WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy budget star-formation

  1. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  2. Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Leonidaki, I.; Xilouris, E. M. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Weiß, A.; Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang, Z.-Y. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Aalto, S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, 43994 Onsala (Sweden); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, A. S. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); González-Alfonso, E. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Departamento de Fśica, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Harris, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Naylor, D. A. [Institute for Space Imaging Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Smith, H. A. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Spaans, M., E-mail: t.greve@ucl.ac.uk [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present FIR [50-300 μm]–CO luminosity relations (i.e., log L{sub FIR}=αlog L{sub CO}{sup ′}+β) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR[8-1000} {sub μm]} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR–CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR–CO luminosity relations (i.e., α ≅ 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ∼ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR–(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (∼100 K) and dense (>10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for

  3. THE IMPACT OF EVOLVING INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF GALAXIES ON STAR FORMATION RATE ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordon, R.; Lutz, D.; Genzel, R.; Berta, S.; Wuyts, S.; Magnelli, B.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany); Altieri, B. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, Villanueva de al Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Andreani, P. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aussel, H.; Daddi, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Bat.709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Perez Garcia, A. M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Cimatti, A. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Fadda, D. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lagache, G. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Bat 121, Universite de Paris XI, 91450 Orsay Cedex (France); Maiolino, R., E-mail: nordon@mpe.mpg.de [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); and others

    2012-02-01

    We combine Herschel-Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) data from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) program with Spitzer 24 {mu}m and 16 {mu}m photometry and ultra deep Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) mid-infrared spectra to measure the mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0.7 < z < 2.5 normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) around the main sequence (the redshift-dependent relation of star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass). Our very deep data confirm from individual far-infrared detections that z {approx} 2 SFRs are overestimated if based on 24 {mu}m fluxes and SED templates that are calibrated via local trends with luminosity. Galaxies with similar ratios of rest-frame {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8) to 8-1000 {mu}m infrared luminosity (LIR) tend to lie along lines of constant offset from the main sequence. We explore the relation between SED shape and offset in specific star formation rate (SSFR) from the redshift-dependent main sequence. Main-sequence galaxies tend to have a similar {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR regardless of LIR and redshift, up to z {approx} 2.5, and {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR decreases with increasing offset above the main sequence in a consistent way at the studied redshifts. We provide a redshift-independent calibration of SED templates in the range of 8-60 {mu}m as a function of {Delta}log(SSFR) offset from the main sequence. Redshift dependency enters only through the evolution of the main sequence with time. Ultra deep IRS spectra match these SED trends well and verify that they are mostly due to a change in ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) to LIR rather than continua of hidden active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Alternatively, we discuss the dependence of {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR on LIR. The same {nu}L{sub {nu}}(8)/LIR is reached at increasingly higher LIR at higher redshift, with shifts relative to local by 0.5 and 0.8 dex in log(LIR) at redshifts z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2. Corresponding SED template calibrations

  4. Star Formation in High Pressure, High Energy Density Environments: Laboratory Experiments of ISM Dust Analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W. van; Bajt, S.; Bradley, J.; Bringa, E.; Dai, Z.; Felter, T.; Graham, G.; Kucheyev, S.; Torres, D.; Tielens, A.; Baragiola, R.; Dukes, C.; Loeffler, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dust grains control the chemistry and cooling, and thus the gravitational collapse of interstellar clouds. Energetic particles, shocks and ionizing radiation can have a profound influence on the structure, lifetime and chemical reactivity of the dust, and therefore on the star formation efficiency. This would be especially important in forming galaxies, which exhibit powerful starburst (supernovae) and AGN (active galactic nucleus) activity. How dust properties are affected in such environments may be crucial for a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The authors present the results of experiments at LLNL which show that irradiation of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust analog forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) with swift heavy ions (10 MeV Xe) and a large electronic energy deposition amorphizes its crystalline structure, without changing its chemical composition. From the data they predict that silicate grains in the ISM, even in dense and cold giant molecular clouds, can be amorphized by heavy cosmic rays (CR's). This might provide an explanation for the observed absence of crystalline dust in the ISM clouds of the Milky Way galaxy. This processing of dust by CR's would be even more important in forming galaxies and galaxies with active black holes

  5. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  6. Simulating the formation and evolution of galaxies: multi-phase description of the interstellar medium, star formation, and energy feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, E.; Chiosi, C.

    2007-10-01

    Context: Modelling the gaseous component of the interstellar medium (ISM) by Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics in N-Body simulations (NB-TSPH) is still very crude when compared to the complex real situation. In the real ISM, many different and almost physically decoupled components (phases) coexist for long periods of time, and since they spread over wide ranges of density and temperature, they cannot be correctly represented by a unique continuous fluid. This would influence star formation which is thought to take place in clumps of cold, dense, molecular clouds, embedded in a warmer, neutral medium, that are almost freely moving throughout the tenuous hot ISM. Therefore, assuming that star formation is simply related to the gas content without specifying the component in which this is both observed and expected to occur may not be physically sound. Aims: We consider a multi-phase representation of the ISM in NB-TSPH simulations of galaxy formation and evolution with particular attention to the case of early-type galaxies. Methods: Cold gas clouds are described by the so-called sticky particles algorithm. They can freely move throughout the hot ISM medium; stars form within these clouds and the mass exchange among the three baryonic phases (hot gas, cold clouds, stars) is governed by radiative and Compton cooling and energy feedback by supernova (SN) explosions, stellar winds, and UV radiation. We also consider thermal conduction, cloud-cloud collisions, and chemical enrichment. Results: Our model agrees with and improves upon previous studies on the same subject. The results for the star formation rate agree with recent observational data on early-type galaxies. Conclusions: These models lend further support to the revised monolithic scheme of galaxy formation, which has recently been strengthened by high redshift data leading to the so-called downsizing and top-down scenarios.

  7. CANDELS: CORRELATIONS OF SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND MORPHOLOGIES WITH STAR FORMATION STATUS FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Gu Qiusheng; Huang Jiasheng; Fang Guanwen; Fazio, G. G.; Faber, S. M.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Kocevski, Dale; Wuyts, Stijn; Yan Haojing; Dekel, Avishai; Guo Yicheng; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, Benjamin; Hathi, Nimish P.; Kong Xu

    2012-01-01

    We present a study on spectral energy distributions, morphologies, and star formation for an IRAC-selected extremely red object sample in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. This work was enabled by new HST/WFC3 near-IR imaging from the CANDELS survey as well as the deepest available X-ray data from Chandra 4 Ms observations. This sample consists of 133 objects with the 3.6 μm limiting magnitude of [3.6] = 21.5 and is approximately complete for galaxies with M * > 10 11 M ☉ at 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5. We classify this sample into two types, quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the observed infrared color-color ([3.6]–[24] versus K – [3.6]) diagram. The further morphological study of this sample shows a consistent result with the observed color classification. The classified quiescent galaxies are bulge dominated and SFGs in the sample have disk or irregular morphologies. Our observed infrared color classification is also consistent with the rest-frame color (U – V versus V – J) classification. We also found that quiescent and SFGs are well separated in the nonparametric morphology parameter (Gini versus M 20 ) diagram measuring their concentration and clumpiness: quiescent galaxies have a Gini coefficient higher than 0.58 and SFGs have a Gini coefficient lower than 0.58. We argue that the star formation quenching process must lead to or be accompanied by the increasing galaxy concentration. One prominent morphological feature of this sample is that disks are commonly seen in this massive galaxy sample at 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5: 30% of quiescent galaxies and 70% of SFGs with M * > 10 11 M ☉ have disks in their rest-frame optical morphologies. The prevalence of these extended, relatively undisturbed disks challenges the merging scenario as the main mode of massive galaxy formation.

  8. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  9. GOODS-HERSCHEL: IMPACT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY ON INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Bournaud, Frederic; Dasyra, Kalliopi [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Universite d' Aix-Marseille, CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Dannerbauer, Helmut, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); and others

    2012-11-10

    We explore the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity on the infrared (0.3-1000 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.5 to 4.0. We have compiled a large sample of 151 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} {approx}> 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-IR spectrum into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. A significant portion ({approx}25%) of our sample is dominated by an AGN (>50% of the mid-IR luminosity) in the mid-IR. Based on the mid-IR classification, we divide our full sample into four sub-samples: z {approx} 1 star-forming (SF) sources, z {approx} 2 SF sources, AGNs with clear 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption, and AGNs with featureless mid-IR spectra. From our large spectroscopic sample and wealth of multi-wavelength data, including deep Herschel imaging at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, we use 95 galaxies with complete spectral coverage to create a composite SED for each sub-sample. We then fit a two-temperature component modified blackbody to the SEDs. We find that the IR SEDs have similar cold dust temperatures, regardless of the mid-IR power source, but display a marked difference in the warmer dust temperatures. We calculate the average effective temperature of the dust in each sub-sample and find a significant ({approx}20 K) difference between the SF and AGN systems. We compare our composite SEDs to local templates and find that local templates do not accurately reproduce the mid-IR features and dust temperatures of our high-redshift systems. High-redshift IR luminous galaxies contain significantly more cool dust than their local counterparts. We find that a full suite of photometry spanning the IR peak is necessary to accurately account for the dominant dust temperature components in high-redshift IR luminous galaxies.

  10. CANDELS: CORRELATIONS OF SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND MORPHOLOGIES WITH STAR FORMATION STATUS FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Tao; Gu Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang Jiasheng; Fang Guanwen; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Faber, S. M.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Kocevski, Dale [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Yan Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Guo Yicheng [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, 710 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Kong Xu, E-mail: taowang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2012-06-20

    We present a study on spectral energy distributions, morphologies, and star formation for an IRAC-selected extremely red object sample in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. This work was enabled by new HST/WFC3 near-IR imaging from the CANDELS survey as well as the deepest available X-ray data from Chandra 4 Ms observations. This sample consists of 133 objects with the 3.6 {mu}m limiting magnitude of [3.6] = 21.5 and is approximately complete for galaxies with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5. We classify this sample into two types, quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the observed infrared color-color ([3.6]-[24] versus K - [3.6]) diagram. The further morphological study of this sample shows a consistent result with the observed color classification. The classified quiescent galaxies are bulge dominated and SFGs in the sample have disk or irregular morphologies. Our observed infrared color classification is also consistent with the rest-frame color (U - V versus V - J) classification. We also found that quiescent and SFGs are well separated in the nonparametric morphology parameter (Gini versus M{sub 20}) diagram measuring their concentration and clumpiness: quiescent galaxies have a Gini coefficient higher than 0.58 and SFGs have a Gini coefficient lower than 0.58. We argue that the star formation quenching process must lead to or be accompanied by the increasing galaxy concentration. One prominent morphological feature of this sample is that disks are commonly seen in this massive galaxy sample at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5: 30% of quiescent galaxies and 70% of SFGs with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} have disks in their rest-frame optical morphologies. The prevalence of these extended, relatively undisturbed disks challenges the merging scenario as the main mode of massive galaxy formation.

  11. Nuclear processing during star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted of the thermonuclear energy release expected during star formation. The destruction of primordial deuterium provides substantial amounts of energy at surprisingly low temperatures, and must be considered in any meaningful treatment of star formation carried to stages in which the internal temperature exceeds a few hundred thousand degrees. Significant energy generation from consumption of initial lithium requires higher temperatures, of the order of a few million degrees. Depletion of primordial beryllium and boron may never provide an important energy source. The approach to equilibrium of the carbon--nitrogen cycle is dominant at temperatures approaching those characteristic of the central regions of main sequence stars. The present calculation should serve as a useful guide in choosing those nuclear processes to be included in a more detailed study. 8 figures, 2 tables

  12. Triggered star formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2002), s. 35-36 ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003705; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : interstellar medium * star formation * HI shells Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. IMPACT OF H{sub 2}-BASED STAR FORMATION MODEL ON THE z {>=} 6 LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND THE IONIZING PHOTON BUDGET FOR REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaacks, Jason; Thompson, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4002 (United States); Nagamine, Kentaro, E-mail: jaacksj@physics.unlv.edu [Visiting Scientist. Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics for the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583, Japan. (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    We present the results of a numerical study examining the effect of an H{sub 2}-based star formation (SF) model on the rest-frame UV luminosity function and star formation rate function (SFRF) of z {>=} 6 galaxies, and the implications for reionization. Using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations outfitted with an H{sub 2}-SF model, we find good agreement with our previous results (non-H{sub 2} SF model) and observations at M{sub uv} {<=} -18. However, at M{sub uv} > -18, we find that the LF deviates from both our previous work and current observational extrapolations, producing significantly fewer low-luminosity galaxies and exhibiting additional turnover at the faint end. We constrain the redshift evolution of this turnover point using a modified Schechter function that includes additional terms to quantify the turnover magnitude (M{sub uv}{sup t}) and subsequent slope ({beta}). We find that M{sub uv}{sup t} evolves from M{sub uv}{sup t}=-17.33 (at z = 8) to -15.38 (z = 6), while {beta} becomes shallower by {Delta}{beta} = 0.22 during the same epoch. This occurs in an M{sub uv} range that will be observable by James Webb Space Telescope. By integrating the SFRF, we determine that even though the H{sub 2}-SF model significantly reduces the number density of low-luminosity galaxies at M{sub uv} > -18, it does not suppress the total SFR density enough to affect the capability of SF to maintain reionization.

  14. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  15. Star formation in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We develop a simple semianalytic model of the star formation rate as a function of time. We estimate the star formation rate for a wide range of values of the cosmological constant, spatial curvature, and primordial density contrast. Our model can predict such parameters in the multiverse, if the underlying theory landscape and the cosmological measure are known.

  16. Star Formation in Dusty Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Stuart; Croom, Scott

    2012-04-01

    Quasar mode feedback is thought to be a crucial ingredient in galaxy formation for luminous merging and star-bursting systems at high redshift. The energy from the active nucleus should cause significant gas outflows, reducing the available free gas reservoir for future star formation. It is currently unknown which observational state best corresponds to the stage at which this "blowout" should occur. We intend to test one possible source population for this transition phase, by studying the molecular gas content in a small, statistically complete sample of 3 K-band selected reddened quasars from the AUS survey. All lie in the redshift range 2

  17. CHARACTERIZING SPIRAL ARM AND INTERARM STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreckel, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Meidt, S. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanc, G. A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Groves, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Adamo, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Hughes, A., E-mail: kreckel@mpia.de [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2016-08-20

    Interarm star formation contributes significantly to a galaxy’s star formation budget and provides an opportunity to study stellar birthplaces unperturbed by spiral arm dynamics. Using optical integral field spectroscopy of the nearby galaxy NGC 628 with VLT/MUSE, we construct H α maps including detailed corrections for dust extinction and stellar absorption to identify 391 H ii regions at 35 pc resolution over 12 kpc{sup 2}. Using tracers sensitive to the underlying gravitational potential, we associate H ii regions with either arm (271) or interarm (120) environments. Using our full spectral coverage of each region, we find that most physical properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) of H ii regions are independent of environment. We calculate the fraction of H α luminosity due to the background of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) contaminating each H ii region, and find the DIG surface brightness to be higher within H ii regions than in the surroundings, and slightly higher within arm H ii regions. Use of the temperature-sensitive [S ii]/H α line ratio instead of the H α surface brightness to identify the boundaries of H ii regions does not change this result. Using the dust attenuation as a tracer of the gas, we find depletion times consistent with previous work (2 × 10{sup 9} yr) with no differences between the arm and interarm, but this is very sensitive to the DIG correction. Unlike molecular clouds, which can be dynamically affected by the galactic environment, we see fairly consistent properties of H ii regions in both arm and interarm environments. This suggests either a difference in star formation and feedback in arms or a decoupling of dense star-forming clumps from the more extended surrounding molecular gas.

  18. Shock-induced star formation in a model of the Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Joshua E.

    2004-01-01

    Star formation plays an important role in the fate of interacting galaxies. To date, most galactic simulations including star formation have used a density-dependent star formation rule designed to approximate a Schmidt law. Here, I present a new star formation rule which is governed by the local rate of energy dissipation in shocks. The new and old rules are compared using self-consistent simulations of NGC 4676; shock-induced star formation provides a better match to the observations of thi...

  19. Photoionization-regulated star formation and the structure of molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, Christopher F.

    1989-01-01

    A model for the rate of low-mass star formation in Galactic molecular clouds and for the influence of this star formation on the structure and evolution of the clouds is presented. The rate of energy injection by newly formed stars is estimated, and the effect of this energy injection on the size of the cloud is determined. It is shown that the observed rate of star formation appears adequate to support the observed clouds against gravitational collapse. The rate of photoionization-regulated star formation is estimated and it is shown to be in agreement with estimates of the observed rate of star formation if the observed molecular cloud parameters are used. The mean cloud extinction and the Galactic star formation rate per unit mass of molecular gas are predicted theoretically from the condition that photionization-regulated star formation be in equilibrium. A simple model for the evolution of isolated molecular clouds is developed.

  20. Lyα-EMITTING GALAXIES AT z = 2.1: STELLAR MASSES, DUST, AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES FROM SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guaita, Lucia; Padilla, Nelson; Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas A.; Kurczynski, Peter; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Treister, Ezequiel; Lira, Paulina; Schawinski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We study the physical properties of 216 z ≅ 2.1 Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs) discovered in an ultra-deep narrow- MUSYC image of the ECDF-S. We fit their stacked spectral energy distribution (SED) using Charlot and Bruzual templates. We consider star formation histories (SFHs) parameterized by the e-folding time parameter τ, allowing for exponentially decreasing (τ > 0), exponentially increasing (τ * /M sun ) = 8.6[8.4-9.1], E(B - V) = 0.22[0.00-0.31], τ = -0.02[(- 4)-18] Gyr, and age SF = 0.018[0.009-3] Gyr. Thus, we obtain robust measurements of low stellar mass and dust content, but we cannot place meaningful constraints on the age or SFH of the LAEs. We also calculate the instantaneous SFR to be 35[0.003-170] M sun yr -1 , with its average over the last 100 Myr before observation giving (SFR) 100 = 4[2-30] M sun yr -1 . When we compare the results for the same SFH, typical LAEs at z ≅ 2.1 appear dustier and show higher instantaneous SFRs than z ≅ 3.1 LAEs, while the observed stellar masses of the two samples seem consistent. Because the majority are low-mass galaxies, our typical LAEs appear to occupy the low-mass end of the distribution of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2. We perform SED fitting on several sub-samples selected based on photometric properties and find that LAE sub-samples at z ≅ 2.1 exhibit heterogeneous properties. The typical IRAC-bright, UV-bright, and red LAEs have the largest stellar mass and dust reddening. The typical UV-faint, IRAC-faint, and high EW LAE sub-samples appear less massive ( 9 M sun ) and less dusty, with E(B - V) consistent with zero.

  1. Interactions, Starbursts, and Star Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan H. Knapen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study how interactions between galaxies affect star formation within them by considering a sample of almost 1500 of the nearest galaxies, all within a distance of ∼45 Mpc. We use the far-IR emission to define the massive star formation rate (SFR, and then normalise the SFR by the stellar mass of the galaxy to obtain the specific star formation rate (SSFR. We explore the distribution of (SSFR with morphological type and with stellar mass. We calculate the relative enhancement of SFR and SSFR for each galaxy by normalising them by the median SFR and SSFR values of individual control samples of similar non-interacting galaxies. We find that both the median SFR and SSFR are enhanced in interacting galaxies, and more so as the degree of interaction is higher. The increase is moderate, reaching a maximum of a factor of 1.9 for the highest degree of interaction (mergers. While the SFR and SSFR are enhanced statistically by interactions, in many individual interacting galaxies they are not enhanced at all. Our study is based on a representative sample of nearby galaxies and should be used to place constraints on studies based on samples of galaxies at larger distances.

  2. The Spectral Energy Distributions of z ~ 8 Galaxies from the IRAC Ultra Deep Fields: Emission Lines, Stellar Masses, and Specific Star Formation Rates at 650 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, I.; Oesch, P. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V.; Carollo, C. M.; Franx, M.; Trenti, M.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.

    2013-11-01

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ~ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ~120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ~28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct >=3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at >=5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ~ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ~ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ~ 7 and z ~ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of {W}_{[O\\,\\scriptsize{III}]\\ \\lambda \\lambda 4959,5007+H\\beta }=670^{+260}_{-170} Å contributing 0.56^{+0.16}_{-0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ~ 8. The corresponding {W}_{H\\alpha }=430^{+160}_{-110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11_{-5}^{+11} Gyr-1 and a stellar population age of 100_{-50}^{+100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ~3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to \\rho ^*(z=8,M_{\\rm{UV}}Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #11563, 9797. Based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of

  3. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF z ∼ 8 GALAXIES FROM THE IRAC ULTRA DEEP FIELDS: EMISSION LINES, STELLAR MASSES, AND SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES AT 650 MYR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Carollo, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Trenti, M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Van Dokkum, P. G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Stiavelli, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ∼120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ∼28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct ≥3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at ≥5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ∼ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ∼ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of contributing 0.56{sup +0.16}{sub -0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ∼ 8. The corresponding W{sub Hα}=430{sup +160}{sub -110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11{sub -5}{sup +11} Gyr{sup –1} and a stellar population age of 100{sub -50}{sup +100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ∼3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to ρ{sup *}(z=8,M{sub UV}<-18)=0.6{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3}×10{sup 6} M{sub sun} Mpc{sup –3}.

  4. The Insignificance of Major Mergers in Driving Star Formation at z approximately equal to 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, S.; Cohen, S.; Windhorst, R. A.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Dopita, M. A.; Dekel, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Straughn, A.; Rutkowski, M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the significance of major mergers in driving star formation in the early Universe, by quantifying the contribution of this process to the total star formation budget in 80 massive (M(*) > 10(exp 10) Solar M) galaxies at z approx = 2. Employing visually-classified morphologies from rest-frame V-band HST imaging, we find that 55(exp +/-14)% of the star formation budget is hosted by non-interacting late-types, with 27(exp +/-18% in major mergers and 18(exp +/- 6)% in spheroids. Given that a system undergoing a major merger continues to experience star formation driven by other processes at this epoch (e.g. cold accretion, minor mergers), approx 27% is a likely upper limit for the major-merger contribution to star formation activity at this epoch. The ratio of the average specific star formation rate in major mergers to that in the non-interacting late-types is approx 2.2:1, suggesting that the typical enhancement of star formation due to major merging is modest and that just under half the star formation in systems experiencing major mergers is unrelated to the merger itself. Taking this into account, we estimate that the actual major-merger contribution to the star formation budget may be as low as approx 15%. While our study does not preclude a major-merger-dominated. era in the very early Universe, if the major-merger contribution to star formation does not evolve significantly into larger look-back times, then this process has a relatively insignificant role in driving stellar mass assembly over cosmic time.

  5. STAR Formation Histories Across the Interacting Galaxy NGC 6872, the Largest-Known Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, RIchard G.; deMello, Duilia F.; Gadotti, DImitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; deOliveira, CLaudia Mendes; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    NGC6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 micrometer) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  6. Infrared Astronomy and Star Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared astronomy is a natural tool to use in studying star formation because infrared light penetrates the surrounding dust and because protostars are expected to emit infrared light. Infrared mapping and photometry have revealed many compact sources, often embedded in more extensive warm dust associated with a molecular cloud core. More detailed study of these objects is now beginning, and traditional interpretations are being questioned. Some compact sources are now thought to be density enhancements which are not self-luminous. Infrared excesses around young stars may not always be caused by circumstellar dust; speckle measurements have shown that at least some of the excess toward T Tauri is caused by an infrared companion. Spectroscopic studies of the dense, star-forming cores and of the compact objects themselves have uncovered a wealth of new phenomena, including the widespread occurence of energetic outflows. New discoveries with IRAS and with other planned infrared telescopes will continue to advance this field. (author)

  7. Probes of Cosmic Star Formation History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I summarize X-ray diagnostic studies of cosmic star formation history in terms of evolutionary schemes for X-ray binary evolution in normal galaxies with evolving star formation. Deep X-ray imaging studies by Chandra and XMM-Newton are now beginning to constrain both the X-ray luminosity evolution of galaxies and the ...

  8. Spiral branches and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasov, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    Origin of spiral branches of galaxies and formation of stars in them are considered from the point of view of the theory of the gravitational gas condensation, one of comparatively young theories. Arguments are presented in favour of the stellar condensation theory. The concept of the star formation of gas is no longer a speculative hypothesis. This is a theory which assumes quantitative verification and explains qualitatively many facts observed. And still our knowledge on the nature of spiral branches is very poor. It still remains vague what processes give origin to spiral branches, why some galaxies have spirals and others have none. And shapes of spiral branches are diverse. Some cases are known when spiral branches spread outside boundaries of galaxies themselves. Such spirals arise exclusively in the region where there are two or some interacting galaxies. Only first steps have been made in the explanation of the galaxy spiral branches, and it is necessary to carry out new observations and new theoretical calculations

  9. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically ∼1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of ∼2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  10. STAR FORMATION IN 30 DORADUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Spezzi, Loredana; Sirianni, Marco; Andersen, Morten; Paresce, Francesco; Panagia, Nino; Mutchler, Max; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard; Beccari, Giacomo; Balick, Bruce; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Calzetti, Daniela; Marcella Carollo, C.; Disney, Michael J.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Using observations obtained with the Wide-Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have studied the properties of the stellar populations in the central regions of 30 Dor in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations clearly reveal the presence of considerable differential extinction across the field. We characterize and quantify this effect using young massive main-sequence stars to derive a statistical reddening correction for most objects in the field. We then search for pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars by looking for objects with a strong (>4σ) Hα excess emission and find about 1150 of them over the entire field. Comparison of their location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with theoretical PMS evolutionary tracks for the appropriate metallicity reveals that about one-third of these objects are younger than ∼4 Myr, compatible with the age of the massive stars in the central ionizing cluster R 136, whereas the rest have ages up to ∼30 Myr, with a median age of ∼12 Myr. This indicates that star formation has proceeded over an extended period of time, although we cannot discriminate between an extended episode and a series of short and frequent bursts that are not resolved in time. While the younger PMS population preferentially occupies the central regions of the cluster, older PMS objects are more uniformly distributed across the field and are remarkably few at the very center of the cluster. We attribute this latter effect to photo-evaporation of the older circumstellar disks caused by the massive ionizing members of R 136.

  11. ON STAR FORMATION RATES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF GALAXIES OUT TO z ∼ 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Lutz, Dieter; Nordon, Raanan; Berta, Stefano; Genzel, Reinhard; Magnelli, Benjamin; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Altieri, Bruno; Andreani, Paola; Aussel, Herve; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Bongiovanni, Angel; Cepa, Jordi; Garcia, Ana Perez; Cimatti, Andrea; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Maiolino, Roberto; McGrath, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    We compare multi-wavelength star formation rate (SFR) indicators out to z ∼ 3 in the GOODS-South field. Our analysis uniquely combines U to 8 μm photometry from FIREWORKS, MIPS 24 μm and PACS 70, 100, and 160 μm photometry from the PEP, and Hα spectroscopy from the SINS survey. We describe a set of conversions that lead to a continuity across SFR indicators. A luminosity-independent conversion from 24 μm to total infrared luminosity yields estimates of L IR that are in the median consistent with the L IR derived from PACS photometry, albeit with significant scatter. Dust correction methods perform well at low-to-intermediate levels of star formation. They fail to recover the total amount of star formation in systems with large SFR IR /SFR UV ratios, typically occuring at the highest SFRs (SFR UV+ I R ∼> 100 M sun yr -1 ) and redshifts (z ∼> 2.5) probed. Finally, we confirm that Hα-based SFRs at 1.5 SED and SFR UV+IR provided extra attenuation toward H II regions is taken into account (A V,neb = A V,continuum /0.44). With the cross-calibrated SFR indicators in hand, we perform a consistency check on the star formation histories inferred from spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling. We compare the observed SFR-M relations and mass functions at a range of redshifts to equivalents that are computed by evolving lower redshift galaxies backward in time. We find evidence for underestimated stellar ages when no stringent constraints on formation epoch are applied in SED modeling. We demonstrate how resolved SED modeling, or alternatively deep UV data, may help to overcome this bias. The age bias is most severe for galaxies with young stellar populations and reduces toward older systems. Finally, our analysis suggests that SFHs typically vary on timescales that are long (at least several 100 Myr) compared to the galaxies' dynamical time.

  12. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  13. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  14. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Qin Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10 3 cm –3 and kinematic temperature ∼20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  15. Physics of star formation in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, F

    2002-01-01

    Begining with a historical introduction, ""Star Formation: The Early History"", this text then presents two long articles on ""Pre-Main-Sequence Evolution of Stars and Young Clusters"" and ""Observations of Young Stellar Objects"".

  16. Inflow of atomic gas fuelling star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these ga......Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation...... in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion....

  17. Star Formation in low mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang

    2018-01-01

    Our current hierarchical view of the universe asserts that the large galaxies we see today grew via mergers of numerous smaller galaxies. As evidenced by recent literature, the collective impact of these low mass galaxies on the universe is more substantial than previously thought. Studying the growth and evolution of these low mass galaxies is critical to our understanding of the universe as a whole. Star formation is one of the most important ongoing processes in galaxies. Forming stars is fundamental to the growth of a galaxy. One of the main goals of my thesis is to analyze the star formation in these low mass galaxies at different redshifts.Using the Hubble UltraViolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF), I investigate the star formation in galaxies at the peak of the cosmic star formation history using the ultraviolet (UV) light as a star formation indicator. Particularly, I measure the UV luminosity function (LF) to probe the volume-averaged star formation properties of galaxies at these redshifts. The depth of the UVUDF is ideal for a direct measurement of the faint end slope of the UV LF. This redshift range also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare UV to the "gold standard" of star formation indicators, namely the Hα nebular emission line. A joint analysis of the UV and Hα LFs suggests that, on average, the star formation histories in low mass galaxies (~109 M⊙) are more bursty compared to their higher mass counterparts at these redshifts.Complementary to the analysis of the average star formation properties of the bulk galaxy population, I investigate the details of star formation in some very bursty galaxies at lower redshifts selected from Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime Cam (SPLASH). Using a broadband color-excess selection technique, I identify a sample of low redshift galaxies with bright nebular emission lines in the Subaru-XMM Deep Field (SXDF) from the SPLASH-SXDF catalog. These galaxies are highly star forming and have

  18. Search of massive star formation with COMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko K.

    2004-04-01

    Mid-infrared observations is useful for studies of massive star formation. Especially COMICS offers powerful tools: imaging survey of the circumstellar structures of forming massive stars such as massive disks and cavity structures, mass estimate from spectroscopy of fine structure lines, and high dispersion spectroscopy to census gas motion around formed stars. COMICS will open the next generation infrared studies of massive star formation.

  19. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Grebel, Eva K.

    2000-01-01

    Properties of nearby dwarf galaxies are briefly discussed. Dwarf galaxies vary widely in their star formation histories, the ages of their subpopulations, and in their enrichment history. Furthermore, many dwarf galaxies show evidence for spatial variations in their star formation history; often in the form of very extended old populations and radial gradients in age and metallicity. Determining factors in dwarf galaxy evolution appear to be both galaxy mass and environment. We may be observi...

  20. Star formation histories of irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    We explore the star formation histories of a selection of irregular and spiral galaxies by using three parameters that sample the star formation rate (SFR) at different epochs: (1) the mass of a galaxy in the form of stars measures the SFR integrated over a galaxy's lifetime; (2) the blue luminosity is dominated primarily by stars formed over the past few billion years; and (3) Lyman continuum photon fluxes derived from Hα luminosities give the current ( 8 yr) SFR

  1. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  2. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II.

    1984-03-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10 4 years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  3. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding intercloud gas flows leading to nonlinear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an initially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation-driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation-driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in -- 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ yr and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several ultracompact H II regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multi-dimensional calculations of coupled processes. Important nonlinear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  4. Star formation in active galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    I review the observational evidence for a causal or statistical link between star formation and active galactic nuclei. The chief difficulty is in quantitatively ascertaining the star formation rate in active galaxies: most of the readily observable manifestations of star formation superficially resemble those of an active nucleus. Careful multi-wavelength spatially-resolved observations demonstrate that many Seyfert galaxies are undergoing star formation. Our survey of CO emission from Seyferts (interpreted in conjunction IRAS data) suggests that type 2 Seyferts have unusually high rates of star formation, but type 1 Seyferts do not. Recent work also suggests that many powerful radio galaxies may be actively forming stars: radio galaxies with strong emission-lines often have blue colors and strong far-infrared emission. Determining the star formation rate in the host galaxies of quasars is especially difficult. Multi-color imaging and long-slit spectroscopy suggests that many of the host galaxies of radio-loud quasars are blue and a cold interstellar medium has been detected in some quasar hosts

  5. HOW GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT REGULATES STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meidt, Sharon E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie/Königstuhl 17 D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-02-10

    In a new simple model I reconcile two contradictory views on the factors that determine the rate at which molecular clouds form stars—internal structure versus external, environmental influences—providing a unified picture for the regulation of star formation in galaxies. In the presence of external pressure, the pressure gradient set up within a self-gravitating turbulent (isothermal) cloud leads to a non-uniform density distribution. Thus the local environment of a cloud influences its internal structure. In the simple equilibrium model, the fraction of gas at high density in the cloud interior is determined simply by the cloud surface density, which is itself inherited from the pressure in the immediate surroundings. This idea is tested using measurements of the properties of local clouds, which are found to show remarkable agreement with the simple equilibrium model. The model also naturally predicts the star formation relation observed on cloud scales and at the same time provides a mapping between this relation and the closer-to-linear molecular star formation relation measured on larger scales in galaxies. The key is that pressure regulates not only the molecular content of the ISM but also the cloud surface density. I provide a straightforward prescription for the pressure regulation of star formation that can be directly implemented in numerical models. Predictions for the dense gas fraction and star formation efficiency measured on large-scales within galaxies are also presented, establishing the basis for a new picture of star formation regulated by galactic environment.

  6. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, Ken; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Star formations rates in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.F.; Mezger, P.G.; Biermann, P.

    1978-01-01

    Data relevant to giant HII regions in the Galaxy are collected. The production rate for Lyman continuum photons by O stars in giant HII regions is 4.7 10 52 s -1 in the whole Galaxy. The corresponding present rate of star formation is M (sun)/yr, of which 74% occurs in main spiral arms, 13% in the interarm region and 13% in the galactic center. The star formation rates, the observed heavy element and deuterium abundances in the solar neighbourhood are compared to model predictions based on star formation proportional to a power (k) of the gas surface density. The mass function is terminated at Msub(u)=100 M (sun) above and M 1 below. Msub(u)=50 M (sun) is also considered. Comparing with data derived from observations a) the star formation rate, b) metal abundances, c) deuterium abundances, and d) colors of the stellar population, we find that models of k=1/2 to 1, and M 1 1 M (sun) are formed together with O and B stars, but under rather special conditions of the interstellar gas, while lower mass stars form wherever dense molecular clouds exist. The high rate of star formation in the galactic center may represent a burst. (orig.) [de

  8. THE ESTIMATION OF STAR FORMATION RATES AND STELLAR POPULATION AGES OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES FROM BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong-Kook; Ferguson, Henry C.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Wiklind, Tommy; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We explore methods to improve the estimates of star formation rates and mean stellar population ages from broadband photometry of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. We use synthetic spectral templates with a variety of simple parametric star formation histories to fit broadband spectral energy distributions. These parametric models are used to infer ages, star formation rates, and stellar masses for a mock data set drawn from a hierarchical semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution. Traditional parametric models generally assume an exponentially declining rate of star formation after an initial instantaneous rise. Our results show that star formation histories with a much more gradual rise in the star formation rate are likely to be better templates, and are likely to give better overall estimates of the age distribution and star formation rate distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). For B- and V-dropouts, we find the best simple parametric model to be one where the star formation rate increases linearly with time. The exponentially declining model overpredicts the age by 100% and 120% for B- and V-dropouts, on average, while for a linearly increasing model, the age is overpredicted by 9% and 16%, respectively. Similarly, the exponential model underpredicts star formation rates by 56% and 60%, while the linearly increasing model underpredicts by 15% and 22%, respectively. For U-dropouts, the models where the star formation rate has a peak (near z ∼ 3) provide the best match for age-overprediction is reduced from 110% to 26%-and star formation rate-underprediction is reduced from 58% to 22%. We classify different types of star formation histories in the semi-analytic models and show how the biases behave for the different classes. We also provide two-band calibration formulae for stellar mass and star formation rate estimations.

  9. Learning the Relationship between Galaxy Spectra and Star Formation Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Christopher; Acquaviva, Viviana; Iyer, Kartheik; Gawiser, Eric

    2018-01-01

    We explore novel approaches to the problem of predicting a galaxy’s star formation history (SFH) from its Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). Traditional approaches to SED template fitting use constant or exponentially declining SFHs, and are known to incur significant bias in the inferred SFHs, which are typically skewed toward younger stellar populations. Machine learning approaches, including tree ensemble methods and convolutional neural networks, would not be affected by the same bias, and may work well in recovering unbiased and multi-episodic star formation histories. We use a supervised approach whereby models are trained using synthetic spectra, generated from three state of the art hydrodynamical simulations, including nebular emission. We explore how SED feature maps can be used to highlight areas of the spectrum with the highest predictive power and discuss the limitations of the approach when applied to real data.

  10. Radio continuum, far infrared and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielebinski, R.; Wunderlich, E.; Klein, U.; Hummel, E.

    1987-01-01

    A very tight correlation was found between the radio emission and the far infrared emission from galaxies. This has been found for various samples of galaxies and is explained in terms of recent star formation. The tight correlation would imply that the total radio emission is a good tracer of star formation. The correlation between the radio power at 5 GHz and the far infrared luminosity is shown. The galaxies are of various morphological types and were selected from the various IRAS circulars, hence the sample is an infrared selected sample. The far infrared luminosities were corrected for the dust temperature. This is significant because it decreases the dispersion in the correlation

  11. Calibration of Star Formation Rates Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Ann H.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring and mapping star-forming activity in galaxies is a key element for our understanding of their broad- band spectra, and their structure and evolution in our local, as well as the high-redshift Universe. The main tool we use for these measurements is the observed luminosity in various spectral lines and/or continuum bands. However, the available star-formation rate (SFR) indicators are often discrepant and subject to physical biases and calibration uncertainties. We are organizing a special session at the 2012 IAU General Assembly in Beijing, China (August 20-31, 2012) in order to bring together theoreticians and observers working in different contexts of star-formation to discuss the status of current SFR indicators, to identify open issues and to define a strategic framework for their resolution. The is an ideal time to synthesize information from the current golden era of space astrophysics and still have influence on the upcoming missions that will broaden our view of star-formation. We will be including high-energy constraints on SFR in the program and encourage participation from the high energy astrophysics community.

  12. Energy budget of the volcano Stromboli, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.; Chouet, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analyses of movies of eruptions at Stromboli, Italy, and other available data are used to discuss the question of its energy partitioning among various energy transport mechanisms. Energy is transported to the surface from active volcanoes in at least eight modes, viz. conduction (and convection) of the heat through the surface, radiative heat transfer from the vent, acoustical radiation in blast and jet noise, seismic radiation, thermal energy of ejected particles, kinetic energy of ejected particles, thermal energy of ejected gas, and kinetic energy of ejected gas. Estimated values of energy flux from Stromboli by these eight mechanisms are tabulated. The energy budget of Stromboli in its normal mode of activity appears to be dominated by heat conduction (and convection) through the ground surface. Heat carried by eruption gases is the most important of the other energy transfer modes. Radiated heat from the open vent and heat carried by ejected lava particles also contribute to the total flux, while seismic energy accounts for about 0.5% of the total. All other modes are trivial by comparison.

  13. Star Formation in Merging Galaxies Using FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Hung, Chao-Ling; Naiman, Jill; Moreno, Jorge; Hopkins, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy interactions and mergers are efficient mechanisms to birth stars at rates that are significantly higher than found in our Milky Way galaxy. The Kennicut-Schmidt (KS) relation is an empirical relationship between the star-forming rate and gas surface densities of galaxies (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998). Although most galaxies follow the KS relation, the high levels of star formation in galaxy mergers places them outside of this otherwise tight relationship. The goal of this research is to analyze the gas content and star formation of simulated merging galaxies. Our work utilizes the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high-resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star-forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. In this work, we have noticed a significant increase in the star formation rate at first and second passage, when the two black holes of each galaxy approach one other. Next, we will analyze spatially resolved star-forming regions over the course of the interacting system. Then, we can study when and how the rates that gas converts into stars deviate from the standard KS. These analyses will provide important insights into the physical mechanisms that regulate star formation of normal and merging galaxies and valuable theoretical predictions that can be used to compare with current and future observations from ALMA or the James Webb Space Telescope.

  14. Galaxies interactions and induced star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kennicutt Jr, Robert C; Barnes, JE

    1998-01-01

    The papers that make up this volume present a comprehensive review of the field of galaxy interaction. Galaxies are dynamic forces that evolve, interact, merge, blaze and reshape. This book offers a historical perspective and studies such topics as induced star formation.

  15. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  16. The Effects of Galaxy Interactions on Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverage, Aliza; Weiner, Aaron; Ramos Padilla, Andres; Ashby, Matthew; Smith, Howard A.

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy interactions are key events in galaxy evolution, and are widely thought to trigger significant increases in star formation. However, the mechanisms and timescales for these increases are still not well understood. In order to probe the effects of mergers, we undertook an investigation based on the Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey (SIGS), a sample of 102 nearby galaxies in 48 systems ranging from weakly interacting to near coalescence. Our study is unique in that we use both broadband photometry and a large sample of objects chosen to be statistically meaningful. Our data come from 32 broad bands ranging from the UV to far-IR, and we model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using the Code for Investigating Galaxy Emission (CIGALE) to estimate physical characteristics for each galaxy. We find marginal statistical correlations between galaxy interaction strength and dust luminosity and the distribution of dust mass as a function of heating intensity. The specific star formation rates, however, do not show any enhancement across the interaction stages. This result challenges conventional wisdom that mergers induce star formation throughout galaxy interaction.The SAO REU program is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  17. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN NGC 1266

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lanz, Lauranne; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Appleton, Philip N.; Ogle, Patrick M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Nyland, Kristina; Meier, David S. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cales, Sabrina L. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Martín, Sergio, E-mail: kalatalo@ipac.caltech.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France)

    2015-01-01

    NGC 1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high-power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC 1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at M-dot {sub out}≈110 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup –1}, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact (≲ 50 pc) source that could either be powered by an AGN or by an ultra-compact starburst. The ratio of the SF surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) to the gas surface density (Σ{sub H{sub 2}}) indicates that SF is suppressed by a factor of ≈50 compared to normal star-forming galaxies if all gas is forming stars, and ≈150 for the outskirt (98%) dense molecular gas if the central region is powered by an ultra-compact starburst. The AGN-driven bulk outflow could account for this extreme suppression by hindering the fragmentation and gravitational collapse necessary to form stars through a process of turbulent injection. This result suggests that even relatively common, low-power AGNs are able to alter the evolution of their host galaxies as their black holes grow onto the M-σ relation.

  18. DETERMINING STAR FORMATION RATES FOR INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Weiner, B. J.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Donley, J. L.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Blaylock, M.; Marcillac, D.

    2009-01-01

    We show that measures of star formation rates (SFRs) for infrared galaxies using either single-band 24 μm or extinction-corrected Paα luminosities are consistent in the total infrared luminosity = L(TIR) ∼ 10 10 L sun range. MIPS 24 μm photometry can yield SFRs accurately from this luminosity upward: SFR(M sun yr -1 ) = 7.8 x 10 -10 L(24 μm, L sun ) from L(TIR) = 5x 10 9 L sun to 10 11 L sun and SFR = 7.8 x 10 -10 L(24 μm, L sun )(7.76 x 10 -11 L(24)) 0.048 for higher L(TIR). For galaxies with L(TIR) ≥ 10 10 L sun , these new expressions should provide SFRs to within 0.2 dex. For L(TIR) ≥ 10 11 L sun , we find that the SFR of infrared galaxies is significantly underestimated using extinction-corrected Paα (and presumably using any other optical or near-infrared recombination lines). As a part of this work, we constructed spectral energy distribution templates for eleven luminous and ultraluminous purely star forming infrared galaxies and over the spectral range 0.4 μm to 30 cm. We use these templates and the SINGS data to construct average templates from 5 μm to 30 cm for infrared galaxies with L(TIR) = 5x 10 9 to 10 13 L sun . All of these templates are made available online.

  19. The spatial extent and distribution of star formation in 3D-HST mergers at z ˜ 1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; da Cunha, Elisabete; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Cox, Thomas J.; van Dokkum, Pieter; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Jonsson, Patrik; Lundgren, Britt; Maseda, Michael V.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2013-06-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial distribution of star formation in a sample of 60 visually identified galaxy merger candidates at z > 1. Our sample, drawn from the 3D-HST survey, is flux limited and was selected to have high star formation rates based on fits of their broad-band, low spatial resolution spectral energy distributions. It includes plausible pre-merger (close pairs) and post-merger (single objects with tidal features) systems, with total stellar masses and star formation rates derived from multiwavelength photometry. Here we use near-infrared slitless spectra from 3D-HST which produce Hα or [O III] emission line maps as proxies for star formation maps. This provides a first comprehensive high-resolution, empirical picture of where star formation occurred in galaxy mergers at the epoch of peak cosmic star formation rate. We find that detectable star formation can occur in one or both galaxy centres, or in tidal tails. The most common case (58 per cent) is that star formation is largely concentrated in a single, compact region, coincident with the centre of (one of) the merger components. No correlations between star formation morphology and redshift, total stellar mass or star formation rate are found. A restricted set of hydrodynamical merger simulations between similarly massive and gas-rich objects implies that star formation should be detectable in both merger components, when the gas fractions of the individual components are the same. This suggests that z ˜ 1.5 mergers typically occur between galaxies whose gas fractions, masses and/or star formation rates are distinctly different from one another.

  20. Insights from simulations of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Richard B

    2007-01-01

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604) (key issues review)

  1. Insights from simulations of star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Richard B [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604) (key issues review)

  2. Kiloparsec-scale Simulations of Star Formation in Disk Galaxies. IV. Regulation of Galactic Star Formation Rates by Stellar Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Michael J.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Teyssier, Romain; Nickerson, Sarah; Rosdahl, Joakim; Van Loo, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Star formation from the interstellar medium of galactic disks is a basic process controlling the evolution of galaxies. Understanding the star formation rate (SFR) in a local patch of a disk with a given gas mass is thus an important challenge for theoretical models. Here we simulate a kiloparsec region of a disk, following the evolution of self-gravitating molecular clouds down to subparsec scales, as they form stars that then inject feedback energy by dissociating and ionizing UV photons and supernova explosions. We assess the relative importance of each feedback mechanism. We find that H 2 -dissociating feedback results in the largest absolute reduction in star formation compared to the run with no feedback. Subsequently adding photoionization feedback produces a more modest reduction. Our fiducial models that combine all three feedback mechanisms yield, without fine-tuning, SFRs that are in excellent agreement with observations, with H 2 -dissociating photons playing a crucial role. Models that only include supernova feedback—a common method in galaxy evolution simulations—settle to similar SFRs, but with very different temperatures and chemical states of the gas, and with very different spatial distributions of young stars.

  3. Kiloparsec-scale Simulations of Star Formation in Disk Galaxies. IV. Regulation of Galactic Star Formation Rates by Stellar Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Michael J. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Teyssier, Romain; Nickerson, Sarah [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, 8049 Zurich (Switzerland); Rosdahl, Joakim [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van Loo, Sven [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    Star formation from the interstellar medium of galactic disks is a basic process controlling the evolution of galaxies. Understanding the star formation rate (SFR) in a local patch of a disk with a given gas mass is thus an important challenge for theoretical models. Here we simulate a kiloparsec region of a disk, following the evolution of self-gravitating molecular clouds down to subparsec scales, as they form stars that then inject feedback energy by dissociating and ionizing UV photons and supernova explosions. We assess the relative importance of each feedback mechanism. We find that H{sub 2}-dissociating feedback results in the largest absolute reduction in star formation compared to the run with no feedback. Subsequently adding photoionization feedback produces a more modest reduction. Our fiducial models that combine all three feedback mechanisms yield, without fine-tuning, SFRs that are in excellent agreement with observations, with H{sub 2}-dissociating photons playing a crucial role. Models that only include supernova feedback—a common method in galaxy evolution simulations—settle to similar SFRs, but with very different temperatures and chemical states of the gas, and with very different spatial distributions of young stars.

  4. Stacked Star Formation Rate Profiles of Bursty Galaxies Exhibit “Coherent” Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Matthew E.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Nelson, Erica J.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Chan, T. K.; Schmitz, Denise M.; Miller, Tim B.

    2017-11-01

    In a recent work based on 3200 stacked Hα maps of galaxies at z˜ 1, Nelson et al. find evidence for “coherent star formation”: the stacked star formation rate (SFR) profiles of galaxies above (below) the “star formation main sequence” (MS) are above (below) that of galaxies on the MS at all radii. One might interpret this result as inconsistent with highly bursty star formation and evidence that galaxies evolve smoothly along the MS rather than crossing it many times. We analyze six simulated galaxies at z˜ 1 from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project in a manner analogous to the observations to test whether the above interpretations are correct. The trends in stacked SFR profiles are qualitatively consistent with those observed. However, SFR profiles of individual galaxies are much more complex than the stacked profiles: the former can be flat or even peak at large radii because of the highly clustered nature of star formation in the simulations. Moreover, the SFR profiles of individual galaxies above (below) the MS are not systematically above (below) those of MS galaxies at all radii. We conclude that the time-averaged coherent star formation evident stacks of observed galaxies is consistent with highly bursty, clumpy star formation of individual galaxies and is not evidence that galaxies evolve smoothly along the MS.

  5. STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE COOL CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher; Rupke, David S. N.

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel) and Hα (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to Hα luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and Hα morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (A1991, A2052, A2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given Hα luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/Hα ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B - V) ∼ 0.2) or a top-heavy initial mass function in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from ∼0.05 M sun yr -1 in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to ∼5 M sun yr -1 in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, Hα, and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14 +18 -8 %. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium, which turns into stars and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.

  6. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...... galaxies there is a clear midinfrared excess, which we interpret as emission from dust associated with a strong starburst. 10 of these galaxies are spirals or interacting pairs, while the remaining one is an elliptical with a prominent nucleus and broad emission lines. We give a new discussion of how...... compared with nearby normal galaxies, We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the Universe, Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays...

  7. Grain processes in massive star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfire, M.G.; Cassinelli, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that stars greater than 100 M(solar) exist in the Galaxy and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), however classical star formation theory predicts stellar mass limits of only approx. 60 M(solar). A protostellar accretion flow consists of inflowing gas and dust. Grains are destroyed as they are near the central protostar creating a dust shell or cocoon. Radiation pressure acting on the grain can halt the inflow of material thereby limiting the amount of mass accumulated by the protostar. We first consider rather general constraints on the initial grain to gas ratio and mass accretion rates that permit inflow. We further constrain these results by constructing a numerical model. Radiative deceleration of grains and grain destruction processes are explicitly accounted for in an iterative solution of the radiation-hydrodynamic equations. Findings seem to suggest that star formation by spherical accretion requires rather extreme preconditioning of the grain and gas environment

  8. Star formation quenching in quasar host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniani, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionised and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ˜2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [OIII]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e. star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50 - 100 M⊙/yr, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  9. Predictions from star formation in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We compute trivariate probability distributions in the landscape, scanning simultaneously over the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast, and spatial curvature. We consider two different measures for regulating the divergences of eternal inflation, and three different models for observers. In one model, observers are assumed to arise in proportion to the entropy produced by stars; in the others, they arise at a fixed time (5 or 10x10 9 years) after star formation. The star formation rate, which underlies all our observer models, depends sensitively on the three scanning parameters. We employ a recently developed model of star formation in the multiverse, a considerable refinement over previous treatments of the astrophysical and cosmological properties of different pocket universes. For each combination of observer model and measure, we display all single and bivariate probability distributions, both with the remaining parameter(s) held fixed and marginalized. Our results depend only weakly on the observer model but more strongly on the measure. Using the causal diamond measure, the observed parameter values (or bounds) lie within the central 2σ of nearly all probability distributions we compute, and always within 3σ. This success is encouraging and rather nontrivial, considering the large size and dimension of the parameter space. The causal patch measure gives similar results as long as curvature is negligible. If curvature dominates, the causal patch leads to a novel runaway: it prefers a negative value of the cosmological constant, with the smallest magnitude available in the landscape.

  10. Star formation in evolving molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völschow, M.; Banerjee, R.; Körtgen, B.

    2017-09-01

    Molecular clouds are the principle stellar nurseries of our universe; they thus remain a focus of both observational and theoretical studies. From observations, some of the key properties of molecular clouds are well known but many questions regarding their evolution and star formation activity remain open. While numerical simulations feature a large number and complexity of involved physical processes, this plethora of effects may hide the fundamentals that determine the evolution of molecular clouds and enable the formation of stars. Purely analytical models, on the other hand, tend to suffer from rough approximations or a lack of completeness, limiting their predictive power. In this paper, we present a model that incorporates central concepts of astrophysics as well as reliable results from recent simulations of molecular clouds and their evolutionary paths. Based on that, we construct a self-consistent semi-analytical framework that describes the formation, evolution, and star formation activity of molecular clouds, including a number of feedback effects to account for the complex processes inside those objects. The final equation system is solved numerically but at much lower computational expense than, for example, hydrodynamical descriptions of comparable systems. The model presented in this paper agrees well with a broad range of observational results, showing that molecular cloud evolution can be understood as an interplay between accretion, global collapse, star formation, and stellar feedback.

  11. On the angular momentum in star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horedt, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the rotation of interstellar clouds which are in a stage immediately before star formation. Cloud collisions seem to be the principal cause of the observed rotation of interstellar clouds. The rotational motion of the clouds is strongly influenced by turbulence. Theories dealing with the resolution of the angular momentum problem in star formation are classified into five major groups. The old idea that the angular momentum of an interstellar cloud passes during star formation into the angular momentum of double star systems and/or circumstellar clouds, is developed. It is suggested that a rotating gas cloud contracts into a ring-like structure which fragments into self-gravitating subcondensations. By collisions and gas accretion these subcondensations accrete into binary systems surrounded by circumstellar clouds. Using some rough approximations the authors find analytical expressions for the semi-major axis of the binary system and for the density of the circumstellar clouds as a function of the initial density and of the initial angular velocity of an interstellar cloud. The obtained values are well within the observational limits. (Auth.)

  12. Constraining the Stellar Populations and Star Formation Histories of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies with SED Fits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janowiecki, Steven [International Center for Radio Astronomy Research, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Salzer, John J.; Zee, Liese van [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Skillman, Evan, E-mail: steven.janowiecki@uwa.edu.au [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    We discuss and test possible evolutionary connections between blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) and other types of dwarf galaxies. BCDs provide ideal laboratories to study intense star formation episodes in low-mass dwarf galaxies, and have sometimes been considered a short-lived evolutionary stage between types of dwarf galaxies. To test these connections, we consider a sample of BCDs as well as a comparison sample of nearby galaxies from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey for context. We fit the multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SED, far-ultra-violet to far-infrared) of each galaxy with a grid of theoretical models to determine their stellar masses and star formation properties. We compare our results for BCDs with the LVL galaxies to put BCDs in the context of normal galaxy evolution. The SED fits demonstrate that the star formation events currently underway in BCDs are at the extreme of the continuum of normal dwarf galaxies, both in terms of the relative mass involved and in the relative increase over previous star formation rates. Today’s BCDs are distinctive objects in a state of extreme star formation that is rapidly transforming them. This study also suggests ways to identify former BCDs whose star formation episodes have since faded.

  13. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carniani, Stefano, E-mail: sc888@mrao.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-16

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s), which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  14. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Carniani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN. In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s, which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M⊙ yr−1, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2 ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2 transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  15. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carniani, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s), which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M ⊙ yr −1 , has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  16. GMC Collisions as Triggers of Star Formation. III. Density and Magnetically Regulated Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Benjamin [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tan, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Christie, Duncan [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Van Loo, Sven [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Collins, David, E-mail: ben.wu@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We study giant molecular cloud (GMC) collisions and their ability to trigger star cluster formation. We further develop our three-dimensional magnetized, turbulent, colliding GMC simulations by implementing star formation subgrid models. Two such models are explored: (1) “Density-Regulated,” i.e., fixed efficiency per free-fall time above a set density threshold and (2) “Magnetically Regulated,” i.e., fixed efficiency per free-fall time in regions that are magnetically supercritical. Variations of parameters associated with these models are also explored. In the non-colliding simulations, the overall level of star formation is sensitive to model parameter choices that relate to effective density thresholds. In the GMC collision simulations, the final star formation rates and efficiencies are relatively independent of these parameters. Between the non-colliding and colliding cases, we compare the morphologies of the resulting star clusters, properties of star-forming gas, time evolution of the star formation rate (SFR), spatial clustering of the stars, and resulting kinematics of the stars in comparison to the natal gas. We find that typical collisions, by creating larger amounts of dense gas, trigger earlier and enhanced star formation, resulting in 10 times higher SFRs and efficiencies. The star clusters formed from GMC collisions show greater spatial substructure and more disturbed kinematics.

  17. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Stierwalt, Sabrina [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Neff, Susan G., E-mail: shan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: sabrina@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov [NASA GSFC, Code 665, Observational Cosmology Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  18. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses 7.7 M ☉ and H I line widths –1 . Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M * ) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M * obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M * ∼ 8 M ☉ is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M * than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  19. Star Formation Histories of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Evan

    1995-07-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFPC2 `BVI' color-magnitude diagrams {CMDs} for the dwarf irregular {dI} Local Group galaxies GR 8, Leo A, Pegasus, and Sextans A. In addition to resolved stars, we will use star clusters, and especially any globulars, to probe the history of intense star formation. These data will allow us to map the Pop I and Pop II stellar components, and thereby construct the first detailed star formation histories for non-interacting dI galaxies. Our results will bear on a variety of astrophysical problems, including the evolution of small galaxies, distances in the Local Group, age-metallicity distributions in small galaxies, ages of dIs, and the physics of star formation. The four target galaxies are typical dI systems in terms of luminosity, gas content, and H II region abundance, and represent a range in current star forming activity. They are sufficiently near to allow us to reach to stars at M_V = 0, have 0.1 of the luminosity of the SMC and 0.25 of its oxygen abundance. Unlike the SMC, these dIs are not near giant galaxies. This project will allow the extension of our knowledge of stellar populations in star forming galaxies from the spirals in the Local Group down to its smallest members. We plan to take maximum advantage of the unique data which this project will provide. Our investigator team brings extensive and varied experience in studies of dwarf galaxies, stellar populations, imaging photometry, and stellar evolution to this project.

  20. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  1. An uncertainty principle for star formation - II. A new method for characterising the cloud-scale physics of star formation and feedback across cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Schruba, Andreas; Hygate, Alexander P. S.; Hu, Chia-Yu; Haydon, Daniel T.; Longmore, Steven N.

    2018-05-01

    The cloud-scale physics of star formation and feedback represent the main uncertainty in galaxy formation studies. Progress is hampered by the limited empirical constraints outside the restricted environment of the Local Group. In particular, the poorly-quantified time evolution of the molecular cloud lifecycle, star formation, and feedback obstructs robust predictions on the scales smaller than the disc scale height that are resolved in modern galaxy formation simulations. We present a new statistical method to derive the evolutionary timeline of molecular clouds and star-forming regions. By quantifying the excess or deficit of the gas-to-stellar flux ratio around peaks of gas or star formation tracer emission, we directly measure the relative rarity of these peaks, which allows us to derive their lifetimes. We present a step-by-step, quantitative description of the method and demonstrate its practical application. The method's accuracy is tested in nearly 300 experiments using simulated galaxy maps, showing that it is capable of constraining the molecular cloud lifetime and feedback time-scale to <0.1 dex precision. Access to the evolutionary timeline provides a variety of additional physical quantities, such as the cloud-scale star formation efficiency, the feedback outflow velocity, the mass loading factor, and the feedback energy or momentum coupling efficiencies to the ambient medium. We show that the results are robust for a wide variety of gas and star formation tracers, spatial resolutions, galaxy inclinations, and galaxy sizes. Finally, we demonstrate that our method can be applied out to high redshift (z≲ 4) with a feasible time investment on current large-scale observatories. This is a major shift from previous studies that constrained the physics of star formation and feedback in the immediate vicinity of the Sun.

  2. A ram-pressure threshold for star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    In turbulent fragmentation, star formation occurs in condensations created by converging flows. The condensations must be sufficiently massive, dense and cool to be gravitationally unstable, so that they start to contract; and they must then radiate away thermal energy fast enough for self-gravity to remain dominant, so that they continue to contract. For the metallicities and temperatures in local star-forming clouds, this second requirement is only met robustly when the gas couples thermally to the dust, because this delivers the capacity to radiate across the full bandwidth of the continuum, rather than just in a few discrete spectral lines. This translates into a threshold for vigorous star formation, which can be written as a minimum ram pressure PCRIT ˜ 4 × 10-11 dyne. PCRIT is independent of temperature, and corresponds to flows with molecular hydrogen number density n_{{H_2.FLOW}} and velocity vFLOW satisfying n_{{H_2.FLOW}} v_{FLOW}^2≳ 800 cm^{-3} (km s^{-1})^2. This in turn corresponds to a minimum molecular hydrogen column density for vigorous star formation, N_{{H_2.CRIT}} ˜ 4 × 10^{21} cm^{-2} (ΣCRIT ˜ 100 M⊙ pc-2), and a minimum visual extinction AV, CRIT ˜ 9 mag. The characteristic diameter and line density for a star-forming filament when this threshold is just exceeded - a sweet spot for local star formation regions - are 2RFIL ˜ 0.1 pc and μFIL ˜ 13 M⊙ pc-2. The characteristic diameter and mass for a prestellar core condensing out of such a filament are 2RCORE ˜ 0.1 pc and MCORE ˜ 1 M⊙. We also show that fragmentation of a shock-compressed layer is likely to commence while the convergent flows creating the layer are still ongoing, and we stress that, under this circumstance, the phenomenology and characteristic scales for fragmentation of the layer are fundamentally different from those derived traditionally for pre-existing layers.

  3. Star Cluster Structure from Hierarchical Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudic, Michael; Hopkins, Philip; Murray, Norman; Lamberts, Astrid; Guszejnov, David; Schmitz, Denise; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Young massive star clusters (YMCs) spanning 104-108 M⊙ in mass generally have similar radial surface density profiles, with an outer power-law index typically between -2 and -3. This similarity suggests that they are shaped by scale-free physics at formation. Recent multi-physics MHD simulations of YMC formation have also produced populations of YMCs with this type of surface density profile, allowing us to narrow down the physics necessary to form a YMC with properties as observed. We show that the shallow density profiles of YMCs are a natural result of phase-space mixing that occurs as they assemble from the clumpy, hierarchically-clustered configuration imprinted by the star formation process. We develop physical intuition for this process via analytic arguments and collisionless N-body experiments, elucidating the connection between star formation physics and star cluster structure. This has implications for the early-time structure and evolution of proto-globular clusters, and prospects for simulating their formation in the FIRE cosmological zoom-in simulations.

  4. Recent star formation in interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, R.D.; Wright, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The subset of galaxy-galaxy interactions which have resulted in a merger are, as a class, ultraluminous IR galaxies. Their IR luminosities span a narrow range which overlaps with the most luminous Seyfert galaxies. However, in contrast with Seyfert galaxies, the available optical, IR, and radio properties of mergers show no evidence for a compact non-thermal central source, and are easily understood in terms of a burst of star formation of extraordinary intensity and spatial extent; they are 'super starbursts'. We argue that super starbursts occur in the evolution of most mergers, and discuss the implications of super starbursts for the suggestion that mergers evolve into elliptical galaxies. Finally, we note that merger-induced shocks are likely to leave the gas from both galaxies in dense molecular form which will rapidly cool, collapse, and fragment. Thus a merger might in fact be expected to result in a burst of star formation of exceptional intensity and spatial extent, i.e. a super starburst. (author)

  5. A simple law of star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2012-01-01

    We show that supersonic MHD turbulence yields a star formation rate (SFR) as low as observed in molecular clouds, for characteristic values of the free-fall time divided by the dynamical time, t ff/t dyn, the Alfvénic Mach number, {\\cal M}_a, and the sonic Mach number, {\\cal M}_s. Using a very...... values of t ff/t dyn and {\\cal M}_a. (2) Decreasing values of {\\cal M}_a (stronger magnetic fields) reduce epsilonff, but only to a point, beyond which epsilonff increases with a further decrease of {\\cal M}_a. (3) For values of {\\cal M}_a characteristic of star-forming regions, epsilonff varies...... with {\\cal M}_a by less than a factor of two. We propose a simple star formation law, based on the empirical fit to the minimum epsilonff, and depending only on t ff/t dyn: epsilonff ˜ epsilonwindexp (– 1.6 t ff/t dyn). Because it only depends on the mean gas density and rms velocity, this law...

  6. Are star formation rates of galaxies bimodal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Star formation rate (SFR) distributions of galaxies are often assumed to be bimodal with modes corresponding to star-forming and quiescent galaxies, respectively. Both classes of galaxies are typically studied separately, and SFR distributions of star-forming galaxies are commonly modelled as lognormals. Using both observational data and results from numerical simulations, I argue that this division into star-forming and quiescent galaxies is unnecessary from a theoretical point of view and that the SFR distributions of the whole population can be well fitted by zero-inflated negative binomial distributions. This family of distributions has three parameters that determine the average SFR of the galaxies in the sample, the scatter relative to the star-forming sequence and the fraction of galaxies with zero SFRs, respectively. The proposed distributions naturally account for (I) the discrete nature of star formation, (II) the presence of 'dead' galaxies with zero SFRs and (III) asymmetric scatter. Excluding 'dead' galaxies, the distribution of log SFR is unimodal with a peak at the star-forming sequence and an extended tail towards low SFRs. However, uncertainties and biases in the SFR measurements can create the appearance of a bimodal distribution.

  7. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following exceptions: The Energy Use Budget shall be stated in units of Btu/ft2/yr and the simulation tool... case by case calculation of the Energy Use Budget, the designer may construct Energy Use Budget tables... corresponding Energy Use Budgets calculated on a case by case basis according to this section. Energy Use Budget...

  8. Connecting the Cosmic Star Formation Rate with the Local Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribel, Carolina; Miranda, Oswaldo D.; Williams Vilas-Boas, José

    2017-11-01

    We present a model that unifies the cosmic star formation rate (CSFR), obtained through the hierarchical structure formation scenario, with the (Galactic) local star formation rate (SFR). It is possible to use the SFR to generate a CSFR mapping through the density probability distribution functions commonly used to study the role of turbulence in the star-forming regions of the Galaxy. We obtain a consistent mapping from redshift z˜ 20 up to the present (z = 0). Our results show that the turbulence exhibits a dual character, providing high values for the star formation efficiency ( ˜ 0.32) in the redshift interval z˜ 3.5{--}20 and reducing its value to =0.021 at z = 0. The value of the Mach number ({{ M }}{crit}), from which rapidly decreases, is dependent on both the polytropic index (Γ) and the minimum density contrast of the gas. We also derive Larson’s first law associated with the velocity dispersion ( ) in the local star formation regions. Our model shows good agreement with Larson’s law in the ˜ 10{--}50 {pc} range, providing typical temperatures {T}0˜ 10{--}80 {{K}} for the gas associated with star formation. As a consequence, dark matter halos of great mass could contain a number of halos of much smaller mass, and be able to form structures similar to globular clusters. Thus, Larson’s law emerges as a result of the very formation of large-scale structures, which in turn would allow the formation of galactic systems, including our Galaxy.

  9. New method for determination of star formation history

    OpenAIRE

    Čeponis, Marius

    2017-01-01

    A New Method for Determination of Star Formation History Without stars there would not be any life and us. Almost all elements in our bodies are made in stars. Yet we still don‘t fully understand all the processes governing formation and evolution of stellar systems. Their star formation histories really help in trying to understand these processes. In this work a new Bayesian method for determination of star formation history is proposed. This method uses photometric data of resolved stars a...

  10. STAR FORMATION ACROSS THE W3 COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Tapia, Mauricio [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Unidad Académica en Ensenada, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana–Ensenada, Ensenada 22860 (Mexico); Megías, Guillermo D. [Facultad de Física. Universidad de Sevilla. Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla, E-41080 (Spain); Lada, Elizabeth A. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, FL 32611 (United States); Alves, Joáo F. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the history of star formation in the W3 complex. Using deep, near-infrared ground-based images combined with images obtained with Spitzer and Chandra observatories, we identified and classified young embedded sources. We identified the principal clusters in the complex and determined their structure and extension. We constructed extinction-limited samples for five principal clusters and constructed K-band luminosity functions that we compare with those of artificial clusters with varying ages. This analysis provided mean ages and possible age spreads for the clusters. We found that IC 1795, the centermost cluster of the complex, still hosts a large fraction of young sources with circumstellar disks. This indicates that star formation was active in IC 1795 as recently as 2 Myr ago, simultaneous to the star-forming activity in the flanking embedded clusters, W3-Main and W3(OH). A comparison with carbon monoxide emission maps indicates strong velocity gradients in the gas clumps hosting W3-Main and W3(OH) and shows small receding clumps of gas at IC 1795, suggestive of rapid gas removal (faster than the T Tauri timescale) in the cluster-forming regions. We discuss one possible scenario for the progression of cluster formation in the W3 complex. We propose that early processes of gas collapse in the main structure of the complex could have defined the progression of cluster formation across the complex with relatively small age differences from one group to another. However, triggering effects could act as catalysts for enhanced efficiency of formation at a local level, in agreement with previous studies.

  11. MAGNETIC FLUX EXPULSION IN STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Bo; Li Zhiyun; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Stars form in dense cores of magnetized molecular clouds. If the magnetic flux threading the cores is dragged into the stars, the stellar field would be orders of magnitude stronger than observed. This well-known 'magnetic flux problem' demands that most of the core magnetic flux be decoupled from the matter that enters the star. We carry out the first exploration of what happens to the decoupled magnetic flux in three dimensions, using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) version of the ENZO adaptive mesh refinement code. The field-matter decoupling is achieved through a sink particle treatment, which is needed to follow the protostellar accretion phase of star formation. We find that the accumulation of the decoupled flux near the accreting protostar leads to a magnetic pressure buildup. The high pressure is released anisotropically along the path of least resistance. It drives a low-density expanding region in which the decoupled magnetic flux is expelled. This decoupling-enabled magnetic structure has never been seen before in three-dimensional MHD simulations of star formation. It generates a strong asymmetry in the protostellar accretion flow, potentially giving a kick to the star. In the presence of an initial core rotation, the structure presents an obstacle to the formation of a rotationally supported disk, in addition to magnetic braking, by acting as a rigid magnetic wall that prevents the rotating gas from completing a full orbit around the central object. We conclude that the decoupled magnetic flux from the stellar matter can strongly affect the protostellar collapse dynamics.

  12. The eddy kinetic energy budget in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng; Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Yao, Fengchao; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Guo, Daquan; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The budget of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the Red Sea, including the sources, redistributions and sink, is examined using a high-resolution eddy-resolving ocean circulation model. A pronounced seasonally varying EKE is identified, with its maximum

  13. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  14. The Spatial Extent and Distribution of Star Formation in 3D-HST Mergers at z is approximately 1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; da Cunha, Elisabete; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Cox, Thomas J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Jonsson, Patrik; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial distribution of star formation in a sample of 60 visually identified galaxy merger candidates at z greater than 1. Our sample, drawn from the 3D-HST survey, is flux-limited and was selected to have high star formation rates based on fits of their broad-band, low spatial resolution spectral energy distributions. It includes plausible pre-merger (close pairs) and post-merger (single objects with tidal features) systems,with total stellar masses and star formation rates derived from multi-wavelength photometry. Here we use near-infrared slitless spectra from 3D-HST which produce H or [OIII] emission line maps as proxies for star-formation maps. This provides a first comprehensive high-resolution, empirical picture of where star formation occurred in galaxy mergers at the epoch of peak cosmic star formation rate. We find that detectable star formation can occur in one or both galaxy centres, or in tidal tails. The most common case (58%) is that star formation is largely concentrated in a single, compact region, coincident with the centre of (one of) the merger components. No correlations between star formation morphology and redshift, total stellar mass, or star formation rate are found. A restricted set of hydrodynamical merger simulationsbetween similarly massive and gas-rich objects implies that star formation should be detectable in both merger components, when the gas fractions of the individual components are the same. This suggests that z is approximately 1.5 mergers typically occur between galaxies whose gas fractions, masses, andor star formation rates are distinctly different from one another.

  15. Star formation in the outskirts of disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, AMN

    2002-01-01

    The far outer regions of galactic disks allow an important probe of both star formation and galaxy formation. I discuss how observations of HII regions in these low gas density, low metallicity environments can shed light on the physical processes which drive galactic star formation. The history of

  16. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  17. Star Formation at the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Could stars be forming in the inhospitable environment near Sagittarius A* in the heart of the Milky Way? A possible signature of low-mass star formation has recently been found just two light-years from the black hole at the center of our galaxy — a region that was previously thought to be too hostile for such activity. Searching for Signatures: Previous observations of the central few light-years of the Milky Way had focused on a population of about 200 massive, young and very bright stars in tight orbits around Sgr A*. These stars are only a few million years old and prompted scientists to wonder: have they somehow managed to form in situ, in spite of their close proximity to the black hole, or did they form further out and then migrate in? Motivated by this mystery, Farhad Yusef-Zadeh of Northwestern University and collaborators looked for evidence of even younger stars close to Sagittarius A*, which would demonstrate that star formation in the area is an ongoing process. Using the Very Large Array (VLA), the collaboration discovered several small sources in one arm of activity near Sgr A*. This 34-GHz image provides a close-up view of two protoplanetary disk candidates (labeled P26 and P8) located near Sgr A*. These objects are outlined on the right side by a bow shock caused by impacting stellar wind that streams from the young, hot stars closer to the Galactic center. The disks are thought to contain recently-formed, low-mass stars. (Credit: Yusef-Zadeh et al., 2015) Heated Disks: The team identified these sources as candidate photoevaporative protoplanetary disks, or “proplyds” — areas of dense, ionized gas and dust surrounding young, newly formed stars. The proplyd candidates are between 10,000 and 100,000 years old, and they lie along the edge of a large molecular cloud. It is likely that this cloud produced the disks by providing a reservoir of gas to feed the star-formation activity. The region surrounding these proplyds is blasted with harsh

  18. Star formation properties of galaxy cluster A1767

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Li, Feng; Yuan, Qi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Abell 1767 is a dynamically relaxed, cD cluster of galaxies with a redshift of 0.0703. Among 250 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies within a projected radius of 2.5r 200 , 243 galaxies (∼ 97%) are spectroscopically covered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Based on this homogeneous spectral sample, the stellar evolutionary synthesis code STARLIGHT is applied to investigate the stellar populations and star formation histories of galaxies in this cluster. The star formation properties of galaxies, such as mean stellar ages, metallicities, stellar masses, and star formation rates, are presented as functions of local galaxy density. A strong environmental effect is found such that massive galaxies in the high-density core region of the cluster tend to have higher metallicities, older mean stellar ages, and lower specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and their recent star formation activities have been remarkably suppressed. In addition, the correlations of the metallicity and SSFR with stellar mass are confirmed. (paper)

  19. Star Formation in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Francesco; Stahler, Steven W.

    1999-11-01

    We study the record of star formation activity within the dense cluster associated with the Orion Nebula. The bolometric luminosity function of 900 visible members is well matched by a simplified theoretical model for cluster formation. This model assumes that stars are produced at a constant rate and distributed according to the field-star initial mass function. Our best-fit age for the system, within this framework, is 2×106 yr. To undertake a more detailed analysis, we present a new set of theoretical pre-main-sequence tracks. These cover all masses from 0.1 to 6.0 Msolar, and start from a realistic stellar birthline. The tracks end along a zero-age main-sequence that is in excellent agreement with the empirical one. As a further aid to cluster studies, we offer an heuristic procedure for the correction of pre-main-sequence luminosities and ages to account for the effects of unresolved binary companions. The Orion Nebula stars fall neatly between our birthline and zero-age main-sequence in the H-R diagram. All those more massive than about 8 Msolar lie close to the main sequence, as also predicted by theory. After accounting for the finite sensitivity of the underlying observations, we confirm that the population between 0.4 and 6.0 Msolar roughly follows a standard initial mass function. We see no evidence for a turnover at lower masses. We next use our tracks to compile stellar ages, also between 0.4 and 6.0 Msolar. Our age histogram reveals that star formation began at a low level some 107 yr ago and has gradually accelerated to the present epoch. The period of most active formation is indeed confined to a few×106 yr, and has recently ended with gas dispersal from the Trapezium. We argue that the acceleration in stellar births, which extends over a wide range in mass, reflects the gravitational contraction of the parent cloud spawning this cluster.

  20. A tale of two feedbacks: Star formation in the host galaxies of radio AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Ji Hoon [CEOU-Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Trichas, Markos [Airbus Defence and Space, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2AS (United Kingdom); Goto, Tomo [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Malkan, Matt [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3-714 UCLA, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ruiz, Angel [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, 411 007 Pune (India); Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Seong Jin [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oi, Nagisa; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takagi, Toshinobu; Murata, K.; Wada, Takehiko; Wada, Kensuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Yoshino-dai 3-1-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Shim, Hyunjin [Department of Earth Science Education, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hanami, Hitoshi [Physics Section, Faculty of Humanities, Iwate University, Ueda 3 chome, 18-34 Morioka, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550 (Japan); Serjeant, Stephen; White, Glenn J., E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-04-01

    Several lines of argument support the existence of a link between activity at the nuclei of galaxies, in the form of an accreting supermassive black hole, and star formation activity in these galaxies. Radio jets have long been argued to be an ideal mechanism that allows active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to interact with their host galaxies and affect star formation. We use a sample of radio sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field to study the nature of this putative link, by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We employ the excellent spectral coverage of the AKARI infrared space telescope and the rich ancillary data available in the NEP to build SEDs extending from UV to far-IR wavelengths. We find a significant AGN component in our sample of relatively faint radio sources (star formation in the host galaxy, independent of the radio luminosity. In contrast, for narrow redshift and AGN luminosity ranges, we find that increasing radio luminosity leads to a decrease in the specific star formation rate. The most radio-loud AGNs are found to lie on the main sequence of star formation for their respective redshifts. For the first time, we potentially see such a two-sided feedback process in the same sample. We discuss the possible suppression of star formation, but not total quenching, in systems with strong radio jets, that supports the maintenance nature of feedback from radio AGN jets.

  1. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF STAR FORMATION ENHANCEMENT IN CLOSE MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY PAIRS SINCE z = 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C. K.; Shupe, D. L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Cooray, A.; Lu, N.; Schulz, B.; Béthermin, M.; Aussel, H.; Elbaz, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Riguccini, L.; Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Conley, A.; Franceschini, A.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Pozzi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The infrared (IR) emission of 'M * galaxies' (10 10.4 ≤ M star ≤ 10 11.0 M ☉ ) in galaxy pairs, derived using data obtained in Herschel (PEP/HerMES) and Spitzer (S-COSMOS) surveys, is compared to that of single-disk galaxies in well-matched control samples to study the cosmic evolution of the star formation enhancement induced by galaxy-galaxy interaction. Both the mean IR spectral energy distribution and mean IR luminosity of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in SFG+SFG (S+S) pairs in the redshift bin of 0.6 < z < 1 are consistent with no star formation enhancement. SFGs in S+S pairs in a lower redshift bin of 0.2 < z < 0.6 show marginal evidence for a weak star formation enhancement. Together with the significant and strong sSFR enhancement shown by SFGs in a local sample of S+S pairs (obtained using previously published Spitzer observations), our results reveal a trend for the star formation enhancement in S+S pairs to decrease with increasing redshift. Between z = 0 and z = 1, this decline of interaction-induced star formation enhancement occurs in parallel with the dramatic increase (by a factor of ∼10) of the sSFR of single SFGs, both of which can be explained by the higher gas fraction in higher-z disks. SFGs in mixed pairs (S+E pairs) do not show any significant star formation enhancement at any redshift. The difference between SFGs in S+S pairs and in S+E pairs suggests a modulation of the sSFR by the intergalactic medium (IGM) in the dark matter halos hosting these pairs.

  2. Star formation and substructure in galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and substructure in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Several past studies of individual galaxy clusters have suggested that cluster mergers enhance cluster SF, while others find no such relationship. The SF fraction in multi-component clusters (0.228 ± 0.007) is higher than that in single-component clusters (0.175 ± 0.016) for galaxies with M r 0.1 <−20.5. In both single- and multi-component clusters, the fraction of star-forming galaxies increases with clustercentric distance and decreases with local galaxy number density, and multi-component clusters show a higher SF fraction than single-component clusters at almost all clustercentric distances and local densities. Comparing the SF fraction in individual clusters to several statistical measures of substructure, we find weak, but in most cases significant at greater than 2σ, correlations between substructure and SF fraction. These results could indicate that cluster mergers may cause weak but significant SF enhancement in clusters, or unrelaxed clusters exhibit slightly stronger SF due to their less evolved states relative to relaxed clusters.

  3. Star formation history: Modeling of visual binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Y. M.; Tessema, S. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sytov, A. Yu.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    Most stars form in binary or multiple systems. Their evolution is defined by masses of components, orbital separation and eccentricity. In order to understand star formation and evolutionary processes, it is vital to find distributions of physical parameters of binaries. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in which we simulate different pairing scenarios: random pairing, primary-constrained pairing, split-core pairing, and total and primary pairing in order to get distributions of binaries over physical parameters at birth. Next, for comparison with observations, we account for stellar evolution and selection effects. Brightness, radius, temperature, and other parameters of components are assigned or calculated according to approximate relations for stars in different evolutionary stages (main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, relativistic objects). Evolutionary stage is defined as a function of system age and component masses. We compare our results with the observed IMF, binarity rate, and binary mass-ratio distributions for field visual binaries to find initial distributions and pairing scenarios that produce observed distributions.

  4. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  5. Molecular Cloud Structures and Massive Star Formation in N159

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, O.; Meixner, M.; Fukui, Y.; Tachihara, K.; Onishi, T.; Saigo, K.; Tokuda, K.; Harada, R.

    2018-02-01

    The N159 star-forming region is one of the most massive giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We show the 12CO, 13CO, CS molecular gas lines observed with ALMA in N159 west (N159W) and N159 east (N159E). We relate the structure of the gas clumps to the properties of 24 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) that include 10 newly identified YSOs based on our search. We use dendrogram analysis to identify properties of the molecular clumps, such as flux, mass, linewidth, size, and virial parameter. We relate the YSO properties to the molecular gas properties. We find that the CS gas clumps have a steeper size–linewidth relation than the 12CO or 13CO gas clumps. This larger slope could potentially occur if the CS gas is tracing shocks. The virial parameters of the 13CO gas clumps in N159W and N159E are low (<1). The threshold for massive star formation in N159W is 501 M ⊙ pc‑2, and the threshold for massive star formation in N159E is 794 M ⊙ pc‑2. We find that 13CO is more photodissociated in N159E than N159W. The most massive YSO in N159E has cleared out a molecular gas hole in its vicinity. All the massive YSO candidates in N159E have a more evolved spectral energy distribution type in comparison to the YSO candidates in N159W. These differences lead us to conclude that the giant molecular cloud complex in N159E is more evolved than the giant molecular cloud complex in N159W.

  6. The Star Formation History in the M31 Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Olsen, Knut; Lauer, Tod; Saha, Abhijit; Li, Zhiyuan; García-Benito, Ruben; Schödel, Rainer

    2018-05-01

    We present the study of stellar populations in the central 5.5' (˜1.2 kpc) of the M31 bulge by using the optical color magnitude diagram derived from HST ACS WFC/HRC observations. In order to enhance image quality and then obtain deeper photometry, we construct Nyquist-sampled images and use a deconvolution method to detect sources and measure their photometry. We demonstrate that our method performs better than DOLPHOT in the extremely crowded region. The resolved stars in the M31 bulge have been divided into nine annuli and the color magnitude diagram fitting is performed for each of them. We confirm that the majority of stars (>70%) in the M31 bulge are indeed very old (> 5 Gyr) and metal-rich ([Fe/H]˜0.3). At later times, the star formation rate decreased and then experienced a significant rise around 1 Gyr ago, which pervaded the entire M31 bulge. After that, stars formed at less than 500 Myr ago in the central 130" . Through simulation, we find that these intermediate-age stars cannot be the artifacts introduced by the blending effect. Our results suggest that although the majority of the M31 bulge are very old, the secular evolutionary process still continuously builds up the M31 bulge slowly. We compare our star formation history with an older analysis derived from the spectral energy distribution fitting, which suggests that the latter one is still a reasonable tool for the study of stellar populations in remote galaxies.

  7. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  8. Inner Milky Way Raging with Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    More than 444,580 frames from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope were stitched together to create this portrait of the raging star-formation occurring in the inner Milky Way. As inhabitants of a flat galactic disk, Earth and its solar system have an edge-on view of their host galaxy, like looking a glass dish from its edge. From our perspective, most of the galaxy is condensed into a blurry narrow band of light that stretches completely around the sky, also known as the galactic plane. In this mosaic the galactic plane is broken up into five components: the far-left side of the plane (top image); the area just left of the galactic center (second to top); galactic center (middle); the area to the right of galactic center (second to bottom); and the far-right side of the plane (bottom). Together, these panels represent more than 50 percent of our entire Milky Way galaxy. The red haze that permeates the picture comes from organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are illuminated by light from massive baby stars. On Earth, these molecules are found in automobile exhaust, or charred barbeque grills anywhere carbon molecules are burned incompletely. The patches of black are dense, obscuring dust clouds impenetrable by even Spitzer's super-sensitive infrared eyes. Bright arcs of white throughout the image are massive stellar incubators. The bluish-white haze that hovers heavily in the middle panel is starlight from the older stellar population towards the center of the galaxy. This picture was taken with Spitzer's infrared array camera, as part of the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) project. This is a four-color composite where blue is 3.6-micron light, green is 4.5 microns, orange is 5.8 microns and red is 8.0 microns.

  9. Star Formation in Dwarf Galaxies: Life in a Rough Neighborhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, S

    2003-10-16

    Star formation within dwarf galaxies is governed by several factors. Many of these factors are external, including ram-pressure stripping, tidal stripping, and heating by external UV radiation. The latter, in particular, may prevent star formation in the smallest systems. Internal factors include negative feedback in the form of UV radiation, winds and supernovae from massive stars. These act to reduce the star formation efficiency within dwarf systems, which may, in turn, solve several theoretical and observational problems associated with galaxy formation. In this contribution, we discuss our recent work being done to examine the importance of the many factors in the evolution of dwarf galaxies.

  10. Urbanization Process and Variation of Energy Budget of Land Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Gardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are increasing at a rate much higher than human population growth in many part of the world; actually more than 73 towns in the world are larger than 1000 km2. The European Environmental Agency indicates an urban area average growth rate, over the last 20 years, of 20%. The urbanization process, and the consequent soil sealing, determines not only the losses of the ecological functions of the soil, but also a variation of the energy budget of land surfaces, that affect the microclimatic conditions (heat islands. The alteration of the energy budget are determined by the variations of albedo and roughness of surfaces, but especially by the net losses of evapotranspirating areas. In the present research we have assessed the variation of Parma territory energy budget, induced by the change in land use over the last 122 years. The urban area increase between 1881 and 2003 was 535%.

  11. The Galactic Distribution of Massive Star Formation from the Red MSX Source Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars inject enormous amounts of energy into their environments in the form of UV radiation and molecular outflows, creating HII regions and enriching local chemistry. These effects provide feedback mechanisms that aid in regulating star formation in the region, and may trigger the formation of subsequent generations of stars. Understanding the mechanics of massive star formation presents an important key to understanding this process and its role in shaping the dynamics of galactic structure. The Red MSX Source (RMS) survey is a multi-wavelength investigation of ~1200 massive young stellar objects (MYSO) and ultra-compact HII (UCHII) regions identified from a sample of colour-selected sources from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) point source catalog and Two Micron All Sky Survey. We present a study of over 900 MYSO and UCHII regions investigated by the RMS survey. We review the methods used to determine distances, and investigate the radial galactocentric distribution of these sources in context with the observed structure of the galaxy. The distribution of MYSO and UCHII regions is found to be spatially correlated with the spiral arms and galactic bar. We examine the radial distribution of MYSOs and UCHII regions and find variations in the star formation rate between the inner and outer Galaxy and discuss the implications for star formation throughout the galactic disc.

  12. THE HCN/HNC ABUNDANCE RATIO TOWARD DIFFERENT EVOLUTIONARY PHASES OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Mihwa; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee-Tae, E-mail: mihwajin.sf@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ktkim@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-20

    Using the H{sup 13}CN and HN{sup 13}C J = 1–0 line observations, the abundance ratio of HCN/HNC has been estimated for different evolutionary stages of massive star formation: infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), and ultracompact H ii regions (UCH iis). IRDCs were divided into “quiescent IRDC cores (qIRDCc)” and “active IRDC cores (aIRDCc),” depending on star formation activity. The HCN/HNC ratio is known to be higher at active and high temperature regions related to ongoing star formation, compared to cold and quiescent regions. Our observations toward 8 qIRDCc, 16 aIRDCc, 23 HMPOs, and 31 UCH iis show consistent results; the ratio is 0.97 (±0.10), 2.65 (±0.88), 4.17 (±1.03), and 8.96 (±3.32) in these respective evolutionary stages, increasing from qIRDCc to UCH iis. The change of the HCN/HNC abundance ratio, therefore, seems directly associated with the evolutionary stages of star formation, which have different temperatures. One suggested explanation for this trend is the conversion of HNC to HCN, which occurs effectively at higher temperatures. To test the explanation, we performed a simple chemical model calculation. In order to fit the observed results, the energy barrier of the conversion must be much lower than the value provided by theoretical calculations.

  13. Gravitational instability, evolution of galaxies and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palous, J.

    1979-01-01

    The gravitational collapse is the key to the theories of galaxy and star formation. The observations, showing intrinsic differences between elliptical and spiral galaxies, guide our fundamental conceptions on the formation and evolution of systems in question. Stars in elliptical galaxies and in spherical components of spiral galaxies were formed in a short period of time during early phases of protogalactic collapse, at a time of violent star formation. The disc-like components of spiral galaxies, however, were built gradually in the course of galactic evolution. Star formation in elliptical galaxies is described by the collision model of interstellar clouds, while star formation in discs is characterised by several processes: the expansion of HII regions, the expansion of supernovae remnants and the shock wave related to the presence of the spiral structure. (author)

  14. STAR FORMATION FEEDBACK AND METAL-ENRICHMENT HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Renyue; Chisari, Nora Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Using the state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of the standard cold dark matter model with star formation feedback strength normalized to match the observed star formation history of the universe at z= 0-6, we compute the metal-enrichment history of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Overall we show that galactic superwind (GSW) feedback from star formation can transport metals to the IGM and that the properties of simulated metal absorbers match current observations. The distance of influence of GSW from galaxies is typically limited to about ≤0.5 Mpc and within regions of overdensity δ ≥ 10. Most C IV and O VI absorbers are located within shocked regions of elevated temperature (T ≥ 2 x 10 4 K), overdensity (δ ≥ 10), and metallicity ([Z/Z sun ] = [ - 2.5, - 0.5]), enclosed by double shocks propagating outward. O VI absorbers have typically higher metallicity, lower density, and higher temperature than C IV absorbers. For O VI absorbers, collisional ionization dominates over the entire redshift range z= 0-6, whereas for C IV absorbers the transition occurs at moderate redshift z ∼ 3 from collisionally dominated to photoionization dominated. We find that the observed column density distributions for C IV and O VI in the range log N cm 2 =12-15 are reasonably reproduced by the simulations. The evolution of mass densities contained in C IV and O VI lines, Ω CIV and Ω OVI , is also in good agreement with observations, which shows a near constancy at low redshifts and an exponential drop beyond redshift z= 3-4. For both C IV and O VI, most absorbers are transient and the amount of metals probed by C IV and O VI lines of column log N cm 2 =12-15 is only ∼2% of total metal density at any epoch. While gravitational shocks from large-scale structure formation dominate the energy budget (80%-90%) for turning about 50% of the IGM to the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) by z = 0, GSW feedback shocks are energetically dominant over

  15. Energy Budget: Earth's Most Important and Least Appreciated Planetary Attribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lin; Bethea, Katie

    2013-01-01

    The energy budget involves more than one kind of energy. People can sense this energy in different ways, depending on what type of energy it is. We see visible light using our eyes. We feel infrared energy using our skin (such as around a campfire). We know some species of animals can see ultraviolet light and portions of the infrared spectrum. NASA satellites use instruments that can "see" different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to observe various processes in the Earth system, including the energy budget. The Sun is a very hot ball of plasma emitting large amounts of energy. By the time it reaches Earth, this energy amounts to about 340 Watts for every square meter of Earth on average. That's almost 6 60-Watt light bulbs for every square meter of Earth! With all of that energy shining down on the Earth, how does our planet maintain a comfortable balance that allows a complex ecosystem, including humans, to thrive? The key thing to remember is the Sun - hot though it is - is a tiny part of Earth's environment. Earth's energy budget is a critical but little understood aspect of our planetary home. NASA is actively studying this important Earth system feature, and sharing data and knowledge about it with the education community.

  16. Star formation suppression and bar ages in nearby barred galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. A.; Percival, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    We present new spectroscopic data for 21 barred spiral galaxies, which we use to explore the effect of bars on disc star formation, and to place constraints on the characteristic lifetimes of bar episodes. The analysis centres on regions of heavily suppressed star formation activity, which we term `star formation deserts'. Long-slit optical spectroscopy is used to determine H β absorption strengths in these desert regions, and comparisons with theoretical stellar population models are used to determine the time since the last significant star formation activity, and hence the ages of the bars. We find typical ages of ˜1 Gyr, but with a broad range, much larger than would be expected from measurement errors alone, extending from ˜0.25 to >4 Gyr. Low-level residual star formation, or mixing of stars from outside the `desert' regions, could result in a doubling of these age estimates. The relatively young ages of the underlying populations coupled with the strong limits on the current star formation rule out a gradual exponential decline in activity, and hence support our assumption of an abrupt truncation event.

  17. ON THE STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES OF VOID GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Moreno, Jackeline; White, Amanda; Vogeley, Michael S. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hoyle, Fiona [Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Ecuador, 12 de Octubre 1076 y Roca, Quito (Ecuador); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P., E-mail: crystal.m.moorman@drexel.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We measure the star formation properties of two large samples of galaxies from the SDSS in large-scale cosmic voids on timescales of 10 and 100 Myr, using H α emission line strengths and GALEX FUV fluxes, respectively. The first sample consists of 109,818 optically selected galaxies. We find that void galaxies in this sample have higher specific star formation rates (SSFRs; star formation rates per unit stellar mass) than similar stellar mass galaxies in denser regions. The second sample is a subset of the optically selected sample containing 8070 galaxies with reliable H i detections from ALFALFA. For the full H i detected sample, SSFRs do not vary systematically with large-scale environment. However, investigating only the H i detected dwarf galaxies reveals a trend toward higher SSFRs in voids. Furthermore, we estimate the star formation rate per unit H i mass (known as the star formation efficiency; SFE) of a galaxy, as a function of environment. For the overall H i detected population, we notice no environmental dependence. Limiting the sample to dwarf galaxies still does not reveal a statistically significant difference between SFEs in voids versus walls. These results suggest that void environments, on average, provide a nurturing environment for dwarf galaxy evolution allowing for higher specific star formation rates while forming stars with similar efficiencies to those in walls.

  18. Understanding the star formation modes in the distant universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, Fadia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my PhD study consists at attempt to understand what are the main processes at the origin of the star formation in the galaxies over the last 10 billion years. While it was proposed in the past that merging of galaxies has a dominant role to explain the triggering of the star formation in the distant galaxies having high star formation rates, in the opposite, more recent studies revealed scaling laws linking the star formation rate in the galaxies to their stellar mass or their gas mass. The small dispersion of these laws seems to be in contradiction with the idea of powerful stochastic events due to interactions, but rather in agreement with the new vision of galaxy history where the latter are continuously fed by intergalactic gas. We were especially interested in one of this scaling law, the relation between the star formation (SFR) and the stellar mass (M*) of galaxies, commonly called the main sequence of star forming galaxies. We studied this main sequence, SFR-M"*, in function of the morphology and other physical parameters like the radius, the colour, the clumpiness. The goal was to understand the origin of the sequence's dispersion related to the physical processes underlying this sequence in order to identify the main mode of star formation controlling this sequence. This work needed a multi-wavelength approach as well as the use of galaxies profile simulation to distinguish between the different galaxy morphological types implied in the main sequence. (author) [fr

  19. Star Formation in Dwarf-Dwarf Mergers: Fueling Hierarchical Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Patton, D. R.; Putman, M. E.; Besla, G.; Geha, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present early results from the first systematic study a sample of isolated interacting dwarf pairs and the mechanisms governing their star formation. Low mass dwarf galaxies are ubiquitous in the local universe, yet the efficiency of gas removal and the enhancement of star formation in dwarfs via pre-processing (i.e. dwarf-dwarf interactions occurring before the accretion by a massive host) are currently unconstrained. Studies of Local Group dwarfs credit stochastic internal processes for their complicated star formation histories, but a few intriguing examples suggest interactions among dwarfs may produce enhanced star formation. We combine archival UV imaging from GALEX with deep optical broad- and narrow-band (Halpha) imaging taken with the pre- One Degree Imager (pODI) on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope and with the 2.3-m Bok telescope at Steward Observatory to confirm the presence of stellar bridges and tidal tails and to determine whether dwarf-dwarf interactions alone can trigger significant levels of star formation. We investigate star formation rates and global galaxy colors as a function of dwarf pair separation (i.e. the dwarf merger sequence) and dwarf-dwarf mass ratio. This project is a precursor to an ongoing effort to obtain high spatial resolution HI imaging to assess the importance of sequential triggering caused by dwarf-dwarf interactions and the subsequent affect on the more massive hosts that later accrete the low mass systems.

  20. The Constant Average Relationship Between Dust-obscured Star Formation and Stellar Mass from z=0 to z=2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Pope, Alexandra; Cybulski, Ryan; Casey, Caitlin M.; Popping, Gergo; Yun, Min; 3D-HST Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The total star formation budget of galaxies consists of the sum of the unobscured star formation, as observed in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), together with the obscured component that is absorbed and re-radiated by dust grains in the infrared. We explore how the fraction of obscured star formation depends (SFR) and stellar mass for mass-complete samples of galaxies at 0 MIPS 24μm photometry in the well-studied 5 extragalactic CANDELS fields. We find a strong dependence of the fraction of obscured star formation (f_obscured=SFR_IR/SFR_UV+IR) on stellar mass, with remarkably little evolution in this fraction with redshift out to z=2.5. 50% of star formation is obscured for galaxies with log(M/M⊙)=9.4 although unobscured star formation dominates the budget at lower masses, there exists a tail of low mass extremely obscured star-forming galaxies at z > 1. For log(M/M⊙)>10.5, >90% of star formation is obscured at all redshifts. We also show that at fixed total SFR, f_obscured is lower at higher redshift. At fixed mass, high-redshift galaxies are observed to have more compact sizes and much higher star formation rates, gas fractions and hence surface densities (implying higher dust obscuration), yet we observe no redshift evolution in f_obscured with stellar mass. This poses a challenge to theoretical models to reproduce, where the observed compact sizes at high redshift seem in tension with lower dust obscuration.

  1. Energy management in the budget proposal for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1987-01-01

    In the item 32.55 of the state budget proposal for the year 1988 the total amount of FIM 182 million has been reserved for energy management. This is over FIM 10 million less than the corresponding appropriation in 1987. In addition to this direct financing the state promotes and develops the Finnish energy management indirectly e.g. through energy research funded by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. In the article the use of the appropriation is described

  2. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The two major aims of our lab are as follows: First, to develop and field-test general mechanistic models that predict animal life history characteristics as influenced by climate and the physical, physiological behavioral characteristics of species. This involves: understanding how animal time and energy budgets are affected by climate and animal properties; predicting growth and reproductive potential from time and energy budgets; predicting mortality based on climate and time and energy budgets; and linking these individual based models to population dynamics. Second to conduct empirical studies of animal physiological ecology, particularly the effects of temperature on time and energy budgets. The physiological ecology of individual animals is the key link between the physical environment and population-level phenomena. We address the macroclimate to microclimate linkage on a broad spatial scale; address the links between individuals and population dynamics for lizard species; test the endotherm energetics and behavior model using beaver; address the spatial variation in climate and its effects on individual energetics, growth and reproduction; and address patchiness in the environment and constraints they may impose on individual energetics, growth and reproduction. These projects are described individually in the following section. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Computing energy budget within a crop canopy from Penmann's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    Computing energy budget within a crop canopy from. Penmann's formulae. Mahendra Mohan∗ and K K Srivastava∗∗. ∗Radio and Atmospheric Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012, India. ∗∗Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

  4. TIMESCALES ON WHICH STAR FORMATION AFFECTS THE NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Warren, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, CSS Building, Room 1024, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Turbulent neutral hydrogen (H I) line widths are often thought to be driven primarily by star formation (SF), but the timescale for converting SF energy to H I kinetic energy is unclear. As a complication, studies on the connection between H I line widths and SF in external galaxies often use broadband tracers for the SF rate, which must implicitly assume that SF histories (SFHs) have been constant over the timescale of the tracer. In this paper, we compare measures of H I energy to time-resolved SFHs in a number of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that H I energy surface density is strongly correlated only with SF that occurred 30-40 Myr ago. This timescale corresponds to the approximate lifetime of the lowest mass supernova progenitors ({approx}8 M{sub Sun }). This analysis suggests that the coupling between SF and the neutral interstellar medium is strongest on this timescale, due either to an intrinsic delay between the release of the peak energy from SF or to the coherent effects of many supernova explosions during this interval. At {Sigma}{sub SFR} > 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, we find a mean coupling efficiency between SF energy and H I energy of {epsilon} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 using the 30-40 Myr timescale. However, unphysical efficiencies are required in lower {Sigma}{sub SFR} systems, implying that SF is not the primary driver of H I kinematics at {Sigma}{sub SFR} < 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}.

  5. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Jason; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We present the first ever global, spatially resolved reconstruction of the star formation history (SFH) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), based on the application of our StarFISH analysis software to the multiband photometry of 20 million of its stars from the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey. The general outlines of our results are consistent with previously published results: following an initial burst of star formation, there was a quiescent epoch from approximately 12 to 5 Gyr ago. Star formation then resumed and has proceeded until the current time at an average rate of roughly 0.2 M sun yr -1 , with temporal variations at the factor of 2 level. The re-ignition of star formation about 5 Gyr ago, in both the LMC and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), is suggestive of a dramatic event at that time in the Magellanic system. Among the global variations in the recent star formation rate are peaks at roughly 2 Gyr, 500 Myr, 100 Myr, and 12 Myr. The peaks at 500 Myr and 2 Gyr are nearly coincident with similar peaks in the SFH of the SMC, suggesting a joint history for these galaxies extending back at least several Gyr. The chemical enrichment history recovered from our StarFISH analysis is in broad agreement with that inferred from the LMC's star cluster population, although our constraints on the ancient chemical enrichment history are weak. We conclude from the concordance between the star formation and chemical enrichment histories of the field and cluster populations that the field and cluster star formation modes are tightly coupled.

  6. 3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.

  7. Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an "all of the above" energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE 27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget "reflects some tough choices," Chu said. The proposed budget would cut 4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

  8. Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-01-18

    Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

  9. ON THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR SPIRAL AND IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical timescale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical timescale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and sustaining star formation for ∼100 Gyr or more in the outer regions with no qualitative change in gas stability or molecular cloud properties. The ULIRG track follows from high densities in galaxy collisions.

  10. The role of turbulence in star formation laws and thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljic, Katarina; Renaud, Florent; Bournaud, Frédéric; Combes, Françoise; Elmegreen, Bruce; Emsellem, Eric; Teyssier, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The Schmidt-Kennicutt relation links the surface densities of gas to the star formation rate in galaxies. The physical origin of this relation, and in particular its break, i.e., the transition between an inefficient regime at low gas surface densities and a main regime at higher densities, remains debated. Here, we study the physical origin of the star formation relations and breaks in several low-redshift galaxies, from dwarf irregulars to massive spirals. We use numerical simulations representative of the Milky Way and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds with parsec up to subparsec resolution, and which reproduce the observed star formation relations and the relative variations of the star formation thresholds. We analyze the role of interstellar turbulence, gas cooling, and geometry in drawing these relations at 100 pc scale. We suggest in particular that the existence of a break in the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation could be linked to the transition from subsonic to supersonic turbulence and is independent of self-shielding effects. With this transition being connected to the gas thermal properties and thus to the metallicity, the break is shifted toward high surface densities in metal-poor galaxies, as observed in dwarf galaxies. Our results suggest that together with the collapse of clouds under self-gravity, turbulence (injected at galactic scale) can induce the compression of gas and regulate star formation.

  11. Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

  12. The role of turbulence in star formation laws and thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraljic, Katarina; Renaud, Florent; Bournaud, Frédéric [CEA, IRFU, SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Combes, Françoise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA et CNRS, 61 Av de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Elmegreen, Bruce [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Emsellem, Eric [European Southern Observatory, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Teyssier, Romain [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    The Schmidt-Kennicutt relation links the surface densities of gas to the star formation rate in galaxies. The physical origin of this relation, and in particular its break, i.e., the transition between an inefficient regime at low gas surface densities and a main regime at higher densities, remains debated. Here, we study the physical origin of the star formation relations and breaks in several low-redshift galaxies, from dwarf irregulars to massive spirals. We use numerical simulations representative of the Milky Way and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds with parsec up to subparsec resolution, and which reproduce the observed star formation relations and the relative variations of the star formation thresholds. We analyze the role of interstellar turbulence, gas cooling, and geometry in drawing these relations at 100 pc scale. We suggest in particular that the existence of a break in the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation could be linked to the transition from subsonic to supersonic turbulence and is independent of self-shielding effects. With this transition being connected to the gas thermal properties and thus to the metallicity, the break is shifted toward high surface densities in metal-poor galaxies, as observed in dwarf galaxies. Our results suggest that together with the collapse of clouds under self-gravity, turbulence (injected at galactic scale) can induce the compression of gas and regulate star formation.

  13. Peculiar early-type galaxies with central star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Chong; Gu Qiusheng

    2012-01-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are very important for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. Recent observations suggest that ETGs are not simply old stellar spheroids as we previously thought. Widespread recent star formation, cool gas and dust have been detected in a substantial fraction of ETGs. We make use of the radial profiles of g — r color and the concentration index from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database to pick out 31 peculiar ETGs with central blue cores. By analyzing the photometric and spectroscopic data, we suggest that the blue cores are caused by star formation activities rather than the central weak active galactic nucleus. From the results of stellar population synthesis, we find that the stellar population of the blue cores is relatively young, spreading from several Myr to less than one Gyr. In 14 galaxies with H I observations, we find that the average gas fraction of these galaxies is about 0.55. The bluer galaxies show a higher gas fraction, and the total star formation rate (SFR) correlates very well with the H I gas mass. The star formation history of these ETGs is affected by the environment, e.g. in the denser environment the H I gas is less and the total SFR is lower. We also discuss the origin of the central star formation of these early-type galaxies.

  14. Self-regulating star formation and disk structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Star formation processes determine the disk structure of galaxies. Stars heavier than about 1 solar mass determine the chemical evolution of the system and are produced at a rate which maintains (by the momentum input of the stars) the phase structure, pressure, and vertical velocity dispersion of the gas. Low mass stars are produced quiescently within molecular clouds, and their associated T-Tauri winds maintain the support of molecular clouds and regulate the star formation rate. Inefficient cooling suppresses this mode of star formation at low metallicity. Applied to the solar neighborhood, such a model can account for age/metallicity relationships, the increase in the O/Fe ratio at low metallicity, the paucity of metal-poor G and K dwarf stars, the missing mass in the disk and, possibly, the existence of a metal-poor thick disk. For other galaxies, it accounts for constant w-velocity dispersion of the gas, the relationship between gas content and specific rates of star formation, the surface brightness/metallicity relationship and for the shallow radial gradients in both star formation rates and HI content. 71 references

  15. Unveiling the Role of Galactic Rotation on Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utreras, José; Becerra, Fernando; Escala, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    We study the star formation process at galactic scales and the role of rotation through numerical simulations of spiral and starburst galaxies using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo. We focus on the study of three integrated star formation laws found in the literature: the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) and Silk-Elmegreen (SE) laws, and the dimensionally homogeneous equation proposed by Escala {{{Σ }}}{SFR}\\propto \\sqrt{G/L}{{{Σ }}}{gas}1.5. We show that using the last we take into account the effects of the integration along the line of sight and find a unique regime of star formation for both types of galaxies, suppressing the observed bi-modality of the KS law. We find that the efficiencies displayed by our simulations are anti-correlated with the angular velocity of the disk Ω for the three laws studied in this work. Finally, we show that the dimensionless efficiency of star formation is well represented by an exponentially decreasing function of -1.9{{Ω }}{t}{ff}{ini}, where {t}{ff}{ini} is the initial free-fall time. This leads to a unique galactic star formation relation which reduces the scatter of the bi-modal KS, SE, and Escala relations by 43%, 43%, and 35%, respectively.

  16. Delayed star formation in isolated dwarf galaxies: Hubble space telescope star formation history of the Aquarius dwarf irregular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 Australia (Australia); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55441 (United States); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 Canada (Canada); Brooks, Alyson M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Leaman, Ryan, E-mail: andrew.cole@utas.edu.au, E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: alan.mcconnachie@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: abrooks@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: rleaman@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ≈10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ≈10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ≈ 2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ≈6-8 Gyr ago (z ≈ 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}, dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CDM simulations. The similarities between Leo A and Aquarius suggest that if gas is not removed from dwarf galaxies by interactions or feedback, it can linger for several gigayears without cooling in sufficient quantity to form stars efficiently. We discuss possible causes for the delay in star formation including suppression by reionization and late-time mergers. We find reasonable agreement between our measured SFHs and select cosmological simulations of isolated dwarfs. Because star formation and merger processes are both stochastic in nature, delayed star formation in various degrees is predicted to be a characteristic (but not a universal) feature of isolated small galaxies.

  17. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 μm) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  18. The pillars of creation giant molecular clouds, star formation, and cosmic recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Beech, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the mechanics of star formation, the process by which matter pulls together and creates new structures. Written for science enthusiasts, the author presents an accessible explanation of how stars are born from the interstellar medium and giant molecular clouds. Stars produce the chemicals that lead to life, and it is they that have enabled the conditions for planets to form and life to emerge. Although the Big Bang provided the spark of initiation, the primordial universe that it sired was born hopelessly sterile. It is only through the continued recycling of the interstellar medium, star formation, and stellar evolution that the universe has been animated beyond a chaotic mess of elementary atomic particles, radiation, dark matter, dark energy, and expanding spacetime. Using the Milky Way and the Eagle Nebula in particular as case studies, Beech follows every step of this amazing process. .

  19. Star formation at high redshift and the importance of dust obscuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalowski, Michal

    One of the aspects of the understanding of the Universe evolution is its star formation history. In order to gain a complete picture of the Universe evolution it is important to know when the stars we see today were formed. One of the method to study this problem is to use far-infrared and radio...... emission of galaxies. In this way it is possible to investigate the sites of star formation that are totally obscured by dust and therefore invisible at the optical wavelengths. It is because the energy absorbed by dust in the optical is re-emitted in the infrared, whereas radio emission is unaffected...... and/or radio, namely their enhanced submillimeter / radio emission combined with optical faintness and blue colors. I find that these four galaxies are young, highly star-forming, low-mass and dusty....

  20. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF ISOLATED DWARF UGC 4879

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Bradley A.; Tully, R. Brent; Rizzi, Luca; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Held, Enrico V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations of UGC 4879 with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope confirm that it is a nearby isolated dwarf irregular galaxy. We measure a distance of 1.36 ± 0.03 Mpc using the tip of the red giant branch method. This distance puts UGC 4879 beyond the radius of first turnaround of the Local Group and ∼700 kpc from its nearest neighbor Leo A. This isolation makes this galaxy an ideal laboratory for studying pristine star formation uncomplicated by interactions with other galaxies. We present the star formation history of UGC 4879 derived from simulated color-magnitude diagrams.

  1. The Role of Magnetic Fields in Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipher, Judith

    2018-06-01

    The SOFIA instrument complement makes available the capability to characterize the physical properties (turbulence, dynamics, magnetic field structure and strength, gas density) of the molecular cloud filaments in which stars form.HAWC+, the newest SOFIA instrument, provides a unique opportunity to probe the complex roles that magnetic fields play in the star formation process on spatial scales intermediate to those explored by Planck (5’ scale), to those of ALMA at the smallest spatial scales (powerful tools to further our understanding of the fundamental physics of both low mass and high mass star formation, including the role that magnetic fields play in each.

  2. Star formation rates and abundance gradients in disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, R.F.G.; Silk, J.

    1989-01-01

    Analytic models for the evolution of disk galaxies are presented, placing special emphasis on the radial properties. These models are straightforward extensions of the original Schmidt (1959, 1963) models, with a dependence of star formation rate on gas density. The models provide successful descriptions of several measures of galactic disk evolution, including solar neighborhood chemical evolution, the presence and amplitude of metallicity and color gradients in disk galaxies, and the global rates of star formation in disk galaxies, and aid in the understanding of the apparent connection between young and old stellar populations in spiral galaxies. 67 refs

  3. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. The extent of these urban areas across the world can be seen in an image of city lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. In many areas of North America and Europe, it is difficult to separate individual cities because of the dramatic growth and sprawl of urbanized areas. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. One of the earliest recognized and measured phenomena of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) which was reported as early as 1833 for London and 1862 for Paris. The urban heat island results from the energy that is absorbed by man-made materials during the day and is released at night resulting in the heating of the air within the urban area. The magnitude of the air temperature difference between the urban and surrounding countryside is highly dependent on the structure of the urban area, amount of solar immolation received during the day, and atmospheric conditions during the night. These night time air temperature differences can be in the range of 2 to 5 C. or greater. Although day time air temperature differences between urban areas and the countryside exists during the day, atmospheric mixing and stability reduce the magnitude. This phenomena is not limited to large urban areas, but also occurs in smaller metropolitan areas. The UHI has significant impacts on the urban air quality, meteorology, energy use, and human health. The UPI can be mitigated through increasing the amount of vegetation and modification of urban surfaces using high albedo materials for roofs and paved surfaces. To understand why the urban heat island phenomenon exists it is useful to define the surface in terms of the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and albedo is a major component of

  4. The Rise and Fall of Star Formation Histories of Blue Galaxies at Redshifts 0.2 < z < 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Charlot, Stephane; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitor, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use the approach recently developed by Pacifici et al. to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range O.2 galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs wIdely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions is not appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  5. Dynamical and photometric models of star formation in tidal tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation into the causes of star formation in tidal tails has been conducted using a restricted three-body dynamical model in conjunction with a broadband photometric evolutionary code. Test particles are initially placed in circular orbits around a softened point mass and then perturbed by a companion passing in a parabotic orbit. During the passage, the density evolution of the galaxy is examined both in regions within the disk and in selected comoving regions in the tidal features. Even without the inclusion of self-gravity and hydrodynamics, regions of compression form inside the disk, along the tidal tail, and in the tidal bridge causing local density increases of up to 500 percent. By assuming that the density changes relate to the star-formation rate via a Schmidt (1959) law, limits on the density changes needed to make detectable changes in the colors are calculated. A spiral galaxy population is synthesized and the effects of modest changes in the star-formation rate are explored using a broadband photometric evolutionary code. Density changes similar to those found in the dynamical models will cause detectable changes in the colors of a stellar population. From these models, it is determined that the blue colors and knotty features observed in the tidal features of some galaxies result from increased rates of star formation induced by tidally produced density increases. Limitations of this model are discussed along with photometric evolutionary models based on the density evolution in the tails. 52 refs

  6. Modelling the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Katy

    Since Lick indices were introduced in 1994, they have been used as a source of observational data against which computer models of galaxy evolution have been compared. However, as this thesis demonstrates, observed Lick indices lead to mathematical ill-conditioning: small variations in observations can lead to very large differences in population synthesis models attempting to recreate the observed values. As such, limited reliance should be placed on any results currently or historically in the literature purporting to give the star formation history of a galaxy, or group of galaxies, where this is deduced from Lick observations taken from a single instrument, without separate verification from at least one other source. Within these limitations, this thesis also constrains the star formation histories of 21 nearby elliptical galaxies, finding that they formed 13.26 +0.09 -0.06 Gyrs ago, that all mergers are dry, and that galactic winds are formed from AGN activity (rather than being supernovae-driven). This thesis also finds evidence to support the established galaxy-formation theory of "downsizing". An existing galactic model from the literature is examined and evaluated, and the reasons for it being unable to establish star formation histories of individual galaxies are ascertained. A brand-new model is designed, developed, tested and used with two separate data sets, corroborated for 10 galaxies by data from a third source, and compared to results from a Single Stellar Population model from the literature, to model the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies.

  7. Clumps and triggered star formation in ionized molecular clouds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walch, S.; Whitworth, A.; Bisbas, T.; Wünsch, Richard; Hubber, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 2 (2013), s. 917-927 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : hydrodynamics * stars formation * ISM bubbles Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.226, year: 2013

  8. Star Formation-Driven Winds in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Matthew; Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the extent of star formation-driven winds from galaxies in the early universe is crucial for understanding of how galaxies evolve over cosmic time. Using WFC3/IR grism data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have measured the star formation rates and star formation rate surface densities of several hundred galaxies at redshift (z) = 1, when the universe was roughly half its present age. The galaxies we examine are also probed by background quasars, whose spectra provide information about the extent of metal-enriched gas in their halos. We use a computational pipeline to measure the density of the star formation in each galaxy and correlate these measurements with detections of Mg II absorption in nearby quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our preliminary results support a model in which galaxies with high SFR surface densities drive metal-enriched gas out of the disk and into these galaxies’ extended halos, where that gas is detected in the spectra of more distant quasars.

  9. Propagating star formation and irregular structure in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.W.; Arnett, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    A simple model is proposed which describes the irregular optical appearance often seen in late-type spiral galaxies. If high-mass stars produce spherical shock waves which induce star formation, new high-mass stars will be born which, in turn, produce new shock waves. When this process operates in a differentially rotating disk, our numerical model shows that large-scale spiral-shaped regions of star formation are built up. The structure is seen to be most sensitive to a parameter which governs how often a region of the interstellar medium can undergo star formation. For a proper choice of this parameter, large-scale features disappear before differential rotation winds them up. New spiral features continuously form, so some spiral structure is seen indefinitely. The structure is not the classical two-armed symmetric spiral pattern which the density-wave theory attempts to explain, but it is asymmetric and disorderly.The mechanism of propagating star formation used in our model is consistent with observations which connect young OB associations with expanding shells of gas. We discuss the possible interaction of this mechanism with density waves

  10. The Origin of Scales and Scaling Laws in Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guszejnov, David; Hopkins, Philip; Grudich, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Star formation is one of the key processes of cosmic evolution as it influences phenomena from the formation of galaxies to the formation of planets, and the development of life. Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive theory of star formation, despite intense effort on both the theoretical and observational sides, due to the large amount of complicated, non-linear physics involved (e.g. MHD, gravity, radiation). A possible approach is to formulate simple, easily testable models that allow us to draw a clear connection between phenomena and physical processes.In the first part of the talk I will focus on the origin of the IMF peak, the characteristic scale of stars. There is debate in the literature about whether the initial conditions of isothermal turbulence could set the IMF peak. Using detailed numerical simulations, I will demonstrate that not to be the case, the initial conditions are "forgotten" through the fragmentation cascade. Additional physics (e.g. feedback) is required to set the IMF peak.In the second part I will use simulated galaxies from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project to show that most star formation theories are unable to reproduce the near universal IMF peak of the Milky Way.Finally, I will present analytic arguments (supported by simulations) that a large number of observables (e.g. IMF slope) are the consequences of scale-free structure formation and are (to first order) unsuitable for differentiating between star formation theories.

  11. Quenching of Star Formation in Molecular Outflow Host NGC 1266

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alatalo, K.; Nyland, K. E.; Graves, G.; Deustua, S.; Young, L. M.; Davis, T. A.; Crocker, A. F.; Bureau, M.; Bayet, E.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Wong, Tony; Ott, Jürgen

    We detail the rich molecular story of NGC 1266, its serendipitous discovery within the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011) and how it plays host to an AGN-driven molecular outflow, potentially quenching all of its star formation (SF) within the next 100 Myr. While major mergers appear to play a

  12. Star formation in mergers with comologically motivated initial conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, Wouter; Macciò, Andrea V.; Kannan, Rahul; Moster, Benjamin P.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2015-01-01

    We use semi-analytic models and cosmological merger trees to provide the initial conditions for multimerger numerical hydrodynamic simulations, and exploit these simulations to explore the effect of galaxy interaction and merging on star formation (SF). We compute numerical realizations of 12 merger

  13. LOFAR/H-ATLAS: the low-frequency radio luminosity-star formation rate relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, G.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Smith, D. J. B.; Best, P. N.; Bourne, N.; Calistro-Rivera, G.; Heald, G.; Jarvis, M. J.; Prandoni, I.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Sabater, J.; Shimwell, T.; Tasse, C.; Williams, W. L.

    2018-04-01

    Radio emission is a key indicator of star formation activity in galaxies, but the radio luminosity-star formation relation has to date been studied almost exclusively at frequencies of 1.4 GHz or above. At lower radio frequencies, the effects of thermal radio emission are greatly reduced, and so we would expect the radio emission observed to be completely dominated by synchrotron radiation from supernova-generated cosmic rays. As part of the LOFAR Surveys Key Science project, the Herschel-ATLAS NGP field has been surveyed with LOFAR at an effective frequency of 150 MHz. We select a sample from the MPA-JHU catalogue of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in this area: the combination of Herschel, optical and mid-infrared data enable us to derive star formation rates (SFRs) for our sources using spectral energy distribution fitting, allowing a detailed study of the low-frequency radio luminosity-star formation relation in the nearby Universe. For those objects selected as star-forming galaxies (SFGs) using optical emission line diagnostics, we find a tight relationship between the 150 MHz radio luminosity (L150) and SFR. Interestingly, we find that a single power-law relationship between L150 and SFR is not a good description of all SFGs: a broken power-law model provides a better fit. This may indicate an additional mechanism for the generation of radio-emitting cosmic rays. Also, at given SFR, the radio luminosity depends on the stellar mass of the galaxy. Objects that were not classified as SFGs have higher 150-MHz radio luminosity than would be expected given their SFR, implying an important role for low-level active galactic nucleus activity.

  14. Ultrafaint dwarfs—star formation and chemical evolution in the smallest galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, David; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sutherland, Ralph, E-mail: d.webster@physics.usyd.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    In earlier work, we showed that a dark matter halo with a virial mass of 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} can retain a major part of its baryons in the face of the pre-ionization phase and supernova (SN) explosion from a 25 M {sub ☉} star. Here, we expand on the results of that work, investigating the star formation and chemical evolution of the system beyond the first SN. In a galaxy with a mass M {sub vir} = 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, sufficient gas is retained by the potential for a second period of star formation to occur. The impact of a central explosion is found to be much stronger than that of an off-center explosion both in blowing out the gas and in enriching it, as in the off-center case most of the SN energy and metals escape into the intergalactic medium. We model the star formation and metallicity, given the assumption that stars form for 100, 200, 400, and 600 Myr, and discuss the results in the context of recent observations of very low-mass galaxies. We show that we can account for most features of the observed relationship between [α/Fe] and [Fe/H] in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies with the assumption that the systems formed at a low mass, rather than being remnants of much larger systems.

  15. Phase Offsets and the Energy Budgets of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel C.; Kashner, Zane; Jovmir, Diana; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal phase curves of short-period planets on circular orbits provide joint constraints on the fraction of incoming energy that is reflected (Bond albedo) and the fraction of absorbed energy radiated by the night hemisphere (heat recirculation efficiency). Many empirical studies of hot Jupiters have implicitly assumed that the dayside is the hottest hemisphere and the nightside is the coldest hemisphere. For a given eclipse depth and phase amplitude, an orbital lag between a planet’s peak brightness and its eclipse—a phase offset—implies that planet’s nightside emits greater flux. To quantify how phase offsets impact the energy budgets of short-period planets, we compile all infrared observations of the nine planets with multi-band eclipse depths and phase curves. Accounting for phase offsets shifts planets to lower Bond albedo and greater day-night heat transport, usually by ≲1σ. For WASP-12b, the published phase variations have been analyzed in two different ways, and the inferred energy budget depends sensitively on which analysis one adopts. Our fiducial scenario supports a Bond albedo of {0.27}-0.13+0.12, significantly higher than the published optical geometric albedo, and a recirculation efficiency of {0.03}-0.02+0.07, following the trend of larger day-night temperature contrast with greater stellar irradiation. If instead we adopt the alternative analysis, then WASP-12b has a Bond albedo consistent with zero and a much higher recirculation efficiency. To definitively determine the energy budget of WASP-12b, new observational analyses will be necessary.

  16. ON THE STAR FORMATION RATES IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the level of star formation activity within nearby molecular clouds. We employ a uniform set of infrared extinction maps to provide accurate assessments of cloud mass and structure and compare these with inventories of young stellar objects within the clouds. We present evidence indicating that both the yield and rate of star formation can vary considerably in local clouds, independent of their mass and size. We find that the surface density structure of such clouds appears to be important in controlling both these factors. In particular, we find that the star formation rate (SFR) in molecular clouds is linearly proportional to the cloud mass (M 0.8 ) above an extinction threshold of A K ∼ 0.8 mag, corresponding to a gas surface density threshold of Σ gas ∼ 116 M sun pc 2 . We argue that this surface density threshold corresponds to a gas volume density threshold which we estimate to be n(H 2 ) ∼ 10 4 cm -3 . Specifically, we find SFR (M sun yr -1 ) = 4.6 ± 2.6 x 10 -8 M 0.8 (M sun ) for the clouds in our sample. This relation between the rate of star formation and the amount of dense gas in molecular clouds appears to be in excellent agreement with previous observations of both galactic and extragalactic star-forming activity. It is likely the underlying physical relationship or empirical law that most directly connects star formation activity with interstellar gas over many spatial scales within and between individual galaxies. These results suggest that the key to obtaining a predictive understanding of the SFRs in molecular clouds and galaxies is to understand those physical factors which give rise to the dense components of these clouds.

  17. KEY ISSUES REVIEW: Insights from simulations of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard B.

    2007-03-01

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604)

  18. On the Spatially Resolved Star Formation History in M51. I. Hybrid UV+IR Star Formation Laws and IR Emission from Dust Heated by Old Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, R. T.; Lehmer, B. D.; Zezas, A.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, R. G.; Basu-Zych, A.; Wiklind, T.; Yukita, M.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Markwardt, L.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present LIGHTNING, a new spectral energy distribution fitting procedure, capable of quickly and reliably recovering star formation history (SFH) and extinction parameters. The SFH is modeled as discrete steps in time. In this work, we assumed lookback times of 0-10 Myr, 10-100 Myr, 0.1-1 Gyr, 1-5 Gyr, and 5-13.6 Gyr. LIGHTNING consists of a fully vectorized inversion algorithm to determine SFH step intensities and combines this with a grid-based approach to determine three extinction parameters. We apply our procedure to the extensive far-UV-to-far-IR photometric data of M51, convolved to a common spatial resolution and pixel scale, and make the resulting maps publicly available. We recover, for M51a, a peak star formation rate (SFR) between 0.1 and 5 Gyr ago, with much lower star formation activity over the past 100 Myr. For M51b, we find a declining SFR toward the present day. In the outskirt regions of M51a, which includes regions between M51a and M51b, we recover an SFR peak between 0.1 and 1 Gyr ago, which corresponds to the effects of the interaction between M51a and M51b. We utilize our results to (1) illustrate how UV+IR hybrid SFR laws vary across M51 and (2) provide first-order estimates for how the IR luminosity per unit stellar mass varies as a function of the stellar age. From the latter result, we find that IR emission from dust heated by stars is not always associated with young stars and that the IR emission from M51b is primarily powered by stars older than 5 Gyr.

  19. Energy budget in collimated gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudose, Valeriu; Biermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the existence of collimation in some, if not most, of the gamma-ray bursts. This would have direct implications, for instance, on the energy budget, the rate of events, but also indirect consequences for the theoretical models because it provides a tool to differentiate between their predictions. We consider the case of a structured jet, i.e. we assume the energy within the jet varies as a power-law, being a function of the angle between the jet axis and an arbitrary direction. We analyze first the situation in which the jet axis and the line of sight have a particular orientation, then we relax this assumption by allowing for an arbitrary viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis of the jet. A qualitative study of the total energy content of the jet is performed. It turns out that the 'real' energy could be higher than what is inferred from observations. (authors)

  20. Star formation in N-body simulations .1. The impact of the stellar ultraviolet radiation on star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, JPE; Icke, [No Value

    We present numerical simulations of isolated disk galaxies including gas dynamics and star formation. The gas is allowed to cool to 10 K, while heating of the gas is provided by the far-ultraviolet flux of all stars. Stars are allowed to form from the gas according to a Jeans instability criterion:

  1. Star formation is boosted (and quenched) from the inside-out: radial star formation profiles from MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Ibarra-Medel, Hector; Antonio, Braulio; Mendel, J. Trevor; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    The tight correlation between total galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) has become known as the star-forming main sequence. Using ˜487 000 spaxels from galaxies observed as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, we confirm previous results that a correlation also exists between the surface densities of star formation (ΣSFR) and stellar mass (Σ⋆) on kpc scales, representing a `resolved' main sequence. Using a new metric (ΔΣSFR), which measures the relative enhancement or deficit of star formation on a spaxel-by-spaxel basis relative to the resolved main sequence, we investigate the SFR profiles of 864 galaxies as a function of their position relative to the global star-forming main sequence (ΔSFR). For galaxies above the global main sequence (positive ΔSFR) ΔΣSFR is elevated throughout the galaxy, but the greatest enhancement in star formation occurs at small radii (<3 kpc, or 0.5Re). Moreover, galaxies that are at least a factor of 3 above the main sequence show diluted gas phase metallicities out to 2Re, indicative of metal-poor gas inflows accompanying the starbursts. For quiescent/passive galaxies that lie at least a factor of 10 below the star-forming main sequence, there is an analogous deficit of star formation throughout the galaxy with the lowest values of ΔΣSFR in the central 3 kpc. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the `compaction' scenario in which a central starburst leads to mass growth in the bulge and may ultimately precede galactic quenching from the inside-out.

  2. STAR FORMATION NEAR BERKELEY 59: EMBEDDED PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosvick, J. M. [Department of Physical Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC V2C 0C8 (Canada); Majaess, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    A group of suspected protostars in a dark cloud northwest of the young (∼2 Myr) cluster Berkeley 59 and two sources in a pillar south of the cluster have been studied in order to determine their evolutionary stages and ascertain whether their formation was triggered by Berkeley 59. Narrowband near-infrared observations from the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic, {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2) and SCUBA-2 (450 and 850 μm) observations from the JCMT, 2MASS, and WISE images, and data extracted from the IPHAS survey catalog were used. Of 12 sources studied, two are Class I objects, while three others are flat/Class II, one of which is a T Tauri candidate. A weak CO outflow and two potential starless cores are present in the cloud, while the pillar possesses substructure at different velocities, with no outflows present. The CO spectra of both regions show peaks in the range v {sub LSR} = –15 to –17 km s{sup –1}, which agrees with the velocity adopted for Berkeley 59 (–15.7 km s{sup –1}), while spectral energy distribution models yield an average interstellar extinction A{sub V} and distance of 15 ± 2 mag and 830 ± 120 pc, respectively, for the cloud, and 6.9 mag and 912 pc for the pillar, indicating that the regions are in the same vicinity as Berkeley 59. The formation of the pillar source appears to have been triggered by Berkeley 59. It is unclear whether Berkeley 59 triggered the association's formation.

  3. Multi-wavelength investigations on feedback of massive star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinghua

    2014-05-01

    In the course of massive star formation, outflows, ionizing radiation and intense stellar winds could heavily affect their adjacent environs and natal clouds. There are several outstanding open questions related to these processes: i) whether they can drive turbulence in molecular clouds; ii) whether they are able to trigger star formation; iii) whether they can destroy natal clouds to terminate star formation at low efficiencies. This thesis investigates feedback in different stages of massive star formation. Influence of such feedback to the ambient medium has been revealed. A new type of millimeter methanol maser is detected for the first time. An uncommon bipolar outflow prominent in the mid-infrared is discovered. And features of triggered star formation are found on the border of an infrared bubble and in the surroundings of a Herbig Be star. Extended green objects (EGOs) are massive outflow candidates showing prominent shocked features in the mid-infrared. We have carried out a high resolution study of the EGO G22.04+0.22 (hereafter, G22) based on archived SMA data. Continuum and molecular lines at 1.3 mm reveal that G22 is still at a hot molecular core stage. A very young multi-polar outflow system is detected, which is interacting with the adjacent dense gas. Anomalous emission features from CH3OH (8,-1,8 - 7,0,7) and CH3OH (4,2,2 - 3,1,2) are proven to be millimeter masers. It is the first time that maser emission of CH3OH (8,-1,8 - 7,0,7) at 218.440 GHz is detected in a massive star-forming region. Bipolar outflows have been revealed and investigated almost always in the microwave or radio domain. It's sort of rare that hourglass-shaped morphology be discovered in the mid-infrared. Based on GLIMPSE data, we have discovered a bipolar object resembling an hourglass at 8.0 um. It is found to be associated with IRAS 18114-1825. Analysis based on fitted SED, optical spectroscopy, and infrared color indices suggests IRAS 18114-1825 is an uncommon bipolar

  4. Multicolor photometry of the merging galaxy cluster A2319: Dynamics and star formation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Yuan, Qi-Rong [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhang, Li [QuFu Education Bureau, QuFu 273100 (China); Zhou, Xu, E-mail: pfyan0822@sina.com, E-mail: yuanqirong@njnu.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Asymmetric X-ray emission and a powerful cluster-scale radio halo indicate that A2319 is a merging cluster of galaxies. This paper presents our multicolor photometry for A2319 with 15 optical intermediate filters in the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) system. There are 142 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts within the viewing field of 58' × 58' centered on this rich cluster, including 128 member galaxies (called sample I). A large velocity dispersion in the rest frame, 1622{sub −70}{sup +91} km s{sup –1}, suggests merger dynamics in A2319. The contour map of projected density and localized velocity structure confirm the so-called A2319B substructure, at ∼10' northwest to the main concentration A2319A. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of more than 30,000 sources are obtained in our BATC photometry down to V ∼ 20 mag. A u-band (∼3551 Å) image with better seeing and spatial resolution, obtained with the Bok 2.3 m telescope at Kitt Peak, is taken to make star-galaxy separation and distinguish the overlapping contamination in the BATC aperture photometry. With color-color diagrams and photometric redshift technique, 233 galaxies brighter than h {sub BATC} = 19.0 are newly selected as member candidates after an exclusion of false candidates with contaminated BATC SEDs by eyeball-checking the u-band Bok image. The early-type galaxies are found to follow a tight color-magnitude correlation. Based on sample I and the enlarged sample of member galaxies (called sample II), subcluster A2319B is confirmed. The star formation properties of cluster galaxies are derived with the evolutionary synthesis model, PEGASE, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function and an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR). A strong environmental effect on star formation histories is found in the manner that galaxies in the sparse regions have various star formation histories, while galaxies in the dense regions are found to have

  5. Fish energy budget under ocean warming and flame retardant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Patrícia; Figueiredo, Cátia; Baptista, Miguel; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Valente, Luísa M P; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2018-07-01

    Climate change and chemical contamination are global environmental threats of growing concern for the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Yet, the impacts and interactions of both stressors (particularly ocean warming and emerging chemical contaminants) on physiological responses of marine organisms remain unclear and still require further understanding. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effects of warming (+ 5 °C) and accumulation of a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-209, brominated flame retardant) through dietary exposure on energy budget of the juvenile white seabream (Diplodus sargus). Specifically, growth (G), routine metabolism (R), excretion (faecal, F and nitrogenous losses, U) and food consumption (C) were calculated to obtain the energy budget. The results demonstrated that the energy proportion spent for G dominated the mode of the energy allocation of juvenile white seabream (56.0-67.8%), especially under the combined effect of warming plus BDE-209 exposure. Under all treatments, the energy channelled for R varied around 26% and a much smaller percentage was channelled for excretion (F: 4.3-16.0% and U: 2.3-3.3%). An opposite trend to G was observed to F, where the highest percentage (16.0 ± 0.9%) was found under control temperature and BDE-209 exposure via diet. In general, the parameters were significantly affected by increased temperature and flame retardant exposure, where higher levels occurred for: i) wet weight, relative growth rate, protein and ash contents under warming conditions, ii) only for O:N ratio under BDE-209 exposure via diet, and iii) for feed efficiency, ammonia excretion rate, routine metabolic rate and assimilation efficiency under the combination of both stressors. On the other hand, decreased viscerosomatic index was observed under warming and lower fat content was observed under the combined effect of both stressors. Overall, under future

  6. Chemistry and Star Formation: A Love-Hate Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Zhang, Qizhou; Patel, Nimesh; Lu, Xing; Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; Caselli, Paola; Martin-Pintado, Jesus

    2014-06-01

    The development of the broad bandwidth receivers at the Submillimeter Array (SMA) a decade ago opened up the possibility to observe tens of molecular lines at high angular resolution simultaneously. The unprecedented wealth of molecular line data provided by the SMA allowed for the first time detailed studies of the chemistry in star-forming regions. These studies have revealed that chemistry is a useful tool to pin down the internal physical structure and the physical processes involved in the process of low-mass and high-mass star formation. In this talk, I will review the most important advances in our understanding of the star-formation process through chemistry thanks to the SMA, and I will present the challenges that will be faced in the next decade in this field of research thanks to the advent of new instrumentation such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array and the Square Kilometer Array.

  7. Star formation within OB subgroups: Implosion by multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Sanford, M.T. III; Whitaker, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    We present the results of new detailed two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamical calculations of the effects of radiation-driven shock waves from two O stars on inhomogeneities embedded in molecular clouds. The calculations indicate the neutral primordial clumps of gas with 84 M/sub sun/ can be highly compressed in 3 x 10 4 yr with density enhancements greater than 170 over ambient densities and 40 M/sub sun/ remaining. Inhomogeneities that are compressed in this manner by stars in the range O7--B0 survive ionization evaporation and may rapidly form new stars. Low-mass objects would not survive, and there would be a natural cutoff of low-mass and high-mass stars. We present a scenario for hierarchical radiation-driven implosion as a potential, new highly efficient mechanismfor star formation that may explain aspects of recent observations of new star formation in ultracompact H II regions

  8. Stochastic star formation and the evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiden, P.E.; Schulman, L.S.; Gerola, H.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of stochastic self-propagating star formation has previously been invoked to explain the origin of spiral arms in galaxies. In this paper we extend the application of this mechanism to account for the diversity of morphological types and the evolution of galaxies. The new property that arises from consideration of this mechanism is that the rate of star formation exhibits the critical behavior of a phase transition. This is a general property of the system and is not strongly dependent on the details of the star--interstellar gas interaction. Examination of the properties of this phase transition provides a general scenario for the evolution of galaxies and the origin of the various morphological types

  9. Clustered star formation and the origin of stellar masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudritz, Ralph E

    2002-01-04

    Star clusters are ubiquitous in galaxies of all types and at all stages of their evolution. We also observe them to be forming in a wide variety of environments, ranging from nearby giant molecular clouds to the supergiant molecular clouds found in starburst and merging galaxies. The typical star in our galaxy and probably in others formed as a member of a star cluster, so star formation is an intrinsically clustered and not an isolated phenomenon. The greatest challenge regarding clustered star formation is to understand why stars have a mass spectrum that appears to be universal. This review examines the observations and models that have been proposed to explain these fundamental issues in stellar formation.

  10. New View of Distant Galaxy Reveals Furious Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    A furious rate of star formation discovered in a distant galaxy shows that galaxies in the early Universe developed either much faster or in a different way from what astronomers have thought. "This galaxy is forming stars at an incredible rate," said Wei-Hao Wang, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. The galaxy, Wang said, is forming the equivalent of 4,000 Suns a year. This is a thousand times more violent than our own Milky Way Galaxy. Location of Distant Galaxy Visible-light, left (from HST) and Infrared, right, (from Spitzer) Images: Circles indicate location of GOODS 850-5. CREDIT: Wang et al., STScI, Spitzer, NASA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file (1 MB) The galaxy, called GOODS 850-5, is 12 billion light-years from Earth, and thus is seen as it was only about 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang. Wang and his colleagues observed it using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Submillimeter Array (SMA) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Young stars in the galaxy were enshrouded in dust that was heated by the stars and radiated infrared light strongly. Because of the galaxy's great distance from Earth, the infrared light waves have been stretched out to submillimeter-length radio waves, which are seen by the SMA. The waves were stretched or "redshifted," as astronomers say, by the ongoing expansion of the Universe. "This evidence for prolific star formation is hidden by the dust from visible-light telescopes," Wang explained. The dust, in turn, was formed from heavy elements that had to be built up in the cores of earlier stars. This indicates, Wang said, that significant numbers of stars already had formed, then spewed those heavy elements into interstellar space through supernova explosions and stellar winds. "Seeing the radiation from this heated dust revealed star formation we could have found in no other way," Wang said. Similar dusty galaxies in the early Universe may contain most of the

  11. The eddy kinetic energy budget in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2016-06-09

    The budget of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the Red Sea, including the sources, redistributions and sink, is examined using a high-resolution eddy-resolving ocean circulation model. A pronounced seasonally varying EKE is identified, with its maximum intensity occurring in winter, and the strongest EKE is captured mainly in the central and northern basins within the upper 200 m. Eddies acquire kinetic energy from conversion of eddy available potential energy (EPE), from transfer of mean kinetic energy (MKE), and from direct generation due to time-varying (turbulent) wind stress, the first of which contributes predominantly to the majority of the EKE. The EPE-to-EKE conversion occurs almost in the entire basin, while the MKE-to-EKE transfer appears mainly along the shelf boundary of the basin (200 miso-bath) where high horizontal shear interacts with topography. The EKE generated by the turbulent wind stress is relatively small and limited to the southern basin. All these processes are intensified during winter, when the rate of energy conversion is about four to five times larger than that in summer. The EKE is redistributed by the vertical and horizontal divergence of energy flux and the advection of the mean flow. As a main sink of EKE, dissipation processes is ubiquitously found in the basin. The seasonal variability of these energy conversion terms can explain the significant seasonality of eddy activities in the Red Sea. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Spiral Structure and Global Star Formation Processes in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendl, Robert A.

    1994-12-01

    The nearby grand design spiral galaxy, M 51, is an obvious proving ground for studies of spiral structure and large scale star formation processes. New near--infrared observations of M 51 made with COB (Cryogenic Optical Bench) on the Kitt Peak 1.3m allow us to examine the stellar distribution and the young star formation regions as well as probe regions of high extinction such as dust lanes. We also present an analysis of the kinematics of the ionized gas observed with the Maryland--Caltech Imaging Fabry Perot. The color information we derive from the near--infrared bands provides a more accurate tracer of extinction than optical observations. We find that the dust extinction and CO emission in the arms are well correlated. Our kinematic data show unambiguously that these dense gas concentrations are associated with kinematic perturbations. In the inner disk, these perturbations are seen to be consistent with the streaming motions predicted by classical density wave theory. The dust lanes, and presumably the molecular arms, form a narrow ridge that matches these velocity perturbations wherever the viewing angle is appropriate. This interpretation requires that the corotation radius be inward of the outer tidal arms. The outer tidal arms however show streaming velocities of the sign that would be expected interior to the corotation point. This can be reconciled if the outer arms are part of a second spiral pattern, most likely due to the interaction with the companion NGC 5195. The near--infrared observations also show emission from the massive star forming regions. These observations are less affected by extinction than optical observations of H II regions and show clearly that the sites of massive star formation are correlated with but downstream from the concentrations of dense molecular material. This provides clear evidence that the ISM has been organized by the streaming motions which have in turn triggered massive star formation.

  13. A mathematical model of star formation in the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sharaf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is generally concerned with star formation in the Galaxy, especially blue stars. Blue stars are the most luminous, massive and the largest in radius. A simple mathematical model of the formation of the stars is established and put in computational algorithm. This algorithm enables us to know more about the formation of the star. Some real and artificial examples had been used to justify this model.

  14. Galaxies in the act of quenching star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quai, Salvatore; Pozzetti, Lucia; Citro, Annalisa; Moresco, Michele; Cimatti, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Detecting galaxies when their star-formation is being quenched is crucial to understand the mechanisms driving their evolution. We identify for the first time a sample of quenching galaxies selected just after the interruption of their star formation by exploiting the [O III] λ5007/Hα ratio and searching for galaxies with undetected [O III]. Using a sample of ˜174000 star-forming galaxies extracted from the SDSS-DR8 at 0.04 ≤ z growth of the quiescent population at these redshifts. Their main properties (i.e. star-formation rate, colours and metallicities) are comparable to those of the star-forming population, coherently with the hypothesis of recent quenching, but preferably reside in higher-density environments.Most candidates have morphologies similar to star-forming galaxies, suggesting that no morphological transformation has occurred yet. From a survival analysis we find a low fraction of candidates (˜ 0.58% of the star-forming population), leading to a short quenching timescale of tQ ˜ 50 Myr and an e-folding time for the quenching history of τQ ˜ 90 Myr, and their upper limits of tQ < 0.76 Gyr and τQ <1.5 Gyr, assuming as quenching galaxies 50% of objects without [O III] (˜7.5%).Our results are compatible with a 'rapid' quenching scenario of satellites galaxies due to the final phase of strangulation or ram-pressure stripping. This approach represents a robust alternative to methods used so far to select quenched galaxies (e.g. colours, specific star-formation rate, or post-starburst spectra).

  15. ORIGIN OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY-STAR FORMATION RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwit, Martin; Brisbin, Drew

    2015-01-01

    We describe an equilibrium model that links the metallicity of low-redshift galaxies to stellar evolution models. It enables the testing of different stellar initial mass functions and metal yields against observed galaxy metallicities. We show that the metallicities of more than 80,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in the low-redshift range 0.07 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 considerably constrain stellar evolution models that simultaneously relate galaxy stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rates to the infall rate of low-metallicity extragalactic gas and outflow of enriched matter. A feature of our model is that it encompasses both the active star forming phases of a galaxy and epochs during which the same galaxy may lie fallow. We show that the galaxy mass-metallicity-star formation relation can be traced to infall of extragalactic gas mixing with native gas from host galaxies to form stars of observed metallicities, the most massive of which eject oxygen into extragalactic space. Most consequential among our findings is that, on average, extragalactic infall accounts for one half of the gas required for star formation, a ratio that is remarkably constant across galaxies with stellar masses ranging at least from M* = 2 × 10 9 to 6 × 10 10 M ☉ . This leads us to propose that star formation is initiated when extragalactic infall roughly doubles the mass of marginally stable interstellar clouds. The processes described may also account quantitatively for the metallicity of extragalactic space, though to check this the fraction of extragalactic baryons will need to be more firmly established

  16. ORIGIN OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY-STAR FORMATION RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwit, Martin; Brisbin, Drew, E-mail: harwit@verizon.net [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We describe an equilibrium model that links the metallicity of low-redshift galaxies to stellar evolution models. It enables the testing of different stellar initial mass functions and metal yields against observed galaxy metallicities. We show that the metallicities of more than 80,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in the low-redshift range 0.07 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 considerably constrain stellar evolution models that simultaneously relate galaxy stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rates to the infall rate of low-metallicity extragalactic gas and outflow of enriched matter. A feature of our model is that it encompasses both the active star forming phases of a galaxy and epochs during which the same galaxy may lie fallow. We show that the galaxy mass-metallicity-star formation relation can be traced to infall of extragalactic gas mixing with native gas from host galaxies to form stars of observed metallicities, the most massive of which eject oxygen into extragalactic space. Most consequential among our findings is that, on average, extragalactic infall accounts for one half of the gas required for star formation, a ratio that is remarkably constant across galaxies with stellar masses ranging at least from M* = 2 × 10{sup 9} to 6 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. This leads us to propose that star formation is initiated when extragalactic infall roughly doubles the mass of marginally stable interstellar clouds. The processes described may also account quantitatively for the metallicity of extragalactic space, though to check this the fraction of extragalactic baryons will need to be more firmly established.

  17. On why we need a good theory of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynden-Bell, D.

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses the relevance of the other papers in the symposium to astronomy. He considers three great areas of astronomy to which a theory of star formation is vital: I. The formation and evolution of galaxies. II. The understanding of the properties and evolution of all those fascinating objects that can be classed as nebular variables or nebular objects. III. The origin of the solar system. (Auth.)

  18. Molecular diagnostics of Galactic star-formation regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Spaans, Marco

    2007-10-01

    We propose a sensitive spectral survey of Galactic star-formation regions. Using the broadband correlator at two different frequencies, we expect to detect the (1-0) transition of CO, CN, HNC, HCN, HCO+, and HCO and various of their isotopes lines, as well as the (12-11) and (10-9) transitions of HC3N. The purpose of these observations is to create a consistent (public) database of molecular emission from galactic star-formation regions. The data will be interpreted using extensive physical and chemical modeling of the whole ensemble of lines, in order to get an accurate description of the molecular environment of these regions. In particular, this diagnostic approach will describe the optical depths, the densities, and the radiation fields in the medium and will allow the establishment of dominant temperature gradients. These observations are part of a program to study molecular emission on all scales, going from individual Galactic star-formation regions, through resolved nearby galaxies, to unresolved extra-galactic emission.

  19. Asymmetric Star Formation Efficiency Due to Ram Pressure Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Troncoso Iribarren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous works have shown that a dense cluster environment affects satellite galaxy properties and accelerates or truncates their evolutionary processes. In this work, we use the EAGLE simulation to study this effect, dissecting the galaxies in two halves: the one that is falling directly to the cluster (leading half and the one behind (trailing half. Considering all galaxies within the virial radius of the most massive groups and clusters of the simulation ( M h a l o > 10 13 . 8 [ M ⊙ ] , we find that on average the leading half presents an enhancement of the star formation rate with respect to the trailing half. We conclude that galaxies falling into the intra-cluster medium experience a boost in star-formation in their leading half due to ram pressure. Sparse observations of jellyfish galaxies have revealed visually the enhancement of the star formation in the leading half. In order to confirm this effect statistically using observations, different cases must be investigated using the simulation as a test dataset.

  20. Gravitational instability and star formation in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The gas-stars instability criterion for infinitesimally thin disc was applied to the galaxy NGC 628. Instead of using the azimuthally averaged profiles of data, the maps of the gas surface densities (THINGS, HERACLES), of the velocity dispersions of stars (VENGA) and gas (THINGS), and of the surface brightness of the galaxy (S4G) were analysed. All these maps were collected for the same region with a noticeable star formation rate and were superimposed on each other. Using the data on the rotation, curve values of Qeff were calculated for each pixel in the image. The areas within the contours Qeff 0.007 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2) and showed a good coincidence between them. The Romeo-Falstad disc instability diagnostics taking into account the thickness of the stellar and gas layers does not change the result. If the one-fluid instability criterion is used, the coincidence is worse. The analysis was carried out for the area r galaxies, the distribution of hydrogen and the regions of star formation is often patchy, the relationship between gravitational instability and star formation should be sought using data maps rather than azimuthally averaged data.

  1. Star Formation in M 33 (HerM33es)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, C.; Boquien, M.; Braine, J.; Buchbender, C.; Calzetti, D.; Gratier, P.; Mookerjea, B.; Relaño, M.; Verley, S.

    2011-11-01

    Within the key project "Herschel M 33 extended survey" (HerM33es), we are studying the physical and chemical processes driving star formation and galactic evolution in the nearby galaxy M 33, combining the study of local conditions affecting individual star formation with properties only becoming apparent on global scales. Here, we present recent results obtained by the HerM33es team. Combining Spitzer and Herschel data ranging from 3.6 μm to 500μm, along with H i, Hα, and GALEX UV data, we have studied the dust at high spatial resolutions of 150 pc, providing estimators of the total infrared (TIR) brightness and of the star formation rate. While the temperature of the warm dust at high brightness is driven by young massive stars, evolved stellar populations appear to drive the temperature of the cold dust. Plane-parallel models of photon dominated regions (PDRs) fail to reproduce fully the [C ii], [O i], and CO maps obtained in a first spectroscopic study of one 2' × 2' subregion of M 33, located on the inner, northern spiral arm and encompassing the H ii region BCLMP 302.

  2. RADIATION-DRIVEN IMPLOSION AND TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisbas, Thomas G.; Wuensch, Richard; Whitworth, Anthony P.; Walch, Stefanie; Hubber, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present simulations of initially stable isothermal clouds exposed to ionizing radiation from a discrete external source, and identify the conditions that lead to radiatively driven implosion and star formation. We use the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code SEREN and a HEALPix-based photoionization algorithm to simulate the propagation of the ionizing radiation and the resulting dynamical evolution of the cloud. We find that the incident ionizing flux, Φ LyC , is the critical parameter determining the cloud evolution. At moderate fluxes, a large fraction of the cloud mass is converted into stars. As the flux is increased, the fraction of the cloud mass that is converted into stars and the mean masses of the individual stars both decrease. Very high fluxes simply disperse the cloud. Newly formed stars tend to be concentrated along the central axis of the cloud (i.e., the axis pointing in the direction of the incident flux). For given cloud parameters, the time, t * , at which star formation starts is proportional to Φ -1/3 LyC . The pattern of star formation found in the simulations is similar to that observed in bright-rimmed clouds.

  3. Surface energy budget and turbulent fluxes at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Persson, Ola; Uttal, Taneil; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Determination of the surface energy budget (SEB) and all SEB components at the air-surface interface are required in a wide variety of applications including atmosphere-land/snow simulations and validation of the surface fluxes predicted by numerical models over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, comparisons of net surface energy budgets at two Arctic sites are made using long-term near-continuous measurements of hourly averaged surface fluxes (turbulent, radiation, and soil conduction). One site, Eureka (80.0 N; Nunavut, Canada), is located in complex topography near a fjord about 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. The other site, Tiksi (71.6 N; Russian East Siberia), is located on a relatively flat coastal plain less than 1 km from the shore of Tiksi Bay, a branch of the Arctic Ocean. We first analyzed diurnal and annual cycles of basic meteorological parameters and key SEB components at these locations. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located on different continents and at different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and SEB components are qualitatively similar. Surface energy balance closure is a formulation of the conservation of energy principle. Our direct measurements of energy balance for both Arctic sites show that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes and the ground (conductive) heat flux systematically underestimate the net radiation by about 25-30%. This lack of energy balance closure is a fundamental and pervasive problem in micrometeorology. We discuss a variety of factors which may be responsible for the lack of SEB closure. In particular, various storage terms (e.g., air column energy storage due to radiative and/or sensible heat flux divergence, ground heat storage above the soil flux plate, energy used in photosynthesis, canopy biomass heat storage). For example, our observations show that the photosynthesis storage term is relatively small (about 1-2% of the net radiation), but about 8-12% of the

  4. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Bundy, Kevin; Cappellari, Michele; Peirani, Sébastien; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew; Greene, Jenny E; Heckman, Timothy M; Drory, Niv; Law, David R; Masters, Karen L; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Rubin, Kate; Belfiore, Francesco; Vulcani, Benedetta; Chen, Yan-mei; Zhang, Kai; Gelfand, Joseph D; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Roman-Lopes, A; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-05-26

    Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the population of galaxies with masses above 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun; the number of quiescent galaxies has increased by a factor of about 25 over the past ten billion years (refs 1-4). Once star formation has been shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat the gas that is subsequently accreted from either stellar mass loss or mergers and that would otherwise cool to form stars. Energy output from a black hole accreting at a low rate has been proposed, but observational evidence for this in the form of expanding hot gas shells is indirect and limited to radio galaxies at the centres of clusters, which are too rare to explain the vast majority of the quiescent population. Here we report bisymmetric emission features co-aligned with strong ionized-gas velocity gradients from which we infer the presence of centrally driven winds in typical quiescent galaxies that host low-luminosity active nuclei. These galaxies are surprisingly common, accounting for as much as ten per cent of the quiescent population with masses around 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun. In a prototypical example, we calculate that the energy input from the galaxy's low-level active supermassive black hole is capable of driving the observed wind, which contains sufficient mechanical energy to heat ambient, cooler gas (also detected) and thereby suppress star formation.

  5. RING STAR FORMATION RATES IN BARRED AND NONBARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouchy, R. D.; Buta, R. J.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nonbarred ringed galaxies are relatively normal galaxies showing bright rings of star formation in spite of lacking a strong bar. This morphology is interesting because it is generally accepted that a typical galactic disk ring forms when material collects near a resonance, set up by the pattern speed of a bar or bar-like perturbation. Our goal in this paper is to examine whether the star formation properties of rings are related to the strength of a bar or, in the absence of a bar, to the non-axisymmetric gravity potential in general. For this purpose, we obtained Hα emission line images and calculated the line fluxes and star formation rates (SFRs) for 16 nonbarred SA galaxies and four weakly barred SAB galaxies with rings. For comparison, we combine our new observations with a re-analysis of previously published data on five SA, seven SAB, and 15 SB galaxies with rings, three of which are duplicates from our sample. With these data, we examine what role a bar may play in the star formation process in rings. Compared to barred ringed galaxies, we find that the inner ring SFRs and Hα+[N II] equivalent widths in nonbarred ringed galaxies show a similar range and trend with absolute blue magnitude, revised Hubble type, and other parameters. On the whole, the star formation properties of inner rings, excluding the distribution of H II regions, are independent of the ring shapes and the bar strength in our small samples. We confirm that the deprojected axis ratios of inner rings correlate with maximum relative gravitational force Q g ; however, if we consider all rings, a better correlation is found when a local bar forcing at the radius of the ring, Q r , is used. Individual cases are described and other correlations are discussed. By studying the physical properties of these galaxies, we hope to gain a better understanding of their placement in the scheme of the Hubble sequence and how they formed rings without the driving force of a bar.

  6. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, David E.; Ewers, Brent E.; Pendall, Elise; Frank, John; Kelly, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle ( D endroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi ( Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous disturbance spreads across the landscape. Water cycling may dramatically change due to increasing spatial heterogeneity from uneven mortality. Water and energy storage within trees and soils may also decrease, due to hydraulic failure and mortality caused by blue stain fungi followed by shifts in the water budget. This forest disturbance was unique in comparison to fire or timber harvesting because water fluxes were altered before significant structural change occurred to the canopy. We investigated the impacts of bark beetles on lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta) stand and ecosystem level hydrologic processes and the resulting vertical and horizontal spatial variability in energy storage. Bark beetle-impacted stands had on average 57 % higher soil moisture, 1.5 °C higher soil temperature, and 0.8 °C higher tree bole temperature over four growing seasons compared to unimpacted stands. Seasonal latent heat flux was highly correlated with soil moisture. Thus, high mortality levels led to an increase in ecosystem level Bowen ratio as sensible heat fluxes increased yearly and latent heat fluxes varied with soil moisture levels. Decline in canopy biomass (leaf, stem, and branch) was not seen, but ground-to-atmosphere longwave radiation flux increased, as the ground surface was a larger component of the longwave radiation. Variability in soil, latent, and sensible heat flux and radiation measurements increased during the disturbance. Accounting for stand level variability in water and energy fluxes will provide a method to quantify potential drivers of ecosystem processes and services as well as lead to greater

  7. The fate of NGC602, an intense region of star-formation in the Wing of the SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, Elena

    2017-08-01

    This is a small 2 orbit proposal designed to measure the internal dynamics of NGC602, a small region of intense star formation in the Wing of the SMC, with a low gas and dust density that has been often considered an unfavorable place for star formation. Small regions of massive star formation are important to study for our understanding of the process of star and cluster formation, the ionization of the interstellar medium, and the injection of energy and momentum into their host galaxy. By combining our new observations with archival ACS/WFC data acquired in July 2004, we will be able to measure the relative proper motions of the NGC602 sub-structures better than 2.3 km/s and investigate the nature of the apparently isolated massive stars found around NGC602. This study will provide unique observational data to characterize the early phase of cluster evolution and test cluster formation theories. It will also address significant open issues in star formation, cluster dynamics and the origin of isolated supernovae and GRBs.

  8. The interstellar medium and star formation in local galaxies: Variations of the star formation law in simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Fernando; Escala, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    We use the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo to model the interstellar medium (ISM) in isolated local disk galaxies. The simulation includes a treatment for star formation and stellar feedback. We get a highly supersonic turbulent disk, which is fragmented at multiple scales and characterized by a multi-phase ISM. We show that a Kennicutt-Schmidt relation only holds when averaging over large scales. However, values of star formation rates and gas surface densities lie close in the plot for any averaging size. This suggests an intrinsic relation between stars and gas at cell-size scales, which dominates over the global dynamical evolution. To investigate this effect, we develop a method to simulate the creation of stars based on the density field from the snapshots, without running the code again. We also investigate how the star formation law is affected by the characteristic star formation timescale, the density threshold, and the efficiency considered in the recipe. We find that the slope of the law varies from ∼1.4 for a free-fall timescale, to ∼1.0 for a constant depletion timescale. We further demonstrate that a power law is recovered just by assuming that the mass of the new stars is a fraction of the mass of the cell m * = ερ gas Δx 3 , with no other physical criteria required. We show that both efficiency and density threshold do not affect the slope, but the right combination of them can adjust the normalization of the relation, which in turn could explain a possible bi-modality in the law.

  9. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  10. STAR FORMATION SUPPRESSION DUE TO JET FEEDBACK IN RADIO GALAXIES WITH SHOCKED WARM MOLECULAR GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Ogle, Patrick M.; Appleton, Philip N.; Alatalo, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We present Herschel observations of 22 radio galaxies, selected for the presence of shocked, warm molecular hydrogen emission. We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions in 33 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared to investigate the impact of jet feedback on star formation activity. These galaxies are massive, early-type galaxies with normal gas-to-dust ratios, covering a range of optical and infrared colors. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) is suppressed by a factor of ∼3–6, depending on how molecular gas mass is estimated. We suggest that this suppression is due to the shocks driven by the radio jets injecting turbulence into the interstellar medium (ISM), which also powers the luminous warm H 2 line emission. Approximately 25% of the sample shows suppression by more than a factor of 10. However, the degree of SFR suppression does not correlate with indicators of jet feedback including jet power, diffuse X-ray emission, or intensity of warm molecular H 2 emission, suggesting that while injected turbulence likely impacts star formation, the process is not purely parameterized by the amount of mechanical energy dissipated into the ISM. Radio galaxies with shocked warm molecular gas cover a wide range in SFR–stellar mass space, indicating that these galaxies are in a variety of evolutionary states, from actively star-forming and gas-rich to quiescent and gas-poor. SFR suppression appears to have the largest impact on the evolution of galaxies that are moderately gas-rich.

  11. The Role of Stellar Feedback on the Structure of the ISM and Star Formation in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisdale, Kearn Michael

    2017-08-01

    Stellar feedback refers to the injection of energy, momentum and mass into the interstellar medium (ISM) by massive stars. This feedback owes to a combination of ionising radiation, radiation pressure, stellar winds and supernovae and is likely responsible both for the inefficiency of star formation in galaxies, and the observed super-sonic turbulence of the ISM. In this thesis, I study how stellar feedback shapes the ISM thereby regulating galaxy evolution. In particular, I focus on three key questions: (i) How does stellar feedback shape the gas density distribution of the ISM? (ii) How does feedback change or influence the distribution of the kinetic energy in the ISM? and (iii) What role does feedback play in determining the star formation efficiency of giant molecular clouds (GMCs)? To answer these questions, I run high resolution (Deltax 4.6 pc) numerical simulations of three isolated galaxies, both with and without stellar feedback. I compare these simulations to observations of six galaxies from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) using power spectra, and I use clump finding techniques to identify GMCs in my simulations and calculate their properties. I find that the kinetic energy power spectra in stellar feedback- regulated galaxies, regardless of the galaxy's mass and size, show scalings in excellent agreement with supersonic turbulence on scales below the thickness of the HI layer. I show that feedback influences the gas density field, and drives gas turbulence, up to large (kiloparsec) scales. This is in stark contrast to the density fields generated by large-scale gravity-only driven turbulence (i.e. without stellar feedback). Simulations with stellar feedback are able to reproduce the internal properties of GMCs such as: mass, size and velocity dispersion. Finally, I demonstrate that my simulations naturally reproduce the observed scatter (3.5-4 dex) in the star formation efficiency per free-fall time of GMCs, despite only employing a simple Schmidt

  12. Dynamic energy budget approach to evaluate antibiotic effects on biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnir, Bjorn; Carpio, Ana; Cebrián, Elena; Vidal, Perfecto

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the action of antibiotics on biofilms is essential to devise therapies against chronic infections. Biofilms are bacterial communities attached to moist surfaces, sheltered from external aggressions by a polymeric matrix. Coupling a dynamic energy budget based description of cell metabolism to surrounding concentration fields, we are able to approximate survival curves measured for different antibiotics. We reproduce numerically stratified distributions of cell types within the biofilm and introduce ways to incorporate different resistance mechanisms. Qualitative predictions follow that are in agreement with experimental observations, such as higher survival rates of cells close to the substratum when employing antibiotics targeting active cells or enhanced polymer production when antibiotics are administered. The current computational model enables validation and hypothesis testing when developing therapies.

  13. The Star Formation Histories of Disk Galaxies: The Live, the Dead, and the Undead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oemler, Augustus Jr; Dressler, Alan [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); Abramson, Louis E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles CA 90095-1547 (United States); Gladders, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Poggianti, Bianca M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Vulcani, Benedetta [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2017-07-20

    We reexamine the properties of local galaxy populations using published surveys of star formation, structure, and gas content. After recalibrating star formation measures, we are able to reliably measure specific star formation rates well below that of the so-called “main sequence” of star formation versus mass. We find an unexpectedly large population of quiescent galaxies with star formation rates intermediate between the main sequence and passive populations and with disproportionately high star formation rates. We demonstrate that a tight main sequence is a natural outcome of most histories of star formation and has little astrophysical significance but that the quiescent population requires additional astrophysics to explain its properties. Using a simple model for disk evolution based on the observed dependence of star formation on gas content in local galaxies, and assuming simple histories of cold gas inflow, we show that the evolution of galaxies away from the main sequence can be attributed to the depletion of gas due to star formation after a cutoff of gas inflow. The quiescent population is composed of galaxies in which the density of disk gas has fallen below a threshold for star formation probably set by disk stability. The evolution of galaxies beyond the quiescent state to gas exhaustion and the end of star formation requires another process, probably wind-driven mass loss. The environmental dependence of the three galaxy populations is consistent with recent numerical modeling, which indicates that cold gas inflows into galaxies are truncated at earlier epochs in denser environments.

  14. Comparative energetics of the 5 fish classes on the basis of dynamic energy budgets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Lika, K.

    2014-01-01

    The eco-physiology of taxa in an evolutionary context can best be studied by a comparison of parameter values of the energy budget that accounts for the inter-relationships of all endpoints of energy allocation. To this end, the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model have been

  15. ACCRETION-INHIBITED STAR FORMATION IN THE WARM MOLECULAR DISK OF THE GREEN-VALLEY ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 3226?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P. N.; Bitsakis, T.; Alatalo, K.; Mundell, C.; Lacy, M.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Duc, P.-A.; Lisenfeld, U.; Ogle, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present archival Spitzer photometry and spectroscopy and Herschel photometry of the peculiar ''Green Valley'' elliptical galaxy NGC 3226. The galaxy, which contains a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN), forms a pair with NGC 3227 and is shown to lie in a complex web of stellar and H I filaments. Imaging at 8 and 16 μm reveals a curved plume structure 3 kpc in extent, embedded within the core of the galaxy and coincident with the termination of a 30 kpc long H I tail. In situ star formation associated with the infrared (IR) plume is identified from narrowband Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging. The end of the IR plume coincides with a warm molecular hydrogen disk and dusty ring containing 0.7-1.1 × 10 7 M ☉ detected within the central kiloparsec. Sensitive upper limits to the detection of cold molecular gas may indicate that a large fraction of the H 2 is in a warm state. Photometry derived from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-IR shows evidence for a low star-formation rate of ∼0.04 M ☉ yr –1 averaged over the last 100 Myr. A mid-IR component to the spectral energy distribution (SED) contributes ∼20% of the IR luminosity of the galaxy, and is consistent with emission associated with the AGN. The current measured star formation rate is insufficient to explain NGC 3226's global UV-optical ''green'' colors via the resurgence of star formation in a ''red and dead'' galaxy. This form of ''cold accretion'' from a tidal stream would appear to be an inefficient way to rejuvenate early-type galaxies and may actually inhibit star formation

  16. Energy budget for the cultured, zooxanthellate octocoral Sinularia flexibilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Mohammad K; Beeftink, H H; Wijffels, R H

    2011-12-01

    The zooxanthellate octocoral Sinularia flexibilis is a producer of potential pharmaceutically important metabolites such as antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. Controlled rearing of the coral, as an alternative for commercial exploitation of these compounds, requires the study of species-specific growth requirements. In this study, phototrophic vs. heterotrophic daily energy demands of S. flexibilis was investigated through light and Artemia feeding trials in the laboratory. Rate of photosynthetic oxygen by zooxanthellae in light (≈200 μmol quanta m⁻² s⁻¹) was measured for the coral colonies with and without feeding on Artemia nauplii. Respiratory oxygen was measured in the dark, again with and without Artemia nauplii. Photosynthesis-irradiance curve at light intensities of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μmol quanta m⁻² s⁻¹ showed an increase in photosynthetic oxygen production up to a light intensity between 100 and 200 μmol quanta m⁻² s⁻¹. The photosynthesis to respiration ratio (P/R > 1) confirmed phototrophy of S. flexibilis. Both fed and non-fed colonies in the light showed high carbon contribution by zooxanthellae to animal (host) respiration values of 111-127%. Carbon energy equivalents allocated to the coral growth averaged 6-12% of total photosynthesis energy (mg C g⁻¹ buoyant weight day⁻¹ and about 0.02% of the total daily radiant energy. "Light utilization efficiency (ε)" estimated an average ε value of 75% 12 h⁻¹ for coral practical energetics. This study shows that besides a fundamental role of phototrophy vs. heterotrophy in daily energy budget of S. flexibilis, an efficient fraction of irradiance is converted to useable energy.

  17. Star Formation Activity in the Galactic H II Region Sh2-297

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm-3 and 9.15 × 105 cm-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~7farcm5 × 7farcm5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H - K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~0.1-2 M ⊙ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V-I) and NIR (J/J-H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ~1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  18. NGC 1266 As a local candidate for rapid cessation of star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Graves, Genevieve; Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, Hearst Field Annex, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nyland, Kristina; Young, Lisa M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Deustua, Susana [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Griffin, Kristen Shapiro [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Duc, Pierre-Alain; Bournaud, Frédéric [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L. [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); McDermid, Richard M. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Davis, Timothy A. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Street 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Crocker, Alison F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Scott, Nicholas [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); Cales, Sabrina L. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Bois, Maxime [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA and CNRS, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2014-01-10

    We present new Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae (SAURON) integral-field spectroscopy and Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) observations of molecular outflow host galaxy NGC 1266 that indicate NGC 1266 has experienced a rapid cessation of star formation. Both the SAURON maps of stellar population age and the Swift UVOT observations demonstrate the presence of young (<1 Gyr) stellar populations within the central 1 kpc, while existing Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy CO(1-0) maps indicate that the sites of current star formation are constrained to only the inner few hundred parsecs of the galaxy. The optical spectrum of NGC 1266 from Moustakas and Kennicutt reveal a characteristic poststarburst (K+A) stellar population, and Davis et al. confirm that ionized gas emission in the system originate from a shock. Galaxies with K+A spectra and shock-like ionized gas line ratios may comprise an important, overlooked segment of the poststarburst population, containing exactly those objects in which the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is actively expelling the star-forming material. While AGN activity is not the likely driver of the poststarburst event that occurred 500 Myr ago, the faint spiral structure seen in the Hubble Space Telescope Wide-field Camera 3 Y-, J- and H-band imaging seems to point to the possibility of gravitational torques being the culprit. If the molecular gas were driven into the center at the same time as the larger scale galaxy disk underwent quenching, the AGN might be able to sustain the presence of molecular gas for ≳ 1 Gyr by cyclically injecting turbulent energy into the dense molecular gas via a radio jet, inhibiting star formation.

  19. DENSE GAS FRACTION AND STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY VARIATIONS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigiel, F. [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, A. K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Street, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Blitz, L. [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Da Cunha, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rosolowsky, E. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Sandstrom, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Usero, A., E-mail: bigiel@uni-heidelberg.de [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Alfonso XII 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-20

    We use the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) millimeter interferometer to map the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39), tracing the bulk of the molecular gas via the {sup 12}CO(1–0) line and denser molecular gas via the high density transitions HCN(1–0), HCO{sup +}(1–0), CS(2–1), and HNC(1–0). We detect bright emission from all tracers in both the two nuclei and three locales in the overlap region between the two nuclei. These three overlap region peaks correspond to previously identified “supergiant molecular clouds.” We combine the CARMA data with Herschel infrared (IR) data to compare observational indicators of the star formation efficiency (star formation rate/H{sub 2} ∝ IR/CO), dense gas fraction (HCN/CO), and dense gas star formation efficiency (IR/HCN). Regions within the Antennae show ratios consistent with those seen for entire galaxies, but these ratios vary by up to a factor of six within the galaxy. The five detected regions vary strongly in both their integrated intensities and these ratios. The northern nucleus is the brightest region in millimeter-wave line emission, while the overlap region is the brightest part of the system in the IR. We combine the CARMA and Herschel data with ALMA CO data to report line ratio patterns for each bright point. CO shows a declining spectral line energy distribution, consistent with previous studies. HCO{sup +} (1–0) emission is stronger than HCN (1–0) emission, perhaps indicating either more gas at moderate densities or higher optical depth than is commonly seen in more advanced mergers.

  20. The AGN-Star Formation Connection: Future Prospects with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Barro, Guillermo; Bonato, Matteo; Kocevski, Dale D.; Pérez-González, Pablo; Rieke, George H.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucia; Sajina, Anna; Grogin, Norman A.; Mantha, Kameswara Bharadwaj; Pandya, Viraj; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Santini, Paola

    2017-11-01

    The bulk of the stellar growth over cosmic time is dominated by IR-luminous galaxies at cosmic noon (z=1{--}2), many of which harbor a hidden active galactic nucleus (AGN). We use state-of-the-art infrared color diagnostics, combining Spitzer and Herschel observations, to separate dust-obscured AGNs from dusty star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the CANDELS and COSMOS surveys. We calculate 24 μm counts of SFGs, AGN/star-forming “Composites,” and AGNs. AGNs and Composites dominate the counts above 0.8 mJy at 24 μm, and Composites form at least 25% of an IR sample even to faint detection limits. We develop methods to use the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on JWST to identify dust-obscured AGNs and Composite galaxies from z˜ 1{--}2. With the sensitivity and spacing of MIRI filters, we will detect >4 times as many AGN hosts as with Spitzer/IRAC criteria. Any star formation rates based on the 7.7 μm PAH feature (likely to be applied to MIRI photometry) must be corrected for the contribution of the AGN, or the star formation rate will be overestimated by ˜35% for cases where the AGN provides half the IR luminosity and ˜50% when the AGN accounts for 90% of the luminosity. Finally, we demonstrate that our MIRI color technique can select AGNs with an Eddington ratio of {λ }{Edd}˜ 0.01 and will identify AGN hosts with a higher specific star formation rate than X-ray techniques alone. JWST/MIRI will enable critical steps forward in identifying and understanding dust-obscured AGNs and the link to their host galaxies.

  1. Molecular cloud-scale star formation in NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faesi, Christopher M.; Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bouy, Hervé [Centro de Astrobiología, (INTA-CSIC), Departamento de Astrofísica, POB 78, ESAC Campus, 28691 Villanueva dela Cañada (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a galaxy-wide study of molecular gas and star formation in a sample of 76 H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300. We have measured the molecular gas at 250 pc scales using pointed CO(J = 2-1) observations with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. We detect CO in 42 of our targets, deriving molecular gas masses ranging from our sensitivity limit of ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} to 7 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. We find a clear decline in the CO detection rate with galactocentric distance, which we attribute primarily to the decreasing radial metallicity gradient in NGC 300. We combine Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet, Spitzer 24 μm, and Hα narrowband imaging to measure the star formation activity in our sample. We have developed a new direct modeling approach for computing star formation rates (SFRs) that utilizes these data and population synthesis models to derive the masses and ages of the young stellar clusters associated with each of our H II region targets. We find a characteristic gas depletion time of 230 Myr at 250 pc scales in NGC 300, more similar to the results obtained for Milky Way giant molecular clouds than the longer (>2 Gyr) global depletion times derived for entire galaxies and kiloparsec-sized regions within them. This difference is partially due to the fact that our study accounts for only the gas and stars within the youngest star-forming regions. We also note a large scatter in the NGC 300 SFR-molecular gas mass scaling relation that is furthermore consistent with the Milky Way cloud results. This scatter likely represents real differences in giant molecular cloud physical properties such as the dense gas fraction.

  2. STAR FORMATION LAWS: THE EFFECTS OF GAS CLOUD SAMPLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetti, D.; Liu, G.; Koda, J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent observational results indicate that the functional shape of the spatially resolved star formation-molecular gas density relation depends on the spatial scale considered. These results may indicate a fundamental role of sampling effects on scales that are typically only a few times larger than those of the largest molecular clouds. To investigate the impact of this effect, we construct simple models for the distribution of molecular clouds in a typical star-forming spiral galaxy and, assuming a power-law relation between star formation rate (SFR) and cloud mass, explore a range of input parameters. We confirm that the slope and the scatter of the simulated SFR-molecular gas surface density relation depend on the size of the sub-galactic region considered, due to stochastic sampling of the molecular cloud mass function, and the effect is larger for steeper relations between SFR and molecular gas. There is a general trend for all slope values to tend to ∼unity for region sizes larger than 1-2 kpc, irrespective of the input SFR-cloud relation. The region size of 1-2 kpc corresponds to the area where the cloud mass function becomes fully sampled. We quantify the effects of selection biases in data tracing the SFR, either as thresholds (i.e., clouds smaller than a given mass value do not form stars) or as backgrounds (e.g., diffuse emission unrelated to current star formation is counted toward the SFR). Apparently discordant observational results are brought into agreement via this simple model, and the comparison of our simulations with data for a few galaxies supports a steep (>1) power-law index between SFR and molecular gas.

  3. Induced massive star formation in the trifid nebula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernicharo; Lefloch; Cox; Cesarsky; Esteban; Yusef-Zadeh; Mendez; Acosta-Pulido; Garcia Lopez RJ; Heras

    1998-10-16

    The Trifid nebula is a young (10(5) years) galactic HII region where several protostellar sources have been detected with the infrared space observatory. The sources are massive (17 to 60 solar masses) and are associated with molecular gas condensations at the edges or inside the nebula. They appear to be in an early evolutionary stage and may represent the most recent generation of stars in the Trifid. These sources range from dense, apparently still inactive cores to more evolved sources, undergoing violent mass ejection episodes, including a source that powers an optical jet. These observations suggest that the protostellar sources may have evolved by induced star formation in the Trifid nebula.

  4. Star Formation History of Dwarf Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nagamine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the past and current work on the star formation (SF histories of dwarf galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The results obtained from different numerical methods are still somewhat mixed, but the differences are understandable if we consider the numerical and resolution effects. It remains a challenge to simulate the episodic nature of SF history in dwarf galaxies at late times within the cosmological context of a cold dark matter model. More work is needed to solve the mysteries of SF history of dwarf galaxies employing large-scale hydrodynamic simulations on the next generation of supercomputers.

  5. Near infrared photometry of violent star formation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnick, J.; Terlevich, R.; Moles, M.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared broad band photometry and CO indices for a significant number of Violent Star Formation Regions are presented. The existence of a narrow correlation between W (Hβ) and IR colour is confirmed. The interpretation of this relation as an age sequence implies a correlation between CO index and W(Hβ) which is not found. It is argued however that this failure is most likely a consequence of using narrow band filters to determine CO indices in objects with strong emission-line spectra. (author)

  6. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ˜350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ˜0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel

  7. Synthesis of molecules in interstellar clouds and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, K.K.; Ghosh, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Study of the formation and destruction processes of interstellar molecules may throw certain light on interstellar medium. Formation and destruction processes of some interstellar molecules are proposed on the basis of laboratory data. The abundances of these molecules are calculated under steady-state condition. The calculated values are then compared with the observed values, obtained by different investigators. It appears that gas phase ion-neutral reactions are capable of synthesizing most interstellar molecules. The role of ion-neutral reactions to star formation has also been discussed. (author)

  8. Star-formation functions and the genetics of pulsar origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, O.K.; Kasumov, F.K.; Yusifov, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The star-formation function and the genetics of pulsar origin are discussed. It is shown that the progenitors of pulsars are main-sequence stars with masses of >5M/sub sun/ for almost all the kinds of initial mass functions discussed in the literature. Pulsars are genetically connected with supernova outbursts (mainly of type II). The probability of pulsar formation as a result of ''quiet collapse'' is extremely low. Thus, the hypothesis that pulsars are formed from objects of the extreme planar component of the Galaxy is confirmed on more complete and statistically uniform material

  9. Surveying Low-Mass Star Formation with the Submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Large astronomical surveys yield important statistical information that can’t be derived from single-object and small-number surveys. In this talk I will review two recent surveys in low-mass star formation undertaken by the Submillimeter Array (SMA): a millimeter continuum survey of disks surrounding variably accreting young stars, and a complete continuum and molecular line survey of all protostars in the nearby Perseus Molecular Cloud. I will highlight several new insights into the processes by which low-mass stars gain their mass that have resulted from the statistical power of these surveys.

  10. Black Hole growth and star formation activity in the CDFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, Marcella; Fiore, Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    We present a study of the properties of obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) detected in the CDFS 1Ms observation and their host galaxies. We limited the analysis to the MUSIC area, for which deep K-band observations obtained with ISAACatVLT are available, ensuring accurate identifications of the counterparts of the X-ray sources as well as reliable determination of photometric redshifts and galaxy parameters, such as stellar masses and star formation rates. Among other findings, we found that the X-ray selected AGN fraction increases with the stellar mass up to a value of 30% at z>1 and M*>3×1011 M.

  11. Planck 2013 results. XXX. Cosmic infrared background measurements and implications for star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Blagrave, K.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    We present new measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto- and cross-frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are about 2240 and 4400 deg2, respectively. After careful removal of the contaminants (cosmic microwave background anisotropies, Galactic dust, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission), and a complete study of systematics, the CIB power spectrum is measured with unprecedented signal to noise ratio from angular multipoles ℓ ~ 150 to 2500. The bispectrum due to the clustering of dusty, star-forming galaxies is measured from ℓ ~ 130 to 1100, with a total signal to noise ratio of around 6, 19, and 29 at 217, 353, and 545 GHz, respectively. Two approaches are developed for modelling CIB power spectrum anisotropies. The first approach takes advantage of the unique measurements by Planck at large angular scales, and models only the linear part of the power spectrum, with a mean bias of dark matter haloes hosting dusty galaxies at a given redshift weighted by their contribution to the emissivities. The second approach is based on a model that associates star-forming galaxies with dark matter haloes and their subhaloes, using a parametrized relation between the dust-processed infrared luminosity and (sub-)halo mass. The two approaches simultaneously fit all auto- and cross-power spectra very well. We find that the star formation history is well constrained up to redshifts around 2, and agrees with recent estimates of the obscured star-formation density using Spitzer and Herschel. However, at higher redshift, the accuracy of the star formation history measurement is strongly degraded by the uncertainty in the spectral energy distribution of CIB galaxies. We also find that the mean halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation is log (Meff/M⊙) = 12

  12. Kinetic energy budget for electroconvective flows near ion selective membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Karen; Mani, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Electroconvection occurs when ions are driven from a bulk fluid through an ion-selective surface. When the driving voltage is beyond a threshold, this process undergoes a hydrodynamic instability called electroconvection, which can become chaotic due to nonlinear coupling between ion-transport, fluid flow, and electrostatic forces. Electroconvection significantly enhances ion transport and plays an important role in a wide range of electrochemical applications. We investigate this phenomenon by considering a canonical geometry consisting of a symmetric binary electrolyte between an ion-selective membrane and a reservoir using 2D direct numerical simulation (DNS). Our simulations reveal that for most practical regimes, DNS of electroconvection is expensive. Thus, a plan towards development of reduced-order models is necessary to facilitate the adoption of analysis of this phenomenon in industry. Here we use DNS to analyze the kinetic energy budget to shed light into the mechanisms sustaining flow and mixing in electroconvective flows. Our analysis reveals the relative dominance of kinetic energy sources, dissipation, and transport mechanisms sustaining electroconvection at different distances from the interface and over a wide range of input parameters. Karen Wang was supported by the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG). Ali Mani was supported by the National Science Foundation Award.

  13. Physiological performance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa (L.): from Static to Dynamic Energy Budgets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    v.d. Veer, H.; Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Peck, M.A.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, various body size scaling relationships describing the physiological performance of plaice Pleuronectes platessa (L.) were derived using a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model and compared with allometric relationships derived from a static energy budget (SEB) model. Results

  14. ON THE ESTIMATION OF RANDOM UNCERTAINTIES OF STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon Company, Tucson, AZ, 85734 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    The standard technique for measurement of random uncertainties of star formation histories (SFHs) is the bootstrap Monte Carlo, in which the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) is repeatedly resampled. The variation in SFHs measured from the resampled CMDs is assumed to represent the random uncertainty in the SFH measured from the original data. However, this technique systematically and significantly underestimates the uncertainties for times in which the measured star formation rate is low or zero, leading to overly (and incorrectly) high confidence in that measurement. This study proposes an alternative technique, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), which samples the probability distribution of the parameters used in the original solution to directly estimate confidence intervals. While the most commonly used MCMC algorithms are incapable of adequately sampling a probability distribution that can involve thousands of highly correlated dimensions, the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm is shown to be extremely effective and efficient for this particular task. Several implementation details, such as the handling of implicit priors created by parameterization of the SFH, are discussed in detail.

  15. Stellar signatures of AGN-jet-triggered star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Bryan, Sarah; Gaibler, Volker; Haas, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    To investigate feedback between relativistic jets emanating from active galactic nuclei and the stellar population of the host galaxy, we analyze the long-term evolution of the orbits of the stars formed in the galaxy-scale simulations by Gaibler et al. of jets in massive, gas-rich galaxies at z ∼ 2-3. We find strong, jet-induced differences in the resulting stellar populations of galaxies that host relativistic jets and galaxies that do not, including correlations in stellar locations, velocities, and ages. Jets are found to generate distributions of increased radial and vertical velocities that persist long enough to effectively augment the stellar structure of the host. The jets cause the formation of bow shocks that move out through the disk, generating rings of star formation within the disk. The bow shock often accelerates pockets of gas in which stars form, yielding populations of stars with significant radial and vertical velocities, some of which have large enough velocities to escape the galaxy. These stellar population signatures can serve to identify past jet activity as well as jet-induced star formation.

  16. ON THE ESTIMATION OF RANDOM UNCERTAINTIES OF STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    The standard technique for measurement of random uncertainties of star formation histories (SFHs) is the bootstrap Monte Carlo, in which the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) is repeatedly resampled. The variation in SFHs measured from the resampled CMDs is assumed to represent the random uncertainty in the SFH measured from the original data. However, this technique systematically and significantly underestimates the uncertainties for times in which the measured star formation rate is low or zero, leading to overly (and incorrectly) high confidence in that measurement. This study proposes an alternative technique, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), which samples the probability distribution of the parameters used in the original solution to directly estimate confidence intervals. While the most commonly used MCMC algorithms are incapable of adequately sampling a probability distribution that can involve thousands of highly correlated dimensions, the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm is shown to be extremely effective and efficient for this particular task. Several implementation details, such as the handling of implicit priors created by parameterization of the SFH, are discussed in detail

  17. Measuring the Star Formation History Of Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    We propopse to apply the technique of color-magnitude diagram {CMD} fitting to archival HST/ACS and WFC3 imaging of Omega Centauri in order to measure its star formation history {SFH}. As the remnant of a captured satellite galaxy, the SFH of Omega Cen will provide key insights into its formation and evolution before and after its incorporation into the Milky Way. The derivation of SFHs from CMD analysis has been well-established in the Local Group and nearby galaxies, but has never been applied within our Galaxy. Archival HST imaging of Omega Cen provides for exquisitely deep CMDs with broad wavelength coverage {near-UV through I-band}, which allows for clear separation of age-sensitive CMD features, and can be leveraged to highly constrain its star formation rate as a function of time. In addition, the CMD fitting technique also allows us to test for consistency in recovered SFHs using different stellar models, and quantitatively tie the UV characteristics of ancient stellar populations to a SFH.

  18. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  19. Bimodal star formation - constraints from galaxy colors at high redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, R.F.G.; Silk, J.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that at early epochs the light from elliptical galaxies is dominated by stars with an initial mass function (IMF) which is deficient in low-mass stars, relative to the solar neighborhood is investigated. V-R colors for the optical counterparts of 3CR radio sources offer the most severe constraints on the models. Reasonable fits are obtained to both the blue, high-redshift colors and the redder, low-redshift colors with a model galaxy which forms with initially equal star formation rates in each of two IMF modes: one lacking low-mass stars, and one with stars of all masses. The net effect is that the time-integrated IMF has twice as many high-mass stars as the solar neighborhood IMF, relative to low mass stars. A conventional solar neighborhood IMF does not simultaneously account for both the range in colors at high redshift and the redness of nearby ellipticals, with any single star formation epoch. Models with a standard IMF require half the stellar population to be formed in a burst at low redshift z of about 1. 38 references

  20. TURBULENCE AND STAR FORMATION IN A SAMPLE OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Erin; Chien, Li-Hsin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University 527 S Beaver Street, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A., E-mail: erin-maier@uiowa.edu, E-mail: Lisa.Chien@nau.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We investigate turbulent gas motions in spiral galaxies and their importance to star formation in far outer disks, where the column density is typically far below the critical value for spontaneous gravitational collapse. Following the methods of Burkhart et al. on the Small Magellanic Cloud, we use the third and fourth statistical moments, as indicators of structures caused by turbulence, to examine the neutral hydrogen (H i) column density of a sample of spiral galaxies selected from The H i Nearby Galaxy Survey. We apply the statistical moments in three different methods—the galaxy as a whole, divided into a function of radii and then into grids. We create individual grid maps of kurtosis for each galaxy. To investigate the relation between these moments and star formation, we compare these maps with their far-ultraviolet images taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite.We find that the moments are largely uniform across the galaxies, in which the variation does not appear to trace any star-forming regions. This may, however, be due to the spatial resolution of our analysis, which could potentially limit the scale of turbulent motions that we are sensitive to greater than ∼700 pc. From comparison between the moments themselves, we find that the gas motions in our sampled galaxies are largely supersonic. This analysis also shows that the Burkhart et al. methods may be applied not just to dwarf galaxies but also to normal spiral galaxies.

  1. Profiles of the stochastic star formation process in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comins, N.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of spiral arms in disc galaxies is generally attributed to the effects of spiral density waves. These relatively small (i.e. 5 per cent) non-axisymmetric perturbations of the interstellar medium cause spiral arms highlighted by O and B type stars to be created. In this paper another mechanism for spiral arm formation, the stochastic self-propagating star formation (SSPSF) process is examined. The SSPSF process combines the theory that shock waves from supernovae will compress the interstellar medium to create new stars, some of which will be massive enough to also supernova, with a disc galaxy's differential rotation to create spiral arms. The present work extends this process to the case where the probability of star formation from supernova shocks decreases with galactic radius. Where this work and previous investigations overlap (namely the uniform probability case), the agreement is very good, pretty spirals with various numbers of arms are generated. The decreasing probability cases, taken to vary as rsup(-j), still form spiral arms for 0 1.5 the spiral structure is essentially non-existent. (author)

  2. Star-formation history of very young clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    The popular idea that star formation has proceeded sequentially from lowest to highest mass members in open clusters is examined critically. For extremely young clusters, such as NGC 2264 and NGC 6530, this sequential hypothesis is a consequence of the assignment of pre-main-sequence contraction ages to all member stars. However, such ages yield a formation history which is implausible from a physical point of view, since the critical time for the onset of formation at any stellar mass is equal to the pre-main-sequence contraction time for that mass. Moreover, these ages are in conflict with the strong observational evidence that a substantial fraction of cluster members have already reached the main sequence. After reconsideration of the probable main-sequence members, the stellar ages in NGC 2264 and NGC 6530 are consistent with a variety of formation histories, and, in particular, with the view that all stellar masses form in approximately the same interval of time within a given cluster, i.e., that there is no mass-age correlation. A notion closely related to the sequential hypothesis, that the total star-formation rate increases exponentially with time, is subject to the same criticism

  3. Induced star formation and colors of binary and interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.A.; Komberg, B.V.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1980-01-01

    The colours of 208 galaxies in pairs and groups are compared (on colour-colour diagram) with those of single galaxies of the same morphological type. Different colours of galaxies in pairs and groups can be explained if one assumes that in some of them the star formation is slowed down, while in others it is speeded up. The latter is the most conspicuous in E, SO, and Ir2 galaxies when they are accompanied by brighter spirals. The relation of abundance rate to the rate of star formation in galaxies and to the activity level of their nuclei is discussed. This relation is particularly conspicuous in the galaxies of early morphological types (E, SO, Sa) and in systems of the type Ir2 where the relative abundance of gas is significantly above the normal. It is noted that such galaxies as well as galaxies with UV excess, Seyfertlike objects, emission-line galaxies and quasars - avoid regions occupied with rich clusters and frequently occur in pairs and small groups

  4. Star Formation in the Central Regions of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mengchun

    2015-08-01

    The galactic central region connects the galactic nucleus to the host galaxy. If the central black hole co-evolved with the host galaxies, there should be some evidence left in the central region. We use the environmental properties in the central regions such as star-forming activity, stellar population and molecular abundance to figure out a possible scenario of the evolution of galaxies. In this thesis at first we investigated the properties of the central regions in the host galaxies of active and normal galaxies. We used radio emission around the nuclei of the host galaxies to represent activity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and used infrared ray (IR) emission to represent the star-forming activity and stellar population of the host galaxies. We determined that active galaxies have higher stellar masses (SMs) within the central kiloparsec radius than normal galaxies do independent of the Hubble types of the host galaxies; but both active and normal galaxies exhibit similar specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We also discovered that certain AGNs exhibit substantial inner stellar structures in the IR images; most of the AGNs with inner structures are Seyferts, whereas only a few LINERs exhibit inner structures. We note that the AGNs with inner structures show a positive correlation between the radio activity of the AGNs and the SFRs of the host galaxies, but the sources without inner structures show a negative correlation between the radio power and the SFRs. These results might be explained with a scenario of starburst-AGN evolution. In this scenario, AGN activities are triggered following a nuclear starburst; during the evolution, AGN activities are accompanied by SF activity in the inner regions of the host galaxies; at the final stage of the evolution, the AGNs might transform into LINERs, exhibiting weak SF activity in the central regions of the host galaxies. For further investigation about the inner structure, we choose the most nearby and luminous

  5. Star formation and mass assembly in high redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Fiore, F.; Fontanot, F.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Cristiani, S.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Nonino, M.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Vanzella, E.

    2009-09-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to infer the star formation properties and the mass assembly process of high redshift (0.3 ≤ z MUSIC catalog, which has multiwavelength coverage from 0.3 to 24 μm and either spectroscopic or accurate photometric redshifts. We describe how the catalog has been extended by the addition of mid-IR fluxes derived from the MIPS 24 μm image. We compared two different estimators of the star formation rate (SFR hereafter). One is the total infrared emission derived from 24 μm, estimated using both synthetic and empirical IR templates. The other one is a multiwavelength fit to the full galaxy SED, which automatically accounts for dust reddening and age-star formation activity degeneracies. For both estimates, we computed the SFR density and the specific SFR. Results: We show that the two SFR indicators are roughly consistent, once the uncertainties involved are taken into account. However, they show a systematic trend, IR-based estimates exceeding the fit-based ones as the star formation rate increases. With this new catalog, we show that: a) at z>0.3, the star formation rate is correlated well with stellar mass, and this relationship seems to steepen with redshift if one relies on IR-based estimates of the SFR; b) the contribution to the global SFRD by massive galaxies increases with redshift up to ≃ 2.5, more rapidly than for galaxies of lower mass, but appears to flatten at higher z; c) despite this increase, the most important contributors to the SFRD at any z are galaxies of about, or immediately lower than, the characteristic stellar mass; d) at z≃ 2, massive galaxies are actively star-forming, with a median {SFR} ≃ 300 M_⊙ yr-1. During this epoch, our targeted galaxies assemble a substantial part of their final stellar mass; e) the specific SFR (SSFR) shows a clear bimodal distribution. Conclusions: The analysis of the SFR density and the SSFR seems to support the downsizing scenario, according to which high mass galaxies

  6. An origin for short gamma-ray bursts unassociated with current star formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, S D; Chincarini, G; Burrows, D N; Gehrels, N; Covino, S; Moretti, A; Romano, P; O'Brien, P T; Sarazin, C L; Kouveliotou, C; Goad, M; Vaughan, S; Tagliaferri, G; Zhang, B; Antonelli, L A; Campana, S; Cummings, J R; D'Avanzo, P; Davies, M B; Giommi, P; Grupe, D; Kaneko, Y; Kennea, J A; King, A; Kobayashi, S; Melandri, A; Meszaros, P; Nousek, J A; Patel, S; Sakamoto, T; Wijers, R A M J

    2005-12-15

    Two short (gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have recently been localized and fading afterglow counterparts detected. The combination of these two results left unclear the nature of the host galaxies of the bursts, because one was a star-forming dwarf, while the other was probably an elliptical galaxy. Here we report the X-ray localization of a short burst (GRB 050724) with unusual gamma-ray and X-ray properties. The X-ray afterglow lies off the centre of an elliptical galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.258 (ref. 5), coincident with the position determined by ground-based optical and radio observations. The low level of star formation typical for elliptical galaxies makes it unlikely that the burst originated in a supernova explosion. A supernova origin was also ruled out for GRB 050709 (refs 3, 31), even though that burst took place in a galaxy with current star formation. The isotropic energy for the short bursts is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that for the long bursts. Our results therefore suggest that an alternative source of bursts--the coalescence of binary systems of neutron stars or a neutron star-black hole pair--are the progenitors of short bursts.

  7. Infra-red data of extended sources as a measure of the star formation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, J.-L.

    1985-01-01

    Molecular cloud complexes are gravitationally bound systems which contain molecular clouds, HII regions and possibly OB associations after they evaporated their parent cloud. A large fraction of the energy (50%) radiated by the O and B stars is converted into infra-red. Less massive stars still embedded in molecular clouds or still in their vicinity will also see most of their radiation absorbed by dust and reemitted in the infra-red. The two quantities the author deduces directly from the data are: the ratio of the far-infra-red luminosity due to recently formed stars to the mass of gas, as a measure of the star formation rate; and the infra-red excess (IRE): the ratio of the far-infra-red luminosity to the luminosity of HII regions in the Lyman α line, which gives information on the initial mass function. Finally he discusses the possible links between star formation and some of the relevant physical conditions in the molecular clouds: amount and temperature distribution of dust. (Auth.)

  8. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-06

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  9. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. III. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Holtzman, Jon, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001-Department 4500, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We map the spatial distribution of recent star formation over a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Myr timescales in 15 starburst dwarf galaxies using the location of young blue helium burning stars identified from optically resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope observations. By comparing the star formation histories from both the high surface brightness central regions and the diffuse outer regions, we measure the degree to which the star formation has been centrally concentrated during the galaxies' starbursts, using three different metrics for the spatial concentration. We find that the galaxies span a full range in spatial concentration, from highly centralized to broadly distributed star formation. Since most starbursts have historically been identified by relatively short timescale star formation tracers (e.g., H{alpha} emission), there could be a strong bias toward classifying only those galaxies with recent, centralized star formation as starbursts, while missing starbursts that are spatially distributed.

  10. Star formation history of the galaxy merger Mrk848 with SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang-Ting; Shen, Shiyin; Hao, Lei; Fernandez, Maria Argudo

    2017-03-01

    With the 3D data of SDSS-IV MaNGA (Bundy et al. 2015) spectra and multi-wavelength SED modeling, we expect to have a better understanding of the distribution of dust, gas and star formation of galaxy mergers. For a case study of the merging galaxy Mrk848, we use both UV-to-IR broadband SED and the MaNGA integral field spectroscopy to obtain its star formation histories at the tail and core regions. From the SED fitting and full spectral fitting, we find that the star formation in the tail regions are affected by the interaction earlier than the core regions. The core regions show apparently two times of star formation and a strong burst within 500Myr, indicating the recent star formation is triggered by the interaction. The star formation histories derived from these two methods are basically consistent.

  11. STAR FORMATION IN PARTIALLY GAS-DEPLETED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, James A.; Miner, Jesse; Levy, Lorenza; Robertson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Broadband B and R and Hα images have been obtained with the 4.1 m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon, Chile, for 29 spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I galaxy cluster and for 18 spirals in non-cluster environments. Pegasus I is a spiral-rich cluster with a low-density intracluster medium and a low galaxy velocity dispersion. When combined with neutral hydrogen (H I) data obtained with the Arecibo 305 m radio telescope, acquired by Levy et al. (2007) and by Springob et al. (2005b), we study the star formation rates in disk galaxies as a function of their H I deficiency. To quantify H I deficiency, we use the usual logarithmic deficiency parameter, DEF. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) is quantified by the logarithmic flux ratio of Hα flux to R-band flux, and thus roughly characterizes the logarithmic SFR per unit stellar mass. We find a clear correlation between the global SFR per unit stellar mass and DEF, such that the SFR is lower in more H I-deficient galaxies. This correlation appears to extend from the most gas-rich to the most gas-poor galaxies. We also find a correlation between the central SFR per unit mass relative to the global values, in the sense that the more H I-deficient galaxies have a higher central SFR per unit mass relative to their global SFR values than do gas-rich galaxies. In fact, approximately half of the H I-depleted galaxies have highly elevated SSFRs in their central regions, indicative of a transient evolutionary state. In addition, we find a correlation between gas depletion and the size of the Hα disk (relative to the R-band disk); H I-poor galaxies have truncated disks. Moreover, aside from the elevated central SSFR in many gas-poor spirals, the SSFR is otherwise lower in the Hα disks of gas-poor galaxies than in gas-rich spirals. Thus, both disk truncation and lowered SSFR levels within the star-forming part of the disks (aside from the enhanced nuclear SSFR) correlate with H I deficiency, and both phenomena are found to

  12. Variations of comoving volume and their effects on the star formation rate density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungeun; Physics and Astronomy, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of).

    2018-01-01

    To build a comprehensive picture of star formation in the universe, we havedeveloped an application to calculate the comoving volume at a specific redshift and visualize the changes of spaceand time. The application is based on the star formation rates of about a few thousands of galaxies and their redshiftvalues. Three dimensional modeling of these galaxies using the redshift, comoving volume, and star formation ratesas input data allows calculation of the star formation rate density corresponding to the redshift. This work issupported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP)(no. 2017037333).

  13. Star formation rate in Holmberg IX dwarf galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009 to calculate star formation rate (SFR in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3:4 x 10-4M.yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  14. CALIBRATING UV STAR FORMATION RATES FOR DWARF GALAXIES FROM STARBIRDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Mitchell, Noah P. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Integrating our knowledge of star formation (SF) traced by observations at different wavelengths is essential for correctly interpreting and comparing SF activity in a variety of systems and environments. This study compares extinction corrected integrated ultraviolet (UV) emission from resolved galaxies with color–magnitude diagram (CMD) based star formation rates (SFRs) derived from resolved stellar populations and CMD fitting techniques in 19 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies. The data sets are from the panchromatic Starburst Irregular Dwarf Survey and include deep legacy GALEX UV imaging, Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, and Spitzer MIPS imaging. For the majority of the sample, the integrated near-UV fluxes predicted from the CMD-based SFRs—using four different models—agree with the measured, extinction corrected, integrated near-UV fluxes from GALEX images, but the far-UV (FUV) predicted fluxes do not. Furthermore, we find a systematic deviation between the SFRs based on integrated FUV luminosities and existing scaling relations, and the SFRs based on the resolved stellar populations. This offset is not driven by different SF timescales, variations in SFRs, UV attenuation, nor stochastic effects. This first comparison between CMD-based SFRs and an integrated FUV emission SFR indicator suggests that the most likely cause of the discrepancy is the theoretical FUV–SFR calibration from stellar evolutionary libraries and/or stellar atmospheric models. We present an empirical calibration of the FUV-based SFR relation for dwarf galaxies, with uncertainties, which is ∼53% larger than previous relations.

  15. Star Formation Studies in the SPICA/SAFARI Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Bruce; Goicoechea, Javier

    2013-07-01

    The Japanese JAXA SPICA space observatory, due for launch in 2022, will provide astronomers with a long awaited new window on the universe. Having a large cold telescope, cooled to only 6K above absolute zero, SPICA will provide a unique environment in which instruments are limited only by the cosmic background itself. A consortium of European and Canadian institutes has been established to design and implement the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument, SAFARI, an imaging FTS spectrometer designed to fully exploit this extremely low far infrared background environment provided by the SPICA observatory. With SAFARI it will be possible to obtain continuous spectra spanning 34 -\\ 210 um within an instantaneous 2'x2' field-of-view, at spectral resolutions of up to R = 2000 @ 100um (4000 @ 50um), within a single telescope pointing. This capability, coupled with the exquisite sensitivity provided by the cold SPICA telescope, makes SAFARI the ideal instrument to perform large area spectroscopic mapping surveys in the far-infrared. SPICA/SFARI will provide new insights into a range of astronomical sources. By obtaining spectra for large, statistically significant samples, we can obtain a fundamental understanding of their chemistry and physical processes, and thereby characterise and understand the nature of these sources. Moreover, with the high sensitivity of SAFARI, it will be possible to extend current far-infrared studies of star formation processes to nearby galaxies, thereby putting our current understanding in a wider, universal, context. This poster provides a description of the SAFARI instrument and its capabilities. A brief representative sample of the contribution SAFARI can make in the field of star formation studies is also given, and compared to similar observations made using the Herschel-PACS instrument.

  16. Topics in Galaxy Evolution: Early Star Formation and Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago Signorini

    In this thesis, we present three projects designed to shed light on yet unanswered questions on galaxy formation and evolution. The first two concern a sample of UV-bright starburst galaxies in the local universe (z ˜0.2). These objects are remarkably similar to star-forming galaxies that were abundant at high redshifts (2 manipulating our observations to mimic our objects at greater distances, we show how low resolution and signal-to-noise ratios can lead to erroneous conclusions, in particular when attempting to diagnose mergers as the origin of the starburst. Then, we present results from a pilot survey to study the cold, molecular gas reservoir in such objects. Again, we show that the observed properties are analogous to those observed at high redshift, in particular with respect to baryonic gas fractions in the galaxy, higher than normally found in low-extinction objects in the local universe. Furthermore, we show how gas surface density and star-formation surface density follow the same relation as local galaxies, albeit at much higher values. Finally, we discuss an observational project designed to measure the mass flux density from the blue sequence to the red sequence across the so-called green valley. We obtain the deepest spectra ever observed of green valley galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z˜0.8) in order to measure spectral features from which we can measure the star formation histories of individual galaxies. We measure a mass flux ratio that is higher than observed in the local universe, indicating the red sequence was growing faster when the universe was half its present age than today.

  17. THE RELATION BETWEEN DYNAMICS AND STAR FORMATION IN BARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze optical and near-infrared data of a sample of 11 barred spiral galaxies, in order to establish a connection between star formation and bar/spiral dynamics. We find that 22 regions located in the bars and 20 regions in the spiral arms beyond the end of the bar present azimuthal color/age gradients that may be attributed to star formation triggering. Assuming a circular motion dynamic model, we compare the observed age gradient candidates with stellar population synthesis models. A link can then be established with the disk dynamics that allows us to obtain parameters like the pattern speed of the bar or spiral as well as the positions of resonance radii. We subsequently compare the derived pattern speeds with those expected from theoretical and observational results in the literature (e.g., bars ending near corotation). We find a tendency to overestimate bar pattern speeds derived from color gradients in the bar at small radii, away from corotation; this trend can be attributed to non-circular motions of the young stars born in the bar region. In spiral regions, we find that ∼50% of the color gradient candidates are 'inverse', i.e., with the direction of stellar aging contrary to that of rotation. The other half of the gradients found in spiral arms have stellar ages that increase in the same sense as rotation. Of the nine objects with gradients in both bars and spirals, six (67%) appear to have a bar and a spiral with similar Ω p , while three (33%) do not.

  18. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY OF CORES WITHIN INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E. T.; Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Simon, R.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) contain compact cores which probably host the early stages of high-mass star formation. Many of these cores contain regions of extended, enhanced 4.5 μm emission, the so-called 'green fuzzies', which indicate shocked gas. Many cores also contain 24 μm emission, presumably from heated dust which indicates embedded protostars. Because 'green fuzzies' and 24 μm point sources both indicate star formation, we have developed an algorithm to identify star-forming cores within IRDCs by searching for the simultaneous presence of these two distinct indicators. We employ this algorithm on a sample of 190 cores found toward IRDCs, and classify the cores as 'active' if they contain a green fuzzy coincident with an embedded 24 μm source, and as 'quiescent' if they contain neither IR signature. We hypothesize that the 'quiescent' cores represent the earliest 'preprotostellar' (starless) core phase, before the development of a warm protostar, and that the 'active' cores represent a later phase, after the development of a protostar. We test this idea by comparing the sizes, densities, and maser activity of the 'active' and 'quiescent' cores. We find that, on average, 'active' cores have smaller sizes, higher densities, and more pronounced water and methanol maser activity than the 'quiescent' cores. This is expected if the 'quiescent' cores are in an earlier evolutionary state than the 'active' cores. The masses of 'active' cores suggest that they may be forming high-mass stars. The highest mass 'quiescent' cores are excellent candidates for the elusive high-mass starless cores.

  19. Current star formation in S0 galaxies: NGC 4710

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies lack the substantial interstellar medium (ISM) found in the star-forming spiral galaxies. However, significant numbers of E and S0 galaxies are known to contain detectable amounts of interstellar matter (e.g., Jura 1988). Thus, it is worth investigating whether these galaxies are currently able to form stars from their ISM, or whether they should be consigned to the dustbin of inert objects (Thronson and Bally 1987). The results strongly imply that current star formation is responsible for NGC 4710's far infrared and radio continuum properties. If this is indeed the case, then one expects this star formation to be fueled by molecular gas, which is presumably dominated by H2 and can be traced by the CO-12 J=1 to 0 line. Both Kenney and Young (1988) and Sage and Wrobel (1989) have detected such an emission line from NGC 4710, and infer the presence of more than 10(exp 8) solar mass of H2. The origin of the molecular gas in NGC 4710 remains a mystery. The galaxy is very deficient in HI (Kenney and Young, in preparation), suggesting that it originally was a spiral galaxy from which the outer, mainly atomic, gas was stripped by the ram pressure of the Virgo Cluster's intracluster medium, leaving only a central interstellar medium (ISM) rich in molecular gas. Alternatively, the CO may have originated via stellar mass loss with subsequent cooling, cooling flows, or capture from a gas-rich companion. Information on the morphology and kinematics of the CO can be compared with that of the galaxy's other gases and stars to distinguish among these various possible origins for the molecular gas. Major axis CO mapping with single dishes indicate an unresolved source. Thus, a millimeter array is currently being used to image NGC 4710 in CO to provide the needed morphological and kinematical data

  20. High-mass Star Formation and Its Initial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. P.

    2017-11-01

    In this thesis, we present four works on the infrared dark clouds, fragmentation and deuteration of compact and cold cores, hyper-compact (HC) HII regions, and infrared dust bubbles, respectively. They are not only the products of early high-mass star formation, but reflect different evolutionary sequences of high-mass star formation. (1) Using the IRAM (Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique) 30 m telescope, we obtained HCO^+, HNC, N_2^+, and C^{18}O emission in six IRDCs (infrared dark clouds), and study their dynamics, stability, temperature, and density. (2) Fragmentation at the earliest phases is an important process of massive star formation. Eight massive precluster clumps (G18.17, G18.21, G23.97N, G23.98, G23.44, G23.97S, G25.38, and G25.71) were selected from the SCUBA (submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array) 850 μm and 450 μm data. The VLA (Very Large Array) at 1.3 cm, PbBI at 3.5 mm and 1.3 mm, APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope) at 870 μm observations were followed up, and archival infrared data at 4.5 μm, 8.0 μm, 24 μm, and 70 μm were combined to study the fragmentation and evolution of these clumps. We explored the habitats of the massive clumps at large scale, cores/condensations at small scale, and the fragmentation process at different wavelengths. Star formation in these eight clumps may have been triggered by the UC (ultra-compact) HII regions nearby. (3) The formation of hyper-compact (HC) HII regions is an important stage in massive star formation. We present high angular resolution observations carried out with the SMA (Submillimeter Array) and the VLA (Very Large Array) toward the HC HII region G35.58-0.03. With the 1.3 mm SMA and 1.3 cm VLA, we detected a total of about 25 transitions of 8 different species and their isotopologues (CO, CH_3CN, SO_2, CH_3CCH, OCS, CS, H30α/38β, and NH_{3}). G35.58-0.03 consists of an HC HII core with electron temperature Te* ≥ 5500 K, emission measure EM ≈ 1.9×10^{9} pc

  1. Star Formation Histories of the LEGUS Dwarf Galaxies. II. Spatially Resolved Star Formation History of the Magellanic Irregular NGC 4449

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, E.; Cignoni, M.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Adamo, A.; Annibali, F.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Hunter, D. A.; Sabbi, E.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Ubeda, L.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2018-04-01

    We present a detailed study of the Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449 based on both archival and new photometric data from the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3. Thanks to its proximity (D = 3.82 ± 0.27 Mpc), we reach stars 3 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch in the F814W filter. The recovered star formation history (SFH) spans the whole Hubble time, but due to the age–metallicity degeneracy of the red giant branch stars, it is robust only over the lookback time reached by our photometry, i.e., ∼3 Gyr. The most recent peak of star formation (SF) is around 10 Myr ago. The average surface density SF rate over the whole galaxy lifetime is 0.01 M ⊙ yr‑1 kpc‑2. From our study, it emerges that NGC 4449 has experienced a fairly continuous SF regime in the last 1 Gyr, with peaks and dips whose SF rates differ only by a factor of a few. The very complex and disturbed morphology of NGC 4449 makes it an interesting galaxy for studies of the relationship between interactions and starbursts, and our detailed and spatially resolved analysis of its SFH does indeed provide some hints on the connection between these two phenomena in this peculiar dwarf galaxy. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. AN ACCOUNTING OF THE DUST-OBSCURED STAR FORMATION AND ACCRETION HISTORIES OVER THE LAST ∼11 BILLION YEARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E. J.; Chary, R.-R.; Dickinson, M.; Pope, A.; Frayer, D. T.; Lin, L.

    2011-01-01

    We report on an accounting of the star-formation- and accretion-driven energetics of 24 μm-detected sources in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North field. For sources having infrared (IR; 8-1000 μm) luminosities ∼>3 x 10 12 L sun when derived by fitting local spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to 24 μm photometry alone, we find these IR luminosity estimates to be a factor of ∼4 times larger than those estimated when the SED fitting includes additional 16 and 70 μm data (and in some cases mid-IR spectroscopy and 850 μm data). This discrepancy arises from the fact that high-luminosity sources at z >> 0 appear to have far- to mid-IR ratios, as well as aromatic feature equivalent widths, typical of lower luminosity galaxies in the local universe. Using our improved estimates for IR luminosity and active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributions, we investigate the evolution of the IR luminosity density versus redshift arising from star formation and AGN processes alone. We find that, within the uncertainties, the total star-formation-driven IR luminosity density is constant between 1.15 ∼ 2. AGNs appear to account for ∼ 11 L sun ≤ L IR 12 L sun ) appear to dominate the star formation rate density along with normal star-forming galaxies (L IR 11 L sun ) between 0.6 ∼ 2, the contribution from ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L IR ≥ 10 12 L sun ) becomes comparable with that of LIRGs. Using our improved IR luminosity estimates, we find existing calibrations for UV extinction corrections based on measurements of the UV spectral slope typically overcorrect UV luminosities by a factor of ∼2, on average, for our sample of 24 μm-selected sources; accordingly we have derived a new UV extinction correction more appropriate for our sample.

  3. DISCOVERY OF MASSIVE, MOSTLY STAR FORMATION QUENCHED GALAXIES WITH EXTREMELY LARGE Lyα EQUIVALENT WIDTHS AT z ∼ 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Scoville, Nick Z.; Capak, Peter L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Toft, Sune [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Ilbert, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Renzini, Alvio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kovač, Katarina [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: tani@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [MPI for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2015-08-10

    We report a discovery of six massive galaxies with both extremely large Lyα equivalent widths (EWs) and evolved stellar populations at z ∼ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lyα emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lyα emitters (LAEs) with 12 optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the spectral energy distribution fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame EWs of EW{sub 0} (Lyα) ∼ 100–300 Å, (2) M{sub ⋆} ∼ 10{sup 10.5}–10{sup 11.1} M{sub ⊙}, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M{sub ⋆} ∼ 0.03–1 Gyr{sup −1}. Three of the six MAESTLOs have extended Lyα emission with a radius of several kiloparsecs, although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for active galactic nuclei, the observed extended Lyα emission is likely to be caused by a star formation process including the superwind activity. We suggest that this new class of LAEs, MAESTLOs, provides a missing link from star-forming to passively evolving galaxies at the peak era of the cosmic star formation history.

  4. PHASE COHERENT STAR FORMATION PROCESSES IN THE DISKS OF GRAND DESIGN SPIRALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BECKMAN, JE; CEPA, J; KNAPEN, JH

    1991-01-01

    We show examples of a new technique we have devised to compare star formation efficiencies in the arms and discs of spirals. First results show striking evidence of the presence and influence of density wave systems of star formation in grand design galaxies.

  5. A New Method for Obtaining the Star Formation Law in Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiner, Jonathan S.; Allen, Ronald J.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new observational method to evaluate the exponent of the star formation law as initially formulated by Schmidt, i.e., the power-law expression assumed to relate the rate of star formation in a volume of space to the local total gas volume density present there. Total volume densities in

  6. Testing the Relation between the Local and Cosmic Star Formation Histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, there has been great progress toward observationally determining the mean star formation history of the universe. When accurately known, the cosmic star formation rate could provide much information about Galactic evolution, if the Milky Way close-quote s star formation rate is representative of the average cosmic star formation history. A simple hypothesis is that our local star formation rate is proportional to the cosmic mean. In addition, to specify a star formation history, one must also adopt an initial mass function (IMF); typically it is assumed that the IMF is a smooth function, which is constant in time. We show how to test directly the compatibility of all these assumptions by making use of the local (solar neighborhood) star formation record encoded in the present-day stellar mass function. Present data suggest that at least one of the following is false: (1) the local IMF is constant in time; (2) the local IMF is a smooth (unimodal) function; and/or (3) star formation in the Galactic disk was representative of the cosmic mean. We briefly discuss how to determine which of these assumptions fail and also improvements in observations, which will sharpen this test. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  7. A Herschel view of IC 1396 A: Unveiling the different sequences of star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Henning, Thomas; Merín, Bruno; Eiroa, Carlos; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Currie, Thayne

    Context. The IC 1396 A globule, located to the west of the young cluster Tr 37, is known to host many very young stars and protostars, and is also assumed to be a site of triggered star formation. Aims: Our aim is to test the triggering mechanisms and sequences leading to star formation in Tr 37 and

  8. Characterizing star formation activity in infrared dark cloud MSXDC G048.65-00.29

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Shipman, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    Context. Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), condensed regions of the ISM with high column densities, low temperatures and high masses, are suspected sites of star formation. Thousands of IRDCs have already been identified. To date, it has not been resolved whether IRDCs always show star formation

  9. Baseline metal enrichment from Population III star formation in cosmological volume simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Jason; Thompson, Robert; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Bromm, Volker

    2018-04-01

    We utilize the hydrodynamic and N-body code GIZMO coupled with our newly developed sub-grid Population III (Pop III) Legacy model, designed specifically for cosmological volume simulations, to study the baseline metal enrichment from Pop III star formation at z > 7. In this idealized numerical experiment, we only consider Pop III star formation. We find that our model Pop III star formation rate density (SFRD), which peaks at ˜ 10- 3 M⊙ yr- 1 Mpc- 1 near z ˜ 10, agrees well with previous numerical studies and is consistent with the observed estimates for Pop II SFRDs. The mean Pop III metallicity rises smoothly from z = 25 to 7, but does not reach the critical metallicity value, Zcrit = 10-4 Z⊙, required for the Pop III to Pop II transition in star formation mode until z ≃ 7. This suggests that, while individual haloes can suppress in situ Pop III star formation, the external enrichment is insufficient to globally terminate Pop III star formation. The maximum enrichment from Pop III star formation in star-forming dark matter haloes is Z ˜ 10-2 Z⊙, whereas the minimum found in externally enriched haloes is Z ≳ 10-7 Z⊙. Finally, mock observations of our simulated IGM enriched with Pop III metals produce equivalent widths similar to observations of an extremely metal-poor damped Lyman alpha system at z = 7.04, which is thought to be enriched by Pop III star formation only.

  10. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-05-15

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  11. MSU Contributes to New Research on Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    EAST LANSING, Mich. - "Crazy" and "cool" are two of the words Michigan State University astronomer Megan Donahue uses to describe the two distinct "tails" found on a long tail of gas that is believed to be forming stars where few stars have been formed before. Donahue was part of an international team of astronomers that viewed the gas tail with a very long, new observation made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and detailed it in a paper published this month in the publication Astrophysical Journal. "The double tail is very cool - that is, interesting - and ridiculously hard to explain," said Donahue, a professor in MSU's Department of Physics and Astronomy. "It could be two different sources of gas or something to do with magnetic fields. We just don't know." What is also unusual is the gas tail, which is more than 200,000 light years in length, extends well outside any galaxy. It is within objects such as this that new stars are formed, but usually within the confines of a galaxy. "This system is really crazy because where we're seeing the star formation is well away from any galaxy," Donahue said. "Star formation happens primarily in the disks of galaxies. What we're seeing here is very unexpected." This gas tail was originally spotted by astronomers three years ago using a multitude of telescopes, including NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the SOuthern Astrophysical Research telescope, a Chilean-based observatory in which MSU is one of the partners. The new observations show a second tail, and a fellow galaxy, ESO 137-002, that also has a tail of hot X-ray-emitting gas. How these newly formed stars came to be in this particular place remains a mystery as well. Astronomers theorize this gas tail might have "pulled" star-making material from nearby gases, creating what some have called "orphan stars." "This system continues to surprise us as we get better observations of it," Donahue said. The gas tail is located in the southern hemisphere near a

  12. Prospects of the "WSO-UV" Project for Star Formation Study in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work we consider the questions of star formation and evolution of nearby dwarf galaxies. We describe the method of star formation history determination based on multicolor photometry of resolved stars and models of color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies. We present the results of star formation rate determination and its dependence on age and metallicity for dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the two nearby galaxy groups M81 and Cen A. Similar age of the last episode of star formation in the central part of the M81 group and also unusually high level of metal enrichment in the several galaxies of the Cen A group are mentioned. We pay special attention to the consideration of perspectives of star formation study in nearby dwarf galaxies with he new WSO-UV observatory.

  13. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  14. TEMPLATES: Targeting Extremely Magnified Panchromatic Lensed Arcs and Their Extended Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane; Vieira, Joaquin; Bayliss, M.; Fischer, T.; Florian, M.; Gladders, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Law, D.; Marrone, D.; Phadke, K.; Sharon, K.; Spilker, J.

    2017-11-01

    We propose high signal-to-noise NIRSpec and MIRI IFU spectroscopy, with accompanying imaging, for 4 gravitationally lensed galaxies at 1physical scales of star formation in distant galaxies, in an extinction-robust way; 3) measure specific star formation rates and compare the spatial distribution of the young and old stars; 4) and measure the physical conditions of star formation and their spatial variation. This program uses key instrument modes, heavily exercising the NIRSpec and MIRI IFUs. The resulting science-enabling data products will demonstrate JWST's capabilities and provide the extragalactic science community with rich datasets. In four deliveries, we will provide high-quality Level 3 data cubes and mosaics, empirical star formation diagnostics, maps of star formation, extinction, and physical properties, a tool for comparing NIRSpec and MIRI data cubes, and cookbooks on data reduction, analysis, and calibration strategy.

  15. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE GALACTIC H II REGION Sh2-297

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm –3 and 9.15 × 10 5 cm –6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ∼7.'5 × 7.'5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H – K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ∼0.1-2 M ☉ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V–I) and NIR (J/J–H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ∼1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  16. Young stellar population and ongoing star formation in the H II complex Sh2-252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jessy; Pandey, A. K.; Samal, M. R.; Ojha, D. K.; Ogura, K.; Kim, J. S.; Kobayashi, N.; Goyal, A.; Chauhan, N.; Eswaraiah, C.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an extensive survey of the star-forming complex Sh2-252 has been undertaken with an aim to explore its hidden young stellar population as well as to understand the structure and star formation history for the first time. This complex is composed of five prominent embedded clusters associated with the subregions A, C, E, NGC 2175s and Teu 136. We used Two Micron All Sky Survey-near-infrared and Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer photometry to identify and classify the young stellar objects (YSOs) by their infrared (IR) excess emission. Using the IR colour-colour criteria, we identified 577 YSOs, of which, 163 are Class I, 400 are Class II and 14 are transition disc YSOs, suggesting a moderately rich number of YSOs in this complex. Spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs shows that they are mostly clustered around the subregions in the western half of the complex, suggesting enhanced star formation activity towards its west. Using the spectral energy distribution and optical colour-magnitude diagram-based age analyses, we derived probable evolutionary status of the subregions of Sh2-252. Our analysis shows that the region A is the youngest (˜0.5 Myr), the regions B, C and E are of similar evolutionary stage (˜1-2 Myr) and the clusters NGC 2175s and Teu 136 are slightly evolved (˜2-3 Myr). Morphology of the region in the 1.1 mm map shows a semicircular shaped molecular shell composed of several clumps and YSOs bordering the western ionization front of Sh2-252. Our analyses suggest that next generation star formation is currently under way along this border and that possibly fragmentation of the matter collected during the expansion of the H II region as one of the major processes is responsible for such stars. We observed the densest concentration of YSOs (mostly Class I, ˜0.5 Myr) at the western outskirts of the complex, within a molecular clump associated with water and methanol masers and we suggest that it

  17. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Bigiel, Frank; Bolatto, Alberto; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Usero, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by 12 CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between Σ mol and Σ SFR but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, τ dep mol =Σ mol /Σ SFR . At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed α CO equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, τ dep mol =Σ mol /Σ SFR ∼2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1σ scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, Σ SFR ∝Σ mol N . We find N = 1 ± 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between τ dep mol and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased τ dep mol in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale τ dep mol with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H 2 conversion factor (α CO ) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed τ dep mol trends. After applying a D/G-dependent α CO , some weak correlations between τ dep mol and local conditions persist. In particular, we observe lower τ dep mol and enhanced CO excitation associated with nuclear gas concentrations in a subset of our targets. These appear to reflect real enhancements in the

  18. FORMALDEHYDE MASERS: EXCLUSIVE TRACERS OF HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, E. D.; Brown, J. E. [Western Illinois University, Physics Department, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Olmi, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ortiz, J. Morales [University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, Physical Sciences Department, P.O. Box 23323, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Hofner, P.; Creech-Eakman, M. J. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Physics Department, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Linz, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The detection of four formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) maser regions toward young high-mass stellar objects in the last decade, in addition to the three previously known regions, calls for an investigation of whether H{sub 2}CO masers are an exclusive tracer of young high-mass stellar objects. We report the first survey specifically focused on the search for 6 cm H{sub 2}CO masers toward non high-mass star-forming regions (non HMSFRs). The observations were conducted with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope toward 25 low-mass star-forming regions, 15 planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars, and 31 late-type stars. We detected no H{sub 2}CO emission in our sample of non HMSFRs. To check for the association between high-mass star formation and H{sub 2}CO masers, we also conducted a survey toward 22 high-mass star-forming regions from a Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey) sample known to harbor 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. We detected a new 6 cm H{sub 2}CO emission line in G32.74−0.07. This work provides further evidence that supports an exclusive association between H{sub 2}CO masers and young regions of high-mass star formation. Furthermore, we detected H{sub 2}CO absorption toward all Hi-GAL sources, and toward 24 low-mass star-forming regions. We also conducted a simultaneous survey for OH (4660, 4750, 4765 MHz), H110α (4874 MHz), HCOOH (4916 MHz), CH{sub 3}OH (5005 MHz), and CH{sub 2}NH (5289 MHz) toward 68 of the sources in our sample of non HMSFRs. With the exception of the detection of a 4765 MHz OH line toward a pre-planetary nebula (IRAS 04395+3601), we detected no other spectral line to an upper limit of 15 mJy for most sources.

  19. FEEDBACK EFFECTS ON LOW-MASS STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Charles E.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Fisher, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    Protostellar feedback, both radiation and bipolar outflows, dramatically affects the fragmentation and mass accretion from star-forming cores. We use ORION, an adaptive mesh refinement gravito-radiation-hydrodynamics code, to simulate low-mass star formation in a turbulent molecular cloud in the presence of protostellar feedback. We present results of the first simulations of a star-forming cluster that include both radiative transfer and protostellar outflows. We run four simulations to isolate the individual effects of radiation feedback and outflow feedback as well as the combination of the two. We find that outflows reduce protostellar masses and accretion rates each by a factor of three and therefore reduce protostellar luminosities by an order of magnitude. This means that, while radiation feedback suppresses fragmentation, outflows render protostellar radiation largely irrelevant for low-mass star formation above a mass scale of 0.05 M ☉ . We find initial fragmentation of our cloud at half the global Jeans length, around 0.1 pc. With insufficient protostellar radiation to stop it, these 0.1 pc cores fragment repeatedly, forming typically 10 stars each. The accretion rate in these stars scales with mass as predicted from core accretion models that include both thermal and turbulent motions; the accretion rate does not appear to be consistent with either competitive accretion or accretion from an isothermal sphere. We find that protostellar outflows do not significantly affect the overall cloud dynamics, in the absence of magnetic fields, due to their small opening angles and poor coupling to the dense gas. The outflows reduce the mass from the cores by 2/3, giving a core to star efficiency, ε core ≅ 1/3. The simulations are also able to reproduce many observation of local star-forming regions. Our simulation with radiation and outflows reproduces the observed protostellar luminosity function. All of the simulations can reproduce observed core mass

  20. Gas and dust in regions of recent star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardelli, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of observations of gas and dust were obtained in two regions of recent star formation for the purpose of determining basic physical properties. The analyses center on extinction and scattering in the Orion complex and extinction and atomic and molecular absorption near the center of rho Oph molecular cloud. In Orion, the visual extinction towards theta/sup 1,2/Ori indicates that, for the grains responsible for the visual extinction, the average size has increased on the order of 20 to 30%. The subsequent increase in absolute visual extinction has resulted in an apparent lowering of the uv extinction via normalization in the visual. Analysis of small-angle scattering in NGC 1999 in the uv indicates that the phase function (g) changes from about 0.60 near lambda 4000 A to about 0.25 near lambda 1400 A. This seems to imply that the observed continua of H-H 1 and 2 cannot be the result of small angle scattering from imbedded T Tauri stars. For four lines of sight near the center of the rho Oph molecular cloud, the determined column densities of CH extend the relation N(CH) α N(H 2 ) to densities as large as log N(H 2 ) approximately greater than or equal to 21. For CN, the relation N(CN) α N(H 2 ) 3 is extended to log N(H 2 ) approx. = 21

  1. Star Formation of Merging Disk Galaxies with AGN Feedback Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongwon; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K., E-mail: jw.park@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    Using a numerical hydrodynamics code, we perform various idealized galaxy merger simulations to study the star formation (SF) of two merging disk galaxies. Our simulations include gas accretion onto supermassive black holes and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. By comparing AGN simulations with those without AGNs, we attempt to understand when the AGN feedback effect is significant. Using ∼70 simulations, we investigate SF with the AGN effect in mergers with a variety of mass ratios, inclinations, orbits, galaxy structures, and morphologies. Using these merger simulations with AGN feedback, we measure merger-driven SF using the burst efficiency parameter introduced by Cox et al. We confirm previous studies which demonstrated that, in galaxy mergers, AGN suppresses SF more efficiently than in isolated galaxies. However, we also find that the effect of AGNs on SF is larger in major than in minor mergers. In minor merger simulations with different primary bulge-to-total ratios, the effect of bulge fraction on the merger-driven SF decreases due to AGN feedback. We create models of Sa-, Sb-, and Sc-type galaxies and compare their SF properties while undergoing mergers. With the current AGN prescriptions, the difference in merger-driven SF is not as pronounced as in the recent observational study of Kaviraj. We discuss the implications of this discrepancy.

  2. Scaling Relations between Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam; Walter, Fabian

    2011-04-01

    High resolution, multi-wavelength maps of a sizeable set of nearby galaxies have made it possible to study how the surface densities of H i, H2 and star formation rate (ΣHI, ΣH2, ΣSFR) relate on scales of a few hundred parsecs. At these scales, individual galaxy disks are comfortably resolved, making it possible to assess gas-SFR relations with respect to environment within galaxies. ΣH2, traced by CO intensity, shows a strong correlation with ΣSFR and the ratio between these two quantities, the molecular gas depletion time, appears to be constant at about 2 Gyr in large spiral galaxies. Within the star-forming disks of galaxies, ΣSFR shows almost no correlation with ΣHI. In the outer parts of galaxies, however, ΣSFR does scale with ΣHI, though with large scatter. Combining data from these different environments yields a distribution with multiple regimes in Σgas - ΣSFR space. If the underlying assumptions to convert observables to physical quantities are matched, even combined datasets based on different SFR tracers, methodologies and spatial scales occupy a well define locus in Σgas - ΣSFR space.

  3. Star Formation of Merging Disk Galaxies with AGN Feedback Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongwon; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2017-01-01

    Using a numerical hydrodynamics code, we perform various idealized galaxy merger simulations to study the star formation (SF) of two merging disk galaxies. Our simulations include gas accretion onto supermassive black holes and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. By comparing AGN simulations with those without AGNs, we attempt to understand when the AGN feedback effect is significant. Using ∼70 simulations, we investigate SF with the AGN effect in mergers with a variety of mass ratios, inclinations, orbits, galaxy structures, and morphologies. Using these merger simulations with AGN feedback, we measure merger-driven SF using the burst efficiency parameter introduced by Cox et al. We confirm previous studies which demonstrated that, in galaxy mergers, AGN suppresses SF more efficiently than in isolated galaxies. However, we also find that the effect of AGNs on SF is larger in major than in minor mergers. In minor merger simulations with different primary bulge-to-total ratios, the effect of bulge fraction on the merger-driven SF decreases due to AGN feedback. We create models of Sa-, Sb-, and Sc-type galaxies and compare their SF properties while undergoing mergers. With the current AGN prescriptions, the difference in merger-driven SF is not as pronounced as in the recent observational study of Kaviraj. We discuss the implications of this discrepancy.

  4. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-González, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Reid, M. J.; Moscadelli, L.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M ☉ . This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s –1 ) and perhaps a lower-velocity (∼10 km s –1 ) wind with an opening angle of about 20° from the jet axis.

  5. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-Gonzalez, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Reid, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Moscadelli, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Rygl, K. L. J., E-mail: asanna@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [IFSI-INAF, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M{sub Sun }. This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s{sup -1}) and perhaps a lower-velocity ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}) wind with an opening angle of about 20 Degree-Sign from the jet axis.

  6. COLLISIONAL DEBRIS AS LABORATORIES TO STUDY STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boquien, M.; Duc, P.-A.; Wu, Y.; Charmandaris, V.; Lisenfeld, U.; Braine, J.; Brinks, E.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Xu, C. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of whether star formation (SF) is driven by local processes or the large-scale environment. To do so, we investigate SF in collisional debris where the gravitational potential well and velocity gradients are shallower and compare our results with previous work on SF in noninteracting spiral and dwarf galaxies. We have performed multiwavelength spectroscopic and imaging observations (from the far-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared) of six interacting systems, identifying a total of 60 star-forming regions in their collision debris. Our analysis indicates that in these regions (1) the emission of the dust is at the expected level for their luminosity and metallicity, (2) the usual tracers of SFR display the typical trend and scatter found in classical star-forming regions, and (3) the extinction and metallicity are not the main parameters governing the scatter in the properties of intergalactic star-forming regions; age effects and variations in the number of stellar populations seem to play an important role. Our work suggests that local properties such as column density and dust content, rather than the large-scale environment seem to drive SF. This means that intergalactic star-forming regions can be used as a reliable tool to study SF.

  7. Chemical evolution, stellar nucleosynthesis and a variable star formation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Thielemann, F.K.; Truran, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of a decreasing star formation rate (SFR) on the galactic abundances of elements produced in massive stars (M ≥ 10 Msub solar). On the basis of a straightforward model of galactic evolution, a relation between the upper mass limit of type II supernovae (M/sub SN/) contributing to chemical evolution and the decline of the SFR (tau) is derived, when the oxygen abundance is determined only by massive stars. The additional requirement that all intermediate mass elements (Ne-Ti), which are also predominantly due to nucleosynthesis in massive stars, are produced in solar proportions leads to a unique value of M/sub SN/ and tau. The application of this method with abundance yields from Arnett (1978) and Woosley and Weaver (1986) resuults, however, in contradicting solutions: M/sub SN/ ≅ 45 Msub solar, tau = ∞, and M/sub SN/ ≅ 15 Msub solar, tau = 3 x 10 9 y. Thus, in order that this approach provide an effective probe of the SFR over the history of our galaxy it is essential that converging and more accurate predictions of the consequences of stellar and supernova nucleosynthesis will be forthcoming. 54 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Embedded star formation in S4G galaxy dust lanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Teich, Yaron; Popinchalk, Mark; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Efremov, Yuri N.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun; De Paz, Armando Gil; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis C.; Holwerda, Benne; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Mizusawa, Trisha

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming regions that are visible at 3.6 μm and Hα but not in the u, g, r, i, z bands of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are measured in five nearby spiral galaxies to find extinctions averaging ∼3.8 mag and stellar masses averaging ∼5 × 10 4 M ☉ . These regions are apparently young star complexes embedded in dark filamentary shock fronts connected with spiral arms. The associated cloud masses are ∼10 7 M ☉ . The conditions required to make such complexes are explored, including gravitational instabilities in spiral-shocked gas and compression of incident clouds. We find that instabilities are too slow for a complete collapse of the observed spiral filaments, but they could lead to star formation in the denser parts. Compression of incident clouds can produce a faster collapse but has difficulty explaining the semi-regular spacing of some regions along the arms. If gravitational instabilities are involved, then the condensations have the local Jeans mass. Also in this case, the near-simultaneous appearance of equally spaced complexes suggests that the dust lanes, and perhaps the arms too, are relatively young.

  9. STAR FORMATION AND RELAXATION IN 379 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and level of relaxation in a sample of 379 galaxy clusters at z < 0.2. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure cluster membership and level of relaxation, and to select star-forming galaxies based on mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. For galaxies with absolute magnitudes M r < −19.5, we find an inverse correlation between SF fraction and cluster relaxation: as a cluster becomes less relaxed, its SF fraction increases. Furthermore, in general, the subtracted SF fraction in all unrelaxed clusters (0.117 ± 0.003) is higher than that in all relaxed clusters (0.097 ± 0.005). We verify the validity of our SF calculation methods and membership criteria through analysis of previous work. Our results agree with previous findings that a weak correlation exists between cluster SF and dynamical state, possibly because unrelaxed clusters are less evolved relative to relaxed clusters

  10. Polarization and infrared imaging of regions of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneti, A.

    1985-01-01

    Observational studies of two regions of star formation, the Taurus cloud and the BN-KL region of Orion, are presented. The magnetic field structure in the Taurus cloud was studied in order to investigate its possible role in the evolution of the cloud. It was found that the magnetic field is generally perpendicular to the elongated structures that make up the cloud, and it is deduced that the observed structure could be due to the effects of the magnetic field during the early stages of collapse. In addition, it was found that the magnetic field may have prevented the formation of massive stars by inhibiting the collapse of large cores, while not affecting the collapse of the small ones. Using a new near-infrared array camera, high resolution (1'') images of several young stars embedded in the cloud were obtained. Most of these sources have extended, spatially resolved circumstellar shells. High resolution images of the BN-KL region of Orion at four wavelengths between 1.65 and 4.7 μm were also obtained. At 1.65 μm a large trough is seen in the overall nebulosity; it is suggested that the observed trough is due to the doughnut of material around IRc2 as it obscures the background nebulosity

  11. H2O sources in regions of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.Y.; Burke, B.F.; Haschick, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Regions and objects believed to be in early stages of stellar formation have been searched for H 2 O 22-GHz line emission with the Haystack 120-foot (37 m) telescope. The objects include radio condensations, infrared objects in H ii regions, and Herbig-Haro objects. Nine new H 2 O sources were detected in the vicinity of such objects, including the Sharpless H ii regions S152, S235, S255, S269, G45.1+0.1, G45.5+0.1, AFCRL infrared object No. 809--2992, and Herbig-Haro objects 1 and 9. The new H 2 O sources detected in H ii regions are associated, but not coincident, with the the radio condensations. Water vapor line emission was detected in approx.25 percent of the regions searched. The association of H 2 O sources with regions of star formation is taken to be real. The spatial relationship of H 2 O sources to infrared objects, radio condensations, class I OH sources, and molecular clouds are discussed. The suggestion is made that an H 2 O source may be excited by a highly obscured star of extreme youth

  12. Cloud-particle galactic gas dynamics and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Galactic gas dynamics, spiral structure, and star formation are discussed in the context of N-body computational studies based on a cloud-particle model of the interstellar medium. On the small scale, the interstellar medium appears to be cloud-dominated and supernova-perturbed. The cloud-particle model simulates cloud-cloud collisions, the formation of stellar associations, and supernova explosions as dominant local processes. On the large scale in response to a spiral galactic gravitational field, global density waves and galactic shocks develop with large-scale characteristics similar to those found in continuum gas dynamical studies. Both the system of gas clouds and the system of young stellar associations forming from the clouds share in the global spiral structure. However, with the attributes of neither assuming a continuum of gas (as in continuum gas dynamical studies) nor requiring a prescribed equation of state such as the isothermal condition so often employed, the cloud-particle picture retains much of the detail lost in earlier work: namely, the small-scale features and structures so important in understanding the local, turbulent state of the interstellar medium as well as the degree of raggedness often observed superposed on global spiral structure. (Auth.)

  13. Star formation in the Monoceros OB1 dark cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulis, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of the Monoceros OB1 dark cloud was made for molecular outflows and young stellar objects. In all, nine molecular outflows and thirty far-infrared sources were identified in a portion of the cloud composed of about 3 x 10 4 M of material. Statistical arguments suggest that 90% of the far-infrared sources actually are young stellar objects embedded in the cloud. If the star formation rate in the Mon OB1 cloud is roughly constant with time, then molecular outflows in the cloud should be able to support it against collapse due to gravity. This suggests that the birthrate of outflows in the solar neighborhood is very high. In fact, regardless of considerations of cloud support, the large number of outflows identified in the Mon OB1 cloud and the propensity of the youngest stellar objects in the cloud to be associated with outflows suggest that outflows have a high birthrate in the solar neighborhood and are part of a common stage in early stellar evolution. The young stellar objects identified in the cloud can be fit into a spectral classification system. Also, the outflow phase in early stellar evolution tends to occur at about the time that young stellar objects lose a large fraction of their circumstellar envelopes

  14. Star Formation and Young Population of the H II Complex Sh2-294

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J.; Pandey, B.

    2012-08-01

    The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H2 (2.12 μm) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H2 emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass (<4 M ⊙) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO (~9 M ⊙) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of ~24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age ~ 4.5 × 106 yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a ~4 × 106 yr B0 main-sequence star.

  15. STAR FORMATION AND YOUNG POPULATION OF THE H II COMPLEX Sh2-294

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J.; Ojha, D. K.; Pandey, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H 2 (2.12 μm) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H 2 emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass ( ☉ ) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO (∼9 M ☉ ) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of ∼24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age ∼ 4.5 × 10 6 yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a ∼4 × 10 6 yr B0 main-sequence star.

  16. The SOFIA Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey. I. Overview and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buizer, James M.; Shuping, Ralph [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Liu, Mengyao; Tan, Jonathan C.; Staff, Jan E.; Tanaka, Kei E. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Beltrán, Maria T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Whitney, Barbara [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present an overview and first results of the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey, which is using the FORCAST instrument to image massive protostars from ∼10 to 40 μ m. These wavelengths trace thermal emission from warm dust, which in Core Accretion models mainly emerges from the inner regions of protostellar outflow cavities. Dust in dense core envelopes also imprints characteristic extinction patterns at these wavelengths, causing intensity peaks to shift along the outflow axis and profiles to become more symmetric at longer wavelengths. We present observational results for the first eight protostars in the survey, i.e., multiwavelength images, including some ancillary ground-based mid-infrared (MIR) observations and archival Spitzer and Herschel data. These images generally show extended MIR/FIR emission along directions consistent with those of known outflows and with shorter wavelength peak flux positions displaced from the protostar along the blueshifted, near-facing sides, thus confirming qualitative predictions of Core Accretion models. We then compile spectral energy distributions and use these to derive protostellar properties by fitting theoretical radiative transfer models. Zhang and Tan models, based on the Turbulent Core Model of McKee and Tan, imply the sources have protostellar masses m {sub *} ∼ 10–50 M {sub ⊙} accreting at ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} inside cores of initial masses M {sub c} ∼ 30–500 M {sub ⊙} embedded in clumps with mass surface densities Σ{sub cl} ∼ 0.1–3 g cm{sup −2}. Fitting the Robitaille et al. models typically leads to slightly higher protostellar masses, but with disk accretion rates ∼100× smaller. We discuss reasons for these differences and overall implications of these first survey results for massive star formation theories.

  17. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION RATES AND DUST EMISSION OVER THE GALAXY INTERACTION SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brassington, Nicola [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Da Cunha, Elisabete [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118, Heidelberg (Germany); Jonsson, Patrik, E-mail: llanz@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Space Exploration Technologies, 1 Rocket Road, Hawthorne, CA 90250 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 28 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared (FIR) for 31 interacting galaxies in 14 systems. The sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey, which probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters at multiple wavelengths with an emphasis on the infrared bands. The subset presented in this paper consists of all galaxies for which FIR Herschel SPIRE observations are publicly available. Our SEDs combine the Herschel photometry with multi-wavelength data from Spitzer, GALEX, Swift UVOT, and 2MASS. While the shapes of the SEDs are broadly similar across our sample, strongly interacting galaxies typically have more mid-infrared emission relative to their near-infrared and FIR emission than weakly or moderately interacting galaxies. We modeled the full SEDs to derive host galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), specific star formation rates (sSFRs), stellar masses, dust temperatures, dust luminosities, and dust masses. We find increases in the dust luminosity and mass, SFR, and cold (15-25 K) dust temperature as the interaction progresses from moderately to strongly interacting and between non-interacting and strongly interacting galaxies. We also find increases in the SFR between weakly and strongly interacting galaxies. In contrast, the sSFR remains unchanged across all the interaction stages. The ultraviolet photometry is crucial for constraining the age of the stellar population and the SFR, while dust mass is primarily determined by SPIRE photometry. The SFR derived from the SED modeling agrees well with rates estimated by proportionality relations that depend on infrared emission.

  18. LLAMA: normal star formation efficiencies of molecular gas in the centres of luminous Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, D. J.; Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I.; Koss, M.; Ricci, C.; Lutz, D.; Riffel, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Genzel, R.; Hicks, E. H.; Lin, M.-Y.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Riffel, R. A.; Schartmann, M.; Schawinski, K.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Saintonge, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.; Treister, E.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    Using new Atacama Pathfinder Experiment and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope spectroscopy of the CO 2→1 line, we undertake a controlled study of cold molecular gas in moderately luminous (Lbol = 1043-44.5 erg s-1) active galactic nuclei (AGN) and inactive galaxies from the Luminous Local AGN with Matched Analogs (LLAMA) survey. We use spatially resolved infrared photometry of the LLAMA galaxies from 2MASS, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel), corrected for nuclear emission using multicomponent spectral energy distribution fits, to examine the dust-reprocessed star formation rates, molecular gas fractions and star formation efficiencies (SFEs) over their central 1-3 kpc. We find that the gas fractions and central SFEs of both active and inactive galaxies are similar when controlling for host stellar mass and morphology (Hubble type). The equivalent central molecular gas depletion times are consistent with the discs of normal spiral galaxies in the local Universe. Despite energetic arguments that the AGN in LLAMA should be capable of disrupting the observable cold molecular gas in their central environments, our results indicate that nuclear radiation only couples weakly with this phase. We find a mild preference for obscured AGN to contain higher amounts of central molecular gas, which suggests connection between AGN obscuration and the gaseous environment of the nucleus. Systems with depressed SFEs are not found among the LLAMA AGN. We speculate that the processes that sustain the collapse of molecular gas into dense pre-stellar cores may also be a prerequisite for the inflow of material on to AGN accretion discs.

  19. Comparison of star formation rates from Hα and infrared luminosity as seen by Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Mignoli, M.; Pozzi, F.; Calura, F.; Cimatti, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Cepa, J.; Sánchez Portal, M.; Zamorani, G.; Berta, S.; Elbaz, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Granato, G. L.; Lutz, D.; Maiolino, R.; Matteucci, F.; Nair, P.; Nordon, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Silva, L.; Silverman, J.; Wuyts, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S. J.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Magnelli, B.; Pelló, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Riguccini, L.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2012-10-01

    We empirically MD test the relation between the SFR(LIR) derived from the infrared luminosity, LIR, and the SFR(Hα) derived from the Hα emission line luminosity using simple conversion relations. We use a sample of 474 galaxies at z = 0.06-0.46 with both Hα detection [from 20k redshift Cosmological Evolution (zCOSMOS) survey] and new far-IR Herschel data (100 and 160 μm). We derive SFR(Hα) from the Hα extinction corrected emission line luminosity. We find a very clear trend between E(B - V) and LIR that allows us to estimate extinction values for each galaxy even if the Hβ emission line measurement is not reliable. We calculate the LIR by integrating from 8 up to 1000 μm the spectral energy distribution (SED) that is best fitting our data. We compare the SFR(Hα) with the SFR(LIR). We find a very good agreement between the two star formation rate (SFR) estimates, with a slope of m = 1.01 ± 0.03 in the log SFR(LIR) versus log SFR(Hα) diagram, a normalization constant of a = -0.08 ± 0.03 and a dispersion of σ = 0.28 dex. We study the effect of some intrinsic properties of the galaxies in the SFR(LIR)-SFR(Hα) relation, such as the redshift, the mass, the specific star formation rate (SSFR) or the metallicity. The metallicity is the parameter that affects most the SFR comparison. The mean ratio of the two SFR estimators log[SFR(LIR)/SFR(Hα)] varies by ˜0.6 dex from metal-poor to metal-rich galaxies [8.1 statistics of this sub-sample. Herschel is a European Space Agency (ESA) space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  20. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs: FY 2006 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norland, D.; Jenkin, T.

    2005-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads the Federal Government's efforts to provide reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for America, through its 11 research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs. EERE invests in high-risk, high-value research and development (R&D) that, conducted in partnership with the private sector and other government agencies, accelerates the development and facilitates the deployment of advanced clean energy technologies and practices. EERE designs its RDD&D activities to improve the Nation's readiness for addressing current and future energy needs. This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2006 Budget Request. EERE has adopted a benefits framework developed by the National Research Council (NRC) to represent the various types of benefits resulting from the energy efficiency technology improvements and renewable energy technology development supported by EERE programs. Specifically, EERE's benefits analysis focuses on three main categories of energy-linked benefits--economic, environmental, and security.

  1. Public budgets for energy RD&D and the effects on energy intensity and pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre, Daniel; Álvarez, Agustín; Cantos, José María

    2015-04-01

    This study, based on the N-shaped cubic model of the environmental Kuznets curve, analyzes the evolution of per capita greenhouse gas emissions (GHGpc) using not just economic growth but also public budgets dedicated to energy-oriented research development and demonstration (RD&D) and energy intensity. The empirical evidence, obtained from an econometric model of fixed effects for 28 OECD countries during 1994-2010, suggests that energy innovations help reduce GHGpc levels and mitigate the negative impact of energy intensity on environmental quality. When countries develop active energy RD&D policies, they can reduce both the rates of energy intensity and the level of GHGpc emissions. This paper incorporates a moderating variable to the econometric model that emphasizes the effect that GDP has on energy intensity. It also adds a variable that reflects the difference between countries that have made a greater economic effort in energy RD&D, which in turn corrects the GHG emissions resulting from the energy intensity of each country.

  2. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... Design. 504.2The form, orientation, occupancy and use profiles for the Prototype Building shall be fixed...

  3. Mass and energy budget of the northern hemisphere. Der Massen- und Energiehaushalt der Nordhemisphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, J M

    1981-01-01

    Seasonal budgets of moist static energy, dry static energy, latent energy, and mass m are calculated for mass-equal finite elements (boxes) over the northern hemisphere. For this purpose the hemispheric atmosphere is divided into 4 meridional belts, 12 zonal sectors and 4 vertical layers, which results in 48 atmospheric columns and a total of 192 boxes.

  4. Ripple Effects: Budgets Grow Modestly, but Energy Costs Cloud the Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports the ripple effects of the energy squeeze due to Hurricane Katrina and other factors that sent energy costs skyrocketing. Energy costs are a good part of why budget growth, which has been steady over the past five years, has been slowing down. The projected change from FY2005 to FY2006 is only 3.3%, compared to…

  5. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs: FY 2005 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2004-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads the Federal Government's efforts to provide reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for America, through its 11 research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs. EERE invests in high-risk, high-value research and development (R&D) that, conducted in partnership with the private sector and other government agencies, accelerates the development and facilitates the deployment of advanced clean energy technologies and practices. This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2005 Budget Request. EERE has adopted a benefits framework developed by the National Research Council (NRC) to represent the various types of benefits resulting from the energy efficiency technology improvements and renewable energy technology development prompted by EERE programs. EERE's benefits analysis focuses on three main categories of energy-linked benefits-economic, environmental, and security. These metrics are not a complete representation of the benefits or market roles of efficiency and renewable technologies, but provide an indication of the range of benefits provided. EERE has taken steps to more fully represent the NRC framework, including two key improvements to the FY 2005 analysis-adding an electricity security metric and extending the analysis through the year 2050.

  6. CHARACTERIZING THE STAR FORMATION OF THE LOW-MASS SHIELD GALAXIES FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Simones, Jacob E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7900 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Jürgen, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The Survey of Hi in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the Hi Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey based on their low Hi mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color–magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply be low-luminosity dwarf irregulars. We do not find a correlation between the recent star formation activity and the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy, suggesting that the star formation process is not driven by gravitational interactions, but regulated internally. Further, we find a broadening in the star formation and gas properties (i.e., specific SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions) compared to the generally tight correlation found in more massive galaxies. Overall, the star formation and gas properties indicate these very low-mass galaxies host a fluctuating, non-deterministic, and inefficient star formation process.

  7. Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2016-01-01

    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.

  8. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schruba, Andreas [California Institute for Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bigiel, Frank [Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); De Blok, W. J. G. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Rosolowsky, Erik [University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Schuster, Karl-Friedrich [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres (France); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, C/ Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between {Sigma}{sub mol} and {Sigma}{sub SFR} but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}. At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed {alpha}{sub CO} equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}{approx}2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1{sigma} scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, {Sigma}{sub SFR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub mol}{sup N}. We find N = 1 {+-} 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} trends. After applying a D/G-dependent {alpha}{sub CO}, some weak correlations between {tau}{sub dep

  9. STAR FORMATION AND SUPERCLUSTER ENVIRONMENT OF 107 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan [Tartu Observatory, 61602 Tõravere (Estonia)

    2017-01-20

    We analyze the relationship between star formation (SF), substructure, and supercluster environment in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Previous works have investigated the relationships between SF and cluster substructure, and cluster substructure and supercluster environment, but definitive conclusions relating all three of these variables has remained elusive. We find an inverse relationship between cluster SF fraction ( f {sub SF}) and supercluster environment density, calculated using the Galaxy luminosity density field at a smoothing length of 8 h {sup −1} Mpc (D8). The slope of f {sub SF} versus D8 is −0.008 ± 0.002. The f {sub SF} of clusters located in low-density large-scale environments, 0.244 ± 0.011, is higher than for clusters located in high-density supercluster cores, 0.202 ± 0.014. We also divide superclusters, according to their morphology, into filament- and spider-type systems. The inverse relationship between cluster f {sub SF} and large-scale density is dominated by filament- rather than spider-type superclusters. In high-density cores of superclusters, we find a higher f {sub SF} in spider-type superclusters, 0.229 ± 0.016, than in filament-type superclusters, 0.166 ± 0.019. Using principal component analysis, we confirm these results and the direct correlation between cluster substructure and SF. These results indicate that cluster SF is affected by both the dynamical age of the cluster (younger systems exhibit higher amounts of SF); the large-scale density of the supercluster environment (high-density core regions exhibit lower amounts of SF); and supercluster morphology (spider-type superclusters exhibit higher amounts of SF at high densities).

  10. Star-Formation in Free-Floating Evaporating Gaseous Globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2017-08-01

    We propose to study the stellar embryos in select members of a newly recognized class of Free-floating Evaporating Gaseous Globules (frEGGS) embedded in HII regions and having head-tail shapes. We discovered two of these in the Cygnus massive star-forming region (MSFR) with HST, including one of the most prominent members of this class (IRAS20324). Subsequent archival searches of Spitzer imaging of MSFRs has allowed us to build a statistical sample of frEGGs. Our molecular-line observations show the presence of dense molecular cores with total gas masses of (0.5-few) Msun in these objects, and our radio continuum images and Halpha images (from the IPHAS survey) reveal bright photo-ionized peripheries around these objects. We hypothesize that frEGGs are density concentrations originating in giant molecular clouds, that, when subject to the sculpting and compression by strong winds and UV radiation from massive stars, become active star-forming cores. For the 4 frEGGs with HST or near-IR AO images showing young stars and bipolar cavities produced by their jets or collimated outflows, the symmetry axis points roughly toward the external ionizing star or star cluster - exciting new evidence for our overpressure-induced star formation hypothesis. We propose to test this hypothesis by imaging 24 frEGGs in two nearby MSFRs that represent different radiation-dominated environments. Using ACS imaging with filters F606W, F814W, & F658N (Ha+[NII]), we will search for jets and outflow-excavated cavities, investigate the stellar nurseries inside frEGGs, and determine whether the globules are generally forming multiple star systems or small clusters, as in IRAS20324.

  11. STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jinlong; Wang Junjie; Miller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We have performed submillimeter and millimeter observations in CO lines toward supernova remnant (SNR) IC443. The CO molecular shell coincides well with the partial shell of the SNR detected in radio continuum observations. Broad emission lines and three 1720 MHz OH masers were detected in the CO molecular shell. The present observations have provided further evidence in support of the interaction between the SNR and the adjoining molecular clouds (MCs). The total mass of the MCs is 9.26 x 10 3 M sun . The integrated CO line intensity ratio (R I CO(3-2) /I CO(2-1) ) for the whole MC is between 0.79 and 3.40. The average value is 1.58, which is much higher than previous measurements of individual Galactic MCs. Higher line ratios imply that shocks have driven into the MCs. We conclude that high R I CO(3-2) /I CO(2-1) is identified as a good signature of the SNR-MC interacting system. Based on the IRAS Point Source Catalog and the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared database, 12 protostellar object and 1666 young stellar object (YSO) candidates (including 154 classical T Tauri stars and 419 Herbig Ae/Be stars) are selected. In the interacting regions, the significant enhancement of the number of protostellar objects and YSOs indicates the presence of some recently formed stars. After comparing the characteristic timescales of star formation with the age of IC443, we conclude that the protostellar objects and YSO candidates are not triggered by IC443. For the age of the stellar winds shell, we have performed our calculation on the basis of a stellar wind shell expansion model. The results and analysis suggest that the formation of these stars may be triggered by the stellar winds of the IC443 progenitor.

  12. STAR FORMATION IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS WITH COLLIDING FLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi

    2015-01-01

    Using self-gravitational hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we investigated the evolution of high-density turbulent molecular clouds swept by a colliding flow. The interaction of shock waves due to turbulence produces networks of thin filamentary clouds with a sub-parsec width. The colliding flow accumulates the filamentary clouds into a sheet cloud and promotes active star formation for initially high-density clouds. Clouds with a colliding flow exhibit a finer filamentary network than clouds without a colliding flow. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the density and column density can be fitted by lognormal functions for clouds without colliding flow. When the initial turbulence is weak, the column density PDF has a power-law wing at high column densities. The colliding flow considerably deforms the PDF, such that the PDF exhibits a double peak. The stellar mass distributions reproduced here are consistent with the classical initial mass function with a power-law index of –1.35 when the initial clouds have a high density. The distribution of stellar velocities agrees with the gas velocity distribution, which can be fitted by Gaussian functions for clouds without colliding flow. For clouds with colliding flow, the velocity dispersion of gas tends to be larger than the stellar velocity dispersion. The signatures of colliding flows and turbulence appear in channel maps reconstructed from the simulation data. Clouds without colliding flow exhibit a cloud-scale velocity shear due to the turbulence. In contrast, clouds with colliding flow show a prominent anti-correlated distribution of thin filaments between the different velocity channels, suggesting collisions between the filamentary clouds

  13. STAR FORMATION SIGNATURES IN OPTICALLY QUIESCENT EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, Samir; Rich, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, an argument has been made that a high fraction of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the local universe experience low levels (∼ sun yr -1 ) of star formation (SF) that causes strong excess in UV flux, yet leaves the optical colors red. Many of these studies were based on Galaxy Evolution Explorer imaging of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies (z ∼ 0.1), and were thus limited by its 5'' FWHM. Poor UV resolution left other possibilities for UV excess open, such as the old populations or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Here, we study high-resolution far-ultraviolet HST/ACS images of optically quiescent early-type galaxies with strong UV excess. The new images show that three-quarters of these moderately massive (∼5 x 10 10 M sun ) ETGs shows clear evidence of extended SF, usually in form of wide or concentric UV rings, and in some cases, striking spiral arms. SDSS spectra probably miss these features due to small fiber size. UV-excess ETGs have on average less dust and larger UV sizes (D > 40 kpc) than other green-valley galaxies, which argues for an external origin for the gas that is driving the SF. Thus, most of these galaxies appear 'rejuvenated' (e.g., through minor gas-rich mergers or intergalactic medium accretion). For a smaller subset of the sample, the declining SF (from the original internal gas) cannot be ruled out. SF is rare in very massive early-types (M * > 10 11 M sun ), a possible consequence of AGN feedback. In addition to extended UV emission, many galaxies show a compact central source, which may be a weak, optically inconspicuous AGN.

  14. STAR FORMATION IN TURBULENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS WITH COLLIDING FLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi, E-mail: matsu@hosei.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    Using self-gravitational hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we investigated the evolution of high-density turbulent molecular clouds swept by a colliding flow. The interaction of shock waves due to turbulence produces networks of thin filamentary clouds with a sub-parsec width. The colliding flow accumulates the filamentary clouds into a sheet cloud and promotes active star formation for initially high-density clouds. Clouds with a colliding flow exhibit a finer filamentary network than clouds without a colliding flow. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the density and column density can be fitted by lognormal functions for clouds without colliding flow. When the initial turbulence is weak, the column density PDF has a power-law wing at high column densities. The colliding flow considerably deforms the PDF, such that the PDF exhibits a double peak. The stellar mass distributions reproduced here are consistent with the classical initial mass function with a power-law index of –1.35 when the initial clouds have a high density. The distribution of stellar velocities agrees with the gas velocity distribution, which can be fitted by Gaussian functions for clouds without colliding flow. For clouds with colliding flow, the velocity dispersion of gas tends to be larger than the stellar velocity dispersion. The signatures of colliding flows and turbulence appear in channel maps reconstructed from the simulation data. Clouds without colliding flow exhibit a cloud-scale velocity shear due to the turbulence. In contrast, clouds with colliding flow show a prominent anti-correlated distribution of thin filaments between the different velocity channels, suggesting collisions between the filamentary clouds.

  15. STAR FORMATION AND SUPERCLUSTER ENVIRONMENT OF 107 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between star formation (SF), substructure, and supercluster environment in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Previous works have investigated the relationships between SF and cluster substructure, and cluster substructure and supercluster environment, but definitive conclusions relating all three of these variables has remained elusive. We find an inverse relationship between cluster SF fraction ( f SF ) and supercluster environment density, calculated using the Galaxy luminosity density field at a smoothing length of 8 h −1 Mpc (D8). The slope of f SF versus D8 is −0.008 ± 0.002. The f SF of clusters located in low-density large-scale environments, 0.244 ± 0.011, is higher than for clusters located in high-density supercluster cores, 0.202 ± 0.014. We also divide superclusters, according to their morphology, into filament- and spider-type systems. The inverse relationship between cluster f SF and large-scale density is dominated by filament- rather than spider-type superclusters. In high-density cores of superclusters, we find a higher f SF in spider-type superclusters, 0.229 ± 0.016, than in filament-type superclusters, 0.166 ± 0.019. Using principal component analysis, we confirm these results and the direct correlation between cluster substructure and SF. These results indicate that cluster SF is affected by both the dynamical age of the cluster (younger systems exhibit higher amounts of SF); the large-scale density of the supercluster environment (high-density core regions exhibit lower amounts of SF); and supercluster morphology (spider-type superclusters exhibit higher amounts of SF at high densities).

  16. Colliding clouds and star formation in NGC 1333

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loren, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    Ongoing star formation in the NGC 1333 molecular cloud is found to be the result of a cloud-cloud collision. Two velocity components at 6.3 and 8.3 km s -1 are observable in the CO and 13 CO spectra, with strong self-abosorption occurring only in the 8.3 km s -1 component. The cloud-cloud collision provides compression and heating of the back side of the 8.3 km s -1 cloud, while cool, unshocked gas on the front side of this cloud results in the observed self-absorption. With the 6.3 km s -1 cloud on the far side of the collision interface, no self-absorption occurs at this velocity. One result of the collision is the coalescence of the two velocity components into a single, intermediate velocity component observed at 7.5 km s -1 . Associated with this postcollision gas is a chain of newly formed stars which illuminates and heats the nebulosity of NGC 1333.At one end of this chain of stars is a region of enhanced CO line broadening, indicating a nonhomologous gravitational collapse of this portion of the cloud. The infrared stars closest to the part of the cloud which is collapsing are completely obscured at visual wavelengths, and several are associated with Herbig-Haro (HH) objects. With increasing displacement from the region of collapse, the stars become more visible, are probably older, and the CO self-absorption decreases at these positions in the cloud.The observed region in which the cloud-cloud collision is occurring is located at the intersection of an expanding neutral hydrogen shell and lower-velocity background H I

  17. A Variation of the Present Star Formation Activity of Spiral Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Akihiko; Tomita, Yoshio; Saito, Mamoru

    1996-01-01

    The star formation rate in spiral galaxies is considered to be decreasing continuously with time in a time scale of $10^{9}$ yr. The present star formation activity, on the other hand, shows various degrees among galaxies. We make a new data set of 1681 nearby spiral galaxies from available databases and study the statistics of the present star formation activity. We analyze far-infrared and optical B-band surface brightnesses of the H II regions and the non-H II regions in M~31 and show that...

  18. Fiscal 1988 draft budget for nuclear energy up 1.9% to yen 369 billion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    AT the cabinet meeting held on December 28, the government approved the fiscal 1988 draft budget, with a general account of yen 56.6 trillion. The nuclear energy related budget is yen 181.124 billion from the general account and yen 186.098 billion from the special account for power sources development, totalling yen 367.222 billion, up 1.9% on the previous year. The largest appropriation goes to the Science and Technology Agency (STA) totaling yen 271 billion. The STA is promoting safety studies and R and D for extensive nuclear energy utilization but the budget shows a 0.7% decrease from the previous year, reflecting completion of the construction of JT-60, which is one of the Agency's major projects. MITI, with its budget of yen 91 billion will carry on policies related to the promotion of commercial nuclear power program as well as support for the industrialization program of the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear related budget of Ministry of Foreign Affairs is yen 2.8 billion, consisting mainly of IAEA subscriptions and contributions and OECD/NEA subscriptions. Besides these three government agencies, a large sum of yen 1.2 billion is allocated to the Okinawa Development Agency for the prevention and elimination of melon-flies in Kume Island and islands around Okinawa main island. The draft government budget will be submitted to the ordinary session of the Diet when it resumes towards the end of January. After deliberation in the Budget Committees of the House of Representatives and the House of Councilors, the draft budget will be put to the vote in the plenary session. Assuming that all proceeds smoothly, the budget is expected to be approved by the end of March without any major revision. (author)

  19. UV Diagnostics for the Energy Budget of Flares and CMEs J. C. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2003-11-04

    Nov 4, 2003 ... The energy budget of solar flares and coronal mass ejections ... Vourlidas (2007) measured the kinetic energies for several CMEs and estimated the .... along the UVCS slit from the pre-CME intensities of the O VI lines, the ...

  20. The interstellar medium, expanding nebulae and triggered star formation theory and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bisbas, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    This brief brings together the theoretical aspects of star formation and ionized regions with the most up-to-date simulations and observations. Beginning with the basic theory of star formation, the physics of expanding HII regions is reviewed in detail and a discussion on how a massive star can give birth to tens or hundreds of other stars follows. The theoretical description of star formation is shown in simplified and state-of-the-art numerical simulations, describing in a more clear way how feedback from massive stars can trigger star and planet formation. This is also combined with spectacular images of nebulae taken by talented amateur astronomers. The latter is very likely to stimulate the reader to observe the structure of nebulae from a different point of view, and better understand the associated star formation therein.

  1. The effect of photoionizing feedback on star formation in isolated and colliding clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Kazuhiro; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Federrath, Christoph; Habe, Asao

    2018-05-01

    We investigate star formation occurring in idealized giant molecular clouds, comparing structures that evolve in isolation versus those undergoing a collision. Two different collision speeds are investigated and the impact of photoionizing radiation from the stars is determined. We find that a colliding system leads to more massive star formation both with and without the addition of feedback, raising overall star formation efficiencies (SFE) by a factor of 10 and steepening the high-mass end of the stellar mass function. This rise in SFE is due to increased turbulent compression during the cloud collision. While feedback can both promote and hinder star formation in an isolated system, it increases the SFE by approximately 1.5 times in the colliding case when the thermal speed of the resulting H II regions matches the shock propagation speed in the collision.

  2. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth’s radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth’s magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth’s magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth’s radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  3. Energy and variance budgets of a diffusive staircase with implications for heat flux scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, M.; Carpenter, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Diffusive convection, the mode of double-diffusive convection that occur when both temperature and salinity increase with increasing depth, is commonplace throughout the high latitude oceans and diffusive staircases constitute an important heat transport process in the Arctic Ocean. Heat and buoyancy fluxes through these staircases are often estimated using flux laws deduced either from laboratory experiments, or from simplified energy or variance budgets. We have done direct numerical simulations of double-diffusive convection at a range of Rayleigh numbers and quantified the energy and variance budgets in detail. This allows us to compare the fluxes in our simulations to those derived using known flux laws and to quantify how well the simplified energy and variance budgets approximate the full budgets. The fluxes are found to agree well with earlier estimates at high Rayleigh numbers, but we find large deviations at low Rayleigh numbers. The close ties between the heat and buoyancy fluxes and the budgets of thermal variance and energy have been utilized to derive heat flux scaling laws in the field of thermal convection. The result is the so called GL-theory, which has been found to give accurate heat flux scaling laws in a very wide parameter range. Diffusive convection has many similarities to thermal convection and an extension of the GL-theory to diffusive convection is also presented and its predictions are compared to the results from our numerical simulations.

  4. Early-Type Galaxy Star Formation Histories in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Graves, G.

    2014-01-01

    We use very high-S/N stacked spectra of ˜29,000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane (FP). We separate galaxies in the three-dimensional FP space defined by galaxy effective radius Re, central stellar velocity dispersion σ, and surface brightness residual from the FP, ΔIe. We use the SDSS group catalogue of Yang et al. to further separate galaxies into three categories by their “identities” within their respective dark matter halos: central “Brightest Group Galaxies” (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those which are “most massive” in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). Within each category, we construct high-S/N mean stacked spectra to determine mean singleburst ages, [Fe/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on the stellar population synthesis models of R. Schiavon. This allows us to study variations in the stellar population properties (SPPs) with local group environment at fixed structure (i.e., fixed position in FP-space). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters σ and ΔIe. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; BGGs have the highest Fe-enrichments, 0.01 dex higher than Isolateds and 0.02 dex higher than Satellites; there are no differences in Mg-enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy’s initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.

  5. Binary star formation: gravitational fragmentation followed by capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. A.; Chapman, S. J.; Bhattal, A. S.; Disney, M. J.; Pongracic, H.; Whitworth, A. P.

    1995-11-01

    We describe in detail one of a sequence of numerical simulations which realize the mechanism of binary star formation proposed by Pringle. In these simulations, collisions between stable molecular cloud clumps produce dense shocked layers, which cool radiatively and fragment gravitationally. The resulting fragments then condense to form protostellar discs, which at the same time fall together and, as a result of tidal and viscous interactions, capture one another to form binary systems. We refer to this mechanism as shock-induced gravitational fragmentation followed by capture, or SGF+C. When the initial clumps are sufficiently massive and/or the Mach number of the collision is sufficiently high, a large number (>~10) of protostellar discs is produced; under these circumstances, the layer fragments first into filaments, and then into beads along the filaments. The marriage of two protostellar discs in this way is `arranged' in the sense that the protostellar discs involved do not form independently. First, they both condense out of the same layer, and probably also out of the same filament within this layer; this significantly increases the likelihood of them interacting dynamically. Secondly, there tends to be alignment between the orbital and spin angular momenta of the interacting protostellar discs, reflecting the fact that these angular momenta derive mainly from the systematic global angular momentum of the off-axis collision which produced the layer; this alignment of the various angular momenta pre-disposes the discs to very dissipative interactions, thereby increasing the probability of producing a strongly bound, long-lasting union. It is a marriage because the binary orbit stabilizes itself rather quickly. Any subsequent orbit evolution, as the protostellar discs `mop up' the surrounding residual gas and interact tidally, tends to harden the orbit. Therefore, as long as a third body does not intervene, the union is binding. Even if a third body does

  6. A model for the origin of bursty star formation in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2018-01-01

    We propose a simple analytic model to understand when star formation is time steady versus bursty in galaxies. Recent models explain the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between star formation rate and gas surface densities in galaxies as resulting from a balance between stellar feedback and gravity. We argue that bursty star formation occurs when such an equilibrium cannot be stably sustained, and identify two regimes in which galaxy-scale star formation should be bursty: (i) at high redshift (z ≳ 1) for galaxies of all masses, and (ii) at low masses (depending on gas fraction) for galaxies at any redshift. At high redshift, characteristic galactic dynamical time-scales become too short for supernova feedback to effectively respond to gravitational collapse in galactic discs (an effect recently identified for galactic nuclei), whereas in dwarf galaxies star formation occurs in too few bright star-forming regions to effectively average out. Burstiness is also enhanced at high redshift owing to elevated gas fractions in the early Universe. Our model can thus explain the bursty star formation rates predicted in these regimes by recent high-resolution galaxy formation simulations, as well as the bursty star formation histories observationally inferred in both local dwarf and high-redshift galaxies. In our model, bursty star formation is associated with particularly strong spatiotemporal clustering of supernovae. Such clustering can promote the formation of galactic winds and our model may thus also explain the much higher wind mass loading factors inferred in high-redshift massive galaxies relative to their z ∼ 0 counterparts.

  7. First-Principles Definition and Measurement of Planetary Electromagnetic-Energy Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Lock, James A.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The imperative to quantify the Earths electromagnetic-energy budget with an extremely high accuracy has been widely recognized but has never been formulated in the framework of fundamental physics. In this paper we give a first-principles definition of the planetary electromagnetic-energy budget using the Poynting- vector formalism and discuss how it can, in principle, be measured. Our derivation is based on an absolute minimum of theoretical assumptions, is free of outdated notions of phenomenological radiometry, and naturally leads to the conceptual formulation of an instrument called the double hemispherical cavity radiometer (DHCR). The practical measurement of the planetary energy budget would require flying a constellation of several dozen planet-orbiting satellites hosting identical well-calibrated DHCRs.

  8. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Sciences, Indore (India); Sarkisyan, Edward K.G. [CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); The University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Physics, Arlington, TX (United States); Sakharov, Alexander S. [CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (orig.)

  9. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sarkisyan, Edward K.G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (orig.)

  10. Star-formation complexes in the `galaxy-sized' supergiant shell of the galaxy Holmberg I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg V.; Lozinskaya, Tatiana A.; Moiseev, Alexei V.; Smirnov-Pinchukov, Grigory V.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of observations of the galaxy Holmberg I carried out at the Russian 6-m telescope in the narrow-band imaging, long-slit spectroscopy, and scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer modes. A detailed analysis of gas kinematics, ionization conditions, and metallicity of star-forming regions in the galaxy is presented. The aim of the paper is to analyse the propagation of star formation in the galaxy and to understand the role of the ongoing star formation in the evolution of the central `galaxy-sized' supergiant H I shell (SGS), where all regions of star formation are observed. We show that star formation in the galaxy occurs in large unified complexes rather than in individual giant H II regions. Evidence of the triggered star formation is observed both on scales of individual complexes and of the whole galaxy. We identified two supernova-remnant candidates and one late-type WN star and analysed their spectrum and surrounding-gas kinematics. We provide arguments indicating that the SGS in Holmberg I is destructing by the influence of star formation occurring on its rims.

  11. Quenching or Bursting: Star Formation Acceleration—A New Methodology for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Darvish, Behnam; Seibert, Mark [California Institute of Technology, MC 405-47, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gonçalves, Thiago S. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, Saude, Rio de Janeiro-RJ 20080-090 (Brazil); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    We introduce a new methodology for the direct extraction of galaxy physical parameters from multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy. We use semianalytic models that describe galaxy evolution in the context of large-scale cosmological simulation to provide a catalog of galaxies, star formation histories, and physical parameters. We then apply models of stellar population synthesis and a simple extinction model to calculate the observable broadband fluxes and spectral indices for these galaxies. We use a linear regression analysis to relate physical parameters to observed colors and spectral indices. The result is a set of coefficients that can be used to translate observed colors and indices into stellar mass, star formation rate, and many other parameters, including the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rate, which we denote the Star Formation Acceleration (SFA), We apply the method to a test sample of galaxies with GALEX photometry and SDSS spectroscopy, deriving relationships between stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and SFA. We find evidence for a mass-dependent SFA in the green valley, with low-mass galaxies showing greater quenching and higher-mass galaxies greater bursting. We also find evidence for an increase in average quenching in galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus. A simple scenario in which lower-mass galaxies accrete and become satellite galaxies, having their star-forming gas tidally and/or ram-pressure stripped, while higher-mass galaxies receive this gas and react with new star formation, can qualitatively explain our results.

  12. Quenching or Bursting: Star Formation Acceleration—A New Methodology for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Gonçalves, Thiago S.; Darvish, Behnam; Seibert, Mark; Schiminovich, David

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a new methodology for the direct extraction of galaxy physical parameters from multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy. We use semianalytic models that describe galaxy evolution in the context of large-scale cosmological simulation to provide a catalog of galaxies, star formation histories, and physical parameters. We then apply models of stellar population synthesis and a simple extinction model to calculate the observable broadband fluxes and spectral indices for these galaxies. We use a linear regression analysis to relate physical parameters to observed colors and spectral indices. The result is a set of coefficients that can be used to translate observed colors and indices into stellar mass, star formation rate, and many other parameters, including the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rate, which we denote the Star Formation Acceleration (SFA), We apply the method to a test sample of galaxies with GALEX photometry and SDSS spectroscopy, deriving relationships between stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and SFA. We find evidence for a mass-dependent SFA in the green valley, with low-mass galaxies showing greater quenching and higher-mass galaxies greater bursting. We also find evidence for an increase in average quenching in galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus. A simple scenario in which lower-mass galaxies accrete and become satellite galaxies, having their star-forming gas tidally and/or ram-pressure stripped, while higher-mass galaxies receive this gas and react with new star formation, can qualitatively explain our results.

  13. Quenching or Bursting: Star Formation Acceleration—A New Methodology for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Darvish, Behnam; Seibert, Mark; Gonçalves, Thiago S.; Schiminovich, David

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new methodology for the direct extraction of galaxy physical parameters from multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy. We use semianalytic models that describe galaxy evolution in the context of large-scale cosmological simulation to provide a catalog of galaxies, star formation histories, and physical parameters. We then apply models of stellar population synthesis and a simple extinction model to calculate the observable broadband fluxes and spectral indices for these galaxies. We use a linear regression analysis to relate physical parameters to observed colors and spectral indices. The result is a set of coefficients that can be used to translate observed colors and indices into stellar mass, star formation rate, and many other parameters, including the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rate, which we denote the Star Formation Acceleration (SFA), We apply the method to a test sample of galaxies with GALEX photometry and SDSS spectroscopy, deriving relationships between stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and SFA. We find evidence for a mass-dependent SFA in the green valley, with low-mass galaxies showing greater quenching and higher-mass galaxies greater bursting. We also find evidence for an increase in average quenching in galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus. A simple scenario in which lower-mass galaxies accrete and become satellite galaxies, having their star-forming gas tidally and/or ram-pressure stripped, while higher-mass galaxies receive this gas and react with new star formation, can qualitatively explain our results.

  14. MASS TRANSPORT AND TURBULENCE IN GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISK GALAXIES. II. THE EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbaum, Nathan J. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1205 W. Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Forbes, John C., E-mail: ngoldbau@illinois.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Self-gravity and stellar feedback are capable of driving turbulence and transporting mass and angular momentum in disk galaxies, but the balance between them is not well understood. In the previous paper in this series, we showed that gravity alone can drive turbulence in galactic disks, regulate their Toomre Q parameters to ∼1, and transport mass inwards at a rate sufficient to fuel star formation in the centers of present-day galaxies. In this paper we extend our models to include the effects of star formation feedback. We show that feedback suppresses galaxies’ star formation rates by a factor of ∼5 and leads to the formation of a multi-phase atomic and molecular interstellar medium. Both the star formation rate and the phase balance produced in our simulations agree well with observations of nearby spirals. After our galaxies reach steady state, we find that the inclusion of feedback actually lowers the gas velocity dispersion slightly compared to the case of pure self-gravity, and also slightly reduces the rate of inward mass transport. Nevertheless, we find that, even with feedback included, our galactic disks self-regulate to Q ∼ 1, and transport mass inwards at a rate sufficient to supply a substantial fraction of the inner disk star formation. We argue that gravitational instability is therefore likely to be the dominant source of turbulence and transport in galactic disks, and that it is responsible for fueling star formation in the inner parts of galactic disks over cosmological times.

  15. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: spatially resolving the main sequence of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medling, Anne M.; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; Green, Andrew W.; Groves, Brent; Hampton, Elise; Ho, I.-Ting; Davies, Luke J. M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Schaefer, Adam L.; Taylor, Edward; Zafar, Tayyaba; Bekki, Kenji; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bloom, Jessica V.; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Catinella, Barbara; Cecil, Gerald; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Driver, Simon P.; Federrath, Christoph; Foster, Caroline; Goldstein, Gregory; Goodwin, Michael; Hopkins, Andrew; Lawrence, J. S.; Leslie, Sarah K.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Owers, Matt S.; McDermid, Richard; Richards, Samuel N.; Sharp, Robert; Scott, Nicholas; Sweet, Sarah M.; Taranu, Dan S.; Tescari, Edoardo; Tonini, Chiara; van de Sande, Jesse; Walcher, C. Jakob; Wright, Angus

    2018-04-01

    We present the ˜800 star formation rate maps for the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey based on H α emission maps, corrected for dust attenuation via the Balmer decrement, that are included in the SAMI Public Data Release 1. We mask out spaxels contaminated by non-stellar emission using the [O III]/H β, [N II]/H α, [S II]/H α, and [O I]/H α line ratios. Using these maps, we examine the global and resolved star-forming main sequences of SAMI galaxies as a function of morphology, environmental density, and stellar mass. Galaxies further below the star-forming main sequence are more likely to have flatter star formation profiles. Early-type galaxies split into two populations with similar stellar masses and central stellar mass surface densities. The main-sequence population has centrally concentrated star formation similar to late-type galaxies, while galaxies >3σ below the main sequence show significantly reduced star formation most strikingly in the nuclear regions. The split populations support a two-step quenching mechanism, wherein halo mass first cuts off the gas supply and remaining gas continues to form stars until the local stellar mass surface density can stabilize the reduced remaining fuel against further star formation. Across all morphologies, galaxies in denser environments show a decreased specific star formation rate from the outside in, supporting an environmental cause for quenching, such as ram-pressure stripping or galaxy interactions.

  16. Gas, dust, stars, star formation, and their evolution in M 33 at giant molecular cloud scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komugi, Shinya; Miura, Rie E.; Kuno, Nario; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2018-04-01

    We report on a multi-parameter analysis of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the nearby spiral galaxy M 33. A catalog of GMCs identifed in 12CO(J = 3-2) was used to compile associated 12CO(J = 1-0), dust, stellar mass, and star formation rate. Each of the 58 GMCs are categorized by their evolutionary stage. Applying the principal component analysis on these parameters, we construct two principal components, PC1 and PC2, which retain 75% of the information from the original data set. PC1 is interpreted as expressing the total interstellar matter content, and PC2 as the total activity of star formation. Young (activity compared to intermediate-age and older clouds. Comparison of average cloud properties in different evolutionary stages imply that GMCs may be heated or grow denser and more massive via aggregation of diffuse material in their first ˜ 10 Myr. The PCA also objectively identified a set of tight relations between ISM and star formation. The ratio of the two CO lines is nearly constant, but weakly modulated by massive star formation. Dust is more strongly correlated with the star formation rate than the CO lines, supporting recent findings that dust may trace molecular gas better than CO. Stellar mass contributes weakly to the star formation rate, reminiscent of an extended form of the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation with the molecular gas term substituted by dust.

  17. Approximations to galaxy star formation rate histories: properties and uses of two examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J. D.

    2018-05-01

    Galaxies evolve via a complex interaction of numerous different physical processes, scales and components. In spite of this, overall trends often appear. Simplified models for galaxy histories can be used to search for and capture such emergent trends, and thus to interpret and compare results of galaxy formation models to each other and to nature. Here, two approximations are applied to galaxy integrated star formation rate histories, drawn from a semi-analytic model grafted onto a dark matter simulation. Both a lognormal functional form and principal component analysis (PCA) approximate the integrated star formation rate histories fairly well. Machine learning, based upon simplified galaxy halo histories, is somewhat successful at recovering both fits. The fits to the histories give fixed time star formation rates which have notable scatter from their true final time rates, especially for quiescent and "green valley" galaxies, and more so for the PCA fit. For classifying galaxies into subfamilies sharing similar integrated histories, both approximations are better than using final stellar mass or specific star formation rate. Several subsamples from the simulation illustrate how these simple parameterizations provide points of contact for comparisons between different galaxy formation samples, or more generally, models. As a side result, the halo masses of simulated galaxies with early peak star formation rate (according to the lognormal fit) are bimodal. The galaxies with a lower halo mass at peak star formation rate appear to stall in their halo growth, even though they are central in their host halos.

  18. A perspective on the states` role in the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management budget process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.P.; Hinman, P. [Carter, Brock & Hinman, Boise, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Responding in 1994 to proposed budget reductions and predicted funding shortfalls, the Office of Environmental Management at the Department of Energy began working closely with its regulators and stakeholders to prioritize activities. In a series of national and site specific meetings held with representatives of states, the Environmental Protection Agency, Indian tribes and the public, the Department of Energy brought regulators and other stakeholders into its budget development process in a {open_quotes}bottoms up{close_quotes} approach to the prioritization of activities at each of its sites. This paper presents an overview of this process which began last year and will highlight its unique cooperative nature. This paper will assess ways of institutionalizing this process. It also identifies issues to be addressed in resolving matters related to future budgets. Areas of concern to the Department of Energy`s host states and their regulators will be identified as they relate to waste management, cleanup and facility transition activities.

  19. Proposed activity - Budget for research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, V.; Camerini, U.; Carlsmith, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper contains task reports on the following topics: Hadron physics at Fermilab; Lepton hadron scattering; Electroweak and weak interactions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Hyperon beam program/hadroproduction of heavy flavors at Fermilab; High energy physics colliding beam detector facility at Fermilab; Data analysis facility; Institute for Elementary Particle Physics research; Study of weak and electromagnetic interactions at Desy and Cern; Theoretical high energy physics; Dumand; and Ultra high energy gamma rays

  20. On the Relationship between Star Formation and Activity in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Delgado, Rosa M.

    1995-11-01

    This thesis is made of three main parts. In the first one a sample of 55 galaxies with an active nucleus (Seyfert 1, Seyfert2 and LINERs) is analysed; these were observed with the 4.2m WHT and 1m JKT in CCD narrow band H-alpha +[NII] and [OIII] to map the distribution of HII regions and the morphology of the circumnuclear extended emission associated with the active nucleus. The analysis of the extended emission and HII regions is carried out, as a function of the level of activity and of the Hubble type. One third of the sample shows circumnuclear HII regions, but only 9% of these are S1. The number surface density of the star forming sites and the location of the brightest HII region, indicates that in S2 the star formation is more important in the inner disk; however, in S1 the distribution of the star forming sites is more uniform with distance, and the brighest HII regions are farther away from the nucleus than in S2. The luminosity function, size distribution, the relationship between the Ha flux and the size, the emission measure, and the radial distribution of the HII regions in 27 out of the 55 galaxies of the sample are studied. This comprises a statistical analysis of more than 2000 HII regions. In the second part of this thesis the giant extragalactic HII region NGC 2363 and the starburst galaxy NGC 7714 are studied; they were observed in narrow band CCD H-alpha image with the JKT and spectroscopically from 3700 to 9600 A with the WHT. Both objects are experiencing intense star formation activity. Evidence of this comes from the detection of WC and WN emission features in NGC 2363 and in NGC 7714 respectively; this suggests an age of the present burst between 3 and 5 Myr. However, evidence for the existence of a previous burst in NGC 7714 comes from the detection of the infrared CaII triplet in absorption. The physical conditions and chemical composition of the gas are derived. In both cases, the metallicity is low (12+log O/H=7.89 for NGC 2363) and

  1. Energy budgets and resistances to energy transport in sparsely vegetated rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning available energy between plants and bare soil in sparsely vegetated rangelands will allow hydrologists and others to gain a greater understanding of water use by native vegetation, especially phreatophytes. Standard methods of conducting energy budget studies result in measurements of latent and sensible heat fluxes above the plant canopy which therefore include the energy fluxes from both the canopy and the soil. One-dimensional theoretical numerical models have been proposed recently for the partitioning of energy in sparse crops. Bowen ratio and other micrometeorological data collected over phreatophytes growing in areas of shallow ground water in central Nevada were used to evaluate the feasibility of using these models, which are based on surface and within-canopy aerodynamic resistances, to determine heat and water vapor transport in sparsely vegetated rangelands. The models appear to provide reasonably good estimates of sensible heat flux from the soil and latent heat flux from the canopy. Estimates of latent heat flux from the soil were less satisfactory. Sensible heat flux from the canopy was not well predicted by the present resistance formulations. Also, estimates of total above-canopy fluxes were not satisfactory when using a single value for above-canopy bulk aerodynamic resistance. ?? 1992.

  2. STAR FORMATION AT Z = 2.481 IN THE LENSED GALAXY SDSS J1110+6459: STAR FORMATION DOWN TO 30 PARSEC SCALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Traci L; Rigby, Jane R; Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D; Florian, Michael; Bayliss, Matthew B; Wuyts, Eva; Whitaker, Katherine E; Livermore, Rachael; Murray, Katherine T

    2017-07-10

    We present measurements of the surface density of star formation, the star-forming clump luminosity function, and the clump size distribution function, for the lensed galaxy SGAS J111020.0+645950.8 at a redshift of z =2.481. The physical size scales that we probe, radii r = 30-50 pc, are considerably smaller scales than have yet been studied at these redshifts. The star formation surface density we find within these small clumps is consistent with surface densities measured previously for other lensed galaxies at similar redshift. Twenty-two percent of the rest-frame ultraviolet light in this lensed galaxy arises from small clumps, with r star-forming regions smaller than 100 pc-physical scales not usually resolved at these redshifts by current telescopes-are important locations of star formation in the distant universe. If this galaxy is representative, this may contradict the theoretical picture in which the critical size scale for star formation in the distant universe is of order 1 kiloparsec. Instead, our results suggest that current telescopes have not yet resolved the critical size scales of star-forming activity in galaxies over most of cosmic time.

  3. Early-type galaxies at intermediate redshift observed with Hubble space telescope WFC3: perspectives on recent star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Michael J. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University 134, Shinchon-dong, Sudaemun-gu, Seoul 120-179 (Korea, Republic of); Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Kaviraj, Sugata [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Ryan, Russell E. Jr.; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Dopita, Michael A. [Research School of Physics and Astronomy, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of the stellar populations of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) with spectroscopic redshifts (0.35 ≲ z ≲ 1.5) from observations in the Early Release Science program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We fit one- and two-component synthetic stellar models to the ETGs UV-optical-near-IR spectral energy distributions and find that a large fraction (∼40%) are likely to have experienced a minor (f{sub YC} ≲ 10% of stellar mass) burst of recent (t{sub YC} ≲ 1 Gyr) star formation. The measured age and mass fraction of the young stellar populations do not strongly trend with measurements of galaxy morphology. We note that massive (M > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉}) recent star-forming ETGs appear to have larger sizes. Furthermore, high-mass, quiescent ETGs identified with likely companions populate a distinct region in the size-mass parameter space, in comparison with the distribution of massive ETGs with evidence of recent star formation (RSF). We conclude that both mechanisms of quenching star formation in disk-like ETGs and (gas-rich, minor) merger activity contribute to the formation of young stars and the size-mass evolution of intermediate redshift ETGs. The number of ETGs for which we have both HST WFC3 panchromatic (especially UV) imaging and spectroscopically confirmed redshifts is relatively small, therefore, a conclusion about the relative roles of both of these mechanisms remains an open question.

  4. KILOPARSEC-SCALE SIMULATIONS OF STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. I. THE UNMAGNETIZED AND ZERO-FEEDBACK LIMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loo, Sven; Butler, Michael J.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2013-01-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of self-gravitating dense gas on scales of 1 kpc down to ∼< parsec in a galactic disk, designed to study dense clump formation from giant molecular clouds (GMCs). These structures are expected to be the precursors to star clusters and this process may be the rate limiting step controlling star formation rates in galactic systems as described by the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We follow the thermal evolution of the gas down to ∼5 K using extinction-dependent heating and cooling functions. We do not yet include magnetic fields or localized stellar feedback, so the evolution of the GMCs and clumps is determined solely by self-gravity balanced by thermal and turbulent pressure support and the large-scale galactic shear. While cloud structures and densities change significantly during the simulation, GMC virial parameters remain mostly above unity for timescales exceeding the free-fall time of GMCs indicating that energy from galactic shear and large-scale cloud motions continuously cascades down to and within the GMCs. We implement star formation at a slow, inefficient rate of 2% per local free-fall time, but even this yields global star formation rates that are about two orders of magnitude larger than the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation due to overproduction of dense gas clumps. We expect a combination of magnetic support and localized stellar feedback is required to inhibit dense clump formation to ∼1% of the rate that results from the nonmagnetic, zero-feedback limit.

  5. MEASURING GALAXY STAR FORMATION RATES FROM INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY: INSIGHTS FROM COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS OF RESOLVED STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Benjamin D. [Institute d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Johnson, L. C.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Gil de Paz, Armando [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lee, Janice C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boquien, Mederic [Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France)

    2013-07-20

    We use empirical star formation histories (SFHs), measured from Hubble-Space-Telescope-based resolved star color-magnitude diagrams, as input into population synthesis codes to model the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies (6.5 < log M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} < 8.5, with metallicities {approx}10% solar). In the presence of realistic SFHs, we compare the modeled and observed SEDs from the ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared and assess the reliability of widely used UV-based star formation rate (SFR) indicators. In the FUV through i bands, we find that the observed and modeled SEDs are in excellent agreement. In the Spitzer 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands, we find that modeled SEDs systematically overpredict observed luminosities by up to {approx}0.2 dex, depending on treatment of the TP-AGB stars in the synthesis models. We assess the reliability of UV luminosity as a SFR indicator, in light of independently constrained SFHs. We find that fluctuations in the SFHs alone can cause factor of {approx}2 variations in the UV luminosities relative to the assumption of a constant SFH over the past 100 Myr. These variations are not strongly correlated with UV-optical colors, implying that correcting UV-based SFRs for the effects of realistic SFHs is difficult using only the broadband SED. Additionally, for this diverse sample of galaxies, we find that stars older than 100 Myr can contribute from <5%-100% of the present day UV luminosity, highlighting the challenges in defining a characteristic star formation timescale associated with UV emission. We do find a relationship between UV emission timescale and broadband UV-optical color, though it is different than predictions based on exponentially declining SFH models. Our findings have significant implications for the comparison of UV-based SFRs across low-metallicity populations with diverse SFHs.

  6. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  7. An evolutionary model for collapsing molecular clouds and their star formation activity. II. Mass dependence of the star formation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the evolution and dependence on cloud mass of the star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) of star-forming molecular clouds (MCs) within the scenario that clouds are undergoing global collapse and that the SFR is controlled by ionization feedback. We find that low-mass clouds (M {sub max} ≲ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) spend most of their evolution at low SFRs, but end their lives with a mini-burst, reaching a peak SFR ∼10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}, although their time-averaged SFR is only (SFR) ∼ 10{sup 2} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}. The corresponding efficiencies are SFE{sub final} ≲ 60% and (SFE) ≲ 1%. For more massive clouds (M {sub max} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), the SFR first increases and then reaches a plateau because the clouds are influenced by stellar feedback since earlier in their evolution. As a function of cloud mass, (SFR) and (SFE) are well represented by the fits (SFR) ≈ 100(1 + M {sub max}/1.4 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 1.68} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} and (SFE) ≈ 0.03(M {sub max}/2.5 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 0.33}, respectively. Moreover, the SFR of our model clouds follows closely the SFR-dense gas mass relation recently found by Lada et al. during the epoch when their instantaneous SFEs are comparable to those of the clouds considered by those authors. Collectively, a Monte Carlo integration of the model-predicted SFR(M) over a Galactic giant molecular cloud mass spectrum yields values for the total Galactic SFR that are within half an order of magnitude of the relation obtained by Gao and Solomon. Our results support the scenario that star-forming MCs may be in global gravitational collapse and that the low observed values of the SFR and SFE are a result of the interruption of each SF episode, caused primarily by the ionizing feedback from massive stars.

  8. GAS OUTFLOWS IN SEYFERT GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION VERSUS AGN FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melioli, C.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal, E-mail: claudio.melioli@iag.usp.br, E-mail: dalpino@iag.usp.br [Department of Astronomy (IAG-USP), University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-10-20

    Large-scale, weakly collimated outflows are very common in galaxies with large infrared luminosities. In complex systems in particular, where intense star formation (SF) coexists with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), it is not clear yet from observations whether the SF, the AGN, or both are driving these outflows. Accreting supermassive black holes are expected to influence their host galaxies through kinetic and radiative feedback processes, but in a Seyfert galaxy, where the energy emitted in the nuclear region is comparable to that of the body of the galaxy, it is possible that stellar activity is also playing a key role in these processes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the mechanisms driving the gas evolution especially at the nuclear regions of these galaxies, we have performed high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling considering the feedback from both SF regions, including supernova (Type I and II) explosions and an AGN jet emerging from the central region of the active spiral galaxy. We computed the gas mass lost by the system, separating the role of each of these injection energy sources on the galaxy evolution, and found that at scales within 1 kpc an outflow can be generally established considering intense nuclear SF only. The jet alone is unable to drive a massive gas outflow, although it can sporadically drag and accelerate clumps of the underlying outflow to very high velocities.

  9. THE HIGH ENERGY BUDGET ALLOCATIONS IN SHOCKS AND GAMMA RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, David; Guetta, Dafne; Pohl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The statistical distribution of energies among particles responsible for long gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission is analyzed in light of recent results of the Fermi Observatory. The all-sky flux, F γ , recorded by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is shown, despite its larger energy range, to be not significantly larger than that reported by the Burst and Transient Explorer, suggesting a relatively small flux in the 3-30 MeV energy range. The present-day energy input rate in γ-rays recorded by the GBM from long GRBs is found, assuming star formation rates in the literature, to be W-dot(0)=0.5 F γ H/c=5x10 42 erg Mpc -3 yr -1 . The Large Area Telescope fluence, when observed, is about 5%-10% per decade of the total, in good agreement with the predictions of saturated, nonlinear shock acceleration. The high-energy component of long GRBs, as measured by Fermi, is found to contain only ∼10 -2.5 of the energy needed to produce ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 4 EeV, assuming the latter to be extragalactic, when various numerical factors are carefully included, if the cosmic-ray source spectrum has a spectral index of -2. The observed γ-ray fraction of the required UHECR energy is even smaller if the source spectrum is softer than E -2 . The AMANDA II limits rule out such a GRB origin for UHECRs if much more than 10 -2 of the cosmic-ray energy goes into neutrinos that are within, and simultaneous with, the γ-ray beam. It is suggested that 'orphan' neutrinos out of the γ-ray beam might be identifiable via orphan afterglow or other wide angle signatures of GRBs in lieu of coincidence with prompt γ-rays, and it is recommended that feasible single neutrino trigger criteria be established to search for such coincidences.

  10. The Reliability of [C II] as a Star Formation Rate Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Looze Ilse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a calibration of the star formation rate (SFR as a function of the [C II] 157.74 μm luminosity for a sample of 24 star-forming galaxies in the nearby universe. In order to calibrate the SFR against the line luminosity, we rely on both GALEX FUV data, which is an ideal tracer of the unobscured star formation, and Spitzer MIPS 24 μm, to probe the dust-enshrouded fraction of star formation. For this sample of normal star-forming galaxies, the [C II] luminosity correlates well with the star formation rate. However, the extension of this relation to more quiescent (Hα EW≤10 Å or ultra luminous galaxies (LTIR ≥1012 L⊙ should be handled with caution, since these objects show a non-linearity in the L[C II]-to-LFIR ratio as a function of LFIR (and thus, their star formation activity. Two possible scenarios can be invoked to explain the tight correlation between the [C II] emission and the star formation activity on a global galaxy-scale. The first interpretation could be that the [C II] emission from photo dissociation regions arises from the immediate surroundings of actively star-forming regions and contributes a more or less constant fraction on a global galaxy-scale. Alternatively, we consider the possibility that the [C II] emission is associated to the cold interstellar medium, which advocates an indirect link with the star formation activity in a galaxy through the Schmidt law.

  11. Resolved star formation on sub-galactic scales in a merger at z = 1.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Rigby, Jane R.; Teng, Stacy H.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Sharon, Keren; Wuyts, Eva

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) G141 grism spectroscopy for seven star-forming regions of the highly magnified lensed starburst galaxy RCSGA 032727-132609 at z = 1.704. We measure the spatial variations of the extinction in RCS0327 through the observed Hγ/Hβ emission line ratios, finding a constant average extinction of E(B – V) gas = 0.40 ± 0.07. We infer that the star formation is enhanced as a result of an ongoing interaction, with measured star formation rates derived from demagnified, extinction-corrected Hβ line fluxes for the individual star-forming clumps falling >1-2 dex above the star formation sequence. When combining the HST/WFC3 [O III] λ5007/Hβ emission line ratio measurements with [N II]/Hα line ratios from Wuyts et al., we find that the majority of the individual star-forming regions fall along the local 'normal' abundance sequence. With the first detections of the He I λ5876 and He II λ4686 recombination lines in a distant galaxy, we probe the massive-star content of the star-forming regions in RCS0327. The majority of the star-forming regions have a He I λ5876 to Hβ ratio consistent with the saturated maximum value, which is only possible if they still contain hot O-stars. Two regions have lower ratios, implying that their last burst of new star formation ended ∼5 Myr ago. Together, the He I λ5876 and He II λ4686 to Hβ line ratios provide indirect evidence for the order in which star formation is stopping in individual star-forming knots of this high-redshift merger. We place the spatial variations of the extinction, star formation rate and ionization conditions in the context of the star formation history of RCS0327.

  12. Energy budget and propagation of faults via shearing and opening using work optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth H.; Cooke, Michele L.; McBeck, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    We present numerical models of faults propagating by work optimization in a homogeneous medium. These simulations allow quantification and comparison of the energy budgets of fault growth by shear versus tensile failure. The energy consumed by growth of a fault, Wgrow, propagating by in-line shearing is 76% of the total energy associated with that growth, while 24% is spent on frictional work during propagation. Wgrow for a fault propagating into intact rock by tensile failure, at an angle to the parent fault, consumes 60% of the work budget, while only 6% is consumed by frictional work associated with propagation. Following the conservation of energy, this leaves 34% of the energy budget available for other activities and suggests that out-of-plane propagation of faults in Earth's crust may release energy for other processes, such as permanent damage zone formation or rupture acceleration. Comparison of these estimates of Wgrow with estimates of the critical energy release rate and earthquake fracture energy at several scales underscores their theoretical similarities and their dependence on stress drop.

  13. Validation of a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model for the blue mussel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saraiva, S.; van der Meer, J.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Witbaard, R.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Hippler, D.; Parker, R.

    2012-01-01

    A model for bivalve growth was developed and the results were tested against field observations. The model is based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory and includes an extension of the standard DEB model to cope with changing food quantity and quality. At 4 different locations in the North Sea

  14. Parameterising a generic model for the dynamic energy budget of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, T.; Ravagnan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory is a generic and comprehensive framework for understanding bioenergetics over the entire life cycle of an organism. Here, we apply a simplified model derived from this theory (DEBkiss) to Antarctic krill Euphausia superba. The model was parameterised using growth

  15. When do mixotrophs specialize? Adaptive dynamics theory applied to a dynamic energy budget model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, T.A.; Kooi, B.W.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    In evolutionary history, several events have occurred at which mixotrophs specialized into pure autotrophs and heterotrophs. We studied the conditions under which such events take place, using the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory for physiological rules of the organisms' metabolism and Adaptive

  16. Impacts of Climate Change and Land use Changes on Land Surface Radiation and Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface radiation and energy budgets are critical to address a variety of scientific and application issues related to climate trends, weather predictions, hydrologic and biogeophysical modeling, and the monitoring of ecosystem health and agricultural crops. This is an introductory paper to t...

  17. Developing an Earth system Inverse model for the Earth's energy and water budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Thomas, C.; Liu, C.; Allan, R. P.; Carneiro, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The CONCEPT-Heat project aims at developing a consistent energy budget for the Earth system in order to better understand and quantify global change. We advocate a variational "Earth system inverse" solution as the best methodology to bring the necessary expertise from different disciplines together. L'Ecuyer et al (2015) and Rodell et al (2015) first used a variational approach to adjust multiple satellite data products for air-sea-land vertical fluxes of heat and freshwater, achieving closed budgets on a regional and global scale. However their treatment of horizontal energy and water redistribution and its uncertainties was limited. Following the recent work of Liu et al (2015, 2017) which used atmospheric reanalysis convergences to derive a new total surface heat flux product from top of atmosphere fluxes, we have revisited the variational budget approach introducing a more extensive analysis of the role of horizontal transports of heat and freshwater, using multiple atmospheric and ocean reanalysis products. We find considerable improvements in fluxes in regions such as the North Atlantic and Arctic, for example requiring higher atmospheric heat and water convergences over the Arctic than given by ERA-Interim, thereby allowing lower and more realistic oceanic transports. We explore using the variational uncertainty analysis to produce lower resolution corrections to higher resolution flux products and test these against in situ flux data. We also explore the covariance errors implied between component fluxes that are imposed by the regional budget constraints. Finally we propose this as a valuable methodology for developing consistent observational constraints on the energy and water budgets in climate models. We take a first look at the same regional budget quantities in CMIP5 models and consider the implications of the differences for the processes and biases active in the models. Many further avenues of investigation are possible focused on better valuing

  18. Energy Budget of Cosmological First-order Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, Jose R; No, Jose M; Servant, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    The study of the hydrodynamics of bubble growth in first-order phase transitions is very relevant for electroweak baryogenesis, as the baryon asymmetry depends sensitively on the bubble wall velocity, and also for predicting the size of the gravity wave signal resulting from bubble collisions, which depends on both the bubble wall velocity and the plasma fluid velocity. We perform such study in different bubble expansion regimes, namely deflagrations, detonations, hybrids (steady states) and runaway solutions (accelerating wall), without relying on a specific particle physics model. We compute the efficiency of the transfer of vacuum energy to the bubble wall and the plasma in all regimes. We clarify the condition determining the runaway regime and stress that in most models of strong first-order phase transitions this will modify expectations for the gravity wave signal. Indeed, in this case, most of the kinetic energy is concentrated in the wall and almost no turbulent fluid motions are expected since the s...

  19. Alterations in the energy budget of Arctic benthic species exposed to oil-related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway) and Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: gho@akvaplan.niva.noph; Sva, Eirin [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Carroll, JoLynn [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, Lionel [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Smolders, Roel [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Environmental Toxicology, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Overaas, Helene [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Multiconsult AS, Hoffsveien 1, N-0275 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2007-06-15

    We studied cellular energy allocation (CEA) in three Arctic benthic species (Gammarus setosus (Amphipoda), Onisimus litoralis (Amphipoda), and Liocyma fluctuosa (Bivalvia)) exposed to oil-related compounds. The CEA biomarker measures the energy budget of organisms by biochemically assessing changes in energy available (carbohydrates, protein and lipid content) and the integrated energy consumption (electron transport system activity (ETS) as the cellular aspect of respiration). Energy budget was measured in organisms subjected to water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and drill cuttings (DC) to evaluate whether these compounds affect the energy metabolism of the test species. We observed significantly lower CEA values and higher ETS activity in G. setosus subjected to WAF treatment compared to controls (p {<=} 0.03). Higher CEA value and lower cellular respiration were observed in O. litoralis exposed to DC compared to controls (p = 0.02). No difference in the energy budget of L. fluctuosa was observed between the treatments (p {>=} 0.19). Different responses to oil-related compounds between the three test species are likely the result of differences in feeding and burrowing behavior and species-specific sensitivity to petroleum-related compounds.

  20. DUST-CORRECTED STAR FORMATION RATES OF GALAXIES. I. COMBINATIONS OF Hα AND INFRARED TRACERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennicutt, Robert C.; Hao, C.-N.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Calzetti, Daniela; Moustakas, John; Dale, Daniel A.; Bendo, George; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Lee, Janice C.

    2009-01-01

    We combine Hα emission-line and infrared (IR) continuum measurements of two samples of nearby galaxies to derive dust attenuation-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). We use a simple energy balance based method that has been applied previously to H II regions in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey, and extend the methodology to integrated measurements of galaxies. We find that our composite Hα + IR based SFRs are in excellent agreement with attenuation-corrected SFRs derived from integrated spectrophotometry, over the full range of SFRs (0.01-80 M sun yr -1 ) and attenuations (0-2.5 mag) studied. We find that the combination of Hα and total IR luminosities provides the most robust SFR measurements, but combinations of Hα measurements with monochromatic luminosities at 24 μm and 8 μm perform nearly as well. The calibrations differ significantly from those obtained for H II regions, with the difference attributable to a more evolved population of stars heating the dust. Our results are consistent with a significant component of diffuse dust (the 'IR cirrus' component) that is heated by a non-star-forming population. The same methodology can be applied to [O II]λ3727 emission-line measurements, and the radio continuum fluxes of galaxies can be applied in place of IR fluxes when the latter are not available. We assess the precision and systematic reliability of all of these composite methods.

  1. A Study of Two Dwarf Irregular Galaxies with Asymmetrical Star Formation Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Gallardo, Samavarti; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Adamo, Angela; Cook, David O.; Oh, Se-Heon; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Kim, Hwihyun; Kahre, Lauren; Ubeda, Leonardo; Bright, Stacey N.; Ryon, Jenna E.; Fumagalli, Michele; Sacchi, Elena; Kennicutt, R. C.; Tosi, Monica; Dale, Daniel A.; Cignoni, Michele; Messa, Matteo; Grebel, Eva K.; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Sabbi, Elena; Grasha, Kathryn; Gallagher, John S., III; Calzetti, Daniela; Lee, Janice C.

    2018-03-01

    Two dwarf irregular galaxies, DDO 187 and NGC 3738, exhibit a striking pattern of star formation: intense star formation is taking place in a large region occupying roughly half of the inner part of the optical galaxy. We use data on the H I distribution and kinematics and stellar images and colors to examine the properties of the environment in the high star formation rate (HSF) halves of the galaxies in comparison with the low star formation rate halves. We find that the pressure and gas density are higher on the HSF sides by 30%–70%. In addition we find in both galaxies that the H I velocity fields exhibit significant deviations from ordered rotation and there are large regions of high-velocity dispersion and multiple velocity components in the gas beyond the inner regions of the galaxies. The conditions in the HSF regions are likely the result of large-scale external processes affecting the internal environment of the galaxies and enabling the current star formation there.

  2. The star formation history of the universe as viewed in the infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnelli, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the estimation of the cosmic star formation history of the Universe through the study of spectral properties of galaxies observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-and-far- infrared. My work begins with the extraction of sources contained in the Spitzer images and with the creation of multi- wavelengths catalogs. Using those catalogs I study the spectral properties of infrared galaxies and their evolution with redshift. From the comparison of these properties with the predictions of standard spectral libraries, I show that galaxies situated beyond z∼1.3 present significant evolutions in their spectral properties. Based on these spectral properties, I estimate the cosmic star formation history of the Universe from z∼0 to z∼2.3. This history is characterized by a sharp increase of the star formation density of the Universe form z∼0 and z∼1, followed by a stabilisation phase up to z∼2. This star formation density is dominated between z∼0.8 and z∼2 by luminous infrared galaxies with high star formation rate. Finally, I study the presence of the 3.3 um PAH signature in the spectrum of distant galaxies (0.5 3. (author) [fr

  3. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. III. DOES STELLAR FEEDBACK RESULT IN CLOUD DEATH?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Wadsley, James; Pudritz, Ralph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Stellar feedback, star formation, and gravitational interactions are major controlling forces in the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). To explore their relative roles, we examine the properties and evolution of GMCs forming in an isolated galactic disk simulation that includes both localized thermal feedback and photoelectric heating. The results are compared with the three previous simulations in this series, which consists of a model with no star formation, star formation but no form of feedback, and star formation with photoelectric heating in a set with steadily increasing physical effects. We find that the addition of localized thermal feedback greatly suppresses star formation but does not destroy the surrounding GMC, giving cloud properties closely resembling the run in which no stellar physics is included. The outflows from the feedback reduce the mass of the cloud but do not destroy it, allowing the cloud to survive its stellar children. This suggests that weak thermal feedback such as the lower bound expected for a supernova may play a relatively minor role in the galactic structure of quiescent Milky-Way-type galaxies, compared to gravitational interactions and disk shear.

  4. Correlating The Star Formation Histories Of MaNGA Galaxies With Their Past AGN Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Ortiz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We investigate active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a primary mechanism affecting star formation in MaNGA galaxies. Using the Pipe3D code, we modeled the stellar population from MaNGA spectra and derived the star formation histories of 53 AGN host galaxies. We seek to compare the star formation histories of the host galaxies of AGN with the ages of their radio lobes to better understand the role of AGN feedback in the star formation histories of MaNGA galaxies. MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is one of the three core programs in the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey(SDSS). MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematics of nearly 10,000 local galaxies through dithered observations using fiber integral field units (IFUs) that vary in diameter from 12" (19 fibers) to 32" (127 fibers). In this poster, we present initial results on the star formation histories of MaNGA AGN host galaxies. This work was supported by the SDSS Research Experience for Undergraduates program, which is funded by a grant from Sloan Foundation to the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  5. The distribution of star formation and metals in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. E.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Wang, Sharon X.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the MUSCEL Programme (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies), a project aimed at determining the star-formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies. MUSCEL utilizes ground-based optical spectra and space-based UV and IR photometry to fully constrain the star-formation histories of our targets with the aim of shedding light on the processes that led low surface brightness galaxies down a different evolutionary path from that followed by high surface brightness galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Here we present the spatially resolved optical spectra of UGC 628, observed with the VIRUS-P IFU at the 2.7-m Harlen J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and utilize emission-line diagnostics to determine the rate and distribution of star formation as well as the gas-phase metallicity and metallicity gradient. We find highly clustered star formation throughout UGC 628, excluding the core regions, and a log(O/H) metallicity around -4.2, with more metal-rich regions near the edges of the galactic disc. Based on the emission-line diagnostics alone, the current mode of star formation, slow and concentrated in the outer disc, appears to have dominated for quite some time, although there are clear signs of a much older stellar population formed in a more standard inside-out fashion.

  6. Star formation and galactic evolution. I. General expressions and applications to our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, M.

    1979-01-01

    The study of galactic evolution involves three mechanisms for triggering star formation in interstellar clouds: (i) star formation triggered by a galactic spiral density wave, (ii) star formation triggered by shock waves from supernovae, and (iii) star formation triggered by an expanding H II region. Useful analytic approximations to the birthrate per unit mass are obtained by treating the efficiencies of these various mechanisms as time independent. In situations where shock waves from high-mass stars (either expanding H II regions or supernova explosions) are the only important star-forming mechanisms, the birthrate is exponential in time. This case is appropriate for the past evolution of an elliptical galaxy, nuclear bulge, or galactic halo. In the disk of a spiral galaxy where all three mechanisms operate, the birthrate consists of an exponential term plus a time-independent term. In both situations, the value of the time constant T in the exponential term is directly related to the efficiency of the shock waves from massive stars in initiating star formation.For our Galaxy, this simplified model is used to compute the radial distributions of young objects and low-mass stars in the disk, and the past and present birthrates in the solar-neighborhood shell

  7. What FIREs Up Star Formation: the Emergence of the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law from Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Matthew E.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Chan, T. K.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Feldmann, Robert; Kereš, Dušan; Murray, Norman; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-05-01

    We present an analysis of the global and spatially-resolved Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) star formation relation in the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) suite of cosmological simulations, including halos with z = 0 masses ranging from 1010 - 1013 M⊙. We show that the KS relation emerges and is robustly maintained due to the effects of feedback on local scales regulating star-forming gas, independent of the particular small-scale star formation prescriptions employed. We demonstrate that the time-averaged KS relation is relatively independent of redshift and spatial averaging scale, and that the star formation rate surface density is weakly dependent on metallicity and inversely dependent on orbital dynamical time. At constant star formation rate surface density, the `Cold & Dense' gas surface density (gas with T 10 cm-3, used as a proxy for the molecular gas surface density) of the simulated galaxies is ˜0.5 dex less than observed at ˜kpc scales. This discrepancy may arise from underestimates of the local column density at the particle-scale for the purposes of shielding in the simulations. Finally, we show that on scales larger than individual giant molecular clouds, the primary condition that determines whether star formation occurs is whether a patch of the galactic disk is thermally Toomre-unstable (not whether it is self-shielding): once a patch can no longer be thermally stabilized against fragmentation, it collapses, becomes self-shielding, cools, and forms stars, regardless of epoch or environment.

  8. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. III. DOES STELLAR FEEDBACK RESULT IN CLOUD DEATH?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Wadsley, James; Pudritz, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Stellar feedback, star formation, and gravitational interactions are major controlling forces in the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). To explore their relative roles, we examine the properties and evolution of GMCs forming in an isolated galactic disk simulation that includes both localized thermal feedback and photoelectric heating. The results are compared with the three previous simulations in this series, which consists of a model with no star formation, star formation but no form of feedback, and star formation with photoelectric heating in a set with steadily increasing physical effects. We find that the addition of localized thermal feedback greatly suppresses star formation but does not destroy the surrounding GMC, giving cloud properties closely resembling the run in which no stellar physics is included. The outflows from the feedback reduce the mass of the cloud but do not destroy it, allowing the cloud to survive its stellar children. This suggests that weak thermal feedback such as the lower bound expected for a supernova may play a relatively minor role in the galactic structure of quiescent Milky-Way-type galaxies, compared to gravitational interactions and disk shear

  9. The Rose-red Glow of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The vivid red cloud in this new image from ESO's Very Large Telescope is a region of glowing hydrogen surrounding the star cluster NGC 371. This stellar nursery lies in our neighbouring galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The object dominating this image may resemble a pool of spilled blood, but rather than being associated with death, such regions of ionised hydrogen - known as HII regions - are sites of creation with high rates of recent star birth. NGC 371 is an example of this; it is an open cluster surrounded by a nebula. The stars in open clusters all originate from the same diffuse HII region, and over time the majority of the hydrogen is used up by star formation, leaving behind a shell of hydrogen such as the one in this image, along with a cluster of hot young stars. The host galaxy to NGC 371, the Small Magellanic Cloud, is a dwarf galaxy a mere 200 000 light-years away, which makes it one of the closest galaxies to the Milky Way. In addition, the Small Magellanic Cloud contains stars at all stages of their evolution; from the highly luminous young stars found in NGC 371 to supernova remnants of dead stars. These energetic youngsters emit copious amounts of ultraviolet radiation causing surrounding gas, such as leftover hydrogen from their parent nebula, to light up with a colourful glow that extends for hundreds of light-years in every direction. The phenomenon is depicted beautifully in this image, taken using the FORS1 instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). Open clusters are by no means rare; there are numerous fine examples in our own Milky Way. However, NGC 371 is of particular interest due to the unexpectedly large number of variable stars it contains. These are stars that change in brightness over time. A particularly interesting type of variable star, known as slowly pulsating B stars, can also be used to study the interior of stars through asteroseismology [1], and several of these have been confirmed in this cluster. Variable stars

  10. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. II. THE EFFECT OF STAR FORMATION AND PHOTOELECTRIC HEATING ON THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of star formation and diffuse photoelectric heating on the properties of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) formed in high-resolution (∼ H,c >100 cm -3 are identified as GMCs. Between 1000 and 1500 clouds are created in the simulations with masses M>10 5 M sun and 180-240 with masses M>10 6 M sun in agreement with estimates of the Milky Way's population. We find that the effect of photoelectric heating is to suppress the fragmentation of the interstellar medium, resulting in a filamentary structure in the warm gas surrounding clouds. This environment suppresses the formation of a retrograde rotating cloud population, with 88% of the clouds rotating prograde with respect to the galaxy after 300 Myr. The diffuse heating also reduces the initial star formation rate (SFR), slowing the conversation of gas into stars. We therefore conclude that the interstellar environment plays an important role in the GMC evolution. Our clouds live between 0 and 20 Myr with a high infant mortality (t' < 3 Myr) due to cloud mergers and star formation. Other properties, including distributions of mass, size, and surface density, agree well with observations. Collisions between our clouds are common, occurring at a rate of ∼ 1/4 of the orbital period. It is not clear whether such collisions trigger or suppress star formation at our current resolution. Our SFR is a factor of 10 higher than observations in local galaxies. This is likely due to the absence of localized feedback in our models.

  11. RECONCILING AGN-STAR FORMATION, THE SOLTAN ARGUMENT, AND MEIER’S PARADOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofalo, David [Department of Physics, Kennesaw State University, Marietta GA, 30060 (United States); Kim, Matthew I.; Christian, Damian J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge CA, 91330 (United States); Hollingworth, Emily [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA, 30332 (United States); Lowery, Aaron [Department of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, MS, 39762 (United States); Harmon, Matthew [Department of Physics, Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta GA, 30060 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We provide a theoretical context for understanding the recent work of Kalfountzou et al. showing that star formation is enhanced at lower optical luminosity in radio-loud quasars. Our proposal for coupling the assumption of collimated FRII quasar-jet-induced star formation with lower accretion optical luminosity also explains the observed jet power peak in active galaxies at higher redshift compared to the peak in accretion power, doing so in a way that predicts the existence of a family of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei associated with rapidly spinning supermassive black holes at low redshift, as mounting observations suggest. The relevance of this work lies in its promise to explain the observed cosmological evolution of accretion power, jet power, and star formation in a way that is both compatible with the Soltan argument and resolves the so-called “Meier Paradox.”.

  12. TEMPLATES: Targeting Extremely Magnified Panchromatic Lensed Arcs and Their Extended Star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Justin; Rigby, Jane R.; Vieira, Joaquin D.; TEMPLATES Team

    2018-06-01

    TEMPLATES is a JWST Early Release Science program designed to produce high signal-to-noise imaging and IFU spectroscopic data cubes for four gravitationally lensed galaxies at high redshift. The program will spatially resolve the star formation in galaxies across the peak of cosmic star formation in an extinction-robust manner. Lensing magnification pushes JWST to the highest spatial resolutions possible at these redshifts, to map the key spectral diagnostics of star formation and dust extinction: H-alpha, Pa-alpha, and 3.3um PAH emission within individual distant galaxies. Our targets are among the brightest, best-characterized lensed systems known, and include both UV-bright 'normal' galaxies and heavily dust-obscured submillimeter galaxies, at a range of stellar masses and luminosities. I will describe the scientific motivation for this program, detail the targeted galaxies, and describe the planned data products to be delivered to the community in advance of JWST Cycle 2.

  13. THE RISE AND FALL OF THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF BLUE GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS 0.2 < z < 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kassin, Susan A.; Gardner, Jonathan P. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2013-01-01

    Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitors, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use a sophisticated approach to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.2 < z < 1.4 from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey. This consists in the Bayesian analysis of the observed galaxy spectral energy distributions with a comprehensive library of synthetic spectra assembled using realistic, hierarchical star formation, and chemical enrichment histories from cosmological simulations. We constrain the SFH of each galaxy in our sample by comparing the observed fluxes in the B, R, I, and K{sub s} bands and rest-frame optical emission-line luminosities with those of one million model spectral energy distributions. We explore the dependence of the resulting SFHs on galaxy stellar mass and redshift. We find that the average SFHs of high-mass galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs widely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions may not be appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  14. 1996: BMBF expenditures for energy resrearch. Draft of the departmental federal budget 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Departmental budget 30 of the 1996 draft federal budget covers the activities of the German Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology (BMBF). The Ministry is the result of an amalgamation, in 1994, of the former Ministry for Education and Science (BMBW) and the former Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). For this reason, the total budget as indicated in the figures for 1995 and 1996 cannot be compared directly. The 1996 departmental budget No. 30 comprises a total of DM 15.62 (1995: 15.53) billion. Nuclear technology and nuclear research have desappeared almost completely as budgetary items and can be found only under the headings of Safety Research (DM 81/78 million) and Decommissioning (DM 259/232 million). A similar development was observed in recent years also with the change in names of German national research centers. However, this does not mean that the BMBF has completely withdrawn from nuclear research. These activities are now covered under more general items, such as 'Renewable Energies, Economical Use of Energy, Conversion and Combustion Technologies', for which expenditures of DM 290 (285) million have been earmarked in 1996. The BMBF makes available approx. DM 303 (290) million for investments into research centers, and approx. DM 1.32 (1.31) billion DM to cover their operating costs. The nuclear research share in these funds decreases steadily. DM 467 (472) million have been earmarked for basic research. (orig.) [de

  15. PROPERTIES OF BULGELESS DISK GALAXIES. II. STAR FORMATION AS A FUNCTION OF CIRCULAR VELOCITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Linda C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martini, Paul; Wong, Man-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lisenfeld, Ute [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Boeker, Torsten [European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: lwatson@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    We study the relation between the surface density of gas and star formation rate in 20 moderately inclined, bulgeless disk galaxies (Sd-Sdm Hubble types) using CO(1-0) data from the IRAM 30 m telescope, H I emission line data from the VLA/EVLA, H{alpha} data from the MDM Observatory, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission data derived from Spitzer IRAC observations. We specifically investigate the efficiency of star formation as a function of circular velocity (v{sub circ}). Previous work found that the vertical dust structure and disk stability of edge-on, bulgeless disk galaxies transition from diffuse dust lanes with large scale heights and gravitationally stable disks at v{sub circ} < 120 km s{sup -1} (M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }) to narrow dust lanes with small scale heights and gravitationally unstable disks at v{sub circ} > 120 km s{sup -1}. We find no transition in star formation efficiency ({Sigma}{sub SFR}/{Sigma}{sub Hi+H{sub 2}}) at v{sub circ} = 120 km s{sup -1} or at any other circular velocity probed by our sample (v{sub circ} = 46-190 km s{sup -1}). Contrary to previous work, we find no transition in disk stability at any circular velocity in our sample. Assuming our sample has the same dust structure transition as the edge-on sample, our results demonstrate that scale height differences in the cold interstellar medium of bulgeless disk galaxies do not significantly affect the molecular fraction or star formation efficiency. This may indicate that star formation is primarily affected by physical processes that act on smaller scales than the dust scale height, which lends support to local star formation models.

  16. Bursting star formation and the overabundance of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodigfee, G.; Deloore, C.

    1985-01-01

    The ratio of the number of WR-stars to their OB progenitors appears to be significantly higher in some extragalactic systems than in our Galaxy. This overabundance of Wolf-Rayet-stars can be explained as a consequence of a recent burst of star formation. It is suggested that this burst is the manifestation of a long period nonlinear oscillation in the star formation process, produced by positive feedback effects between young stars and the interstellar medium. Star burst galaxies with large numbers of WR-stars must generate gamma fluxes but due to the distance, all of them are beyond the reach of present-day detectors, except probably 30 Dor

  17. On a simple model for self-regulating star formation in the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusinger, H.

    1989-01-01

    Star formation in galaxies is a process with feedback to the interstellar medium (ISM) and possibly it is part of a self-regulating cycle. Dopita (1985) proposed a model in which star formation in spiral and irregular galaxies is self-regulated by the pressure in the ISM. In the present paper it is shown that available data for radial distributions of gas, total mass and the flux of Lyman continuum photons in the disk of our galaxy do not support such a simple model. Several possible causes are discussed. (author)

  18. The different star formation histories of blue and red spiral and elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Masters, Karen L.; Richards, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Bamford, Steven P.; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C.; Skibba, Ramin; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We study the spectral properties of intermediate mass galaxies (M* ˜ 1010.7 M⊙) as a function of colour and morphology. We use Galaxy Zoo to define three morphological classes of galaxies, namely early types (ellipticals), late-type (disc-dominated) face-on spirals and early-type (bulge-dominated) face-on spirals. We classify these galaxies as blue or red according to their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g - r colour and use the spectral fitting code Versatile Spectral Analyses to calculate time-resolved star formation histories, metallicity and total starlight dust extinction from their SDSS fibre spectra. We find that red late-type spirals show less star formation in the last 500 Myr than blue late-type spirals by up to a factor of 3, but share similar star formation histories at earlier times. This decline in recent star formation explains their redder colour: their chemical and dust content are the same. We postulate that red late-type spirals are recent descendants of blue late-type spirals, with their star formation curtailed in the last 500 Myr. The red late-type spirals are however still forming stars ≃17 times faster than red ellipticals over the same period. Red early-type spirals lie between red late-type spirals and red ellipticals in terms of recent-to-intermediate star formation and dust content. Therefore, it is plausible that these galaxies represent an evolutionary link between these two populations. They are more likely to evolve directly into red ellipticals than red late-type spirals, which show star formation histories and dust content closer to blue late-type spirals. Blue ellipticals show similar star formation histories as blue spirals (regardless of type), except that they have formed less stars in the last 100 Myr. However, blue ellipticals have different dust content, which peaks at lower extinction values than all spiral galaxies. Therefore, many blue ellipticals are unlikely to be descendants of blue spirals, suggesting there may

  19. THE RISE AND FALL OF THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF BLUE GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS 0.2 < z < 1.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Kassin, Susan A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Weiner, Benjamin; Charlot, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitors, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use a sophisticated approach to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.2 s bands and rest-frame optical emission-line luminosities with those of one million model spectral energy distributions. We explore the dependence of the resulting SFHs on galaxy stellar mass and redshift. We find that the average SFHs of high-mass galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs widely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions may not be appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  20. Explaining Earths Energy Budget: CERES-Based NASA Resources for K-12 Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K.; Marvel, M. T.; Ruhlman, K.; LaPan, J.; Lewis, P.; Madigan, J.; Oostra, D.; Taylor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Among atmospheric scientists, the importance of the Earth radiation budget concept is well understood. Papers have addressed the topic for over 100 years, and the large Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (among others), with its multiple on-orbit instruments, is working hard to quantify the details of its various parts. In education, Earth's energy budget is a concept that generally appears in middle school and Earth science curricula, but its treatment in textbooks leaves much to be desired. Students and the public hold many misconceptions, and very few people have an appreciation for the importance of this energy balance to the conditions on Earth. More importantly, few have a correct mental model that allows them to make predictions and understand the effect of changes such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. As an outreach element of the core CERES team at NASA Langley, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, educators, graphic artists, writers, and web developers has been developing and refining graphics and resources to explain the Earth's Energy budget over the last few decades. Resources have developed through an iterative process involving ongoing use in front of a variety of audiences, including students and teachers from 3rd to 12th grade as well as public audiences.

  1. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs - FY 2008 Budget Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE's programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs. Benefits for the FY 2008 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2008-2030) and long term (2030-2050).

  2. SPITZER ANALYSIS OF H II REGION COMPLEXES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS: DETERMINING A SUITABLE MONOCHROMATIC OBSCURED STAR FORMATION INDICATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, B.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Babler, B.; Bracker, S.; Meade, M.; Block, M.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Misselt, K.; Bolatto, A. D.; Carlson, L. R.; Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T.; Indebetouw, R.; Madden, S. C.; Oey, M. S.; Oliveira, J. M.; Vijh, U. P.

    2010-01-01

    H II regions are the birth places of stars, and as such they provide the best measure of current star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies. The close proximity of the Magellanic Clouds allows us to probe the nature of these star forming regions at small spatial scales. To study the H II regions, we compute the bolometric infrared flux, or total infrared (TIR), by integrating the flux from 8 to 500 μm. The TIR provides a measure of the obscured star formation because the UV photons from hot young stars are absorbed by dust and re-emitted across the mid-to-far-infrared (IR) spectrum. We aim to determine the monochromatic IR band that most accurately traces the TIR and produces an accurate obscured SFR over large spatial scales. We present the spatial analysis, via aperture/annulus photometry, of 16 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 16 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) H II region complexes using the Spitzer Space Telescope's IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 8 μm) and MIPS (24, 70, 160 μm) bands. Ultraviolet rocket data (1500 and 1900 A) and SHASSA Hα data are also included. All data are convolved to the MIPS 160 μm resolution (40 arcsec full width at half-maximum), and apertures have a minimum radius of 35''. The IRAC, MIPS, UV, and Hα spatial analysis are compared with the spatial analysis of the TIR. We find that nearly all of the LMC and SMC H II region spectral energy distributions (SEDs) peak around 70 μm at all radii, from ∼10 to ∼400 pc from the central ionizing sources. As a result, we find the following: the sizes of H II regions as probed by 70 μm are approximately equal to the sizes as probed by TIR (∼70 pc in radius); the radial profile of the 70 μm flux, normalized by TIR, is constant at all radii (70 μm ∼ 0.45TIR); the 1σ standard deviation of the 70 μm fluxes, normalized by TIR, is a lower fraction of the mean (0.05-0.12 out to ∼220 pc) than the normalized 8, 24, and 160 μm normalized fluxes (0.12-0.52); and these results are the same for the LMC and the

  3. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE HOSTS OF LOW-EXCITATION RADIO GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Cameron; Salim, Samir, E-mail: cameronpace@suu.edu, E-mail: salims@indiana.edu [Indiana University, Department of Astronomy, Swain Hall West 319, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The feedback from radio-loud active galactic nuclei (R-AGNs) may help maintain low star-formation (SF) rates in their early-type hosts, but the observational evidence for this mechanism has been inconclusive. We study systematic differences of aggregate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of various subsets of ∼4000 low-redshift R-AGNs from Best and Heckman with respect to (currently) inactive control samples selected to have matching redshift, stellar mass, population age, axis ratio, and environment. Aggregate SEDs, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 22 μm), were constructed using a Bayesian method that eliminates biases from non-detections in Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. We study rare high-excitation sources separately from low-excitation ones, which we split by environment and host properties. We find that both the UV and mid-IR emission of non-cluster R-AGNs (80% of sample) are suppressed by ∼0.2 dex relative to that of the control group, especially for moderately massive galaxies (log M{sub *} ≲ 11). The difference disappears for high-mass R-AGNs and for R-AGNs in clusters, where other, non-AGN quenching/maintenance mechanisms may dominate, or where the suppression of SF due to AGNs may persist between active phases of the central engine, perhaps because of the presence of a hot gaseous halo storing AGN energy. High-excitation (high accretion rate) sources, which make up 2% of the R-AGN sample, do not show any evidence of SF suppression (their UV is the same as in controls), but they exhibit a strong mid-IR excess due to AGN dust heating.

  4. Effects of soil tillage on the energy budget of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casa, R.; Cascio, B. lo

    1997-01-01

    The different terms of the energy budget were measured by the Bowen ratio method on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown on a conventional tillage and a direct drilling system. The differences found in the energy budgets varied according to the degree of fractional ground cover and of soil water availability. Soil heat flux was greater for the direct drilling treatment, although soil heating was slower as compared to the conventional tillage. Comparisons for well watered and dry conditions revealed that the conventional tillage system used as latent heat a fraction of net radiation greater than the direct drilling treatment only in well watered conditions. In dry conditions the differences in latent heat fluxes and canopy resistances between the two tillage systems were smaller [it

  5. 1998: BMBF expenditures for energy research. Draft of the departmental federal budget No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Departmental budget No. 30 in the 1998 draft federal budget covers the activities of the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF). Its level of DM 14 950 million represents a 0,9% increase from the funds earmarked for the current year of 1997. DM 70 million is to be spent on safety research for nuclear plants, and DM 228 million has been planned for decommissioning and demolition of nuclear experimental and demonstration plants. The operation of, and investments into, the research centers are funded to the tune of DM 1307 million and DM 339 million, respectively. Institutions of basic research will receive DM 434 million, and renewable energies, economical energy uses, conversion and combustion technologies will be funded in the amount of DM 238 million. (orig.) [de

  6. Star-Formation Histories, Abundances, and Kinematics of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Hill, Vanessa; Tosi, Monica; Blandford, R; Kormendy, J; VanDishoeck, E

    2009-01-01

    Within the Local Universe galaxies can be studied in great detail star by star, and here we review the results of quantitative studies in nearby dwarf galaxies. The color-magnitude diagram synthesis method is well established as the most accurate way to determine star-formation histories of galaxies

  7. Exploring simulated early star formation in the context of the ultrafaint dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Wise, John H.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are typically assumed to have simple, stellar populations with star formation ending at reionization. Yet as the observations of these galaxies continue to improve, their star formation histories (SFHs) are revealed to be more complicated than previously thought. In this paper, we study how star formation, chemical enrichment, and mixing proceed in small, dark matter haloes at early times using a high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. The goals are to inform the future use of analytic models and to explore observable properties of the simulated haloes in the context of UFD data. Specifically, we look at analytic approaches that might inform metal enrichment within and beyond small galaxies in the early Universe. We find that simple assumptions for modelling the extent of supernova-driven winds agree with the simulation on average, whereas inhomogeneous mixing and gas flows have a large effect on the spread in simulated stellar metallicities. In the context of the UFDs, this work demonstrates that simulations can form haloes with a complex SFH and a large spread in the metallicity distribution function within a few hundred Myr in the early Universe. In particular, bursty and continuous star formation are seen in the simulation and both scenarios have been argued from the data. Spreads in the simulated metallicities, however, remain too narrow and too metal-rich when compared to the UFDs. Future work is needed to help reduce these discrepancies and advance our interpretation of the data.

  8. A SPITZER CENSUS OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE PIPE NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbrich, Jan; Lada, Charles J.; Muench, August A.; Alves, Joao; Lombardi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The Pipe Nebula, a large nearby molecular cloud, lacks obvious signposts of star formation in all but one of more than 130 dust extinction cores that have been identified within it. In order to quantitatively determine the current level of star formation activity in the Pipe Nebula, we analyzed 13 deg 2 of sensitive mid-infrared maps of the entire cloud, obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer at wavelengths of 24 μm and 70 μm, to search for candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the high-extinction regions. We argue that our search is complete for class I and typical class II YSOs with luminosities of L bol ∼ 0.2 L sun and greater. We find only 18 candidate YSOs in the high-extinction regions of the entire Pipe cloud. Twelve of these sources are previously known members of a small cluster associated with Barnard 59, the largest and most massive dense core in the cloud. With only six candidate class I and class II YSOs detected toward extinction cores outside of this cluster, our findings emphatically confirm the notion of an extremely low level of star formation activity in the Pipe Nebula. The resulting star formation efficiency for the entire cloud mass is only ∼0.06%.

  9. Global and radial variations in the efficiency of massive star formation among galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.E.; Young, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the regions within galaxies which give rise to the most efficient star formation and to test the hypothesis that galaxies with high infrared luminosities per unit molecular mass are efficiently producing high mass stars, researchers have undertaken an H alpha imaging survey in galaxies whose CO distributions have been measured as part of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) Extragalactic CO Survey. From these images researchers have derived global H alpha fluxes and distributions for comparison with far infrared radiation (FIR) fluxes and CO fluxes and distributions. Here, researchers present results on the global massive star formation efficiency (SFE = L sub H sub alpha/M(H2)) as a function of morphological type and environment, and on the radial distribution of the SFE within both peculiar and isolated galaxies. On the basis of comparison of the global L sub H sub alpha/M(H2) and L sub FIR/M(H2) for 111 galaxies, researchers conclude that environment rather than morphological type has the strongest effect on the global efficiency of massive star formation. Based on their study of a small sample, they find that the largest radial gradients are observed in the interacting/peculiar galaxies, indicating that environment affects the star formation efficiency within galaxies as well

  10. The resolved star formation history of M51a through successive Bayesian marginalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; Bruzual, Gustavo; Magris C., Gladis; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.

    2018-02-01

    We have obtained the time and space-resolved star formation history (SFH) of M51a (NGC 5194) by fitting Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), Sloan Digital Sky Survey and near-infrared pixel-by-pixel photometry to a comprehensive library of stellar population synthesis models drawn from the Synthetic Spectral Atlas of Galaxies (SSAG). We fit for each space-resolved element (pixel) an independent model where the SFH is averaged in 137 age bins, each one 100 Myr wide. We used the Bayesian Successive Priors (BSP) algorithm to mitigate the bias in the present-day spatial mass distribution. We test BSP with different prior probability distribution functions (PDFs); this exercise suggests that the best prior PDF is the one concordant with the spatial distribution of the stellar mass as inferred from the near-infrared images. We also demonstrate that varying the implicit prior PDF of the SFH in SSAG does not affect the results. By summing the contributions to the global star formation rate of each pixel, at each age bin, we have assembled the resolved SFH of the whole galaxy. According to these results, the star formation rate of M51a was exponentially increasing for the first 10 Gyr after the big bang, and then turned into an exponentially decreasing function until the present day. Superimposed, we find a main burst of star formation at t ≈ 11.9 Gyr after the big bang.

  11. Comparing simulations of ionization triggered star formation and observations in RCW 120

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walch, S.; Whitworth, A.; Bisbas, T.; Hubber, D.A.; Wünsch, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 452, č. 3 (2015), s. 2794-2803 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : hydrodynamics * stars formation * ISM bubbles Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.952, year: 2015

  12. STAR FORMATION IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS: CONTINUOUS OR SINGLE-AGE BURSTS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, David; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Sutherland, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    We model the chemical evolution of six ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs): Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I based on their recently determined star formation histories. We show that two single-age bursts cannot explain the observed [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] distribution in these galaxies and that some self-enrichment is required within the first burst. An alternative scenario is modeled, in which star formation is continuous except for short interruptions when one or more supernovae temporarily blow the dense gas out from the center of the system. This model allows for self-enrichment and can reproduce the chemical abundances of the UFDs in which the second burst is only a trace population. We conclude that the most likely star formation history is one or two extended periods of star formation, with the first burst lasting for at least 100 Myr. As found in earlier work, the observed properties of UFDs can be explained by formation at a low mass (M vir ∼10 7 M ⊙ ), rather than being stripped remnants of much larger systems

  13. EARLY-STAGE MASSIVE STAR FORMATION NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: Sgr C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrew, S.; Johnston, K.; Beuther, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ginsburg, A.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C. [CASA, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cyganowski, C. J., E-mail: kendrew@mpia.de [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified site of high mass star formation likely to be located in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) near Sgr C. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved H II region associated with Sgr C, the area is characterized by an Extended Green Object (EGO) measuring ∼10'' in size (0.4 pc), whose observational characteristics suggest the presence of an embedded massive protostar driving an outflow. Our data confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C H II region, with detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H{sub 2} and Brackett γ emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ∼10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}, with column densities of 1-2 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. We show the host molecular cloud to hold ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} of gas and dust with temperatures and column densities favorable for massive star formation to occur, however, there is no evidence of star formation outside of the EGO, indicating that the cloud is predominantly quiescent. Given its mass, density, and temperature, the cloud is comparable to other remarkable non-star-forming clouds such as G0.253 in the eastern CMZ.

  14. Ionizing feedback from massive stars in massive clusters: fake bubbles and untriggered star formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dale, James E.; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 414, č. 1 (2011), s. 321-328 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars formation * H II regions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2011

  15. Stochastic self-propagating star formation in three-dimensional disk galaxy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statler, T.; Comins, N.; Smith, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Stochastic self-propagating star formation (SSPSF) is a process of forming new stars through the compression of the interstellar medium by supernova shock waves. Coupling this activity with galactic differential rotation produces spiral structure in two-dimensional disk galaxy simulations. In this paper the first results of a three-dimensional SSPSF simulation of disk galaxies are reported. Our model generates less impressive spirals than do the two-dimensional simulations. Although some spirals do appear in equilibrium, more frequently we observe spirals as non-equilibrium states of the models: as the spiral arms evolve, they widen until the spiral structure is no longer discernible. The two free parameters that we vary in this study are the probability of star formation due to a recent, nearby explosion, and the relaxation time for the interstellar medium to return to a condition of maximum star formation after it has been cleared out by an explosion and subsequent star formation. We find that equilibrium spiral structure is formed over a much smaller range of these parameters in our three-dimensional SSPSF models than in similar two-dimensional models. We discuss possible reasons for these results as well as improvements on the model which are being explored

  16. Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies. (Ludwig Biermann Award Lecture 1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebel, E. K.

    The star formation histories of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group are reviewed. First the question of Local Group membership is considered based on various criteria. The properties of 31 (36) galaxies are consistent with likely (potential) Local Group membership. To study the star formation histories of these galaxies, a multi-parameter problem needs to be solved: Ages, metallicities, population fractions, and spatial variations must be determined, which depend crucially on the knowledge of reddening and distance. The basic methods for studying resolvable stellar populations are summarized. One method is demonstrated using the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. A comprehensive compilation of the star formation histories of dwarf irregulars, dwarf ellipticals, and dwarf spheroidals in the Local Group is presented and visualized through Hodge's population boxes. All galaxies appear to have differing fractions of old and intermediate-age populations, and those sufficiently massive and undisturbed to retain and recycle their gas are still forming stars today. Star formation has occurred either in distinct episodes or continuously over long periods of time. Metallicities and enrichment vary widely. Constraints on merger and remnant scenarios are discussed, and a unified picture based on the current knowledge is presented. Primary goals for future observations are: accurate age determinations based on turnoff photometry, detection of subpopulations distinct in age, metallicity, and/or spatial distribution; improved distances; and astrometric studies to derive orbits and constrain past and future interactions.

  17. The DiskMass Survey. VIII. On the Relationship between Disk Stability and Star Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Swaters, Robert A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the stability level of late-type galaxy disks and their star-formation activity using integral-field gaseous and stellar kinematic data. Specifically, we compare the two-component (gas+stars) stability parameter from Romeo & Wiegert (Q RW), incorporating stellar

  18. STAR FORMATION IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS: CONTINUOUS OR SINGLE-AGE BURSTS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, David; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sutherland, Ralph, E-mail: d.webster@physics.usyd.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2015-01-30

    We model the chemical evolution of six ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs): Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I based on their recently determined star formation histories. We show that two single-age bursts cannot explain the observed [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] distribution in these galaxies and that some self-enrichment is required within the first burst. An alternative scenario is modeled, in which star formation is continuous except for short interruptions when one or more supernovae temporarily blow the dense gas out from the center of the system. This model allows for self-enrichment and can reproduce the chemical abundances of the UFDs in which the second burst is only a trace population. We conclude that the most likely star formation history is one or two extended periods of star formation, with the first burst lasting for at least 100 Myr. As found in earlier work, the observed properties of UFDs can be explained by formation at a low mass (M{sub vir}∼10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}), rather than being stripped remnants of much larger systems.

  19. AGN feedback in action? - outflows and star formation in type 2 AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Hak

    2017-01-01

    We present the statistical constraints on the ionized gas outflows and their connection to star formation, using a large sample of ~110,000 AGNs and star-forming galaxies at z dispersion of star forming galaxies can be entirely accounted by the gravitational potential of host galaxies, AGNs clearly show non-gravitational kinematics, which is comparable to or stronger than the virial motion caused by the gravitational potential. Second, the distribution in the [OIII] velocity - velocity dispersion diagram dramatically expands toward large values with increasing AGN luminosity, implying that the outflows are AGN-driven. Third, the fraction of AGNs with a signature of outflow kinematics, steeply increases with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. In particular, the majority of luminous AGNs presents strong non-gravitational kinematics in the [OIII] profile. Interestingly, we find that the specific star formation of non-outflow AGNs is much lower than that of strong outflow AGNs, while the star formation rate of strong outflow AGNs is comparable to that of star forming galaxies. We interpret this trend as a delayed AGN feedback as it takes dynamical time for the outflows to suppress star formation in galactic scales.

  20. Starless Clumps and the Earliest Phases of High-mass Star Formation in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Brian

    2018-01-01

    High-mass stars are key to regulating the interstellar medium, star formation activity, and overall evolution of galaxies, but their formation remains an open problem in astrophysics. In order to understand the physical conditions during the earliest phases of high-mass star formation, I report on observational studies of dense starless clump candidates (SCCs) that show no signatures of star formation activity. I identify 2223 SCCs from the 1.1 mm Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey, systematically analyze their physical properties, and show that the starless phase is not represented by a single timescale, but evolves more rapidly with increasing clump mass. To investigate the sub-structure in SCCs at high spatial resolution, I study the 12 most high-mass SCCs within 5 kpc using ALMA. I report previously undetected low-luminosity protostars in 11 out of 12 SCCs, fragmentation equal to the thermal Jeans length of the clump, and no starless cores exceeding 30 solar masses. While uncertainties remain concerning the star formation effeciency in this sample, these observational facts are consistent with models where high-mass stars form from intially low- to intermediate-mass protostars that accrete most of their mass from the surrounding clump.

  1. A MID-INFRARED CENSUS OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Miranda K.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Evans, Neal J. II; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Cyganowski, Claudia J.; Urquhart, James

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a search for mid-infrared signs of star formation activity in the 1.1 mm sources in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). We have correlated the BGPS catalog with available mid-IR Galactic plane catalogs based on the Spitzer Space Telescope GLIMPSE legacy survey and the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Galactic plane survey. We find that 44% (3712 of 8358) of the BGPS sources contain at least one mid-IR source, including 2457 of 5067 (49%) within the area where all surveys overlap (10 deg. s tarlessBGPS sources which were not matched to any mid-IR sources. The mean 1.1 mm flux of each group increases with increasing probability of active star formation. We also find that the 'starless' BGPS sources are the most compact, while the sources with the highest probability of star formation activity are on average more extended with large skirts of emission. A subsample of 280 BGPS sources with known distances demonstrates that mass and mean H 2 column density also increase with probability of star formation activity.

  2. Kinematic evidence for feedback-driven star formation in NGC 1893

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, Michael S.; Lee, Sangwoo; Lee, Jae Joon; Oh, Heeyoung; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon; Hur, Hyeonoh; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Park, Sunkyung

    2018-06-01

    OB associations are the prevailing star-forming sites in the Galaxy. Up to now, the process of how OB associations were formed remained a mystery. A possible process is self-regulating star formation driven by feedback from massive stars. However, although a number of observational studies uncovered various signposts of feedback-driven star formation, the effectiveness of such feedback has been questioned. Stellar and gas kinematics is a promising tool to capture the relative motion of newborn stars and gas away from ionizing sources. We present high-resolution spectroscopy of stars and gas in the young open cluster NGC 1893. Our findings show that newborn stars and the tadpole nebula Sim 130 are moving away from the central cluster containing two O-type stars, and that the time-scale of sequential star formation is about 1 Myr within a 9 pc distance. The newborn stars formed by feedback from massive stars account for at least 18 per cent of the total stellar population in the cluster, suggesting that this process can play an important role in the formation of OB associations. These results support the self-regulating star formation model.

  3. Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J L; Beck, S C; Benford, D J; Consiglio, S M; Ho, P T P; Kovács, A; Meier, D S; Zhao, J-H

    2015-03-19

    Gas clouds in present-day galaxies are inefficient at forming stars. Low star-formation efficiency is a critical parameter in galaxy evolution: it is why stars are still forming nearly 14 billion years after the Big Bang and why star clusters generally do not survive their births, instead dispersing to form galactic disks or bulges. Yet the existence of ancient massive bound star clusters (globular clusters) in the Milky Way suggests that efficiencies were higher when they formed ten billion years ago. A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young star cluster that provides an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection of the J = 3→2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by the embedded star cluster. Its star-formation efficiency exceeds 50 per cent, tenfold that of clouds in the Milky Way. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy.

  4. ALMA observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: deep limits on obscured star formation 630 million years after the big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Chary, R.-R.; Laskar, T.; Chornock, R.; Davies, J. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, University of Colorado UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F {sub ν}(222 GHz) ≲ 33 μJy and F {sub ν}(3.6 μm) ≲ 81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp 220 and comparable to the local starburst M 82. Comparing this with model spectral energy distributions, we place a limit on the infrared (IR) luminosity of L {sub IR}(8-1000 μm) ≲ 3 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFR{sub IR}≲5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. For comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFR{sub UV} ≲ 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of M {sub *} ≲ 5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z ≳ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z ≳ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  5. Interstellar Medium and Star Formation Studies with the Square

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala,. Thiruvananthapuram ... which describes the details of the processes that drive formation of stars ..... This is primarily because, most of the commonly used direct observational ... tive spectral indices will allow us to infer the energy spectrum of the population of.

  6. A new model of spiral galaxies based on propagating star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, John

    1996-01-01

    Many models exist in the literature of either star formation or galactic structure, but the former concentrate on small-scale details, whilst the latter, if they include star formation at all, adopt a very simple approach, for example by assuming a power law relationship between the rate of star formation and the gas density (a Schmidt Law). The new model described in this dissertation bridges the gap between these two extremes by adopting a simple, but not simplistic, approach to the detailed physics, allowing the effects of star formation on the broader scale to be investigated. 'Propagating star formation' considers the collapse of molecular clouds (and subsequent creation of new stars) to be triggered by the passage of a shock wave resulting from the supernovae explosions of members of the previous generation of stars. The approach taken is a stochastic one, i.e. we determine from the mass of a cloud the probability of star formation occurring, given that it has been shocked. Models using a similar approach have been described before, but the new model is unique in that it uses a particulate representation of the gas clouds and stellar associations. This permits us to simulate collisions between the particles as they orbit in a realistic galactic gravitational potential and more importantly, to impose a spiral density wave perturbation in a natural way. Such waves arise naturally in N-body simulations where the collective forces between particles are considered explicitly, but we are more interested in its effect on the star formation rate, and hence to make the code more manageable, impose the perturbation by hand. The model has been extremely successful; for example, predicting accurately, with no free parameters, the cluster formation rate for the Milky Way. A Schmidt Law arises as a natural consequence and with a power law index which is consistent with observational constraints. A wide range of galactic morphologies can be produced, including long

  7. MAPPING THE RECENT STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE DISK OF M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleida, Catherine; Scowen, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data acquired as part of a unique Hubble Heritage imaging program of broadband colors of the interacting spiral system M51/NGC 5195, we have conducted a photometric study of the stellar associations across the entire disk of the galaxy in order to assess trends in size, luminosity, and local environment associated with the recent star formation (SF) activity in the system. Starting with a sample of over 900 potential associations, we have produced color-magnitude and color-color diagrams for the 120 associations that were deemed to be single-aged. It has been found that main-sequence (MS) turnoffs are not evident for the vast majority of the stellar associations in our set, potentially due to the overlap of isochronal tracks at the high mass end of the MS, and the limited depth of our images at the distance of M51. In order to obtain ages for more of our sample, we produced model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to fit to the data from the GALEXEV simple stellar population models of Bruzual and Charlot. These SEDs can be used to determine age, size, mass, metallicity, and dust content of each association via a simple χ 2 minimization to each association's B-, V-, and I-band fluxes. The derived association properties are mapped as a function of location, and recent trends in SF history of the galaxy are explored in light of these results. This work is the first phase in a program that will compare these stellar systems with their environments using ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and infrared data from Spitzer, and ultimately we plan to apply the same stellar population mapping methodology to other nearby face-on spiral galaxies.

  8. Galactic Outflows, Star Formation Histories, and Timescales in Starburst Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Heilman, Taryn N.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Kelley, Tyler

    2018-03-01

    Winds are predicted to be ubiquitous in low-mass, actively star-forming galaxies. Observationally, winds have been detected in relatively few local dwarf galaxies, with even fewer constraints placed on their timescales. Here, we compare galactic outflows traced by diffuse, soft X-ray emission from Chandra Space Telescope archival observations to the star formation histories derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the resolved stellar populations in six starburst dwarfs. We constrain the longevity of a wind to have an upper limit of 25 Myr based on galaxies whose starburst activity has already declined, although a larger sample is needed to confirm this result. We find an average 16% efficiency for converting the mechanical energy of stellar feedback to thermal, soft X-ray emission on the 25 Myr timescale, somewhat higher than simulations predict. The outflows have likely been sustained for timescales comparable to the duration of the starbursts (i.e., 100's Myr), after taking into account the time for the development and cessation of the wind. The wind timescales imply that material is driven to larger distances in the circumgalactic medium than estimated by assuming short, 5-10 Myr starburst durations, and that less material is recycled back to the host galaxy on short timescales. In the detected outflows, the expelled hot gas shows various morphologies which are not consistent with a simple biconical outflow structure. The sample and analysis are part of a larger program, the STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS), aimed at understanding the lifecycle and impact of starburst activity in low-mass systems.

  9. Commensurate comparisons of models with energy budget observations reveal consistent climate sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.

    2017-12-01

    Global energy budget observations have been widely used to constrain the effective, or instantaneous climate sensitivity (ICS), producing median estimates around 2°C (Otto et al. 2013; Lewis & Curry 2015). A key question is whether the comprehensive climate models used to project future warming are consistent with these energy budget estimates of ICS. Yet, performing such comparisons has proven challenging. Within models, values of ICS robustly vary over time, as surface temperature patterns evolve with transient warming, and are generally smaller than the values of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). Naively comparing values of ECS in CMIP5 models (median of about 3.4°C) to observation-based values of ICS has led to the suggestion that models are overly sensitive. This apparent discrepancy can partially be resolved by (i) comparing observation-based values of ICS to model values of ICS relevant for historical warming (Armour 2017; Proistosescu & Huybers 2017); (ii) taking into account the "efficacies" of non-CO2 radiative forcing agents (Marvel et al. 2015); and (iii) accounting for the sparseness of historical temperature observations and differences in sea-surface temperature and near-surface air temperature over the oceans (Richardson et al. 2016). Another potential source of discrepancy is a mismatch between observed and simulated surface temperature patterns over recent decades, due to either natural variability or model deficiencies in simulating historical warming patterns. The nature of the mismatch is such that simulated patterns can lead to more positive radiative feedbacks (higher ICS) relative to those engendered by observed patterns. The magnitude of this effect has not yet been addressed. Here we outline an approach to perform fully commensurate comparisons of climate models with global energy budget observations that take all of the above effects into account. We find that when apples-to-apples comparisons are made, values of ICS in models are

  10. The age distributions of clusters and field stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud — implications for star formation histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325799911; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072834870

    2008-01-01

    Differences between the inferred star formation histories (SFHs) of star clusters and field stars seem to suggest distinct star formation processes for the two. The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is an example of a galaxy where such a discrepancy is observed. We model the observed age distributions of

  11. An Integrated Picture of Star Formation, Metallicity Evolution, and Galactic Stellar Mass Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.

    2008-10-01

    We present an integrated study of star formation and galactic stellar mass assembly from z = 0.05 to 1.5 and galactic metallicity evolution from z = 0.05 to 0.9 using a very large and highly spectroscopically complete sample selected by rest-frame NIR bolometric flux in the GOODS-N. We assume a Salpeter IMF and fit Bruzual & Charlot models to compute the galactic stellar masses and extinctions. We determine the expected formed stellar mass density growth rates produced by star formation and compare them with the growth rates measured from the formed stellar mass functions by mass interval. We show that the growth rates match if the IMF is slightly increased from the Salpeter IMF at intermediate masses (~10 M⊙). We investigate the evolution of galaxy color, spectral type, and morphology with mass and redshift and the evolution of mass with environment. We find that applying extinction corrections is critical when analyzing galaxy colors; e.g., nearly all of the galaxies in the green valley are 24 μm sources, but after correcting for extinction, the bulk of the 24 μm sources lie in the blue cloud. We find an evolution of the metallicity-mass relation corresponding to a decrease of 0.21 +/- 0.03 dex between the local value and the value at z = 0.77 in the 1010-1011 M⊙ range. We use the metallicity evolution to estimate the gas mass of the galaxies, which we compare with the galactic stellar mass assembly and star formation histories. Overall, our measurements are consistent with a galaxy evolution process dominated by episodic bursts of star formation and where star formation in the most massive galaxies (gtrsim1011 M⊙) ceases at z Technology, the University of California, and NASA and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations of In Situ Star Formation in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Chris; Heitsch, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Many stars observed in the Galactic Center (GC) orbit the supermassive black hole (SMBH), Sagittarius A*, in a region where the extreme gravitational field is expected to inhibit star formation. Yet, many of these stars are young which favors an in situ formation scenario. Previous numerical work on this topic has focused on two possible solutions. First, the tidal capture of a > 10^4 Msun infalling molecular cloud by an SMBH may result in the formation of a surrounding gas disk which then rapidly cools and forms stars. This process results in stellar populations that are consistent with the observed stellar disk in the GC. Second, dense gas clumps of approximately 100 Msun on highly eccentric orbits about an SMBH can experience sparks of star formation via orbital compressions occurring during pericenter passage. In my dissertation, I build upon these models using a series of grid-based radiative hydrodynamic simulations, including the effects of both ionizing ultraviolet light from existing stars as well as X-ray radiation emanating from the central black hole. Radiation is treated with an adaptive ray-tracing routine, including appropriate heating and cooling for both neutral and ionized gas. These models show that ultraviolet radiation is sufficiently strong to heat low mass gas clouds, thus suppressing star formation from clump compression. Gas disks that form from cloud capture become sufficiently dense to provide shielding from the radiation of existing central stars, thus allowing star formation to continue. Conversely, X-rays easily penetrate and heat the potentially star forming gas. For sufficiently high radiation fields, this provides a mechanism to disrupt star formation for both scenarios considered above.

  13. Star Formation Activity Beyond the Outer Arm. I. WISE -selected Candidate Star-forming Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Natsuko; Yasui, Chikako; Saito, Masao [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi, E-mail: natsuko.izumi@nao.ac.jp [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution spectroscopy (LIH), Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2017-10-01

    The outer Galaxy beyond the Outer Arm provides a good opportunity to study star formation in an environment significantly different from that in the solar neighborhood. However, star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy have never been comprehensively studied or cataloged because of the difficulties in detecting them at such large distances. We studied 33 known young star-forming regions associated with 13 molecular clouds at R {sub G} ≥ 13.5 kpc in the outer Galaxy with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mid-infrared all-sky survey. From their color distribution, we developed a simple identification criterion of star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy with the WISE color. We applied the criterion to all the WISE sources in the molecular clouds in the outer Galaxy at R {sub G} ≥ 13.5 kpc detected with the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) {sup 12}CO survey of the outer Galaxy, of which the survey region is 102.°49 ≤  l  ≤ 141.°54, −3.°03 ≤  b  ≤ 5.°41, and successfully identified 711 new candidate star-forming regions in 240 molecular clouds. The large number of samples enables us to perform the statistical study of star formation properties in the outer Galaxy for the first time. This study is crucial to investigate the fundamental star formation properties, including star formation rate, star formation efficiency, and initial mass function, in a primordial environment such as the early phase of the Galaxy formation.

  14. THE IMACS CLUSTER BUILDING SURVEY. III. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF FIELD GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oemler, Augustus Jr.; Dressler, Alan [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); Gladders, Michael G.; Abramson, Louis [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fritz, Jacopo [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2013-06-10

    Using data from the IMACS Cluster Building Survey and from nearby galaxy surveys, we examine the evolution of the rate of star formation in field galaxies from z = 0.60 to the present. Fitting the luminosity function to a standard Schechter form, we find a rapid evolution of M{sub B}{sup *} consistent with that found in other deep surveys; at the present epoch M{sub B}{sup *} is evolving at the rate of 0.38 Gyr{sup -1}, several times faster than the predictions of simple models for the evolution of old, coeval galaxies. The evolution of the distribution of specific star formation rates (SSFRs) is also too rapid to explain by such models. We demonstrate that starbursts cannot, even in principle, explain the evolution of the SSFR distribution. However, the rapid evolution of both M{sub B}{sup *} and the SSFR distribution can be explained if some fraction of galaxies have star formation rates characterized by both short rise and fall times and by an epoch of peak star formation more recent than the majority of galaxies. Although galaxies of every stellar mass up to 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} show a range of epochs of peak star formation, the fraction of ''younger'' galaxies falls from about 40% at a mass of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} to zero at a mass of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. The incidence of younger galaxies appears to be insensitive to the density of the local environment; but does depend on group membership: relatively isolated galaxies are much more likely to be young than are group members.

  15. Star-formation rates in the nuclei of violently interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushouse, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Spectrophotometry has been obtained of the nuclear regions of a large sample of violently interacting spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to include only those systems having tails, plumes, or other morphological features consistent with strong tidal interactions involving disk galaxies. The interacting galaxies are found to exhibit a wide range of nuclear optical emission-line strengths, but show a significantly higher overall level in both Hα emission-line equivalent width and luminosity than samples of field spirals observed in a similar fashion. While galaxy-galaxy interactions can lead to large nuclear star-formation bursts, this is not a ubiquitous phenomenon. A large fraction (approx.30%) of the nuclei show only weak or no detectable optical emission lines and are characterized by stellar absorption spectra of old, elliptical galaxy-like stellar populations, thus indicating little recent or continuing star-formation activity. These circumstances can occur even in instances where the nucleus of the other component has a large population of young stars. While exhaustion of a galaxy's gas supply during the later phases of interaction can account for post-burst systems, it cannot explain systems that have experienced no significant star-formation activity throughout the entire interaction process. Seyfert and low-ionization nuclei also are rare in violently interacting systems which, coupled with the large number of nuclei found to have little star-formation activity, suggests either an initial lack of near-nuclear gas or that gas is present but in inappropriate forms to support star formation or fuel nuclear activity

  16. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

  17. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE WESTERN TAIL OF NGC 2782

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knierman, Karen; Scowen, Paul; Jansen, Rolf A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 East Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Knezek, Patricia M. [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wehner, Elizabeth, E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: rolf.jansen@asu.edu, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu, E-mail: ewehner@haverford.edu [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, they are less common than minor mergers (mass ratios {approx}< 0.3). The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies with a mass ratio of {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun to occur in that tidal tail. However, deep H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail. Across the entire western tail, we find the global star formation rate per unit area ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) to be several orders of magnitude less than expected from the total gas density. Together with extended FUV+NUV emission from Galaxy Evolution Explorer along the tail, this indicates a low global star formation efficiency in the tidal tail producing lower mass star clusters. The H II region that we observed has a local (few-kiloparsec scale) {Sigma}{sub SFR} from H{alpha} that is less than that expected from the total gas density, which is consistent with other observations of tidal debris. The star formation efficiency of this H II region inferred from the total gas density is low, but normal when inferred from the molecular gas density. These results suggest the presence of a very small, locally dense region in the western tail of NGC 2782 or of a low-metallicity and/or low-pressure star-forming region.

  18. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ∼4: 1 occurring ∼200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and Hα narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 μm [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous Hα sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter Hα source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation

  19. POPULATION III STAR FORMATION IN LARGE COSMOLOGICAL VOLUMES. I. HALO TEMPORAL AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Brian D.; O' Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Turk, Matthew J. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Hahn, Oliver, E-mail: crosbyb1@msu.edu [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-08-20

    We present a semi-analytic, computationally inexpensive model to identify halos capable of forming a Population III star in cosmological simulations across a wide range of times and environments. This allows for a much more complete and representative set of Population III star forming halos to be constructed, which will lead to Population III star formation simulations that more accurately reflect the diversity of Population III stars, both in time and halo mass. This model shows that Population III and chemically enriched stars coexist beyond the formation of the first generation of stars in a cosmological simulation until at least z {approx} 10, and likely beyond, though Population III stars form at rates that are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than chemically enriched stars by z = 10. A catalog of more than 40,000 candidate Population III forming halos were identified, with formation times temporally ranging from z = 30 to z = 10, and ranging in mass from 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} to 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. At early times, the environment that Population III stars form in is very similar to that of halos hosting chemically enriched star formation. At later times Population III stars are found to form in low-density regions that are not yet chemically polluted due to a lack of previous star formation in the area. Population III star forming halos become increasingly spatially isolated from one another at later times, and are generally closer to halos hosting chemically enriched star formation than to another halo hosting Population III star formation by z {approx} 10.

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KNOTS OF STAR FORMATION IN INTERACTING VERSUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Beverly J.; Olmsted, Susan; Jones, Keith [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City TN 37614 (United States); Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Struck, Curtis, E-mail: smithbj@etsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Interacting galaxies are known to have higher global rates of star formation on average than normal galaxies, relative to their stellar masses. Using UV and IR photometry combined with new and published Hα images, we have compared the star formation rates (SFRs) of ∼700 star forming complexes in 46 nearby interacting galaxy pairs with those of regions in 39 normal spiral galaxies. The interacting galaxies have proportionally more regions with high SFRs than the spirals. The most extreme regions in the interacting systems lie at the intersections of spiral/tidal structures, where gas is expected to pile up and trigger star formation. Published Hubble Space Telescope images show unusually large and luminous star clusters in the highest luminosity regions. The SFRs of the clumps correlate with measures of the dust attenuation, consistent with the idea that regions with more interstellar gas have more star formation. For the clumps with the highest SFRs, the apparent dust attenuation is consistent with the Calzetti starburst dust attenuation law. This suggests that the high luminosity regions are dominated by a central group of young stars surrounded by a shell of clumpy interstellar gas. In contrast, the lower luminosity clumps are bright in the UV relative to Hα, suggesting either a high differential attenuation between the ionized gas and the stars, or a post-starburst population bright in the UV but faded in Hα. The fraction of the global light of the galaxies in the clumps is higher on average for the interacting galaxies than for the spirals. Thus either star formation in interacting galaxies is “clumpier” on average, or the star forming regions in interacting galaxies are more luminous, dustier, or younger on average.

  1. Star formation induced by cloud-cloud collisions and galactic giant molecular cloud evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato I. N.; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    Recent millimeter/submillimeter observations towards nearby galaxies have started to map the whole disk and to identify giant molecular clouds (GMCs) even in the regions between galactic spiral structures. Observed variations of GMC mass functions in different galactic environments indicates that massive GMCs preferentially reside along galactic spiral structures whereas inter-arm regions have many small GMCs. Based on the phase transition dynamics from magnetized warm neutral medium to molecular clouds, Kobayashi et al. (2017, ApJ, 836, 175) proposes a semi-analytical evolutionary description for GMC mass functions including a cloud-cloud collision (CCC) process. Their results show that CCC is less dominant in shaping the mass function of GMCs than the accretion of dense H I gas driven by the propagation of supersonic shock waves. However, their formulation does not take into account the possible enhancement of star formation by CCC. Millimeter/submillimeter observations within the Milky Way indicate the importance of CCC in the formation of star clusters and massive stars. In this article, we reformulate the time-evolution equation largely modified from Kobayashi et al. (2017, ApJ, 836, 175) so that we additionally compute star formation subsequently taking place in CCC clouds. Our results suggest that, although CCC events between smaller clouds are more frequent than the ones between massive GMCs, CCC-driven star formation is mostly driven by massive GMCs ≳ 10^{5.5} M_{⊙} (where M⊙ is the solar mass). The resultant cumulative CCC-driven star formation may amount to a few 10 percent of the total star formation in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies.

  2. When feedback fails: the scaling and saturation of star formation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudić, Michael Y.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman; Kereš, Dušan

    2018-04-01

    We present a suite of 3D multiphysics MHD simulations following star formation in isolated turbulent molecular gas discs ranging from 5 to 500 parsecs in radius. These simulations are designed to survey the range of surface densities between those typical of Milky Way giant molecular clouds (GMCs) ({˜ } 10^2 {M_{\\odot } pc^{-2}}) and extreme ultraluminous infrared galaxy environments ({˜ } 10^4 {M_{\\odot } pc^{-2}}) so as to map out the scaling of the cloud-scale star formation efficiency (SFE) between these two regimes. The simulations include prescriptions for supernova, stellar wind, and radiative feedback, which we find to be essential in determining both the instantaneous per-freefall (ɛff) and integrated (ɛint) star formation efficiencies. In all simulations, the gas discs form stars until a critical stellar surface density has been reached and the remaining gas is blown out by stellar feedback. We find that surface density is a good predictor of ɛint, as suggested by analytic force balance arguments from previous works. SFE eventually saturates to ˜1 at high surface density. We also find a proportional relationship between ɛff and ɛint, implying that star formation is feedback-moderated even over very short time-scales in isolated clouds. These results have implications for star formation in galactic discs, the nature and fate of nuclear starbursts, and the formation of bound star clusters. The scaling of ɛff with surface density is not consistent with the notion that ɛff is always ˜ 1 per cent on the scale of GMCs, but our predictions recover the ˜ 1 per cent value for GMC parameters similar to those found in spiral galaxies, including our own.

  3. A trait based dynamic energy budget approach to explore emergent microalgal community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Karaoz, U.; Geng, H.; Lane, T.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Mayali, X.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae play important roles in the global carbon budget. Phytoplankton, including microalgae, are responsible for around 50% of global primary production, and also hold promise as a viable renewable biofuel source. Research has been underway for decades to realize the full potential of algal biofuels at the commercial scale, however, uni-algal ponds are typically threatened by collapse due to microalgal grazing and parasite invasions. Recently, it has been proposed that functionally diverse microalgal-bacterial communities can achieve high biomass and/or lipid yields, and are more stable (less susceptible to invasion) than a monoculture. Similar positive diversity-productivity relationships have been observed in a wide range of ecosystem studies, but the purposeful maintenance of a diverse microbiome is less common in managed systems. In our work, a trait based dynamic energy budget model was developed to explore emergent microalgal community structure under various environmental (e.g. light, temperature, nutrient availability) conditions. The complex algal community can be reduced into functional groups (guilds). Each guild (algae or bacteria) is characterized by distinct physiological traits (e.g. nutrient requirement, growth rate, substrate affinity, lipid production) constrained by biochemical trade-offs. These trait values are derived from literature and information encoded in genomic data. Metabolism of the algae and the bacterial species (symbiotic or non-symbiotic) are described within a dynamic energy budget framework. The model offers a mechanistic framework to predict the optimal microalgal community assemblage towards high productivity and resistance to invasion under prevailing environmental conditions.

  4. A UNIVERSAL, LOCAL STAR FORMATION LAW IN GALACTIC CLOUDS, NEARBY GALAXIES, HIGH-REDSHIFT DISKS, AND STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Dekel, Avishai; McKee, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    Star formation laws are rules that relate the rate of star formation in a particular region, either an entire galaxy or some portion of it, to the properties of the gas, or other galactic properties, in that region. While observations of Local Group galaxies show a very simple, local star formation law in which the star formation rate per unit area in each patch of a galaxy scales linearly with the molecular gas surface density in that patch, recent observations of both Milky Way molecular clouds and high-redshift galaxies apparently show a more complicated relationship in which regions of equal molecular gas surface density can form stars at quite different rates. These data have been interpreted as implying either that different star formation laws may apply in different circumstances, that the star formation law is sensitive to large-scale galaxy properties rather than local properties, or that there are high-density thresholds for star formation. Here we collate observations of the relationship between gas and star formation rate from resolved observations of Milky Way molecular clouds, from kpc-scale observations of Local Group galaxies, and from unresolved observations of both disk and starburst galaxies in the local universe and at high redshift. We show that all of these data are in fact consistent with a simple, local, volumetric star formation law. The apparent variations stem from the fact that the observed objects have a wide variety of three-dimensional size scales and degrees of internal clumping, so even at fixed gas column density the regions being observed can have wildly varying volume densities. We provide a simple theoretical framework to remove this projection effect, and we use it to show that all the data, from small solar neighborhood clouds with masses ∼10 3 M ☉ to submillimeter galaxies with masses ∼10 11 M ☉ , fall on a single star formation law in which the star formation rate is simply ∼1% of the molecular gas mass per local

  5. The SFR-M∗ main sequence archetypal star-formation history and analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, L.; Elbaz, D.; Fensch, J.

    2017-12-01

    The star-formation history (SFH) of galaxies is a key assumption to derive their physical properties and can lead to strong biases. In this work, we derive the SFH of main sequence (MS) galaxies and show how the peak SFH of a galaxy depends on its seed mass at, for example, z = 5. This seed mass reflects the galaxy's underlying dark matter (DM) halo environment. We show that, following the MS, galaxies undergo a drastic slow down of their stellar mass growth after reaching the peak of their SFH. According to abundance matching, these masses correspond to hot and massive DM halos which state could result in less efficient gas inflows on the galaxies and thus could be the origin of limited stellar mass growth. As a result, we show that galaxies, still on the MS, can enter the passive region of the UVJ diagram while still forming stars. The best fit to the MS SFH is provided by a right skew peak function for which we provide parameters depending on the seed mass of the galaxy. The ability of the classical analytical SFHs to retrieve the star-formation rate (SFR) of galaxies from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting is studied. Due to mathematical limitations, the exponentially declining and delayed SFH struggle to model high SFR, which starts to be problematic at z > 2. The exponentially rising and log-normal SFHs exhibit the opposite behavior with the ability to reach very high SFR, and thus model starburst galaxies, but they are not able to model low values such as those expected at low redshift for massive galaxies. By simulating galaxies SED from the MS SFH, we show that these four analytical forms recover the SFR of MS galaxies with an error dependent on the model and the redshift. They are, however, sensitive enough to probe small variations of SFR within the MS, with an error ranging from 5 to 40% depending on the SFH assumption and redshift; but all the four fail to recover the SFR of rapidly quenched galaxies. However, these SFHs lead to an artificial

  6. Extinction of gamma-ray burst afterglows as a diagnostic of the location of cosmic star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Trentham, Neil; Blain, A. W.

    2002-01-01

    The properties of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows are used to investigate the location of star formation activity through the history of the Universe. This approach is motivated by the following: (i) GRBs are thought to be associated with the deaths of massive stars and so the GRB rate ought to follow the formation rate of massive stars; (ii) GRBs are the last phase of the evolution of these stars, which do not live long enough to travel far from their place of birth, and so GRBs are located where the stars formed; and (iii) GRB afterglows occur over both X-ray and optical wavelengths, and so the differential effects of dust extinction between the two wavebands can reveal whether or not large amounts of dust are present in galaxies hosting GRBs. Recent evidence suggests that a significant fraction of stars in the Universe formed in galaxies that are bright at rest-frame submillimetre (submm) and infrared wavelengths rather than at ultraviolet wavelengths; we estimate about three quarters of the star formation in the Universe occurred in the submm-bright mode. High-redshift submm-selected galaxies are thought to have properties similar to local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs) such as Arp 220, based on the concordance between their luminosities and spectral energy distributions. If this is the case, then GRBs in submm-bright galaxies should have their optical afterglows extinguished by internal dust absorption, but only very few should have their 2-10keV X-ray afterglows obscured. The value that we quote of three quarters is marginally consistent with observations of GRBs: 60+/-15 per cent of GRBs have no detected optical afterglow, whereas almost all have an X-ray afterglow. A more definitive statement could be made with observations of soft X-ray afterglows (0.5-2keV), in which extinction should be severe for GRBs located in submm-bright galaxies with gas densities similar to those in local ULIGs. If the X-ray afterglows disappear at soft X

  7. THE EVOLUTION OF THE STAR FORMATION RATE OF GALAXIES AT 0.0 ≤ z ≤ 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Papovich, Casey; Cool, Richard J.; Moustakas, John; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Dey, Arjun; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Murray, Steve S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2010-01-01

    We present the 24 μm rest-frame luminosity function (LF) of star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.0 ≤ z ≤ 0.6 constructed from 4047 spectroscopic redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey of 24 μm selected sources in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. This sample provides the best available combination of large area (9 deg 2 ), depth, and statistically complete spectroscopic observations, allowing us to probe the evolution of the 24 μm LF of galaxies at low and intermediate redshifts while minimizing the effects of cosmic variance. In order to use the observed 24 μm luminosity as a tracer for star formation, active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that could contribute significantly at 24 μm are identified and excluded from our star-forming galaxy sample based on their mid-IR spectral energy distributions or the detection of X-ray emission. Optical emission line diagnostics are considered for AGN identification, but we find that 24 μm emission from optically selected AGNs is usually from star-forming activity and therefore should not be excluded. The evolution of the 24 μm LF of star-forming galaxies for redshifts of z ≤ 0.65 is consistent with a pure luminosity evolution where the characteristic 24 μm luminosity evolves as (1 + z) 3.8±0.3 . We extend our evolutionary study to encompass 0.0 ≤ z ≤ 1.2 by combining our data with that of the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. Over this entire redshift range, the evolution of the characteristic 24 μm luminosity is described by a slightly shallower power law of (1 + z) 3.4±0.2 . We find a local star formation rate density of (1.09 ± 0.21) x 10 -2 M sun yr -1 Mpc -3 , and that it evolves as (1 + z) 3.5±0.2 over 0.0 ≤ z ≤ 1.2. These estimates are in good agreement with the rates using optical and UV fluxes corrected for the effects of intrinsic extinction in the observed sources. This agreement confirms that star formation at z ∼< 1.2 is robustly traced by

  8. Exploring the effects of temperature and resource limitation on mercury bioaccumulation in Fundulus heteroclitus using dynamic energy budget modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population survival and growth. To explore this approach, we conducted growth and bioaccumulation studies that contribute t...

  9. Gasdynamics and star formation in interacting and merging galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.M.; Kwan, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various parameters on the interaction of two galaxies and on the gas cloud collisions which are induced to occur are considered by examining several simulations of an interaction with different impact parameters, similar to the simulations described by Olson and Kwan (1990). The results of the present calculations are consistent with those obtained earlier by Olson and Kwan. They show that the interaction of two galaxies can lead to an increase in the rate at which gas clouds collide, and that these collisions are of sufficient kinetic energy to disrupt the clouds and prevent the buildup of a large number of massive clouds. It was found that, as the inclination of the interaction is increased, the perturbation of the cloud system is decreased. It was also found that unbound orbits produce a smaller perturbation than bound orbits, and that decreasing the mass of the perturbing galaxy decreases the perturbation. 21 refs

  10. Analysis of Changes in the Lorenz Energy Budget of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, T. D.

    2009-12-01

    Several recent papers have addressed the topic of changes in global precipitation rates related to changes in Earth's global energy balance. Less studied are the processes that may be governing the large-scale regional distribution of precipitation around the globe. This study uses the energy budget partition paradigm first put forth by Lorenz (1955) and follows the methodology of Arpé et al. (1986) and Oriol (1982) to identify latitude bands where the partition of energy amongst zonal and eddy kinetic and potential energy bins may account for the spatial patterns of precipitation change predicted by many IPCC AR4 models. In doing so, this study may help to identify whether or not the climate change predicted by these models is indeed creating enhanced baroclinic storms in the mid-latitudes or if there are other mechanisms at work producing the patterns of precipitation change.

  11. Electron energy budget in the high-latitude ionosphere during Viking/EISCAT coordinated measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilensten, J.; Kofman, W.; Lathuillere, C.; Fontaine, D.; Eliasson, L.; Oran, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetospheric electron fluxes precipitating at the top of the auroral ionosphere contribute to the production of ionization, to the excitation of atmospheric constituents, and to the heating of the ambient electrons. This last process occurs essentially when the energy of the initial precipitated electrons and photoelectrons has been degraded to values lower than approximately 10 eV. The heated ambient electron gas loses this energy to the neutral gas and ambient ions. Finally, the temperature gradient produced in the ionospheric plasma induces a heat flux. In the absence of an electric field and for stationary conditions, the energy budget of ionospheric electrons results from the balance between these processes of heating, cooling, and heat conduction. The intensity of these different processes is quantitatively computed at each altitude in the ionosphere by combining simultaneous EISCAT and Viking in situ measurements, and by means of an electron transport model. The stationary electron flux, which leads to the heating rate, is computed, and remaining differences in the energy budget are discussed

  12. Rough estimate demand of atomic energy-related budget for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagishi, Tatsuro

    1996-01-01

    The rough estimate demand of the budget for fiscal year 1996 of eight atomic energy-related ministries and agencies was determined at about 494,879 million yen, which is 2.4% growth as compared with that for the previous year. Concretely, the general account is 204,594 million yen, 2.2% growth, and the special account is 290,285 million yen, 2.6% growth. The budget is 357,060 million yen and 3.7% growth for Science and Technology Agency, 130, 787 million yen and 2% decrease for Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and 7,032 million yen and 29.2% increase for other six ministries and agencies. Emphasis is placed on the research of upgrading LWRs including the disassembling of reactors, the performance test for fuel, the improvement of reactor technology and the verifying test of practical reactor decommissioning facilities, and the research and development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology. Also the technical development of waste treatment and disposal including high level radioactive waste is carried out with 40.3 billion yen. Atomic Energy Commission exerts efforts for the development of atomic energy policy for the peaceful utilization, the establishment of coordinative LWR power generation system, the development of nuclear fuel recycling and the strengthening of the basic research on atomic energy. (K.I.)

  13. RESOLVING THE LUMINOSITY PROBLEM IN LOW-MASS STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Vorobyov, Eduard I., E-mail: michael.dunham@yale.edu, E-mail: eduard.vorobiev@univie.ac.at [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Vienna 1180 (Austria)

    2012-03-01

    We determine the observational signatures of protostellar cores by coupling two-dimensional radiative transfer calculations with numerical hydrodynamical simulations that predict accretion rates that both decline with time and feature short-term variability and episodic bursts caused by disk gravitational instability and fragmentation. We calculate the radiative transfer of the collapsing cores throughout the full duration of the collapse, using as inputs the core, disk, protostellar masses, radii, and mass accretion rates predicted by the hydrodynamical simulations. From the resulting spectral energy distributions, we calculate standard observational signatures (L{sub bol}, T{sub bol}, L{sub bol}/L{sub smm}) to directly compare to observations. We show that the accretion process predicted by these models reproduces the full spread of observed protostars in both L{sub bol}-T{sub bol} and L{sub bol}-M{sub core} space, including very low luminosity objects, provides a reasonable match to the observed protostellar luminosity distribution, and resolves the long-standing luminosity problem. These models predict an embedded phase duration shorter than recent observationally determined estimates (0.12 Myr versus 0.44 Myr), and a fraction of total time spent in Stage 0 of 23%, consistent with the range of values determined by observations. On average, the models spend 1.3% of their total time in accretion bursts, during which 5.3% of the final stellar mass accretes, with maximum values being 11.8% and 35.5% for the total time and accreted stellar mass, respectively. Time-averaged models that filter out the accretion variability and bursts do not provide as good of a match to the observed luminosity problem, suggesting that the bursts are required.

  14. Star formation, using 3-D explicit Eulerian hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Evolutions of rapidly rotating, self-gravitating objects initially in axisymmetric equilibrium have been studied using a 3-D Newtonian hydrodynamic computer code with an eye toward understanding angular momentum transport in dynamically evolving protostars. First, a number of evolutions have been modeled using an existing explicit, Eulerian, finite difference code that is accurate to first-order in its spatial differences. The bar-mode dynamic instability has been explored by considering several models with different degrees of compressibility. This instability occurs in models with different degrees of comprresibility. This instability occurs in models having β > β d ≡ 0.27, where β is the ratio of the rotational to the gravitational potential energy. A two-armed spiral, with a well-defined pattern speed and growth rate that match the pattern speed and growth rate predicted by linear theory, develops from each of the axisymmetric equilibria. The models with greater compressibility exhibit spirals which are more tightly wound. As the nonaxisymmetric distortion become large in an extended evolution, the object does not undergo binary fission as had been thought earlier. Instead, the spiral elongates and then wraps up on itself, forming a central pulsating triaxial object surrounded by a more diffuse ring-like disk. Angular momentum and mass are dynamically redistributed by gravitational torques during the evolution, and β is reduced below β d . Since this gravitational-rotational dynamic instability is a general feature of gaseous systems, this study may have application to theta galaxies and to rapidly rotating neutron stars, as well as to protostars

  15. Competition of neutrino and gravitational radiation in neutron star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanas, D.; Schramm, D.N.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility is explored that neutrino radiation, rather than gravitational radiation, may be the dominant way by which non-radial pulsations are damped out in a collapsing star. If this is so it implies that hopes of detecting gravity waves from supernovae explosions are very optimistic. Neutron stars and black holes are probably the collapsed central remnants of a supernovae explosion. These objects presumably originate from collapse of the cores of sufficiently massive stars, following the cessation of thermonuclear burning. Although there is at present no completely consistent detailed theory as to how collapse of the core and the subsequent supernova explosion take place, a general model exists for the final stages of stellar evolution and supernovae explosions. According to this model the electrons of a sufficiently massive stellar core, due to the high density and temperature, become absorbed by the protons through the reaction p + e - → n + v. Very large numbers of neutrinos, resulting from this and other thermal processes, such as pair annihilation, plasma decay, and Bremsstrahlung, are emitted, taking away most of the gravitational energy of the collapse. These neutrinos possibly drive ejection of the overlying stellar mantle, whilst the neutron-rich core collapses further to a condensed remnant. Gravitational radiation comes into play only at very late stages of the collapse. All of this implies that neutrino radiation might contribute to the decay of the non-radial oscillations of the collapsing core and the newly formed neutron star, possibly damping out these oscillations much faster than gravitational radiation. In order to obtain a more quantitative answer to the question the effects of neutrino radiation on the non-radial oscillations are examined. The implication is that neutrino radiation, by more rapid damping of the non-radial oscillations of a newly formed neutron star in a supernova explosion, would hinder gravitational radiation and

  16. VLA AND ALMA IMAGING OF INTENSE GALAXY-WIDE STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 2 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; McLure, R. J.; Michałowski, M. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Rieke, G. H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cibinel, A. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Nyland, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Jagannathan, P.; Bhatnagar, S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Biggs, A. D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, Garching (Germany); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Elbaz, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Geach, J. E. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Hayward, C. C. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, 160 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Kirkpatrick, A., E-mail: wiphu.rujopakarn@ipmu.jp [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2016-12-10

    We present ≃0.″4 resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z  = 1.3–3.0. These galaxies are selected from sensitive blank-field surveys of the 2′ × 2′ Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at λ  = 5 cm and 1.3 mm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. They have star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and dust properties representative of massive main-sequence SFGs at z  ∼ 2. Morphological classification performed on spatially resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), thereby representing a diversity of z  ∼ 2 SFGs undergoing vigorous mass assembly. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distribution, with a median diameter of 4.2 ± 1.8 kpc. This provides direct evidence of galaxy-wide star formation in distant blank-field-selected main-sequence SFGs. The typical galactic-average SFR surface density is 2.5 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}, sufficiently high to drive outflows. In X-ray-selected AGN where radio emission is enhanced over the level associated with star formation, the radio excess pinpoints the AGNs, which are found to be cospatial with star formation. The median extinction-independent size of main-sequence SFGs is two times larger than those of bright submillimeter galaxies, whose SFRs are 3–8 times larger, providing a constraint on the characteristic SFR (∼300 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) above which a significant population of more compact SFGs appears to emerge.

  17. VLA AND ALMA IMAGING OF INTENSE GALAXY-WIDE STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 2 GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Silverman, J. D.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; McLure, R. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Cibinel, A.; Nyland, K.; Jagannathan, P.; Bhatnagar, S.; Alexander, D. M.; Biggs, A. D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Dickinson, M.; Elbaz, D.; Geach, J. E.; Hayward, C. C.; Kirkpatrick, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present ≃0.″4 resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z  = 1.3–3.0. These galaxies are selected from sensitive blank-field surveys of the 2′ × 2′ Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at λ  = 5 cm and 1.3 mm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. They have star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and dust properties representative of massive main-sequence SFGs at z  ∼ 2. Morphological classification performed on spatially resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), thereby representing a diversity of z  ∼ 2 SFGs undergoing vigorous mass assembly. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distribution, with a median diameter of 4.2 ± 1.8 kpc. This provides direct evidence of galaxy-wide star formation in distant blank-field-selected main-sequence SFGs. The typical galactic-average SFR surface density is 2.5 M ⊙ yr −1 kpc −2 , sufficiently high to drive outflows. In X-ray-selected AGN where radio emission is enhanced over the level associated with star formation, the radio excess pinpoints the AGNs, which are found to be cospatial with star formation. The median extinction-independent size of main-sequence SFGs is two times larger than those of bright submillimeter galaxies, whose SFRs are 3–8 times larger, providing a constraint on the characteristic SFR (∼300 M ⊙ yr −1 ) above which a significant population of more compact SFGs appears to emerge.

  18. The diskmass survey. VIII. On the relationship between disk stability and star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Verheijen, Marc A. W. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Andersen, David R. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Bershady, Matthew A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Martinsson, Thomas P. K. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Swaters, Robert A., E-mail: westfall@astro.rug.nl [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We study the relationship between the stability level of late-type galaxy disks and their star-formation activity using integral-field gaseous and stellar kinematic data. Specifically, we compare the two-component (gas+stars) stability parameter from Romeo and Wiegert (Q {sub RW}), incorporating stellar kinematic data for the first time, and the star-formation rate estimated from 21 cm continuum emission. We determine the stability level of each disk probabilistically using a Bayesian analysis of our data and a simple dynamical model. Our method incorporates the shape of the stellar velocity ellipsoid (SVE) and yields robust SVE measurements for over 90% of our sample. Averaging over this subsample, we find a meridional shape of σ{sub z}/σ{sub R}=0.51{sub −0.25}{sup +0.36} for the SVE and, at 1.5 disk scale lengths, a stability parameter of Q {sub RW} = 2.0 ± 0.9. We also find that the disk-averaged star-formation-rate surface density ( Σ-dot {sub e,∗}) is correlated with the disk-averaged gas and stellar mass surface densities (Σ {sub e,} {sub g} and Σ {sub e,} {sub *}) and anti-correlated with Q {sub RW}. We show that an anti-correlation between Σ-dot {sub e,∗} and Q {sub RW} can be predicted using empirical scaling relations, such that this outcome is consistent with well-established statistical properties of star-forming galaxies. Interestingly, Σ-dot {sub e,∗} is not correlated with the gas-only or star-only Toomre parameters, demonstrating the merit of calculating a multi-component stability parameter when comparing to star-formation activity. Finally, our results are consistent with the Ostriker et al. model of self-regulated star-formation, which predicts Σ-dot {sub e,∗}/Σ{sub e,g}∝Σ{sub e,∗}{sup 1/2}. Based on this and other theoretical expectations, we discuss the possibility of a physical link between disk stability level and star-formation rate in light of our empirical results.

  19. Equilibrium star formation in a constant Q disc: model optimization and initial tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Thilker, David A.; Zwaan, Martin A.

    2013-10-01

    We develop a model for the distribution of the interstellar medium (ISM) and star formation in galaxies based on recent studies that indicate that galactic discs stabilize to a constant stability parameter, which we combine with prescriptions of how the phases of the ISM are determined and for the star formation law (SFL). The model predicts the gas surface mass density and star formation intensity of a galaxy given its rotation curve, stellar surface mass density and the gas velocity dispersion. This model is tested on radial profiles of neutral and molecular ISM surface mass density and star formation intensity of 12 galaxies selected from the H I Nearby Galaxy Survey sample. Our tests focus on intermediate radii (0.3 to 1 times the optical radius) because there are insufficient data to test the outer discs and the fits are less accurate in detail in the centre. Nevertheless, the model produces reasonable agreement with the ISM mass and star formation rate integrated over the central region in all but one case. To optimize the model, we evaluate four recipes for the stability parameter, three recipes for apportioning the ISM into molecular and neutral components, and eight versions of the SFL. We find no clear-cut best prescription for the two-fluid (gas and stars) stability parameter Q2f and therefore for simplicity, we use the Wang and Silk approximation (QWS). We found that an empirical scaling between the molecular-to-neutral ISM ratio (Rmol) and the stellar surface mass density proposed by Leroy et al. works marginally better than the other two prescriptions for this ratio in predicting the ISM profiles, and noticeably better in predicting the star formation intensity from the ISM profiles produced by our model with the SFLs we tested. Thus, in the context of our modelled ISM profiles, the linear molecular SFL and the two-component SFL work better than the other prescriptions we tested. We incorporate these relations into our `constant Q disc' model.

  20. Unveiling hidden properties of young star clusters: differential reddening, star-formation spread, and binary fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, C.; Lima, E. F.; Bica, E.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Usually, important parameters of young, low-mass star clusters are very difficult to obtain by means of photometry, especially when differential reddening and/or binaries occur in large amounts. Aims: We present a semi-analytical approach (ASAmin) that, when applied to the Hess diagram of a young star cluster, is able to retrieve the values of mass, age, star-formation spread, distance modulus, foreground and differential reddening, and binary fraction. Methods: The global optimisation method known as adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) is used to minimise the residuals between the observed and simulated Hess diagrams of a star cluster. The simulations are realistic and take the most relevant parameters of young clusters into account. Important features of the simulations are a normal (Gaussian) differential reddening distribution, a time-decreasing star-formation rate, the unresolved binaries, and the smearing effect produced by photometric uncertainties on Hess diagrams. Free parameters are cluster mass, age, distance modulus, star-formation spread, foreground and differential reddening, and binary fraction. Results: Tests with model clusters built with parameters spanning a broad range of values show that ASAmin retrieves the input values with a high precision for cluster mass, distance modulus, and foreground reddening, but they are somewhat lower for the remaining parameters. Given the statistical nature of the simulations, several runs should be performed to obtain significant convergence patterns. Specifically, we find that the retrieved (absolute minimum) parameters converge to mean values with a low dispersion as the Hess residuals decrease. When applied to actual young clusters, the retrieved parameters follow convergence patterns similar to the models. We show how the stochasticity associated with the early phases may affect the results, especially in low-mass clusters. This effect can be minimised by averaging out several twin clusters in the

  1. SPATIALLY RESOLVED STAR FORMATION HISTORY ALONG THE DISK OF M82 USING MULTI-BAND PHOTOMETRIC DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Merino, L. H.; Rosa-Gonzalez, D.; Mayya, Y. D.

    2011-01-01

    We present results on the star formation history and extinction in the disk of M82 over spatial scales of 10'' (∼180 pc). Multi-band photometric data covering the far-ultraviolet to the near-infrared bands were fitted to a grid of synthetic spectral energy distributions. We obtained distribution functions of age and extinction for each of the 117 apertures analyzed, taking into account observational errors through Monte Carlo simulations. These distribution functions were fitted with Gaussian functions to obtain the mean ages and extinctions together with their errors. The zones analyzed include the high surface brightness complexes defined by O'Connell and Mangano. We found that these complexes share the same star formation history and extinction as the field stellar populations in the disk. There is an indication that the stellar populations are marginally older at the outer disk (450 Myr at ∼3 kpc) as compared to the inner disk (100 Myr at 0.5 kpc). For the nuclear region (radius less than 500 pc), we obtained an age of less than 10 Myr. The results obtained in this work are consistent with the idea that the 0.5-3 kpc part of the disk of M82 formed around 90% of the stellar mass in a star-forming episode that started around 450 Myr ago and lasted for about 350 Myr. We found that field stars are the major contributors to the flux over the spatial scales analyzed in this study, with the stellar cluster contribution being 7% in the nucleus and 0.7% in the disk.

  2. EVIDENCE FOR REDUCED SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES IN THE CENTERS OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z  = 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Intae; Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Song, Mimi; Straughn, Amber N. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ryan, Russell E. Jr.; Salmon, Brett [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fontana, Adriano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Lu, Yu [The Observatories, The Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Papovich, Casey, E-mail: itjung@astro.as.utexas.edu [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We perform the first spatially resolved stellar population study of galaxies in the early universe ( z = 3.5–6.5), utilizing the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey imaging data set over the GOODS-S field. We select a sample of 418 bright and extended galaxies at z  = 3.5–6.5 from a parent sample of ∼8000 photometric-redshift-selected galaxies from Finkelstein et al. We first examine galaxies at 3.5 ≲ z ≲ 4.0 using additional deep K -band survey data from the HAWK-I UDS and GOODS Survey which covers the 4000 Å break at these redshifts. We measure the stellar mass, star formation rate, and dust extinction for galaxy inner and outer regions via spatially resolved spectral energy distribution fitting based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. By comparing specific star formation rates (sSFRs) between inner and outer parts of the galaxies we find that the majority of galaxies with high central mass densities show evidence for a preferentially lower sSFR in their centers than in their outer regions, indicative of reduced sSFRs in their central regions. We also study galaxies at z ∼ 5 and 6 (here limited to high spatial resolution in the rest-frame ultraviolet only), finding that they show sSFRs which are generally independent of radial distance from the center of the galaxies. This indicates that stars are formed uniformly at all radii in massive galaxies at z  ∼ 5–6, contrary to massive galaxies at z ≲ 4.

  3. THE RELATION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION RATE AND STELLAR MASS FOR GALAXIES AT 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 IN CANDELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, Brett; Papovich, Casey; Tilvi, Vithal; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Finlator, Kristian; Behroozi, Peter; Lu, Yu; Wechsler, Risa H.; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Davé, Romeel; Dekel, Avishai; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Long, James; Mobasher, Bahram; Reddy, Naveen; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2015-01-01

    Distant star-forming galaxies show a correlation between their star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses, and this has deep implications for galaxy formation. Here, we present a study on the evolution of the slope and scatter of the SFR-stellar mass relation for galaxies at 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 using multi-wavelength photometry in GOODS-S from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. We describe an updated, Bayesian spectral-energy distribution fitting method that incorporates effects of nebular line emission, star formation histories that are constant or rising with time, and different dust-attenuation prescriptions (starburst and Small Magellanic Cloud). From z = 6.5 to z = 3.5 star-forming galaxies in CANDELS follow a nearly unevolving correlation between stellar mass and SFR that follows SFR ∼ M ⋆ a with a =0.54 ± 0.16 at z ∼ 6 and 0.70 ± 0.21 at z ∼ 4. This evolution requires a star formation history that increases with decreasing redshift (on average, the SFRs of individual galaxies rise with time). The observed scatter in the SFR-stellar mass relation is tight, σ(log SFR/M ☉ yr –1 ) < 0.3-0.4 dex, for galaxies with log M * /M ☉ > 9 dex. Assuming that the SFR is tied to the net gas inflow rate (SFR ∼ M-dot gas ), then the scatter in the gas inflow rate is also smaller than 0.3–0.4 dex for star-forming galaxies in these stellar mass and redshift ranges, at least when averaged over the timescale of star formation. We further show that the implied star formation history of objects selected on the basis of their co-moving number densities is consistent with the evolution in the SFR-stellar mass relation

  4. THE RELATION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION RATE AND STELLAR MASS FOR GALAXIES AT 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 IN CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Brett; Papovich, Casey; Tilvi, Vithal [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Finlator, Kristian [DARK fellow, Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Behroozi, Peter; Lu, Yu; Wechsler, Risa H. [Physics Department, Stanford University, Particle Astrophysics, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Davé, Romeel [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Long, James [Department of Statistics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3143 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram; Reddy, Naveen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Somerville, Rachel S., E-mail: bsalmon@physics.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Distant star-forming galaxies show a correlation between their star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses, and this has deep implications for galaxy formation. Here, we present a study on the evolution of the slope and scatter of the SFR-stellar mass relation for galaxies at 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 using multi-wavelength photometry in GOODS-S from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. We describe an updated, Bayesian spectral-energy distribution fitting method that incorporates effects of nebular line emission, star formation histories that are constant or rising with time, and different dust-attenuation prescriptions (starburst and Small Magellanic Cloud). From z = 6.5 to z = 3.5 star-forming galaxies in CANDELS follow a nearly unevolving correlation between stellar mass and SFR that follows SFR ∼ M{sub ⋆}{sup a} with a =0.54 ± 0.16 at z ∼ 6 and 0.70 ± 0.21 at z ∼ 4. This evolution requires a star formation history that increases with decreasing redshift (on average, the SFRs of individual galaxies rise with time). The observed scatter in the SFR-stellar mass relation is tight, σ(log SFR/M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) < 0.3-0.4 dex, for galaxies with log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} > 9 dex. Assuming that the SFR is tied to the net gas inflow rate (SFR ∼ M-dot {sub gas}), then the scatter in the gas inflow rate is also smaller than 0.3–0.4 dex for star-forming galaxies in these stellar mass and redshift ranges, at least when averaged over the timescale of star formation. We further show that the implied star formation history of objects selected on the basis of their co-moving number densities is consistent with the evolution in the SFR-stellar mass relation.

  5. The History and Rate of Star Formation within the G305 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faimali, Alessandro Daniele

    2013-07-01

    Within this thesis, we present an extended multiwavelength analysis of the rich massive Galactic star-forming complex G305. We have focused our attention on studying the both the embedded massive star-forming population within G305, while also identifying the intermediate-, to lowmass content of the region also. Though massive stars play an important role in the shaping and evolution of their host galaxies, the physics of their formation still remains unclear. We have therefore set out to studying the nature of star formation within this complex, and also identify the impact that such a population has on the evolution of G305. We firstly present a Herschel far-infrared study towards G305, utilising PACS 70, 160 micron and SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 micron observations from the Hi-GAL survey of the Galactic plane. The focus of this study is to identify the embedded massive star-forming population within G305, by combining far-infrared data with radio continuum, H2O maser, methanol maser, MIPS, and Red MSX Source survey data available from previous studies. From this sample we identify some 16 candidate associations are identified as embedded massive star-forming regions, and derive a two-selection colour criterion from this sample of log(F70/F500) >= 1 and log(F160/F350) >= 1.6 to identify an additional 31 embedded massive star candidates with no associated star-formation tracers. Using this result, we are able to derive a star formation rate (SFR) of 0.01 - 0.02 Msun/yr. Comparing this resolved star formation rate, to extragalactic star formation rate tracers (based on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation), we find the star formation activity is underestimated by a factor of >=2 in comparison to the SFR derived from the YSO population. By next combining data available from 2MASS and VVV, Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL, MSX, and Herschel Hi-GAL, we are able to identify the low-, to intermediate-mass YSOs present within the complex. Employing a series of stringent colour

  6. PROGRESSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE YOUNG GALACTIC SUPER STAR CLUSTER NGC 3603

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccari, Giacomo; Spezzi, Loredana; De Marchi, Guido; Andersen, Morten; Paresce, Francesco; Young, Erick; Panagia, Nino; Bond, Howard; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C. Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Saha, Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    Early Release Science observations of the cluster NGC 3603 with the WFC3 on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope allow us to study its recent star formation history. Our analysis focuses on stars with Hα excess emission, a robust indicator of their pre-main sequence (PMS) accreting status. The comparison with theoretical PMS isochrones shows that 2/3 of the objects with Hα excess emission have ages from 1 to 10 Myr, with a median value of 3 Myr, while a surprising 1/3 of them are older than 10 Myr. The study of the spatial distribution of these PMS stars allows us to confirm their cluster membership and to statistically separate them from field stars. This result establishes unambiguously for the first time that star formation in and around the cluster has been ongoing for at least 10-20 Myr, at an apparently increasing rate.

  7. Population I Cepheids and understanding star formation history of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Yogesh Chandra; Joshi, Santosh; Mohanty, Auro Prasad

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the age and spatial distributions of Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) as a function of their ages using data from the OGLE III photometric catalogue. A period - age relation derived for Classical Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has been used to find the ages of Cepheids. The age distribution of the SMC Classical Cepheids is found to have a peak at log(Age) = 8.40 ± 0.10 which suggests that a major star formation event might have occurred in the SMC about 250 ± 50 Myr ago. It is believed that this star forming burst had been triggered by close interactions of the SMC with the LMC and/or the Milky Way. A comparison of the observed spatial distributions of the Cepheids and open star clusters has also been carried out to study the star formation scenario in the SMC. (paper)

  8. Small Galactic H II regions. II. The molecular clouds and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.A.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Wilton, C.

    1990-01-01

    CO maps of molecular clouds associated with 11 small Galactic H II regions are presented and compared with IR images obtained by IRAS. The molecular masses of the clouds are computed and compared with the masses of the stellar content. The mapped clouds have masses of 1000-60,000 solar and are typical of the more numerous, smaller Galactic molecular clouds. All of the clouds have recently made massive OB stars, and many have complex spatial and kinematic structures. The coincidence of IRAS sources and CO peaks suggests that many of the clouds have sites of star formation other than the optically visible H II region. Star-formation efficiencies are uncertain, with values for the clouds ranging from 0.02 to 0.6 with an average value of 0.2. There is no trend of the upper stellar mass limit with Galactic radius and with molecular cloud mass. 53 refs

  9. Exploring the dusty star-formation in the early Universe using intensity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Guilaine

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, it has become clear that the dust-enshrouded star formation contributes significantly to early galaxy evolution. Detection of dust is therefore essential in determining the properties of galaxies in the high-redshift universe. This requires observations at the (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. Unfortunately, sensitivity and background confusion of single dish observations on the one hand, and mapping efficiency of interferometers on the other hand, pose unique challenges to observers. One promising route to overcome these difficulties is intensity mapping of fluctuations which exploits the confusion-limited regime and measures the collective light emission from all sources, including unresolved faint galaxies. We discuss in this contribution how 2D and 3D intensity mapping can measure the dusty star formation at high redshift, through the Cosmic Infrared Background (2D) and [CII] fine structure transition (3D) anisotropies.

  10. The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS): The Role of Spiral Arms in Cloud and Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinnerer, Eva; Meidt, Sharon E.; Querejeta, Miguel [MPI for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Colombo, Dario [MPI for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hgel, Bonn (Germany); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, RO 106, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Dobbs, Clare L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); García-Burillo, Santiago [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional—OAN, Observatorio de Madrid Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain); Hughes, Annie [IRAP, 9, avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Leroy, Adam K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pety, Jérôme [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406, Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Kramer, Carsten [Instituto Radioastronomía Milimétrica, Av. Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, E-18012, Granada (Spain); Schuster, Karl F. [Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014, Paris (France)

    2017-02-10

    The process that leads to the formation of the bright star-forming sites observed along prominent spiral arms remains elusive. We present results of a multi-wavelength study of a spiral arm segment in the nearby grand-design spiral galaxy M51 that belongs to a spiral density wave and exhibits nine gas spurs. The combined observations of the (ionized, atomic, molecular, dusty) interstellar medium with star formation tracers (H ii regions, young <10 Myr stellar clusters) suggest (1) no variation in giant molecular cloud (GMC) properties between arm and gas spurs, (2) gas spurs and extinction feathers arising from the same structure with a close spatial relation between gas spurs and ongoing/recent star formation (despite higher gas surface densities in the spiral arm), (3) no trend in star formation age either along the arm or along a spur, (4) evidence for strong star formation feedback in gas spurs, (5) tentative evidence for star formation triggered by stellar feedback for one spur, and (6) GMC associations being not special entities but the result of blending of gas arm/spur cross sections in lower resolution observations. We conclude that there is no evidence for a coherent star formation onset mechanism that can be solely associated with the presence of the spiral density wave. This suggests that other (more localized) mechanisms are important to delay star formation such that it occurs in spurs. The evidence of star formation proceeding over several million years within individual spurs implies that the mechanism that leads to star formation acts or is sustained over a longer timescale.

  11. The May October energy budget of a Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Kessler, A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes measurements of the Hartheim forest energy budget for the 157-day period of May 11 Oct. 14, 1992. Data were collected as 30-min means. Energy available to the forest was measured with net radiometers and soil heat flux discs; sensible heat exchange between the canopy and atmosphere was measured with two “One-Propeller Eddy Correlation” (OPEC) systems, and latent energy (evapotranspiration or ET) was determined as a residual in the surface energy balance equation. Net rediation, change in thermal storage, and sensible heat flux were verified by independent measurements during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX, May 11 12), and again during the “HartX2” experiment over 20 days late in the summer (Sep. 10 29). Specifically, sensible heat estimates from the two adjacent OPEC sensor sets were in close agreement throughout the summer, and in excellent agreement with measurements of sonic eddy correlation systems in May and September. The eddy correlation/energy balance technique was observed to overestimate occurrence of dew, leading to an underestimate of daily ET of about 5%. After taking dew into account, estimates of OPEC ET totaled 358 mm over the 5.1-month period, which is in quite good agreement with an ET estimate of 328 mm from a hydrologic water balance. An observed decrease in forest ET in July and August was clearly associated with low rainfall and increased soil water deficit. The OPEC system required only modest technical supervision, and generated a data yield of 99.5% over the period DOY 144 288. The documented verification and precision of this energy budget appears to be unmatched by any other long-term forest study reported to date.

  12. Low-Metallicity Blue Compact Dwarfs as Templates for Primordial Star Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, L. K.; Hirashita, H.; Thuan, T. X.; Izotov, Y. I.; Vanzi, L.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how galaxies formed their first stars is a vital cosmological question, but the study of high-redshift objects, caught in the act of forming their first stars, is difficult. Here we argue that two extremely low-metallicity Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies (BCDs), IZw18 and SBS0335-052, could be local templates for primordial star formation, since both lack evolved ($> $1 Gyr) stellar populations; but they form stars differently.

  13. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 10 11 M ☉ , we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H 2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H 2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  14. New Discoveries in Planetary Systems and Star Formation through Advances in Laboratory Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    WGLA, AAS; Brickhouse, Nancy; Cowan, John; Drake, Paul; Federman, Steven; Ferland, Gary; Frank, Adam; Herbst, Eric; Olive, Keith; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel Wolf; Ziurys, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    As the panel on Planetary Systems and Star Formation (PSF) is fully aware, the next decade will see major advances in our understanding of these areas of research. To quote from their charge, these advances will occur in studies of solar system bodies (other than the Sun) and extrasolar planets, debris disks, exobiology, the formation of individual stars, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, molecular clouds and the cold ISM, dust, and astrochemistry. Central to the progress in these areas ...

  15. THE AVERAGE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF GALAXIES IN DARK MATTER HALOS FROM z = 0-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Conroy, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method to constrain average galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), star formation histories (SFHs), and the intracluster light (ICL) as a function of halo mass. Our results are consistent with observed galaxy stellar mass functions, specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and cosmic star formation rates (CSFRs) from z = 0 to z = 8. We consider the effects of a wide range of uncertainties on our results, including those affecting stellar masses, SFRs, and the halo mass function at the heart of our analysis. As they are relevant to our method, we also present new calibrations of the dark matter halo mass function, halo mass accretion histories, and halo-subhalo merger rates out to z = 8. We also provide new compilations of CSFRs and SSFRs; more recent measurements are now consistent with the buildup of the cosmic stellar mass density at all redshifts. Implications of our work include: halos near 10 12 M ☉ are the most efficient at forming stars at all redshifts, the baryon conversion efficiency of massive halos drops markedly after z ∼ 2.5 (consistent with theories of cold-mode accretion), the ICL for massive galaxies is expected to be significant out to at least z ∼ 1-1.5, and dwarf galaxies at low redshifts have higher stellar mass to halo mass ratios than previous expectations and form later than in most t