and resource limitation on mercury bioaccumulation in Fundulus heteroclitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population survival and growth. To explore this approach, we are developing growth and bioaccumulation studies that contrib...

  5. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies. (letter)

  6. Do budget balance rules anchor budget balance expectations? -- Some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Rülke, Jan-Christoph; Frenkel, Michael; Lis, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study that analyzes whether budget balance expectations are anchored and whether budget balance rules effectively anchor expectations. To this end, we use a unique data set which covers budget balance expectations in 17 countries that implemented a budget balance rules. While our results are mixed concerning the general impact of budget balance rules on anchoring expectations, we do find that specific features of budget balance rules are important to successfully anchor budg...

  7. Kinetic energy budgets near the turbulent/nonturbulent interface in jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Rodrigo R.; da Silva, Carlos B.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of the kinetic energy near the turbulent/nonturbulent (T/NT) interface separating the turbulent from the irrotational flow regions is analysed using three direct numerical simulations of turbulent planar jets, with Reynolds numbers based on the Taylor micro-scale across the jet shear layer in the range Reλ ≈ 120-160. Important levels of kinetic energy are already present in the irrotational region near the T/NT interface. The mean pressure and kinetic energy are well described by the Bernoulli equation in this region and agree with recent results obtained from rapid distortion theory in the turbulent region [M. A. C. Teixeira and C. B. da Silva, "Turbulence dynamics near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface," J. Fluid Mech. 695, 257-287 (2012)], 10.1017/jfm.2012.17 while the normal Reynolds stresses agree with the theoretical predictions from Phillips ["The irrotational motion outside a free turbulent boundary," Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 51, 220 (1955)], 10.1017/S0305004100030073. The use of conditional statistics in relation to the distance from the T/NT interface allow a detailed study of the build up of kinetic energy across the T/NT interface, pointing to a very different picture than using classical statistics. Conditional kinetic energy budgets show that apart from the viscous dissipation of kinetic energy, the maximum of all the mechanisms governing the kinetic energy are concentrated in a very narrow region distancing about one to two Taylor micro-scales from the T/NT interface. The (total and fluctuating) kinetic energy starts increasing in the irrotational region by pressure-velocity interactions - a mechanism that can act at distance, and continue to grow by advection (for the total kinetic energy) and turbulent diffusion (for the turbulent kinetic energy) inside the turbulent region. These mechanisms tend to occur preferentially around the core of the large-scale vortices existing near T/NT interface. The production of turbulent

  8. Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    There is mounting evidence that zero energy can, in many cases, be achieved within typical construction budgets. To ensure that the momentum behind zero energy buildings and other low-energy buildings will continue to grow, this guide assembles recommendations for replicating specific successes of early adopters who have met their energy goals while controlling costs. Contents include: discussion of recommended cost control strategies, which are grouped by project phase (acquisition and delivery, design, and construction) and accompanied by industry examples; recommendations for balancing key decision-making factors; and quick reference tables that can help teams apply strategies to specific projects.

  9. Budgeting practices: a study on Brazilian hotel companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the budgeting practices in the hotel companies of Brazil’s main tourist centers. The justification is oriented by the number of foreign tourists received by the top ten Brazilian tourist destinations, which reaches 95% of the country. Another motivation is the lack of research on hotel companies in developing countries, and it should also be considered that Brazil will host the World Cup in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016, which requires a suitable hotel structure to receive a large number of athletes and tourists. Thus, in order to achieve the purpose of this study, surveys were sent to the hotels associated with the Brazilian Association of the Hotel Industry (ABIH, with replies by 40 hotel companies. Descriptive statistics were applied to the results, in order to improve the basis for discussions. The results indicate that most of the hotels adopt corporate budgeting with bottom-up as main budgeting process. Research shows that budgets are developed, more frequently, using the results from previous years and economic indicators. In the performance evaluation, the comparative analysis, the analysis of the causes of deviations and adequacy measures are often applied. The analysis of variance is primarily directed at controlling costs/expenses, identifying potential problems and providing feedback for the next period.

  10. The Energy Budget of a Southwest Vortex With Heavy Rainfall over South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shenming; SUN Jianhua; ZHAO Sixiong; LI Wanli

    2011-01-01

    Energy budgets were analyzed to study the development of an eastward propagating southwest vortex (SWV) associated with heavy rainfall over southern China (11-13 June 2008). The results show that kinetic energy (KE) generation and a dvection were the most important KE sources, while friction and sub-grid processes were the main KE sinks. There was downward conversion from divergent to rotational wind KE consistent with the downward stretching of SWVs. The Coriolis force was important for the formation and maintenance of the SWV. Convergence was also an important factor for maintenance, as was vertical motion during the mature stage of the SWV and the formation stage of a newly formed vortex (vortex B). The conversion from available potential energy (APE) to KE of divergent wind can lead to strong convection. Vertical motion influenced APE by dynamical and thermal processes which had opposite effects.The variation of APE was related to the heavy rainfall and convection; in this case, vertical motion with direct thermal circulation was the most important way in which APE was released, while latent heat release and vertical temperature advection were important for APE generation.

  11. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...... commitment is moderated by the implicit power motivation of the bank manager....

  12. USGS budget request up for 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    The president's U.S. Geological Survey budget request for fiscal year 1994 totals $598 million—up $20 million from the current budget. This would restore about half of the $42.46 million cut from its budget in fiscal 1993.In releasing the budget, Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the Department of the Interior, said, “The USGS reflects the new administration's understanding that investing in America requires investing in a strong Earth science capability,” and that “we need high-quality scientific information on natural hazards and on our water, mineral, energy, and land resources to serve as the building blocks for making intelligent decisions and planning future growth.”

  13. Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-03-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

  14. Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    Full Text Available It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans. The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum. These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

  15. Scaling of Brain Metabolism with a Fixed Energy Budget per Neuron: Implications for Neuronal Activity, Plasticity and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution. PMID:21390261

  16. Dynamic energy budget approach to evaluate antibiotic effects on biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnir, Bjorn; Carpio, Ana; Cebrián, Elena; Vidal, Perfecto

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the action of antibiotics on biofilms is essential to devise therapies against chronic infections. Biofilms are bacterial communities attached to moist surfaces, sheltered from external aggressions by a polymeric matrix. Coupling a dynamic energy budget based description of cell metabolism to surrounding concentration fields, we are able to approximate survival curves measured for different antibiotics. We reproduce numerically stratified distributions of cell types within the biofilm and introduce ways to incorporate different resistance mechanisms. Qualitative predictions follow that are in agreement with experimental observations, such as higher survival rates of cells close to the substratum when employing antibiotics targeting active cells or enhanced polymer production when antibiotics are administered. The current computational model enables validation and hypothesis testing when developing therapies.

  17. Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition – Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nilsson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE and its budget in the afternoon period from midday until zero-buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST field campaign for 10 intensive observation period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and mesoscale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near-surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near-surface production of TKE is compensated for by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of −0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE

  18. Development of a dynamic energy budget modeling approach to investigate the effects of temperature and resource limitation on mercury bioaccumulation in Fundulus heteroclitus-presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population survival and growth. To explore this approach, we are conducting growth and bioaccumulation studies that contrib...

  19. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, David E.; Ewers, Brent E.; Pendall, Elise; Frank, John; Kelly, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle ( D endroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi ( Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous disturbance spreads across the landscape. Water cycling may dramatically change due to increasing spatial heterogeneity from uneven mortality. Water and energy storage within trees and soils may also decrease, due to hydraulic failure and mortality caused by blue stain fungi followed by shifts in the water budget. This forest disturbance was unique in comparison to fire or timber harvesting because water fluxes were altered before significant structural change occurred to the canopy. We investigated the impacts of bark beetles on lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta) stand and ecosystem level hydrologic processes and the resulting vertical and horizontal spatial variability in energy storage. Bark beetle-impacted stands had on average 57 % higher soil moisture, 1.5 °C higher soil temperature, and 0.8 °C higher tree bole temperature over four growing seasons compared to unimpacted stands. Seasonal latent heat flux was highly correlated with soil moisture. Thus, high mortality levels led to an increase in ecosystem level Bowen ratio as sensible heat fluxes increased yearly and latent heat fluxes varied with soil moisture levels. Decline in canopy biomass (leaf, stem, and branch) was not seen, but ground-to-atmosphere longwave radiation flux increased, as the ground surface was a larger component of the longwave radiation. Variability in soil, latent, and sensible heat flux and radiation measurements increased during the disturbance. Accounting for stand level variability in water and energy fluxes will provide a method to quantify potential drivers of ecosystem processes and services as well as lead to greater

  20. Assessing Hydrological and Energy Budgets in Amazonia through Regional Downscaling, and Comparisons with Global Reanalysis Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although current global reanalyses provide reasonably accurate large-scale features of the atmosphere, systematic errors are still found in the hydrological and energy budgets of such products. In the tropics, precipitation is particularly challenging to model, which is also adversely affected by the scarcity of hydrometeorological datasets in the region. With the goal of producing downscaled analyses that are appropriate for a climate assessment at regional scales, a regional spectral model has used a combination of precipitation assimilation with scale-selective bias correction. The latter is similar to the spectral nudging technique, which prevents the departure of the regional model's internal states from the large-scale forcing. The target area in this study is the Amazon region, where large errors are detected in reanalysis precipitation. To generate the downscaled analysis, the regional climate model used NCEP/DOE R2 global reanalysis as the initial and lateral boundary conditions, and assimilated NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) MORPHed precipitation (CMORPH), available at 0.25-degree resolution, every 3 hours. The regional model's precipitation was successfully brought closer to the observations, in comparison to the NCEP global reanalysis products, as a result of the impact of a precipitation assimilation scheme on cumulus-convection parameterization, and improved boundary forcing achieved through a new version of scale-selective bias correction. Water and energy budget terms were also evaluated against global reanalyses and other datasets.

  1. Dynamical influence of gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains in Antarctica: radar observations, fine-scale modelling and kinetic energy budget analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Arnault

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains (in western Droning Maud Land, Antarctica, southwest of the Finnish/Swedish Aboa/Wasa station have been observed with the Moveable atmospheric radar for Antarctica (MARA during the SWEDish Antarctic Research Programme (SWEDARP in December 2007/January 2008. These radar observations are compared with a 2-month Weather Research Forecast (WRF model experiment operated at 2 km horizontal resolution. A control simulation without orography is also operated in order to separate unambiguously the contribution of the mountain waves on the simulated atmospheric flow. This contribution is then quantified with a kinetic energy budget analysis computed in the two simulations. The results of this study confirm that mountain waves reaching lower-stratospheric heights break through convective overturning and generate inertia gravity waves with a smaller vertical wavelength, in association with a brief depletion of kinetic energy through frictional dissipation and negative vertical advection. The kinetic energy budget also shows that gravity waves have a strong influence on the other terms of the budget, i.e. horizontal advection and horizontal work of pressure forces, so evaluating the influence of gravity waves on the mean-flow with the vertical advection term alone is not sufficient, at least in this case. We finally obtain that gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains reaching lower stratospheric heights generally deplete (create kinetic energy in the lower troposphere (upper troposphere–lower stratosphere, in contradiction with the usual decelerating effect attributed to gravity waves on the zonal circulation in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere.

  2. Entropy budget of the earth,atmosphere and ocean system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Zijun; YAN Youfangand; QI Yiquan

    2004-01-01

    The energy budget in the system of the earth, atmosphere and ocean conforms to the first law of thermodynamics, namely the law of conservation of energy, and it is balanced when the system is in a steady-state condition. However, the entropy budget following the second law of thermodynamics is unbalanced. In this paper, we deduce the expressions of entropy flux and re-estimate the earth, atmosphere and ocean annual mean entropy budget with the updated climatologically global mean energy budget and the climatologically air-sea flux data. The calculated results show that the earth system obtains a net influx of negative entropy (-1179.3 mWm-2K-1) from its surroundings, and the atmosphere and the ocean systems obtain a net input of negative entropy at about -537.4 mWm-2K-1 and -555.6 mWm-2K-1, respectively. Calculations of the entropy budget can provide some guidance for further understanding the spatial-temporal change of the local entropy flux, and the entropy production resulting from all kinds of irreversible processes inside these systems.

  3. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs - FY 2008 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs. Benefits for the FY 2008 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2008-2030) and long term (2030-2050).

  4. Basin-scale assessment of the land surface energy budget in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational and research NLDAS-2 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youlong; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Ek, Michael B.; Kumar, Sujay; Mocko, David; Wei, Helin

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the annual and monthly components of the simulated energy budget from the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) with reference products over the domains of the 12 River Forecast Centers (RFCs) of the continental United States (CONUS). The simulations are calculated from both operational and research versions of NLDAS-2. The reference radiation components are obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Surface Radiation Budget product. The reference sensible and latent heat fluxes are obtained from a multitree ensemble method applied to gridded FLUXNET data from the Max Planck Institute, Germany. As these references are obtained from different data sources, they cannot fully close the energy budget, although the range of closure error is less than 15% for mean annual results. The analysis here demonstrates the usefulness of basin-scale surface energy budget analysis for evaluating model skill and deficiencies. The operational (i.e., Noah, Mosaic, and VIC) and research (i.e., Noah-I and VIC4.0.5) NLDAS-2 land surface models exhibit similarities and differences in depicting basin-averaged energy components. For example, the energy components of the five models have similar seasonal cycles, but with different magnitudes. Generally, Noah and VIC overestimate (underestimate) sensible (latent) heat flux over several RFCs of the eastern CONUS. In contrast, Mosaic underestimates (overestimates) sensible (latent) heat flux over almost all 12 RFCs. The research Noah-I and VIC4.0.5 versions show moderate-to-large improvements (basin and model dependent) relative to their operational versions, which indicates likely pathways for future improvements in the operational NLDAS-2 system.

  5. Basin-Scale Assessment of the Land Surface Energy Budget in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Operational and Research NLDAS-2 Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youlong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Ek, Michael B.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Mocko, David M.; Wei, Helin

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the annual and monthly components of the simulated energy budget from the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) with reference products over the domains of the 12 River Forecast Centers (RFCs) of the continental United States (CONUS). The simulations are calculated from both operational and research versions of NLDAS-2. The reference radiation components are obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Surface Radiation Budget product. The reference sensible and latent heat fluxes are obtained from a multitree ensemble method applied to gridded FLUXNET data from the Max Planck Institute, Germany. As these references are obtained from different data sources, they cannot fully close the energy budget, although the range of closure error is less than 15%formean annual results. The analysis here demonstrates the usefulness of basin-scale surface energy budget analysis for evaluating model skill and deficiencies. The operational (i.e., Noah, Mosaic, and VIC) and research (i.e., Noah-I and VIC4.0.5) NLDAS-2 land surface models exhibit similarities and differences in depicting basin-averaged energy components. For example, the energy components of the five models have similar seasonal cycles, but with different magnitudes. Generally, Noah and VIC overestimate (underestimate) sensible (latent) heat flux over several RFCs of the eastern CONUS. In contrast, Mosaic underestimates (overestimates) sensible (latent) heat flux over almost all 12 RFCs. The research Noah-I and VIC4.0.5 versions show moderate-to-large improvements (basin and model dependent) relative to their operational versions, which indicates likely pathways for future improvements in the operational NLDAS-2 system.

  6. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  7. Nuclear budget up 9.6% for fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    After reviewing the overall governmental budgets for fiscal 1981 including energy budget, the nuclear budget for the Science and Technology Agency and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is described. The 1981 nuclear budget amounts to 178,013 million yen in general account, 4.2% increase over the previous year; and 93,237 million yen, increase of 17.3%, in the special account for power source development. The total is 271,250 million yen. For the STA, budgetary allocations were made for researches on nuclear power safety, a multi-purpose high temperature gas-cooled reactor and nuclear fusion in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, developments of FBR and ATR and nuclear fuel cycle in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and so on. For the MITI, allocations were made for nuclear plant safety, nuclear fuel cycle, and others. (Mori, K.)

  8. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative...

  9. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  10. Budget projections - 1991 through 1996 for research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This research program in high energy physics is carried out under the general supervision of a committee which is composed of G.W. Brandenburg, G.J. Feldman, M.E. Franklin, R.J. Glauber, K. Kinoshita, F.M. Pipkin, K. Strauch, R. Wilson, and H. Yamamoto. Professor G.J. Feldman currently serves as chair of this committee. Dr. Brandenburg is the Director of the High Energy Physics Laboratory and administers the DOE high energy physics contract. In the fall of 1991 S. Mishra will join this committee. Harvard is planning to make one or two additional senior faculty appointments in experimental high energy physics over the next two years. The principal goals of the work described here are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. Harvard's educational efforts are concentrated in graduate education, where they are currently supporting thirteen research students. In addition, undergraduate students work in projects at HEPL during the academic year and over summers. These budget projections cover all of the Harvard based high energy physics experimental activities. The open-quotes umbrellaclose quotes nature of this contract greatly simplifies support of essential central technical and computer services and helps the group to take advantage of new physics opportunities and to respond to unexpected needs. The funding for the operation of the HEPL facility is shared proportionally by the experimental groups. Harvard financially supports this high energy physics research program in many ways

  11. Between Bedside and Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.T. Blank; E. Eggink

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Tussen bed en budget. The report Between bedside and budget (Tussen bed en budget) describes an extensive empirical study of the efficiency of general and university hospitals in the Netherlands. A policy summary recaps the main findings of the study. Those findings

  12. The Impact of Internal Wave Seasonality on the Continental Shelf Energy Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihsgott, Juliane U.; Sharples, Jonathan; Hopkins, Joanne; Palmer, Matthew R.; Mattias Green, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Heating-stirring models are widely used to simulate the timing and strength of stratification in continental shelf environments. Such models are based on bulk potential energy (PE) budgets: the loss of PE due to thermal stratification is balanced by wind and tidal mixing. The model often fails to accurately predict the observed vertical structure, as it only considers forces acting on the surface and bottom boundary of the water column. This highlights the need for additional internal energy sources to close this budget, and produce an accurate seasonal cycle of stratification. We present new results that test the impact of boundary layer and internal wave forcing on stratification and vertical density structure in continental shelves. A new series of continuous measurements of full water depth vertical structure, dynamics and meteorological data spanning 17 months (March'14-July'15) provide unprecedented coverage over a full seasonal cycle at a station 120 km north-east from the continental shelf break. We observe a highly variable but energetic internal wave field from the onset of stratification that suggests a continuous supply of internal PE. The heating-stirring model reproduces bulk characteristics of the seasonal cycle. While it accurately predicts the timing of the onset in spring and peak stratification in late summer there is a persistent 20 J m-3 positive offset between the model and observations throughout this period. By including a source of internal energy in the model we improve the prediction for the strength of stratification and the vertical distribution of heat. Yet a constant source of PE seems to result in a seasonal discrepancy resulting in too little mixing during strong stratification and too much mixing during transient periods. The discrepancy seen in the model is consistent with the seasonality observed in the internal wave field. We will establish the role that changing stratification (N2) exerts on the internal wave field and vice

  13. Zero-Based Budgeting: Application to Chicano Studies at a Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pete R.

    Enrollment trends and zero-based budgeting techniques are employed to justify continued support of Rio Hondo College's Mexican American Cultural Institute. After introductory material discussing the usefulness of zero-based budgeting in assuring fiscal accountability, the report identifies three Chicano Studies alternatives: an Associate of Arts…

  14. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    2018-01-01

    The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.

  15. Nuclear-related budget for fiscal 1982 increased by 7.1 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In the budget draft for fiscal 1982, highest priority is given to the cost of energy countermeasures, and 563,200 million yen is earmarked, which is 13.2 % increase as compared with the budget for 1981. Emphasis is placed on the stable supply of oil and the development of the alternative sources of energy. The main pillar of the measures for alternative energy sources is nuclear power development. 290,448 million yen is allocated to the nuclearrelated budget, which is 7.1 % increase as compared with that for 1981. Besides, in order to develop overseas uranium resources and to promote nuclear fuel cycle industries and the domestic production of nuclear power equipments, the fiscal loans and investments of 159,000 million yen are available. The budget draft for the nuclear power development in the Science and Technology Agency is 243,038 million yen, which amounts to 83.7 % of the nuclear-related budget mentioned above. The budget for the STA is roughly classified into the expansion and reinforcement of nuclear safety measures, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, the development of advenced power reactors, the R and D on nuclear fusion and HTGRs, the R and D on nuclear ships, the smooth siting of nuclear facilities, etc. (Kako, I.)

  16. Seasonal Evaporation and Surface Energy Budget Estimation Across an Arid Agricultural Region in Saudi Arabia: Quantifying Groundwater Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, B.; Huang, D.; Houborg, R.; Dasari, H. P.; Hoteit, I.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    In arid-land agricultural environments, knowledge of the water and energy budget is critical in order to sustainably manage the allocation and use of water resources. Using long-term weather reanalysis data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and a time-series record of Landsat 8 imagery, we apply the Priestly-Taylor Jet Propulsion Lab (PT-JPL) model to estimate the energy budget over the Al Jawf agricultural region in the north of Saudi Arabia. This zone generates a significant proportion of the agricultural production in Saudi Arabia and consumes an important fraction of the non-renewable water resources. This research contributes towards efforts seeking to quantify the precise amount of water that is used in agriculture - a difficult variable given that the overwhelming majority of supply comes from groundwater extraction. Results of this research can be used to improve crop management and to mitigate aquifer over-exploitation by monitoring the indiscriminate use of water and establishing bounds around the rates of groundwater withdrawal.

  17. Using energy budgets to combine ecology and toxicology in a mammalian sentinel species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W.; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2017-04-01

    Process-driven modelling approaches can resolve many of the shortcomings of traditional descriptive and non-mechanistic toxicology. We developed a simple dynamic energy budget (DEB) model for the mink (Mustela vison), a sentinel species in mammalian toxicology, which coupled animal physiology, ecology and toxicology, in order to mechanistically investigate the accumulation and adverse effects of lifelong dietary exposure to persistent environmental toxicants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our novel mammalian DEB model accurately predicted, based on energy allocations to the interconnected metabolic processes of growth, development, maintenance and reproduction, lifelong patterns in mink growth, reproductive performance and dietary accumulation of PCBs as reported in the literature. Our model results were consistent with empirical data from captive and free-ranging studies in mink and other wildlife and suggest that PCB exposure can have significant population-level impacts resulting from targeted effects on fetal toxicity, kit mortality and growth and development. Our approach provides a simple and cross-species framework to explore the mechanistic interactions of physiological processes and ecotoxicology, thus allowing for a deeper understanding and interpretation of stressor-induced adverse effects at all levels of biological organization.

  18. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    OpenAIRE

    Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Van Der Veer, Henk; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years’ project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs ...

  19. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  20. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udeh Francis Nnoli; Sopekan Sam Adeyemi; Oraka Azubuike Onuora

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and ...

  1. Using dynamic energy budget modeling to predict the influence of temperature and food density on the effect of Cu on earthworm mediated litter consumption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the dependence on temperature and food density of effects of Cu on the litter consumption by the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, using a dynamic energy budget model (DEB-model). As a measure of the effects of Cu on food consumption, EC50s (soil concentrations

  2. A Study on the Development of Building Energy Analysis Program and the Establishment of BEPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, S.R.; Kwon, K.J.; Yoo, Y.H.; Cho, Y.K.; Kijm, Y.D.; Han, S.W. [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, M.H.; Kim, K.W.; Cho, K.H.; Lee, H.W.; Lee, Y.H.; Kim, S.J.; Song, K.S.; Heon, C.T.; Choi, J.M.; Kim, Y.I.; Suk, H.T.; Kang, J.S.; Kim, Y.D.; Kang, K.T.; Lee, J.E.; Kwark, H.S. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    The amount of energy consumption in building covers the 30% of the total energy consumption and that of electricity is much the same. Because of the improvement of the living quality, energy consumption in building part is increasing and the rate is much higher than that of other parts. So, KEPCO, one of the major domestic energy suppliers and consumers, needs to develop reliable computerized building energy analysis program and to establish building energy performance standards for the reasonable energy management and the efficient execution of energy budget and the improvement of working condition of the corp`s buildings. So the study aims to the development of computerized building energy analysis program, and the establishment energy budget level and building energy performance standards for the corp`s buildings.

  3. Kinetic energy budget for electroconvective flows near ion selective membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Karen; Mani, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Electroconvection occurs when ions are driven from a bulk fluid through an ion-selective surface. When the driving voltage is beyond a threshold, this process undergoes a hydrodynamic instability called electroconvection, which can become chaotic due to nonlinear coupling between ion-transport, fluid flow, and electrostatic forces. Electroconvection significantly enhances ion transport and plays an important role in a wide range of electrochemical applications. We investigate this phenomenon by considering a canonical geometry consisting of a symmetric binary electrolyte between an ion-selective membrane and a reservoir using 2D direct numerical simulation (DNS). Our simulations reveal that for most practical regimes, DNS of electroconvection is expensive. Thus, a plan towards development of reduced-order models is necessary to facilitate the adoption of analysis of this phenomenon in industry. Here we use DNS to analyze the kinetic energy budget to shed light into the mechanisms sustaining flow and mixing in electroconvective flows. Our analysis reveals the relative dominance of kinetic energy sources, dissipation, and transport mechanisms sustaining electroconvection at different distances from the interface and over a wide range of input parameters. Karen Wang was supported by the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG). Ali Mani was supported by the National Science Foundation Award.

  4. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  5. Teaching the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit: Findings from High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Ahn, Meesuk; Crocco, Margaret Smith; Grolnick, Maureen; Gaudelli, William; Walker, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    The issues surrounding the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit are complex, but not beyond the reach of young students. This study finds scant treatment of the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in high schools today. It is hardly surprising that high school teachers spend so little time discussing these topics in…

  6. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  7. Comparative energetics of the 5 fish classes on the basis of dynamic energy budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The eco-physiology of taxa in an evolutionary context can best be studied by a comparison of parameter values of the energy budget that accounts for the inter-relationships of all endpoints of energy allocation. To this end, the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model have been estimated for 64 fish species from all 5 fish classes. The values are compared with those of the whole collection of over 300 species from most large animal phyla. The goodness of fit was very high, but the data were rather incomplete, compared with the energy balance for full life cycles. Metabolic acceleration, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis, seems to be confined, among fish, to some species of ray-finned fish and seems to have evolved independently several times in this taxon. We introduce a new altriciality index, i.e. the ratio of the maturity levels at puberty and birth, and conclude that ray-finned fish are more altricial, and cartilaginous fish are more precocial than typical animals. Fish allocate more to reproduction than typical animals. Parameter estimates show that 66% of the fish species considered invest less in reproduction than the value that would maximize the reproduction rate of fully grown individuals. By comparison, 85% of all the animal species in the collection do so. Consistent with theoretical expectations, allocation to reproduction and maturity at birth increase with cubed (ultimate structural) length, and reserve capacity with length for non-ray-finned fish, with the consequence that reproduction rate decreases with length. Ray-finned fish, however, have a maturity at birth and a reserve capacity almost independent of length, and a reproduction rate that increases with cubed length. Reserve capacity tends to increase with ultimate length for non-accelerating ray-finned fish, but not for accelerating species. Reproduction rate decreases inter

  8. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alunno-Bruscia, M.; v.d. Veer, H.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5. years' project,

  9. Scalar energy fluctuations in Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent flames: Statistical budgets and mesh quality criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervisch, Luc; Domingo, Pascale; Lodato, Guido [CORIA - CNRS and INSA de Rouen, Technopole du Madrillet, BP 8, 76801 Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray (France); Veynante, Denis [EM2C - CNRS and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2010-04-15

    Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) provides space-filtered quantities to compare with measurements, which usually have been obtained using a different filtering operation; hence, numerical and experimental results can be examined side-by-side in a statistical sense only. Instantaneous, space-filtered and statistically time-averaged signals feature different characteristic length-scales, which can be combined in dimensionless ratios. From two canonical manufactured turbulent solutions, a turbulent flame and a passive scalar turbulent mixing layer, the critical values of these ratios under which measured and computed variances (resolved plus sub-grid scale) can be compared without resorting to additional residual terms are first determined. It is shown that actual Direct Numerical Simulation can hardly accommodate a sufficiently large range of length-scales to perform statistical studies of LES filtered reactive scalar-fields energy budget based on sub-grid scale variances; an estimation of the minimum Reynolds number allowing for such DNS studies is given. From these developments, a reliability mesh criterion emerges for scalar LES and scaling for scalar sub-grid scale energy is discussed. (author)

  10. EXPENSES FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FROM LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we propose to analyze and deepen significant categories of costs funded from the local budgets, namely the expenditure for economic activities. Our scientific approach begins with determining the place occupied by such expenses in local public expenditure by specifying their content and role. The center of gravity of the study is to treat and deepen the three subgroups of expenses that we consider representative: "The expenses for production, transportation, distribution and supply of heat in a centralized system", "Transport Costs" and Expenditure for agriculture and forestry ". The reaserch is based on the quantitative analysis of the expenses for economic actions, in local budgets, based on the existing data from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the structure of this type of expenses as well as the place they hold in the expediture of local budgets.The study includes an analysis of the dynamics of the share held by economic costs within total expenses from local budgets. From the reaserch carried out, it is shown that the evolution and structure of the expenditures for economic actions from local budgets is determined by the action of certain economical and social factors that vary from one administrative teritorial unit to another: the ray of economical develpoment of the administrative ter itorial unit, urbanization, the number and social structure of the population. The reaserch shows that in the field of expenses for economic actions, the largest share is held by expenditures for transportation (almost 80%, far away from the expenses for fuel and energy (13,66%. During the 1999-2013 the dynamic of expenses for economical actions in the total of expenditures of local budgets, is sinusoidal due to the intervention of certain legislative changes.

  11. A CBO Study: The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holtz-Eakin, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit to the Committees on the Budget periodic reports about fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  12. Building Technologies Program Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    Details about BTP's budget request for FY2012. BTP’s FY 2012 activities reflect a significant shift by EERE in budget development of incorporating analytically based integrated planning, review, and performance assessment of its programs. BTP’s FY 2012 portfolio will achieve rapid gains in the efficient use of buildings energy through a balanced set of strategies.

  13. A New Approach in Public Budgeting: Citizens' Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Change and transformation in the understanding and definition of citizenship has led to the emergence of citizen-oriented public service approach. This approach also raised a new term and concept in the field of public budgeting because of the transformation in the processes of public budgeting: citizens' budget. The citizens' budget which seeks…

  14. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  15. Arctic energy budget in relation to sea-ice variability on monthly to annual time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, Folmer; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-04-01

    The strong decrease in Arctic sea-ice in recent years has triggered a strong interest in Arctic sea-ice predictions on seasonal to decadal time scales. Hence, it is key to understand physical processes that provide enhanced predictability beyond persistence of sea ice anomalies. The authors report on an analysis of natural variability of Arctic sea-ice from an energy budget perspective, using 15 CMIP5 climate models, and comparing these results to atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses data. We quantify the persistence of sea ice anomalies and the cross-correlation with the surface and top energy budget components. The Arctic energy balance components primarily indicate the important role of the seasonal sea-ice albedo feedback, in which sea-ice anomalies in the melt season reemerge in the growth season. This is a robust anomaly reemergence mechanism among all 15 climate models. The role of ocean lies mainly in storing heat content anomalies in spring, and releasing them in autumn. Ocean heat flux variations only play a minor role. The role of clouds is further investigated. We demonstrate that there is no direct atmospheric response of clouds to spring sea-ice anomalies, but a delayed response is evident in autumn. Hence, there is no cloud-ice feedback in late spring and summer, but there is a cloud-ice feedback in autumn, which strengthens the ice-albedo feedback. Anomalies in insolation are positively correlated with sea-ice variability. This is primarily a result of reduced multiple-reflection of insolation due to an albedo decrease. This effect counteracts the sea-ice albedo effect up to 50%. ERA-Interim and ORAS4 confirm the main findings from the climate models.

  16. Single-wave-number representation of nonlinear energy spectrum in elastic-wave turbulence of the Föppl-von Kármán equation: energy decomposition analysis and energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode a(k) and its companion mode a(-k) is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

  17. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...

  18. Fiscal 1993 U.S. Science Budget request released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan; Simarski, Lynn Teo; DeVito, M. Catherine

    1992-02-01

    DOE's proposed budget for fiscal 1993 is $19.4 billion, almost level with fiscal 1992's $19 billion. Of that, $5.5 billion is targeted for environmental cleanup at DOE facilities, an increase of $1.16 billion. DOE's portion of research and development related to the National Energy Strategy is $725 million, up 16% from 1992. Funding for defense activities is down 9% to $7.5 billion from $8.3 billion.According to DOE Secretary James D. Watkins, “Congressional enactment of a comprehensive and balanced legislative package is needed to implement fully the president's National Energy Strategy.” As such, there are provisions in the fiscal 1993 DOE budget for advanced energy technology R&D to reduce energy consumption, increase fuel flexibility, and improve U.S. competitiveness in world markets.

  19. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget Materials > Budget1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations banner DoD Budget Request 2019 | 2018 | 2017 |2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 President's Budget request for the Department of Defense sustains the President's commitment to invest in

  20. PERAN BUDGET EMPHASIS DALAM MEMODERASI HUBUNGAN PARTISIPASI ANGGARAN TERHADAP SENJANGAN DAN KINERJA MANAJERIAL (Studi Pada 30 SKPD Kota Ternate)

    OpenAIRE

    Suleman H. A. Kahar; Asrudin Hormati

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to empirically test the effect of budgetary participation on budgetary slack and managerial performance. The study aims to empirically examines whether budget emphasis moderates budget participation on budget slack and managerial performance of Municipality Government of Ternate. Using moderated regression analysis, this study found that, 1) budgetary participation negatively affect budgetary slack 2) budget participation influences managerial performance and 3) budget emphasi...

  1. PERAN BUDGET EMPHASIS DALAM MEMODERASI HUBUNGAN PARTISIPASI ANGGARAN TERHADAP SENJANGAN DAN KINERJA MANAJERIAL (Studi Pada 30 SKPD Kota Ternate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleman H. A. Kahar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to empirically test the effect of budgetary participation on budgetary slack and managerial performance. The study aims to empirically examines whether budget emphasis moderates budget participation on budget slack and managerial performance of Municipality Government of Ternate. Using moderated regression analysis, this study found that, 1 budgetary participation negatively affect budgetary slack 2 budget participation influences managerial performance and 3 budget emphasis moderates the relationship between budget participation on budgetary slack and managerial performance. The theoretical implications of this study indicate that agency and contingency theory could be used as a complement to a more effective budget participation process by integrating the expected performance measurement framework.

  2. Heat and turbulent kinetic energy budgets for surface layer cooling induced by the passage of Hurricane Frances (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peisheng; Sanford, Thomas B.; Imberger, JöRg

    2009-12-01

    Heat and turbulent kinetic energy budgets of the ocean surface layer during the passage of Hurricane Frances were examined using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. In situ data obtained with the Electromagnetic-Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats were used to set up the initial conditions of the model simulation and to compare to the simulation results. The spatial heat budgets reveal that during the hurricane passage, not only the entrainment in the bottom of surface mixed layer but also the horizontal water advection were important factors determining the spatial pattern of sea surface temperature. At the free surface, the hurricane-brought precipitation contributed a negligible amount to the air-sea heat exchange, but the precipitation produced a negative buoyancy flux in the surface layer that overwhelmed the instability induced by the heat loss to the atmosphere. Integrated over the domain within 400 km of the hurricane eye on day 245.71 of 2004, the rate of heat anomaly in the surface water was estimated to be about 0.45 PW (1 PW = 1015 W), with about 20% (0.09 PW in total) of this was due to the heat exchange at the air-sea interface, and almost all the remainder (0.36 PW) was downward transported by oceanic vertical mixing. Shear production was the major source of turbulent kinetic energy amounting 88.5% of the source of turbulent kinetic energy, while the rest (11.5%) was attributed to the wind stirring at sea surface. The increase of ocean potential energy due to vertical mixing represented 7.3% of the energy deposited by wind stress.

  3. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  4. Analysis of Water and Energy Budgets and Trends Using the NLDAS Monthly Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Bruce E.; Rui, Hualan; Mocko, David M.; Teng, William L.; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2012-01-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is a collaborative project between NASA GSFC, NOAA, Princeton University, and the University of Washington. NLDAS has created surface meteorological forcing data sets using the best-available observations and reanalyses. The forcing data sets are used to drive four separate land-surface models (LSMs), Mosaic, Noah, VIC, and SAC, to produce data sets of soil moisture, snow, runoff, and surface fluxes. NLDAS hourly data, accessible from the NASA GES DISC Hydrology Data Holdings Portal, http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology/data-holdings, are widely used by various user communities in modeling, research, and applications, such as drought and flood monitoring, watershed and water quality management, and case studies of extreme events. More information is available at http://ldas.gsfc.nasa.gov/. To further facilitate analysis of water and energy budgets and trends, NLDAS monthly data sets have been recently released by NASA GES DISC.

  5. Fiscal 1990 draft nuclear budget up 2.0 % to 395.5 bil. yen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese Government on December 29 approved a yen66.27 trillion general account draft budget for fiscal 1990, up 9.7% on fiscal '89, which will soon be sent to the Diet. The nuclear energy related draft budget in the general account is yen179.8 billion, covering expenditures on the implementation of various measures and actions relating to nuclear energy by ministerial agencies. Of the draft special account for power resources development for fiscal 1990, the nuclear power related budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and the Science and Technology Agency is yen215.7 billion. The total amount of the nuclear energy budget in the two accounts is yen395.5 billion, up 2.0%. By Ministries, the Science and Technology Agency, having jurisdiction over the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., the National Institute of Radiological Sciencies and other institutions, is alloted yen296.2 billion, up 5.2%. The draft nuclear related budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, governing commercial nuclear power programs, is yen94.8 billion, down 6.7%. The other ministries are allocated yen4.5 billion, down 2.5%. (N.K.)

  6. Budget institutions and taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    While a number of different studies have explored the effects of budgetary procedures and the centralization of the budget process on government debt, deficits and spending, few of them have explored whether such fiscal institutions matter for public revenue. This article argues that centralizing...... the budget process raises the levels of taxation by limiting the ability of individual government officials to veto tax increases in line with common-pool-problem arguments regarding public finances. Using detailed data on budgetary procedures from 15 EU countries, the empirical analysis shows that greater...... centralization of the budget process increases taxation as a share of GDP and that both the type of budget centralization and level of government fractionalization matter for the size of this effect. The results suggest that further centralizing the budget process limits government debt and deficits...

  7. Reconstructing the eruption magnitude and energy budgets for the pre-historic eruption of the monogenetic ˜5 ka Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Otterloo, Jozua; Cas, Raymond A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding explosive volcanic eruptions, especially phreatomagmatic eruptions, their intensities and energy budgets is of major importance when it comes to risk and hazard studies. With only a few historic occurrences of phreatomagmatic activity, a large amount of our understanding comes from the study of pre-historic volcanic centres, which causes issues when it comes to preservation and vegetation. In this research, we show that using 3D geometrical modelling it is possible to obtain volume estimates for different deposits of a pre-historic, complex, monogenetic centre, the Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia. Using these volumes, we further explore the energy budgets and the magnitude of this eruption (VEI 4), including dispersal patterns (eruption columns varying between 5 and 10 km, dispersed towards north-east to south), to further our understanding of intraplate, monogenetic eruptions involving phreatomagmatic activity. We also compare which thermodynamic model fits best in the creation of the maar crater of Mt. Gambier: the major-explosion-dominated model or the incremental growth model. In this case, the formation of most of the craters can best be explained by the latter model.

  8. The Budget as a Management Tool: Zero Base Budgeting, Panacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has been experiencing difficulties in Budget implementation. The objective of this article is to present alternative forms of budgeting and after exposition on them, to recommend one that could mitigate budget implementation problem for Nigeria. Two types of budgeting addressed are incremental and zero-base.

  9. Energy budgets of mining-induced earthquakes and their interactions with nearby stopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1960's, N.G.W. Cook, using an underground network of geophones, demonstrated that most Witwatersrand tremors are closely associated with deep level gold mining operations. He also showed that the energy released by the closure of the tabular stopes at depths of the order of 2 km was more than sufficient to account for the mining-induced earthquakes. I report here updated versions of these two results based on more modern underground data acquired in the Witwatersrand gold fields. Firstly, an extensive suite of in situ stress data indicate that the ambient state of crustal stress here is close to the failure state in the absence of mining even though the tectonic setting is thoroughly stable. Mining initially stabilizes the rock mass by reducing the pore fluid pressure from its initial hydrostatic state to nearly zero. The extensive mine excavations, as Cook showed, concentrate the deviatoric stresses, in localized regions of the abutments, back into a failure state resulting in seismicity. Secondly, there appears to be two distinct types of mining-induced earthquakes: the first is strongly coupled to the mining and involves shear failure plus a coseismic volume reduction; the second type is not evidently coupled to any particular mine face, shows purely deviatoric failure, and is presumably caused by more regional changes in the state of stress due to mining. Thirdly, energy budgets for mining induced earthquakes of both types indicate that, of the available released energy, only a few per cent is radiated by the seismic waves with the majority being consumed in overcoming fault friction. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.In the early 1960's, N.G.W. Cook, using an underground network of geophones, demonstrated that most Witwatersrand tremors are closely associated with deep level gold mining operations. He also showed that the energy released by the closure of the tabular stopes at depths of the order of 2 km was more than sufficient to account for the

  10. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  11. A comparison of community and trophic structure in five marine ecosystems based on energy budgets and system metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaichas, Sarah; Skaret, Georg; Falk-Petersen, Jannike; Link, Jason S.; Overholtz, William; Megrey, Bernard A.; Gjøsæter, Harald; Stockhausen, William T.; Dommasnes, Are; Friedland, Kevin D.; Aydin, Kerim

    2009-04-01

    Energy budget models for five marine ecosystems were compared to identify differences and similarities in trophic and community structure. We examined the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the combined Norwegian/Barents Seas in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, and the eastern Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Comparable energy budgets were constructed for each ecosystem by aggregating information for similar species groups into consistent functional groups. Several ecosystem indices (e.g., functional group production, consumption and biomass ratios, cumulative biomass, food web macrodescriptors, and network metrics) were compared for each ecosystem. The comparative approach clearly identified data gaps for each ecosystem, an important outcome of this work. Commonalities across the ecosystems included overall high primary production and energy flow at low trophic levels, high production and consumption by carnivorous zooplankton, and similar proportions of apex predator to lower trophic level biomass. Major differences included distinct biomass ratios of pelagic to demersal fish, ranging from highest in the combined Norwegian/Barents ecosystem to lowest in the Alaskan systems, and notable differences in primary production per unit area, highest in the Alaskan and Georges Bank/Gulf of Maine ecosystems, and lowest in the Norwegian ecosystems. While comparing a disparate group of organisms across a wide range of marine ecosystems is challenging, this work demonstrates that standardized metrics both elucidate properties common to marine ecosystems and identify key distinctions useful for fisheries management.

  12. Budget projections 1990, 1991, and 1992 for research in high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    Research programs in experimental high energy physics are carried out at Harvard under the general supervision of a departmental faculty committee on high energy physics. The committee members are: G.W. Brandenburg, M. Franklin, S. Geer, R. J. Glauber, K. Kinoshita, F. M. Pipkin, R. F. Schwitters, K. Strauch, M. E. Law, and R. Wilson. Of these individuals, Professors R.J. Glauber, F.M. Pipkin, R.F.Schwitters, K. Strauch, and R. Wilson are the principal investigators with whom a number of junior faculty members and post-doctoral research fellows are associated. Dr. Brandenburg is the Director of the High Energy Physics Laboratory and administers the DOE high energy physics contract. Professor Schwitters is currently on leave of absence as Director of the Superconducting Super Collider project. In the fall of 1990 Professor G. Feldman, who is currently at SLAC, will join the Harvard faculty and become a principal investigator. Harvard is planning to make one or two additional senior faculty appointments in experimental high energy physics over the next two years. The principal goals of the work described here are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. Harvard's educational efforts are concentrated in graduate education. These budget projections cover all of the Harvard based high energy physics experimental activities. The open-quotes umbrellaclose quotes nature of this contract greatly simplifies support of essential central technical and computer services and helps the group to take advantage of new physics opportunities and to respond to unexpected needs. The funding for the operation of the HEPL facility is shared equally by the experimental groups

  13. Is Zero-Based Budgeting Different from Planning--Programming--Budgeting Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1977-01-01

    Successful adoption of zero-base budgeting (ZBB) will be greater than that of planning-programming-budgeting-systems (PPBS) because perceived problems inherent in PPBS are largely missing in ZBB; ZBB appears to fit current school district budgeting behavior; and ZBB seems to improve communication about the need for budget reform. (Author/IRT)

  14. Backpackers Expectation and Satisfaction towards Budget Hotel: a Case Study in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad R. Albattat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Penang has been the popular cultural heritage tourism attractions in Malaysia. Penang has great potential to develop and offers its cultural and heritage products and experiences to local and foreign visitors. Georgetown is one of the most visited sites in Penang. Georgetown is awarded the UNESCO listing for its unique architecture and cultural townscape. The variety of cultures on display within the heritage area, such as Muslim, Chinese, Indian and European, is unique to Georgetown. The city is also known as Malaysia's food capital, home to multicultural distinct cuisines, cheap and delicious open-air hawker centers. Apart from that, Georgetown also offers unique and affordable budget hotels to enrich backpacker’s experiences. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the facilities and services provided by budget hotels in Georgetown. The evaluation was based on backpackers’ opinions on the importance and performance rating of the listed attributes. This study adopted the simple random sample method of data collection. About 30 questionnaires were distributed to the backpackers during weekdays and weekends. The socio-demographic data were evaluated using Frequency Analysis. The data showed the different socio-demographic, socio-economic, and trip characteristics of the backpackers. The demographic and trip characteristics data provided the information of visitor’s motivation and activity during their visit to Penang. The Importance-Performance Analysis (IP Analysis was used to evaluate the overall budget hotels’ facility and service attributes, and the final result has been translated into Importance-Performance action grid. The action grid showed all the 23 attributes of general and specific facilities, and services provided were plotted on the High Importance and Performance quadrant. Attributes plotted on the action grid showed that all of the attributes were evaluated high on importance and performance suggested that the

  15. Dynamic energy budget model: a monitoring tool for growth and reproduction performance of Mytilus galloprovincialis in Bizerte Lagoon (Southwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjaoui-Omri, Amel; Béjaoui, Béchir; Harzallah, Ali; Aloui-Béjaoui, Nejla; El Bour, Monia; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-11-01

    Mussel farming is the main economic activity in Bizerte Lagoon, with a production that fluctuates depending on environmental factors. In the present study, we apply a bioenergetic growth model to the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, based on dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory which describes energy flux variation through the different compartments of the mussel body. Thus, the present model simulates both mussel growth and sexual cycle steps according to food availability and water temperature and also the effect of climate change on mussel behavior and reproduction. The results point to good concordance between simulations and growth parameters (metric length and weight) for mussels in the lagoon. A heat wave scenario was also simulated using the DEB model, which highlighted mussel mortality periods during a period of high temperature.

  16. Idealized numerical modeling of polar mesocyclones dynamics diagnosed by energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Dennis; Stepanenko, Victor

    2014-05-01

    can be interpreted as the growth rate of the vortex) and energy conversion in the diagnostic equations for kinetic and available potential energy (APE). The energy budget equations are implemented in two forms. The first approach follows the scheme developed by Lorenz (1955) in which KE and APE are broken into a mean component and an eddy component forming a well-known energy cycle. The second method is based on the energy equations that are strictly derived from the governing equations of the numerical mesoscale model used. The latter approach, hence, takes into account all the approximations and numerical features used in the model. Some conclusions based on the comparison of the described methods are presented in the study. A series of high-resolution experiments is carried out using three-dimensional non-hydrostatic limited-area sigma-coordinate numerical model ReMeDy (Research Mesoscale Dynamics), being developed at Lomonosov Moscow State University [3]. An idealized basic state condition is used for all simulations. It is composed of the zonally oriented baroclinic zone over the sea surface partly covered with ice. To realize a baroclinic channel environment zero-gradient boundary conditions at the meridional lateral oundaries are imposed, while the zonal boundary conditions are periodic. The initialization of the mesocyclone is achieved by creating a small axis-symmetric vortex in the center of the model domain. The baroclinicity and stratification of the basic state, as well as the surface parameters, are varied in the typically observed range. References 1. Heinemann G, Øyvind S. 2013. Workshop On Polar Lows. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 94: ES123-ES126. 2. Yanase W, Niino H. 2006. Dependence of Polar Low Development on Baroclinicity and Physical Processes: An Idealized High-Resolution Experiment, J. Atmos. Sci. 64: 3044-3067. 3. Chechin DG et al. 2013. Idealized dry quasi 2-D mesoscale simulations of cold-air outbreaks over the marginal sea ice zone with fine

  17. Pengaruh Participation Budgeting, Information Asimetry dan Job Relevant Information terhadap Budget Slack pada Institusi Pendidikan (Studi pada Institusi Pendidikan Universitas Kristen Maranatha)

    OpenAIRE

    K. S., Christine Dwi; Agustina, Lidya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze and examine the hyphothesis effect of participation budgeting on job relevant information and  information asimetry as a moderating variable , and effect of participation budgeting and information asimetry on budget slack and job relevant information as mediating varible. The respondent of this research are 30 structural staf of program and ministry in Maranatha Christian University who have participated to make  budgeting. This method that...

  18. Using energy budget data to assess the most damaging life-stage of an agricultural pest Mocis latipes (Guenèe, 1982) (Lepidoptera - Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção-Albuquerque, MJT.; Peso-Aguiar, MC.; Albuquerque, FS.

    2010-01-01

    There is much evidence to support that Mocis latipes larvae (Guenèe, 1852) are the most dangerous pasture pest and usually cause large environmental losses. However, no studies have been carried out to identify the instars during which this moth causes the most damage to the environment. Here we calculate M. latipes larval energy budget to assess its consumption across all instars and estimate the consumption/amount of plant biomass required to complete its larval development. Assimilation, r...

  19. THE BUDGETING PROCESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURCIN MARIUS CATALIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stages of the budgeting process in Romania and the institutions involved in its carry out, having regard to the recent legislative amendments in the field. The study describes the importance of some state institutions in achieving the economic and social policy objectives. According to practice, the institution specializing in drafting the budget bill is the Government, who submits the budget bill annually to the Parliament for adopting the national budget, accompanied by the explanatory statement, annexes and interpretative calculations. The preparatory works are fulfilled by the Ministry of Public Finance and in parallel, by the ministries, authorities, local administrations or other public institutions to prepare their own drafts budget.

  20. National Security Mission, Members and Budgeting in the United States and Australia: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    order for the budget to be formulated and approved. The budget process is summed up by the Australian Department of Finance and Deregulation : The...91 Australian Government: Department of Finance and Deregulation , Budget Process: The Australian Budget Process...Department of Energy (DOE) Insuring the integrity and safety of the country‘s nuclear weapons; promoting international nuclear safety; advancing

  1. Developing Carbon Budgets for Cities: Phoenix as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, M. R.; Baker, L. A.; Koerner, B. A.; Grimm, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have shown that cities can alter regional carbon dynamics through changing ecosystem productivity, overall carbon cycling rate, and total carbon storage in vegetation and soils. Furthermore, people in urban regions import a large amount of carbon in food and fuel, as well as release an exceptional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify some sources and sinks of carbon in urban areas, although a complete carbon budget for a city that accounts for total inputs, outputs, and storage within the ecosystem has yet to be fully accomplished. One challenge is associated with attaining the data necessary to accurately account for all carbon dynamics in these heterogeneous and complex ecosystems. Our goal was to estimate a budget for the Phoenix metropolitan area while developing methodology to calculate carbon dynamics in urban systems that can be applied to cities across the US. Only with comparable carbon budgets for multiple cities will we finally begin to understand the influence of urbanization on carbon dynamics. Our analysis shows when calculating certain variables like transportation emissions, results can vary radically (up to 250%) depending on the data source and methodology implemented (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down). A common assumption is that productivity and carbon storage will increase with urbanization in arid systems due to water and nutrient inputs, as well as changes in vegetation structure; however, our results indicated that this may not actually be the case in Phoenix where a large number of residents design landscapes to conserve water. Even if all urban expansion was dedicated to landscapes designed for carbon sequestration and storage, vegetation and soils will unlikely have a large effect on the C budget without significant changes in transportation and lifestyle choices.

  2. The effects of awarness of social dilemmas on advertising budget setting: A scenario study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Riezebos, Rik

    2001-01-01

    In this study, which examines the dynamics involved in setting advertising budgets, the social dilemma theory was applied in an attempt to understand the interdependency problems of advertisers in their investment decisions. In an experiment, a budget decision was made for a company after a period

  3. Home - House Budget Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiatives Hearings Full Menu About Toggle Links Members History Staff Rules & Budget Law News Toggle Links Press Releases Budget Digests HBC Publications Op-Eds Speeches & Statements Budgets Toggle Links FY 2018 Budget FY 2017 Budget FY 2017 Reconciliation FY 2016 Budget FY 2016 Reconciliation FY 2015

  4. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  5. Gov'tal FY 1987 draft budget for N-energy set at 360 billion yen, up 0.8 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The governmental draft budget for nuclear energy was approved on December 30. The total provided is 360,222 million yen, an increase of 0.8 % over the previous year. This is made up of general account, 183,308 million yen (1.4 % down) and special account for power resources development (related only to nuclear power) 175,914 million yen (up 3.2 %). The amount from the general account is reduced for the first time in three years. This decrease is due mainly to completion of the energy break-even plasma testing device for nuclear fusion research. The special account primarily represents the tax for promoting power source development, a kind of special purpose tax from the electric power companies, based on generated electricity, and from this, subsidies are paid to local municipalities for promotion of siting for power sources and for the cost of survey and research on the development of oil alternative power sources. The special account for power resources development consists of the power sources siting account, 68,114 million yen (up 4.5 %) and the power sources diversification account, 108,800 million yen (up 2.4 %). Nuclear energy budgets sought by the Science and Technology Agency, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and other government agencies are shown in Table. STA and MITI have both requested slightly less than in the preceding year from the general accout, but both asked for higher amounts from the special account than in the preceding year. The high rise in the amount sougt by other agencies is attributed to the increase in the cost of eradication of melon flies. (Nogami, K.)

  6. 1985 nuclear budget requests up 12 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The estimates of government agencies for the fiscal 1985 nuclear-related budget were presented to the Ministry of Finance, which amount to 343.76 billion yen (up 12.1 %). The budgetary requests by the Science and Technology Agency are 179.24 billion yen in the general account and 90.21 billion yen in the special account for power resource development, and the budgetary requests by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry are 1.03 billion yen and 70.08 billion yen, respectively. The budget demands by the STA, which supervises Power Reactors and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, etc. are for the continuation of current projects, including the beginning of the construction of the prototype FBR Monju and the neutral beam injector for the fusion device JT-60. The budget demands by MITI are similarly for the safety measures and verification tests for nuclear power generation. (Mori, K.)

  7. California Budget Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  8. Using energy budget data to assess the most damaging life-stage of an agricultural pest Mocis latipes (Guenèe, 1982) (Lepidoptera - Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, M. J. T. Assunção; Aguiar, M. C. Peso; Albuquerque, F. S.

    2010-01-01

    p.459-463 There is much evidence to support that Mocis latipes larvae (Guenèe, 1852) are the most dangerous pasture pest and usually cause large environmental losses. However, no studies have been carried out to identify the instars during which this moth causes the most damage to the environment. Here we calculate M. latipes larval energy budget to assess its consumption across all instars and estimate the consumption/amount of plant biomass required to complete its larval development. As...

  9. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  10. Earth Radiation Budget Research at the NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. Louis; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    In the 1970s research studies concentrating on satellite measurements of Earth's radiation budget started at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that beginning, considerable effort has been devoted to developing measurement techniques, data analysis methods, and time-space sampling strategies to meet the radiation budget science requirements for climate studies. Implementation and success of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) was due to the remarkable teamwork of many engineers, scientists, and data analysts. Data from ERBE have provided a new understanding of the effects of clouds, aerosols, and El Nino/La Nina oscillation on the Earth's radiation. CERES spacecraft instruments have extended the time coverage with high quality climate data records for over a decade. Using ERBE and CERES measurements these teams have created information about radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and throughout the atmosphere for a better understanding of our climate. They have also generated surface radiation products for designers of solar power plants and buildings and numerous other applications

  11. Budgeting for School Media Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, M. Carl

    1978-01-01

    Describes various forms of budgets and discusses concepts in budgeting useful to supervisors of school media centers: line item budgets, capital budgets, creating budgets, the budget calendar, innovations, PPBS (Planning, Programing, Budgeting System), zero-based budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, benefits, benefit guidelines, and budgeting for the…

  12. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... this critique as well as the current status of the traditional annual budget in a contingency perspective by using data from a survey among the largest Danish companies. The conclusion is that only 4% of the companies claim to have abandoned the traditional, annual budget, 2% have decided or are in the process...... of doing so and 11% are considering abandoning it. These "Beyond Budgeting" companies are more critical towards the traditional budget than other companies. The study also shows that the critical attitude towards annual budgets as well as the decision of abandoning the budget cannot be associated...

  13. The Energy Budget of a Southwest Vortex With Heavy Rainfall over South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Energy budgets were analyzed to study the development of an eastward propagating southwest vortex (SWV) associated with heavy rainfall over southern China(11-13 June 2008).The results show that kinetic energy(KE) generation and advection were the most important KE sources,while friction and sub-grid processes were the main KE sinks.There was downward conversion from divergent to rotational wind KE consistent with the downward stretching of SWVs.The Coriolis force was important for the formation and maintenance of the SWV.Convergence was also an important factor for maintenance,as was vertical motion during the mature stage of the SWV and the formation stage of a newly formed vortex(vortex B).The conversion from available potential energy(APE) to KE of divergent wind can lead to strong convection.Vertical motion influenced APE by dynamical and thermal processes which had opposite effects. The variation of APE was related to the heavy rainfall and convection;in this case,vertical motion with direct thermal circulation was the most important way in which APE was released,while latent heat release and vertical temperature advection were important for APE generation.

  14. Polity age and political budget cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Incumbent incentive for competence-signaling and lack of voter information are generally thought to be factors that increase the prevalence of political budget cycles. These mechanisms should be more prevalent in new political units. Since the creation of new political units is rarely exogenous......-experimental to study whether political budget cycles are larger in new political units. Contrary to theoretical predictions, political budget cycles seem to be of a smaller scale in the new municipalities, but only regarding budget cycles in budgetary overruns. The findings are of wider interest for discussions about...... the mechanisms behind context-conditional political budget cycles....

  15. Fiscal 1987 nuclear budget request amounts to 366 billion yen; increased 2.7 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The 1987 budget request was submitted to the Ministry of Finance by the end of August, 1986. Of the total, the nuclear budget request made by eight ministries and agencies totaled 366,896 million yen, 2.7 % increase over the previous year, which consists of 184,715 million yen in the general account, 0.6 % down, and 182,180 million yen in the special account for power resource development, 6.3 % up. The increase rate was kept at a low level in consideration of the tight government financial condition. The request was approved on September 9 by the Atomic Energy Commission, which is responsible for securing the budget for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The government draft budget is expected to be finalized by the end of 1986 on the basis of the draft of the Ministry of Finance. The Science and Technology Agency request is 277,934 million yen, 1.0 % increase, and the project costs for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. account for its 88.3 %. The 1987 nuclear budget request by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is mostly on the special account for power resource siting and power resource diversification, totaling 88,400 million yen. (Kako, I.)

  16. Budget goal commitment, clinical managers' use of budget information and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the importance placed on accounting as a means to influence performance in public healthcare, there is still a lot to be learned about the role of management accounting in clinical managers' work behavior and their link with organizational performance. The article aims at analyzing the motivational role of budgetary participation and the intervening role of individuals' mental states and behaviors in influencing the relationship between budgetary participation and performance. According to the goal-setting theory, SEM technique was used to test the relationships among variables. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The results show that: (i) budgetary participation does not directly influence the use of budget information, but the latter is encouraged by the level of budget goal commitment which, as a result, is influenced by the positive motivational consequences of participative budgeting; (ii) budget goal commitment does not directly influence performance, but the relationship is mediated by the use of budget information. This study contributes to health policy and management accounting literature and has significant policy implications. Mainly, the findings prove that the introduction of business-like techniques in the healthcare sector can improve performance if attitudinal and behavioral variables are adequately stimulated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DOE FY 2010 Budget Request and Recovery Act Funding for Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment: Analysis and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    The combination of the FY 2010 budget request for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the portion of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funds likely to be available in 2010 would (assuming that they would be split evenly between FY 2010 and FY 2011) result in a doubling in funding available for energy research, development, and deployment (ERD and D) from $3.6 billion in FY 2009 to $7.2 billion in FY 2010. Without the stimulus funds, DOE ERD and D investments in FY 2010 would decrease very slightly when compared to FY 2009. Excluding the $7.5 billion for the Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loans in FY 2009, the FY 2010 budget request for deployment represents a 33 percent decrease from the FY 2009 levels from $520 million to $350 million. This decrease is largely due to the large amounts of funds appropriated in ARRA for DOE deployment programs, or $23.6 billion, which are three times greater than those appropriated in the FY 2009 budget. These very substantial funding amounts, coupled with the broad range of institutional innovations the administration is putting in place and movement toward putting a price on carbon emissions, will help accelerate innovation for a broad range of energy technologies. DOE's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) and the Energy Innovation Hubs are important initiatives that could contribute to two weak points of the government's energy innovation effort, namely funding high-risk projects in transformational technologies and in companies that have not traditionally worked with the government and strengthening the integration of basic and applied research in priority areas. Increasing the funding for different types of energy storage research, providing some support for exploring opportunities in coal-to-liquids with carbon capture and storage (CCS) and coal-and-biomass-to-liquids with CCS, and reducing funding for fission RD and D are other actions that Congress could take in the

  18. Children: Oklahoma's Investment in Tomorrow '96. Preliminary Report: Agency Budget by Cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Oklahoma City.

    This report presents preliminary Oklahoma state agency budget summaries for all programs serving children in the Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Human Resources, Safety and Security, Tourism and Recreation, and Veterans Affairs. The budget figures are organized by cabinet and…

  19. Long-term exposure of the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus to nickel: Costs in the energy budget and detoxification enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno G C; Cardoso, Diogo N; Morgado, Rui; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Terrestrial isopods from the species Porcellionides pruinosus were exposed to the maximum allowed nickel concentration in the Canadian framework guideline (50 mg Ni/kg soil) and to 5× this concentration (250 mg Ni/kg soil). The exposure lasted for 28 days and was followed by a recovery period of 14 days where organisms were changed to clean soil. Organisms were sampled after 24 h, 48 h, 96 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days of exposure, and at days 35 and 42 during the recovery period. For each sampling time the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined as well as lipid peroxidation rate (LPO) along with lipids, carbohydrates, proteins content, energy available (Ea), energy consumption (Ec) and cellular energy allocation (CEA). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated for each sampling time as well as for each one of the above parameters. In addition, mortality was also recorded throughout the assay. The results obtained showed that nickel induced oxidative stress, evidenced by results on GST, GPx, CAT or LPO, but also on changes in the energy reserves content of these organisms. In addition, this study showed that these organisms possess a specific strategy to handle nickel toxicity. In this case, biomarkers were associated with costs in the energy budget, and the increase of energy reserves has a compensation for that cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Statement of June E. O'Neill, Director Congressional Budget Office on Capital Budgeting Before the President's Commission to Study Capital Budgeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Neill, June

    1998-01-01

    .... The up-front, full-cost basis of accounting for capital acquisition at the governmentwide level is conceptually sound, consistent with common practice and economic efficiency, and necessary for budget discipline...

  1. Estimating the impact of petroleum substances on survival in ealry life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) using the Dynamic Energy Budget theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Nordtug, T.; Tamis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for

  2. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  3. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-06

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  4. Study of developing a database of energy statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, T.S. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    An integrated energy database should be prepared in advance for managing energy statistics comprehensively. However, since much manpower and budget is required for developing an integrated energy database, it is difficult to establish a database within a short period of time. Therefore, this study sets the purpose in drawing methods to analyze existing statistical data lists and to consolidate insufficient data as first stage work for the energy database, and at the same time, in analyzing general concepts and the data structure of the database. I also studied the data content and items of energy databases in operation in international energy-related organizations such as IEA, APEC, Japan, and the USA as overseas cases as well as domestic conditions in energy databases, and the hardware operating systems of Japanese databases. I analyzed the making-out system of Korean energy databases, discussed the KEDB system which is representative of total energy databases, and present design concepts for new energy databases. In addition, I present the establishment directions and their contents of future Korean energy databases, data contents that should be collected by supply and demand statistics, and the establishment of data collection organization, etc. by analyzing the Korean energy statistical data and comparing them with the system of OECD/IEA. 26 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Radiation budget studies using collocated observations from advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/2, and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, Richard A.; Smith, William L.

    1992-01-01

    Collocated observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/2 (HIRS/2), and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments onboard the NOAA 9 satellite are combined to describe the broadband and spectral radiative properties of the earth-atmosphere system. Broadband radiative properties are determined from the ERBE observations, while spectral properties are determined from the HIRS/2 and AVHRR observations. The presence of clouds, their areal coverage, and cloud top pressure are determined from a combination of the HIRS/2 and the AVHRR observations. The CO2 slicing method is applied to the HIRS/2 to determine the presence of upper level clouds and their effective emissivity. The AVHRR data collocated within the HIRS/2 field of view are utilized to determine the uniformity of the scene and retrieve sea surface temperature. Changes in the top of the atmosphere longwave and shortwave radiative energy budgets, and the spectral distribution of longwave radiation are presented as a function of cloud amount and cloud top pressure. The radiative characteristics of clear sky conditions over oceans are presented as a function of sea surface temperature and atmospheric water vapor structure.

  6. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  7. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  8. Public Budgeting: The Compromises Among the Sound Budgeting Principles in Contingency Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    funding for major aircraft using supplemental appropriations in place of incremental funding as intended for normal budgeting practices. This was a prime... incrementally funded on an annual basis. This change in budgeting practices lacked predictability because it allowed last-minute budget requests with low...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. PUBLIC BUDGETING

  9. Understanding the Budget Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the operating budget, while long-term plans are reflected in the capital budget. Since the time when cash is available to an organization does not usually coincide with the time that disbursements must be made, it is also important to carefully plan for the inflow and outflow of funds by means of a cash budget.      During the budget process an organization selects its programs and activities by providing the necessary funding; the library, along with others in the organization, must justify its requests. Because of the cyclical nature of the budget process, it is possible continually to gather information and evaluate alternatives for the next budget period so that the library may achieve its maximum potential for service to its patrons.

  10. The Budget-Related Antecedents of Job Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yilmaz Karakoc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate budget related antecedents of job performance of managers. For this purpose, relationships among budgetary participation, budget goal commitment, information sharing, and job performance of managers were examined. The sample consists of managers who are responsible from the budgets of their units in different private enterprises located in Turkey. Survey data was analyzed with confirmatory factor analyses and Structural Equation Modeling. Results indicate that budgetary participation has statistically significant and positive impact on job performance. It also positively affects budget goal commitment and information sharing. Budget goal commitment and information sharing have significant and positive impact on job performance. In addition, budget goal commitment positively affects information sharing of managers. Analyses also revealed that budget goal commitment and information sharing have partial mediation effect on the relationship between budgetary participation and job performance.

  11. Library Budget Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  12. The Agency's budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    A total Agency Budget of $10 406 000 for 1965 was approved by the General Conference at its session of September 1964; the Budget for the year 1964 amounted to $9 812 000. The consolidated Budget figures are shown in the table at the end of this article. The Budget falls into two parts - the Regular Budget and the Operational Budget. The Regular Budget provides for the ordinary administrative expenses of the Agency, and for expert panels, special missions, symposia and conferences, distribution of information, and scientific and technical services. In conformity with the Agency's Statute, these expenses are met by contributions made according to Voluntary contributions are paid initially into a General Fund established for this purpose, and money for operations is transferred to the respective Operating Funds as appropriate, and as approved by the Board of Governors. The scale of assessments for 1965 is based on the United Nations scale for 1964. The assessments are estimated to yield $7 713 000 - an increase of 6.8 per cent; however, more than three quarters of this increase will be offset by credits which Member States will receive as a result of a cash surplus brought forward. The Operational Budget is financed by voluntary contributions and is divided into two parts - Operating Fund I, devoted to certain laboratory and research projects, and Operating Fund II, for technical assistance, training and research contracts.

  13. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  14. Plan Your Advertising Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Steuart-Henderson

    1979-01-01

    Methods for establishing an advertising budget are reviewed. They include methods based on percentage of sales or profits, unit of sales, and objective and task. Also discussed are ways to allocate a promotional budget. The most common breakdowns are: departmental budgets, total budget, calendar periods, media, and sales area. (JMD)

  15. Budget Deficits Effects on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Risti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The budget deficit can not be analyzed autarchically, as it affects all the macroeconomic processes and, is itself influenced by all other macroeconomic indicators. Most analyses and studies on public finance and budget balance measure the impact that budgetary deficits accumulation has on economy. Therefore, the present paper aims at following and analyzing the mutual impact between budget deficit and another economic macro indicator, namely the economic growth.

  16. Linking Adverse Outcome Pathways to Dynamic Energy Budgets: A Conceptual Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Cheryl [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Nisbet, Roger [University of California Santa Barbara; Antczak, Philipp [University of Liverpool, UK; Reyero, Natalia [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg; Gergs, Andre [Gaiac; Lika, Dina [University of Crete; Mathews, Teresa J. [ORNL; Muller, Eric [University of California, Santa Barbara; Nacci, Dianne [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Peace, Angela L. [ORNL; Remien, Chris [University of Idaho; Schulz, Irv [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Watanabe, Karen [Arizona State University

    2018-02-01

    Ecological risk assessment quantifies the likelihood of undesirable impacts of stressors, primarily at high levels of biological organization. Data used to inform ecological risk assessments come primarily from tests on individual organisms or from suborganismal studies, indicating a disconnect between primary data and protection goals. We know how to relate individual responses to population dynamics using individual-based models, and there are emerging ideas on how to make connections to ecosystem services. However, there is no established methodology to connect effects seen at higher levels of biological organization with suborganismal dynamics, despite progress made in identifying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) that link molecular initiating events to ecologically relevant key events. This chapter is a product of a working group at the National Center for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS) that assessed the feasibility of using dynamic energy budget (DEB) models of individual organisms as a “pivot” connecting suborganismal processes to higher level ecological processes. AOP models quantify explicit molecular, cellular or organ-level processes, but do not offer a route to linking sub-organismal damage to adverse effects on individual growth, reproduction, and survival, which can be propagated to the population level through individual-based models. DEB models describe these processes, but use abstract variables with undetermined connections to suborganismal biology. We propose linking DEB and quantitative AOP models by interpreting AOP key events as measures of damage-inducing processes in a DEB model. Here, we present a conceptual model for linking AOPs to DEB models and review existing modeling tools available for both AOP and DEB.

  17. EVOLUTION OF THE LOCAL BUDGET REVENUES AND EXPENSES. CASE STUDY: ORĂȘTIE TOWN HALL, HUNEDOARA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILEANA-SORINA (BOCA RAKOS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the elaboration of budgets at any level is a real problem especially due to the need of respecting the budget balance principle, since the need for financial resources is greater than the existing funds necessary for a good development of the economic activites. Consequently, by this work, the authors deal with aspects concerning the general framework and procedures of creation, administration, commission and use of the local public funds, and the responsibilities of the local public authorities and of the public institutions involved in the domain of local public finances. The paper deals, on the level of an administrative-territorial unit with a number of about 20.000 inhabitants, with the aggregate budget revenues and expenses that make up the general budget of the respective unit, after consolidation, by the elimination of the transfers of sums between budgets, reflecting the dimension of the public financial effort, on the level of the year 2016 and its state of balance or imbalance. To analyze the data, the authors realized a case study regarding the evolution of the local budget revenues and expenses, at a public entity of Hunedoara County, the results obtained being analyzed and interpreted under the economic and social aspect. The overall objective of this study refers to the possibility of strengthening the operational and financial autonomy of the administrative-territorial unit and the local budget. Although at the national level, the laws necessary for the budget system operation were elaborated on the principle of local autonomy, however, at the level of administrative units we cannot yet speak of the existence of a real local autonomy, whereas the revenues of the local budgets are not sufficient to cover the expense level. The paper ends with the authors’ conclusions related to the need to increase the financial resources mobilized available to the local public authorities, by means of the local budgets, in order to

  18. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...

  19. CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.-Y.; Klein, S. A.; Xie, S.; Zhang, C.; Tang, S.; Tang, Q.; Morcrette, C. J.; Van Weverberg, K.; Petch, J.; Ahlgrimm, M.; Berg, L. K.; Cheruy, F.; Cole, J.; Forbes, R.; Gustafson, W. I.; Huang, M.; Liu, Y.; Merryfield, W.; Qian, Y.; Roehrig, R.; Wang, Y.-C.

    2018-03-01

    Many weather forecast and climate models simulate warm surface air temperature (T2m) biases over midlatitude continents during the summertime, especially over the Great Plains. We present here one of a series of papers from a multimodel intercomparison project (CAUSES: Cloud Above the United States and Errors at the Surface), which aims to evaluate the role of cloud, radiation, and precipitation biases in contributing to the T2m bias using a short-term hindcast approach during the spring and summer of 2011. Observations are mainly from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains sites. The present study examines the contributions of surface energy budget errors. All participating models simulate too much net shortwave and longwave fluxes at the surface but with no consistent mean bias sign in turbulent fluxes over the Central United States and Southern Great Plains. Nevertheless, biases in the net shortwave and downward longwave fluxes as well as surface evaporative fraction (EF) are contributors to T2m bias. Radiation biases are largely affected by cloud simulations, while EF bias is largely affected by soil moisture modulated by seasonal accumulated precipitation and evaporation. An approximate equation based upon the surface energy budget is derived to further quantify the magnitudes of radiation and EF contributions to T2m bias. Our analysis ascribes that a large EF underestimate is the dominant source of error in all models with a large positive temperature bias, whereas an EF overestimate compensates for an excess of absorbed shortwave radiation in nearly all the models with the smallest temperature bias.

  20. Distributed modeling of landsurface water and energy budgets in the inland Heihe river basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A distributed model for simulating the land surface hydrological processes in the Heihe river basin was developed and validated on the basis of considering the physical mechanism of hydrological cycle and the artificial system of water utilization in the basin. Modeling approach of every component process was introduced from 2 aspects, i.e., water cycle and energy cycle. The hydrological processes include evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, groundwater flow, interaction between groundwater and river water, overland flow, river flow and artificial cycle processes of water utilization. A simulation of 21 years from 1982 to 2002 was carried out after obtaining various input data and model parameters. The model was validated for both the simulation of monthly discharge process and that of daily discharge process. Water budgets and spatial and temporal variations of hydrological cycle components as well as energy cycle components in the upper and middle reach Heihe basin (36 728 km2 were studied by using the distributed hydrological model. In addition, the model was further used to predict the water budgets under the future land surface change scenarios in the basin. The modeling results show: (1 in the upper reach watershed, the annual average evapotranspiration and runoff account for 63% and 37% of the annual precipitation, respectively, the snow melting runoff accounts for 19% of the total runoff and 41% of the direct runoff, and the groundwater storage has no obvious change; (2 in the middle reach basin, the annual average evapotranspiration is 52 mm more than the local annual precipitation, and the groundwater storage is of an obvious declining trend because of irrigation water consumption; (3 for the scenario of conservation forest construction in the upper reach basin, although the evapotranspiration from interception may increase, the soil evaporation may reduce at the same time, therefore the total evapotranspiration may not

  1. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja

    2015-01-01

    ) metabolic costs due to osmoregulation in different salinity environments. Themodified DEBmodel was validated with experimental data fromdifferent locations in the Western Baltic Sea (including the Limfjorden) with salinities varying from 8.5 to 29.9 psu. The identified areas suitable for mussel production......For bluemussels,Mytilus edulis, onemajor constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study...... was to incorporate the effects of low salinity into an eco-physiological model of blue mussels and to identify areas suitable for mussel production. A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model was modified with respect to i) the morphological parameters (DW/WW-ratio, shape factor), ii) change in ingestion rate and iii...

  2. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  3. Regulations of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe watershed, China, and its implications to water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    In the arid area, such as the Heihe watershed in Northwest China, agriculture is heavily dependent on the irrigation. Irrigation suggests human-induced hydro process, which modifies the local climate and water budget. In this study, we simulated the irrigation-induced changes in surface energy/moisture budgets and modifications on regional climate, using the WRF-NoahMP modle with an irrigation scheme. The irrigation scheme was implemented following the roles that soil moisture is assigned a saturated value once the mean soil moisture of all root layers is lower than 70% of fileld capacity. Across the growth season refering from May to September, the simulated mean irrigation amount of the 1181 cropland gridcells is ~900 mm, wihch is close to the field measurments of around 1000 mm. Such an irrigation largely modified the surface energy budget. Due to irrigation, the surface net solar radiation increased by ~76.7 MJ (~11 Wm-2) accouting for ~2.3%, surface latent and senbile heat flux increased by 97.7 Wm-2 and decreased by ~79.7 Wm-2 respectively; and local daily mean surface air temperature was thereby cooling by ~1.1°C. Corresponding to the surface energy changes, wind and circulation were also modified and regional water budget is therefore regulated. The total rainfall in the irrigation area increased due to more moisture from surface. However, the increased rainfall is only ~6.5mm (accounting for ~5% of background rainfall) which is much less than the increased evaporation of ~521.5mm from surface. The ~515mm of water accounting for 57% of total irrigation was transported outward by wind. The other ~385 mm accounting for 43% of total irrigation was transformed to be runoff and soil water. These results suggest that in the Heihe watershed irrigation largely modify local energy budget and cooling surface. This study also implicate that the existing irrigation may waste a large number of water. It is thereby valuable to develope effective irrigation scheme to

  4. Capital budgeting practices : A comparative study of the Netherlands and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Smid, Peter; Yao, Lu

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the use of capital budgeting techniques of Dutch and Chinese firms, using data obtained from a survey among 250 Dutch and 300 Chinese companies. Our main aim is to analyse the use of capital budgeting techniques by companies in both countries from a comparative perspective to see

  5. Long-term monitoring of the earth's radiation budget; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 17, 18, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The uses of the broadband flux measurements as well as the improvements in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment in instrumentation and data reduction are summarized. Scientific uses of earth-radiation budget data are discussed, along with a perspective on the instrumentation giving a new foundation for studies of the radiation budget, with emphasis on calibration and long-term stability. Cloud identification and angular modeling are covered including angular dependence models for radiance to flux conversion and the pattern recognition of clouds and ice in polar regions. The surface-radiation budget and atmospheric radiative flux divergence from the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System are covered, and time dependence of the earth's radiation fields, determination of the outgoing longwave radiation and its diurnal variations are considered.

  6. A CBO Study. The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    the growth of quarterly corporate income tax payments due in September. 6 THE BUDGET AND ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: AN UPDATETable 1-3. CBO’s Baseline Budget...receipts relative to GDP is expected to be offset by reductions in corporate income tax receipts and (to a lesser extent) in receipts from estate...taxes—have also contrib- uted to the latest technical revisions: B This year’s corporate income tax receipts are higher than can be explained by

  7. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article,…

  8. STATE BUDGET APPROPRIATION MANAGERS AS THE SUBJECTS OF BUDGET PLANNING IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article deals with the problem of legal status of the state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is evaluation of state budget appropriation managers’ role in the process of budget planning in the Republic of Lithuania.The methodology of research is the analysis of the budgetary legislation of the Republic of Lithuania and the scientific literature, using the methods of logical and systematic analysis and other methods of scientific researchMain results, and scope of it’s application. The legal definition and the system of state budget appropriation managers is analyzed in the article. Particular attention is given to the question of role of state budget appropriation managers in the process of budget framework. The role of the Government and Parliament, as well as a special body of management of public finances (in the Republic of Lithuania, the Ministry of Finance – legislative and executive authorities – is emphasized in the scientific literature. But it is often not mentioned what an important place in this process other participants of budgetary relations – state budget appropriation managers – takes. The main participation of state budget appropriation managers in the budget planning process related to the planning of the budget expenditures.Preparation of strategic plans and programmes of budgetary funds by state budget appropriation managers can be considered part of governance activities in general. For budget planning drawn up draft budgets of the programs by state budget appropriation managers is particularly important.Conclusions. The efficiency of the use of state funds depends on the spending of funds, the quality and validity of the developed programmes of activities led by their agencies. State budget appropriation managers are involved, along with other entities, on each stage of the budget planning. They provide the

  9. Analyzing Content about the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit in High School and College-Level Economics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Gaudelli, William; Cohen, Aviv; Siegel, Brad; Wylie, Scott; Crocco, Margaret S.; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify content on the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in the 12 most commonly used high school and college-level economics textbooks. Our systematic review of these sources leads to two key findings: (1) Textbooks are similar in how they represent fiscal policy yet treat the federal budget, deficit, and…

  10. Reynolds-Stress Budgets in an Impinging Shock Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2018-01-01

    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Comparisons with experimental data showed a sensitivity of the current prediction to the modeling of the sidewalls. This was found to be common among various computational studies in the literature where periodic boundary conditions were used in the spanwise direction, as was the case in the present work. Thus, although the experiment was quasi-two-dimensional, the present simulation was determined to be two-dimensional. Quantities present in the exact equation of the Reynolds-stress transport, i.e., production, molecular diffusion, turbulent transport, pressure diffusion, pressure strain, dissipation, and turbulent mass flux were calculated. Reynolds-stress budgets were compared with past large-eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation datasets in the undisturbed portion of the turbulent boundary layer to validate the current approach. The budgets in SBLI showed the growth in the production term for the primary normal stress and energy transfer mechanism was led by the pressure strain term in the secondary normal stresses. The pressure diffusion term, commonly assumed as negligible by turbulence model developers, was shown to be small but non-zero in the normal stress budgets, however it played a key role in the primary shear stress budget.

  11. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth’s recent energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T.; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-01

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth’s top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  12. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  13. Dead Sea evaporation by eddy covariance measurements vs. aerodynamic, energy budget, Priestley-Taylor, and Penman estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jutta; Nied, Manuela; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Kleffmann, Jörg; Kottmeier, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake, located in an arid environment. Evaporation is the key component of the Dead Sea water budget and accounts for the main loss of water. So far, lake evaporation has been determined by indirect methods only and not measured directly. Consequently, the governing factors of evaporation are unknown. For the first time, long-term eddy covariance measurements were performed at the western Dead Sea shore for a period of 1 year by implementing a new concept for onshore lake evaporation measurements. To account for lake evaporation during offshore wind conditions, a robust and reliable multiple regression model was developed using the identified governing factors wind velocity and water vapour pressure deficit. An overall regression coefficient of 0.8 is achieved. The measurements show that the diurnal evaporation cycle is governed by three local wind systems: a lake breeze during daytime, strong downslope winds in the evening, and strong northerly along-valley flows during the night. After sunset, the strong winds cause half-hourly evaporation rates which are up to 100 % higher than during daytime. The median daily evaporation is 4.3 mm d-1 in July and 1.1 mm d-1 in December. The annual evaporation of the water surface at the measurement location was 994±88 mm a-1 from March 2014 until March 2015. Furthermore, the performance of indirect evaporation approaches was tested and compared to the measurements. The aerodynamic approach is applicable for sub-daily and multi-day calculations and attains correlation coefficients between 0.85 and 0.99. For the application of the Bowen ratio energy budget method and the Priestley-Taylor method, measurements of the heat storage term are inevitable on timescales up to 1 month. Otherwise strong seasonal biases occur. The Penman equation was adapted to calculate realistic evaporation, by using an empirically gained linear function for the heat storage term, achieving correlation coefficients between 0

  14. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  15. Autotrophs' challenge to Dynamic Energy Budget theory: Comment on ;Physics of metabolic organization; by Marko Jusup et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geček, Sunčana

    2017-03-01

    Jusup and colleagues in the recent review on physics of metabolic organization [1] discuss in detail motivational considerations and common assumptions of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, supply readers with a practical guide to DEB-based modeling, demonstrate the construction and dynamics of the standard DEB model, and illustrate several applications. The authors make a step forward from the existing literature by seamlessly bridging over the dichotomy between (i) thermodynamic foundations of the theory (which are often more accessible and understandable to physicists and mathematicians), and (ii) the resulting bioenergetic models (mostly used by biologists in real-world applications).

  16. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  17. The institutional logics of local government budget in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palupi Ade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study asks how and why a local government settings budget. It aims to deliver an understanding on how a government entity perceives that budget is important element to manage public expenditures. It uses the S local government in Indonesia as a case study. This study applies Institutional Logics Theory as a theoretical framework in order to analyze data. Data is collected by interviewing seven key persons who directly involves in budgeting process. This research shows that the budgeting process includes determining the purposes of annual budget, setting up planned programs and actvities, determining the amount of revenue that will be collected, allocating resources to expenditures and setting up standar pricing. Some important points in the budgeting process are identified. Those are considering political aspect to determine local tax rate, focusing on competition with other local governments, fulfilling the political promise of local government leader to the constituents, involving community to determine planned program and activities, and allocating resources based on community basic needs. This study concludes that those points develop the institutional logics of politic and managerial in budget setting process.

  18. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE POSITION BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND TERRITORIAL UNITS IN GENERAL CONSOLIDATED BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool of territorial administrative units of financial and budgetary policy in which the state intervenes in the economy at the local level, having a major impact on general government.Through the decentralization processes that are increasingly debated and applied, the paper aims to highlight the importance of the territorial administrative unit budgets in the consolidated budget in Romania.Thus, the work comprises both theoretical notions concerning the presentation of the consolidated state budget and the budget of the territorial administrative units. The relevance of the work lies in the importance of general government in the regulation of macroeconomic balances by sizing or macroeconomic imbalances, with modern methods that analyze the possibilities and effects of new types of deficits or surpluses in the public sector.

  20. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  1. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Sciences, Indore (India); Sarkisyan, Edward K.G. [CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); The University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Physics, Arlington, TX (United States); Sakharov, Alexander S. [CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (orig.)

  2. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sarkisyan, Edward K.G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (orig.)

  3. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  4. Understanding the Budget Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Yalvaç

    2000-01-01

    Many different budgeting techniques can be used in libraries, and some combination of these will be appropriate for almost any individual situation. Li-ne-item, program, performance, formula, variable, and zero-base budgets all have features that may prove beneficial in the preparation of a budget. Budgets also serve a variety of functions, providing for short-term and long-term financial planning as well as for cash management over a period of time. Short-term plans are reflected in the oper...

  5. Revisiting global mean sea level budget closure : Preliminary results from an integrative study within ESA's Climate Change Initiative -Sea level Budget Closure-Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, H.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global mean sea level budget is revisited over two time periods: the entire altimetry era, 1993-2015 and the Argo/GRACE era, 2003-2015 using the version '0' of sea level components estimated by the SLBC-CCI teams. The SLBC-CCI is an European Space Agency's project on sea level budget closure using CCI products. Over the entire altimetry era, the sea level budget was performed as the sum of steric and mass components that include contributions from total land water storage, glaciers, ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and total water vapor content. Over the Argo/GRACE era, it was performed as the sum of steric and GRACE based ocean mass. Preliminary budget analysis performed over the altimetry era (1993-2015) results in a trend value of 2.83 mm/yr. On comparison with the observed altimetry-based global mean sea level trend over the same period (3.03 ± 0.5 mm/yr), we obtain a residual of 0.2 mm/yr. In spite of a residual of 0.2 mm/yr, the sea level budget result obtained over the altimetry era is very promising as this has been performed using the version '0' of the sea level components. Furthermore, uncertainties are not yet included in this study as uncertainty estimation for each sea level component is currently underway. Over the Argo/GRACE era (2003-2015), the trend estimated from the sum of steric and GRACE ocean mass amounts to 2.63 mm/yr while that observed by satellite altimetry is 3.37 mm/yr, thereby leaving a residual of 0.7 mm/yr. Here an ensemble GRACE ocean mass data (mean of various available GRACE ocean mass data) was used for the estimation. Using individual GRACE data results in a residual range of 0.5 mm/yr -1.1 mm/yr. Investigations are under way to determine the cause of the vast difference between the observed sea level and the sea level obtained from steric and GRACE ocean mass. One main suspect is the impact of GRACE data gaps on sea level budget analysis due to lack of GRACE data over several months since 2011. The current action plan

  6. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  7. Financing schemes increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use in public and private buildings. Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    What are the solutions to the municipal budget cuts? How can the cities finance their energy transition? What can we do to make it a driving force to boost the local economy and job creation? What are the new financial cash flows for this new economy? One of the solutions is to rethink financing solutions, and the local authorities that are engaged in energy transition are the best placed to do so. Many cities have voluntarily committed to reducing CO_2 emissions on their territories, notably by increasing energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources. Nearly 6,500 cities are committed to the objective to meet and exceed the European Union 20% CO_2 reduction objective by 2020. They have already developed their Baseline Emissions Inventories and Sustainable Energy Action Plans and thus are well aware of the energy flows on their territories, energy saving potential and the cost-effectiveness of the planned measures. The next step is to secure their financing sources and here both the private and public sector play a key role. Governments at all levels (European, national, regional and local), financial institutions, businesses, citizens and other local stakeholders should channel part of their funds to measures that help achieving our common energy and climate goals. Local authorities' role is to motivate and coordinate players on their territory. For its part, the European Union increased the amount allocated to energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in its 2014-2020 budget, giving a signal that a shift towards a low carbon economy is one of its top priorities. This could be a significant boost for local energy transition. However, the European Commission also announced that the EU budget should be spent in a more sustainable way and announced a progressive move from grants to loans and innovative financial instruments, in particular for projects that are viable on the current market. Many front-running Covenant signatories dedicate their human

  8. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  9. National energy efficiency study. The Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, M.; Jakubes, J.; Spitz, J.; Van Wees, M.T.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Martens, J.W.; Van Oostvoorn, F.; Henelova, V.; Vazac, V.; Zalesak, M.; Marousek, J.; Szomolanyiova, J.; Havlickova, M.; Zeman, J.; Ten Donkelaar, M.; Travnicek, S.; Stejskal, F.; Pribyl, E.; Blokker, L.; Bizek, V.; Velthuijsen, J.W.

    1999-08-01

    Energy efficiency and renewable energy production contribute to the three major goals of the national energy policy of the Czech Republic: overall competitiveness, security of supply; and environmental protection. Therefore, the Czech Government aims to promote these two sustainable options. The National Energy Efficiency Study has developed specific policies for the promotion of end use energy efficiency and renewables. These are described in two Action Plans, and in this report which serves as a background document. It contains detailed information on options and measures, potentials, barriers and policy instruments for energy efficiency and renewables. The main part is a detailed outline for a new energy efficiency and renewable policy, including a listing of actions for implementation. Also, it includes recommendations for financing schemes to overcome the investment constraints in the Czech Republic. Finally, a list of concrete projects is presented to support project identification. In addition, two separate Action Plans have been published: (1) The Energy Efficiency Action Plan focuses on promotion of energy efficiency in end-use (separate document, ECN-C-99-065); and (2) The Renewable Energy Action Plan (separate document, ECN-C-99-064) deals with policy on promotion of renewable energy production. These two policy documents should provide policy makers in the Czech Government with essential information on potentials, targets, the required budget, and recommended policy instruments. The core of the Action Plans is the list of concrete policy actions, ready for implementation

  10. The 'People's Budget' and Budget Effectiveness:The Case of Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All over the world, participatory budgeting is being advocated. This is based on the belief that stakeholders' participation in the budgeting process improves transparency, accountability and service delivery. Using evidence from 105 Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in Kabalore and Kamwenge district local governments ...

  11. FY1990 Nuclear-related budget demand totals 398 billion yen, up 2.7%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Funds needed to promote the development and utilization of nuclear energy in fiscal 1990 in a planned and integrated way total yen398,427 million on a cash basis, up 2.7% over fiscal 1989. The Science and Technology Agency, which has two major nuclear RandD organizations -- the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. -- within its jurisdiction, has asked for a total of yen297,765 million (up 5.7%), about three-fourths of the total nuclear-related budget demand. The budget demand of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry aggregates yen96.375 million, down 5.1%. The budget demand of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is yen2,962 million, including subscriptions and contributions to IAEA, and that of the Ministry of Transport, yen42 million, including research and analysis costs for setting safety standards for the transportation of radioactive materials. The budget demand of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries is yen167 million, including costs for the prevention and elimination of melon-flies in the Amami Islands, and for the Tsukuba Agriculture and Forestry Research Exchange Center. (N.K.)

  12. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget. 457.140 Section 457.140 Public Health... Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan amendment that has a significant impact on the approved budget, must include a budget that describes the...

  13. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  14. Describing an Environment for a Self-Sustaining Technology Transfer Service in a Small Research Budget University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieb, Sharon Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This single-site qualitative study sought to identify the characteristics that contribute to the self sustainability of technology transfer services at universities with small research budgets through a case study analysis of a small research budget university that has been operating a financially self-sustainable technology transfer service for…

  15. Nuclear budget for FY1991 up 3.6% to 409.7 billion yen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A total of yen409.7 billion was approved for the Governmental nuclear energy draft budget for fiscal 1991 on December 28, as the Cabinet gave its approval. The total, the highest ever, was divided into yen182.6 billion for the general account and yen227.1 billion for the special account for power resources development, representing a 3.6% increase over the ongoing fiscal year's level of yen395.5 billion. The draft budget will be examined for approval of the Diet session by the end of March. The nuclear energy budget devoted to research and development projects governed by the Science and Technology Agency amounts yen306.4 billion, up 3.5% exceeding yen300 billion for the first time. The nuclear budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is yen98.1 billion, up 3.5%. For the other ministries, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, yen5.1 billion was allotted to nuclear energy-related projects. The Government had decided to raise the unit cost of the power plant siting promotion subsidies in the special account for power resources development by 25% --- from yen600/kw to yen750/kw --- in order to support the siting of plants. Consequently, the power resources siting account of the special accounts for both STA and MITI showed high levels of growth rates: 6.3% and 7.5%, respectively. (N.K.)

  16. Impact of the Application Technique on Nitrogen Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Budgets in Case of Energy Maize Fertilized with Biogas Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Monique; Fränzke, Manuel; Schuster, Carola; Kreuter, Thomas; Augustin, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Despite an increasing cultivation of energy maize fertilized with ammonia-rich biogas residues (BR), little is known about the impact of the application technique on gaseous nitrogen (N) losses as well as N budgets, indicative of N use efficiency. To contribute to closing this knowledge gap we conducted a field experiment supplemented by a laboratory incubation study. The field experiment was carried out in Dedelow, located in the Northeastern German Lowlands and characterized by well-drained loamy sand (haplic luvisol). Two treatments with different application technique for BR fertilization - i) trail hoses and ii) injection - were compared to an unfertilized control (0% N). Seventy percent of the applied N-BR was assumed to be plant-available. In 2013, biweekly nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements were conducted during the time period between BR application and maize harvest (18.04.-11.09.2013; 147 days) using non-flow-through non-steady-state chamber measurements. To quantify soil Nmin status, soil samples were taken from 0-30 cm soil depth in the spring (before fertilization) and autumn (after maize harvest). Immediately after BR application, ammonia (NH3) volatilization was measured intensively using the open dynamic chamber Dräger-Tube method. Export of N due to harvest was determined via plant N content (Nharvest). Based on the measured N gas fluxes, N soil and plant parameters, soil N budgets were calculated using a simple difference approach. Values of N output (Nharvest, NN2O_cum and NNH3_cum) are subtracted from N input values (Nfertilizer and Nmin_autumnminus Nmin_spring). In order to correctly interpret N budgets, other N fluxes must be integrated into the budget calculation. Apart from soil-based mobilization and immobilization turnover processes and nitrate leaching, this applies specifically to N2 losses due to denitrification. Therefore, we measured the N2 emissions from laboratory-incubated undisturbed soil cores (250 cm3) by means of the helium

  17. NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS OF LOCAL BUDGET REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vinnytska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine the essential characteristics of local budgets and justify their classification aspects. Methodology. In the course of writing used general scientific and special methods of knowledge: dialectical and systemic-functional – to summarize the theoretical concepts of income of local budgets; analysis and synthesis – to detail the subject of research and study its components; logic synthesis – to justify approaches and proposals for the formulation of local budgets. Results. Proved that today there is no single view on the interpretation of economic categories “revenues of local budgets.” A refined concept of “local budget revenues” from the standpoint of material content, form, organizational structure and nature of local budgets. Local budget revenues determined as part of the financial resources of society, which is accumulated by local authorities to enforce their tasks and functions to implement current and future challenges of social infrastructure in the regions. Proved that the revenues of local budgets are derived from their own, and assigned to the established order of state taxes, fees and other mandatory payments. The main feature of their own revenues is the direct subordination of local government. The main feature is the fixed income long-term nature of their attachment to the appropriate budget. Value/originality. Proved that the presence in the economic literature of different classification criteria of local budget on various grounds provides multi classification that reflects all the features of the formation, use and functional differences revenues of local budgets. This approach provides the basis for improving the functioning of the theoretical foundations of the budget process in Ukraine at the level of local authorities.

  18. ‘FLEXIBLE’ BUDGETS ARE ALREADY BUDGETING PROCESS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR OIL AND FAT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvetz’

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of methodological fundamentals of managerial accounting of manufacturing costs in information provision for budgeting, not only at the enterprise level, but also as it is required by current conditions of advanced control, in the context of structural production units of “responsibility centers” using “flexible” budgets, which are prepared during the manufacturing process are examined. Unlike a simple comparison of the regular budgets (scheduled amount of work divided by regulatory costs per unit, “flexible” budget makes adjustments to the planned budget because it represents the actual amount of work divided by regulatory costs, which is included with the comparison of the amount of work that are not fulfilled, or carried to a greater or lesser extent compared with the expected budget. Thus, “Flexible” budgets reveal the actual extent of the changes compared with the expected budget.

  19. The advantage of using operational budgeting on governmental organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Budgeting plays an important role on increasing efficiency of organizations. It helps determine targets and possible future chaos a head of time. A good budgeting plan can create motivation among workers and managers. There are different budgeting plans such as traditional and operational. In this paper, we analyze the effects of executing budgeting plan on governmental organizations. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of various questions and selects 94 people out of 125 financial managers who work for various governmental organizations in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results indicate that the operational budgeting could help provide better performance measurement of governmental organizations, it helps us provide a more precise cost of products and services, and it helps government allocate the necessary budget proportion to performance measurement. The results of our survey also indicate that operational budgeting redirect costs towards our objectives and make the overall budgeting crystal clear.

  20. The impact of the 2015-2016 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on greenhouse gas exchange and surface energy budget in an Indonesian oil palm plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, C.; Meijide, A.; June, T.; Knohl, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oil palm plantations cover a large fraction of tropical lowlands in Southeast Asia. However, despite their growing areal extent, measurements and observations of greenhouse gas exchange and surface energy balance are still scarce. In addition, the effects of extreme events such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on carbon sequestration and the partitioning of surface energy balance components are widely unknown. In this study, we use micrometeorological measurements located in commercial oil palm plantations in the Jambi province (Sumatra, Indonesia) to assess the impact of the 2015-2016 ENSO event on greenhouse gas exchange and surface energy budget. Measurements are in operation since July 2013 and we assess continuously turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour and sensible heat using the eddy covariance technique before, during and after the 2015-2016 ENSO event. The full surface energy budget is completed by measurements of radiative components, ground heat fluxes, and soil thermal and hydrological properties. The study is part of a large interdisciplinary project focussing on the ecological and socioeconomic functions of lowland rainforest transformation systems (EFForTS). During the ENSO event, the area experienced a strong drought with decreasing soil moisture and increasing air and surface temperatures. During the peak in September and October 2015, hundreds of fires in the area resulted in strong smoke production decreasing incoming solar radiation and increasing the diffuse fraction. Compared to regular years, the carbon uptake of the oil palm plantation decreased during the ENSO event. The turbulent heat fluxes experienced an increase in sensible heat fluxes due to drought conditions at the cost of latent heat fluxes resulting in an increase in the Bowen-ratio. Overall, the ENSO event resulted in a major anomaly of exchange processes between the oil palm plantation and the atmosphere.

  1. Energy budget and prey requirements of breeding lapland longspurs Calcarius lapponicus near Barrow Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Pitelka, F.A.; Gessaman, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Breeding Lapland longspurs, Calcarius lapponicus, near Barrow, Alaska, have relatively constant energy demands throughout the summer; the average estimated daily energy budgets (DEBs) were 132 and 118 kJ for the male and female. Thermoregulation accounted consistently for one-quarter to one-third of the total DEB. Flight in the male and incubation in the female were major components of the DEB early in the season, whereas cost of molt was a major component for both sexes near the end of the season. Our estimates of longspur DEB based on a time-activity approach were similar to those based on a cage existence model. Minor differences are explained by increased male territorial activity, by energy savings of the female during incubation, and by contraction of the molt for both sexes within the short summer season. Male and female longspurs were estimated to capture 3000 to 10,000 seeds and insects d-1 (3-20 items min-1 foraging) for self maintenance while in summer residence near Barrow. Each adult was estimated to capture an additional 3000 insects d-1 ( 6-7 insects min-1 foraging) during the peak energy requirements to raise five young. While raising young, the maximum required capture rate of prey per time foraging for each adult occurred during the nestling stage; young are just achieving independence, however, when food supply is at a maximum.

  2. Playing with the figures of climate: an approach with carbon budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treiner, J.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of limiting the increase of the average earth atmospheric temperature to 2 Celsius degrees appears to belong to the past. Rich countries have succeeded in blocking or even reducing their emissions of greenhouse effect gases but they still rely heavily on fossil energies. As for developing countries their development is essentially based on fossil energies they use in a growing tendency. It is difficult to image how these trends could be reversed in a short time. In the article the carbon budget is defined as the cumulated quantity of carbon that will avoid exceeding a fixed value of temperature. For instance a 2 degrees increase of temperature correspond to a CO_2 concentration in the atmosphere of 450 ppm. In the case where nothing was done and that fossil energies were used until their exhaustion, the carbon budget would reach 657 ppm and the corresponding increase of temperature would be beyond 4 degrees. (A.C.)

  3. Energy budgets’ formation based on incomplete data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvak Valery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The universal technique of the current energy budget calculation is recommended for several periods of time. Basing on the data of annual energy budget and considering the plant’s features, social, climatic and other conditions, correcting factors are calculated to estimate energy resources consumption for the day, week, month and year. Shortterm current energy budget supports important financial, trade, logistic, organizational and other control directions. The developed technique is applicable for subnational entities and industrial enterprises in order to increase level of energy resources consumption planning and forecasting as well as bills’ optimization.

  4. Zero-Base Budgeting:; An Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donald L.; Anderson, Roger C.

    Zero-base budgeting as it is used at Allegany College is described. Zero-based budgeting is defined as a budgeting and planning approach that requires the examination of every item in a budget request as if the request were being proposed for the first time. Budgets (decision packages) are first made up for decision units (i.e., a course for the…

  5. Continuity of Earth Radiation Budget Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Su, W.; Wong, T.; Priestley, K.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions. Earth's radiation budget (ERB) involves a balance between how much solar energy Earth absorbs and how much terrestrial thermal infrared radiation is emitted to space. Because of its critical role in climate, continuous monitoring of the ERB is necessary for improved understanding and prediction of climate variability and change. NASA's long history in observing the TOA ERB is acknowledged in the 2007 and 2013 reports of the IPCC (IPCC 2007, 2013), the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey (NRC 2007), and the GCOS implementation plan of the WMO (GCOS 2016). A key reason for NASA's success in this area is due to its support of the CERES Project and its predecessor, ERBE. During ERBE, the TOA ERB was observed using both scanner and nonscanner broadband instruments. The CERES project consists of six scanner instruments flying alongside high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS, VIIRS) in morning and afternoon sun-synchronous orbits. In addition to extending the ERBE TOA radiation budget record, CERES also provides observations of Earth's surface radiation budget with unprecedented accuracy. Here we assess the likelihood of a measurement gap in the ERB record. We show that unless a follow-on ERB instrument to the last available CERES copy (FM6) is built and launched, there is a significant risk of a measurement gap in the ERB record by the mid-2020s. A gap is of concern not only because the ERB would not be monitored during the gap period but also because it would be exceedingly difficult to tie the records before and after the gap together with sufficient accuracy for climate analyses. While ERB instruments are highly stable temporally, they lack the absolute accuracy needed to bridge a gap. Consequently, there is a requirement that

  6. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee report on program strategy for US magnetic fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Berkner, K.H.; Culler, F.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dreyfus, D.A.; Holdren, J.P.; McCrory, R.L.; Parker, R.R.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Siemon, R.E.; Staudhammer, P.; Weitzner, H.

    1992-09-01

    The Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) was charged by the Department of Energy (DOE) with developing recommendations on how best to pursue the goal of a practical magnetic fusion reactor in the context of several budget scenarios covering the period FY 1994-FY 1998. Four budget scenarios were examined, each anchored to the FY 1993 figure of $337.9 million for fusion energy (less $9 million for inertial fusion energy which is not examined here)

  7. Diagnosing MJO Destabilization and Propagation with the Moisture and MSE Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Eric; Wolding, Brandon

    2015-04-01

    Novel diagnostics obtained as an extension of empirical orthogonal function analysis are used as a composting basis to gain insight into MJO dynamics through examination of reanalysis moisture and moist static energy budgets. The net effect of vertical moisture advection and cloud processes was found to be a modest positive feedback to column moisture anomalies during both enhanced and suppressed phases of the MJO. This positive feedback is regionally strengthened by anomalous surface fluxes of latent heat. The modulation of horizontal synoptic scale eddy mixing acts as a negative feedback to column moisture anomalies, while anomalous winds acting against the mean state moisture gradient aid in eastward propagation. These processes act in a systematic fashion across the Indian Ocean and oceanic regions of the Maritime Continent. The ability to approximately close the MSE budget serves an important role in constraining the moisture budget, whose residual is several times larger than the total and horizontal advective moisture tendencies. Comparison with TRMM precipitation anomalies suggests that the moisture budget residual results from an underestimation by ERAi of variations in both total precipitation and vertical moisture advection associated with the MJO. The results of this study support the concept of the MJO as a moisture-mode. This analysis is extended to examine the impact of boundary layer convergence driven by MJO SST anomalies on the vertically-integrated moisture budget. Results from a coupled version of the SP-CAM suggest that SST-driven moisture convergence anomalies are of a sufficient amplitude to be important for MJO propagation and destabilization, and may help explain why coupled models produce better simulations of the MJO than uncoupled models.

  8. The efficiency and budgeting of public hospitals: case study of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusefzadeh, Hasan; Ghaderi, Hossein; Bagherzade, Rafat; Barouni, Mohsen

    2013-05-01

    Hospitals are the most costly and important components of any health care system, so it is important to know their economic values, pay attention to their efficiency and consider factors affecting them. The aim of this study was to assess the technical scale and economic efficiency of hospitals in the West Azerbaijan province of Iran, for which Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to propose a model for operational budgeting. This study was a descriptive-analysis that was conducted in 2009 and had three inputs and two outputs. Deap2, 1 software was used for data analysis. Slack and radial movements and surplus of inputs were calculated for selected hospitals. Finally, a model was proposed for performance-based budgeting of hospitals and health sectors using the DEA technique. The average scores of technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency (managerial efficiency) and scale efficiency of hospitals were 0.584, 0.782 and 0.771, respectively. In other words the capacity of efficiency promotion in hospitals without any increase in costs and with the same amount of inputs was about 41.5%. Only four hospitals among all hospitals had the maximum level of technical efficiency. Moreover, surplus production factors were evident in these hospitals. Reduction of surplus production factors through comprehensive planning based on the results of the Data Envelopment Analysis can play a major role in cost reduction of hospitals and health sectors. In hospitals with a technical efficiency score of less than one, the original and projected values of inputs were different; resulting in a surplus. Hence, these hospitals should reduce their values of inputs to achieve maximum efficiency and optimal performance. The results of this method was applied to hospitals a benchmark for making decisions about resource allocation; linking budgets to performance results; and controlling and improving hospitals performance.

  9. Modeling the Distributions of Brightness Temperatures of a Cropland Study Area Using a Model that Combines Fast Radiosity and Energy Budget Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunjian Bian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperatures (LSTs obtained from remote sensing data are crucial in monitoring the conditions of crops and urban heat islands. However, since retrieved LSTs represent only the average temperature states of pixels, the distributions of temperatures within individual pixels remain unknown. Such data cannot satisfy the requirements of applications such as precision agriculture. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a model that combines a fast radiosity model, the Radiosity Applicable to Porous IndiviDual Objects (RAPID model, and energy budget methods to dynamically simulate brightness temperatures (BTs over complex surfaces. This model represents a model-based tool that can be used to estimate temperature distributions using fine-scale visible as well as near-infrared (VNIR data and temporal variations in meteorological conditions. The proposed model is tested over a study area in an artificial oasis in Northwestern China. The simulated BTs agree well with those measured with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER. The results reflect root mean squared errors (RMSEs less than 1.6 °C and coefficients of determination (R2 greater than 0.7. In addition, compared to the leaf area index (LAI, this model displays high sensitivity to wind speed during validation. Although simplifications may be adopted for use in specific simulations, this proposed model can be used to support in situ measurements and to provide reference data over heterogeneous vegetation surfaces.

  10. Engaging with ENERGY STAR[R]: How to Increase Student Involvement in Your Energy Management Plan Energy Efficiency in K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grene, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that school budgets are growing smaller, forcing districts to make tough financial choices. Building operating costs drain a massive portion of most districts' budgets. As such, energy efficiency is a powerful tool to cut short- and long-term operating costs, and reductions in energy use. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's…

  11. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

  12. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Performance Reports Regulations Press Release | Budget Briefing | Transcripts: David L. Norquist, Under PDF document. Click on Excel icon for Excel document Overview - FY2019 Defense Budget Performance

  13. Open budget systems and participatory budgeting in Africa: A comparative analysis of Nigeria and Ghana, 2012 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Nwokedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria and Ghana have so many things in common. Apart from sharing the same colonial history and being located in the same West African sub-region, they also practice the same executive presidential system of government. However, this study is an attempt to do a comparative analysis of the budgetary systems of both countries, with a view to understanding how open and transparent the processes are, and the extent to which they allow for public participation. The aim is to identify the differences and similarities (if any. The study was anchored on the Marxist theory of the state. Our analysis showed that in terms of openness and transparency of the system, budget processes in Ghana were more open and transparent both in 2012 and in 2015 than what obtained in Nigeria in those years. As regards public participation in the process, the study also discovered that the government of Ghana created more opportunities for the public to participate in the process than the government of Nigeria. The comprador bourgeois class in Nigeria, because of its interest in primitive accumulation, ensures that budgeting in Nigeria is its exclusive preserve. This is because it is through the budget that it allocates funds to service the interest of its members. Conversely, the national bourgeoisie in Ghana, to a large extent, carries the citizens along in the budget process. However, though Ghana has made appreciable progress in this regard, there is still room for improvement. Finally, the study made a case for participatory budgeting for both countries.

  14. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy is proposed. Methodology. The following methods such as cognition, induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis have been used in the process of survey. Results of the survey proves that budget planning plays an essential role in the financial management. On condition business environment changing even the best management system can become obsolete. The immediate reaction to the new trends in the financial system as a whole, in the industry is possible with budget planning as well. It also allows to make appropriate adjustments to the plans. Adjustment of long-term, medium-term and short-term plans makes it possible, without changing goals, to change ways of their achievement and thus to raise the level of efficiency of budget funds formation and use. It is necessary to revise the whole system plans, including their mission and goals in the case of global changes in the external and internal environment. Practical implications. The proposed approach to the classification of budget planning types allows to cope with the shortcomings of modern planning in the public sector (the development of the targets according to the state budget expenditures in Ukraine remains a formality and it rarely complies with realities. Value/originality is specified in the proposed interpretation which differs from existing ones that provides clarification of budget planning purpose in financial management; classification of budget planning principles, which differs from previous

  15. A radiometric model of an earth radiation budget radiometer optical system with diffuse-specular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is to fly on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and on NOAA F and NOAA G. Large spatial scale earth energy budget data will be derived primarily from measurements made by the ERBE nonscanning instrument (ERBE-NS). A description is given of a mathematical model capable of simulating the radiometric response of any of the ERBE-NS earth viewing channels. The model uses a Monte Carlo method to accurately account for directional distributions of emission and reflection from optical surfaces which are neither strictly diffuse nor strictly specular. The model computes radiation exchange factors among optical system components, and determines the distribution in the optical system of energy from an outside source. Attention is also given to an approach for implementing the model and results obtained from the implementation.

  16. Determining the Budget of Marketing Communication in Big Advertisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Palhares Galão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the criteria and procedures adopted by companies for determining the budget communication. Specifically, we intend to identify how companies organize the system of deciding the budget and deal with the budget cuts throughout the process of implementation of promotional activities. The data collection involved in-depth interviews conducted with communications professionals from ten companies belonging to the ranking of the 300 largest advertisers in Brazil. As data analysis technique, we have chosen content analysis. The main results showed little or no participation by the communication manager's final decision on the budget area, the lack of criteria to justify budget cuts during the promotional period and the adoption by firms of judgment methods and percentage of sales to determine the budget amount of communication

  17. Fiscal Year 2015 Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 Council-approved operating budget for Montgomery County. The dataset does not include revenues and detailed agency budget...

  18. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cycle-Based Budgeting Toolkit: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    At the core, budgeting is about distributing and redistributing limited financial resources for continuous improvement. Incremental budgeting is limited in achieving the goal due to lack of connection between outcomes and budget decisions. Zero-based budgeting fills the gap, but is cumbersome to implement, especially for large urban school…

  20. An Empirical Study on Key Indicators of Environmental Quality: Green Budgeting - a Catalyst for Sustainable Economy and a Factor for Institutional Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta – Maria Cimpoeru

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the phenomenon of institutional change through the implementation of sustainable strategies of medium-term budgeting, having as an effect the growth of opportunity to attract proper resources for social and environmental programs. The study analyzes green budget practices and suggests several ways to use them in order to ensure consistency in implementing key elements of sustainable economy. Thus, we conducted an empirical study to explain the decisive factors impact (greenhouse gas emissions and national income on health expenditure and we obtained statistically significant positive relationship, suggesting that green budgeting is an important factor for sustainable economy. The reasons behind the introduction of a sustainable perspective for budgeting in any country are important since they will dictate, to a large extent, the way the medium term budgeting will be institutionalized

  1. Building Energy and Cost Performance: An Analysis of Thirty Melbourne Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lay Langston

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the energy and cost performance of thirty recent buildings in Melbourne, Australia. Commonly, building design decisions are based on issues pertaining to construction cost, and consideration of energy performance is made only within the context of the initial project budget. Even where energy is elevated to more importance, operating energy is seen as the focus and embodied energy is nearly always ignored. For the first time, a large sample of buildings has been assembled and analyzed to improve the understanding of both energy and cost performance over their full life cycle, which formed the basis of a wider doctoral study into the inherent relationship between energy and cost. The aim of this paper is to report on typical values for embodied energy, operating energy, capital cost and operating cost per square metre for a range of building functional types investigated in this research. The conclusion is that energy and cost have quite different profiles across projects, and yet the mean GJ/m2 or cost/m2 have relatively low coefficients of variation and therefore may be useful as benchmarks of typical building performance.  

  2. Report on broad reconsiderations. Part 1. Energy and Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    In twenty policy areas various working groups have studied variants that can lead to a 20% budget cut in the government budgets of the Netherlands, which must be realized in 2015. The aim of the reconsiderations is to use less government means to realize the same results, or even better results if possible. The broad reconsideration in the field of energy and climate focuses on the expenditure for renewable energy and energy efficiency, mitigating (inter)national climate policy and fiscal benefits. This report addresses six policy variants. [nl

  3. Proposed activity - Budget for research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, V.; Camerini, U.; Carlsmith, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper contains task reports on the following topics: Hadron physics at Fermilab; Lepton hadron scattering; Electroweak and weak interactions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Hyperon beam program/hadroproduction of heavy flavors at Fermilab; High energy physics colliding beam detector facility at Fermilab; Data analysis facility; Institute for Elementary Particle Physics research; Study of weak and electromagnetic interactions at Desy and Cern; Theoretical high energy physics; Dumand; and Ultra high energy gamma rays

  4. Review of economic studies and budget impact analysis of ocriplasmin as a treatment of vitreomacular traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, L; Abreu-González, R; Pérez-Ramos, J; García-Pérez, S; Serrano-Aguilar, P

    2016-06-01

    To review the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of ocriplasmin as a treatment for vitreomacular traction (VMT), and to estimate the impact on the Spanish National Health System (NHS). 1) Systematic review. The following databases were searched in January 2015: MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE, EMBASE, CRD, the Cochrane Library, and key websites. Selection criteria were: full economic evaluations that compared ocriplasmin with usual care ('watch and wait' and/or vitrectomy) in patients with VMT. The outcomes to extract were costs of the alternatives and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Studies of budget impact analysis were also included. The methodological quality was assessed, and a narrative synthesis of the included studies was carried out. 2) Estimation of budget impact. The impact on the budget as a result of the introduction of ocriplasmin in the NHS was estimated, including data from different sources. Six studies were identified, none of them performed in Spain. The two best studies concluded that ocriplasmin is cost-effective in their respective countries (Canada and United Kingdom), but only in patients with certain conditions (without epiretinal membrane, for example). The results of the budget impact analysis are different between countries. The analysis for Spain showed that the introduction of ocriplasmin would mean a saving over 1 million Euros for the NHS in 5 years. The cost-effectiveness of ocriplasmin has not been demonstrated in Spain. However, good studies performed in other countries found that ocriplasmin is cost-effective in selected patients. Given the current prices in Spain, ocriplasmin could involve a saving for the Spanish NHS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee shall...

  6. THE BUDGET PROGRAM: ECONOMIC CONTENT AND PRACTICE OF IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Shevchenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyse the practice of the economic content of budget programs’ implementation in Ukraine. The definition of the budget program is given. It is noted that, in the Ukrainian legislative area, there is a wide range of programs, namely: programs of economic and social development of Ukraine; Government activity programs; state target programs; local programs for the socio-economic and cultural development. The author reviews in more detail the differences between the budget program and the state target program since it is these types of programs that are most confusing. It is emphasized that there is a certain interconnection between budget and state target programs and a strategic document. Thus, in order to achieve the corresponding goal and fulfil the tasks set out in the paper and aim at solving urgent problems of development, it is necessary to develop concrete ways in the context of branches of the economy. Methodology. The study of the indicators of planned and fully financed state budget programs, planned and spent expenditures for the financing of budget programs for 2011– 2015, as well as the polynomial trend of planned expenditures for the financialization of budget programs for 2011– 2017, is conducted. The interrelation between elements of budget programs and their characteristic features is studied. Indicators of the implementation of budget programs applied in international practice are considered and analysed, namely: Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, USA. Results. The author systematized the views of scientists on the performance indicators of budget programs. The analysis of the professional literature on this issue allowed generalizing the main classification features, which, according to the author, should be fixed at the legislative level. Practical implication. The author proposed an additional classification mark “Depending on the degree of risk of non-fulfilment of the program

  7. Energy vulnerability. Far from urban centres, space heating and fuel costs weigh heavily on the household budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochez, Nicolas; Durieux, Eric; Levy, David; Moreau, Sylvain; Baudu-Baret, Claude

    2015-01-01

    For 15% of resident households in metropolitan France, the proportion of income going on home and water heating is high, in the sense that it is twice the median housing-expense to income ratio. With this same criterion, the cost of the most mandatory car journeys is high for 10% of households, in relation to their budgets. In all, 22% of households (i.e. 5.9 million) are experiencing energy vulnerability for one or other of the items of consumption, and 3% of households (i.e. 700 000) are vulnerable for both items. The risk of vulnerability varies over national territory, with differences depending on the items of expenditure considered: climate is the primary factor where disparity in housing-related vulnerability is concerned, whereas the predominant factor for travel is distance from urban centres

  8. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from another...

  9. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Expenses and Assessments § 956.41 Budget. Prior to each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  10. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter, the...

  11. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  12. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures necessary...

  13. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee may...

  14. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  15. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-07-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  16. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  17. FACTOR IN ENSURING A BALANCED BUDGET NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Anatol’evna Naidenova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main tools of sustainable development of the country as a whole and its individual regions are federal and regional budgets. At the same time a prerequisite for the use of this tool is its equilibrium. It is the basic principle of a responsible fiscal policy. The article describes the factors to equilibrium. on the budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation. The measures to ensure budgetary equilibrium in the northern regions of the Russian Federation are offered.The purpose of the article. Substantiating the measures to balance the budgets of the northern Russian Federation subjects on the basis of analysis of the factors that directly affect the mobilization of potential tax revenues to regional budgets.Method and methodology of work. Theoretical and empirical methods, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction.Results of the study. To ensure factors unbalanced budgets northern territories. The proposals the balance of revenues and expenditures of the regional budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation are submitted.Application area. Finance authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  18. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  19. Estimating Evapotranspiration Using an Observation Based Terrestrial Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; McWilliams, Eric B.; Famiglietti, James S.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is difficult to measure at the scales of climate models and climate variability. While satellite retrieval algorithms do exist, their accuracy is limited by the sparseness of in situ observations available for calibration and validation, which themselves may be unrepresentative of 500m and larger scale satellite footprints and grid pixels. Here, we use a combination of satellite and ground-based observations to close the water budgets of seven continental scale river basins (Mackenzie, Fraser, Nelson, Mississippi, Tocantins, Danube, and Ubangi), estimating mean ET as a residual. For any river basin, ET must equal total precipitation minus net runoff minus the change in total terrestrial water storage (TWS), in order for mass to be conserved. We make use of precipitation from two global observation-based products, archived runoff data, and TWS changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission. We demonstrate that while uncertainty in the water budget-based estimates of monthly ET is often too large for those estimates to be useful, the uncertainty in the mean annual cycle is small enough that it is practical for evaluating other ET products. Here, we evaluate five land surface model simulations, two operational atmospheric analyses, and a recent global reanalysis product based on our results. An important outcome is that the water budget-based ET time series in two tropical river basins, one in Brazil and the other in central Africa, exhibit a weak annual cycle, which may help to resolve debate about the strength of the annual cycle of ET in such regions and how ET is constrained throughout the year. The methods described will be useful for water and energy budget studies, weather and climate model assessments, and satellite-based ET retrieval optimization.

  20. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  1. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form prescribed...

  2. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  3. FY1992 nuclear budget requests reach 433 bil. yen, up 5.8%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The total of 433,586 million yen has been requested for nuclear related budgetary appropriation for fiscal 1992, up 5.8% from the previous year, according to the Atomic Energy Commission in an announcement made on September 10. The Commission summed up the budget requests from eight relevant ministries and agencies (185,397 million yen on the general account and 248,189 million yen on the special account for power resource development). Subsidies for power plant siting promotion represent more than half of the request for funds to promote public understanding and cooperation, and this item tops the list of budget items at 115,650 million yen, up 16% over the previous year. The appropriation of 95,243 million yen was requested for the development of advanced power reactors and the utilization of plutonium. The funds allocated to the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle amount to 73,074 million yen, up 19%. 38,285 million yen is requested for strengthening nuclear safety measures. The budget requests of Science and Technology Agency and Ministry of International Trade and Industry related to nuclear energy are reported more in detail. (K.I.)

  4. 25 CFR 122.7 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget. 122.7 Section 122.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 122.7 Budget. (a) By August 1 of each year, the Osage Tribal Education Committee will submit a proposed budget to the Assistant Secretary or to his/her designated representative for formal approval...

  5. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations... Assessments § 955.41 Budget. At least 60 days prior to each fiscal period, or such other date as may be... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee may...

  6. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  7. Zero-base budgeting and the library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, C W

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the application of zero-base budgeting to libraries and the procedures involved in setting up this type of budget. It describes the "decision packages" necessary when this systmem is employed, as well as how to rank the packages and the problems which are related to the process. Zero-base budgeting involves the entire staff of a library, and the incentive engendered makes for a better and more realistic budget. The paper concludes with the problems which one might encounter in zero-base budgeting and the major benefits of the system. PMID:626795

  8. Lambert-Beer law in ocean waters: optical properties of water and of dissolved/suspended material, optical energy budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavn, R H

    1988-01-15

    The role of the Lambert-Beer law in ocean optics is critically examined. The Lambert-Beer law and the three-parameter model of the submarine light field are used to construct an optical energy budget for any hydrosol. It is further applied to the analytical exponential decay coefficient of the light field and used to estimate the optical properties and effects of the dissolved/suspended component in upper ocean layers. The concepts of the empirical exponential decay coefficient (diffuse attenuation coefficient) of the light field and a constant exponential decay coefficient for molecular water are analyzed quantitatively. A constant exponential decay coefficient for water is rejected. The analytical exponential decay coefficient is used to analyze optical gradients in ocean waters.

  9. Capital budget practices: a study in hospitality companies of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Manoela Quint dos Santos Zanini; Paula de Souza; Rogério João Lunkes

    2013-01-01

    Budget is considered an essential process to management and communication to the company, to assist in the identification of potentials bottlenecks, to define specific goals and objectives and evaluate future performances. Therefore, this study aims is to analyze the capital budgeting practices adopted by the hotel companies in the cities of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Salvador. Data were collected applying questionnaires in the three cities, constituting a population of 12 hotels associate...

  10. Program Direction FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Program Direction enables EERE to maintain and support a world-class federal workforce to accomplish its mission of creating and sustaining American leadership in the sustainable transportation, renewable power, and energy efficiency sectors. The FY 2017 Program Direction budget request provides resources for program and project management, administrative support, contract administration, human capital management, headquarters and field site non-laboratory facilities and infrastructure, and contractor support.

  11. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC's mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC's FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC's Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC's Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC's Salaries and Expenses and NRC's Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury

  12. Analysis of Health Sector Budget of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, R K; Magar, A; Karki, S D; Khatiwada, D; Hamal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Primarily, health sector connects two segments - medicine and public health, where medicine deals with individual patients and public health with the population health. Budget enables both the disciplines to function effectively. The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has adapted the inspiration of federalism and declared the provision of basic health care services free of cost as a fundamental right, which needs strengthening under foreseen federalism. An observational retrospective cohort study, aiming at examining the health sector budget allocation and outcome, was done. Authors gathered health budget figures (2001 to 2013) and facts published from authentic sources. Googling was done for further information. The keywords for search used were: fiscal federalism, health care, public health, health budget, health financing, external development partner, bilateral and multilateral partners and healthcare accessibility. The search was limited to English and Nepali-language report, articles and news published. Budget required to meet the population's need is still limited in Nepal. The health sector budget could not achieve even gainful results due to mismatch in policy and policy implementation despite of political commitment. Since Nepal is transforming towards federalism, an increased complexity under federated system is foreseeable, particularly in the face of changed political scenario and its players. It should have clear goals, financing policy and strict implementation plans for budget execution, task performance and achieving results as per planning. Additionally, collection of revenue, risk pooling and purchasing of services should be better integrated between central government and federated states to horn effectiveness and efficiency.

  13. Building information modeling in budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction activity is one of the financially demanding and ever-changing locations of implementation. The basic idea of the budget is to determine all the possible costs that will arise during construction work. The budget must be a transparent and effective way of communication in the context of supplier-customer relationships. For this reason it is essential to give the budget the structure that is now represented by the price system. It is important to adhere to the principles of budgeting and technical standards. It is necessary to have good documentation for budgeting such as project documentation and much more. However, the construction product range is one of the most extensive, the product group can be changed several times in the investment phase not only materially but also cost-effectively because of the longest production cycle in the construction industry.

  14. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    , and therefore it is essential that the applicability of the overall uncertainty budget to actual measurement results be verified on the basis of current experimental data. This should be carried out by replicate analysis of samples taken in accordance with the definition of the measurand, but representing...... the full range of matrices and concentrations for which the budget is assumed to be valid. In this way the assumptions made in the uncertainty budget can be experimentally verified, both as regards sources of variability that are assumed negligible, and dominant uncertainty components. Agreement between...

  15. Statewide Study of School Public Relations Personnel: Roles, Responsibilities, Relationships, and Budget Vote Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This two-part quantitative study expanded our understanding of school PR personnel in public school districts, particularly those who worked during the 2009-2012 budget years. Four cultural changes have redefined the paradigm of public education and served as a springboard for this study: technology-enhanced communications information retrieval,…

  16. Rapid Budget Analysis of the Agricultural Sector for the General Budget Support Annual Review 2010/11

    OpenAIRE

    Francken, Nathalie; Zorya, S

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the budget analysis chapter is to provide an overall assessment of how well the approved budget allocations in 2010-11 align with the strategic objectives and with sector strategic priorities of the Second National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (known by its Kiswahili acronym, MKUKUTA II). It also assesses the consistency of the actual spending and approved budget in 2009-10. In evaluating the alignment of the budget and MKUKUTA's strategic objectives and ...

  17. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  18. Budget Elements of Economic Security: Specifics of Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of economic security in conjunction with budget components such as “budget interests” and “budget necessities” are analyzed. Key positions of the categories “budget interests” and “budget necessities” in the theory of economic security in the budgetary area are substantiated given their priority role in setting up its implementation strategy. The category “budget interests” is defined as the system of budget necessities of the interest holders, implemented through budget activities of entities and aimed at seeking benefits through the budget, in order to guarantee functioning and development of the society, the state, legal entities and physical persons. “Budget necessities” are defined as the need in budget funds to achieve and sustain, at a certain level, life activities of individuals, social groups, society, state and legal entities. Classification of budget interests by various criteria is made in the context of their impact on the economic security of the state. It is demonstrated that the four-tier classification of the budget interests by interest holder is essential to guaranteeing economic security in the budgetary area: budget interests of the state: the interests held by central and local power offices; budget interests of legal entities: the interests of profit and non-profit (public, budgetary, party and other organizations; budget interests of individuals: basic necessities of individuals, met by budget transfers, which stand out of the array of public necessities by their individual character.

  19. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  20. Monitoring the Efficiency of Budget Management of Trade Enterprises in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Larysa V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the actuality of carrying out the monitoring of budget management efficiency at trade enterprises in Ukraine. It has been found that the efficiency of each trade enterprise management system, in particular the efficiency of budget management system, is determined by several factors, among which there considered the enterprise business profile, the competitive situation in the market and the standard of living of the population. The efficiency of budget management and, as a result, the efficiency of trade enterprises’ activity is reflected in the results of the effectiveness of the main indicators of the financial budgets of enterprises. Therefore, using the method of fuzzy sets, there carried out an integral evaluation of the efficiency of budget management based on the efficiency of financial budgets: the budget revenues and expenditures, cash flow budget and budgeted balance sheet. The study is carried out for Ukraine as a whole, and its most developed regions.

  1. Daily Radiation Budget of the Baltic Sea Surface from Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapadka Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently developed system for assessment of radiation budget for the Baltic Sea has been presented and verified. The system utilizes data from various sources: satellite, model and in situ measurements. It has been developed within the SatBałtyk project (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - www.satbaltyk.eu where the energy radiation budget is one of the key element. The SatBałtyk system generates daily maps of the all components of radiation budget on every day basis. We show the scheme of making daily maps, applied algorithms and empirical data collection within the system. An empirical verification of the system has been carried out based on empirical data collected on the oil rig placed on the Baltic Sea. This verification concerned all the components of the surface radiation budget. The average daily NET products are estimated with statistical error ca. 13 Wm-2. The biggest absolute statistical error is for LWd component and equals 14 Wm-2. The relative error in relation to the average annual values for whole Baltic is the biggest for SWu and reaches 25%. All estimated components have correlation coefficient above 0.91.

  2. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  3. STATE BUDGET AND BUDGETARY PROCEDURES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA George Dorel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the budget process is governed by the Constitution and the Law of Public Finance no. 500/2002, act that includes the elaboration of the draft budget, approving the state budget, budget execution and budget control. All these activities are carried out in a legal way and administrative- institutional way, presenting features from country to country. The budget shows many traits in common: it is a decision process, because its essence consists in allocating budgetary resources for public goods such as education, health, national defence and so on. On the other hand is an essentially political process because allocation decisions budgetary resources are determined by the political groups, the mechanism of representation and voting, is a complex process with many participants (schools, hospitals, ministries, etc.. The budgetary process is a cyclic process, as it follows a well-defined calendar as a consequence of yearly and advertising budget. In conclusion, the budget process is a set of consecutive stages of development, approval, execution, control and reporting of the state budget, which ends with the approval of its execution account.

  4. Energy budget, behavior and leptin in striped hamsters subjected to food restriction and refeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Food restriction induces a loss of body mass that is often followed by rapid regaining of the lost weight when the restriction ends, consequently increasing a risk of development of obesity. To determine the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlining the regaining, striped hamsters were restricted to 85% of initial food intake for 4 weeks and refed ad libitum for another 4 weeks. Changes in body mass, energy budget, activity, body composition and serum leptin level were measured. Body mass, body fat mass and serum leptin level significantly decreased in food-restricted hamsters, and increased when the restriction ended, showing a short "compensatory growth" rather than over-weight or obesity compared with ad libitum controls. During restriction, the time spent on activity increased significantly, which was opposite to the changes in serum leptin level. Food intake increased shortly during refeeding, which perhaps contributed to the rapid regaining of body mass. No correlation was observed between serum leptin and energy intake, while negative correlations were found in hamsters that were refed for 7 and 28 days. Exogenous leptin significantly decreased the time spent on activity during food restriction and attenuated the increase in food intake during refeeding. This suggests that low leptin in restricted animals may function as a starvation signal to induce an increase in activity behavior, and high leptin likely serves as a satiety signal to prevent activity during refeeding. Leptin may play a crucial role in controlling food intake when the restriction ends, and consequently preventing overweight.

  5. Experimental evaluation of thermal and energy performance of temperate green roofs: a case study in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Institute of Hydrology; Water Resources

    2011-12-01

    An experimental evaluation of thermal and energy performance of temperate green roofs was carried out by thermal and meteorological observation and energy budget modeling using a setup of green roof in Beijing urban area. From both the yearly and daily temperature trends, the green roof could effectively damp down the undulation of roof surface temperature comparing with the conventional one. As an insulating screen, the green roof abated the amplitude of temperature by 9.0 in winter and 9.1 °C in summer, respectively. Under different cloud conditions, the green roof in summer time resulted in decreases in sensible heat and heat flux by 125.3W m-2 and 32.0 W m-2, respectively, on daily average comparing with the conventional one. Based on the energy budget analyses, under an assumptive scenario of 50% roof-greening in Beijing, a total of 34.1 PJ of sensible heat and 8.7 PJ of heat flux would be decreased for a summer period of 90 days. This study demonstrated that green roof, serving as an insulating screen to building top in comparison with the conventional roof, proved thermal improving effect in building scale and high energy saving potential for urban development.

  6. The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, J. E.; Russell, J. E.; Hanafin, J. A.; Brindley, H.; Futyan, J.; Rufus, J.; Kellock, S.; Matthews, G.; Wrigley, R.; Last, A.; Mueller, J.; Mossavati, R.; Ashmall, J.; Sawyer, E.; Parker, D.; Caldwell, M.; Allan, P. M.; Smith, A.; Bates, M. J.; Coan, B.; Stewart, B. C.; Lepine, D. R.; Cornwall, L. A.; Corney, D. R.; Ricketts, M. J.; Drummond, D.; Smart, D.; Cutler, R.; Dewitte, S.; Clerbaux, N.; Gonzalez, L.; Ipe, A.; Bertrand, C.; Joukoff, A.; Crommelynck, D.; Nelms, N.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Butcher, G.; Smith, G. L.; Szewczyk, Z. P.; Mlynczak, P. E.; Slingo, A.; Allan, R. P.; Ringer, M. A.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports on a new satellite sensor, the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment. GERB is designed to make the first measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from geostationary orbit. Measurements at high absolute accuracy of the reflected sunlight from the Earth, and the thermal radiation emitted by the Earth are made every 15 min, with a spatial resolution at the subsatellite point of 44.6 km (north south) by 39.3 km (east west). With knowledge of the incoming solar constant, this gives the primary forcing and response components of the top-of-atmosphere radiation. The first GERB instrument is an instrument of opportunity on Meteosat-8, a new spin-stabilized spacecraft platform also carrying the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared (SEVIRI) sensor, which is currently positioned over the equator at 3.5°W. This overview of the project includes a description of the instrument design and its preflight and in-flight calibration. An evaluation of the instrument performance after its first year in orbit, including comparisons with data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensors and with output from numerical models, are also presented. After a brief summary of the data processing system and data products, some of the scientific studies that are being undertaken using these early data are described. This marks the beginning of a decade or more of observations from GERB, as subsequent models will fly on each of the four Meteosat Second Generation satellites.

  7. Study on Earth Radiation Budget mission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlhopolsky, R; Hollmann, R; Mueller, J; Stuhlmann, R [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1998-12-31

    The goal of this study is to study optimized satellite configurations for observation of the radiation balance of the earth. We present a literature survey of earth radiation budget missions and instruments. We develop a parametric tool to simulate realistic multiple satellite mission scenarios. This tool is a modular computer program which models satellite orbits and scanning operation. We use Meteosat data sampled at three hour intervals as a database to simulate atmospheric scenes. Input variables are satellite equatorial crossing time and instrument characteristics. Regional, zonal and global monthly averages of shortwave and longwave fluxes for an ideal observing system and several realistic satellite scenarios are produced. Comparisons show that the three satellite combinations which have equatorial crossing times at midmorning, noon and midafternoon provide the best shortwave monitoring. Crossing times near sunrise and sunset should be avoided for the shortwave. Longwave diurnal models are necessary over and surfaces and cloudy regions, if there are only two measurements made during daylight hours. We have found in the shortwave inversion comparison that at least 15% of the monthly regional errors can be attributed to the shortwave anisotropic models used. (orig.) 68 refs.

  8. Study on Earth Radiation Budget mission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlhopolsky, R.; Hollmann, R.; Mueller, J.; Stuhlmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study is to study optimized satellite configurations for observation of the radiation balance of the earth. We present a literature survey of earth radiation budget missions and instruments. We develop a parametric tool to simulate realistic multiple satellite mission scenarios. This tool is a modular computer program which models satellite orbits and scanning operation. We use Meteosat data sampled at three hour intervals as a database to simulate atmospheric scenes. Input variables are satellite equatorial crossing time and instrument characteristics. Regional, zonal and global monthly averages of shortwave and longwave fluxes for an ideal observing system and several realistic satellite scenarios are produced. Comparisons show that the three satellite combinations which have equatorial crossing times at midmorning, noon and midafternoon provide the best shortwave monitoring. Crossing times near sunrise and sunset should be avoided for the shortwave. Longwave diurnal models are necessary over and surfaces and cloudy regions, if there are only two measurements made during daylight hours. We have found in the shortwave inversion comparison that at least 15% of the monthly regional errors can be attributed to the shortwave anisotropic models used. (orig.) 68 refs.

  9. A portfolio decision analysis approach to support energy research and development resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, Margaret; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Bates, Matthew E.; Bridges, Todd S.; Summers, Jeffrey; Linkov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Research sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) aims to facilitate a clean and independent energy future for the nation. Strategic planning for energy research and development (R&D) can be complex and dynamic, in part due to federal budgetary constraints and volatility. Managing R&D funding to advance energy technologies, in spite of these challenges, is a crucial component of the nation's long term energy policy. This study demonstrates a portfolio decision analysis (PDA) approach to support R&D resource allocation decisions for the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's Carbon Capture and Storage R&D program. A multi-attribute value model uses technology readiness levels (TRLs) and other metrics to represent the overall objectives of the R&D program in order to evaluate alternative research portfolios given limited funding. Mathematical optimization identifies efficient funding allocations for each technology program area to maximize the multi-attribute value generated from the total budget. This is especially useful for responding to externally imposed budget changes. As the case study demonstrates, explicitly funding the most value-generating options leads to greater expected R&D programmatic value than typical strategies of equal or proportional distributions of a budget change among technology program areas. - Highlights: • Decision analysis can minimize the effect of a budget decrement on an R&D program. • Greater expected benefits are yielded by differentially funding technologies. • Budget scenario testing illustrates factors that influence value generation. • Coordinating with US DOE bridges gap between decision research and practice.

  10. Defense.gov Special Report: 2013 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2013 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 13, 2012 Top Stories Budget Proposal Slows Cost Growth, Pentagon Leaders Say The Defense Department's proposed fiscal 2013 budget request Department officials told a Senate panel. Story Officials Seek Construction Funds, More BRAC in Budget

  11. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states’ (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  12. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  13. Borehole temperatures reveal a changed energy budget at Mill Island, East Antarctica, over recent decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A borehole temperature record from the Mill Island (East Antarctica icecap reveals a large surface warming signal manifested as a 0.75 K temperature difference over the approximate 100 m depth in the zone of zero annual amplitude below the seasonally varying zone. The temperature profile shows a break in gradient around 49 m depth, which we model with inverse numerical simulations, indicating that surface warming started around the austral summer of 1980/81 AD ±5 yr. This warming of approximately 0.37 K per decade is consistent with trends seen in both instrumental and other reconstructions for Antarctica and, therefore, suggests that regional- rather than local-scale processes are largely responsible. Alteration of the surface energy budget arising from changes in radiation balances due to local cloud, the amount of liquid deposition and local air temperatures associated with altered air/sea exchanges also potentially plays a role at this location due to the proximity of the Shackleton Ice Shelf and sea-ice zone.

  14. ANTESEN CUSTOMER LOYALTY PADA BUDGET HOTEL

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa Rahma

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Image Budget hotel (Five Budget Hotel Managed by local chain hotel). The purpose of this study were 1) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, 2) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty, 3) to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty, 4) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on the Brand Image, 5 ) to analyze ...

  15. Global carbon budget 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990's, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6±0.4 GtC yr -1 , ELUC 0.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , GATM 4.3±0

  16. Budget Impact Analysis to Estimate the Cost Dynamics of Treating Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Radiofrequency Energy: a Payer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, David; Scotti, Dennis J; Buck, Daniel; Triadafilopoulos, George

    2016-05-01

    A minimally invasive endoscopic treatment that utilizes radio-frequency energy (RFE) has received increased attention as an appropriate middle-ground approach in the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and as an alternative to complicated and invasive surgical procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a longitudinal budget impact analysis from the payer perspective to estimate the direct medical costs of treatment for the refractory GERD patient population and to estimate the budgetary impact of further extending the RFE treatment option to other target populations. A retrospective analysis of claims designed to assess the longitudinal costs and budget impact on payer expenditures associated with managing and treating GERD surgically (Nissen fundoplication [NF]), endoscopically (RFE), or medically was performed. Both Medicare and commercially insured claims databases were interrogated for such population-level analyses. At current adoption rates (less than 1% of procedures), RFE demonstrated overall cost savings ranging from 7.3% to 50.5% in the 12-month time period following the index procedure (inclusive of procedure costs) when compared to medical management and fundoplication across the commercial and Medicare patient populations. Increasing the total number of RFE procedures to 2% of total cases performed generated per-member, per-month (PMPM) savings of $0.28 in the Medicare population and $0.37 in the commercially insured population. Further increases yielded higher PMPM savings. Adding to the clinical importance of RFE in filling the gap between medical and surgical management, this economic analysis demonstrates to payers that the adoption of RFE can create notable savings to their plans when compared to surgery or medical management.

  17. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logviss, Konstantins; Krievins, Dainis; Purvina, Santa

    2016-05-11

    Number of orphan medicinal products on the market and number of rare disease patients, taking these usually expensive products, are increasing. As a result, budget impact of orphan drugs is growing. This factor, along with the cost-effectiveness of orphan drugs, is often considered in the reimbursement decisions, directly affecting accessibility of rare disease therapies. The current study aims to assess the budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia. Our study covered a 5-year period, from 2010 to 2014. Impact of orphan drugs on Latvian budget was estimated from the National Health Service's perspective. It was calculated in absolute values and relative to total pharmaceutical market and total drug reimbursement budget. A literature review was performed for comparison with other European countries. Orphan drug annual expenditure ranged between EUR 2.065 and 3.065 million, with total 5-year expenditure EUR 12.467 million. It constituted, on average, 0.84 % of total pharmaceutical market and 2.14 % of total drug reimbursement budget, respectively. Average annual per patient expenditures varied widely, from EUR 1 534 to EUR 580 952. The most costly treatment was enzyme replacement therapy (Elaprase) for MPS II. Glivec had the highest share (34 %) of the total orphan drug expenditure. Oncological drugs represented more than a half of the total orphan drug expenditure, followed by drugs for metabolic and endocrine conditions and medicines for cardiopulmonary diseases. Three indications: Ph+ CML, MPS II, and PAH accounted for nearly 90 % of the total orphan drug expenditure. Budget impact of orphan drugs in Latvia is very small. It increased slightly over a period of five years, due to the slight increase in the number of patients and the number of orphan drugs reimbursed. Current Latvian drug reimbursement system is not sufficient for most orphan drugs.

  18. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  19. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  20. Integrating the effects of salinity on the physiology of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in the northern Gulf of Mexico through a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, Romain; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Casas, Sandra M.; Bacher, C.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model for the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, which enables the inclusion of salinity as a third environmental variable, on top of the standard foodr and temperature variables. Salinity changes have various effects on the physiology of oysters, potentially altering filtration and respiration rates, and ultimately impacting growth, reproduction and mortality. We tested different hypotheses as to how to include these effects in a DEB model for C. virginica. Specifically, we tested two potential mechanisms to explain changes in oyster shell growth (cm), tissue dry weight (g) and gonad dry weight (g) when salinity moves away from the ideal range: 1) a negative effect on filtration rate and 2) an additional somatic maintenance cost. Comparative simulations of shell growth, dry tissue biomass and dry gonad weight in two monitored sites in coastal Louisiana experiencing salinity from 0 to 28 were statistically analyzed to determine the best hypothesis. Model parameters were estimated through the covariation method, using literature data and a set of specifically designed ecophysiological experiments. The model was validated through independent field studies in estuaries along the northern Gulf of Mexico. Our results suggest that salinity impacts C. virginica’s energy budget predominantly through effects on filtration rate. With an overwhelming number of environmental factors impacting organisms, and increasing exposure to novel and extreme conditions, the mechanistic nature of the DEB model with its ability to incorporate more than the standard food and temperature variables provides a powerful tool to verify hypotheses and predict individual organism performance across a range of conditions.

  1. Dose budget for exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Dose budget is an important management tool to effectively control the collective dose incurred in a nuclear facility. The budget represents a set of yardsticks or guidelines for use in controlling the internal activities, involving radiation exposure in the organisation. The management, through budget can evaluate the radiation protection performance at every level of the organisation where a number of independent functional groups work on routine and non-routine jobs. The discrepancy between the plan and the actual performance is high lighted through the budgets. The organisation may have to change the course of its operation in a particular area or revise its plan with due focus on appropriate protective measures. (author)

  2. Comparative study of the efficiency of public supports to investments in energy management in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, Stefan; Ballu, Matthieu; Di Stefano, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a detailed overview of public budgets invested by the different member States of the European Union via subsidy systems, loans or tax arrangements in order to support investments in energy efficiency in buildings. The author also studied results published for these public instruments in terms of energy savings, and proposed a comparison which takes the lifetime of these savings into account. The study is based on available official information. Thus, before presenting the obtained results, the author describes how data have been collected and harmonised, presents the comparative analysis and discusses the lifetime measurement issue

  3. Laboratory administration--capital budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, F

    1997-01-01

    The process of capital budgeting varies among different health-care institutions. Understanding the concept of present value of money, incremental cash flow statements, and the basic budgeting techniques will enable the laboratory manager to make the rational and logical decisions that are needed in today's competitive health-care environment.

  4. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  5. Budget Management Performance Based On The Department Of Education Regional Konawe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmin Ramba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze the bureaucratic accountability that includes answerability and enforcement in the management of the Regional Budget in education Konawe southeast Sulawesi province. this study used a qualitative research approach with an instrumental case study strategy. Case in this study is the planning and implementation of Revenue and Expenditure Budget of fiscal year 2011. The unit of analysis of this research is an organization with a shot in the Department of Education. The informants are managing officials Regional Budget fiscal year 2011. Data collection techniques used were interviews and document study while data analysis is qualitative analysis interactive model. The results showed that the bureaucratic accountability that includes answerability and enforcement in the management of the Regional Budget less run well in education Konawe Southeast Sulawesi Province. Bureaucratic accountability in the management of the Regional Budget in education Konawe Southeast Sulawesi province is not based on professional standards and norms of behavior. This is due to the bureaucratic officials who manage the Regional Budget operates within the context of power relations patron-client oriented. Power relations patron-client oriented systematically developed in order to realize personal interests that additional income and continuity of office.

  6. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy...

  7. Defense.gov Special Report: 2015 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search FY 2015 Fiscal Budget News Stories Dempsey Calls for Budget Increase increase its budget, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said. Story James: Air Force Grapples with Congress to Fund Readiness The Air Force fiscal 2015 budget request is shrinking because of Congressional

  8. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  9. Radiation budget changes with dry forest clearing in temperate Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houspanossian, Javier; Nosetto, Marcelo; Jobbágy, Esteban G

    2013-04-01

    Land cover changes may affect climate and the energy balance of the Earth through their influence on the greenhouse gas composition of the atmosphere (biogeochemical effects) but also through shifts in the physical properties of the land surface (biophysical effects). We explored how the radiation budget changes following the replacement of temperate dry forests by crops in central semiarid Argentina and quantified the biophysical radiative forcing of this transformation. For this purpose, we computed the albedo and surface temperature for a 7-year period (2003-2009) from MODIS imagery at 70 paired sites occupied by native forests and crops and calculated the radiation budget at the tropopause and surface levels using a columnar radiation model parameterized with satellite data. Mean annual black-sky albedo and diurnal surface temperature were 50% and 2.5 °C higher in croplands than in dry forests. These contrasts increased the outgoing shortwave energy flux at the top of the atmosphere in croplands by a quarter (58.4 vs. 45.9 W m(-2) ) which, together with a slight increase in the outgoing longwave flux, yielded a net cooling of -14 W m(-2) . This biophysical cooling effect would be equivalent to a reduction in atmospheric CO2 of 22 Mg C ha(-1) , which involves approximately a quarter to a half of the typical carbon emissions that accompany deforestation in these ecosystems. We showed that the replacement of dry forests by crops in central Argentina has strong biophysical effects on the energy budget which could counterbalance the biogeochemical effects of deforestation. Underestimating or ignoring these biophysical consequences of land-use changes on climate will certainly curtail the effectiveness of many warming mitigation actions, particularly in semiarid regions where high radiation load and smaller active carbon pools would increase the relative importance of biophysical forcing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  11. Should Corrupt Countries receive Budget Support?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Corruption makes budget support ineffective, and sometimes counter-productive. Budget support is particularly unsuitable in partner countries where political corruption is rampant. As donors increase budget support, it is a paradox that corruption is not more of an issue in evaluations and public financial management assessment methods.

  12. Optimal Referral Reward Considering Customer’s Budget Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone likes Porsche but few can afford it. Budget constraints always play a critical role in a customer’s decision-making. The literature disproportionally focuses on how firms can induce customer valuations toward the product, but does not address how to assess the influence of budget constraints. We study these questions in the context of a referral reward program (RRP. RRP is a prominent marketing strategy that utilizes recommendations passed from existing customers to their friends and effectively stimulates word of mouth (WoM. We build a stylized game-theoretical model with a nested Stackelberg game involving three players: a firm, an existing customer, and a potential customer who is a friend of the existing customer. The budget is the friend’s private information. We show that RRPs might be optimal when the friend has either a low or a high valuation, but they work differently in each situation because of the budget. Furthermore, there are two budget thresholds, a fixed one and a variable one, which limit a firm’s ability to use rewards.

  13. Budgeting as a strategic tool for development in the arts | Enamhe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines budgeting as a strategic tool for development in the Arts. Budgeting as a fundamental requirement to good management is being overlooked in Arts organizations. The study stresses the relevance of budgeting to arts organisations that ought to achieve their goals and objectives. It evidences the ...

  14. Understanding Budget Reality in The Perspective of Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Ardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to interpret the meaning of budget on one of the StateOwned Enterprises (SOEs to minimize conflict between principal and agent. Analysis is done using symbolic interactionism method in interpretive paradigm. Data collection is conducted using in-depth interviews with informants who are very familiar with budgeting in PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN. The results of this study reveal that budgeting process involves the interaction and action between the principal and the agent based on their own experiences in preparing the budget. Decision making is sorely needed, especially in a condition where an individual is able to free himself from the crisis called epiphany. Epiphany is a moment of experience that makes an impression on one’s life so as to form a character is called epiphany. It could be said that epiphany is the most critical moment ever experienced by someone that cannot be forgotten(Denzim, 1989Social fact describes that a capitalistic company ownership thinks of itself with the purpose of fulfilling personal desires and prosperity, so in implementing budget preparation consisting of the symbol of numbers, it is always covered by passion of greed. Conflict of interest is very noticeable when the preparation and adoption of the budget is filled with a variety of interests. Regulatory system is becoming part of legitimate stage of budgeting that has become the elements of capitalist company ownership that eventually reap capitalist values in the accounting information, in which the decisions and the economic actions are also based on the capitalist values. The implication of this research is expected to provide practical recommendations to the good cooperation between the agent and principal in preparing the budget.

  15. Analysis of the radiation budget in regional climate simulations with COSMO-CLM for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kothe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed two regional climate simulations for Africa regarding the radiation budgets with particular focus on the contribution of potentially influential parameters on uncertainties in the radiation components. The ERA-Interim driven simulations have been performed with the COSMO-CLM (grid-spacings of 0.44 ° or 0.22 °. The simulated budgets were compared to the satellite-based Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Surface Radiation Budget and ERA-Interim data sets. The COSMO-CLM tended to underestimate the net solar radiation and the outgoing long-wave radiation, and showed a regionally varying over- or underestimation in all budget components. An increase in horizontal resolution from 0.44 ° to 0.22 ° slightly reduced the mean errors by up to 5 %. Especially over sea regions, uncertainties in cloud fraction were the main influencing parameter on errors in the simulated radiation fluxes. Compared to former simulations the introduction of a new bare soil albedo treatment reduced the influence of uncertainties in surface albedo significantly. Over the African continent errors in aerosol optical depth and skin temperature were regionally important sources for the discrepancies within the simulated radiation. In a sensitivity test it was shown that the use of aerosol optical depth values from the MACC reanalysis product improved the simulated surface radiation substantially.

  16. Lean Mean Times--Budgeting for School Media Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses budgeting strategies for school media technology programs. Highlights include sources for school funding, school district budget information, control of the budget, how to write an effective budget, working with other community and school groups, local politics, and sidebars that discuss spreadsheets and maintenance budgets. (LRW)

  17. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  18. Capital budgeting practices used by selected listed South African firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hall

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the application of capital budgeting techniques and the incorporation of risk into the capital budgeting process among a sample of South African industrial firms listed on the JSE Securities Exchange for at least ten years. Previous international and local research on this topic indicated a preference for the internal rate of return (IRR as a capital budgeting method over the net present value (NPV, and that risk incorporation was relatively rarely incorporated into the capital budgeting process. The results of this study indicate that the NPV is just as popular as, and sometimes more so than, the IRR. Furthermore, compared to previous studies, risk is incorporated into evaluating capital budgeting projects more often. Sensitivity analysis is the most popular method, but adjustments to the cash flows and discount rate are becoming more popular. During the last decade the use of non-financial criteria to accept or reject a project has also increased in South Africa.

  19. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  20. A nitrogen budget for Denmark; developments between 1990 and 2010, and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, N J; Dalgaard, T; Børgesen, C D; Mogensen, L; Nielsen, O-K; Mikkelsen, M H; Thomsen, M; Ellermann, T; Winther, M; Højberg, A L

    2014-01-01

    A nitrogen (N) budget for Denmark has been developed for the years 1990 to 2010, describing the inputs and outputs at the national scale and the internal flows between relevant sectors of the economy. Satisfactorily closing the N budgets for some sectors of the economy was not possible, due to missing or contradictory information. The budgets were nevertheless considered sufficiently reliable to quantify the major flows. Agriculture was responsible for the majority of inputs, though fisheries and energy generation also made significant contributions. Agriculture was the main source of N input to the aquatic environment, whereas agriculture, energy generation and transport all contributed to emissions of reactive N gases to the atmosphere. Significant reductions in inputs of reactive N have been achieved during the 20 years, mainly by restricting the use of N for crop production and improving livestock feeding. This reduction has helped reduce nitrate leaching by about half. Measures to limit ammonia emissions from agriculture and mono-nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from energy generation and transport, has reduced gaseous emissions of reactive N. Much N flows through the food and feed processing industries and there is a cascade of N through the consumer to solid and liquid waste management systems. The budget was used to frame a discussion of the potential for further reductions in losses of reactive N to the environment. These will include increasing the recycling of N between economic sectors, increasing the need for the assessment of knock-on effects of interventions within the context of the national N cycle. (paper)

  1. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  2. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under this...

  3. Defense.gov Special Report: Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2012 Fiscal Budget Published Feb. 15, 2011 Top Stories Commanders Cite Department is losing billions of dollars by Congress' failure to pass the department's fiscal 2011 budget . Gates told a Senate committee. Story Gates, Mullen Take Budget to Senate WASHINGTON, Feb. 17, 2011 - The

  4. Three-Dimensional Visualisation as an Innovation Approach to Forecasting the City Budget Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markuts Yuliya I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting city budget income is a very important instrument of the budget management through which it is possible to assume the future financial influence of the current budget policy and economic tendencies for achievement of long-term plans and identify alternative ways of solution of existing problems. The goal of the article is development of a model for complex system analysis, economic assessment of execution and forecasting income of the budget of the city of Donetsk with the aim to make high quality, timely and efficient managerial decisions with respect to the budget on the basis of an innovation approach, which is a combination of methods of interpolation, imitation and three-dimensional visualisation. The result of the study is diagnostics of narrow places in execution of the city budget for the studied period of 2008 – 2012, detection of interconnected budget income items, identification of existing tendencies of execution of the budget income and forecasting the income part of the city budget for the period of 2013 – 2017.

  5. A Capsule Look at Zero-Base Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William A., Jr.

    Weaknesses of the traditional incremental budgeting approach are considered as background to indicate the need for a new system of budgeting in educational institutions, and a step-by-step description of zero-based budgeting (ZBB) is presented. Proposed advantages of ZBB include the following: better staff morale due to a budget that is open and…

  6. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time and...

  7. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder of...

  8. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  9. Energy Budget of Cosmological First-order Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, Jose R; No, Jose M; Servant, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    The study of the hydrodynamics of bubble growth in first-order phase transitions is very relevant for electroweak baryogenesis, as the baryon asymmetry depends sensitively on the bubble wall velocity, and also for predicting the size of the gravity wave signal resulting from bubble collisions, which depends on both the bubble wall velocity and the plasma fluid velocity. We perform such study in different bubble expansion regimes, namely deflagrations, detonations, hybrids (steady states) and runaway solutions (accelerating wall), without relying on a specific particle physics model. We compute the efficiency of the transfer of vacuum energy to the bubble wall and the plasma in all regimes. We clarify the condition determining the runaway regime and stress that in most models of strong first-order phase transitions this will modify expectations for the gravity wave signal. Indeed, in this case, most of the kinetic energy is concentrated in the wall and almost no turbulent fluid motions are expected since the s...

  10. Implementing Site-based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five questions that must be answered before implementing site-based budgeting: Why are we doing this? What budgeting decisions will be devolved to the school site? How do dollars flow from the central office to the site? Who will be involved at the site? How will accountability be achieved? (Author/PKP)

  11. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  12. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  13. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  14. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  15. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Budgeting and spending habits of university students in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the budgeting and spending habits of university students at a South African university. In addition, the study examined if there is a significant gender difference in the budgeting and spending habits of university students. The study adopted a quantitative research approach with a ...

  17. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of an...

  18. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  19. Budgetering och budgeteringsprocessen inom ekonomiförvaltningen

    OpenAIRE

    Finnström, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med undersökningen är att ge en bild av vad budgetering är och budgeteringsprocessen inom ekonomiförvaltningen. Forskningsproblemet är att ta reda på vilken kritiken är mot budgetering, hur man kan förbättra budgetarbetet och få fram vilka de alternativa metoderna är till budgetering. I lärdomsprovets teoretiska del behandlas vad en budget är, syften med en budget, huvud- och delbudgetar, budgeteringsprocessen, kritik och alternativa metoder till budgeteringen. I den empiriska delen ha...

  20. Budget 2002: business taxation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Blow, L.; Hawkins, M.; Klemm, A.; McCrae, J.; Simpson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 2002 Budget, this Briefing Note examines some of the Chancellor's changes to business taxation. A number of Budget measures, including the research and development tax credit for large companies and the exemption of capital gains on the sale of subsidiaries, are welcome and should improve the efficiency of the UK's tax system. All of these measures were subject to extensive prior consultation. A number of other measures were not foreshadowed in the Pre-Budget Report. Three of th...

  1. Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request. Summary Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    SERVICES AND DEFENSE AGENCIES INTRODUCTION Services and Defense Agencies HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget request organizes, trains...DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS INTRODUCTION Special Topics HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget... MANGEMENT 2-48 DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS FINANCIAL MANGEMENT 2-49 While DoD has made progress in

  2. Budgeting, funding, and managing clinical research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Elizabeth; Dicks, Elizabeth; Parfrey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Large, integrated multidisciplinary teams have become recognized as an efficient means by which to drive innovation and discovery in clinical research. This chapter describes how to budget and fund these large studies and effectively manage the large, often dispersed teams involved. Sources of funding are identified; budget development, justification, reporting, financial governance, and accountability are described; in addition to the creation and management of the multidisciplinary team that will implement the research plan.

  3. 7 CFR 1744.63 - The telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The telephone loan budget. 1744.63 Section 1744.63... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.63 The telephone loan budget. When the loan is made, RUS provides the borrower a Telephone Loan Budget, RUS Form 493. This budget divides the loan into budget accounts such as “Engineering...

  4. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  5. The Nuclear program of Navy: an approach from the budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Marco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    After the initiatives arising in the 50s, to conduct scientific research in Brazil, in the nuclear sector, the Brazilian government decided to invest resources in the early '70s, to provide the country with full training in the nuclear fuel cycle, producing reactors research and power and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in the reactors. This course of action was intended to guarantee the necessary to make stronger our energy matrix, with the use of natural resources (uranium and thorium mines whose reserves are among the largest in the world) for the production of electricity, within view particularly development programs in effect at the time. Meanwhile, the Navy of Brazil, identifying the need to operate nuclear-powered submarines in the security and defense of the South Atlantic, institutionalized in 1979, a nuclear program which aimed to the complete domination independently of the nuclear cycle. Since then, what is realized is that the trajectory of the development of this program, in addition to external difficulties imposed by countries holders of this technology, budget internal issue became relevant. The irregularity of financial transfers caused the delay and the lack of guarantees of future budgets led to the unpredictability of strategic planning, leading the program to the 'vegetative' state for nearly a decade. However, from the 2000s, the possibility of economic exploitation by the expansion of the Brazilian Continental Shelf and the new discoveries of oil in the pre-salt tier shifted the vision balance then attributed to the use of nuclear technology as an energy source only, or intended for research and development in areas such as health and agriculture, reinforced the argument that Brazil must have this technology to 'discourage the concentration of hostile forces within the limits of Brazilian territorial waters'. In this context, the paper describes and analyzes how the Navy Nuclear Program (PNM) amounted to the

  6. Spatial variation in energy exchange across coastal environments in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, M.; Abermann, J.; Citterio, M.; Hansen, B. U.; Larsen, S. H.; Stiegler, C.; Sørensen, L. L.; van As, D.

    2015-12-01

    The surface energy partitioning in Arctic terrestrial and marine areas is a crucial process, regulating snow, glacier ice and sea ice melt, and permafrost thaw, as well as modulating Earth's climate on both local, regional, and eventually, global scales. The Arctic region has warmed approximately twice as much as the global average, due to a number of feedback mechanisms related to energy partitioning, most importantly the snow and ice-albedo feedback. However, direct measurements of surface energy budgets in the Arctic are scarce, especially for the cold and dark winter period and over transects going from the ice sheet and glaciers to the sea. This study aims to describe annual cycles of the surface energy budget from various surface types in Arctic Greenland; e.g. glacier, snow, wet and dry tundra and sea ice, based on data from a number of measurement locations across coastal Greenland related to the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program, including Station Nord/Kronprins Christians Land, Zackenberg/Daneborg, Disko, Qaanaq, Nuuk/Kobbefjord and Upernaviarsuk. Based on the available time series, we will analyze the sensitivity of the energy balance partitioning to variations in meteorological conditions (temperature, cloudiness, precipitation). Such analysis would allow for a quantification of the spatial variation in the energy exchange in aforementioned Arctic environments. Furthermore, this study will identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps in Arctic energy budgets and related climate feedback effects.

  7. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  8. Pilot study of a budget-tailored culinary nutrition education program for undergraduate food science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrison, Dorothy Adair

    The primary objective of this pilot study is to provide evidence that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program is both appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students both in everyday life as well as their future health careers. Two validated programs were combined into one program in order to evaluate their combined effects: Cooking With a Chef and Cooking Matters at the Store. The secondary objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the components and reliability of a questionnaire created specifically for this pilot study. A review of past literature was written, which included culinary nutrition as a source of primary prevention, the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition, and the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition. Based on the literature review, it was determined that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program was appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students interested in pursuing health-related careers. The pilot study design was a semi-crossover study: all four groups received the program, however, two groups were first treated as the control groups. All fifty-four participants received 5 sessions of culinary nutrition information from Cooking With a Chef, collaboratively delivered by a nutrition educator and a chef, and one session of information about shopping healthy on a budget from Cooking Matters at the Store in the form of a grocery store tour led by the nutrition educator. Three questionnaires were administered to the participants that evaluated culinary nutrition and price knowledge, cooking attitudes, and opinions of the programs' relevance to participants' everyday lives and careers. Two of the questionnaires, including a questionnaire developed specifically for the pilot study, were delivered as a pre- and post-test while the third questionnaire was delivered as a post-test. Eight random participants also partook in a focus group session led by the nutrition

  9. Budget impact analysis of pemetrexed introduction: case study from a teaching hospital perspective, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjaruporn, Farsai; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Sooksriwong, Cha-oncin; Kaojarern, Sming

    2011-09-01

    Thailand does not currently require Budget Impact Analysis (BIA) assessment. The present study aimed to estimate the annual drug cost and the incremental impact on the hospital pharmaceutical budget of the introduction of pemetrexed to a Thai teaching hospital. The budget impact model was conducted in accordance with the Guidelines for preparing submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC). The model variables consisted of number of patients, growth rate of lung cancer, uptake rate of pemetrexed over time, unit prices of drugs, and the length and cost of treatment. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine changes in budgetary impact due to variation of parameters or assumptions in the model. The introduction of pemetrexed was estimated to cause considerable costs for the teaching hospital. In the base-case analysis, the incremental costs were estimated at 8,553,984 Baht in the first year increasing to 12, 118, 144 Baht, 17,820,800 Baht and 17,820,800 Baht in the following years. The 4-year net budgetary impact was 20,154,480 Baht or approximately 127,560 Baht per patient. Sensitivity analyses found that number of treatment cycles andproportion of patients assumed to be treated with pemetrexed were the two most important influencing factors in the model. New costly innovative interventions should be evaluated using the BIA model to determine whether they are affordable. The Thai government should consider requiring the BIA study as one of the requirements for drug submission to assist in the determination of listing and subsidizing decision for medicines.

  10. Budgeting in an imaging Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyalla, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    budgeting form an integral part of an imaging department. It is a plan to cope with necessary expenses in the future. It involves identifying the needs and income sources required to cover the needs.Covers specific items and time-usually a year and is expressed in monetary terms. The micro budget is put in the macro budget of the hospital. defines financial support for the department. Considers: a fiscal year, projection of patients, types of examinations, type of equipment, monetary exchange, and inflation rate

  11. Short Wave Part of Earth's Energy Budget at Top of Atmosphere During 2009-2017 from Radiometer IKOR-M Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherviakov, M.; Spiryakhina, A.; Surkova, Y.; Kulkova, E.; Shishkina, E.

    2017-12-01

    This report describes Earth's energy budget IKOR-M satellite program which has been started in Russia. The first satellite "Meteor-M" No 1 of this project was put into orbit in 2009. The IKOR-M radiometer is a satellite instrument which can measure reflected shortwave radiation (0.3-4.0 µm). It was created in Saratov University and installed on Russian meteorological satellites "Meteor-M" No 1 and No 2. IKOR-M designed for satellite monitoring of the outgoing short-wave radiation at top-of-atmosphere (TOA), which is one of the components of Earth's energy budget. Such measurements can be used to derive albedo and absorbed solar radiation at TOA. The basic products of data processing are given in the form of global maps of distribution outgoing short-wave radiation, albedo and absorbed solar radiation (ASR). Such maps were made for each month during observation period. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website (www.sgu.ru/structure/geographic/metclim/balans) as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October 2009 to August 2014 and second - from August 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the "Meteor-M" No 1 measurements in August 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from "Meteor-M" No 2. It was shown that the albedo and ASR data received from the radiometer IKOR-M can be used to detect El Nino in the Pacific Ocean. During the radiometer operation, there were two significant El Nino events. Spatial-temporal distribution of the albedo in the equatorial part of the Pacific Ocean was analyzed. Region with high albedo values of 35-40 % is formed in the region 180E

  12. Impact of the snow cover scheme on snow distribution and energy budget modeling over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhipeng; Hu, Zeyong; Xie, Zhenghui; Jia, Binghao; Sun, Genhou; Du, Yizhen; Song, Haiqing

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the impact of two snow cover schemes (NY07 and SL12) in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) on the snow distribution and surface energy budget over the Tibetan Plateau. The simulated snow cover fraction (SCF), snow depth, and snow cover days were evaluated against in situ snow depth observations and a satellite-based snow cover product and snow depth dataset. The results show that the SL12 scheme, which considers snow accumulation and snowmelt processes separately, has a higher overall accuracy (81.8%) than the NY07 (75.8%). The newer scheme performs better in the prediction of overall accuracy compared with the NY07; however, SL12 yields a 15.1% underestimation rate while NY07 overestimated the SCF with a 15.2% overestimation rate. Both two schemes capture the distribution of the maximum snow depth well but show large positive biases in the average value through all periods (3.37, 3.15, and 1.48 cm for NY07; 3.91, 3.52, and 1.17 cm for SL12) and overestimate snow cover days compared with the satellite-based product and in situ observations. Higher altitudes show larger root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) in the simulations of snow depth and snow cover days during the snow-free period. Moreover, the surface energy flux estimations from the SL12 scheme are generally superior to the simulation from NY07 when evaluated against ground-based observations, in particular for net radiation and sensible heat flux. This study has great implications for further improvement of the subgrid-scale snow variations over the Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Preliminary hydrologic budget studies, Indian Creek watershed and vicinity, Western Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackston, J.W.; Mangarella, P.A.; Preslo, L.M.

    1986-05-01

    Preliminary quantitative estimates of ground-water discharge into the Colorado River System in the western Paradox Basin were prepared on the basis of existing climatological and streamflow records. Ground-water outflow to the river was deduced as a residual from hydrologic budget equations for two different study areas: (1) the region between gaging stations at Cisco, Green River, and Hite, Utah; and (2) the Indian Creek watershed. An empirical correlation between recharge rates and precipitation amounts derived for several basins in eastern Nevada was applied to estimate recharge amounts for the Indian Creek watershed. A simple Darcian flow model was then used to approximate the ground-water flux outward from the watershed for comparison. Salinity measurements in the Colorado River were also used to approximate ground-water outflow to a river reach in Cataract Canyon in order to provide another comparison with the hydrologic budget results. Although these estimates should be considered only gross approximations, all approaches used provide values of ground-water outflow that are much less than estimates of similar parameters provided by the US Geological Survey in recent hydrologic reconnaissance reports. Estimates contained herein will be refined in future numerical modeling and data collection studies

  14. CEA budget in 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management.

  15. Bugetul funcțional (Line - Item Budget) și metoda Buget Bază Zero ( Zero Base Budgeting - ZBB)

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR; Adrian Mihai INCEU

    2004-01-01

    A line-item budget lists, in vertical columns, each of the revenue sources and each of the types – or classes – of items will purchase during the fiscal year. The line-item budget, which is the most widely used of all budgeting systems, offers many advantages. It is comparatively easy to prepare and doesn’t require sophisticated financial skills. Also, the line-item budget is straightforward, simple to administer and readily understood by everybody. Moreover, the simplicity of the system make...

  16. A Methodological Review of US Budget-Impact Models for New Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauskopf, Josephine; Earnshaw, Stephanie

    2016-11-01

    A budget-impact analysis is required by many jurisdictions when adding a new drug to the formulary. However, previous reviews have indicated that adherence to methodological guidelines is variable. In this methodological review, we assess the extent to which US budget-impact analyses for new drugs use recommended practices. We describe recommended practice for seven key elements in the design of a budget-impact analysis. Targeted literature searches for US studies reporting estimates of the budget impact of a new drug were performed and we prepared a summary of how each study addressed the seven key elements. The primary finding from this review is that recommended practice is not followed in many budget-impact analyses. For example, we found that growth in the treated population size and/or changes in disease-related costs expected during the model time horizon for more effective treatments was not included in several analyses for chronic conditions. In addition, all drug-related costs were not captured in the majority of the models. Finally, for most studies, one-way sensitivity and scenario analyses were very limited, and the ranges used in one-way sensitivity analyses were frequently arbitrary percentages rather than being data driven. The conclusions from our review are that changes in population size, disease severity mix, and/or disease-related costs should be properly accounted for to avoid over- or underestimating the budget impact. Since each budget holder might have different perspectives and different values for many of the input parameters, it is also critical for published budget-impact analyses to include extensive sensitivity and scenario analyses based on realistic input values.

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Rödenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the global carbon budget - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007-2016), EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr-1, with a small BIM of -0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007-2016), reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND

  18. Participative Budgeting, Budget Evaluation, and Organizational Trust in Post-Secondary Educational Institutions in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Cynthia V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between a participative budgeting system, the attitudes toward the budget, and levels of organizational trust held by administrators in post-secondary institutions. A 50-item questionnaire was distributed to college and university administrators across Canada. A series of regression…

  19. Capital Budgeting Evaluation Practices of Building Contractors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an investigation into capital budgeting evaluation practicesin the construction industry of Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to identify thepopularity and extent of usage of various techniques for capital budget evaluation, investmentappraisal, risk analysis, and management science. The current study was comparedwith a similar survey conducted in 1994 to establish the changes in the capital budgetingevaluation practices of contracting firms over time. The results indicate that there was ageneral increase in the popularity and extent of usage in certain capital budget evaluationtechniques such as “best/worst estimate” and “formal financial evaluation”. In addition,the evaluation techniques examined were fitted into a discriminant function analysis (DFA,and a model has been developed which allows contracting firms to be classified accordingto their predominant characteristics in capital budget evaluation.

  20. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  1. Evidence for Solar Cycle Influence on the Infrared Energy Budget and Radiative Cooling of the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Marshall, B. Thomas; Thompson, R. Earl; Williams, Joshua; Turpin, TImothy; Kratz, D. P.; Russell, James M.; Woods, Tom; Gordley, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for solar cycle influence on the infrared energy budget and radiative cooling of the thermosphere. By analyzing nearly five years of data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, we show that the annual mean infrared power radiated by the nitric oxide (NO) molecule at 5.3 m has decreased by a factor of 2.9. This decrease is correlated (r = 0.96) with the decrease in the annual mean F10.7 solar index. Despite the sharp decrease in radiated power (which is equivalent to a decrease in the vertical integrated radiative cooling rate), the variability of the power as given in the standard deviation of the annual means remains approximately constant. A simple relationship is shown to exist between the infrared power radiated by NO and the F10.7 index, thus providing a fundamental relationship between solar activity and the thermospheric cooling rate for use in thermospheric models. The change in NO radiated power is also consistent with changes in absorbed ultraviolet radiation over the same time period.

  2. NCTN Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the budget for the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), a National Cancer Institute program that gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  3. The Budget Mechanism for the Socio-Economic Development of Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilova Lidia V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the relationships between the efficiency of the budget policy and the socio-economic development of country, assessment of the implementation of expenditures of the consolidated budget of Ukraine for financing certain programs of social development. It has been found that economic growth is possible due to the development of both the real sector of the economy and the budgetary support of projects in the sphere of health, education and culture. An important criterion for the success of the budget policy is also the level of accessibility of the public services contributing to the productive economic activity. A systemic instrument for implementation of budget policy is the program-target method, which allows to assess achievements of concrete results at all stages of budget process. It is based on the budget programs, which represent a complex of interrelated tasks and activities aimed at solving the most important problems of development of the State, individual branches of economy, and administrative-territorial units.

  4. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  5. Perspectives used for gaining approval of budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks-Joiner, G L

    1990-01-01

    Nurse executives think about problems using a certain perspective which may influence decisions on budgetary matters. The nurse executives' perspective used in decision-making may influence which budget proposals are developed and approved. A study was performed to determine the perspective used by nurse executives in decision-making on supplementary budget item proposals and whether perspective use influenced approval. Findings showed that use of the system view or dual-domain perspective in a proposal may enhance nurse executives' changes of gaining approval.

  6. Does modifying the household food budget predict changes in the healthfulness of purchasing choices among low- and high-income women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Victoria; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2009-04-01

    Food cost has a strong influence on food purchases and given that persons of low income often have more limited budgets, healthier foods may be overlooked in favour of more energy-dense lower-cost options. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modifications to the available household food budget led to changes in the healthfulness of food purchasing choices among women of low and high income. A quasi-experimental design was used which included a sample of 74 women (37 low-income women and 37 high-income women) who were selected on the basis of their household income and sent an itemised shopping list in order to calculate their typical weekly household shopping expenditure. The women were also asked to indicate those foods they would add to their list if they were given an additional 25% of their budget to spend on food and those foods they would remove if they were restricted by 25% of their budget. When asked what foods they would add with a larger household food budget, low-income women chose more foods from the 'healthier' categories whereas high-income women chose more foods from the less 'healthier' categories. However, making the budgets of low- and high-income women more 'equivalent' did not eradicate income differences in overall healthfulness of food purchasing choices. This study highlights the importance of cost when making food purchasing choices among low- and high-income groups. Public health strategies aimed at reducing income inequalities in diet might focus on promoting healthy diets that are low cost.

  7. The Economic and Budget Outlook: An Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... It satisfies the requirement of section 202(e) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 for CBO to submit periodic reports to the Committees on the Budget with respect to fiscal policy and to provide five-year baseline projections of the federal budget...

  8. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a form...

  9. 24 CFR 791.405 - Reallocations of budget authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reallocations of budget authority... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.405 Reallocations of budget authority. (a) The field office shall make every reasonable effort to use the budget authority made available for each...

  10. Reactor safety and radiation protection. Draft of the BMU deparmental budget 16 of the 1998 German federal budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The expenditures earmarked for reactor safety and radiation protection in the 1998 budget of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Reactor Safety (BMU) total DM 101 million. The expenditures of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) are to amount to a total of DM 579 million. These are the figures included in departmental budget 16 of the 1998 federal budget, which was discussed by the Federal Parliament in September 1997. The atw compilation singles out a number of significant items of the departmental budget. (orig.) [de

  11. Proposed NOAA Budget Includes Hefty Increase for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2011 budget for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with $5.55 billion, which represents a total increase of $806.1 million, or 17% above the FY 2010 budget enacted by Congress. At a February briefing about the budget, NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco said the budget is a very good package for the agency and that it reflects the administration's commitment to the environment, science, public safety, and job creation. Noting that the agency's budget remained essentially flat between FY 2005 and FY 2008 during the George W. Bush administration, Lubchenco said, “the increasing demand for NOAA's services, coupled with a static budget, created a major challenge for NOAA in delivering on expectations.” She said the funding picture for the agency improved with the FY 2009 and FY 2010 enacted budgets. Lubchenco noted that the proposed budget would include $949 million for research and development, an $82 million increase, adding, “Our 2011 request for each line office [within NOAA] is higher than it was in 2010, and we are better aligned with congressional funding levels than in previous budgets.”

  12. Government's nuclear draft budget for fiscal 1995 totals 480 billion yen, up 5.2%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese government's nuclear draft budget for fiscal 1995 totals 480,756 million yen (excluding the nuclear-related budget for universities under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science), 5.2% increase from the last year. The figure can be broken down into 194,793 million yen general account mainly assigned to research and development projects, and 295,963 million yen special account for power resource development. The total nuclear-related draft budget can be broken down into 344,201 million yen (6.2% increase) for the Science and Technology Agency which governs the various projects on the research and utilization of nuclear energy, and 133,430 million yen (4.6% increase) for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry which controls the development of and the regulation concerning commercial nuclear power plants. As for other ministries, 3,909 million yen for the contribution to IAEA and 283 million yen for OECD/NEA are allocated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The nuclear draft budget of other ministries and agencies than STA and MITI totals 5,443 million yen (3.8% increase over fiscal 1994). The details of the nuclear-related draft budget of STA and MITI are listed. (K.I.)

  13. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  14. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. However, tourism has become a popular global happiness and leisure activity. As reported, in 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide (UNTWO, 2012. Tourism as a way to happiness is important and vital in some cases. It brings large amount of income in payment for goods and services available. The present paper partly investigates happiness, leisure and tourism in Tehran, Iran through assessing household budget. In that, 623 households were empirically studied to find out happiness, leisure and tourism vs household budget in Iran.

  15. FY97 nuclear-related budgets total 493 billion yen (4.4 billion dollars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    On September 13, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan announced the estimated nuclear-related budget requests for FY1997 (April, 1997 - Mach, 1998), giving the breakdowns for eight ministries and agencies. The total amount requested by the government bodies was 493.3 billion yen, 0.8% increase as compared with FY96. this figure includes the budget requests of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Okinawa Development Agency, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, but excludes the budget request made by the Ministry of Education. The budget requests of STA and MITI are 360 billion yen and 126 billion yen, respectively. On August 29, STA released its estimated FY97 budget request. The nuclear-related 360.4 billion yen is 0.9% more than that in year before. Of this sum, 199.9 billion yen is in the general account, and 160.6 billion yen is in the special account for power source development. The details of the nuclear-related amounts are explained. On August 26, MITI released its estimated budget request for FY97, and of the nuclear-related 125.7 billion yen (0.1% increase from FY96), 200 million yen is in the general account, and 98.9 billion yen and 26.6 billion yen are in the special accounts for power resource development and power source diversification, respectively. (K.I.)

  16. Energy sources. An institutional study on the policy of the Dutch government with regard to energy sources and minerals in the Netherlands in the period 1946-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovy, L.; Smit, A.P.; Schrauwers, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is given of the development of energy policy in the Netherlands. Based on legislation and regulations, white papers (memoranda) and budgets the actions of responsible actors and the actors themselves in the field of energy are described. The report comprises a long list of references, categorized in energy-related minerals and sources (exploration, exploitation, transport, trade, processing, environmental effects, etc.) In a separate report (PIVOT--82) attention is paid to the overall energy policy, electricity supply, nuclear energy, energy conservation and renewable energy [nl

  17. The nursing human resource budget: design for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J B; Cameron, M L; Flarey, D L

    1995-06-01

    As vital as the nursing human resource budget is to the successful achievement of institutional goals, it is very important to present a well-developed budget. Using current automated spreadsheet technology, the nursing human resource budget can be laid out in a format that is easy to understand and easy to present. Using the methods discussed in this article, the nurse executive will be able to perform infinite iterations of the proposed budget with a few simple key strokes, thus allowing for things like zero-based budgeting or addition of programs during the budgeting process or at a later date. Implications for nurse executives are discussed.

  18. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  19. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  20. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official, or...

  1. Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High Performance Computer Facility Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.

  2. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism economy after its democratic transition. Historically, the South African hotel industry became dominated by one- and two-star budget accommodation as a result of the country’s liquor legislation. With the reconfiguration of the hotel industry after 1990 to target the growing international tourism market, the role of budget hotels changed. This analysis examines the diminished role of budget hotels in South Africa’s hotel economy, the shifting nature of the budget hotel and location patterns of budget hotels from 1990 to the present. It shows that post-1990 budget hotels are mainly concentrated in large cities and secondary centres of South Africa, and that in small towns the former liquor-focused budget hotel has been replaced by other forms of accommodation.

  3. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level

  4. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  5. Budget deficit, money growth and inflation: Empirical evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Khieu Van, Hoang

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically examines the nexus among budget deficit, money supply and inflation by using a monthly data set from January 1995 to December 2012 and a SVAR model with five endogenous variables, inflation, money growth, budget deficit growth, real GDP growth and interest rate. Since real GDP and budget deficit are unavailable on the monthly basis, we interpolate those series using Chow and Lin’s (1971) annualized approach from their annual series. Overall, we found that money growth h...

  6. Implications of net energy-return-on-investment for a low-carbon energy transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lewis C.; van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M.

    2018-04-01

    Low-carbon energy transitions aim to stay within a carbon budget that limits potential climate change to 2 °C—or well below—through a substantial growth in renewable energy sources alongside improved energy efficiency and carbon capture and storage. Current scenarios tend to overlook their low net energy returns compared to the existing fossil fuel infrastructure. Correcting from gross to net energy, we show that a low-carbon transition would probably lead to a 24-31% decline in net energy per capita by 2050, which implies a strong reversal of the recent rising trends of 0.5% per annum. Unless vast end-use efficiency savings can be achieved in the coming decades, current lifestyles might be impaired. To maintain the present net energy returns, solar and wind renewable power sources should grow two to three times faster than in other proposals. We suggest a new indicator, `energy return on carbon', to assist in maximizing the net energy from the remaining carbon budget.

  7. Impact of engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles on the energy budgets of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Erik B.; Hanna, Shannon K.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Miller, Robert J.; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper characterizes the sublethal impact of engineered ZnO nanoparticles on the individual performance of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis within the context of Dynamic Energy Budget theory, thereby allowing an integrated evaluation of the impact of multiple stressors on various endpoints. Data include measurements of the impact of ZnO nanoparticles on body burden, feeding, respiration, shell length, biomass, and mortality of mussels kept in laboratory tanks for over 100 days. ZnO nanoparticles in the environment impair the mussels' feeding rate (EC50 for the maximum feeding rate is 1.5 mg ZnO nanoparticles L- 1). Zn accumulated in tissue increases respiration (EC50 for the respiration rate is 0.9 mg environmental ZnO nanoparticles L- 1 with the body burden having reached its ultimate level), indicating that maintenance processes are more affected by ZnO nanoparticles than feeding. The feeding regime constrained growth and biomass production to the extent that the impact of ZnO nanoparticles on these processes was undetectable, yet the remaining measurements allowed the estimation of the toxicity parameters. The toxicity representation, combined with the DEB model, allowed the calculation of the effect of the nanoparticles on the expected lifetime production of reproductive matter. EC50 for the expected lifetime production of reproductive matter is less than 0.25 mg ZnO nanoparticles L- 1, indicating that that the ecological impact of ZnO nanoparticle exposure is stronger than its impact on individual physiological rates.

  8. 7 CFR 1219.53 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1219.53 Section 1219.53..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.53 Budget and expenses. (a) The Board is authorized to incur such expenses, including...

  9. Designing A Budgeting Model With Strategic Planning Approach Case Study Of The Ministry Of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad. Sharif. Malekzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In traditional costing systems the emphasis is on the production volume and products units and also it is assumed that the products consume the resources. In activity based costing it is argued that the production of the products requires some activities and activities are consumers of the resources. Therefore in costing based on the activity initially overhead costs is allocated to the activities pile up of costs under the title of costs reservoirs and then the allocated costs to the activities are allocated based on a factor called cost driver to products or production lines. In activity based costing the major activities in the process of production are divided into four classes of product unit level product category level product support level and factory level. In the present research we aim to design a budgeting model with strategic planning approach and regarding the views of the elites and the previous researches a questionnaire is presented on the intended field and using the structural equations SEMs a model is presented in order to evaluate the parameters of the applied strategy in the Ministry of Power that according to the results related to the impact coefficient the greatest coefficient is related to the allocation of financial resources on financial strategy dimension with an impact factor value of 4.954.

  10. Macroeconomic Factors Affecting Budget Deficit in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Mushtaq

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to empirically investigate the relationship between budget deficit and macroeconomic factors i.e., financial development indicator, economic growth, changes in price level and real exchange rate, by using data from1980-2011 for Pakistan. The results reveal that there is a positive and significant relationship between real effective exchange rate and budget deficit on one hand, while economic growth and financial development indicator with reference to budget deficit on the other hand. Changes in price level have a significant and negative relationship with the budget deficit in Pakistan.

  11. Research on budget management under IT environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IT technology has become a key element of core competitiveness of enterprises, and also the basis for its daily operation. The budget is a management process of forecasting and planning of the future operation and financial activities under the guidance of the strategic objectives, and completion of the strategic objectives to a maximum extent. Whether both of them can be effectively combined with is the key to effective implementation of the budget. Through analysis of the existing problems of the traditional budget of the enterprise and the budget under the information technology environment, analysis of the internal and external influencing factors of the budget management of the large and medium sized enterprises under the current environment with SWOT, factor quantization and weight with AHP, development of the strategic program according to the priority of weight, and finally verification with a case, this paper concludes that, the budget management work can be more strategic and forward-looking through combination with AHP and SWOT analysis.

  12. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Graham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suitably designing strategies. We conducted semi-structured interviews of selected finance managers of listed firms in Indonesia and Australia. Consistent with the contingency theory, we found that economic, political, legal and social uncertainty impact on the use of capital budgeting systems. The levels of uncertainty were higher in Indonesia than Australia and need to be reckoned in the selection of capital budgeting systems used by firms. We also found that firms are influenced by project size and complexity, when selecting capital budgeting systems.

  13. Coping with budget restraint in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different types of households react to experiences of food budget restraint in Denmark. The study applied a mixed method design, based on survey data and on qualitative interviews. The qualitative data source consisted of interviews with 30...... institute GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia. Using both data sources the study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed as a consequence of experienced restraints on the food budget. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms of application of various types...... of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, such as compromising the tastiness of food and giving up social ties involved...

  14. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  15. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Van Der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.l.m.

    2009-01-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main sci...

  16. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2013" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, budget overviews organized by agency, and summary tables. The 2013 Budget contains a number of steps to put the country on a fiscally sustainable path. First, this Budget implements the tight…

  17. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... (including the off-budget Social Security trust funds) to $281 billion. That surplus would be the largest in history in nominal dollars and the largest since 1948 as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP...

  18. A new modified resource budget model for nonlinear dynamics in citrus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xujun; Sakai, Kenshi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A theoretical modeling and simulation study of the nonlinear dynamics in citrus is conducted. • New leaf growth is incorporated into the model as a major factor responsible for the yield oscillations. • A Ricker-type equation for the relationship between costs for flowering and fruiting is proposed. • A generic form of the resource budget model for the nonlinear dynamics in citrus is obtained. • The new model is tested with experimental data for two citrus trees. - Abstract : Alternate bearing or masting is a general yield variability phenomenon in perennial tree crops. This paper first presents a theoretical modeling and simulation study of the mechanism for this dynamics in citrus, and then provides a test of the proposed models using data from a previous 16-year experiment in a citrus orchard. Our previous studies suggest that the mutual effects between vegetative and reproductive growths caused by resource allocation and budgeting in plant body might be considered as a major factor responsible for the yield oscillations in citrus. Based on the resource budget model proposed by Isagi et al. (J Theor Biol. 1997;187:231-9), we first introduce the new leaf growth as a major energy consumption component into the model. Further, we introduce a nonlinear Ricker-type equation to replace the linear relationship between costs for flowering and fruiting used in Isagi's model. Model simulations demonstrate that the proposed new models can successfully simulate the reproductive behaviors of citrus trees with different fruiting dynamics. These results may enrich the mechanical dynamics in tree crop reproductive models and help us to better understand the dynamics of vegetative-reproductive growth interactions in a real environment.

  19. The Boundary Between Planning and Incremental Budgeting: Empirical Examination in a Publicly-Owned Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Lioukas; D. J. Chambers

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a study within the field of public budgeting. It focuses on the capital budget, and it attempts to model and analyze the capital budgeting process using a framework previously developed in the literature of incremental budgeting. Within this framework the paper seeks to determine empirically whether the movement of capital expenditure budgets can be represented as the routine application of incremental adjustments over an existing base of allocations and whether further, forward...

  20. Efficient Committed Budget for Implementing Target Audit Probability for Many Inspectees

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Strategic models of auditor-inspectee interaction have neglected implementation details in multiple-inspectee settings. With multiple inspectees, the target audit probability derived from the standard analysis can be implemented with sampling plans differing in the budgets committed to support them. Overly committed audit budgets tie up unneeded resources that could have been allocated for better uses. This paper studies the minimum committed budget required to implement a target audit probab...

  1. Stress Analysis in Managing the Region’s Budget Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pavlovna Pazdnikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the implementation of budget risk management methods into the practices of governmental authorities. Drawing on the example of a particular region the article aims to demonstrate the possible methods of budget risk management. The authors refine the existing approaches to the notion of risk in its relation to budget system by introducing the notion of “budget risk.” Here the focus is the risk of default of budget spending in full which causes underfunding of territories and decrease in quality of life in the region. The authors have particularized the classification of budget risks and grouped together the criteria and factors which significantly influence the assessment and choice of method to manage budget risks. They hypothesize that budget risk is a financial risk. Therefore, the methods of financial risks management can be applied to budget risks management. The authors suggest a methodological approach to risk assessment based on correlation and regression analysis of program financing. The application of Kendall rank correlation coefficient allowed to assess the efficiency of budget spending on the implementation of state programs in Perm Krai. Two clusters — “Nature management and infrastructure” and “Public security” — turned out to be in the zone of high budget risk. The method of stress analysis, which consists in calculating Value at Risk (VaR, was applied to budget risks that in terms of probability are classified as critical. In order to assess risk as probability rate, the amount of Perm Krai deficit budget was calculated as induced variable from budget revenues and spending. The results demonstrate that contemporary management of public resources in the regions calls for the implementation of new management tools of higher quality and budget risk management is one of them.

  2. Meeting carbon budgets - ensuring a low-carbon recovery. 2nd progress report to Parliament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-15

    This is our second annual report to Parliament on progress reducing emissions and meeting carbon budgets as required under the Climate Change Act. It follows our first report to Parliament in October 2009. In this report, we consider latest trends in annual emissions relative to current budget limits, and we assess progress against our forward indicators which determine whether we are on track to meet future budgets. The UK's greenhouse gas emissions fell 8.6% from 2008 to 2009 with reductions of 9.7% in CO{sub 2} and 1.9% in non-CO{sub 2} emissions. But the reduction was largely due to the recession and other exogenous factors, which we estimate could reduce emissions by up to 6% over the first budget period. Underlying progress, which we assess by looking at the impact of specific policy measures, was limited relative to that needed to put the UK on the path towards the 2050 target, implying that a step change in the pace of emissions reduction is still required. We therefore reiterate our recommendation (set out in our first annual report) that outperformance in the first budget period should not be banked. We raise the issue of whether the second and third budgets should be tightened in the face of the easier short term challenge - for instance by moving to the Commmitee's 'Intended budget' even in the absence of a new global agreement. And we recommend that new policies are introduced to strengthen incentives for energy efficiency improvement, investment in low-carbon power generation, development of an electric car market, and introduction of new practices in agriculture. 56 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Why budget accountability fails? The elusive links between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of the budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS SANTISO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTParliaments and audit agencies have critical and complementary roles in the oversight of the budget and the enforcement of government accountability. Yet, the nexus between parliaments and audit agencies is one of the weakest links in the accountability chain, generating an accountability gap in the budget process. This articles analyses the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of government finances during the latter stages of the budget process. Using proxies to evaluate the quality of those linkages, such as the follow-up to audit findings and the discharge of government, it shows important dysfunctions in the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies due to a combination of technical capacity constraints and political economy disincentives. It suggests that the effective functioning of the system of checks and balances in public budgeting critically hinges on the agility of the linkages between accountability institutions. As such, the failure of budget accountability is due to systemic dysfunctions in the systems of accountability, rather than the failure of an individual accountability institution acting in isolation. In addition, the effectiveness of the horizontal accountability architecture depends on the political economy incentives shaping the budget process, which are generated by the interactions between the choice of institutional design and budget rules, with the degree of political competition and electoral rules.

  4. Defense.gov Special Report: 2016 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE: FY 2016 Budget Proposal Army Reserve Chief Calls for Budget Flexibility The chief of the Army Reserve understands that the U.S. deficit is a threat to effectively. Story Obama Says He Won't Accept Budget That Shortchanges Readiness President Barack Obama

  5. Strategic plan creates a blueprint for budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D

    1990-05-01

    Effective healthcare organizations develop budgets that reflect and support a strategic plan. Senior managers set a framework that expresses the hospital's future strategic objectives. The budget enables executives to determine which specific service lines are profitable or unprofitable. Administrators and clinicians at all levels are involved in the budgeting process.

  6. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  7. 33 CFR 273.17 - Annual budget request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual budget request. 273.17... DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL § 273.17 Annual budget request. The Aquatic Plant Control Program is a... to utilize within the budget year taking into account the foreseeable availability of local funds to...

  8. 7 CFR 1280.212 - Budget and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1280.212 Section 1280.212... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses § 1280.212 Budget and expenses. (a) The Board shall prepare and submit to the Secretary a budget for the fiscal year covering its...

  9. Large-scale dynamical influence of a gravity wave generated over the Antarctic Peninsula – regional modelling and budget analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOEL Arnault

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study of a mountain wave triggered by the Antarctic Peninsula on 6 October 2005, which has already been documented in the literature, is chosen here to quantify the associated gravity wave forcing on the large-scale flow, with a budget analysis of the horizontal wind components and horizontal kinetic energy. In particular, a numerical simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is compared to a control simulation with flat orography to separate the contribution of the mountain wave from that of other synoptic processes of non-orographic origin. The so-called differential budgets of horizontal wind components and horizontal kinetic energy (after subtracting the results from the simulation without orography are then averaged horizontally and vertically in the inner domain of the simulation to quantify the mountain wave dynamical influence at this scale. This allows for a quantitative analysis of the simulated mountain wave's dynamical influence, including the orographically induced pressure drag, the counterbalancing wave-induced vertical transport of momentum from the flow aloft, the momentum and energy exchanges with the outer flow at the lateral and upper boundaries, the effect of turbulent mixing, the dynamics associated with geostrophic re-adjustment of the inner flow, the deceleration of the inner flow, the secondary generation of an inertia–gravity wave and the so-called baroclinic conversion of energy between potential energy and kinetic energy.

  10. COST BUDGETING WITH THE ROMANIAN BAKERY UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂSCOLEAN ILIE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary objective of management accounting is the possibility to estimate the total costs of a product or service works, which determines the development and implementation of specific managerial accounting systems that in addition to quantifying the immediate results aimed at achieving objectives such as customer orientation, labor productivity growth, the improvement of economic entities’ performance, establishing optimal outlets and prices and abandoning production-manufacture products that generate losses. Based on the progress of the investigations undertaken in the literature, the authors article demonstrates the need for achieving cost budgeting in the context of economic entities from the milling and bakeries industry, as mean of management control - by the example of S.C. AVANTI SRL Lupeni. The research in the field has led to the conduct of the study are awaited, being capable of demonstrating the viability of the management accounting organization at economic entities in the milling and bakery industry from Romania, in order to increase their performances. The results obtained by applying the costs budgeting allowed a rigorous cost control, which ultimately leads to an increase in the performance of the economic entity under study, as well as to the economic entities in the field that will apply the costs budgeting. At the end, the authors conclude regarding the importance of extending the framework for successfully implementing cost budgeting in the context of economic entities across the country.

  11. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  12. Energy budgets and a climate space diagram for the turtle, Chrysemys scripta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Heat energy budgets were computed and a steady state climate space was generated for a 1000 g red-eared turtle (Chrysemys scripta). Evaporative water loss (EWL) was measured from C. scripta at three wind speeds (10-400 cm sec/sup -1/) and at four air temperatures (5 to 35/sup 0/C) in a wind tunnel. EWL increased as air temperature and wind speed increased. Smaller turtles dehydrated at a faster rate than large turtles. Heat transfer by convection was measured from aluminum castings of C. scripta at three temperature differences between casting and air (..delta..T 15/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/ and 5/sup 0/C) for three windspeeds (10 to 400 cm sec/sup -1/). Convective heat transfer coefficients increased as wind speed and ..delta..T increased. Wind speed has a large effect on the shape of the climate space. At high wind speeds, heat loss by evaporation and convection are greatly increased. In still air (10 cm sec/sup -1/), a turtle cannot remain exposed to full sunlight when air temperatures exceed 19/sup 0/C. When wind speed increases to 400 cm sec/sup -1/, the turtle can bask for long periods of time at temperatures as high as 32/sup 0/C. Basking patterns of C. scripta probably shift from a unimodal pattern in the spring to a bimodal pattern in summer and return to a unimodal pattern in fall. Terrestrial activity may be extensive in the spring and fall but is limited during the hot summer months to periods of rainfall. Nesting activities cannot occur around solar noon because increased metabolic heat loading and high solar radiation intensity could cause death.

  13. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  14. Pure Nash Equilibria in Restricted Budget Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, Maximilian Werner; Feldotto, Matthias; Riechers, Sören; Skopalik, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    In budget games, players compete over resources with finite budgets. For every resource, a player has a specific demand and as a strategy, he chooses a subset of resources. If the total demand on a resource does not exceed its budget, the utility of each player who chose that resource equals his

  15. The carbon budget of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Elkalay, K.; Frankignoulle, M.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Kattner, G.; Borges, A.V.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the

  16. 42 CFR 441.470 - Service budget elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service budget elements. 441.470 Section 441.470... Optional Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.470 Service budget elements. A service budget must be developed and approved by the State based on the assessment of need and service plan and...

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Le Quéré

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the global carbon budget – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC, mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM, the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2007–2016, EFF was 9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, ELUC 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.7 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr−1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, GATM was 6.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 2.7 ± 1.0 GtC yr−1, with a small BIM of −0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be

  18. Multi-unit auctions with budget-constrained bidders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Gagan Pratap

    In my dissertation, I investigate the effects of budget-constraints in multi-unit auctions. This is done in three parts. First, I analyze a case where all bidders have a common budget constraint. Precisely, I analyze an auction where two units of an object are sold at two simultaneous, sealed bid, first-price auctions, to bidders who have demand for both units. Bidders differ with respect to their valuations for the units. All bidders have an identical budget constraint which binds their ability to spend in the auction. I show that if valuation distribution is atom-less, then their does not exist any symmetric equilibrium in this auction game. In the second and third parts of my thesis, I analyze the sale of licenses for the right to drill for oil and natural gas in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) of the United States. These sales are conducted using simultaneous sealed-bid first-price auctions for multiple licenses, each representing a specific area (called a tract). Using aspects of observed bidding-behavior, I first make a prima facie case that bidders are budget-constrained in these auctions. In order to formalize this argument, I develop a simple extension of the standard model (where bidders differ in their valuations for the objects) by incorporating (random) budgets for the bidders. The auction-game then has a two-dimensional set of types for each player. I study the theoretical properties of this auction, assuming for simplicity that two units are being sold. I show that this game has an equilibrium in pure strategies that is symmetric with respect to the players and with respect to the units. The strategies are essentially pure in the sense that each bidder-type has a unique split (up to a permutation) of his budget between the two auctions. I then characterize the equilibrium in terms of the bid-distribution and iso-bid curves in the value-budget space. I derive various qualitative features of this equilibrium, among which are: (1) under mild

  19. Budget estimates, fiscal years 1994--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal years 1994 and 1995

  20. An Analysis of Change Mechanisms in Government Budgets on Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies on policy changes have shown that there are limitations of incrementalism and that there no longer exists a general theory that can explain policy change. A number of studies have been conducted to examine policy changes in terms of drastic changes in budgets or policy agenda. According to the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET), policy change is punctuated by long periods of stability, and large, but rare, changes due to shifts in society or the government. Although the reasons for these drastic changes are interpreted mainly from external events, the exact mechanisms of these changes are still not known. In this study, we assume that the punctuated budget changes are a result of not only external events but also the bureaucratic power of government departments. We attempt to identify the regularity of budget change pattern due to these internal characteristics (bureaucratic power). In order to understand budget changes caused by external events, especially for science and technology, the ARIMA-Intervention analysis was implemented. The results showed that the ARIMA-Intervention analysis explained the abrupt change in budget well. This means that a change in budget cannot be explained as incrementalism. Also, we analyzed the budget change kurtosis of government department along with various policy and organization types. Normally, a high kurtosis means there is a high probability of a punctuated equilibrium. The results show that science and technology agency as well as productive, delivery, and transfer agencies have a relatively high kurtosis.;

  1. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  2. Program Budgeting for a Graduate School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Mel

    Program budgeting, a method founded in the systems approach, allows control, management, and planning in the library system, and avoids the more comprehensive analysis required by zero-based budgeting. By evaluation of the impacts of the work accomplished by the library staff, the budgeted amounts can be justified or adjusted in subsequent years.…

  3. Modeling Budget Optimum Allocation of Khorasan Razavi Province Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Fahimifard

    2016-09-01

    scenarios, Neishabour and Khoushab cities have the most and least share, respectively and vice versa. Conclusion: The study concludes that the agriculture sector budget of Khorasan Razavi Province’s has not been allocated optimally. Therefore, paying attention to this fact that agriculture sector budget allocation which carried out previously between various programs, have been provided different instructions for opposite ideas always caused to challenge between beneficiary groups. This study provided a scientific and comprehensive model for budget allocation of agriculture sector between programs and cities using agriculture experts, and can be suggested to governors and Jahad Keshavarzi organizations to apply the results.

  4. Industry adjusts 1992 E and P budgets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a midyear update of Salomon Bros. survey of the petroleum industry's 1992 exploration and production budgets pinpoints the ways operators are adjusting outlays to match the times. The New York financial firm's latest tally shows: Operators have made deep cuts in their 1992 US and Canadian E and P budgets since yearend 1991. Moderate increases budgeted earlier for E and P outside North America are intact. Many companies substantially underspent their budgets in first half 1992. In Salomon Bros. Largest survey---247 companies responded---operators the they were budgeting a 3.2% year to year decline in their 1992 worldwide E and P spending, compared with a 1.3% increase planned for 1992 in December 1991. The decline in spending falls entirely in North America. Preliminary indications suggest that 1993 E and P spending will be relatively flat in the US and flat to moderately increased in Canada. Elsewhere, spending should continue to rise steadily in 1993, Salomon Bros. The. Budgets exclude producing property purchases and merger or acquisition of other companies when possible

  5. Capital Construction Fund Program :: Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaders Budget Policy Work for NOAA Fisheries Contact Us Programs Sustainable Fisheries Protected Regional Fishery Management Councils Congress Activities Budget Testimony Educators and Students Education Budget Home Appeals Division Budget FOIA Financial Services Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program Fisheries

  6. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  7. The AmP project: Comparing species on the basis of dynamic energy budget parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo M Marques

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed new methods for parameter estimation-in-context and, with the help of 125 authors, built the AmP (Add-my-Pet database of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB models, parameters and referenced underlying data for animals, where each species constitutes one database entry. The combination of DEB parameters covers all aspects of energetics throughout the full organism's life cycle, from the start of embryo development to death by aging. The species-specific parameter values capture biodiversity and can now, for the first time, be compared between animals species. An important insight brought by the AmP project is the classification of animal energetics according to a family of related DEB models that is structured on the basis of the mode of metabolic acceleration, which links up with the development of larval stages. We discuss the evolution of metabolism in this context, among animals in general, and ray-finned fish, mollusks and crustaceans in particular. New DEBtool code for estimating DEB parameters from data has been written. AmPtool code for analyzing patterns in parameter values has also been created. A new web-interface supports multiple ways to visualize data, parameters, and implied properties from the entire collection as well as on an entry by entry basis. The DEB models proved to fit data well, the median relative error is only 0.07, for the 1035 animal species at 2018/03/12, including some extinct ones, from all large phyla and all chordate orders, spanning a range of body masses of 16 orders of magnitude. This study is a first step to include evolutionary aspects into parameter estimation, allowing to infer properties of species for which very little is known.

  8. Decadal evolution of the surface energy budget during the fast warming and global warming hiatus periods in the ERA-interim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Sejas, Sergio A.; Cai, Ming; Taylor, Patrick C.; Deng, Yi; Yang, Song

    2018-05-01

    The global-mean surface temperature has experienced a rapid warming from the 1980s to early-2000s but a muted warming since, referred to as the global warming hiatus in the literature. Decadal changes in deep ocean heat uptake are thought to primarily account for the rapid warming and subsequent slowdown. Here, we examine the role of ocean heat uptake in establishing the fast warming and warming hiatus periods in the ERA-Interim through a decomposition of the global-mean surface energy budget. We find the increase of carbon dioxide alone yields a nearly steady increase of the downward longwave radiation at the surface from the 1980s to the present, but neither accounts for the fast warming nor warming hiatus periods. During the global warming hiatus period, the transfer of latent heat energy from the ocean to atmosphere increases and the total downward radiative energy flux to the surface decreases due to a reduction of solar absorption caused primarily by an increase of clouds. The reduction of radiative energy into the ocean and the surface latent heat flux increase cause the ocean heat uptake to decrease and thus contribute to the slowdown of the global-mean surface warming. Our analysis also finds that in addition to a reduction of deep ocean heat uptake, the fast warming period is also driven by enhanced solar absorption due predominantly to a decrease of clouds and by enhanced longwave absorption mainly attributed to the air temperature feedback.

  9. Balancing the books - a statistical theory of prospective budgets in Earth System science

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, J. Philip

    An honest declaration of the error in a mass, momentum or energy balance, ɛ, simply raises the question of its acceptability: "At what value of ɛ is the attempted balance to be rejected?" Answering this question requires a reference quantity against which to compare ɛ. This quantity must be a mathematical function of all the data used in making the balance. To deliver this function, a theory grounded in a workable definition of acceptability is essential. A distinction must be drawn between a retrospective balance and a prospective budget in relation to any natural space-filling body. Balances look to the past; budgets look to the future. The theory is built on the application of classical sampling theory to the measurement and closure of a prospective budget. It satisfies R.A. Fisher's "vital requirement that the actual and physical conduct of experiments should govern the statistical procedure of their interpretation". It provides a test, which rejects, or fails to reject, the hypothesis that the closing error on the budget, when realised, was due to sampling error only. By increasing the number of measurements, the discrimination of the test can be improved, controlling both the precision and accuracy of the budget and its components. The cost-effective design of such measurement campaigns is discussed briefly. This analysis may also show when campaigns to close a budget on a particular space-filling body are not worth the effort for either scientific or economic reasons. Other approaches, such as those based on stochastic processes, lack this finality, because they fail to distinguish between different types of error in the mismatch between a set of realisations of the process and the measured data.

  10. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  11. FINANCIAL WORKBOOK Quick Reference -Budget Preparation 1 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    FINANCIAL WORKBOOK. Quick Reference -Budget Preparation. 6. Enter detailed budget notes for each line item. Use the “add new row “ button if more rows are needed. (Refer to page 7 on user guider for more information on budget notes). 7. On the “indirect cost” sheet, enter a fixed percentage or amount(s) a. For fixed ...

  12. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the NOX...

  13. On the Non-Thermal Energy Content of Cosmic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Vazza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: the budget of non-thermal energy in galaxy clusters is not well constrained, owing to the observational and theoretical difficulties in studying these diluted plasmas on large scales; (2 Method: we use recent cosmological simulations with complex physics in order to connect the emergence of non-thermal energy to the underlying evolution of gas and dark matter; (3 Results: the impact of non-thermal energy (e.g., cosmic rays, magnetic fields and turbulent motions is found to increase in the outer region of galaxy clusters. Within numerical and theoretical uncertainties, turbulent motions dominate the budget of non-thermal energy in most of the cosmic volume; (4 Conclusion: assessing the distribution non-thermal energy in galaxy clusters is crucial to perform high-precision cosmology in the future. Constraining the level of non-thermal energy in cluster outskirts will improve our understanding of the acceleration of relativistic particles and of the origin of extragalactic magnetic fields.

  14. Development of D-region electron and ion densities under various auroral conditions during the Energy Budget Campaign (EBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, A.; Holt, O.; Friedrich, M.; Hansen, T.; Stauning, P.; Thrane, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    D-region electron density profiles and time variations were obtained during the Energy Budget Campaign 1980 by a partial reflection radar at Ramfjordmoen, Tromso, located between the rocket ranges at Andoya and Kiruna. The observations were made under various geophysical conditions which are illustrated by riometer observations. The partial reflection measurements indicate that the rockets were launched into a relatively stable D-region on two occasions, while it was somewhat more disturbed on the third. A comparison between the electron density profiles derived by the partial reflection technique and rocket borne probes and Faraday rotation experiments does indicate fair agreement during the quiet conditions, but relatively large discrepancies during disturbed conditions. Simultaneously derived electron density profiles, by use of the Faraday technique, and ion density profiles, by gridded electrostatic spheres mounted on the rocket payload, have made it possible to estimate the negative ion to electron density ratio lambda versus height. These values of lambda are within the range of model calculations. (author)

  15. Sustainable Biosolids/Renewable Energy Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Steven D. [City of St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Smith, Arenee Fanchon Teena [City of St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    In keeping with its designation as being Florida’s first “Green City”, the City's primary purpose of this project is to process and dispose of biosolids and yard wastes in a manner that results in the production of thermal, electrical, gas, or some other form of energy. This project was completed in two budget periods. Budget period one of the project consisted of a feasibility evaluation to determine potential applicable technologies, budget period two consisted of project design.

  16. Save Energy Dollars with DOE Operations and Maintenance Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Margo

    2010-01-01

    At budget-crunching time, school administrators and business officials sometimes find themselves trimming the district's budget for teachers, textbooks, and technology in order to cover ballooning energy costs. Nearly one-third of the energy consumed in the average U.S. school is wasted. The country's least efficient schools use four times more…

  17. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and its Contributions to Space Weather Research, the Flare Energy Budget, and Instrument Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) is an empirical model of the solar irradiance spectrum from 0.1 to 190 nm at 1 nm spectral resolution and on a 1-minute time cadence. The goal of FISM is to provide accurate solar spectral irradiances over the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV: 0-200 nm) range as input for ionospheric and thermospheric models. The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the FISM model, and also how the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will contribute to improving FISM. Some current studies will then be presented that use FISM estimations of the solar VUV irradiance to quantify the contributions of the increased irradiance from flares to Earth's increased thermospheric and ionospheric densites. Initial results will also be presented from a study looking at the electron density increases in the Martian atmosphere during a solar flare. Results will also be shown quantifying the VUV contributions to the total flare energy budget for both the impulsive and gradual phases of solar flares. Lastly, an example of how FISM can be used to simplify the design of future solar VUV irradiance instruments will be discussed, using the future NOAA GOES-R Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Sensors (EXIS) space weather instrument.

  18. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given

  19. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2017-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination ( R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  20. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  1. Ocean heat content and ocean energy budget: make better use of historical global subsurface temperature dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Zhu, J.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean heat content (OHC) change contributes substantially to global sea level rise, also is a key metric of the ocean/global energy budget, so it is a vital task for the climate research community to estimate historical OHC. While there are large uncertainties regarding its value, here we review the OHC calculation by using the historical global subsurface temperature dataset, and discuss the sources of its uncertainty. The presentation briefly introduces how to correct to the systematic biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data, a alternative way of filling data gaps (which is main focus of this talk), and how to choose a proper climatology. A new reconstruction of historical upper (0-700 m) OHC change will be presented, which is the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) version of historical upper OHC assessment. The authors also want to highlight the impact of observation system change on OHC calculation, which could lead to bias in OHC estimates. Furthermore, we will compare the updated observational-based estimates on ocean heat content change since 1970s with CMIP5 results. This comparison shows good agreement, increasing the confidence of the climate models in representing the climate history.

  2. First-order error budgeting for LUVOIR mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Knight, J. Scott; Feinberg, Lee D.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2017-09-01

    Future large astronomical telescopes in space will have architectures that will have complex and demanding requirements to meet the science goals. The Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR) mission concept being assessed by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center is expected to be 9 to 15 meters in diameter, have a segmented primary mirror and be diffraction limited at a wavelength of 500 nanometers. The optical stability is expected to be in the picometer range for minutes to hours. Architecture studies to support the NASA Science and Technology Definition teams (STDTs) are underway to evaluate systems performance improvements to meet the science goals. To help define the technology needs and assess performance, a first order error budget has been developed. Like the JWST error budget, the error budget includes the active, adaptive and passive elements in spatial and temporal domains. JWST performance is scaled using first order approximations where appropriate and includes technical advances in telescope control.

  3. Decentralized Budgeting: Getting the Most Out of Disbursements of Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Decentralizing educational budgets allows the disbursement of funds aimed at maximizing student development. Three strategies for decentralizing budgets are program budgeting, which eliminates line-item budgeting and allows administrators to address questions regarding the relative value of educational programs; zero-based budgeting, which allows…

  4. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  5. THE REAL OPTIONS OF CAPITAL BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martins

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional techniques of capital budget, as the deducted cash flow and the net value present, do not incorporate existing flexibilities in an investment project, they tend to distort the value of certain investments, mainly those that are considered in scenes of uncertainty and risk. Therefore, this study intends to demonstrate that the Real Options Theory (TOR is a useful methodology to evaluate and to indicate the best option for project of expansion investment. To reach the considered objective the procedure method was used a case study, having as unit of case the Resort Praia Hotel do Litoral Norte of Salvador. This study was developed of the following form: first it identified the traditional net value present and later it was incorporated the volatileness of each analyzed uncertainty. Second, as the real options are analogous to the financial options, it was necessary to identify elements that composed the terminologies of the financial options with intention to get the value of the real option. For this model of options pricing of Black & Scholes jointly with a computational simulator was used (SLS to get the expanded net value present. As a result of this study it was possible to evidence that using the traditional tool of capital budget Net Value Present (VPL is negative, therefore the project of expansion of the Hotel would be rejected. While for the application of methodology TOR the project presents positive Expanded Present Value which would represent an excellent chance of investment. Key-word: Capital budget, Real options, Analysis of investments.

  6. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2017" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, and summary tables. President Obama's 2017 Budget makes critical investments while adhering to the bipartisan budget agreement he signed into the previous fall, and it lifts sequestration in…

  7. The CEA budget in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In 1982, the amount of the CEA budget will be 13.4 billions French Francs. The main characteristics are the priority for employment and investments. In this budget programs are adapted to fit R and D to the government policy: innovation, industrial valorization and fundamental research especially thermonuclear fusion and in the electronuclear field to safety, reprocessing and radioactive waste management [fr

  8. Understanding Budget Reality in The Perspective of Symbolic Interactionism (P.105-118

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Ardini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to interpret the meaning of budget on one of the StateOwned Enterprises (SOEs to minimize conflict between principaland agent. Analysis is done using symbolic interactionism method in interpretive paradigm. Data collection is conducted using in depthinterviews with informants who are very familiar with budgeting in PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN. The results of this study reveal that budgeting process involves the interaction and action between the principal and the agent based on their own experiences in preparing the budget. Decision making is sorely needed, especially in a condition where an individual is able to free himself from the crisis called epiphany. Epiphany is a moment of experience that makes an impression on one’s life so as to form a character is called epiphany. It could be said that epiphany is the most critical moment ever experienced by someone that cannot be forgotten(Denzim, 1989 Social fact describes that a capitalistic company ownership thinks of itself with the purpose of fulfilling personal desires and prosperity, so in implementing budget preparation consisting of the symbol of numbers, it is always covered by passion of greed. Conflict of interest is very noticeable when the preparation and adoption of the budget is filled with a variety of interests. Regulatory system is becoming part of legitimate stage of budgeting that has become the elements of capitalist company ownership that eventually reap capitalist values   in the accounting information, in which the decisions and the economic actions are also based on the capitalist values. The implication of this research is expected to provide practical recommendations to the good cooperation between the agent and principal in preparing the budget. Keywords: budget, capitalist, symbolic interactionism,principal,agent

  9. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy...... performance is used for estimating investment security, operating budgets and for policy making. A case study shows that the actual and calculated energy use is practically the same in an average scenario. In the worst-case uncertainty scenario, the actual energy use is 20 % higher than the corrected...

  10. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Camelia; Popovici Norina

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  11. Cost reduction by using budgeting via the Kaizen method

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Budugan; Iuliana Georgescu

    2009-01-01

    In the current conditions, continuous improvement is one of the main issues faced by the manag-ers of organizations. The Japanese use the term kaizen to designate continuous improvement. Budgeting via the kaizen method explicitly integrates improvement throughout the period budgeted in the budget data. Budget explanation via the kaizen method refers, on the one hand, to budgeting for the purposes of continuously improving the number of work hours per product unit, and, on the other hand, to t...

  12. Study of information-orientation carry-out plan in energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, T W [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Carrying out an information-orientation plan in the energy sector is indispensable if Korea is to survive in this unlimited competition age and global management system. It is also for maximizing the management efficiency of national energy resources as well as increasing the development of related industries and national welfare. The management of the energy resources sector of Korea, which is becoming diversified escaping from the past simple quantitative management of supplier-orientation, requires versatile and ample high-class information management system and high-level decision support system. In order to satisfy these requests, this study investigated and analyzed overall policies of the energy sector for carrying out information-orientation, neighborhood environment, organizational chart, information transfer method, the current condition of information-orientation, problems and improvements, demand of information-orientation of the future, and also reviewed the information-orientation status of advanced countries. Based on these, an information-orientation carryout plan in the energy sector is broken into three stages of `establishment of information transfer system`, `development of database`, and `establishment of decision support system` and presented per detailed work. It advised manpower, equipment and budget implementation plan, and a development schedule plan required for carrying out information-orientation as well as overall environmental build-up, and policy recommendation for the successful implementation of information-orientation. 24 refs., 27 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Territorial Indicative Budget Ceilings (PIK as Instrument of Technocracy of Regional Development Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjiyanto Sarjiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at analyzing the local government policy related to the local budget posture in the each territorial. There are uncertainty methods in dividing and formulating the local budget posture in each territorial in Indonesia. It is not depend on the actual economic variables of each territorial. This study uses the literature studies to collect the data of planning and budgeting. The content analysis of this local government economic policy is based on of the planning and budgeting process itself. The detailed information is found by observations and in-depth interview with the informants about the planning and budgeting process in Rembang. The result shows the variables that can determine the fair instrument in formulating the local budget posture some of which are: the number of population, the number of drop out (DO, the illiteracy (IR, the infant mortality rate (IMR, the malnutrition data, the number of poor (HCI, the economic growth, the damaged road infrastructure, the damaged irrigation system, the damaged schools, the land building tax, and the amount of retribution.

  14. The Relevance of Budget Preparation in School Administration | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It demands a periodic preparation of the school budget. This paper therefore examines the concept of budgeting, its advantages in our school system and suggests some accounting requirements which are aimed at making the preparation of a budget less cumbersome and more realistic. It highlights four types of budgets: ...

  15. Energy and nitrogen budgets for larval and aduit Paropsis charybdis Stål (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding on Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Penelope B; Wightman, John A

    1984-03-01

    | (1) Paropsis charybdis, the Eucalyptus tortoise beetle, is a serious defoliator of several Eucalyptus species in New Zealand. A series of laboratory experiments demonstrated the growth characteristics of larvae and adults when feeding on E. viminalis at 20°C. These were used as the data bases for quantifying its trophic relationships in terms of dry matter, energy and nitrogen. (2) The four larval stages lasted 4.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 9.5 days. Growth was exponential until the second day of the fourth instar, when the superficially inactive prepupal stage began. The pupal stage lasted 9.5 days. Female beetles started to lay eggs 15 days (av.) after eclosion. (3) Larvae attained a mean maximum dry weight (dwt) of 53.29 mg. Reproductive females weighed 63.40 mg, and males 46.71 mg. (4) The guts and their contents contributed up to 50% of total larval dry weight and 15% of adult dry weight. (5) Studies of the trophic relationships of P. charybdis larvae were based upon budgets whereby consumption (C) equals the sum of production (P), respiretion (R) and egesta (FU). Production was divided into gut-free larval production (P L * ) and exuvia (P EX )+R+FUin J: 3,561.5 = (491.3+43.4) + 284.5 +2,574.9 in mgN: 4.001 = (2.078 + 0.200) +1.657 (no R term) . P = P L * + P EX The derived R term (R c ), calculated as: R c = C - FU - (P = P L * + P EX ) = 34.84 (6) Daily budgets of an average adult, where ΔP AD reflects the change in body weight and P R =reproductive production, were: C =(ΔP AD + P R ) + R +FU in mg dwt: 27.36 = (ΔP +2.25) +R + 14.53 in J: 591.1 = ΔP + 65.4) + 82.0 +362.6 in mgN: 0368 = (ΔP AD + 0.252) + 0.285. The budget assumes that male P R is zero and includes a corrected R term whereby R C =1.43 R M . ΔP AD can be assumed to equal zero over a long term, although fluctuations were apparent during the experimental period. (7) The amount of leaf material removed but not eaten by larvae (NU) was 22.6 mg, 462.4 J or 0.526 mgN. Thus, the total material removed

  16. Water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets investigation at Panola Mountain research watershed, Stockbridge, Georgia; a research plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, T.G.; Hooper, R.P.; Peters, N.E.; Bullen, T.D.; Kendall, Carol

    1993-01-01

    The Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), located in the Panola Mountain State Conservation Park near Stockbridge, Georgia has been selected as a core research watershed under the Water, Energy and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) research initiative of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Climate Change Program. This research plan describes ongoing and planned research activities at PMRW from 1984 to 1994. Since 1984, PMRW has been studied as a geochemical process research site under the U.S. Acid Precipitation Thrust Program. Research conducted under this Thrust Program focused on the estimation of dry atmospheric deposition, short-term temporal variability of streamwater chemistry, sulfate adsorption characteristics of the soils, groundwater chemistry, throughfall chemistry, and streamwater quality. The Acid Precipitation Thrust Program continues (1993) to support data collection and a water-quality laboratory. Proposed research to be supported by the WEBB program is organized in 3 interrelated categories: streamflow generation and water-quality evolution, weathering and geochemical evolution, and regulation of soil-water chemistry. Proposed research on streamflow generation and water-quality evolution will focus on subsurface water movement, its influence in streamflow generation, and the associated chemical changes of the water that take place along its flowpath. Proposed research on weathering and geochemical evolution will identify the sources of cations observed in the streamwater at Panola Mountain and quantify the changes in cation source during storms. Proposed research on regulation of soil-water chemistry will focus on the poorly understood processes that regulate soil-water and groundwater chemistry. (USGS)

  17. 25 CFR 1000.105 - What are self-governance base budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are self-governance base budgets? 1000.105 Section... Base Budgets § 1000.105 What are self-governance base budgets? (a) A Tribe/Consortium self-governance base budget is the amount of recurring funding identified in the President's annual budget request to...

  18. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  19. Does National Culture Impact Capital Budgeting Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Graham; Milind Sathye

    2017-01-01

    We examine how national culture impacts organisational selection of capital budgeting systems to develop our understanding of what influence a holistic formulation of national culture has on capital budgeting systems. Such an understanding is important as it would not only provide a clearer link between national culture and capital budgeting systems and advance extant literature but would also help multinational firms that have business relationships with Indonesian firms in suita...

  20. Tropical Ocean Evaporation/SST Sensitivity and It's Link to Water and Energy Budget Variations During ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Marshall, Susan; Oglesby, Robert; Roads, John; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The continuing debate over feedback mechanisms governing tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and tropical climate in general has highlighted the diversity of potential checks and balances within the climate system. Competing feedbacks due to changes in surface evaporation, water vapor, and cloud long- and shortwave radiative properties each may serve critical roles in stabilizing or destabilizing the climate system. It is also intriguing that even those climate variations having origins internal to the climate system - changes in ocean heat transport for example, apparently require complementary equilibrating effects by changes in atmospheric energy fluxes. Perhaps the best observational evidence of this is the relatively invariant nature of tropically averaged net radiation exiting the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) as measured by broadband satellite sensors over the past two decades. Thus, analyzing how these feedback mechanisms are operating within the context of current interannual variability may offer considerable insight for anticipating future climate change. In this paper we focus primarily on interannual variations of ocean evaporative fluxes and their significance for coupled water and energy cycles within the tropical climate system. In particular, we use both the da Silva estimates of surface fluxes (based on the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set, COADS) and numerical simulations from several global climate models to examine evaporation sensitivity to perturbations in SST associated with warm and cold ENSO events. The specific questions we address are as follows: (1) What recurring patterns of surface wind and humidity anomalies are present during ENSO and how do they combine to yield systematic evaporation anomalies?, (2) What is the resulting tropical ocean mean evaporation-SST sensitivity associated with this climate perturbation?, and (3) What role does this evaporation play in tropical heat and water balance over tropical oceanic regions? We

  1. 40 CFR 45.140 - Budget and project period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget and project period. 45.140 Section 45.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING ASSISTANCE § 45.140 Budget and project period. The budget and project periods for...

  2. A Well-Designed Budget Yields Long-Term Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinola, Mary; Knirk, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    Defines zero-based budgeting, compares it to traditional budgeting, and discusses five steps of a zero-base budget model: determining organization's goals and refining them into objectives; listing activities to achieve objectives in decision packages; evaluating decision packages; ranking packages by order of importance; and funding decision…

  3. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting the...

  4. Political Broker and Budget Mafia in Indonesian Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Budget mafia practices and brokerage phenomenon in ministries/agencies and the parliament in the country's financial dredge is very alarming. Not counted how much money is successfully robbed. The modus is varying, so it is not easy to dismantle. Because expert move, the law enforcers had trouble catching them. This article tried to describe the mode of action and often they do. The method is done by tracing the various reports in newspapers. From tracking and in-depth analysis, it could be concluded that in order to minimize the action of brokers and budget mafia practices there are some necessary steps. First, fixing the finances system of political parties, reducing the dominance of parliament in budget management and election of public officials, and encourage law enforcement. Second, transparency debates the state budget in the parliament to be a key budget reforms. Third, the involvement of the community is also important to increase the transparency of the state budget discussions.

  5. ON THE ESSENCE AND EFFICIENCY OF PROGRAMME BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei PETROIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The program budgeting applies to cases where expenditure is classified in the budget by objectives (outcomes and outputs rather than solely by economic categories (i.e., inputs such as salaries and organizational category. Performance budgeting (or performance-informed budgeting refers to a wider set of initiatives intended to strengthen the links between the funds provided and the results achieved through ensuring performance information is used in resource allocation decision making. Program and performance budgeting reforms should, therefore, provide information in a way that informs choices about spending alternatives and should improve transparency and accountability of government. There is no “best practice” approach, more “best fit” and the unique context of each country needs to be considered. It could be noted that some key public finance specialists recommend getting the “basics” right first as a priority. At the end of given research, there is introduced an experience of programme budgeting in Hungary, which has already have good results of its use.

  6. The Dynamic Definition of the Advertising Campaign Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrianyn Serhii O.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at exploring means for optimizing the budgeting of advertising activity, the optimal distribution of the advertising budget among several products, advertised by a company, and several advertising channels used during the distribution of an advertisement. The current status of the optimizationized budgeting models in the world and in Ukraine was analyzed. The topicality of scientific developments in this direction has been substantiated. The model is based on the non-linear logistics function of the response value of sales for the costs of placement of an advertising message, including market saturation effects and the accumulation of promotional effect. A complex advertising budgeting model has been proposed, which includes the dynamic definition of a budget constraint based on the expected sales return from a byed advertising campaign whose budget is being optimized. The proposed model allows to schedule advertising activities in conditions of uncertainty and rapid change of environment.

  7. BUDGETING, BUDGETARY CONTROL AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: Evidence from Hospitality Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Egbunike

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the view to address two fundamental issues: first, to determine if there is any association between budget, budgetary control and performance evaluation; second, to ascertain if there is any significant variation in the budget, budgetary control and performance evaluation measures of hospitality firms in Nigeria. The study employed descriptive design and primary data (questionnaire was the major source of data collection. Questionnaire was administered to a total of six hundred (600 employees of ten (10 selected hospitality firms in Nigeria. The data obtained were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings indicated that budget and budgetary control could serve as an avenue through which hospitality firms in Nigeria can be evaluated. In addition, it was revealed that there is a significant variation in the budget, budgetary control and performance evaluation of hospitality firms in Nigeria. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that hospitality firms in Nigeria should carry out performance evaluation on every aspect of their budget and budgetary activities as a way of ensuring that budgeted outcomes are met. Also, budgetary costs should be a basis of choosing the most-fit performance evaluation technique for hospitality firms since such

  8. Near-Bed Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget Under a Large-Scale Plunging Breaking Wave Over a Fixed Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Joep; van der A, Dominic A.; Cáceres, Iván.; Hurther, David; McLelland, Stuart J.; Ribberink, Jan S.; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Hydrodynamics under regular plunging breaking waves over a fixed breaker bar were studied in a large-scale wave flume. A previous paper reported on the outer flow hydrodynamics; the present paper focuses on the turbulence dynamics near the bed (up to 0.10 m from the bed). Velocities were measured with high spatial and temporal resolution using a two component laser Doppler anemometer. The results show that even at close distance from the bed (1 mm), the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) increases by a factor five between the shoaling, and breaking regions because of invasion of wave breaking turbulence. The sign and phase behavior of the time-dependent Reynolds shear stresses at elevations up to approximately 0.02 m from the bed (roughly twice the elevation of the boundary layer overshoot) are mainly controlled by local bed-shear-generated turbulence, but at higher elevations Reynolds stresses are controlled by wave breaking turbulence. The measurements are subsequently analyzed to investigate the TKE budget at wave-averaged and intrawave time scales. Horizontal and vertical turbulence advection, production, and dissipation are the major terms. A two-dimensional wave-averaged circulation drives advection of wave breaking turbulence through the near-bed layer, resulting in a net downward influx in the bar trough region, followed by seaward advection along the bar's shoreward slope, and an upward outflux above the bar crest. The strongly nonuniform flow across the bar combined with the presence of anisotropic turbulence enhances turbulent production rates near the bed.

  9. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  10. The uncertainty budget in pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    of their uncertainty, exactly as described in GUM [2]. Pharmaceutical industry has therefore over the last 5 years shown increasing interest in accreditation according to ISO 17025 [3], and today uncertainty budgets are being developed for all so-called critical measurements. The uncertainty of results obtained...... that the uncertainty of a particular result is independent of the method used for its estimation. Several examples of uncertainty budgets for critical parameters based on the bottom-up procedure will be discussed, and it will be shown how the top-down method is used as a means of verifying uncertainty budgets, based...

  11. Budget Brief: 2015 Proposed Budget Milwaukee Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vanessa; Chapman, Anne; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the major changes in revenue and expenditures in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) 2015 proposed budget, and the manner in which MPS has responded to recent legislative changes and turbulent workforce challenges. The objective is to provide an independent assessment of the district's…

  12. Bugetul funcțional (Line - Item Budget și metoda Buget Bază Zero ( Zero Base Budgeting - ZBB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A line-item budget lists, in vertical columns, each of the revenue sources and each of the types – or classes – of items will purchase during the fiscal year. The line-item budget, which is the most widely used of all budgeting systems, offers many advantages. It is comparatively easy to prepare and doesn’t require sophisticated financial skills. Also, the line-item budget is straightforward, simple to administer and readily understood by everybody. Moreover, the simplicity of the system makes it easier to monitor revenues and expenditures, which is important in this era of shrinking resources. Zero-based budgeting is a system that requires all departments to defend their programs and justify their continuation each year. Instead of simply penciling in the amounts of the additional funds that are needed in each account, the department head must prepare a series of “decision packages” that describe – and justify – each of the department’s programs in detail. For each program, the department must show: the various levels of service that could be provided with different levels of funding – including zero funding; alternative courses of action; and the consequences of funding the service at different levels, or not funding it at all. The most positive feature of zero-based budgeting is that it requires a thorough evaluation of all programs on a continuing basis and encourages proper funding for priority programs at the expense of less useful programs. The major drawback to zero-based budgeting is that it is extremely time-consuming, costly and requires a level of staff expertise that is not often available in small cities.

  13. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2013 Education Budget Request: Federal Education Budget Project. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    New America Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama submitted his third budget request to Congress on February 13th, 2012. The budget request includes proposed funding levels for all federal programs and agencies in aggregate for the upcoming 10 fiscal years, and specific fiscal year 2013 funding levels for programs subject to the annual appropriations process. It is…

  14. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  15. Surface energy budget and thermal inertia at Gale Crater: Calculations from ground-based measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, G M; Rennó, N; Fischer, E; Borlina, C S; Hallet, B; de la Torre Juárez, M; Vasavada, A R; Ramos, M; Hamilton, V; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R M

    2014-08-01

    The analysis of the surface energy budget (SEB) yields insights into soil-atmosphere interactions and local climates, while the analysis of the thermal inertia ( I ) of shallow subsurfaces provides context for evaluating geological features. Mars orbital data have been used to determine thermal inertias at horizontal scales of ∼10 4  m 2 to ∼10 7  m 2 . Here we use measurements of ground temperature and atmospheric variables by Curiosity to calculate thermal inertias at Gale Crater at horizontal scales of ∼10 2  m 2 . We analyze three sols representing distinct environmental conditions and soil properties, sol 82 at Rocknest (RCK), sol 112 at Point Lake (PL), and sol 139 at Yellowknife Bay (YKB). Our results indicate that the largest thermal inertia I  = 452 J m -2  K -1  s -1/2 (SI units used throughout this article) is found at YKB followed by PL with I  = 306 and RCK with I  = 295. These values are consistent with the expected thermal inertias for the types of terrain imaged by Mastcam and with previous satellite estimations at Gale Crater. We also calculate the SEB using data from measurements by Curiosity's Rover Environmental Monitoring Station and dust opacity values derived from measurements by Mastcam. The knowledge of the SEB and thermal inertia has the potential to enhance our understanding of the climate, the geology, and the habitability of Mars.

  16. Congress and Budget Policy in Jalisco, 1990-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Said Sánchez Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subnational studies in Mexico have pointed out the huge power of governors and the weakness of local Congresses in the design of budget policy. However, it is important to provide more evidence on the Congresses’s performance to attain a better understanding of this situation. Based on a case study of the Mexican state of Jalisco, the purposes of this paper are: a to present empirical evidence on the exercise of budgetary functions; b to explore whether the government status has an effect on the Congress behavior and its relationship with the Executive branch; and c to establish the impact of ammendments on budget policies.

  17. 24 CFR 990.300 - Preparation of operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preparation of operating budget... Resident Management Corporations (RMCs) § 990.300 Preparation of operating budget. (a) The RMC and the PHA must submit operating budgets and calculations of operating subsidy to HUD for approval in accordance...

  18. Linking Planning and Budgeting through Business Process Redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Marianne E.

    In the wake of an extensive strategic planning process that refocused institutional values at Northland College, Wisconsin, the administration undertook linking the budget with the newly articulated plan. Incremental budgeting was no longer feasible, and the new budget would have to reflect streamlining and new ways of functioning. Consequently…

  19. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress and...

  20. SOME ASPECTS OF STATE BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the modern economy, the market, the public purse money materialized in fact all relations that are contained in the sphere of public finances. The state budget is an economic category that is expressed in the form of values, which mobilizes economic relations, is distributed and used the funds of the state. The state budget is a fundamental category of financial sciences. We can address the legal and economic terms. In terms of its legal budget is an act that are set and approved annual revenue and expenditure of the state. Economic activity takes place in each country according to its own mechanism, called the economic mechanism. This is a system of economic management methods for determining management objectives and organizational structures (institutional, superstructure, legal means for driving