WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy bars affect

  1. Low energy bar pp physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsler, C.; Crowe, K.

    1989-02-01

    A detailed investigation of proton-antiproton interactions at low energy has become feasible with the commissioning of the LEAR facility in 1983. We shall shortly review the status of bar pp annihilation at rest and the physics motivations for second generation experiments with the Crystal Barrel detector. This type of detector would be adequate for the study of both Kp and bar pp interactions on an extracted beam of the KAON Factory. We shall conclude with a few remarks on the physics opportunities with bar p's at the KAON Factory which, in our opinion, will not be covered by the present LEAR facility. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Germany bars nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaullier, V.

    1999-01-01

    Germany wants a future without nuclear energy, the different steps about the going out of nuclear programs are recalled. The real choice is either fossil energies with their unquestionable safety levels but with an increase of the greenhouse effect or nuclear energy with its safety concerns and waste management problems but without pollutant emission. The debate will have to be set in most European countries. (A.C.)

  3. Additions of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate or gamma-tocopherol to fish oil-enriched energy bars affect lipid oxidation differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol on protection of fish oil-enriched energy bars against lipid oxidation during storage for 10 weeks at room temperature. The lipophilic gamma-tocopherol reduced lipid oxidation during...... storage when added at a concentration above 440 mu g/g fish oil. However, the best antioxidative effect was observed when it was added at a concentration of 660 mu g/g fish oil. In contrast, prooxidative effects were observed when using either gamma-tocopherol at concentrations below 220 mu g/g fish oil......, or the hydrophilic caffeic acid, or the amphiphilic ascorbyl palmitate at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300 mu g/g fish oil. Prooxidative effects were observed as an increase in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and volatile secondary oxidation products, as well as the development of rancid off...

  4. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth / ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  5. Energy efficient mini bars in hotel rooms; Energieffektive minibarer til hotelvaerelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    The project 'Energy-efficient mini bars for hotel rooms' is carried out from February December 2005. The project is financed by Elfor's PSO funds and also by the participants in the project, HORESTA and Teknologisk Institut. Mini bars consume up to 10% of the total electricity costs of a hotel. Therefore, the energy consumption of mini bars has been brought into focus in this project. The existing mini bar market has been analysed and measurements have been carried out on the type of mini bars that are used most often. In that way, energy consumption, net volume, energy efficiency, energy labelling, noise level and cooling capacity have been determined. In the course of the project, mini bars from IndelB, Domestic and Vibocold have been tested. With regard to energy consumption, the test results showed large deviations from the consumption stated by the manufacturer. Only 1 of the 6 tested mini bars received an energy label B - the others were labelled with F or G. Therefore, there is a great potential for developing more energy efficient mini bars. A list covering the energy consumption, energy labelling, noise level etc. of the tested mini bars and a guide to new purchases can be found on HORESTA's homepage www.horesta.dk. (au)

  6. Metallurgical interpretation of the change of notched bar impact strength in the heat-affected zone of weldable structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forch, K.; Forch, U.; Piehl, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Notched bar impact energy in the heat-affected zone of joint welds of the steels StE 36, StE 51 and 20 MnMoNi55. Manual arc welding and submerged arc welding with heat input between 10,000 and 35,000 J/cm, stress relieving between 530 and 600 0 C. Significance of the structure in the heat-affected zone, the effect of heat treatment, the precipitation processes and of temper embrittlement. (orig.) [de

  7. On isospin dependence of low energy N-bar N interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Druzjinin, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    The amplitude analysis of the N-bar N scattering data at very low energies in zero-effective-range approximation to get a model-independent solution for N-bar N scattering lengths of definite isospin is performed. As input the recent experimental data on the p-bar p annihilation cross section below 100 MeV/c as well as the (p-bar p) atomic data are used. The analysis gives a possibility to get limitations on the N-bar N scattering lengths of definite isospin, but it is impossible to get the unique solution of the problem. Measurement of the charge-exchange cross section p-bar p → n-bar n at 120 MeV/c would be useful tool for getting the unambiguous solution of the problem. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Effects of cereal bar containing polydextrose on subjective feelings of appetite and energy intake in overweight adults over 15 d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Marcela; Hick, Emilia; Walz, Florencia; Drago, Silvina R

    2018-01-18

    The effects of 15 d polydextrose (16.7 g) consumption on energy intake (EI) and appetite feelings were investigated. Overweight adults consumed a polydextrose-bar or a control-bar matched in energy content as a midmorning snack for 15 consecutive days in a single-blind, randomised, crossover design. The two 15-d intervention periods were separated by a 15-d washout period. On the day 1 and the day 15 of each intervention period, energy intake (primary outcome) and appetite feelings (secondary outcome) were assessed. There were not significant main effects of the day, type of bar, or their interaction for EI (at lunchtime test meal, at rest of the day, or at total daily) or subjective feelings (hunger, desire to eat, fullness, and prospective food consumption) during the satiation and satiety periods. The results showed the consumption of polydextrose-bar during 15 d did not significantly affect energy intake and subjective feelings of appetite in overweight adults.

  9. Flavor production in bar pp reactions at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Associated production processes have been known since the 1050's. The solution to the puzzle they presented was to introduce the 'strangeness' quantum number, along with the notion of its conservation in strong interactions. For example, the reaction π + n → K + Λ is described both as the t-channel exchange of a K 0 meson, ans as an s-channel process involving the annihilation of a d bar d quark pair and the subsequent production of an s bar s pair. This basic 'flavor-production' process and ones like it are the focus of widespread interest and the subject of this talk. The physics to be addressed is the nature of the quark annihilation and the creation process, which is expected to proceed according to the rules of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). According to these ideas, it will be dominated by perturbative QCD (essentially single-gluon exchange) at high momentum; at low momentum the process is expected to involve a very complicated multiple gluon exchange since it is in the nonperturbative regime

  10. Local nuclear slope and curvature in high energy pp and pp-bar elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgrolard, P. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Kontros, J.; Lengyel, A.I. [Inst. of Electron Physics, Uzhgorod (Ukraine); Martynov, E.S. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Bogolyubov Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    1997-05-01

    The local nuclear slope is reconstructed from the experimental angular distributions with a procedure that uses overlapping t-bins, for an energy that ranges from the ISR to the Sp-bar pS and the Tevatron. Predictions of several models of (p-bar,p) elastic scattering at high energy are tested. Only a model with two-components Pomeron and Odderon gives a satisfactory agreement with the (non fitted) slope data. The extreme sensitivity of the local nuclear curvature with the choice for a Pomeron model is emphasized. (author). 30 refs.

  11. Energy Calibration of the BaBar EMC Using the Pi0 Invariant Mass Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, David J.; /Manchester U.

    2007-04-06

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter energy calibration method was compared with the local and global peak iteration procedures, of Crystal Barrel and CLEO-II. An investigation was made of the possibility of {Upsilon}(4S) background reduction which could lead to increased statistics over a shorter time interval, for efficient calibration runs. The BaBar software package was used with unreconstructed data to study the energy response of the calorimeter, by utilizing the {pi}{sup 0} mass constraint on pairs of photon clusters.

  12. Methods for reducing lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched energy bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    P>Fish oil (FO) enrichment of foods is relevant owing to the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health. However, the susceptibility of FO to oxidation necessitates careful control to avoid this oxidation. In this study, energy bars were successfully supplemented...... similar protection towards oxidation as packaging the energy bars in modified atmosphere. These protection methods were although not as efficient as addition of FO as micro-encapsulated powder. Addition of the metal chelator ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) (100-2000 ppm) to emulsified FO...

  13. Diffractive electroproduction of s{bar s} mesons off nuclei at CEBAF energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhar, O. [Instituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Nikolaev, N.N.; Zakharov, B.G. [L.D. Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss diffractive incoherent electroproduction of s{bar s} mesons off nuclear targets at beam energies that are expected to be available at CEBAF (5-8 GeV). The Q{sup 2} and target mass dependence of the {phi} and {phi}{prime} transparency ratios has been studied within a theoretical approach in which the propagation of the s{bar s} pair through the nuclear medium is described in terms of the quantum mechanical evolution operator. The authors predict a complex pattern of nuclear effects, whose experimental study may provide information on several issues relevant to the understanding of QCD, both in the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes.

  14. e+e-→e-ν-bareud-bar from LEP to linear collider energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1994-12-01

    The complete tree level cross-section for the process e + e - → e - ν-bar e ud-bar is computed using the GRACE system, a program package for automatic amplitude calculation. Special attention is brought to the gauge violation problem induced by the finite width of the W-boson. The preserved gauge scheme is introduced and an event generator including double-resonant, single-resonant and non-resonant diagrams with no need for a cut on the electron polar angle is built. A mono jet event rate estimation based on this process at LEP-I energy is discussed. (author). 11 refs., 9 figs

  15. Measure of the e+e-→ bb-bar cross section at the LEP energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce Dubois, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work I analyse the data collected during 1990 by the L3 detector, situated in the electron-positron collider LEP. After selecting the events e + e - → bb-bar through their semileptonic decays into muons, I calculate the cross section for the process e + e - → bb-bar at different energy points around the mass of the vectorial Z 0 , and I measure some parameters of the Standard Model, namely the Br(b→μ),γ Z degree celsius →bb/γ Z degree celsius → had and γ Z degree celsius → bb γ Z degree celsius → e + e -

  16. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a heart in need of an energy bar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styliani eVakrou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM has been recently recognized as the most common inherited cardiovascular disorder, affecting 1 in 500 adults worldwide. HCM is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy resulting in thickening of the ventricular wall, myocyte disarray, interstitial and/or replacement fibrosis, decreased ventricular cavity volume and diastolic dysfunction. HCM is also the most common cause of sudden death in the young. A large proportion of patients diagnosed with HCM have mutations in sarcomeric proteins. However, it is unclear how these mutations lead to the cardiac phenotype, which is variable even in patients carrying the same causal mutation. Abnormalities in calcium cycling, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and energetic deficiency have been described, constituting the basis of therapies in experimental models of HCM and HCM patients. This review focuses on evidence supporting the role of cellular metabolism and mitochondria in HCM.

  17. Effects of easy-to-use protein-rich energy bar on energy balance, physical activity and performance during 8 days of sustained physical exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna M Tanskanen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous military studies have shown an energy deficit during a strenuous field training course (TC. This study aimed to determine the effects of energy bar supplementation on energy balance, physical activity (PA, physical performance and well-being and to evaluate ad libitum fluid intake during wintertime 8-day strenuous TC. METHODS: Twenty-six men (age 20±1 yr. were randomly divided into two groups: The control group (n = 12 had traditional field rations and the experimental (Ebar group (n = 14 field rations plus energy bars of 4.1 MJ•day(-1. Energy (EI and water intake was recorded. Fat-free mass and water loss were measured with deuterium dilution and elimination, respectively. The energy expenditure was calculated using the intake/balance method and energy availability as (EI/estimated basal metabolic rate. PA was monitored using an accelerometer. Physical performance was measured and questionnaires of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI, hunger and mood state were recorded before, during and after TC. RESULTS: Ebar had a higher EI and energy availability than the controls. However, decreases in body mass and fat mass were similar in both groups representing an energy deficit. No differences were observed between the groups in PA, water balance, URTI symptoms and changes in physical performance and fat-free mass. Ebar felt less hunger after TC than the controls and they had improved positive mood state during the latter part of TC while controls did not. Water deficit associated to higher PA. Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA. CONCLUSION: An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC. The high content of protein in the bars might have induced satiation decreasing energy intake from field rations. PA and energy intake seems to be primarily affected by other factors than energy

  18. Production of high energy η' in B meson decays from BaBar experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicheur, A.

    2003-04-01

    The work presented in this thesis relies on the analysis of data collected between october 1999 and July 2002 by the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II collider located at SLAC (Stanford, California). Electron-positron collisions at a center of mass energy equal to the Υ(4S) resonance mass are used for the production of B meson pairs. In July 2001, the BaBar collaboration published the first measurement of CP violation in the neutral B mesons system. Since then, the precision of the measurement has been continually being improved with the increasing data sample. Two devices are dedicated to the reconstruction of charged particles: the Silicon Vertex Tracker and the Drift Chamber. The Silicon Vertex Tracker is crucial for the reconstruction of the B meson decay vertex. Its motion with regard to the Drift Chamber needs a rolling calibration of the corresponding alignment parameters roughly every two hours. The relation between the Drift Chamber geometry and the alignment has been studied. Beside CP violation, Heavy Flavour Physics is an other important issue of BaBar research program. Rare decays are of particular interest as they are sensible to a new physics beyond the Standard Model. The production of high energy η' in B decays has been studied through the two main contributions, B→ η' X s coming from the rare decay b → sg*, and B-bar 0 → η'D 0 coming from the internal tree color suppressed decay b → cud. The improvement of the measurement of the process B → η'X-s and the first. observation of the decay B-bar 0 → η'D 0 have led to the conclusion that the η' production is dominated by the decay b → sg* and enables to constrain its quark content. (author)

  19. Core structure, dislocation energy and Peierls stress for 1/3112-bar 0 edge dislocations with (0001) and {11-bar 00} slip planes in α-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskoboinikov, R.E.; Osetsky, Yu.N.; Bacon, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic-scale simulations of edge dislocations of the 1/3112-bar 0(0001) and 1/3112-bar 0{11-bar 00} slip systems have been carried out using a Finnis-Sinclair-type interatomic potential for α-zirconium. The distribution of atomic displacements in the dislocation core shows that in this model the edge dislocation in the basal plane dissociates into two Shockley partials whereas the dislocation in the prism plane remains undissociated. The effective core radius and core energy are estimated, and dislocation response to increasing applied shear strain is investigated. The core properties and the critical stress for dislocation glide (Peierls stress) depend sensitively on whether the core extends or not

  20. Analysis of pp and pp-bar elastic scattering amplitudes at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.; Kodama, T.; Kohara, A.K. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: A careful analysis of high energies elastic scattering data at 7 TeV for pp, 1800 - 1950 GeV for pp-bar and 540 -541 GeV for pp-bar in terms of its amplitudes has been performed as natural extension of previous analysis for lower energies. The disentanglement of the real and imaginary parts is written consistently with constraints from dispersion relations for amplitudes and for slopes, and also satisfying the universal asymptotic behavior for large |t| values due to the three gluon Exchange process. Values for the imaginary and real slopes and for the total cross section at 7 TeV, 1800-1950 GeV and 540-541 GeV are presented, and the shape of the differential cross section at 14 TeV, with a dip/bump structure more marked and at a smaller values of |t| is predicted. It is predicted that future measurements at large |t| will be connected smoothly with the perturbative tail observed in the interval 5.5 to 14.2 GeV{sup 2} at lower energies and that a marked dip would be observed in pp-bar scattering near this tail range. It is stressed for the consistent description of elastic pp and pp-bar data and pointed out the importance of the future measurements in the Coulomb interference range and in the transition range to the perturbative tail where the perturbative and non-perturbative effects appears together. (author)

  1. Evaluating the economics of biomass energy production in the Watts Bar region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, R.R.; English, B.C.; Bhat, M.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Graham, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    While the commercial potential of biofuel technology is becoming more feasible, it is not clear whether the supply of biomass feedstock will be available in competitive markets. In order to exploit the potential of biomass crops as a reliable source of biofuels, a significant commitment on the part of farmers to convert large amounts of cropland would be required. Dedicated energy crops have to compete with conventional crops which could result in significant interregional shifts in crop production. Those changes could further affect overall agricultural production, food prices, consumer spending, and government spending on farm programs. Evaluating these economic impacts provides important information for the ongoing debate. This research is a case study incorporating an existing power plant. The objective of this project is to evaluate the potential of short rotation woody crops as a fuel source in the Watts Bar facility located in eastern Tennessee. The appraisal includes estimates of environmental impacts as well as of economic feasibility. This is achieved by estimating the amounts of biomass that would be supplied at a predetermined price. By changing prices of biomass at the plant in an incremental fashion, a regional supply curve for biomass is estimated. The model incorporates current agricultural production possibilities in the region along with the proposed short rotation woody crop production activities. In order to adequately model the landscape, several variables are considered. These variables include soil type, crop production, government policy, land use conversion to crop land, and distance from the plant. Environmental issues including erosion, chemical usage, and potential leaching are also incorporated within the modeling framework; however, only estimates on erosion are available in this analysis. Output from the model provides insight on where and what types of land should shift from current land use to biomass production.

  2. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Schillo, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Objective To determine if partial CIA produce differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies using bar and restaurant employment per capita. Design, setting, and subjects Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003 to 2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Results Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with a partial CIA policies (p=0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p=0.36). Conclusion There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:19184432

  3. The effect of ν-bar(E) energy dependence at E 239Pu in the lower energy groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusejnov, A.G.; Gusejnov, M.A.; Rabotnov, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the energy dependence of the average number of prompt neutrons on the 239 Pu fission BNAB-26 group cross-sections has been estimated. It was also found that the values of ν-bar(E) are lowered by approximately 1% when the temperature increases from 300 deg. K to 2000 deg. K. Taking this dependence into account may improve the predictability of the plutonium-fueled reactor characteristics. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Mechanisms Affecting Performance of the BaBar Resistive Plate Chambers and Searches for Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Changguo

    2003-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at PEPII relies on the Instrumentation of the Flux Return (IFR) for both muon identification and KL detection. The active detector is composed of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC's) operated in streamer mode. Since the start of operation the RPC's have suffered persistent efficiency deterioration and dark current increase problems. The ''autopsy'' of bad BaBar RPC's revealed that in many cases uncured Linseed oil droplets had formed on the inner surface of the Bakelite plates, leading to current paths from oil ''stalagmites'' bridging the 2 mm gap. In this paper a possible model of this ''stalagmite'' formation and its effect on the dark current and efficiency of RPC chambers is presented. Laboratory test results strongly support this model. Based upon this model we are searching for solutions to eliminate the unfavorable effect of the oil stalagmites. The lab tests show that the stalagmite resistivity increases dramatically if exposed to the air, an observation that points to a possible way to remedy the damage and increase the efficiency. We have seen that flowing an oxygen gas mixture into the chamber helps to polymerize the uncured linseed oil. Consequently the resistivity of the bridged oil stalagmites increases, as does that of the oil coating on the frame edges and spacers, significantly reducing the RPC dark currents and low-efficiency regions. We have tested this idea on two chambers removed from BaBar because of their low efficiency and high dark current. These test results are reported in the paper, and two other remediation methods also mentioned. We continue to study this problem, and try to find new treatments with permanent improvement

  5. Bound states, resonances and poles in the low-energy K-barN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The locations in the complex energy plane of the dynamic poles of the T matrix for the (K-bar N,Σπ) system are calculated. Investigated are a quark bag model and several potential models, including one which agrees with the strong interaction shift in kaonic hydrogen as well as scattering data. The parameters of the model are fit to K - p scattering and reaction cross sections, branching ratios, and mass spectra from K - p→ Σπππ, Λπππ. The Σ P1322 (1385) and Λ D03 (1520) resonances are found to be predominately elementary bag states with considerable dressing for the Σ P13 . The Λ S01 (1405) appears as a complicated composite systems arising from two poles. The model with certain parameter sets does predict two sign changes in the real part of the K-bar N scattering amplitude near threshold, but they are not quite at the correct energies to produce agreement with the sign of the strong interaction shift of kaonic hydrogen. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs

  6. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use as an Event-Level Predictor of Physical and Verbal Aggression in Bar Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E; Quigley, Brian M; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K; Ball, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    Young adult use of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks (AmEDs) has been globally linked with increased odds of interpersonal aggression, compared with the use of alcohol alone. However, no prior research has linked these behaviors at the event level in bar drinking situations. The present study assessed whether AmED use is associated with the perpetration of verbal and physical aggression in bar conflicts at the event level. In Fall 2014, a community sample of 175 young adult AmED users (55% female) completed a web survey describing a recent conflict experienced while drinking in a bar. Use of both AmED and non-AmED alcoholic drinks in the incident were assessed, allowing calculation of our main predictor variable, the proportion of AmEDs consumed (AmED/total drinks consumed). To measure perpetration of aggression, participants reported on the occurrence of 6 verbal and 6 physical acts during the bar conflict incident. Linear regression analyses showed that the proportion of AmEDs consumed predicted scores for perpetration of both verbal aggression (β = 0.16, p bar environments, and total number of drinks. Results of this study suggest that in alcohol-related bar conflicts, higher levels of young adult AmED use are associated with higher levels of aggression perpetration than alcohol use alone and that the elevated risk is not attributable to individual differences between AmED users and nonusers or to contextual differences in bar drinking settings. While future research is needed to identify motivations, dosages, and sequencing issues associated with AmED use, these beverages should be considered a potential risk factor in the escalation of aggressive bar conflicts. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. GaAs (111) and (1'-.2m''.3m bar ' '.2m''-.3m' 1'-.2m''.3m bar ' '.2m''-.3m' 1'-.2m''.3m bar ' '.2m''-.3m' ) surfaces and the GaAs/AlAs (111) heterojunction studied using a local energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, N.; Martin, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    We use a local energy density scrE(r) within density-functional theory to study GaAs (111) and (bar 1 bar 1 bar 1) surfaces, and the GaAs/AlAs (111) heterojunction. We use scrE(r) to calculate the formation enthalpy of a single isolated GaAs (111) and (bar 1 bar 1 bar 1) surface, which is not possible with the use of conventional total-energy methods. We are able to address questions related to the stability of these surfaces. Our methods also apply to heterojunctions where we consider GaAs/AlAs (111) as a prototype. We use scrE(r) to calculate the formation enthalpy of the Ga-rich and Al-rich interfaces, which are distinct and which are both inherent in the supercell geometry

  8. Near-Bed Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget Under a Large-Scale Plunging Breaking Wave Over a Fixed Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Joep; van der A, Dominic A.; Cáceres, Iván.; Hurther, David; McLelland, Stuart J.; Ribberink, Jan S.; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Hydrodynamics under regular plunging breaking waves over a fixed breaker bar were studied in a large-scale wave flume. A previous paper reported on the outer flow hydrodynamics; the present paper focuses on the turbulence dynamics near the bed (up to 0.10 m from the bed). Velocities were measured with high spatial and temporal resolution using a two component laser Doppler anemometer. The results show that even at close distance from the bed (1 mm), the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) increases by a factor five between the shoaling, and breaking regions because of invasion of wave breaking turbulence. The sign and phase behavior of the time-dependent Reynolds shear stresses at elevations up to approximately 0.02 m from the bed (roughly twice the elevation of the boundary layer overshoot) are mainly controlled by local bed-shear-generated turbulence, but at higher elevations Reynolds stresses are controlled by wave breaking turbulence. The measurements are subsequently analyzed to investigate the TKE budget at wave-averaged and intrawave time scales. Horizontal and vertical turbulence advection, production, and dissipation are the major terms. A two-dimensional wave-averaged circulation drives advection of wave breaking turbulence through the near-bed layer, resulting in a net downward influx in the bar trough region, followed by seaward advection along the bar's shoreward slope, and an upward outflux above the bar crest. The strongly nonuniform flow across the bar combined with the presence of anisotropic turbulence enhances turbulent production rates near the bed.

  9. Coherent and noncoherent double diffractive production of QQ-bar pairs in heavy-ion collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agababyan, N.M.; Chatrchyan, S.A.; Galoyan, A.S.; Malakhov, A.I.; Melkumov, G.L.; Zarubin, P.I.; Jenkovszky, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent and noncoherent double diffractive production of heavy quark-antiquark pairs in ion scattering at the LHC energies has been considered. The total and differential cross sections for such processes featuring the production of cc-bar and bb-bar quark pairs in pp, CaCa, and PbPb collisions have been estimated. It has been shown that the fraction of heavy quark-antiquark pairs produced in double diffractive scattering amounts to a few percent of the number of QQ-bar pairs produced in hard QCD scattering; therefore, it is necessary to take into account such processes in detecting heavy quarks, in seeking Higgs bosons of intermediate mass, in investigating the suppression of heavy quarkonia in quark-gluon plasma, and so on. It has been demonstrated that the cross section for coherent scattering is so large that this process can be used to study collective effects in nuclei at high energies. Large values of the quark-antiquark invariant mass, M QQ-bar > or approx. 100 GeV, in association with a large rapidity gap between diffractive jets, Δη>5, exemplify manifestations of such nuclear interactions

  10. Correlations between D and D-bar mesons in high energy photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Erik E.; Link, J.; Reyes, M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.; Bediaga, I.; Gobel, C.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; Miranda, J.M. de; Pepe, I.M.; Reis, A.C. dos; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vasquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; O'Reilly, B.; Ramirez, J.E.; Segoni, I.; Butler, J.N.; Cheung, H.W.K.; Chiodini, G.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P.H.; Garren, L.A.; Gottschalk, E.E.; Kasper, P.H.; Kreymer, A.E.; Kutschke, R.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Zallo, A.; Cawlfield, C.; Kim, D.Y.; Park, K.S.; Rahimi, A.; Wiss, J.; Gardner, R.; Kryemadhi, A.; Chang, K.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Kang, J.S.; Ko, B.R.; Kwak, J.W.; Lee, K.B.; Cho, K.; Park, H.; Alimonti, G.; Barberis, S.; Cerutti, A.; Boschini, M.; D'Angelo, P.; DiCorato, M.; Dini, P.; Edera, L.; Erba, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Pontoglio, C.; Prelz, F.; Rovere, M.; Sala, S.; Davenport, T.F.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Merlo, M.M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S.P.; Vitulo, P.; Hernandez, H.; Lopez, A.M.; Mendez, H.; Mendez, L.; Montiel, E.; Olaya, D.; Paris, A.; Quinones, J.; Rivera, C.; Xiong, W.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, J.R.; Handler, T.; Mitchell, R.; Engh, D.; Hosack, M.; Johns, W.E.; Nehring, M.; Sheldon, P.D.; Stenson, K.; Vaadering, E.W.; Webster, M.; Sheaff, M.

    2003-01-01

    Over 7000 events containing a fully reconstructed D D-bar pair have been extracted from data recorded by the FOCUS photoproduction experiment at Fermilab. Preliminary results from a study of correlations between D and D-bar mesons are presented. Correlations are used to study perturbative QCD predictions and investigate non-perturbative effects. We also present a preliminary result on the production of Ψ(3770)

  11. Analytical definition of fission chain reaction parameters for cylindrical uranium bar and energy release evaluations for HIF hybrid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    Within the conditions of Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) arises a possibility to obtain the fission chain reaction for a cylindrical HIF target. The paper contains the solution interpolated with the diffusion approximation in order to receive the general approximation expressions for the bar critical radius as well as for over-critical state. The obtained critical parameters generalized for uranium envelope are used for rough evaluation of the energy release in HIF hybrid targets [ru

  12. Jet Energy Scale Studies and the Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in the Channel ZH → ν(bar ν)b(bar b) at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    The D0 experiment is based at the Tevatron, which is currently the world's highest-energy accelerator. The detector comprises three major subsystems: the tracking system, the calorimeter and the muon detector. Jets, seen in the calorimeter, are the most common product of the proton-proton interactions at 2TeV. This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on jets and describes the derivation of a jet energy scale using p(bar p) → (Z + jets) events as a cross-check of the official D0 jet energy scale (Versions 4.2 and 5.1) which is derived using p(bar p) → γ + jets events. Closure tests were also carried out on the jet energy calibration as a further verification. Jets from b-quarks are commonly produced at D0, readily identified and are a useful physics tool. These require a special correction in the case where the b-jet decays via a muon and a neutrino. Thus a semileptonic correction was also derived as an addition to the standard energy correction for jets. The search for the Higgs boson is one of the largest physics programs at D0. The second part of this thesis describes a search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the ZH → ν(bar ν)b(bar b) channel in 52fb -1 of data. The analysis is based on a sequence of event selection criteria optimized on Monte Carlo event samples that simulate four light Higgs boson masses between 105 GeV and 135 GeV and the main backgrounds. For the first time, the data for the analysis are selected using new acoplanarity triggers and the b-quark jets are selected using the D0 neural net b-jet tagging tool. A limit is set for σ(p(bar p) → ZH) x Br(H → b(bar b))

  13. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively.

  14. Jet Transverse Energy Shape in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Brad K. [Purdue U.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of the transverse energy ow in hadronic jets has been measured in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1:8 TeV at the Fermilab collider using the D0 detector. These measurements of jet shape are made in two regions of pseudo-rapidity centered at $\\eta \\sim 0$ and $\\eta \\sim 2.7$ as a function of jet transverse energy. Comparisons are made with phenomenological Monte Carlo simulations and next-to-leading-order QCD calculations without parton fragmentation.

  15. Effects of additional isoscalar vector bosons in e+e-→ff-bar processes at the TRISTAN and LEP energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankov, A.A.; Gershtejn, S.S.; Likhoded, A.A.; Yushchenko, O.P.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenological manifestation of the additional Y(Y L ) boson arising in the models with the composite structure of electroweak interactions is studied for the process e + e - →ff-bar at the TRISTAN and LEP energies. It is shown that the presence of the additional isoscalar boson, yields a measurable effect in the cross-section of e + e - →μ + μ - (hadrons) processes at LEP. This effect in the muon and hadron cross-sections at the energies M Z ±Γ Z /2 can be ∼1.5-2% for small values of the γ-Y-mixing parameter. 13 refs

  16. Analysis of the highest transverse energy events seen in the UAl detector at the Spp-barS collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The first full solid angle analysis is presented of large transverse energy events in pp-bar collisions at the CERN collider. Events with transverse energies in excess of 200 GeV at √s = 630 GeV are studied for any non-standard physics and quantitatively compared with expectations from perturbative QCD Monte Carlo models. A corrected differential cross section is presented. A detailed examination is made of jet profiles, event jet multiplicities and the fraction of the transverse energy carried by the two jets with the highest transverse jet energies. There is good agreement with standard theory for events with transverse energies up to the largest observed values (approx. √s/2) and the analysis shows no evidence for any non-QCD mechanism to account for the event characteristics. (author)

  17. Calculations of antiproton-nucleus quasi-bound states using the Paris N bar N potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrtánková, Jaroslava; Mareš, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    An optical potential constructed using the p bar N scattering amplitudes derived from the 2009 version of the Paris N bar N potential is applied in calculations of p bar quasi-bound states in selected nuclei across the periodic table. A proper self-consistent procedure for treating energy dependence of the amplitudes in a nucleus appears crucial for evaluating p bar binding energies and widths. Particular attention is paid to the role of P-wave amplitudes. While the P-wave potential nearly does not affect calculated p bar binding energies, it reduces considerably the corresponding widths. The Paris S-wave potential supplemented by a phenomenological P-wave term yields in dynamical calculations p bar binding energies Bpbar ≈ 200 MeV and widths Γpbar ∼ 200- 230 MeV, which is very close to the values obtained within the RMF model consistent with p bar -atom data.

  18. Search for large extra dimensions in the exclusive photon + missing energy channel in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazoflores, Jose A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A search was conducted for evidence of large extra dimensions (LED) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory's Tevatron using the D0 detector. The Tevatron is a p$\\bar{p}$ collider at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. Events with particles escaping into extra dimensions will have large missing energy. The search was carried out using data from a total luminosity of 197 ± 13 pb-1 with an observable high transverse momentum photon and a large transverse missing energy. The 70 observed events are consistent with photons produced by standard known reactions plus other background processes produced by cosmic muons. The mass limits on the fundamental mass scale at 95% confidence level for large extra dimensions of 2, 4, 6 and 8 are 500 GeV, 581 GeV, 630 GeV, and 668 GeV respectively.

  19. Crack tip field in circumferentially-cracked round bar (CCRB in tension affected by loss of axial symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toribio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the stress intensity factor (SIF is computed in a circumferentially-cracked round bar (CCRB subjected to tensile loading, considering that the resistant ligament is circular and exhibits certain eccentricity in relation to the cylinder axis. The computation was performed by means of the finite element method (FEM using a three dimensional (3D model and the J-integral, the analyzed variable being the eccentricity of the circular ligament. Results show that the SIF is higher at the deepest point of the crack and that an increase of eccentricity (in relation to the bar axis raises the difference between the SIF values along the crack front. From a certain value of the misalignment a bending effect appears, so that the crack remains closed in the area near the point of lower depth.

  20. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  1. Low-energy D* + (D-bar)10 scattering and the nature of resonance-like structure Z+(4430)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ming; Meng Guozhan; He Song; Liu Chuan; Niu Zhiyuan; Shen Yuan; Chen Ying; Li Gang; Zhang Yuanjiang; Liu Yubin; Meng Xiangfei; Ma Jianping; Zhang Jianbo; CLQCD collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Low-energy scattering of D *+ and (D-bar) 1 0 meson is studied using quenched lattice QCD with improved lattice actions on anisotropic lattices. The threshold scattering parameters, namely the scattering length a 0 and the effective range r 0 , for the s-wave scattering in J P = 0 - channel are extracted: a 0 = 2.52(47) fm and r 0 = 0.7(1) fm. It is argued that, albeit the interaction between the two charmed mesons being attractive, it is unlikely that they can form a shallow bound state in this channel. Our calculation provides some useful information on the nature of the newly discovered resonance-like structure Z + (4430) by the Belle Collaboration. (authors)

  2. Quantification of variables that affect energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Facility energy consumption is the summation of a number of contributory factors, caused by equipment that uses energy in response to demands placed by the user and according to its particular design. While energy efficiency improvements usually concentrate on individual parts or systems, overall energy consumption is analyzed by examining the use of specific fuels. Because independent variables effect the consumption of these fuels, accurate comparisons of a facility's energy consumption for time-measured periods must include these effects. In many cases, it is possible to determine and quantify the effects of one or more of the independent variables through a statistically valid regression analysis of the data. The regression model can be linear, or be dependent on other functions such as powers, time lead or lag, or exponential. The most common model is linear, but other dependencies are often encountered. Regression analyses are not difficult to accomplish, and are included as one of the tools in most spreadsheet software. The analyses provide the energy manager with a means to better understand the energy consumption of his/her facility

  3. Field observations of nearshore bar formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

      The formation of an inner nearshore bar was observed during a high-energy event at the sandy beach of Vejers, Denmark. The bar accreted in situ during surf zone conditions and the growth of the bar was associated with the development of a trough landward of the bar. Measurements of hydrodynamics...

  4. Total cross section measurements for νμ, ν-barμ interactions in 3 - 30 GeV energy range with IHEP - JINR neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, V.B.; Belikov, S.V.; Borisov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The results of total cross section measurements for the ν μ , ν-bar μ interactions with isoscalar target in the 3 - 30 GeV energy range have been presented. The data were obtained with the IHEP - JINR Neutrino Detector in the 'natural' neutrino beams of the U - 70 accelerator. The significant deviation from the linear dependence for σ tot versus neutrino energy is determined in the energy range less than 15 GeV. 46 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Coherent and non-coherent double diffractive production of QQ-bar-pairs in collisions of heavy ions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agababyan, N.M.; Galoyan, A.S.; Enkovskij, L.L.; Zarubin, P.I.; Malakhov, A.I.; Melkumov, G.L.; Chatrchyan, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The double coherent and non-coherent diffractive production of heavy quark-antiquark pairs (QQ-bar) in heavy ion scattering at high energies (LHC) is considered. The total and differential cross sections of these processes with the formation of cc-bar and bb-bar pairs in pp, CaCa and PbPb collisions are evaluated. The contribution of the considered mechanisms is a few per cent of the number of heavy quark-antiquark pairs obtained in the processes of hard (QCD) scattering, and it will be taken into account in the registration of c, b quarks or, for instance, in the study of the heavy quarkonia suppression effect in Quark-Gluon Plasma, in the search got intermediate mass Higgs bosons and so on. It is shown that the cross section of the coherently scattering process is great enough. This makes it suitable for studying collective effects in nuclear interactions at high energies. An example of such effects is given: large values of the invariant mass of a QQ-bar pair, M QQ-bar ≥ 100 GeV, in association with a large rapidity gap between diffractive jets Δη >5 [ru

  6. Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...

  7. Diffractive dissociation and eikonalization in high energy pp and p bar p collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Levin, E.M.; Maor, U.

    1994-01-01

    We show that eikonal corrections imposed on diffraction dissociation processes calculated in the triple Regge limit produce a radical change in the energy dependence of the predicted cross section. The induced correction is shown to be in general agreement with the recent Fermilab Tevatron experimental data

  8. Freudental magic square and its dimensional implication for α-bar0≅137 and high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Modern theories of high energy physics are based in one way or another on Lie symmetry group's considerations. In particular the exceptional family plays a pivotal role in superstring and E-infinity theory. For a long time the very existence of the famous 5 exceptional Lie groups G 2 , F 4 , E 6 , E 7 and E 8 with dimensions 14; 52, 78, 133 and 248 was bizarre. Freudental magic square gives some reasons to believe that the exceptional groups are not that exceptional. In the present work we elaborate this point further still and show that the sum of the dimension of E 8 , E 7 and E 6 when adding the dimensions of the two grand unification groups SO(10) and SU(4) to them amounts to the number of states in Witten's p = 5 Brane model, namely 528. Furthermore when taking the standard model SU(3) SU(2) U(1) and an eight degrees of freedom Higgs field into account, the number rises to 4 multiplied with 137 of the inverse electromagnetic fine structure constant 528+12+8=4α-bar 0 =(4)(137)=548. The general implications of these results for high energy physics are briefly discussed

  9. Challenges for energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the ESRF: microsecond time resolution and Mega-bar pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilanti, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Thesis concerns the development of two different applications of energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the ESRF: time-resolved studies pushed to the microsecond time resolution and high-pressure studies at the limit of the Mega-bar pressures. The work has been developed in two distinct parts, and the underlying theme has been the exploitation of the capabilities of an X-ray absorption spectrometer in dispersive geometry on a third generation synchrotron source. For time-resolved studies, the study of the triplet excited state following a laser excitation of Pt 2 (P 2 O 5 H 2 ) 4 4- has been chosen to push the technique to the microsecond time resolution. In the high-pressure part, the suitability of the energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectrometer for high-pressure studies using diamond anvils cell is stressed. Some technical developments carried out on beamline ID24 are discussed. Finally, the most extensive scientific part concerns a combined X-ray absorption and diffraction study of InAs under pressure. (author)

  10. Energy Sharing and Energy Feedback: Affective and Behavioral Reactions to Communal Energy Displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leygue, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.leygue@nottingham.ac.uk [Horizon Digital Economy Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ferguson, Eamonn [School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Skatova, Anya [Horizon Digital Economy Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Spence, Alexa [Horizon Digital Economy Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-25

    Smart meters and energy displays are being rolled out in many countries to help individuals monitor and reduce their energy usage. However, to date, there is little in depth understanding of how they may change behavior. While there is currently a great deal of technical research into developing smart metering, little research has been conducted on how this affects the energy user. This research addresses this gap and explores the user perspective of energy displays when energy is considered as a shared resource. We report an online experiment conducted across the UK examining affective and behavioral responses to energy sharing situations incorporating different types of energy displays. Reactions differed depending on the type of display. In a situation where one person used more than their fair share of energy, displays showing the average amount of usage in the house were associated with feelings of guilt and fear and a decrease in intention to use energy. Displays that identified the person who overused the resource were associated with anger, and direct sanction intentions on those who were overusing energy. Findings are discussed in terms of the smart meter rollout and the potential utility of detailed energy monitoring technologies for behavior change.

  11. Energy sharing and energy feedback: Affective and behavioral reactions to communal energy displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eLeygue

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters and energy displays are being rolled out in many countries to help individuals monitor and reduce their energy usage. However, to date there is little in depth understanding of how they may change behavior. While there is currently a great deal of technical research into developing smart metering, little research has been conducted on how this affects the energy user. This research addresses this gap and explores the user perspective of energy displays when energy is considered as a shared resource. We report an online experiment conducted across the UK examining affective and behavioral responses to energy sharing situations incorporating different types of energy displays. Reactions differed depending on the type of display. In a situation where one person used more than their fair share of energy, displays showing the average amount of usage in the house were associated with feelings of guilt and fear and a decrease in intention to use energy. Displays that identified the person who overused the resource were associated with anger, and direct sanction intentions on those who were overusing energy. Findings are discussed in terms of the smart meter rollout and the potential utility of detailed energy monitoring technologies for behavior change.

  12. Energy Sharing and Energy Feedback: Affective and Behavioral Reactions to Communal Energy Displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leygue, Caroline; Ferguson, Eamonn; Skatova, Anya; Spence, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    Smart meters and energy displays are being rolled out in many countries to help individuals monitor and reduce their energy usage. However, to date, there is little in depth understanding of how they may change behavior. While there is currently a great deal of technical research into developing smart metering, little research has been conducted on how this affects the energy user. This research addresses this gap and explores the user perspective of energy displays when energy is considered as a shared resource. We report an online experiment conducted across the UK examining affective and behavioral responses to energy sharing situations incorporating different types of energy displays. Reactions differed depending on the type of display. In a situation where one person used more than their fair share of energy, displays showing the average amount of usage in the house were associated with feelings of guilt and fear and a decrease in intention to use energy. Displays that identified the person who overused the resource were associated with anger, and direct sanction intentions on those who were overusing energy. Findings are discussed in terms of the smart meter rollout and the potential utility of detailed energy monitoring technologies for behavior change.

  13. Why atomic energy affects Civil Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knieper, R.

    1980-01-01

    Based on the decision of July 20, 1979 by the Amtsgericht Stuttgart, which dismissed the complaint filed by the Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart (public utility) against electricity boycotters as being unfounded for the time being, the author states that a political function is due to Civil Law. The concrete question is whether political considerations have surpassed the limits of laws and interpretations bound by the basic rights. The relationship between a customer depending on power supply and the supply monopolist exceeds contractual relationship by far since it is a social relationship: it is inescapably embraced by the customer's dependence on power supply and by the customer being subject to research work. Atomic energy is being introduced into law of contract by means of dogmatic crutches - breach of additional obligation under a contract. However, in Civil Law, there are a great number of such means enabling solutions to be corrected which seem to be inadequate. (HSCH) [de

  14. Four bars inn; Four bars inn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiumi, T. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    The name Four Bars Inn puns on four drinking bars and four bars on a musical score. It is a public house sited on the busy St. Mary Street, Cardiff, England. During my stay in that town, I often attended the regular jam session that opened at the bar at nine o`clock every Monday evening. A jam session is an event in which any amateur player, and a professional artist occasionally, is allowed to come on the stage freely and to play jazz, the participation fee as low as 300-yen. It is an occasion that provides a friendly meeting of man and woman, young and old, everyone carrying a pint of ale. Senior people happily talking to young ones aged like their grandchildren certainly presents a heart-warming scene, which we scarcely encounter in Japan. The affection that the British entertain toward their domestic furnishings relayed down through many a generation may lead to their respect for senior citizens. I heartily look forward detecting like scenes some day at drinking spots in Japan where the consumption-happy days are over. (NEDO)

  15. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation

  16. Can Low Energy Electrons Affect High Energy Physics Accelerators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimino, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    The properties of the electrons participating in the build up of an electron cloud (EC) inside the beam-pipe have become an increasingly important issue for present and future accelerators whose performance may be limited by this effect. The EC formation and evolution are determined by the wall-surface properties of the accelerator vacuum chamber. Thus, the accurate modeling of these surface properties is an indispensible input to simulation codes aimed at the correct prediction of build-up thresholds, electron-induced instability or EC heat load. In this letter, we present the results of surface measurements performed on a prototype of the beam screen adopted for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which presently is under construction at CERN. We have measured the total secondary electron yield (SEY) as well as the related energy distribution curves (EDC) of the secondary electrons as a function of incident electron energy. Attention has been paid, for the first time in this context, to the probability at which low-energy electrons (<∼ 20 eV) impacting on the wall create secondaries or are elastically reflected. It is shown that the ratio of reflected to true-secondary electrons increases for decreasing energy and that the SEY approaches unity in the limit of zero primary electron energy

  17. Coherent and non-coherent double diffractive production of QQ-bar - pairs in collisions of heavy ions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agababyan, N.M.; Chatrchyan, S.A.; Galoyan, A.S.; Malakhov, A.I.; Melkumov, G.L.; Zarubin, P.I.; Jenkovszky, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    The double coherent and non-coherent diffractive production of heavy quark-antiquark pair (QQ-bar) in heavy ion scattering at high energies (LHC) is considered. The total and differential cross sections of these processes with the formation of cc bar and bb bar pairs in pp, CaCa and PbPb collisions are evaluated. The contribution of the considered mechanisms is a few per cent of the number of heavy quark-antiquark pairs obtained in the processes of hard (QCD) scattering, and it will be taken into account in the registration of c, b quarks or, for instance, in the study of the heavy quarkonia suppression effects in quark-gluon plasma, in the search for intermediate mass Higgs bosons and so on. It is shown that the cross section of the coherent scattering process is great enough. This makes it suitable for studying collective effects in nuclear interactions at high energies. An example of such effects is given: large values of the invariant mass of a QQ- bar pair, M QQb ar ≥ 100 GeV, in association with a large rapidity gap between diffractive jets Δη>5

  18. Can low energy electrons affect high energy physics accelerators?

    CERN Document Server

    Cimino, R; Furman, M A; Pivi, M; Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The properties of the electrons participating in the build up of an electron cloud (EC) inside the beam-pipe have become an increasingly important issue for present and future accelerators whose performance may be limited by this effect. The EC formation and evolution are determined by the wall-surface properties of the accelerator vacuum chamber. Thus, the accurate modeling of these surface properties is an indispensible input to simulation codes aimed at the correct prediction of build-up thresholds, electron-induced instability or EC heat load. In this letter, we present the results of surface measurements performed on a prototype of the beam screen adopted for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which presently is under construction at CERN. We have measured the total secondary electron yield (SEY) as well as the related energy distribution curves (EDC) of the secondary electrons as a function of incident electron energy. Attention has been paid, for the first time in this context, to the probability at whic...

  19. Issues affecting Northeast Asian minerals and energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheales, T.; Smith, V.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the broad issues likely to affect industry developments and trade in minerals and energy commodities in Northeast Asia in the 1990s are examined. Many of these issues will have a bearing on the development of mineral and energy resources of the Russian Far East region. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  1. Low energy parameters of the K K-bar and ππ scalar-isoscalar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, R.; Lesniak, L.

    1994-06-01

    Threshold expansions of the ππ and K K-bar spin 0 and isospin 0 scattering amplitudes are performed. Scattering lengths, effective ranges and so-called volume parameters are evaluated. Good agreement with the existing experimental data for the ππ scalar-isoscalar amplitude is found. An importance of future accurate measurements of the K K-bar threshold parameters is stressed. New data are needed to understand the basic features of the scalar mesons. (author). 31 refs, 3 tabs

  2. Performance of the SciBar cosmic ray telescope (SciCRT) toward the detection of high-energy solar neutrons in solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Yoshinori; Nagai, Yuya; Itow, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Yutaka; Sako, Takashi; Lopez, Diego; Itow, Tsukasa; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kozai, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Shibata, Shoichi; Oshima, Akitoshi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Watanabe, Kyoko; Koi, Tatsumi; Valdés-Galicia, Jose Francisco; González, Luis Xavier; Ortiz, Ernesto; Musalem, Octavio; Hurtado, Alejandro; Garcia, Rocio; Anzorena, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    We plan to observe solar neutrons at Mt. Sierra Negra (4,600 m above sea level) in Mexico using the SciBar detector. This project is named the SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT). The main aims of the SciCRT project are to observe solar neutrons to study the mechanism of ion acceleration on the surface of the sun and to monitor the anisotropy of galactic cosmic-ray muons. The SciBar detector, a fully active tracker, is composed of 14,848 scintillator bars, whose dimension is 300 cm × 2.5 cm × 1.3 cm. The structure of the detector enables us to obtain the particle trajectory and its total deposited energy. This information is useful for the energy reconstruction of primary neutrons and particle identification. The total volume of the detector is 3.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.7 m. Since this volume is much larger than the solar neutron telescope (SNT) in Mexico, the detection efficiency of the SciCRT for neutrons is highly enhanced. We performed the calibration of the SciCRT at Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) located at 2,150 m above sea level in Mexico in 2012. We installed the SciCRT at Mt. Sierra Negra in April 2013 and calibrated this detector in May and August 2013. We started continuous observation in March 2014. In this paper, we report the detector performance as a solar neutron telescope and the current status of the SciCRT.

  3. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  4. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  5. Inclusive negative-hadron production from high-energy nu-bar-nucleus charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.; Endorf, R.; Hanft, R.; Malko, J.A.; Moffatt, G.; Nezrick, F.A.; Scott, W.; Smart, W.; Wolfson, J.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amrakhov, A.H.; Denisov, A.G.; Ermolov, P.F.; Gapienko, V.A.; Klukhin, V.I.; Koreshev, V.I.; Pitukhin, P.V.; Rjabov, V.G.; Slobodyuk, E.A.; Sirotenko, V.I.; Efremenko, V.I.; Gorichev, P.A.; Kaftanov, V.S.; Khovansky, V.D.; Kliger, G.K.; Kolganov, V.Z.; Krutchinin, S.P.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Rosanov, A.N.; Savitsky, M.M.; Shevchenko, V.G.; Coffin, C.T.; Diamond, R.N.; French, H.; Louis, W.; Roe, B.P.; Ross, R.T.; Seidl, A.A.; Sinclair, D.

    1978-01-01

    We present data on inclusive negative-hadron production from charged-current antineutrino interactions in a 21% Ne--H mixture. Inclusive single-particle distributions are presented and are shown to be insensitive to the momentum transferred to the hadron vertex. Comparisons made to inclusive data from π - p and π - n interactions indicate a close similarity between the hadrons resulting from π-nucleon and nu-bar-nucleus interactions. The general features of the nu-bar-nucleus data are found to be similar to those seen in nu-barp interactions. This last observation implies that nu-barp and nu-barn interactions are similar and that nuclear effects are small

  6. Using e-e+→ b bar b to test properties of new interactions at CERN LEP 2 and higher energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gounaris, G.J.; Papadamou, D.T.; Renard, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    We show that in e - e + colliders at energies above the Z peak, the process e - e + →b bar b becomes very sensitive to the presence of residual new physics (NP) effects described by the dim=6 SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) gauge invariant operators O qW , O qB , and O bB . This observation should be combined with the already known great sensitivity of the light fermion production through e - e + annihilation above the Z peak to the bosonic operators bar O DW and bar O DB . It is important to emphasize that the effects of all these operators are largely hidden at the Z peak; while they are enhanced beyond it since these operators grow like q 2 , a fact which becomes transparent when using the open-quotes Z-peak subtracted representation.close quotes The observability limits for detecting these operators at CERN LEP 2 and the Next Linear Collider, through such light fermion production processes, are also established. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  8. Affective Influences on Energy-Related Decisions and Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosch, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.brosch@unige.ch [Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Swiss Center of Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Patel, Martin K. [Energy Group, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Energy Group, Forel Institute, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Sander, David [Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Swiss Center of Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-03-17

    A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic), the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use demonstrating that the appraisal–emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory). Finally, we discuss how the appraisal–emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  9. Affective Influences on Energy-Related Decisions and Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosch, Tobias; Patel, Martin K.; Sander, David

    2014-01-01

    A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic), the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use demonstrating that the appraisal–emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory). Finally, we discuss how the appraisal–emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  10. Affective influences on energy-related decisions and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eBrosch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic, the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use, demonstrating that the appraisal-emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (Theory of Planned Behavior and Value-Belief-Norm Theory. Finally, we discuss how the appraisal-emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.

  11. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P

    2013-06-04

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond.

  12. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M.; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond. PMID:23630266

  13. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  14. Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Legislation: Did the Spanish Tobacco Control Law Affect the Economic Activity of Bars and Restaurants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Pinilla, Jaime; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández, Esteve; López, Maria José

    2015-11-01

    The potential of smoke-free bans to negatively impact the hospitality business has been an argument of the hospitality and tobacco industry against such legislation. A partial smoke-free legislation was introduced in Spain in 2006 allowing smoking in most bars and restaurants due to the pressure of the hospitality sector. However, this partial ban was later amended in 2011 to include all the hospitality premises without exceptions. The stepped Spanish process permits to evaluate whether the entry into force of the smoke-free legislation had any effect on the economic activity of the hospitality sector. We employed a pooled time series cross-sectional design, with national data over 6 years (2006-2011). The dependent variable used was the total number of bars and restaurants per 100,000 inhabitants. The explanatory variables used were the average amount of spending per household in bars and restaurants, and the total unemployment rate in Spain by regions. For every 1% increase in the unemployment rate there was a 0.05% decrease in the number of bars and restaurants. In 2007, the number of bars and restaurants was significantly reduced by 13.06% (all others factors being held constant), 4.87% in 2008, and 10.42% in 2009. No statistically significant effect of the smoke-free legislation emerged from 2010 (6.76%) to 2011 (7.69%). The new Spanish smoke-free legislation had no effect on the number of bars and restaurants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Do stochastic inhomogeneities affect dark-energy precision measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dayan, I; Gasperini, M; Marozzi, G; Nugier, F; Veneziano, G

    2013-01-11

    The effect of a stochastic background of cosmological perturbations on the luminosity-redshift relation is computed to second order through a recently proposed covariant and gauge-invariant light-cone averaging procedure. The resulting expressions are free from both ultraviolet and infrared divergences, implying that such perturbations cannot mimic a sizable fraction of dark energy. Different averages are estimated and depend on the particular function of the luminosity distance being averaged. The energy flux being minimally affected by perturbations at large z is proposed as the best choice for precision estimates of dark-energy parameters. Nonetheless, its irreducible (stochastic) variance induces statistical errors on Ω(Λ)(z) typically lying in the few-percent range.

  16. Do stochastic inhomogeneities affect dark-energy precision measurements?

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Marozzi, Giovanni; Nugier, Fabien; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a stochastic background of cosmological perturbations on the luminosity-redshift relation is computed to second order through a recently proposed covariant and gauge-invariant light-cone averaging procedure. The resulting expressions are free from both ultraviolet and infrared divergences, implying that such perturbations cannot mimic a sizable fraction of dark energy. Different averages are estimated and depend on the particular function of the luminosity distance being averaged. The energy flux, being minimally affected by perturbations at large z, is proposed as the best choice for precision estimates of dark-energy parameters. Nonetheless, its irreducible (stochastic) variance induces statistical errors on \\Omega_{\\Lambda}(z) typically lying in the few-percent range.

  17. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  18. Search for scalar dark energy in $t\\bar{t}+E_{T}^{\\text{miss}}$ and mono-jet final states with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This note presents the first collider search for light scalar particles that could contribute to the accelerating expansion of the observable universe. The results are based on a re-interpretation of a search for top super-partners using the $t\\bar{t}+E_{T}^{\\text{miss}}$ signature and a search for dark matter using the mono-jet signature. The analysis uses a dataset of LHC $pp$ collision events collected with the ATLAS detector at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1~fb$^{-1}$. No significant excess over the predicted background is observed. The search allows to set the most stringent constraints on the suppression scale of conformal and disformal couplings of dark energy to standard model matter in the context of an effective field theory of dark energy.

  19. Charm Production in Interactions of Antiproton with Proton and Nuclei at \\bar{it{P}}it{ANDA} Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, R.; Tsushima, K.

    2018-05-01

    We study the production of charmed baryons in the antiproton-proton and antiproton-nucleus interactions within a fully covariant model that is based on an effective Lagrangian approach. The baryon production proceeds via the t-channel D^0 and D^{*0} meson-exchange diagrams. We have also explored the production of the charm-baryon hypernucleus ^{16}_{Λ_c^+}O in the antiproton-^{16}O collisions. For antiproton beam momenta of interest to the {\\bar{P}}ANDA experiment, the 0° differential cross sections for the formation of ^{16}_{Λ_c^+}O hypernuclear states with simple particle-hole configurations, have magnitudes in the range of a few μ b/sr.

  20. Bar quenching in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, S.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy surveys have suggested that rapid and sustained decrease in the star-formation rate (SFR), "quenching", in massive disk galaxies is frequently related to the presence of a bar. Optical and near-IR observations reveal that nearly 60% of disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, thus it is important to understand the relationship between bars and star formation in disk galaxies. Recent observational results imply that the Milky Way quenched about 9-10 Gyr ago, at the transition between the cessation of the growth of the kinematically hot, old, metal-poor thick disk and the kinematically colder, younger, and more metal-rich thin disk. Although perhaps coincidental, the quenching episode could also be related to the formation of the bar. Indeed the transfer of energy from the large-scale shear induced by the bar to increasing turbulent energy could stabilize the gaseous disk against wide-spread star formation and quench the galaxy. To explore the relation between bar formation and star formation in gas rich galaxies quantitatively, we simulated gas-rich disk isolated galaxies. Our simulations include prescriptions for star formation, stellar feedback, and for regulating the multi-phase interstellar medium. We find that the action of stellar bar efficiently quenches star formation, reducing the star-formation rate by a factor of ten in less than 1 Gyr. Analytical and self-consistent galaxy simulations with bars suggest that the action of the stellar bar increases the gas random motions within the co-rotation radius of the bar. Indeed, we detect an increase in the gas velocity dispersion up to 20-35 km s-1 at the end of the bar formation phase. The star-formation efficiency decreases rapidly, and in all of our models, the bar quenches the star formation in the galaxy. The star-formation efficiency is much lower in simulated barred compared to unbarred galaxies and more rapid bar formation implies more rapid quenching.

  1. Strong-coupling expansion for the ground-state energy in the Vertical BarxVertical Bar/sup α/ potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Mead, L.R.; Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Using lattice techniques we examine the strong-coupling expansion for the ground-state energy of a gVertical BarxVertical Bar/sup α/ (α>0) potential in quantum mechanics. We are particularly interested in studying the effectiveness of various Pade-type methods for extrapolating the lattice series back to the continuum. We have computed the lattice series out to 12th order for all α and we identify three regions. When α or =2 the lattice series has a finite radius of convergence; here, completely-off-diagonal Pade extrapolants work best. As α increases beyond 2 it becomes more difficult to obtain good continuum results, apparently because the sign pattern of the lattice series seems to fluctuate randomly. The onset of randomness occurs earlier in the lattice series as α→infinity

  2. High energy erbium laser end-pumped by a laser diode bar array coupled to a Nonimaging Optic Concentrator

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguy , Eric; Feugnet , Gilles; Pocholle , Jean-Paul; Blondeau , R.; Poisson , M.A.; Duchemin , J.P.

    1998-01-01

    International audience; A high energy Er3+, Yb3+:glass laser end pumped by a laser diode array emitting at 980 nm coupled to a Nonimaging Optic Concentrator (NOC) is demonstrated. Energy up to 100 mJ and a 16% slope efficiency are achieved in a plano-plano laser cavity. The energy transfer coefficient from Yb3+ to Er3+ is estimated by a new method.

  3. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  5. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  6. Observations of barred spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of barred spiral galaxies are discussed which show that the presence of a bar increases the likelihood for grand design spiral structure only in early Hubble types. This result is contrary to the more common notion that grand design spiral structure generally accompanies bars in galaxies. Enhanced deprojected color images are shown which reveal that a secondary set of spiral arms commonly occurs in barred galaxies and also occasionally in ovally distorted galaxies. 6 refs

  7. A Blind Search for Supersymmetry in $p \\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8-TeV using the Missing Energy Plus Multijet Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiropulu, Maria [Harvard U.

    2000-11-01

    A data sample of 84.37 $pb^{-1}$ of $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab is analyzed in search of scalar quarks (squarks, $^\\sim_q$) and gluinos ($^\\sim_g$). The nal state of large missing energy plus $\\ge$3 jets, characteristic of hadroproduction and subsequent decays of squarks and gluinos within the minimal supersymmetry and supergravity frameworks with R-parity conservation, is used in the search. The $blind$ analysis method is followed to avoid biases in the data selection. The search is negative at 95% C.L. for gluino masses below 300 GeV/$c^2$ for the case $m_{^\\sim_q} \\approx m_{^\\sim_g}$ and 195 GeV/$c^2$ independent of the squark mass. Being that the limit on the gluino mass provides tight ne-tuning constraints on low-energy supersymmetry the result of this search has phenomenological implications on models with unication constraints. It also demonstrates that the missing energy plus multijet channel is a powerful probe for supersymmetry in the upcoming Tevatron Collider run.

  8. Characterization of Bars Induced by Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Martinez-Valpuesta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether the formation of bars is triggered by interactions or by internal processes has been discussed for many decades. In this work, we study differences between both mechanisms by means of numerical simulations. We relate our analysis to fly-by interactions in different mass groups or clusters according to the velocity of the encounters. We find that once the bar is created, the interaction does not much affect its evolution. We also find that bars can be triggered purely by a slow interaction. Those bars affected or triggered by interaction stay for a longer time in the slow regime, i.e., the corotation radius is more than 1.4 times the bar radius.

  9. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  10. Search for $W' \\rightarrow t\\bar{b}$ in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    A search for $W'$ bosons is performed with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV, using a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 14.3 $fb^{-1}$. This analysis searches for $W'$ bosons in the $W' \\rightarrow t\\bar{b} \\rightarrow l \

  11. Optical bar code recognition of methyl salicylate (MES) for environmental monitoring using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clint; Tatineni, Balaji; Anderson, John; Tepper, Gary

    2006-10-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a process in which energy is transferred nonradiatively from one fluorophore (the donor) in an excited electron state to another, the chromophore (the acceptor). FRET is distinctive in its ability to reveal the presence of specific recognition of select targets such as the nerve agent stimulant Methyl Salicylate (MES) upon spectroscopic excitation. We introduce a surface imprinted and non-imprinted thin film that underwent AC-Electrospray ionization for donor-acceptor pair(s) bound to InGaP quantum dots and mesoporous silicate nanoparticles. The donor-acceptor pair used in this investigation included MES (donor) and 6-(fluorescein-5-(and-6)- carboxamido) hexanoic acid, succinimidyl ester bound to InGaP quantum dots (acceptor). MES was then investigated as a donor to various acceptor fluorophore: InGaP: mesoporous silicate nanoparticle layers.

  12. Production of high energy {eta}' in B meson decays from BaBar experiment; Etude de la production de {eta}' de haute impulsion dans les desintegrations du meson B dans l'experience BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicheur, A

    2003-04-01

    The work presented in this thesis relies on the analysis of data collected between october 1999 and July 2002 by the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II collider located at SLAC (Stanford, California). Electron-positron collisions at a center of mass energy equal to the {upsilon}(4S) resonance mass are used for the production of B meson pairs. In July 2001, the BaBar collaboration published the first measurement of CP violation in the neutral B mesons system. Since then, the precision of the measurement has been continually being improved with the increasing data sample. Two devices are dedicated to the reconstruction of charged particles: the Silicon Vertex Tracker and the Drift Chamber. The Silicon Vertex Tracker is crucial for the reconstruction of the B meson decay vertex. Its motion with regard to the Drift Chamber needs a rolling calibration of the corresponding alignment parameters roughly every two hours. The relation between the Drift Chamber geometry and the alignment has been studied. Beside CP violation, Heavy Flavour Physics is an other important issue of BaBar research program. Rare decays are of particular interest as they are sensible to a new physics beyond the Standard Model. The production of high energy {eta}' in B decays has been studied through the two main contributions, B{yields} {eta}' X{sub s} coming from the rare decay b {yields} sg*, and B-bar{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'D{sup 0} coming from the internal tree color suppressed decay b {yields} cud. The improvement of the measurement of the process B {yields} {eta}'X-s and the first. observation of the decay B-bar{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'D{sup 0} have led to the conclusion that the {eta}' production is dominated by the decay b {yields} sg* and enables to constrain its quark content. (author)

  13. Why Are Some Galaxies Not Barred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kanak; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2018-05-01

    Although more than two-thirds of star-forming disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, some galaxies remain unbarred, occupying the upper half of the Hubble tuning fork diagram. Numerical simulations almost always produce bars spontaneously, so it remains a challenge to understand how galaxies sometimes prevent bars from forming. Using a set of collisionless simulations, we first reproduce the common result that cold stellar disks surrounding a classical bulge become strongly unstable to non-axisymmetric perturbations, leading to the rapid formation of spiral structure and bars. However, our analyses show that galaxy models with compact classical bulges (whose average density is greater than or comparable to the disk density calculated within bulge half-mass radii) are able to prevent bar formation for at least 4 Gyr even when the stellar disk is maximal and having low Toomre Q. Such bar prevention is the result of several factors such as (a) a small inner Lindblad resonance with a high angular rate, which contaminates an incipient bar with x 2 orbits, and (b) rapid loss of angular momentum accompanied by a rapid heating in the center from initially strong bar and spiral instabilities in a low-Q disk; in other words, a rapid initial rise to a value larger than ∼5 of the ratio of the random energy to the rotational energy in the central region of the galaxy.

  14. The efficacy of daily snack replacement with oligofructose-enriched granola bars in overweight and obese adults: a 12-week randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Korrie; de Graaf, Cees; Meyer, Diederick; Mars, Monica

    2018-05-01

    Oligofructose is a prebiotic dietary fibre obtained from chicory root inulin. Oligofructose supplementation may affect satiety, food intake, body weight and/or body composition. The aim was to examine the efficacy of oligofructose-supplemented granola bars on the following weight management outcomes: satiety, energy intake, body weight and body composition in overweight or obese adults. In all, fifty-five adults with overweight or obesity (thirty-six females/nineteen males; age: 41 (sd 12) years; 90·6 (sd 11·8) kg; BMI: 29·4 (sd 2·6) kg/m2) participated in a parallel, triple-blind, placebo-controlled intervention. A total of twenty-nine subjects replaced their snacks twice a day with an equienergetic granola bar supplemented with 8 g of oligofructose (OF-Bar). Subjects in the control group (n 26) replaced their snack with a control granola bar without added oligofructose (Co-Bar). Satiety, 24-h energy intake, body weight and body composition (fat mass and waist circumference) were measured at baseline, weeks 6 and 12. In addition, weekly appetite and gastrointestinal side effects were measured. During the intervention, energy intake, body weight and fat mass remained similar in the Co-Bar and OF-Bar groups (all P>0·05). Both groups lost 0·3 (sd 1·2) kg lean mass (P<0·01) and reduced their waist circumference with -2·2 (sd 3·6) cm (P<0·0001) after 12 weeks. The OF-Bar group reported decreased hunger in later weeks of the intervention (P=0·04), less prospective food consumption (P=0·03) and less thirst (P=0·003). To conclude, replacing daily snacks for 12 weeks with oligofructose-supplemented granola bars does not differentially affect energy intake, body weight and body composition compared with a control bar. However, there was an indication that appetite was lower after oligofructose bar consumption.

  15. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  16. Averaged strain energy density-based synthesis of crack initiation life in notched steel bars under torsional fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Berto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The torsional fatigue behaviour of circumferentially notched specimens made of austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L, and carbon steel, SGV410, characterized by different notch root radii has been recently investigated by Tanaka. In that contribution, it was observed that the total fatigue life of the austenitic stainless steel increases with increasing stress concentration factor for a given applied nominal shear stress amplitude. By using the electrical potential drop method, Tanaka observed that the crack nucleation life was reduced with increasing stress concentration, on the other hand the crack propagation life increased. The experimental fatigue results, originally expressed in terms of nominal shear stress amplitude, have been reanalysed by means of the local strain energy density (SED averaged over a control volume having radius R0 surrounding the notch tip. To exclude all extrinsic effects acting during the fatigue crack propagation phase, such as sliding contact and/or friction between fracture surfaces, crack initiation life has been considered in the present work. In the original paper, initiation life was defined in correspondence of a 0.1÷0.4-mm-deep crack. The control radius R0 for fatigue strength assessment of notched components, thought of as a material property, has been estimated by imposing the constancy of the averaged SED for both smooth and cracked specimens at NA = 2 million loading cycles

  17. Precise Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p$ Total Cross-Section in the ISR Energy Range

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The major aim of this experiment is the precise measurement of the antiproton-proton total cross-section in the ISR energy range, using the total-rate method. The proton-proton total cross-section is remeasured with the same method and the same apparatus, and a precision of 0.5\\% is expected for both cross-sections. The total-rate method consists in the simultaneous measurement of the total interaction rate and the ISR luminosity. This is done with a set of scintillation-counter hodoscopes covering over 99.99\\% of the solid angle, which are sensitive to over 95\\% of all interactions. In addition to these detectors, small-angle drift-tube hodoscopes are used to measure the differential elastic cross-section as a function of the momentum transfert t. The total cross-section can be measured independently by extrapolating this differential cross-section to the forward direction and invoking the optical theorem. A study of the general features of charged-particle production is performed using finely divided scinti...

  18. Bar and Theta Hyperoperations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vougiouklis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In questionnaires the replacement of the scale of Likert by a bar was suggested in 2008 by Vougiouklis & Vougiouklis. The use of the bar was rapidly accepted in social sciences. The bar is closely related with fuzzy theory and has several advantages during both the filling-in questionnaires and mainly in the research processing. In this paper we relate hyperstructure theory with questionnaires and we study the obtained hyperstructures which are used as an organising device of the problem.

  19. Charmonium and bottomonium in bar pp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, S.

    1993-12-01

    In this talk, I presented some examples of data from the CDF collaboration on J/ψ, χ, ψ' and Γ production. Such data are used to test models of production dynamics and for the understanding of rates for b quark production. I am not a member of the CDF experiment and showed their data with permission as an interested and impressed spectator. Data from D0 may be found in the talk of D. Denisov. As a complement to this data from the highest energy accelerator experiment, operating at √ bar s= 1.8 TeV, I also showed data from Fermilab experiment E760 on masses, widths, states and branching ratios in the Charmonium system, obtained by studying resonant formation of c bar c states in p bar p annihilation at √ bar s = m(c bar c)

  20. Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Against a backdrop of concerns about climate change, peak oil, and energy security issues, reducing energy intensity is often advocated as a way to at least partially mitigate these impacts. This study uses recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques like mean group estimators and common correlated effects estimators to model the impact that income, urbanization and industrialization has on energy intensity for a panel of 76 developing countries. In the long-run, a 1% increase in income reduces energy intensity by − 0.45% to − 0.35%. Long-run industrialization elasticities are in the range 0.07 to 0.12. The impact of urbanization on energy intensity is mixed. In specifications where the estimated coefficient on urbanization is statistically significant, it is slightly larger than unity. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Highlights: ► The impact of urbanization and industrialization on energy intensity is modeled. ► Use recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques ► The model is tested on a panel of developing countries. ► Income has a negative impact on energy intensity. ► Industrialization has a positive impact on energy intensity

  1. A systematic review of factors affecting energy intake of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal is not to change behavior of all but to increase the percentage of people adopt- ing healthier .... spontaneous daily energy consumption and a reduction in energy ... adolescents who reported eating at a fast food restaurant. ≥3 times ...

  2. Current energy situation affecting national economy, security, and psyche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundell, H.; Culbreath, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear energy should be perceived by Americans as the energy option that can fill the gap left by petroleum shortages. Opposition to nuclear power symbolizes a drive to slow economic growth and return to a decentralized society, but it overlooks the implications that not going nuclear will have for the economy and national security. The General Accounting Office plotted the consequences for three scenarios and concluded that only nuclear power can provide enough domestic energy to meet projected electrical needs. The impact of higher energy prices that will follow energy-supply shortages will result in social change and in a decline in national security. The issues of import dependence, proliferation, economic competition, and morality are not valid reasons to forego nuclear development because the connections are not valid

  3. Hanging off a bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, F.; Walmink, W.; Toprak, C.; Bongers, Bert; Graether, E.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Exertion Games involve physical effort and as a result can facilitate physical health benefits. We present Hanging off a Bar, an action hero-inspired Exertion Game in which players hang off an exercise bar over a virtual river for as long as possible. Initial observations from three events with

  4. Raising the bar (6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Le Gallo, Julie; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2017-01-01

    Raising the bar (6). Spatial Economic Analysis. This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 12(4) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper addresses the question of whether 'jobs follow people' or 'people follow

  5. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  6. H-bar and H-bar + production cross sections for the GBAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comini, P; Hervieux, P-A

    2013-01-01

    The production and cooling of the H-bar + ion is the key point of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest), which aims at performing the free fall of antihydrogen atoms to measure g-bar , the acceleration of antimatter on Earth. H-bar + ions will be obtained from collisions between a positronium cloud and antiprotons delivered by the AD/ELENA facility at CERN, with intermediate formation of antihydrogen atoms. In order to optimise the experimental production of H-bar + ions, we computed the total cross sections of the two corresponding reactions, within the same theoretical framework of the Continuum Distorted Wave – Final State (CDW-FS) model. The different contributions of the H-bar excited states have been systematically investigated for different states of Ps. The results exhibit an increase of the H-bar production toward low kinetic energies, in agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, whereas the largest H-bar + production is obtained with low energy ground-state antihydrogen atoms. These theoretical predictions suggest that the overall production of H-bar + could be optimal for 2 keV antiproton impact energy, using positronium atoms prepared in the 2p state.

  7. Exotic open-flavor $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ tetraquark states

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Steele, T. G.; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    We study the exotic $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ systems by constructing the corresponding tetraquark currents with $J^P=0^+$ and $1^+$. After investigating the two-point correlation functions and the spectral densities, we perform QCD sum rule analysis and extract the masses of these open-flavor tetraquark states. Our results indicate that the masses of both the scalar and axial vector tetraquark states are about $7.1-7.2$ GeV for the $bc\\...

  8. A newly observed Effect affects the LEP Beam Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, G; Galbraith, Peter; Henrichsen, K N; Koratzinos, M; Placidi, Massimo; Puzo, P; Drees, A; Geitz, M A

    1996-01-01

    The LEP magnetic bending field and therefore the beam energy is changed by a current flow over the vacuum chamber. The current is created by trains travelling between the Geneva main station and destinations in France. Some of the rail current leaks into earth and returns to the power station via the LEP tunnel, where the vacuum chamber is one of the conductors. Train leakage currents penetrate LEP at the injection lines from the SPS close to IP1 and between IP5 and IP7, thereby interacting with the magnetic dipole field. The observed changes in B field cause beam energy increases of several MeV.

  9. Determining vertical bar Vub vertical bar from the B-bar→Xulν-bar dilepton invariant mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian W.; Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The invariant mass spectrum of the lepton pair in inclusive semileptonic B-bar→X u lν-bar decay yields a model independent determination of vertical bar V ub vertical bar. Unlike the lepton energy and hadronic invariant mass spectra, nonperturbative effects are only important in the resonance region, and play a parametrically suppressed role when dΓ/dq 2 is integrated over q 2 >(m B -m D ) 2 , which is required to eliminate the B-bar→X c lν-bar background. We discuss these backgrounds for q 2 slightly below (m B -m D ) 2 , and point out that instead of q 2 >(m B -m D ) 2 =11.6 GeV 2 , the cut can be lowered to q 2 > or approx. 10.5 GeV 2 . This is important experimentally, particularly when effects of a finite neutrino reconstruction resolution are included

  10. Search for Higgs boson production via weak boson fusion and decaying to $b \\bar b$ in association with a high-energy photon in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search has been conducted for the $b\\bar b$ decay of the Standard Model Higgs boson produced through vector boson fusion in association with a photon and two jets. The search in this $b\\bar b \\gamma jj$ signature benefits from a large reduction of QCD jet background relative to the inclusive $b\\bar b j j$ signature and from the presence of a high-tranverse-momentum photon for triggering. Results are reported from the analysis of 12.6 fb$^{-1}$ of LHC proton-proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV collected with the ATLAS detector. The observed 95\\% confidence level upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio for a Higgs mass of 125 GeV is $4.0$ times the Standard Model expectation, and the expected upper limit is $6.0^{+2.3}_{-1.7}$. The measured signal strength is $\\mu=-3.9^{+2.8}_{-2.7}$ times the Standard Model value. The analysis methods are also used to search for $Z+\\gamma$ vector boson fusion production in the same $b\\bar b \\gamma j j$ signature. The observed upper limit on...

  11. CSER 79-028, Addendum 2: Security bar addition to pedestal storage racks in Room 3 in 2736-Z Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is installing security bars on plutonium storage racks in Room 3 in 2736-Z Building to meet International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) material control requirements. Figures show the existing arrangement and design of the security bars. The security bars are to be fabricated of aluminum or carbon steel. The detailed fabrication sketches are reproduced in Appendix C. The security bars are to be installed close to the chains of plutonium so a determination of their effect on criticality safety needs to be made. The addition of security bars to the storage array of 2.5 kg plutonium buttons in Room 3 can effect reactivity by reflecting neutrons back into the plutonium in the storage cans, by absorbing neutrons, and by moderating neutrons between stored plutonium buttons. The small amount of metal added by the storage bars in comparison to the amount of concrete in the walls and aluminum in the shelf monitors already in place would not significantly increase the k eff of the storage array. Several computer calculations in previous analyses show that the security bars will have a negligible affect on reactivity

  12. Synthesis of microparticles with complex compositions in a xenon high-pressure chamber (550 bar) under irradiation by braking radiation with a maximum energy of 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Myshinskiy, G.V.; Sabel'nikov, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Natural xenon at a pressure of 550 bar in a high pressure chamber (XeHPC) was irradiated during 2,59 · 10 5 s by bremsstrahlung with a maximum energy of 10 MeV at the electron accelerator MT-25 microtron with an electron beam intensity of 20–22μA. The final electron fluence was 4.74 · 10 19 electrons. The growth of pressure versus temperature during the stationary exposure mode grew at first up to 620 bar and then dropped to 550 bar. After opening of the XeHPC both of the internal chambers with all the structures, but without gas, were measured using a γ-germanium detector (Canberra) during 15 h each for measurement of the background and short-lived isotopes. During a visual inspection of the interior surfaces of the XeHPC inner assembly, a visible coating of substantial thickness and greenish-yellowish color was observed. The research carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray micro-probe analysis (XMPA) allowed us to determine the elemental composition of synthesized particles. [ru

  13. The KK-bar system at low relative energies and the problem of the f0 (975) and a0 (983) mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frascaria, R.

    1992-01-01

    Meson production near threshold is a spectroscopic tool in the studies of meson structure. Some interesting features of meson production near threshold in few body reactions are emphasized. In particular, the region of KK-bar thresholds studied in pd→ 3 He X at LNS could be an excellent tool to bring new information about the a 0 (983) and f 0 (975) meson structure dilemma. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs

  14. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk ( Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis ), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  15. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  16. Search for an mSUGRA signature in the electron + jets + missing transverse energy final state in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.8TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    We describe a search for a Minimal Supergravity (mSUGRA) signature in Run 1 data taken by the D detector at the Fermilab Tevatron from 1995-1996. The total data luminosity is 92.7 pb-1. The data were examined for events with a single electron, four or more jets and large missing transverse energy. The major backgrounds are from W+jets, QCD, t$\\bar{t}$, and WW events. We observed no excess of events in our data. Based on the data and the expected signal rate we obtain new limits on new physics in terms of mSUGRA model parameters.

  17. A mathematical high bar-human body model for analysing and interpreting mechanical-energetic processes on the high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G P

    1998-12-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To study the transfer of energy between the high bar and the gymnast. 2. To develop criteria from the utilisation of high bar elasticity and the utilisation of muscle capacity to assess the effectiveness of a movement solution. 3. To study the influence of varying segment movement upon release parameters. For these purposes a model of the human body attached to the high bar (high bar-human body model) was developed. The human body was modelled using a 15-segment body system. The joint-beam element method (superelement) was employed for modelling the high bar. A superelement consists of four rigid segments connected by joints (two Cardan joints and one rotational-translational joint) and springs (seven rotation springs and one tension-compression spring). The high bar was modelled using three superelements. The input data required for the high bar human body model were collected with video-kinematographic (50 Hz) and dynamometric (500 Hz) techniques. Masses and moments of inertia of the 15 segments were calculated using the data from the Zatsiorsky et al. (1984) model. There are two major phases characteristic of the giant swing prior to dismounts from the high bar. In the first phase the gymnast attempts to supply energy to the high bar-humanbody system through muscle activity and to store this energy in the high bar. The difference between the energy transferred to the high bar and the reduction in the total energy of the body could be adopted as a criterion for the utilisation of high bar elasticity. The energy previously transferred into the high bar is returned to the body during the second phase. An advantageous increase in total body energy at the end of the exercise could only be obtained through muscle energy supply. An index characterising the utilisation of muscle capacity was developed out of the difference between the increase in total body energy and the energy returned from the high bar. A delayed and initially slow but

  18. Impartial Triangular Chocolate Bar Games

    OpenAIRE

    Miyadera, Ryohei; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Fukui, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate bar games are variants of the game of Nim in which the goal is to leave your opponent with the single bitter part of the chocolate bar. The rectangular chocolate bar game is a thinly disguised form of classical multi-heap Nim. In this work, we investigate the mathematical structure of triangular chocolate bar games in which the triangular chocolate bar can be cut in three directions. In the triangular chocolate bar game, a position is a $\\mathcal{P}$-position if and only if $x \\oplu...

  19. Breaking through the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did…

  20. Raising the bar (7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Gallo, Julie Le; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2018-01-01

    This editorial summarises the papers published in issue 13.1 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper adopts a scale neutral approach to investigate the spatial mechanisms that cause regional innovation and growth. The second paper claims

  1. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  2. 75 FR 70226 - Mackay Bar Corporation; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 3041-004] Mackay Bar... Mackay Bar Corporation, licensee for the Hettinger Hydroelectric Project, filed an Application to..., notice is hereby given that an annual license for Project No. 3041 is issued to the Mackay Bar...

  3. Factors Affecting The Use and Development of Solar Energy in Iran's Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2017-03-01

    Keywords: Agriculture, Renewable Energy, Fossil, Fuel, Sustainability Article History: Received Nov 16th 2016; Received in revised form January 12nd 2017; Accepted 3rd February 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohammadi, M and Yavari, G. (2017 Factors affecting the use and development of solar energy in Iran's agricultural sector. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(1,45-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.45-53

  4. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a

  5. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  6. Variables affecting energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, Sari; Tuomaala, Mari; Ahtila, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Specific energy consumption (SEC) is an energy efficiency indicator widely used in industry for measuring the energy efficiency of different processes. In this paper, the development of energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of steelmaking is studied by analysing the energy data from a case mill. First, the specific energy consumption figures were calculated using different system boundaries, such as the process level, mill level and mill site level. Then, an energy efficiency index was developed to evaluate the development of the energy efficiency at the mill site. The effects of different production conditions on specific energy consumption and specific CO 2 emissions were studied by PLS analysis. As theory expects, the production rate of crude steel and the utilisation of recycled steel were shown to affect the development of energy efficiency at the mill site. This study shows that clearly defined system boundaries help to clarify the role of on-site energy conversion and make a difference between the final energy consumption and primary energy consumption of an industrial plant with its own energy production.

  7. Struggle over energy transition in Berlin: How do grassroots initiatives affect local energy policy-making?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the growing role of grassroots initiatives in the governance of urban energy systems. In recent years, research has increasingly underlined the potential for sustainable innovation of community-led bottom-up actions but has at the same time underestimated their potential impact on the governance of energy systems. Based on a strategic action field framework (SAF), this paper analyses the conflicts over the remunicipalisation of Berlin's electricity grid and investigates the creation and strategic development of two grassroots initiatives as well as their interaction with the local government and the established grid operator. We argue that grassroots initiatives have an important impact on the local energy system, not just through their influence on the implementation of local energy policy but above all by their framing of a specific vision of a local energy transition. The paper discusses the scope and limits of such initiatives in an urban context. - Highlights: • Grassroots initiatives as actors with countervailing power in local energy policy. • They increase citizens' awareness and impact the action of the local government. • Grids as objects of struggle between competing visions of energy transition. • Urban context is both a resource and a constraint for grassroots initiatives action

  8. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  9. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially-available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  10. Numerical modeling of the autumnal thermal bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenov, Bair O.

    2018-03-01

    The autumnal riverine thermal bar of Kamloops Lake has been simulated using atmospheric data from December 1, 2015, to January 4, 2016. The nonhydrostatic 2.5D mathematical model developed takes into account the diurnal variability of the heat fluxes and wind on the lake surface. The average values for shortwave and longwave radiation and latent and sensible heat fluxes were 19.7 W/m2, - 95.9 W/m2, - 11.8 W/m2, and - 32.0 W/m2 respectively. Analysis of the wind regime data showed prevailing easterly winds and maximum speed of 11 m/s on the 8th and 19th days. Numerical experiments with different boundary conditions at the lake surface were conducted to evaluate effects of variable heat flux and wind stress. The results of modeling demonstrated that the variable heat flux affects the process of thermal bar evolution, especially during the lengthy night cooling. However, the wind had the greatest impact on the behavior of the autumnal thermal bar: The easterly winds contributed to an earlier appearance of the thermal bar, but the strong winds generating the intensive circulations (the velocity of the upper lake flow increased to 6 cm/s) may destroy the thermal bar front.

  11. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frainer, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 800 0 C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author) [pt

  12. Measurements of σ(e+e- hadrons) and B(ψ →(3770) DD-bar, non-DD-bar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Gang

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of the cross sections for inclusive hadronic event production in e + e - annihilation at the energies of 3.650, 3.6648, and 3.773 GeV and measurements of the branching fractions for ψ(3770) → D 0 D b ar 0 , D + D - , DD-bar, and for ψ(3770) → non-DD-bar. (author)

  13. The Possible Heavy Tetraquarks $qQ\\bar q \\bar Q$, $qq\\bar Q \\bar Q$ and $qQ\\bar Q \\bar Q$

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a $qc \\bar q \\bar c$ tetraquark and using its mass as input, we perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections.

  14. Inclusive production of Ω- and Omega-bar + by K/sub L/0-carbon interactions in the energy range 80--280 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartouni, E.P.; Atiya, M.S.; Holmes, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have measured the total cross sections of Ω - and Omega-bar + forward (x/sub F/> or =0) inclusive production in K/sub L/ 0 -carbon interactions in the range E/sub K/ 0 = 80 to 280 GeV to be 3.5 +- 1.4 and 2.4 +- 1.0 μb, respectively. We observe that the x/sub F/ distributions for both of these states are increasing from x/sub F/ = 0 to x/sub F/roughly-equal0.6. The p/sub perpendicular/ 2 distributions are described as an exponential function in p/sub perpendicular/ with an avearage p/sub perpendicular/ 2 of 0.540 GeV 2 /c 2

  15. Triply heavy tetraquark states with the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Wu, Jing; Liu, Yan-Rui; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we systematically investigate the mass splittings of the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ tetraquark states and estimated their rough masses in this work. These systems include the explicitly exotic states $cc\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$ and $bb\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$ and the hidden exotic states $cc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, $cb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, and $bb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$. If a state around the estimated mass region could be observed, its nature as a genuine tetraquark ...

  16. Energy literacy: Evaluating knowledge, affect, and behavior of students in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lee, Yi-Fang; Altschuld, James W.; Pan, Ying-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Energy literacy that can empower people to make thoughtful decisions and take responsible actions is more important as energy shortages have become pressing issues in the world. Energy literacy was measured among a sample of 2400 secondary students involved in a national energy education program in Taiwan. Response patterns related to student background and factors determining energy consumption behaviors were also studied. Energy literacy was high and positive, with greater impact as expected by grade (senior high school students outscored junior high school ones) and there were some effects due to gender and socioeconomic status. Students' performance on energy knowledge was acceptable (over 60% correct across grades) while a notable discrepancy between affect and behavior was identified indicating that there might not be a correspondence between what people say they would do and what they actually do. Energy saving behavior was more closely associated with the affect than other variables. Reasons for the findings and implications for energy education in the future are discussed

  17. A search for bar νe appearance from stopped π+ and μ+ decay at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports on a recent search for bar ν e appearance from stopped π + → μ + ν μ and μ + → e + ν e bar ν μ decay made by the LAMPF experiment E645. The appearance of bar ν e may occur from bar ν μ → bar ν e , ν e → bar ν eL , or ν μ → bar ν eL oscillations. Appearance may also occur from rare μ + → e + bar ν e ν μ decay, which is allowed by a multiplicative lepton charge conservation law. The neutrino energies range from E ν = 0 to 52.8MeV. The neutrino detector, which is located 26.1 meters from the neutrino source, consists of a segmented liquid scintillator and proportional drift tube central detector surrounded by both active and passive shielding. The central detector detects bar ν e through the bar ν e p → ne + Charge Current (CC) reaction, which is signaled by the direct detection of the final state positron and neutron. The hydrogen-rich liquid scintillators act as free proton targets for the bar ν e p CC reaction. The neutrons are detected through radiative neutron capture on gadolinium. He finds no evidence for bar ν e appearance in the first year of running. New limits on the bar ν μ , ν e , ν μ yields bar ν e oscillation parameters and the rare μ + → e + bar ν e ν μ decay branching ratio are presented

  18. Dynamics of a stellar bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.; Smith, B.F.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamical properties of a prolate bar have been studied by means of a three-dimensional computer model. The bar pattern rotates in the sense of the total angular momentum. The mean particle motion is a rapid streaming in the direction of pattern rotation as seen from a frame that rotates with the bar. Rotation rates that would be inferred from observation are significantly (2--3 times) faster than the pattern rotation speed. Velocity dispersions are anisotropic with the largest component along the bar. Particles oscillate in the bar potential significantly faster than pattern rotation: typical oscillation frequencies are around ω/sub z/=ω/sub y/=6Ω and ω/sub x/=3Ω where z is the direction of angular momentum, x lies along the bar, and Ω is the pattern angular velocity. About 25% of the star orbits are near 2:2:1 resonance with the slow motion along the bar. Particle motion is highly ordered in the bar:the ratio t=T/sub mean//vertical-barWvertical-bar is 0.21--0.24. Observable properties are described; where comparisons can be made, observable properties are in agreement with observations of brightness contours, velocity fields, and velocity dispersions. The bar has nearly exponential density profiles

  19. Measurement and Interpretation of Moments in Inclusive Semileptonic Decays (bar B) → Xc (ell)-(bar ν)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luth, Vera

    2011-01-01

    We present results for the moments of observed spectra in inclusive semileptonic B-meson decays to charm hadrons (bar B) → X c (ell) - (bar ν). Moments of the hadronic-mass and the combined mass-and-energy spectra for different minimum electron or muon momenta between 0.8 and 1.9 GeV/c are obtained from a sample of 232 x 10 6 Γ(4S) → B(bar B) events, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B-meson factory at SLAC. We also present a reevaluation of the moments of electron-energy spectra and partial decay fractions B((bar B) → X c e - (bar ν)) for minimum electron momenta between 0.6 and 1.5 GeV/c based on a sample of 51 x 10 6 Γ(4S) → B(bar B) events. The measurements are used for the extraction of the total decay fraction, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element |V cb |, the quark masses m b and m c , and four heavy-quark QCD parameters in the framework of a Heavy-Quark Expansion (HQE). We find B((bar B) → X c (ell) - (bar ν)) = (10.64 ± 0.17 ± 0.06)% and |V cb | = (42.05 ± 0.45 ± 0.70) x 10 -3 .

  20. Search for $W' \\rightarrow t\\bar{b}$ in the lepton plus jets final state in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-04-09

    A search for new charged massive gauge bosons, called $W'$, is performed with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV, using a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$. This analysis searches for $W'$ bosons in the $W' \\rightarrow t\\bar{b}$ decay channel in final states with electrons or muons, using a multivariate method based on boosted decision trees. The search covers masses between 0.5 and 3.0 TeV, for right-handed or left-handed $W'$ bosons. No significant deviation from the Standard Model expectation is observed and limits are set on the $W' \\rightarrow t\\bar{b}$ cross-section times branching ratio and on the $W'$-boson effective couplings as a function of the $W'$-boson mass using the CL$_s$ procedure. For a left-handed (right-handed) $W'$ boson, masses below 1.70 (1.92) TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level.

  1. Search for the decay of a B0 or B0bar meson to K*0bar K0 or K*0 K0bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-06-27

    The authors present a search for the decay of a B{sup 0} or {bar B}{sup 0} meson to a {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0} or K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0} final state, using a sample of approximately 232 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The measured branching fraction is {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) = (0.2{sub -0.8, -0.3}{sup +0.9, +0.1}) x 10{sup -6}. They obtain the following upper limit for the branching fraction at 90% confidence level: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) < 1.9 x 10{sup -6}. They use our result to constrain the Standard Model prediction for the deviation of the CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0} from sin 2{beta}.

  2. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, van den, H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a Starch-rich (33.2 g/kg fat; 380.9 g/kg carbohydrate) diet at either a High (44 MJ NE/d; 1,050 g protein/d) or a Low (33 MJ NE/d; 790 g protein/d) feeding level. Within each feeding level, the two diets...

  3. Ukola Club. Bar americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azpiazu, J. R.

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available En la calle de Serrano, aprovechando un semisótano dedicado a otro negocio anteriormente, se ha instalado un bar americano, de cuyo interior ofrecemos algunos pormenores. Se han cuidado, especialmente, las condiciones acústicas, resueltas por medio de un techo de escayola perforada, con vitrofib en su parte superior, y paredes de madera, que contribuyen a darle un ambiente cálido y acogedor. El soporte de hierro laminado existente en el centro del local, cuya supresión hubiera sido costosa, se ha revestido con lajas de mármol que le convierten en un elemento decorativo.

  4. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected

  5. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected.

  6. Refresher training as an important factor affecting safety of atomic energy utilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapralov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Refresher training appears to be one of the most important factors, affecting safety of atomic energy utilization facilities. To provide up-to-date refresher training programs and courses TC NRS implements best training practice based on the actual and perspective Russian national and international norms, regulations, standards and recommendations. (author)

  7. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  8. How methodological issues affect the energy indicator results for different electricity generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Gagnon, Luc; Bakken, Tor Haakon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the basis for the comparison of energy products. The paper will discuss important methodological issues with regard to various energy indicators and it will, by means of a few selected energy indicators, show examples of results for hydropower, wind power and electricity from biomass, gas and coal. Lastly it will suggest methods to achieve results which are more consistent when comparing electricity production technologies. In general, methodological issues can affect the results of life cycle assessments. In this paper, the authors have focused on the effect of system boundaries for energy indicators and found that the internal ranking of cases within one electricity generation technology is dependent on the indicator used. These variations do not, however, alter the general ranking of the major technologies studied. The authors suggest that future assessments should focus on a smaller set of indicators: the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), which is the most “universal” indicator, Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) for assessment of upstream activities, and a suggested “Cumulative Fossil Energy Demand” (CFED) for resource depletion assessments. There is also a need for stricter standardisation and increased transparency in the assessment of energy products. - Highlights: • There is a need for stricter standardisation of energy performance assessments. • System boundaries for renewable sources should be harmonised. • One should focus on a smaller set of indicators. CED should be included

  9. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-01-01

    KLM Technologies was recently awarded a contract by the Department of Energy for a Phase II demonstration of an optimized full-scale prototype membrane system including performance evaluation under plant operating conditions. The program will serve as the catalyst for developing technology to augment the industry's incentive toward innovative and compact volume reduction alternatives for PWRs. The development and demonstration of the KLM Boric Acid Reclamation System, which is readily retrofitted into existing PWR facilities, will provide a positive means of reducing PWR waste volumes without requiring the $25-50 million equipment and support facility expenditures associated with most liquid waste volume reduction systems. This new application for membrane separation technology can reduce waste by upward of 50 percent for two-thirds of the operating nuclear plants in the U.S. The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in radwaste and related applications. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultrafiltration (UF) can provide selective filtration capability and concentrate contaminants without the need of filter aids, thus minimizing the requirements of chemical regeneration, costly resins, and major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing RO and UF to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase I Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs

  10. K-bar-mesic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dote, Akinobu; Akaishi, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    2005-01-01

    New nuclei 'K-bar-Mesic Nuclei' having the strangeness are described. At first it is shown that the strongly attractive nature of K-bar N interaction is reasoned inductively from consideration of the relation between Kaonic hydrogen atom and Λ (1405) which is an excited state of hyperon Λ. The K-bar N interactions are reviewed and summarized into three categories: 1. Phenomenological approach with density dependent K-bar N interaction (DD), relativistic mean field (RMF) approach, and hybrid of them (RMF+DD). 2. Boson exchange model. 3. Chiral SU(3) theory. The investigation of some light K-bar-nuclei by Akaishi and Yamazaki using phenomenological K-bar N interaction is explained in detail. Studies by antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) approach are also presented. From these theoretical researches, the following feature of K-bar-mesic nuclei are revealed: 1) Ground state is discrete and bound by 100 MeV or more. 2) Density is very high in side the K-bar-mesic nuclei. 3) Strange structures develop which are not seen in ordinary nuclei. Finally some recent experiments to explore K-bar-mesic nuclei are reviewed. (S. Funahashi)

  11. Barred spiral structure of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Weng, s.; Xu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Observational data indicate the grand design of spiral or barred spiral structure in disk galaxies. The problem of spiral structure has been thoroughly investigated by C. C. Lin and his collaborators, but yet the problem of barred spiral structure has not been investigated systematically, although much work has been done, such as in Ref. 3--7. Using the gasdynamic model for galaxies and a method of integral transform presented in Ref. 1, we investigated the barred spiral structure and obtained an analytical solution. It gives the large-scale pattern of barred-spirals, which is in fairly good agreement with observational data

  12. Factor Analysis on Criteria Affecting Lean Retrofit for Energy Efficient Initiatives in Higher Learning Institution Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin Nur IzieAdiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Higher Learning Institution (HLI is a global concerns on energy demand due to campus act like a small city. Intensive mode of operation of a building is correlated to the energy utilization. Improvement in the current energy efficiency is crucial effort to minimize the environmental effect through minimisation of energy in operation by retrofitting and upgrade the existing building system or components to be more efficient. Basically, there are three recommended steps for the improvement known as lean initiatives, green technology and clean energy in response to becoming zero energy solutions for building. The deliberation of this paper is aimed to highlight the criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing building in HLI with lean initiatives in order to achieve energy efficiency and reduction of energy comsumption. Attention is devoted to reviewing the lean energy retrofitting initiatives criteria for daylighting (side lighting, daylighting (skylight and glazing. The questionnaire survey was employed and distributed to the architects who has an expertise in green building design. Factor analysis was adopted as a method of analysis by using Principal Component with Varimax Rotation. The result is presented through summarizing the sub-criteria according to its importance with a factor loading 0.50 and above. The result found that majority of the criteria developed achieved the significant factor loading value and in accordance with the protocal of analysis. In conclusion the results from analysis of this paper assists the stakeholders in assessing the significant criteria based on the desired lean energy retrofitting initiatives and also provides a huge contribution for future planning improvement in existing buildings to become an energy efficient building.

  13. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  14. The company they keep: drinking group attitudes and male bar aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M; Graham, Kathryn; Wells, Samantha

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess (a) similarities in self-reported bar-aggression-related attitudes and behaviors among members of young male groups recruited on their way to bars and (b) group-level variables associated with individual members' self-reported likelihood of perpetrating physical bar aggression in the past year, controlling for individual attitudes. Young, male, natural drinking groups recruited on their way to a bar district Thursday, Friday, and Saturday nights (n = 167, 53 groups) completed an online survey that measured whether they had perpetrated physical aggression at a bar in the past year and constructs associated with bar aggression, including attitudes toward male bar aggression and frequency of heavy episodic drinking in the past year. Intraclass correlations and chi-square tests demonstrated significant within-group similarity on bar-aggression-related attitudes and behaviors (ps bar aggression were significantly associated with individuals' likelihood of perpetrating physical bar aggression, controlling for individual attitudes (p bar aggression was nonsignificant in the full model. This study suggests that the most important group influence on young men's bar aggression is the attitudes of other group members. These attitudes were associated with group members' likelihood of engaging in bar aggression over and above individuals' own attitudes. A better understanding of how group attitudes and behavior affect the behavior of individual group members is needed to inform aggression-prevention programming.

  15. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. General relativity over V4-bar - spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Kolarov, A.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    The results from the considerations of differentiable manifolds with contravariant and covariant affine connections and metrics are specialized for the case of (L n bar, g)-spaces with metric transport (∇ ξ g = 0 for all ξ is T (M), g ij;k = 0 and f j i = e φ · g j i (the s.c. (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with contravariant and covariant symmetric affine connections). Einstein's theory of gravitation is considered in (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with different (not only by sign) contravariant and covariant affine connections ((V n bar)-spaces, n = 4). The Euler-Lagrange equations and the corresponding energy-momentum tensors (EMT-s) are obtained and compared with the Einstein equations and the EMT-s in V 4 -spaces. The geodesic and autoparallel equations in V 4 bar -spaces are found as different equations in contrast to the case of V 4 -spaces

  16. Electrochemical energy: the green face of the salt-affected lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Mahmood, K.; Waheed, A.

    2013-01-01

    A high soluble salt content make the salt-stressed terrestrial and the aquatic habitats electrically more active than the normal ecosystems. The salt-tolerant plants and the microbial populations adapted to the salt-stressed environments have developed special mechanisms to resist the ionic and the osmotic stresses. The study evaluated the bioelectricity or electrochemical energy potential of soil and bio-resources of a salt-affected land. The electrical conductivity and the charge resistance ability exhibited the various categories of salt-tolerant plants suitable for a range of salt-stressed conditions and the root activities including extrusion of proton (H+) in the rooting media. The microbial biofilms formed with plant roots, soil particles and the solid surface by exo-polysaccharides producing biofilm bacteria could regulate and monitor ion flux across the bio-membranes and the electrode surfaces. The ionic gradients thus created by plants and the microbial processes could be a continuous and uninterrupted valuable source of bio-energy of the salt-stressed and contaminated soil and water habitats. The bio-energy can be harnessed and utilized by especially designed microbial biofuel cells (MBFC). The biofilms developed on anode or cathode of MBFC could act as half cells for source and sink of the electrons released during oxidation reduction processes carried by microbial consortia while the exo-polysaccharides, the microbial biopolymer could support transfer of charge to the electrodes. The salt-affected soil and the soil organic matter constituents, microbial biopolymers and the brackish water, as a mediators and the cathode passivation inhibitors, thus could help enhance and increase the output intensity of the electrochemical energy and efficiency of the biofuel cells. The study suggested an enormous potential of the salt-affected lands for non-conventional renewable bio-energy source useful in the remote areas and for the small power requiring electrical

  17. Bar Coliseo, en Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Neila, Antonio

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available This bar is situated inside the «Coliseo» building, which houses a cinema, as well as a number of commercial establishments. In order not to break the unity of the total project, no attempt has been made to alter the exterior aspect of the bar. No attempt was made, either, to make it into an intimate, club type of bar, now so much in fashion. Rather has it been given a diaphanous style, seeking the best possible use of the floor space. The windows of the building are elongated, and there is an intermediate floor level, whose detailed structure is metallic. A cleverly designed staircase, of folded sheet metal connects the ground floor, the intermediate floor level and the restaurant. Materials were carefully chosen in accordance with their function. The colour scheme has a sustained unity throughout the building, and care has been taken to avoid surprising or vivid chromatic patterns. Ceramic enamels by the painter Santiago del Campo provide a feature of decoration on the ground floor, and also serve to cover up the return air ducts. On the top floor, the restaurant is fitted with coloured tile facings, the work of the Seville painters Maria Josefa Sánchez, María Dolores Sánchez and Emilio García Ortiz. The bottom joints of the timber beams, in conjunction with the tile patterns, is reminiscent of the traditional Sevillian habit of placing ceramic units between the timber framework of buildings. The initial problem of the architect was to combine the optimum functional efficiency and aesthetic quality of the project, and the final solution is undoubtedly successful.El establecimiento está situado dentro del edificio «Coliseo», complejo formado por una sala de cine, y con la parte lateral destinada a locales comerciales. Formando un conjunto único no se pensó nunca en transformar los revestimientos y molduras de fachada. Tampoco presidió la idea de conseguir un establecimiento íntimo «tipo Club», tan en boga actualmente, sino un

  18. {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} production in two-photon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; ONeill, J.J.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Riehle, T.; Savinov, V.; Smith, A. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Alam, M.S.; Athar, S.B.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; Severini, H.; Timm, S.; Wappler, F. [State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Anastassov, A.; Blinov, S.; Duboscq, J.E.; Fujino, D.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Hart, T.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Spencer, M.B.; Sung, M.; Undrus, A.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M.M. [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Nemati, B.; Richichi, S.J.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J.W.; Menon, N.; Miller, D.H.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.; Yurko, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Gibbons, L.; Johnson, S.D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Jessop, C.P.; Lingel, K.; Marsiske, H.; Perl, M.L.; Schaffner, S.F.; Ugolini, D.; Wang, R.; Zhou, X. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Maravin, Y.; Narsky, I.; Shelkov, V.; Staeck, J.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Efimov, A.; Frasconi, F.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Mukhin, Y.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Xing, X. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Marka, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Freyberger, A.; Gibaut, D.; Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I.C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S.; and others

    1997-09-01

    Using the CLEO detector at the Cornell e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage ring CESR we study the two-photon production of {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}}, making the first observation of {gamma}{gamma}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{bar {Lambda}}. We present the cross section for {gamma}{gamma}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} as a function of the {gamma}{gamma} center of mass energy and compare it to that predicted by the quark-diquark model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Mass and energy balance of the carbonization of babassu nutshell as affected by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the carbonization yield of babassu nutshell as affected by final temperature, as well as the energy losses involved in the process. Three layers constituting the babassu nut, that is, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp, were used together. The material was carbonized, considering the following final temperatures: 450, 550, 650, 750, and 850ºC. The following were evaluated: energy and charcoal yields, pyroligneous liquid, non-condensable gases, and fixed carbon. The use of babassu nutshell can be highly feasible for charcoal production. The yield of charcoal from babassu nutshell carbonization was higher than that reported in the literature for Eucalyptus wood carbonization, considering the final temperature of 450ºC. Charcoal and energy yields decreased more sharply at lower temperatures, with a tendency to stabilize at higher temperatures. The energy yields obtained can be considered satisfactory, with losses between 45 and 52% (based on higher heating value and between 43 and 49% (based on lower heating value at temperatures ranging from 450 to 850ºC, respectively. Yields in fixed carbon and pyroligneous liquid are not affected by the final carbonization temperature.

  20. Multiplicity and Pseudorapidity Distributions from $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at Center-of-Mass Energy 1.8-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Charles Cameron [Purdue U.

    1991-12-01

    Charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions produced in protonantiproton collisions at center of mass energy 1.8 TeV and measured in the Central Tracking Chamber are discussed. The data were taken using a minimum bias trigger at E-735 at Fermi lab.

  1. Foraging site selection of two subspecies of Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica: time minimizers accept greater predation danger than energy minimizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Dijk, van J.G.B.; Spaans, B.; Jukema, J.; Boer, de W.F.; Piersma, Th.

    2009-01-01

    Different spatial distributions of food abundance and predators may urge birds to make a trade-off between food intake and danger. Such a trade-off might be solved in different ways in migrant birds that either follow a time-minimizing or energy-minimizing strategy; these strategies have been

  2. Foraging site selection of two subspecies of Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica : time minimizers accept greater predation danger than energy minimizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; van Dijk, Jacintha G. B.; Spaans, Bernard; Jukema, Joop; de Boer, Willem F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Different spatial distributions Of food abundance and predators may urge birds to make a trade-off between food intake and danger. Such a trade-off might be solved in different ways in migrant birds that either follow a time-minimizing or energy-minimizing strategy; these strategies have been

  3. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D-vertical bar -> (K)over-bar(0)e(vertical bar) nu(e) via (K)over-bar(0) -> pi(0)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettonin, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Caleaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolc, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupse, A.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuangig, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb(-1) data collected at the center-of-mass energy root s = 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e) to be B(D (+) -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e)) = (8.59 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.21)% using (K)

  5. Development of an effective pinch bar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available . ....................................10 Figure 3-3: Layout of lightweight pinch bar extruded fibreglass tube. ..................................11 Figure 3-4: XDM lightweight pinch bar with manufactured glass fibre bar. ..........................12 Figure 3-5: XDM lightweight pinch... bar with extruded glass fibre tube. ................................12 Figure 3-6: Stiffness of a 2.8m lightweight pinch bar with an extruded glass fibre tube and a 25mm steel pinch bar...

  6. Numerical Simulations of the Kolsky Compression Bar Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Kolsky compression bar, or split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), is an ex- perimental apparatus used to obtain the stress-strain response of material specimens at strain rates in the order of 10 2 to 10 4 1/s. Its operation and associated data re- duction are based on principles of one-dimensional wave propagation in rods. Second order effects such as indentation of the bars by the specimen and wave dispersion in the bars, however, can significantly affect aspects of the measured material response. Finite element models of the experimental apparatus were used here to demonstrate these two effects. A procedure proposed by Safa and Gary (2010) to account for bar indentation was also evaluated and shown to improve the estimation of the strain in the bars significantly. The use of pulse shapers was also shown to alleviate the effects of wave dispersion. Combining the two can lead to more reliable results in Kolsky compression bar testing.

  7. Possible heavy tetraquarks qQq-barQ-bar, qqQ-barQ-bar and qQQ-barQ-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ying; Chen Xiaolin; Deng Weizhen; Zhu Shilin

    2007-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a qcq-barc-bar tetraquark and using its mass as input, the authors perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections. (authors)

  8. Market turkey performance, air quality, and energy consumption affected by partial slotted flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, S L; Janni, K A; Halvorson, D A; Clanton, C J

    1997-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 600 male Large White turkeys to examine performance and health when reared from 5 to 18 wk of age on litter (L) partially slotted flooring (SF), and under two ventilation rates-control and reduced ventilation (80% control). In both experiments, body weights were improved significantly (P Ammonia levels were reduced with SF, whereas dust levels were increased. Ventilation rate did not affect turkey performance. Ammonia and carbon dioxide levels were increased with reduced ventilation in Experiment 1. Dust levels were not affected by ventilation rate. Supplemental energy use was decreased in the SF system or by reducing the ventilation rate. In comparison to the control ventilation/litter treatment, the greatest decrease in energy use was observed with SF at 80% ventilation rates. Results indicate that the use of SF in a cold climate can improve body weight and substantially reduce energy use when excessive litter moisture is a problem. However, a greater incidence of blisters will limit application of SF due to lowered carcass quality and value.

  9. Crack initiation life in notched Ti-6Al-4V titanium bars under uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue: synthesis based on the averaged strain energy density approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Meneghetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behaviour of circumferentially notched specimens made of titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, has been analysed. To investigate the notch effect on the fatigue strength, pure bending, pure torsion and multiaxial bending-torsion fatigue tests have been carried out on specimens characterized by two different root radii, namely 0.1 and 4 mm. Crack nucleation and subsequent propagation have been accurately monitored by using the direct current potential drop (DCPD technique. Based on the results obtained from the potential drop technique, the crack initiation life has been defined in correspondence of a relative potential drop increase V/V0 equal to 1%, and it has been used as failure criterion. Doing so, the effect of extrinsic mechanisms operating during crack propagation phase, such as sliding contact, friction and meshing between fracture surfaces, is expected to be reduced. The experimental fatigue test results have been re-analysed by using the local strain energy density (SED averaged over a structural volume having radius R0 and surrounding the notch tip. Finally, the use of the local strain energy density parameter allowed us to properly correlate the crack initiation life of Ti-6Al-4V notched specimens, despite the different notch geometries and loading conditions involved in the tests

  10. The BaBar Mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  11. The BaBar mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.; BaBar Collaboration

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  12. Peripheral processes 2 → 3 and 2 → 4 in QED and QCD in p-p-bar high-energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, A. I.; Bystritskiy, Yu. M.; Kuraev, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Differential cross sections of processes with high-energy p(-p)p collisions—creation of a scalar, a pseudoscalar and a lepton pair—are considered in the Weizsacker-Williams approximation in QED in the QCD framework, processes with conversion of the initial proton (antiproton) to fermionic jets accompanied with one gluon jet and the state of two gluons and a quark-antiquark pair (without a rapidity gap) are considered in the framework of the effective Regge action of Lipatov’s theory. The process of creation of a Higgs boson accompanied with two fermionic jets is considered. The azimuthal correlation in the process of two gluon jets separated by a rapidity gap is investigated. The gluon Reggeization effects are taken into account. Some distributions are illustrated by numerical calculations.

  13. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  14. Studies of identified hadrons in qq-bar events at LEPI, in W sup + W sup - and qq-bar events at LEPII and search for stable and long-lived heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, N

    1999-01-01

    The use of RICH detectors allows the identification of charged pions, kaons and protons, covering the full momentum range 0.7qq-bar, Z sup 0->bb-bar and Z sup 0->uu-bar, dd-bar, ss-bar, selected from approx 1,400,000 Z sup 0 decays collected by DELPHI in 1994. This study has been extended to high-energy qq-bar events at LEPII. New heavy particles from 2 GeV/c sup 2 to the kinematic limit at LEPII have been searched using the RICH detectors.

  15. RELATING BOTTOM QUARK MASS IN DR-BAR AND MS-BAR REGULARIZATION SCHEMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The value of the bottom quark mass at Q = M Z in the (bar D)(bar R) scheme is an important input for the analysis of supersymmetric models with a large value of tan β. Conventionally, however, the running bottom quark mass extracted from experimental data is quoted in the (bar M)(bar S) scheme at the scale Q = m b . We describe a two loop procedure for the conversion of the bottom quark mass from (bar M)(bar S) to (bar D)(bar R) scheme. The Particle Data Group value m b # bar M# # bar S#(m b # bar M# # bar S#) = 4.2 ± 0.2 GeV corresponds to a range of 2.65-3.03 GeV for m b # bar D# # bar R#(M Z )

  16. Investigation of $pp\\bar$ Events at 540 GeV c.m. Energy with a Streamer Chamber Detection System

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The SPS Collider offers an opportunity to study hadronically-produced events in an entirely new energy domain. The UA5 Collaboration is investigating many features of the physics of 540 GeV proton-antiproton collisions, including 1) charged particle production; pseudorapidity and multiplicity distributions 2) photon production; pseudorapidity distributions 3) charged-charged and charged-neutral particle correlations 4) neutral and charged strange particle production and their p^t-distributions 5)~~a special study of high multiplicity events; search for Centauro events,~etc. .in;.sk; The basic detector consists of two large (6m) streamer chambers, triggered by hodoscopes at either end and at 90|0, and viewed by cameras via image intensifiers. Charged tracks can be observed down to 3/4|0, and hence over most of the pseudorapidity range (!@h!$<$5.0) in which they are produced; photons are observed over the same pseudorapidity range. Neutral and charged particle decays are identified over !@h!$<$3. New comp...

  17. A modified split Hopkinson pressure bar for toughness tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, N.; Grunenwald, T.

    2006-08-01

    In order to characterize material toughness or to study crack arrest under dynamic loading conditions, a new testing device has been developed at CEA/Valduc. A new Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) has been modified: it is now composed of a single incident bar and a double transmitter bar. With this facility, a notched specimen can be loaded under three points bending conditions. Qualification tests with titanium and steel notched samples are presented. Data treatment software has been adapted to estimate the sample deflection as a function of time and treat the energy balance. These results are compared with classical Charpy experiments. Effect of various contact areas between specimen and bars are studied to point out their influence on obtained measurements. The advantage of a “knife” contact compared to a plane one is then clearly demonstrated. All results obtained with this new testing device are in good agreement and show a reduced scattering.

  18. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and Lambda-bar Polarization in B0 -> Lambda-par p pi-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-08-03

    We present a measurement of the B{sup 0} {yields} {bar {Lambda}}p{pi}{sup -} branching fraction performed using the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Based on a sample of 467 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs we measure {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar {Lambda}}p{pi}{sup -}) [3.07 {+-} 0.31(stat.) {+-} 0.23(syst.)] x 10{sup -6}. The measured differential spectrum as a function of the dibaryon invariant mass m({bar {Lambda}}p) shows a near-threshold enhancement similar to that observed in other baryonic B decays. We study the {bar {Lambda}} polarization as a function of {bar {Lambda}} energy in the B{sup 0} rest frame (E*{sub {bar {Lambda}}}) and compare it with theoretical expectations of fully longitudinally right-polarized {bar {Lambda}} at large E*{sub {bar {Lambda}}}.

  19. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  20. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  1. BAR-MOM code and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunuan

    2002-01-01

    BAR-MOM code for calculating the height of the fission barrier Bf , the energy of the ground state is presented; the compound nucleus stability by limit with respect to fission, i.e., the angular momentum (the spin value) L max at which the fission barrier disappears, the three principal axis moments of inertia at saddle point for a certain nucleus with atomic number Z, atomic mass number A and angular momentum L in units of ℎ for 19< Z<102, and the model used are introduced briefly. The generalized BAR-MOM code to include the results for Z ≥ 102 by using more recent parameterization of the Thomas Fermi fission barrier is also introduced briefly. We have learned the models used in Code BAR-MOM, and run it successfully and correctly for a certain nucleus with atomic mass number A, atomic number Z, and angular momentum L on PC by Fortran-90. The testing calculation values to check the implementation of the program show that the results of the present work are in good agreement with the original one

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING THE CONCEPT of RENEWABLE ENERGY in TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED ENVIRONMENTS AND DESIGNING PROCESSES in THE DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seda YUCEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out what to take into account in creating renewable energy awareness. In this study, certain factors thought to affect the development of renewable energy awareness were investigated. The awareness was created through a technology-assisted renewable energy module and assessed using a renewable energy assessment tool. The effects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness with Guglielmino (1977, inner-individual orientation, and anxiety orientation on the awareness were examined. These three factors were found to have significant effects on renewable energy, which was developed through technology utilization. In addition, based on the finding that delivering the subject of renewable energy in technology assisted environments is more effective, the criteria that should be taken into consideration in transforming this subject into a design model that is more suitable for distance education were identified.

  3. Study of $ \\bar{p} $ and $ \\bar{n} $ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS201 Study of $\\bar{p}$ and $\\bar{n}$ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer \\\\ \\\\OBELIX is designed to study exclusive final states of antiproton and antineutron annihilations at low energies with protons and nuclei. \\\\ \\\\The physics motivations of the experiment are:\\\\ \\\\\\begin{itemize} \\item (gg, ggg), hybrids ($ q \\bar{q} g $), multiquarks ($ q q \\bar{q} \\bar{q} $) and light mesons ($ q \\bar{q} $) produced in $ N \\bar{N} $ annihilations and study of their spectroscopy and decays. Also broad structures will be searched for by comparing identical decay modes in exclusive final states of the same type occuring from initial states with different angular momentum or isospin. \\item Study of the dynamics of $ N \\bar{N} $ interactions and of the dependence of the final and intermediate resonant states of annihilation upon the quantum numbers of the initial $ N \\bar{N} $ state (angular momentum: S and P-wave in $\\bar{p}p $ at...

  4. BaBar Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "B factory experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) in the USA and at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan have reached a new milestone in the quest to understand the matter-antimatter imbalance in our universe. These experiments are used by scientists from around the world, including the UK, to probe such fundamental questions."

  5. Production and collective motion of qq-bar plasma in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Heinz transport equations for qq-bar plasma are generalized to include a term responsible for qq-bar tunneling from vacuum in chromoelectric field. They are used to study the time dependence of the particle and energy densities and other characteristics of qq-bar production in a color flux tube. The energy density larger than 4 GeV/fm 3 is found at the 'formation time' 0,3 fm for a tube five times stronger than the elementary one. The oscillations of the system survive the damping effects brought about by the process of production of qq-bar pairs. 22 refs., 9 figs. (author)

  6. Measurement of the asymmetry parameter for the decay $\\bar\\Lambda \\to \\bar p\\pi^+$

    OpenAIRE

    BES collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Based on a sample of $58\\times10^6J/\\psi$ decays collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC, the $\\bar\\Lambda$ decay parameter $\\alpha_{\\bar\\Lambda}$ for $\\bar\\Lambda\\to \\bar p \\pi^+$ is measured using about 9000 $J/\\psi\\to\\Lambda\\bar\\Lambda\\to p \\bar p \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays. A fit to the joint angular distributions yields $\\alpha_{\\bar\\Lambda}(\\bar\\Lambda\\to \\bar p\\pi^+)=-0.755\\pm0.083\\pm0.063$, where the first error is statistical, and the second systematic.

  7. INFLUENCE OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS LOCATION IN THE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Halem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the number of broken bars and varying load affect on the amplitudes of specific harmonic components in the process analysis of induction motors under broken rotor bars. The location of broken bars is an important factor which affects the diagnosis of the broken bars defect. In this paper the simulation is determinate for different cases for distribution of broken bars under induction motor pole in order to show the impact of broken bars location upon the amplitude of harmonic fault. The simulation results are obtained by using time stepping finite elements (TSFE method. The geometrical characteristics of motor, the effects of slotting and the magnetic saturation of lamination core are included in induction motor model.

  8. INFLUENCE OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS LOCATION IN THE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Halem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the number of broken bars and varying load affect on the amplitudes of specific harmonic components  in the process analysis of induction motors under broken rotor bars. The location of broken bars is an important factor which affects the diagnosis of the broken bars defect. In this paper the simulation is determinate for different cases for distribution of broken bars under induction motor pole in order to show the impact of broken bars location upon the amplitude of harmonic fault. The simulation results are obtained by using time stepping finite elements (TSFE method. The geometrical characteristics of motor, the effects of slotting and the magnetic saturation of lamination core are included in induction motor model.

  9. Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State (USA): A measure of knowledge, affect, and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWaters, Jan E.; Powers, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Energy literacy, which encompasses broad content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral characteristics, will empower people to make appropriate energy-related choices and embrace changes in the way we harness and consume energy. Energy literacy was measured with a written questionnaire completed by 3708 secondary students in New York State, USA. Results indicate that students are concerned about energy problems (affective subscale mean 73% of the maximum attainable score), yet relatively low cognitive (42% correct) and behavioral (65% of the maximum) scores suggest that students may lack the knowledge and skills they need to effectively contribute toward solutions. High school (HS) students scored significantly better than middle school (MS) students on the cognitive subscale; gains were greatest on topics included in NY State educational standards, and less on topics related to 'practical' energy knowledge such as ways to save energy. Despite knowledge gains, there was a significant drop in energy conservation behavior between the MS and HS students. Intercorrelations between groups of questions indicate energy-related behaviors are more strongly related to affect than to knowledge. These findings underscore the need for education that improves energy literacy by impacting student attitudes, values and behaviors, as well as broad content knowledge. - Research highlights: → Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State, US, was measured with a written survey. → Students scored 42%, 65%, and 73% (out of 100%) on cognitive, affective, and behavioral subscales. → HS students scored higher on cognitive, but lower on behavioral questions than MS students. → Results suggest energy-related behaviors more closely related to affective factors than to knowledge. → Study underscores importance of influencing attitudes/values to realize energy-related behavioral change.

  10. Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State (USA): A measure of knowledge, affect, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWaters, Jan E., E-mail: dewaters@clarkson.ed [Clarkson University, Institute for a Sustainable Environment, Potsdam, NY 13699-5710 (United States); Powers, Susan E. [Clarkson University, Institute for a Sustainable Environment, Potsdam, NY 13699-5710 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Energy literacy, which encompasses broad content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral characteristics, will empower people to make appropriate energy-related choices and embrace changes in the way we harness and consume energy. Energy literacy was measured with a written questionnaire completed by 3708 secondary students in New York State, USA. Results indicate that students are concerned about energy problems (affective subscale mean 73% of the maximum attainable score), yet relatively low cognitive (42% correct) and behavioral (65% of the maximum) scores suggest that students may lack the knowledge and skills they need to effectively contribute toward solutions. High school (HS) students scored significantly better than middle school (MS) students on the cognitive subscale; gains were greatest on topics included in NY State educational standards, and less on topics related to 'practical' energy knowledge such as ways to save energy. Despite knowledge gains, there was a significant drop in energy conservation behavior between the MS and HS students. Intercorrelations between groups of questions indicate energy-related behaviors are more strongly related to affect than to knowledge. These findings underscore the need for education that improves energy literacy by impacting student attitudes, values and behaviors, as well as broad content knowledge. - Research highlights: {yields} Energy literacy of secondary students in New York State, US, was measured with a written survey. {yields} Students scored 42%, 65%, and 73% (out of 100%) on cognitive, affective, and behavioral subscales. {yields} HS students scored higher on cognitive, but lower on behavioral questions than MS students. {yields} Results suggest energy-related behaviors more closely related to affective factors than to knowledge. {yields} Study underscores importance of influencing attitudes/values to realize energy-related behavioral change.

  11. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  12. KLM's boric acid reclamation system (BARS). An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96-97 percent. BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. Within the scope of the project, a variety of contaminated process stream and mixed radwaste sources have been evaluated at Northern States Power's Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station. The design of an advanced prototype BARS as an optimized process alternative was the result of KLM's initial Phase 1 SBIR program with the DOE in 1984 and 1985

  13. Pathophysiological changes that affect drug disposition in protein-energy malnourished children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshikoya Kazeem A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a major public health problem affecting a high proportion of infants and older children world-wide and accounts for a high childhood morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. The epidemiology of PEM has been extensively studied globally and management guidelines formulated by the World Health Organization (WHO. A wide spectrum of infections such as measles, malaria, acute respiratory tract infection, intestinal parasitosis, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS may complicate PEM with two or more infections co-existing. Thus, numerous drugs may be required to treat the patients. In-spite of abundant literature on the epidemiology and management of PEM, focus on metabolism and therapeutic drug monitoring is lacking. A sound knowledge of pathophysiology of PEM and pharmacology of the drugs frequently used for their treatment is required for safe and rational treatment. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiological changes in children with PEM that may affect the disposition of drugs frequently used for their treatment. This review has established abnormal disposition of drugs in children with PEM that may require dosage modification. However, the relevance of these abnormalities to the clinical management of PEM remains inconclusive. At present, there are no good indications for drug dosage modification in PEM; but for drug safety purposes, further studies are required to accurately determine dosages of drugs frequently used for children with PEM.

  14. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  15. Star formation suppression and bar ages in nearby barred galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. A.; Percival, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    We present new spectroscopic data for 21 barred spiral galaxies, which we use to explore the effect of bars on disc star formation, and to place constraints on the characteristic lifetimes of bar episodes. The analysis centres on regions of heavily suppressed star formation activity, which we term `star formation deserts'. Long-slit optical spectroscopy is used to determine H β absorption strengths in these desert regions, and comparisons with theoretical stellar population models are used to determine the time since the last significant star formation activity, and hence the ages of the bars. We find typical ages of ˜1 Gyr, but with a broad range, much larger than would be expected from measurement errors alone, extending from ˜0.25 to >4 Gyr. Low-level residual star formation, or mixing of stars from outside the `desert' regions, could result in a doubling of these age estimates. The relatively young ages of the underlying populations coupled with the strong limits on the current star formation rule out a gradual exponential decline in activity, and hence support our assumption of an abrupt truncation event.

  16. DEPTOR in POMC neurons affects liver metabolism but is dispensable for the regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; Labbé, Sébastien M; Mouchiroud, Mathilde; Huard, Renaud; Lanfray, Damien; Richard, Denis; Laplante, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    We have recently demonstrated that specific overexpression of DEP-domain containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) protects mice against high-fat diet-induced obesity, revealing DEPTOR as a significant contributor to energy balance regulation. On the basis of evidence that DEPTOR is expressed in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the MBH, the present study aimed to investigate whether these neurons mediate the metabolic effects of DEPTOR. Here, we report that specific DEPTOR overexpression in POMC neurons does not recapitulate any of the phenotypes observed when the protein was overexpressed in the MBH. Unlike the previous model, mice overexpressing DEPTOR only in POMC neurons 1) did not show differences in feeding behavior, 2) did not exhibit changes in locomotion activity and oxygen consumption, 3) did not show an improvement in systemic glucose metabolism, and 4) were not resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. These results support the idea that other neuronal populations are responsible for these phenotypes. Nonetheless, we observed a mild elevation in fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance, and alterations in liver glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice overexpressing DEPTOR in POMC neurons. Taken together, these results show that DEPTOR overexpression in POMC neurons does not affect energy balance regulation but could modulate metabolism through a brain-liver connection. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO 2 prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a review

  18. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-15

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO{sub 2} prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a

  19. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is increasingly expanding, particularly in Indonesia, but information on water and energy fluxes in oil palm plantations is still very limited and on how those are affected by environmental conditions or oil palm age. Using the eddy covariance technique, we studied turbulent fluxes of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat and gross primary production (GPP) for 8 months each in a young oil palm plantation (1-year old) and subsequently in a mature plantation (12-year old) in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We measured transpiration (T) simultaneously using a sap flux technique. The energy budget was dominated by LE in both plantations, particularly in the mature one, where it represented up to 70% of the available energy. In the young oil palm plantation, evapotranspiration (ET) was significantly reduced and H fluxes were higher. This affected the Bowen ratio, defined as the ratio of H and LE, which was higher in the 1-year old plantation (0.67±0.33), where it remained constant during the day, than in the mature plantation (0.14±0.09), where it varied considerably over the day, suggesting that water accumulated inside the canopy. Using the Community Land Model (CLM), a process based land surface model that has been adapted to oil palm functional traits (i.e. CLM-Palm), we investigated the contribution of different water sources to the measured fluxes. CLM-Palm differentiates leaf and stem surfaces in modelling water interception and is therefore able to diagnose the fraction of dry leaves that contribute to T and the wet fraction of all vegetation surfaces (leaf and stem) that contributes to evaporation. Results from our simulations strengthen our hypothesis of significant contribution of canopy evaporation to ET. As observed in the field, water accumulates inside the canopy in the mature plantation in oil palm trunk surfaces including epiphytes, creating water reservoirs in the trunk, which potentially contribute to ET when they evaporate. The decoupling

  20. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  1. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2007-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0 mA/cm(2), initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293 K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following; [formula in text]. Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  2. Expandable antivibration bar for a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, H.O.

    1986-01-01

    A steam generator tube support structure comprises expandable antivibration bars positioned between rows of tubes in the steam generator and attached to retaining rings surrounding the bundle of tubes. The antivibration bars have adjacent bar sections with mating surfaces formed as inclined planes which upon relative longitudinal motion between the upper and lower bars provides a means to increase the overall thickness across the structure to the required value. The bar section is retained against longitudinal movement in take-up assembly whereas the bar section is movable longitudinally by rotation of a nut. (author)

  3. Observations of offshore bar decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2010-01-01

    the upper shoreface, and finally a stage of decaying bar form through loss of sediment volume at the outer boundary of the upper shoreface. The phenomenon has been previously documented in the Netherlands, the USA, the Canadian Great Lakes, and in New Zealand, but our present understanding...

  4. Qq(Q-bar)(q-bar)' states in chiral SU(3) quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haixia; Zhang Min; Zhang Zongye

    2007-01-01

    We study the masses of Qq(Q-bar)(q-bar)' states with J PC =0 ++ , 1 ++ , 1 +- and 2 ++ in the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q(q') is the light quark (u,d or s). According to our numerical results, it is improbable to make the interpretation of [cn(c-bar)(n-bar)] 1 ++ and [cn(c-bar)(n-bar)] 2 ++ (n=u,d) states as X(3872) and Y(3940), respectively. However, it is interesting to find the tetraquarks in the bq(b-bar)(q-bar)' system. (authors)

  5. A mutational analysis of the endophilin-A N-BAR domain performed in living flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Anita G; Mønsted, Christina Labarrera; Jansen, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    BAR domain clearly affected adult flies, larval endophilin function was surprisingly resistant to mutagenesis. Previous reports have stressed the importance of a central appendage on the convex BAR surface, which forms a hydrophobic ridge able to directly insert into the lipid bilayer. We found......-function studies of the endophilin-A BAR domain have almost exclusively been made in reduced systems, either in vitro or ex vivo in cultured cells. To extend and complement this work, we have analyzed the role played by the structural features of the endophilin-A BAR domain in Drosophila in vivo. METHODOLOGY...

  6. Experiment calculated ascertainment of factors affecting the energy release in IGR reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpesheva, A.M.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At present energy supply resources problem is important. Nuclear reactors can, of course, solve this problem, but at the same time there is another issue, concerning safety exploitation of nuclear reactors. That is why, for the last seven years, such experiments as 'Investigation of the processes, conducting severe accidents with core melting' are being carried out at our IGR (impulse graphite reactor) reactor. Leaving out other difficulties of such experiments, it is necessary to notice, that such experiments require more accurate IGR core energy release calculations. The final aim of the present research is verification and correction of the existing method or creation of new method of IGR core energy release calculation. IGR reactor is unique and there is no the same reactor in the world. Therefore, application of the other research reactor methods here is quite useful. This work is based on evaluation of factors affecting core energy release (physical weight of experimental device, different configuration of reactor core, i.e. location of absorbers, initial temperature of core, etc), as well as interference of absorbers group. As it is known, energy release is a value of integral reactor power. During experiments with rays, Reactor power depends on currents of ion production chambers (IPC), located round the core. It is worth to notice that each ion production chamber (IPC) in the same start-up has its own ratio coefficient between IPC current and reactor present power. This task is complicated due to 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients, that change continuously, probably, because of new loading of experimental facility and different position of control rods. That is why, in order to try about reactor power, before every start-up, we have to re-determine the 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients for each ion production chamber (IPC). Therefore, the present work will investigate the behavior of ratio coefficient within the

  7. Simulation of Neutron-Induced Prompt Gamma-ray Spectra Emitted from Fake Tungsten Gold Bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. M.; Sum, G. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Fake gold bars on the market cannot be identified easily without testing because they have the same appearance as a pure gold bar. A non-destructive monitoring method is needed to avoid the trading of fake gold bars on the market. The ultimate goal of this study is to find a fake gold bar detection method using a PGAA (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis). Using existing data, the number of neutron capture for gold and tungsten in fake tungsten gold bar was calculated and a Monte Carlo simulation for the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray spectra was conducted. A simulation for neutron-induced prompt gamma-rays spectra when a neutron beam is irradiated onto pure and fake gold bars was successfully conducted. Through a comparison between the prompt gamma-ray spectra of the pure gold bar and those of the fake gold bar, it was concluded that the observation of prompt high-energy gamma-rays from tungsten or a reduction of prompt gamma-rays from gold can be evidence of a fake gold bar. The possibility for detecting a fake gold bar using a PGAA facility was verified.

  8. Simulation of Neutron-Induced Prompt Gamma-ray Spectra Emitted from Fake Tungsten Gold Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Sum, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fake gold bars on the market cannot be identified easily without testing because they have the same appearance as a pure gold bar. A non-destructive monitoring method is needed to avoid the trading of fake gold bars on the market. The ultimate goal of this study is to find a fake gold bar detection method using a PGAA (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis). Using existing data, the number of neutron capture for gold and tungsten in fake tungsten gold bar was calculated and a Monte Carlo simulation for the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray spectra was conducted. A simulation for neutron-induced prompt gamma-rays spectra when a neutron beam is irradiated onto pure and fake gold bars was successfully conducted. Through a comparison between the prompt gamma-ray spectra of the pure gold bar and those of the fake gold bar, it was concluded that the observation of prompt high-energy gamma-rays from tungsten or a reduction of prompt gamma-rays from gold can be evidence of a fake gold bar. The possibility for detecting a fake gold bar using a PGAA facility was verified

  9. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Dugger, Katie M.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  10. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  11. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  12. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Parameters affecting profile shape of a high energy low current thin ion beam. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Salam, F W; Moustafa, O A; El-Khabeary, H [Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The shape of the profile of a high energy, low current beam of finite length has beam investigated. The beam profile shape depends on the initial beam radius, beam perveance, atomic mass number, charge state of ions, and beam length. These parameters can affect the relation between the initial beam radius and the corresponding final one. An optimum initial beam radius corresponding to minimum final beam at the target has been formulated and the relation between them is deduced taking account of the space charge effect. The minimum beam radius at the target was found to be equal to 2.3 of the optimum initial radius. It is concluded that in order to obtain a small beam radius at a target placed at a finite distance from an ion source, a beam of a low perveance, low atomic mass number and high number of electronic charge is required. This is an important detection for micro machining applications using the oscillating electron ion source which produces nearly paraxial thin beam of low perveance. 12 figs.

  14. CP asymmetries in B-bar → K-bar *( → K-bar π) l-bar l and untagged B-bar s, Bs → φ( → K+K-) l-bar l decays at NLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobeth, Christoph; Hiller, Gudrun; Piranishvili, Giorgi

    2008-01-01

    The decay B-bar → K-bar *( → K-bar π) l-bar l offers great opportunities to explore the physics at and above the electroweak scale by means of an angular analysis. We investigate the physics potential of the seven CP asymmetries plus the asymmetry in the rate, working at low dilepton mass using QCD factorization at next-to leading order (NLO). The b → s CP asymmetries are doubly Cabibbo-suppressed ∼ d , B d → K*( → K 0 π 0 ) l-bar l and B-bar s , B s → φ( → K + K - ) l-bar l decays. Analyses of these CP asymmetries can rule out, or further support the minimal description of CP violation through the CKM mechanism. Experimental studies are promising for (super) flavor factories and at hadron colliders.

  15. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  16. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  17. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bar, locking. 236.705 Section 236.705..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.705 Bar, locking. A bar in an interlocking machine to which the locking dogs are attached. ...

  18. Bar code instrumentation for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the basic principles of bar codes and the equipment used to make and to read bar code labels, and a summary of some of the more important factors that need to be considered in integrating bar codes into an information system

  19. N-barN interaction theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, B.

    1991-12-01

    In the framework of antinucleon-nucleon interaction theoretical models, our present understanding on the N-barN interaction is discussed, either from quark- or/and meson- and baryon-degrees of freedom, by considering the N-barN annihilation into mesons and the N-barN elastic and charge-exchange scattering. (author) 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Determination of the quark coupling strength vertical bar V-ub vertical bar using baryonic decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Older, A. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the strength of the couplings of the b quark to the u and c quarks, vertical bar V-ub vertical bar and vertical bar V-ub vertical bar, are governed by the coupling of the quarks to the Higgs boson. Using data from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron

  1. Derivation of asymptotic Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, K.; Oneda, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is argued that the origin of the observed approximate Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule is the presence of an asymptotic Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule which exists among certain two-body hadronic weak matrix elements, involving especially the ground-state hadrons

  2. Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.

  3. Factors affecting sound energy absorbance in acute otitis media model of chinchilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiying; Seale, Thomas W; Gan, Rong Z

    2017-07-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a rapid-onset infection of the middle ear which results in middle ear pressure (MEP), middle ear effusion (MEE), and structural changes in middle ear tissues. Previous studies from our laboratory have identified that MEP, MEE, and middle ear structural changes are three factors affecting tympanic membrane (TM) mobility and hearing levels (Guan et al., 2014, 2013). Sound energy reflectance or absorbance (EA) is a diagnostic tool increasingly used in clinical settings for the identification of middle ear diseases. However, it is unclear whether EA can differentiate these three factors in an AOM ear. Here we report wideband EA measurements in the AOM model of chinchilla at three experimental stages: unopened, pressure released, and effusion removed. These correspond to the combined and individual effects of the three factors on sound energy transmission. AOM was produced by transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae in two treatment groups: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation. These time points represent the relatively early and later phase of AOM. In each group of chinchillas, EA at 250-8000 Hz was measured using a wideband tympanometer at three experimental stages. Results show that the effects of MEP, MEE, and tissue structural changes over the frequency range varied with the disease time course. MEP was the primary contributor to reduction of EA in 4D AOM ears and had a smaller effect in 8D ears. MEE reduced the EA at 6-8 kHz in 4D ears and 2-8 kHz in 8D ears and was responsible for the EA peak in both 4D and 8D ears. The residual EA loss due to structural changes was observed over the frequency range in 8D ears and only at high frequencies in 4D ears. The EA measurements were also compared with the published TM mobility loss in chinchilla AOM ears. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. KLM's Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS): An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96 to 97%, BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. 2 figs

  5. Production of n-bar's and Sigma-bar+-'s in e+e- annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, T.; Buchanan, C.; Nodulman, L.; Poster, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Morehouse, C.C.; Vannucci, F.

    1979-01-01

    The production of antineutrons and charged Sigma-bar's in e + e - annihilations has been measured at √s +- production between 4 and 7 GeV is consistent with simple expectations for charmed-baryon production. A search for the decays Lambda-bar - /sub c/ → Sigma-bar +- π -+ π - and Sigma-baratsup asteriskat/sub c//Sigma-bar/sub c/ → Lambda-bar - /sub c/π +- yields no significant peaks. An upper limit, at the 90% confidence level, of sigmaatsub Lambda-baratc-italicB (Lambda-bar/sub c/ → Sigma-bar +- π -+ π - ) < 56 pb is set

  6. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  7. Ions-modified nanoparticles affect functional remineralization and energy dissipation through the resin-dentin interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; Medina-Castillo, Antonio Luis; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the mechanical and chemical behavior, and bonding ability at dentin interfaces infiltrated with polymeric nanoparticlesstandard deviations and modes of failure are (NPs) prior to resin application. Dentin surfaces were treated with 37% phosphoric acid followed by application of an ethanol suspension of NPs, Zn-NPs or Ca-NPs followed by the application of an adhesive, Single Bond (SB). Bonded interfaces were stored for 24h, submitted to microtensile bond strength test, and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. After 24h and 21 d of storage, the whole resin-dentin interface adhesive was evaluated using a Nano-DMA. Complex modulus, storage modulus and tan delta (δ) were assessed. AFM imaging and Raman analysis were performed. Bond strength was not affected by NPs infiltration. After 21 d of storage, tan δ generally decreased at Zn-NPs/resin-dentin interface, and augmented when Ca-NPs or non-doped NPs were used. When both Zn-NPs and Ca-NPs were employed, the storage modulus and complex modulus decreased, though both moduli increased at the adhesive and at peritubular dentin after Zn-NPs infiltration. The phosphate and the carbonate peaks, and carbonate substitution, augmented more at interfaces promoted with Ca-NPs than with Zn-NPs after 21 d of storage, but crystallinity did not differ at created interfaces with both ions-doped NPs. Crosslinking of collagen and the secondary structure of collagen improved with Zn-NPs resin-dentin infiltration. Ca-NPs-resin dentin infiltration produced a favorable dissipation of energy with minimal stress concentration trough the crystalline remineralized resin-dentin interface, causing minor damage at this structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-03-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the heavy flavour fractions in z+jets events from $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at energy √s = 1.96 TeV with the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrandrea, Paolo [Univ. of Siena (Italy)

    2008-06-01

    to provide collisions for the experiments at the end of 2008. In the meanwhile the only running accelerator able to provide collisions suitable for the search of the Higgs boson is the Tevatron at Fermilab, a proton-antiproton collider with a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV working at 3 • 1032cm-2s-1 peak luminosity. These features make the Tevatron able for the direct search of the Higgs boson in the 115-200 GeV mass range. Since the coupling of the Higgs boson is proportional to the masses of the particles involved, the decay in b{bar b} has the largest branching ratio for Higgs mass < 135 GeV and thus the events Z/W + $b\\bar{b}$ are the main background to the Higgs signal in the most range favored by Standard Model fits. In this thesis a new technique to identify Heavy Flavour quarks inside high - PT jets is applied to events with a reconstructed Z boson to provide a measurement of the Z+b and Z+c inclusive cross sections. The study of these channels represent also a test of QCD in high transferred momentum regime, and can provide information on proton pdf. This new Heavy Flavour identication technique (tagger) provides an increased statistical separation between b, c and light flavours, using a new vertexing algorithm and a chain of artificial Neural Networks to exploit as much information as possible in each event. For this work I collaborated with the Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' group working in the CDF II experiment at Tevatron, that has at first developed this tagger. After a brief theoretical introduction (chapter 1) and a description of the experimental apparatus (chapter 2), the tagger itself and its calibration procedure are described in chapter 3 and 4. The chapter 5 is dedicated to the event selection and the chapter 6 contains the results of the measurement and the study of the systematic errors.

  10. One year of smokefree bars and restaurants in New Zealand: Impacts and responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand introduced a smokefree bars and restaurants policy in December 2004. We reviewed the data available at December 2005 on the main public health, societal and political impacts and responses within New Zealand to the new law. Methods Data were collected from publicly available survey reports, and from government departments and interviews. This included data on smoking in bars, attitudes to smokefree bars, bar patronage, socially cued smoking, and perceived rights to smokefree workplaces. Results The proportion of surveyed bars with smoking occurring decreased from 95% to 3% during July 2004 – April 2005. Between 2004 and 2005, public support for smokefree bars rose from 56% to 69%. In the same period, support for the rights of bar workers to have smokefree workplaces rose from 81% to 91%. During the first ten months of the smokefree bars policy, there were only 196 complaints to officials about smoking in the over 9900 licensed premises. The proportion of smokers who reported that they smoked more than normal at bars, nightclubs, casinos and cafés halved between 2004 and 2005 (from 58% to 29%. Seasonally adjusted sales in bars and clubs changed little (0.6% increase between the first three quarters of 2004 and of 2005, while café and restaurant sales increased by 9.3% in the same period. Both changes continued existing trends. Compared to the same period in 2004, average employment during the first three quarters of 2005 was up 24% for 'pubs, taverns and bars', up 9% for cafés/restaurants, and down 8% for clubs (though employment in 'pubs, taverns and bars' may have been affected by unusually high patronage around a major sports-series. The proportion of bar managers who approved of smokefree bars increased from 44% to 60% between November 2004 and May 2005. Bar managers also reported increased agreement with the rights of bar workers and patrons to smokefree environments. The main reported concerns of the

  11. One year of smokefree bars and restaurants in New Zealand: Impacts and responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Background New Zealand introduced a smokefree bars and restaurants policy in December 2004. We reviewed the data available at December 2005 on the main public health, societal and political impacts and responses within New Zealand to the new law. Methods Data were collected from publicly available survey reports, and from government departments and interviews. This included data on smoking in bars, attitudes to smokefree bars, bar patronage, socially cued smoking, and perceived rights to smokefree workplaces. Results The proportion of surveyed bars with smoking occurring decreased from 95% to 3% during July 2004 – April 2005. Between 2004 and 2005, public support for smokefree bars rose from 56% to 69%. In the same period, support for the rights of bar workers to have smokefree workplaces rose from 81% to 91%. During the first ten months of the smokefree bars policy, there were only 196 complaints to officials about smoking in the over 9900 licensed premises. The proportion of smokers who reported that they smoked more than normal at bars, nightclubs, casinos and cafés halved between 2004 and 2005 (from 58% to 29%). Seasonally adjusted sales in bars and clubs changed little (0.6% increase) between the first three quarters of 2004 and of 2005, while café and restaurant sales increased by 9.3% in the same period. Both changes continued existing trends. Compared to the same period in 2004, average employment during the first three quarters of 2005 was up 24% for 'pubs, taverns and bars', up 9% for cafés/restaurants, and down 8% for clubs (though employment in 'pubs, taverns and bars' may have been affected by unusually high patronage around a major sports-series). The proportion of bar managers who approved of smokefree bars increased from 44% to 60% between November 2004 and May 2005. Bar managers also reported increased agreement with the rights of bar workers and patrons to smokefree environments. The main reported concerns of the national and regional

  12. One year of smokefree bars and restaurants in New Zealand: impacts and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2006-03-14

    New Zealand introduced a smokefree bars and restaurants policy in December 2004. We reviewed the data available at December 2005 on the main public health, societal and political impacts and responses within New Zealand to the new law. Data were collected from publicly available survey reports, and from government departments and interviews. This included data on smoking in bars, attitudes to smokefree bars, bar patronage, socially cued smoking, and perceived rights to smokefree workplaces. The proportion of surveyed bars with smoking occurring decreased from 95% to 3% during July 2004-April 2005. Between 2004 and 2005, public support for smokefree bars rose from 56% to 69%. In the same period, support for the rights of bar workers to have smokefree workplaces rose from 81% to 91%. During the first ten months of the smokefree bars policy, there were only 196 complaints to officials about smoking in the over 9900 licensed premises. The proportion of smokers who reported that they smoked more than normal at bars, nightclubs, casinos and cafés halved between 2004 and 2005 (from 58% to 29%). Seasonally adjusted sales in bars and clubs changed little (0.6% increase) between the first three quarters of 2004 and of 2005, while café and restaurant sales increased by 9.3% in the same period. Both changes continued existing trends. Compared to the same period in 2004, average employment during the first three quarters of 2005 was up 24% for 'pubs, taverns and bars', up 9% for cafés/restaurants, and down 8% for clubs (though employment in 'pubs, taverns and bars' may have been affected by unusually high patronage around a major sports-series). The proportion of bar managers who approved of smokefree bars increased from 44% to 60% between November 2004 and May 2005. Bar managers also reported increased agreement with the rights of bar workers and patrons to smokefree environments. The main reported concerns of the national and regional Hospitality Associations, in 2005

  13. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0mA/cm 2 , initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following;[ECB]=7.6x10 6 x[OH] 0.11 x[CD] 0.62 x[IBC] -0.57 x[DSE] -0.04 x[T] -2.98 x[t] Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  14. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0mA/cm{sup 2}, initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following;[ECB]=7.6x10{sup 6}x[OH]{sup 0.11}x[CD]{sup 0.62}x[IBC]{sup -0.57}x[DSE]{sup -0.}= {sup 04}x[T]{sup -2.98}x[t] Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  15. Study of the reactions $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Sigma^{0}$ or $\\bar{\\Sigma^{0}} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Sigma^{+}} \\Sigma^{+}$ at 3.6 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Atherton, Henry W; Moebes, J P; Quercigh, Emanuele

    1974-01-01

    The reactions $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Sigma^{0}$ or $\\bar{\\Sigma^{0}} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Sigma^{+}} \\Sigma^{+}$ are studied at an incident momentum of 3.6 GeV/c in a 35.4 event/$\\mu$ b experiment performed in the CERN 2m HBC. Total and differential cross sections are presented. The polarization of the hyperons is measured as a function of $t$ and for the reaction $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda$ the complete spin correlation matrix is given. (23 refs).

  16. Review of Renewable Energy Technologies in Zambian Households: Capacities and Barriers Affecting Successful Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Kachapulula-Mudenda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern renewable energy has been hailed as one of the prerequisites for fostering green growth and the achievement of sustainable development. Despite efforts to promote the use of renewable energy in households, its adoption has remained fairly low, hence the need for an inquiry into household capabilities needed for the acquisition and adoption of renewable energy technologies. This paper reviews the requisite capacities of households for the adoption of renewable energy services and expounds on some of the barriers hampering renewable energy among households. It takes a desk research approach to analyse the capacities which should be possessed by Zambian households and possible barriers constraining the widespread deployment of renewable energy technologies. The findings reveal that there is a need for a broader, multidimensional understanding of access to renewable energy in order for deployment to be effective. Barriers to the successful adoption of clean energy technologies include underserved populations, policy inadequacies; an underexploited renewable energy sector and heavy reliance on a service-challenged hydro-power utility. Since most of the aforementioned challenges are institutional in nature, the paper concludes with a recommendation of a baseline assessment to understand knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and drivers for renewable energy technology adoption among households.

  17. Large scale wind energy conversion system (WECS) design and installation as affected by site wind energy characteristics, grouping arrangement, and social acceptance. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungstrom, O

    1977-01-01

    The Swedish wind energy prospecting program includes special features of determining site wind characteristics and design of WECS group stations, which are described briefly, such as applications of normalized WDP-Wind Duration Profiles, WHP-Wind Height Profiles and how these are affected by site location and terrain roughness. A set of WEC-Wind Energy Classes (1 to 4) is introduced as an aid in territorial wind energy surveys. A survey of Sweden's WEPA-Wind Energy Producing Areas--with associated distribution over WEC-2-4 is presented. In order to determine the corresponding wind energy production capacity, the problem of optimizing WECS group station design for cost effective energy production per land usage must be solved. Here, the effects of WECS unit size and spacing on specific annual energy production, TWh/km/sup 2/, yr, are analyzed with the use of specific group station models in the 40 to 100 MW capacity range, applying WECS unit sizes 50kW, 1 MW and 5 MW, studying the energy balance for typical group stations. By applying the specific productivity data for 1 to 5 MW systems, a survey of the WEPA-associated wind energy production capacity in Sweden is presented.

  18. How the removal of energy subsidy affects general price in China: A study based on input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhujun; Tan, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    In China, most energy prices are controlled by the government and are under-priced, which means energy subsidies existing. Reforming energy subsidies have important implications for sustainable development through their effects on energy price, energy use and CO 2 emission. This paper applies a price-gap approach to estimate China's fossil-fuel related subsidies with the consideration of the external cost. Results indicate that the magnitude of subsidies amounted to CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008, equivalent to 4.04% of GDP of that year. Subsidies for oil products are the largest, followed by subsidies for the coal and electricity. Furthermore, an input–output model is used to analyze the impacts of energy subsidies reform on different industries and general price indexes. The findings show that removal of energy subsidies will have significant impact on energy-intensive industry, and consequently push up the general price level, yet with a small variation. Removing oil products subsidies will have the largest impact, followed by electricity, coal and natural gas. However, no matter which energy price increases, PPI is always the most affected, then GDP deflator, with CPI being the least. Corresponding compensation measures should be accordingly designed to offset the negative impact caused by energy subsidies reform. - Highlights: • China's fossil-fuel subsidies were CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008 including external cost. • Removing energy subsidies will have the largest impact on energy-intensity industry. • Removal of oil products subsidies will have the largest impact. • The effect of removing energy subsidies on general price is: PPI>GDP deflator>CPI

  19. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  20. Factors That Influence Human Behavior And Negatively Affect Energy Consumption In USMC Ground Units During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    behaviors believed responsible for these actions. The final category of inefficient energy behaviors analyzed is vehicle use. Vehicles consume 70...transitions to a summary of collected data that includes where energy is consumed and inefficient uses resulting from human behavior . The data is...tropical areas of Southeast Asia were gathered that captured the employment of energy producing and consuming devices as well as related user behaviors

  1. 77 FR 70428 - Bar None Ranch LLC; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. DI13-2-000] Bar None Ranch LLC; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and/or Motions To Intervene...: November 2, 2012. d. Applicant: Bar None Ranch LLC. e. Name of Project: Snodgrass Springs Micro Hydro...

  2. Jackson Bar Training Structure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    comparison of the one-dimensional bridge hydraulic routines from: HEC - RAS , HEC -2, and WSPRO. Davis, CA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 4 Jackson Bar Training Structure Study Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Jeremy A. Sharp and...Leroy Gage), a previously constructed HEC -2 model, and a previously constructed WES physical model from 1987. Three alternatives were modeled in an

  3. The bridge technique for pectus bar fixation: a method to make the bar un-rotatable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Moon, Young Kyu; Lee, Sungsoo

    2015-08-01

    Pectus bar rotation is a major challenge in pectus repair. However, to date, no satisfactory technique to completely eliminate bar displacement has been introduced. Here, we propose a bar fixation technique using a bridge that makes the bar unmovable. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of this bridge technique. A total of 80 patients underwent pectus bar repair of pectus excavatum with the bridge technique from July 2013 to July 2014. The technique involved connecting 2 parallel bars using plate-screws at the ends of the bars. To determine bar position change, the angles between the sternum and pectus bars were measured on postoperative day 5 (POD5) and 4 months (POM4) and compared. The mean patient age was 17.5 years (range, 6-38 years). The mean difference between POD5 and POM4 were 0.23° (P=.602) and 0.35° (P=.338) for the upper and lower bars, respectively. Bar position was virtually unchanged during the follow-up, and there was no bar dislocation or reoperation. A "bridge technique" designed to connect 2 parallel bars using plates and screws was demonstrated as a method to avoid pectus bar displacement. This approach was easy to implement without using sutures or invasive devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Affecting Energy Barriers for Pyramidal Inversion in Amines and Phosphines: A Computational Chemistry Lab Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate exercise in computational chemistry that investigates the energy barrier for pyramidal inversion of amines and phosphines is presented. Semiempirical calculations (PM3) of the ground-state and transition-state energies for NR[superscript 1]R[superscript 2]R[superscript 3] and PR[superscript 1]R[superscript 2]R[superscript 3] allow…

  5. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in ZH → v$\\bar{v}$b$\\bar{b}$ channel in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s= 1.96 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Abhinav [Univ. of Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2011-01-01

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson is performed in 5.2 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at p √s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The final state considered is a pair of b jets with large missing transverse energy, as expected from p$\\bar{p}$→ ZH → v$\\bar{v}$b$\\bar{b}$ production. The search is also sensitive to the WH → ℓvb$\\bar{b}$ channel, where the charged lepton is not identified. Boosted decision trees are used to discriminate signal from background. Good agreement is observed between data and expected backgrounds, and, for a Higgs-boson mass of 115 GeV, a limit is set at 95% C.L. on the cross section multiplied by branching fraction of (p$\\bar{p}$ → (Z/W)H) × (H → b$\\bar{b}$) that is a factor 4.57 expected and 3.73 observed larger than the value expected from the standard model.

  6. CP violation in single top quark production and decay via pp-bar --> tb-bar + X --> W sup + bb-bar + X within the MSSM A possible application for measuring arg(At) at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Shalom, S; Soni, A

    1998-01-01

    CP-nonconserving effects in the reaction pp-bar-->tb-bar+X--> W sup + bb-bar+X, driven by the supersymmetric CP-odd phase of the top squark trilinear soft breaking term arg(A sub t), are studied. We discuss the CP-nonconserving effects in both production and the associated decay amplitudes of the top quark. We find that, within a plausible low energy scenario of the MSSM and keeping the neutron electric dipole moment below its current limit, a CP-violating cross-section asymmetry as large as 2-3% can arise if some of the parameters lie in a favorable range. A partial rate asymmetry originating only in the top quark decay t --> W sup + b is found to be, in general, below the 0.1% level which is somewhat smaller than previous claims. For a low tan beta of order one the decay asymmetry can reach at the most approx 0.3%. This (few) percent level overall CP-violating signal in pp-bar --> tb-bar + X --> W sup + bb-bar + X might be within the reach of the future 2(4) TeV pp-bar Fermilab Tevatron collider that may be...

  7. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  8. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented

  9. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mureddu

    Full Text Available The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  10. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  11. Technical evidence for assessing the performance of markets affecting energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, J.G.; Sanstad, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the empirical basis for skepticism about the effectiveness of the market mechanism in promoting cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. It presents a framework for evaluating engineering economic evidence on the diffusion of energy-efficiency improvements, and then presents a series of examples within this framework that provide evidence for the existence of market imperfections related to energy efficiency. It concludes with a challenge to economists, policy analysts, and technologists to take this empirical evidence seriously and sponsor further collaborative research in this area. (author)

  12. Ratio between autoflocculating and target microalgae affects the energy-efficient harvesting by bio-flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ratio between autoflocculating and target microalgae in bio-flocculation was studied with emphasis on the recovery, sedimentation rate and energy demand for harvesting the target microalgae. When the autoflocculating microalgae Ettlia texensis, Ankistrodesmus falcatus and Scenedesmus

  13. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Yu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.

    2017-08-01

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle (I), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high I) or as a barlens structure (at low I). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%-80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass (M * 1010.5 M ⊙), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506-G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  14. Extruded bar reinforced structure and manufacturing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, J.M.; Bozetto, P.

    1989-01-01

    A cooling tower has horizontal hoops connected by two inclined sets of bars to form a trellis of equilateral triangle anchored in the ground. The bars and hoops are connected at the corners of the triangle. A skin stretched over the trellis defines the tower. The bars are made with thermosetting resin reinforced by fibres. The fabrication of such tower is cheep and simple it can be used for every type of electrical power station, nuclear or not [fr

  15. How energy technology innovation affects transition of coal resource-based economy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Pibin; Wang, Ting; Li, Dan; Zhou, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to investigate factors and mechanisms that may facilitate the transition from coal resource-based economy to sustainability. Based on the energy technology innovation theory, factors that may influence the transition of coal resource-based economy were categorized into four types, including: innovation policy, innovation input, innovation ability, and innovation organization. Hypotheses were proposed regarding the mechanisms of these factors. Data were collected from surveys administered to 314 Chinese energy firms, and a structural equation model (SEM) was employed to test the hypotheses. Ten of fifteen hypotheses were retained based on the reliability tests, validity tests, and SEM. The results show that the four proposed factors are crucial in transforming the coal resource-based economy, and the effects become statistically significant through three intermediate variables, namely, transition of energy consumption structure, correction of resource wealth investment, and improvement of transition environment. - Highlights: •Approximately, 66% of energy relies on coal in China. •Serious environment problems have occurred in many coal-based regions. •Energy technology innovation can promote the transition of coal-based economy. •China should accelerate the development of clean energy.

  16. Attenuation of 10 MeV electron beam energy to achieve low doses does not affect Salmonella spp. inactivation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieke, Anne-Sophie Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV electron beam on Salmonella inactivation kinetics was investigated. No statistically significant differences were observed between the D 10 values of either Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- or a Salmonella cocktail (S. 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella) when irradiated with either a non-attenuated 10 MeV eBeam or an attenuated 10 MeV eBeam (~2.9±0.22 MeV). The results show that attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV eBeam to achieve low doses does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. when compared to direct 10 MeV eBeam irradiation. - Highlights: • 10 MeV eBeam energy was attenuated to 2.9±0.22 MeV using HDPE sheets. • Attenuation of eBeam energy does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella. • Microbial inactivation is independent of eBeam energy in the range of 3–10 MeV

  17. TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70° seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

  18. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  19. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of the $\\bar{B}_s^0$ meson lifetime in $D_s^+\\pi^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-10-24

    We present a measurement of the ratio of the $\\bar{B}_s^0$ meson lifetime, in the flavor-specific decay to $D_s^+\\pi^-$, to that of the $\\bar{B}^0$ meson. The $pp$ collision data used correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb$^{-1}$, collected with the LHCb detector, at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Combining our measured value of 1.010 +/- 0.010 +/- 0.008 for this ratio with the known $\\bar{B}^0$ lifetime, we determine the flavor-specific $\\bar{B}_s^0$ lifetime to be $\\tau(\\bar{B}_s^0)$ = 1.535 +/- 0.015 +/- 0.014 ps, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. This is the most precise measurement to date, and is consistent with previous measurements and theoretical predictions.

  1. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children's energy and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K; Birch, Leann L; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-08-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 min to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children's intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children’s energy and vegetable intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K.; Birch, Leann L.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 minutes to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children’s intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. PMID:21596073

  3. Anti vibration bars replacement in Vandellos II steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyes, R.; Leal, R.

    1994-01-01

    C.N. Vandellos II is equipped with three steam generators Westinghouse model F. The number of tubes is 5626 each SG and the material Inconel 600TT. During the first inservice inspection, in 1989, tube wall thickness reductions were observed due to fretting in zones of contact with the tubes anti vibration bars. In the 2 nd shutdown for refueling (1990) all the tubes subject to this type of degradation were inspected by eddy currents, occurring a significative increase in number of tubes affected as well as the quantity of plugged tubes for that reason. Additionally, Westinghouse performed visual inspection and dimensional control of gaps in the tube bundles. Taking in account the results, the replacement with AVBs of new design was decided. AVBs new design is more complex than the original due to the combination of flexible and expandable bars in order to eliminate gaps between tubes an bars an assure proper bundle support. Given that the installation has to be done under water for shielding, all unions are bolted so that no welding is required. Each one of the bars, 333 per SG, is attached to a support structure consisting in 6 retaining plates and 4 bridge plates. (Author)

  4. Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhl, K.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2017-12-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  5. submitter Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    CERN Document Server

    Föhl, K; Castillo García, L; Cussans, D; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gao, R; Gys, T; Harnew, N; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Ros García, A; van Dijk, M

    2017-01-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, Duane A.; Weaver, Clifford L.; Rielley, Kevin J.; Gallagher, Kevin C.; Harmon, Susan B.; Hejna, David T.; Kitch, Edmund W.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Observation of $B^0_s\\to\\bar{D}^0 K^0_S$ and evidence for $B^0_s\\to\\bar{D}^{*0} K^0_S$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusardi, Nicola; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-04-21

    The first observation of the $B^0_s\\to\\bar{D}^0 K^0_S$ decay mode and evidence for the $B^0_s\\to\\bar{D}^{*0} K^0_S$ decay mode are reported. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 $\\text{fb}^{-1}$ collected in $pp$ collisions by LHCb at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The branching fractions are measured to be \\begin{align*} \\mathcal{B}(B^0_s\\to\\bar{D}^0 \\bar{K}^0) &= (4.3\\pm0.5(\\text{stat})\\pm0.3(\\text{syst})\\pm0.3(\\text{frag})\\pm0.6(\\text{norm}))\\times10^{-4},\\\\ \\mathcal{B}(B^0_s\\to\\bar{D}^{*0} \\bar{K}^0) &= (2.8\\pm1.0(\\text{stat})\\pm0.3(\\text{syst})\\pm0.2(\\text{frag})\\pm0.4(\\text{norm}))\\times10^{-4}, \\end{align*} where the uncertainties are due to contributions coming from statistical precision, systematic effects, and the precision of two external inputs, the ratio $f_s/f_d$ and the branching fraction of $B^0\\to\\bar{D}^0 K^0_S$, which is used as a calibration channel.

  8. Do public programs in ‘energy regions’ affect citizen attitudes and behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzl, Stefanie; Brudermann, Thomas; Reinsberger, Kathrin; Posch, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of regional and municipal measures for promoting energy transition on citizen attitudes and behavior. We compare one township that has successfully implemented a comprehensive and systematic energy-saving program (the so-called e5 program) with a township without such a program. The results indicate that despite the program's ambitious aims, e5 implementation has almost no impact on citizen attitudes and behavior. In fact, there are some signs that it might even have slight negative side effects. - Highlights: • Comprehensive and systematic municipal energy transition framework. • Implemented measures slightly impact citizen attitudes. • Implemented measures yield only marginal positive effects on behavior. • Transition framework might also be accompanied by negative behavioral side effects. • Behavioral reactions need to be considered in transition frameworks

  9. How tax incentives affect the economics of solar energy equipment in the state of North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuffey, B.; Brooks, B.; Shirley, L.

    1998-01-01

    To promote and encourage the use of solar energy, the state of North Carolina has put in place one of the most favorable corporate energy tax credit packages in the country. The capital cost of solar energy systems can be reduced 50 to 70% by state and federal tax incentives. The available incentives for solar equipment installation are (1) a 35% state tax credit, up to a one year maximum of $25,000, from North Carolina; (2) a 10% unlimited federal tax credit; and (3) a 5-year federal accelerated depreciation schedule. To promote residential solar systems, the state has provided a residential credit of 40% up to a one year maximum of $1,500

  10. Factors affecting the availability of wood energy from nonindustrial private forest lands in the Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lindsay; Alphonse H. Gilbert; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1992-01-01

    Describes factors affecting the availability of fuelwood from nonindustrial private forests (NIPF) in the Northeast. The availability of market fuelwood depends heavily on tract size. The demand for land to supply the expanding urban fringe may result in a lower supply of market wood but also in more wood being cut to satisfy the owner's need for wood. NIPF owners...

  11. Broken-Rotor-Bar Diagnosis for Induction Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinjiang; Gao, Robert X; Yan Ruqiang

    2011-01-01

    Broken rotor bar is one of the commonly encountered induction motor faults that may cause serious motor damage to the motor if not detected timely. Past efforts on broken rotor bar diagnosis have been focused on current signature analysis using spectral analysis and wavelet transform. These methods require accurate slip estimation to localize fault-related frequency. This paper presents a new approach to broken rotor bar diagnosis without slip estimation, based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Hilbert transform. Specifically, the Hilbert transform first extracts the envelope of the motor current signal, which contains broken rotor fault-related frequency information. Subsequently, the envelope signal is adaptively decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by the EEMD algorithm. Two criteria based on the energy and correlation analyses have been investigated to automate the IMF selection. Numerical and experimental studies have confirmed that the proposed approach is effective in diagnosing broken rotor bar faults for improved induction motor condition monitoring and damage assessment.

  12. Shock waves in P-bar target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhijing; Anderson, K.

    1991-11-01

    The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed.

  13. Shock waves in P-bar target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhijing; Anderson, K.

    1991-11-01

    The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed

  14. Residential energy efficiency retrofits: How program design affects participation and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoicka, Christina E.; Parker, Paul; Andrey, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Better methods of characterizing and addressing heterogeneity in preferences and decision making are needed to stimulate reductions in household greenhouse gas emissions. Four residential energy efficiency programs were delivered consecutively in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, between 1999 and 2011, and each offered a unique combination of information, financial reward structure, and price. A natural quasi-experimental intervention design was employed to assess differences in outcomes across these program structures. Participation at the initial (evaluation by an energy advisor) and follow-up (verification of retrofit) stages, and the material characteristics (e.g., energy performance) were measured and compared between the groups of houses included in each program at each stage. The programs appealed to people with different types of material concerns; each phase of the program was associated with houses with a different mix of material characteristics and depths of recommended and achieved changes. While a performance-based reward attracted fewer houses at each stage than a larger list-based reward, older houses with poorer energy performance were included at each stage. The findings support experimentation with program designs to target sub-populations of housing stock; future program designs should experiment more carefully and with larger performance-based rewards and test parallels with potential carbon market structures. - Highlights: • Multi-program data over 12 years detailing residential energy retrofits. • Natural experimental intervention research design for program evaluation. • Number and attributes of participating households differed by program design. • Financial rewards attracted more participants to the verification stage. • Performance-based incentives have the largest potential for energy savings

  15. On the Relation between Spector's Bar Recursion and Modified Bar Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a variant of Spector's Bar Recursion in finite types to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice allowing for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of Sigma_1 formulas in classical analysis. We also give a bar recursive definition of the fan...... functional and study the relationship of our variant of Bar Recursion with others....

  16. Bank pull or bar push: What drives scroll-bar formation in meandering rivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W. I.; van Dijk, W. M.; Baar, A. W.; Rutten, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most striking features of meandering rivers are quasi-regular ridges of the point bar, evidence of a pulsed lateral migration of meander bends. Scroll bars formed on the inner bend are preserved on the point-bar surface as a series of ridges as meanders migrate, and in the subsurface of

  17. Test of bar window with internal bars free from the glass surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1998-01-01

    A sealed glazing unit with 3 horisontal and 3 vertical bars and a reference glazing without bars have been tested in a guarded hotbox. The difference in measured heat loss coefficient between the two test objects is a measure of the thermal influence of the bars. The difference in heat loss...

  18. The cc-bar and bb-bar spectroscopy in the two-step potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshreshtha, D.S.; Kaiserslautern Univ.

    1984-07-01

    We investigate the spectroscopy of the charmonium (cc-bar) and bottonium (bb-bar) bound states in a static flavour independent nonrelativistic quark-antiquark (qq-bar) two-step potential model proposed earlier. Our predictions are in good agreement with experimental data and with other theoretical predictions. (author)

  19. Energy issues affecting corn/soybean systems: Challenges for sustainable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying energy issues associated with agricultural systems, even for a simple two-crop corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotation, is not a simple task. It becomes even more complicated if the goal is to include all aspects of sustainability (i.e., economic, environmental, ...

  20. Factors affecting energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.N.; Friggens, N.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Schmidely, P.

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to explore the correlation between energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows, and to study nutritional and animal factors that influence these efficiencies, as well as their relationship. Treatment mean values were extracted from 68 peer-reviewed studies, including

  1. International risk factors affecting Finnish energy supplies. Suomen energiahuollon kansainvaeliset uhkatekijaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasanen, P.; Koponen, M.; Kaekoenen, J. (Oulu Univ., Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Geography)

    1989-01-01

    An examination is made of the structure and development of Finnish fuel imports, world fuel market trends and prospects, and the impact of global environmental concerns on Finnish energy supplies. Attention is focused on the political and economic developments to be expected in the major fuel producing or consuming countries. The aim is to look for factors that could treaten the functioning of Finnish fuel supplies and to suggest ways to avoid or overcome these threats. The research is based on Finnish and international energy statistics, published forecasts for the development of the fuel trade and fuel resources and the latest literature on energy economics and political science. Finland is heavily dependent on foreign fuels, over two thirds of her fuels supply being imported. By far the most important source of imports is the Soviet Union, although Poland is a major supplier of coal. The increase in domestic demands for fuels in these countries, will make it necessary for Finland to diversify the sources of her fuel imports. The suggestions made here include the following: Saudi-Arabia and Kuwait should be considered as possible new sources of oil. Coal could be imported from South Africa, provided that the apartheid policy is discontinued. Norway could provide some natural gas, although a Nordic pipeline system would be needed for this to be possible. Finland should invest in fuel resource exploration and development and in building the necessary infrastructure in the producing countries in order to improve the possibilities for reaching long-term agreements on fuel imports. Imporovements in the effiency of the end users of energy and an increase in the proportion of renewable sources of energy would not only be steps towards a sustainable fuel economy, but would also reduce the country's dependence on imported fuels.

  2. Development of weightage for criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing building in Higher Learning Institution with clean energy initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izie Adiana Abidin, Nur; Aminuddin, Eeydzah; Zakaria, Rozana; Mazzuana Shamsuddin, Siti; Sahamir, Shaza Rina; Shahzaib, Jam; Nafis Abas, Darul

    2018-04-01

    Campus university building is the Higher Learning Institution (HLI) involves complex activities and operations, conserving the energy has become paramount important. There are several efforts taken by universities to improve its current energy use such as policy development, education, and adaption of energy conservation solution through retrofitting. This paper aims to highlight the importance of the criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing buildings with clean energy in order to achieve zero energy balance in buildings. The focus is given to the development of criteria for solar photovoltaic (solar PV), wind turbines and small-scale hydropower. A questionnaire survey was employed and distributed to the green building expert practitioner. Factor Analysis, Factor Score, and Weightage Factor were adapted as a method of analysis in order to produce the final result with weightage output for prioritization and ranking of the relevant criteria. The result performed assists to provide the stakeholders an overview of the important criteria that should be considered especially during the decision making to retrofit the existing buildings with clean energy resources. The criteria developed are also to establish a structured decision-making process and to ensure the selection of the decision or alternatives achieve the desired outcome.

  3. Forecasting how residential urban form affects the regional carbon savings and costs of retrofitting and decentralized energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Anthony; Cheng, Vicky; Deshmukh, Sandip; Leach, Matthew; Steemers, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative model for testing combinations of spatial planning and decentralised energy supply. • An improved method of modelling the spatial variability of energy consumption per dwelling type. • Shows how spatial planning would affect the future carbon reduction of decentralised supply. • Forecasts the future carbon reduction and costs of retrofitting and decentralised supply. • A method of forecasting how residential space would affect the suitability of decentralised supply. - Abstract: Low carbon energy supply technologies are increasingly used at the building and community scale and are an important part of the government decarbonisation strategy. However, with their present state of development and costs, many of these decentralised technologies rely on public subsidies to be financially viable. It is questionable whether they are cost effective compared to other ways of reducing carbon emissions, such as decarbonisation of conventional supply and improving the energy efficiency of dwellings. Previous studies have found it difficult to reliably estimate the future potential of decentralised supply because this depends on the available residential space which varies greatly within a city region. To address this problem, we used an integrated modelling framework that converted the residential density forecasts of a regional model into a representation of the building dimensions and land of the future housing stock. This included a method of estimating the variability of the dwellings and residential land. We present the findings of a case study of the wider south east regions of England that forecasted the impacts of energy efficiency and decentralised supply scenarios to year 2031. Our novel and innovative method substantially improves the spatial estimates of energy consumption compared to building energy models that only use standard dwelling typologies. We tested the impact of an alternative spatial planning policy on the future

  4. In-situ Monitoring of Sub-cooled Nucleate Boiling on Fuel Cladding Surface in Water at 1 bar and 130 bars using Acoustic Emission Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Heon; Wu, Kaige; Shim, Hee-Sang; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Crud deposition increases through a sufficient corrosion product supply around the steam-liquid interface of a boiling bubble. Therefore, the understanding of this SNB phenomenon is important for effective and safe operation of nuclear plants. The experimental SNB studies have been performed in visible conditions at a low pressure using a high speed video camera. Meanwhile, an acoustic emission (AE) method is an on-line non-destructive evaluation method to sense transient elastic wave resulting from a rapid release of energy within a dynamic process. Some researchers have investigated boiling phenomena using the AE method. However, their works were performed at atmospheric pressure conditions. Therefore, the objective of this work is for the first time to detect and monitor SNB on fuel cladding surface in simulated PWR primary water at 325 .deg. C and 130 bars using an AE technique. We successfully observed the boiling AE signals in primary water at 1 bar and 130 bars using AE technique. Visualization test was performed effectively to identify a correlation between water boiling phenomenon and AE signals in a transparent glass cell at 1 bar, and the boiling AE signals were in good agreement with the boiling behavior. Based on the obtained correlations at 1 bar, the AE signals obtained at 130 bars were analyzed. The boiling density and size of the AE signals at 130 bars were decreased by the flow parameters. However, overall AE signals showed characteristics and a trend similar to the AE signals at 1 bar. This indicates that boiling AE signals are detected successfully at 130 bars, and the AE technique can be effectively implemented in non-visualized condition at high pressures.

  5. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  6. Constraints on the Galactic bar with RAVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoja, T.; Helmi, A.; Helmi, [Unknown

    We derive the pattern speed of the Galactic bar from the analysis of the kinematics of the Hercules stream at different Galactocentric radii with RAVE, assuming that Hercules is caused by the bar. We find a well constrained pattern speed of Ωb=1.98+0.04 -0.08 Ωo, where Ω0 is the local circular

  7. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  8. The Bar Tack Machine. Module 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bar tack machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the bar tack machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

  9. Changes in the cellular energy state affect the activity of the bacterial phosphotransferase system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohwer, J.M.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Shinohara, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of different cellular free-energy states on the uptake of methyl alfa-D-glucopyranoside, an analoque of glucose, by Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system was investigated. The intracellular ATP/ADP ratio was varied by changing the expression...... of the atp operon, which codes for the H+-ATPase, or by adding an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation or an inhibitor of respiration. Corresponding initial phosphotransferase uptake rates were determined using an improved uptake assay that works with growing cells in steady state. The results show...... that the initial uptake rate was decreased under conditions of lowered intracellular ATP/ADP ratios, irrespective of which method was used to change the cellular energy state.. When either the expression of the atp operon was changed or 2,4-dinitrophenol was added to wild-type cells, the relationship between...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    will be lower than indicated by our data. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co-production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from either fresh grass-clover or whole crop maize. Here the net reduction corresponded to about 8 tons CO2 per hectare per year...... or incorporation of crop residues. In this study we relate measured field emissions of N2O to the reduction in fossil fuel-derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye-vetch, vetch and grass......-clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2) biogas production and 3) co-production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas...

  11. First-principles study on the strain effect of the Cu(0-bar 0-bar 1)-c(2x2)N self-organized structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yoshihide; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2004-01-01

    Nitrogen atoms adsorbed on Cu(0-bar 0-bar 1) surface are known to form a self-organized structure, in which islands of nitrogen-adsorbed region are arranged into a square lattice. To clarify the mechanism of the self-organization, the strain effect in this surface is investigated by first-principles theoretical calculations. The difference between the calculated surface stress of Cu(0-bar 0-bar 1)-c(2x2)N surface and that of clean Cu(0-bar 0-bar 1) surface is in good agreement with the value estimated from experiments. In the stripe model of the self-organized surface, the top-most Cu atoms are largely displaced in lateral directions, while the nitrogen atoms at the edge of its nitrogen-adsorbed region slightly protrude in the surface normal. These results are consistent with observations. Spontaneous formation of the clean Cu region is also confirmed by calculating the formation energy within the stripe model. The formation energy is fitted well by a function deduced from the theory of elasticity. Nevertheless, the parameter of the fitting cannot be explained only by the difference of the surface stresses

  12. The receptive function of hypothalamic and brainstem centres to hormonal and nutrient signals affecting energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the area postrema (AP) represent targets for hormonal and metabolic signals involved in energy homoeostasis, e.g. glucose, amylin, insulin, leptin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin. Orexigenic neuropeptide Y expressing ARC neurons are activated by food deprivation and inhibited by feeding in a nutrient-dependent manner. PYY and leptin also reverse or prevent fasting-induced activation of the ARC. Interestingly, hypothalamic responses to fasting are blunted in different models of obesity (e.g. diet-induced obesity (DIO) or late-onset obesity). The AP also responds to feeding-related signals. The pancreatic hormone amylin acts via the AP to control energy intake. Amylin-sensitive AP neurons are also glucose-responsive. Furthermore, diet-derived protein attenuates amylin responsiveness suggesting a modulation of AP sensitivity by macronutrient supply. This review gives an overview of the receptive function of the ARC and the AP to hormonal and nutritional stimuli involved in the control of energy balance and the possible implications in the context of obesity. Collectively, there is consistency between the neurophysiological actions of these stimuli and their effects on energy homoeostasis under experimental conditions. However, surprisingly little progress has been made in the development of effective pharmacological approaches against obesity. A promising way to improve effectiveness involves combination treatments (e.g. amylin/leptin agonists). Hormonal alterations (e.g. GLP-1 and PYY) are also considered to mediate body weight loss observed in obese patients receiving bariatric surgery. The effects of hormonal and nutritional signals and their interactions might hold the potential to develop poly-mechanistic therapeutic strategies against obesity.

  13. Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter is unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth). Median sound pressure leve...... on a jack-up rig. The results may thus not be directly transferable to other wave converter designs but do demonstrate that it is possible to harness wave energy without noise pollution to the marine environment.......Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth). Median sound pressure levels...... were so low that they would barely be audible to marine mammals and the likelihood of negative impact from the noise appears minimal. A likely explanation for the low noise emissions is the construction of the converter where all moving parts, except for the absorbers themselves, are placed above water...

  14. Deciphering the BAR code of membrane modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Ulrich; Kostan, Julius; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    The BAR domain is the eponymous domain of the "BAR-domain protein superfamily", a large and diverse set of mostly multi-domain proteins that play eminent roles at the membrane cytoskeleton interface. BAR domain homodimers are the functional units that peripherally associate with lipid membranes and are involved in membrane sculpting activities. Differences in their intrinsic curvatures and lipid-binding properties account for a large variety in membrane modulating properties. Membrane activities of BAR domains are further modified and regulated by intramolecular or inter-subunit domains, by intermolecular protein interactions, and by posttranslational modifications. Rather than providing detailed cell biological information on single members of this superfamily, this review focuses on biochemical, biophysical, and structural aspects and on recent findings that paradigmatically promote our understanding of processes driven and modulated by BAR domains.

  15. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  16. Expandable antivibration bar for a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a steam generator for a nuclear power plant comprising a shell, a plurality of tubes having a U-shaped configuration arranged in successive columns within the shell. The tubes are adapted to heat feedwater flowing around the outside of the tubes by the flow of hot reactor coolant within the tubes, and antivibration bars any vibrations of the tubes as a result of steam between the columns of tubes. The improvement described here comprises means for varying the thickness of the antivibration bars to fit substantially the actual space between the columns of tubes comprising first and second bars, with at least one bar being movable, and with at least one mating inclined surface between the first and second bars

  17. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P energy sources modified the partition of energy between liver, adipose tissue, and muscle in a way that was partly dependent of the genetics for feed efficiency, and changed the activity levels of biochemical pathways involved in lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  18. Remote Sensing Global Surface Air Pressure Using Differential Absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Harrah, Steven; Lawrence, Wes; Hu, Yongxiang; Min, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    Tropical storms and severe weathers are listed as one of core events that need improved observations and predictions in World Meteorological Organization and NASA Decadal Survey (DS) documents and have major impacts on public safety and national security. This effort tries to observe surface air pressure, especially over open seas, from space using a Differential-absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) operating at the 50-55 gigahertz O2 absorption band. Air pressure is among the most important variables that affect atmospheric dynamics, and currently can only be measured by limited in-situ observations over oceans. Analyses show that with the proposed space radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as approximately 4 millibars (approximately 1 millibar under all weather conditions). With these sea level pressure measurements, the forecasts of severe weathers such as hurricanes will be significantly improved. Since the development of the DiBAR concept about a decade ago, NASA Langley DiBAR research team has made substantial progress in advancing the concept. The feasibility assessment clearly shows the potential of sea surface barometry using existing radar technologies. The team has developed a DiBAR system design, fabricated a Prototype-DiBAR (P-DiBAR) for proof-of-concept, conducted lab, ground and airborne P-DiBAR tests. The flight test results are consistent with the instrumentation goals. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance based on the existing DiBAR technology and capability show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity. DiBAR measurements will lead us to an unprecedented level of the prediction and knowledge on global extreme weather and climate conditions.

  19. Dynamic analysis of six-bar mechanical press for deep drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsi, S.; Tsiafis, I.; Bouzakis, K. D.

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamical behavior of a six-bar linkage used in mechanical presses for metal forming such as deep drawing. In the under study mechanism, a four-bar linkage is connected to a slider through an articulated binary link. The motion of the six-bar linkage is studied by kinematic analysis developing an analytical method. Furthermore, using an iterative method and d’ Alembert’s principle, the joint forces and drive moment are evaluated considering joint frictions. The simulation results obtained with a MATLAB program are validated by comparing the theoretical values of the input moment with the ones obtained from the conservation of energy law.

  20. Protein supplementation with sports protein bars in renal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Anthony

    2007-05-01

    bars as the preferred supplement. The major reasons for not continuing were taste and chewability, especially in older patients with dentures. Serum potassium and phosphate levels were not increased with supplementation. Measured serum albumin and protein catabolic rate were considered unreliable indicators because not all patients were medically stable. Sports protein bars are an acceptable protein and energy supplement for patients on hemodialysis. Sports protein bars are well accepted by patients except when dentures limit chewability. Sports protein bars have advantages over fluid-based supplements in patients with fluid restrictions.

  1. Salt Bridge Formation between the I-BAR Domain and Lipids Increases Lipid Density and Membrane Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kazuhiro; Hanawa-Suetsugu, Kyoko; Suetsugu, Shiro; Kitao, Akio

    2017-07-28

    The BAR domain superfamily proteins sense or induce curvature in membranes. The inverse-BAR domain (I-BAR) is a BAR domain that forms a straight "zeppelin-shaped" dimer. The mechanisms by which IRSp53 I-BAR binds to and deforms a lipid membrane are investigated here by all-atom molecular dynamics simulation (MD), binding energy analysis, and the effects of mutation experiments on filopodia on HeLa cells. I-BAR adopts a curved structure when crystallized, but adopts a flatter shape in MD. The binding of I-BAR to membrane was stabilized by ~30 salt bridges, consistent with experiments showing that point mutations of the interface residues have little effect on the binding affinity whereas multiple mutations have considerable effect. Salt bridge formation increases the local density of lipids and deforms the membrane into a concave shape. In addition, the point mutations that break key intra-molecular salt bridges within I-BAR reduce the binding affinity; this was confirmed by expressing these mutants in HeLa cells and observing their effects. The results indicate that the stiffness of I-BAR is important for membrane deformation, although I-BAR does not act as a completely rigid template.

  2. Disruption of quercetin metabolism by fungicide affects energy production in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2017-03-07

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the honey bee, Apis mellifera , detoxify phytochemicals in honey and pollen. The flavonol quercetin is found ubiquitously and abundantly in pollen and frequently at lower concentrations in honey. Worker jelly consumed during the first 3 d of larval development typically contains flavonols at very low levels, however. RNA-Seq analysis of gene expression in neonates reared for three days on diets with and without quercetin revealed that, in addition to up-regulating multiple detoxifying P450 genes, quercetin is a negative transcriptional regulator of mitochondrion-related nuclear genes and genes encoding subunits of complexes I, III, IV, and V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Thus, a consequence of inefficient metabolism of this phytochemical may be compromised energy production. Several P450s metabolize quercetin in adult workers. Docking in silico of 121 pesticide contaminants of American hives into the active pocket of CYP9Q1, a broadly substrate-specific P450 with high quercetin-metabolizing activity, identified six triazole fungicides, all fungal P450 inhibitors, that dock in the catalytic site. In adults fed combinations of quercetin and the triazole myclobutanil, the expression of five of six mitochondrion-related nuclear genes was down-regulated. Midgut metabolism assays verified that adult bees consuming quercetin with myclobutanil metabolized less quercetin and produced less thoracic ATP, the energy source for flight muscles. Although fungicides lack acute toxicity, they may influence bee health by interfering with quercetin detoxification, thereby compromising mitochondrial regeneration and ATP production. Thus, agricultural use of triazole fungicides may put bees at risk of being unable to extract sufficient energy from their natural food.

  3. Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johnson

    Full Text Available Dietary energy density (DED does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609 variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants.We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609 variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51, suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity.This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.

  4. A Study of (bar B)0 --> D(*)0 (bar K)(*)0 Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented evidence for the decay (bar B) 0 --> D* 0 (bar K) 0 as well as new measurements of the branching fractions for the decays (bar B) 0 --> D 0 (bar K) 0 and D 0 (bar K)* 0 . Their measurements are in agreement with the expectation derived from a cited reference and with previous measurements. They use the central value of their measurement for B((bar B) 0 --> (bar D) 0 K* 0 ) and obtain τ < 0.8 at the 90% C.L. from a central value of τ = 0.4 ± 0.2 (stat.) ± 0.2 (syst.). The main contribution to the systematic uncertainty is from the estimated peaking background since most systematic uncertainties on the branching fractions cancel in the ratio

  5. Formation of q bar q resonances in the bar NN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    The formation of q bar q resonances lying on the leading Regge trajectories in the bar NN system is studied in the quark-gluon string model. The model predicts strong suppression of the decays of q bar q states into bar NN pairs in relation to two-meson modes. The author's analysis shows that the contributions of the resonances f 4 (2050) (I G J PC = 0 + 4 ++ ), ρ 5 (2240) (I G J PC = 1 + 5 -- ), and f 6 (2510) (I G J PC = 0 + 6 ++ ) to the processes of two-meson bar NN annihilation (bar pp → ππ, bar KK, hor-ellipsis) are about 1% of the corresponding experimental integrated cross sections. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. EC treatment for reuse of tissue paper wastewater: aspects that affect energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Eduardo; Vázquez, Armando; Briones, Roberto; Lázaro, Isabel; Rodríguez, Israel

    2010-09-15

    The need for more rational use of water also calls for more efficient usage. An example is the production of tissue paper, where large amounts of water are discharged into the drain because its turbidity does not allow for recirculation. While this is a serious problem, even worse is the fact that the quality of such wastewater makes it difficult not only to recirculate but also to discharge due to environmental law restrictions. In this paper, electrocoagulation is proposed as a suitable technology to meet standards of water discharge, and even better, as a treatment option for removal of turbidity. Since energy consumption has been a drawback for EC applications, relevant aspects that contribute to increase it such as cell voltage and current density have been reviewed. For this purpose a systematic micro-electrolysis study combined with macro-electrolysis experiments have provided evidence that shows it is possible to achieve a turbidity removal of 92% with an energy consumption of 0.68 kWh/m(3). Thus, the results presented in this paper support the use of EC to obtain water of acceptable quality for reuse in the tissue paper industry. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High energy protons application for radiotherapy of the esophagus affected with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, A.I.; Astrakhan, B.V.; Kulakov, G.A.; Makarova, G.V.; Zhuravleva, N.T.

    1975-01-01

    As in radiation therapy of tumours located elsewhere, local radiation treatment of an esophagus tumour is often aggravated by the development, after some time, of a trophic ulcer as a result of decreased regenerative ability of the irradiated sound tissues and also of newly formed hystostructures which have replaced the destroyed tumorous tissue. It has been established that the number of complications increases with the total focal dose, but at the same time (up to a certain point) the number of local curings increases as well. Some promise was shown by high-energy protons with their physical advantages unique for radiation therapy, such as the strictly controlled free path length of particles in the tissues, the presence of the Bragg peak, the absence of lateral scattering, i.e. features which permit of a high dose in the target with a minimum injury to the sound tissues surrounding the tumour. Proton therapy of esophagus cancer was carried out by two techniques, static and shuttle-rotary. The results of proton therapy of esophagus cancer indicate that the use of high-energy protons for treating esophagus cancer holds promise

  8. Quarkonium Spectroscopy And Search for New States at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibinetto, G.

    2011-11-04

    The BaBar experiment at the PEP-II B-factory gives excellent opportunities for the quarkonium spectroscopy. Investigation of the properties of new states like the X(3872), Y(3940) and Y(4260) are performed aiming to understand their nature. Recent BaBar results will be presented in this paper. At the B-factories charmonium and charmonium-like states are copiously produced via several mechanisms: in B decay (color suppressed b {yields} c transition), double charmonium production (e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} c{bar c} + c{bar c}), two photons production ({gamma}*{gamma}* {yields} c{bar c}, where the c{bar c} state has positive C-parity) and in initial state radiation (ISR) when the e{sup {+-}} in its initial state emits a photon lowering the effective center of mass energy of the e{sup +}e{sup -} interaction (e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {gamma}{sub ISR} + c{bar c}, where the charmonium state has the quantum numbers J{sup PC} = 1{sup -2}). Many new states have been recently discovered at the B-factories, BaBar and Belle, above the D{bar D} threshold in the charmonium energy region. While some of them appear to be consistent with conventional c{sub c} states others do not fit with any expectation. Several interpretations for these states have been proposed: for some of them the mass values suggest that they could be conventional charmonia, but also other interpretations like D{sup 0}{bar D}*{sup 0} molecule or diquark-antidiquark states among many other models have been advanced. Reviews can be found in Refs. [1][2]. In all cases the picture is not completely clear. This situation could be remedied by a coherent search of the decay pattern to D{bar D}, search for production in two-photon fusion and ISR, and of course improving the statistical precision upon the current measurements. The BaBar experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric collider, designed to perform precision measurement of CP violation in the B meson system, has an extensive quarkonium spectroscopy program. Recent

  9. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhao-Yu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J., E-mail: lizy@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle ( i ), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high i ) or as a barlens structure (at low i ). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%–80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass ( M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}) and high gas mass ratio. In contrast, the buckled bar fraction increases to 80% toward massive and early-type disks ( M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506−G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  10. NLO QCD corrections to tt-barbb-bar production at the LHC: 1. quark-antiquark annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredenstein, A.; Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Pozzorini, S.

    2008-01-01

    The process pp → tt-barbb-bar + X represents a very important background reaction to searches at the LHC, in particular to tt-barH production where the Higgs boson decays into a bb-bar pair. A successful analysis of tt-barH at the LHC requires the knowledge of direct tt-barbb-bar production at next-to-leading order in QCD. We take the first step in this direction upon calculating the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the subprocess initiated by q q-bar annihilation. We devote an appendix to the general issue of rational terms resulting from ultraviolet or infrared (soft or collinear) singularities within dimensional regularization. There we show that, for arbitrary processes, in the Feynman gauge, rational terms of infrared origin cancel in truncated one-loop diagrams and result only from trivial self-energy corrections.

  11. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING WIND-ENERGY POTENTIAL IN LOW BUILT-UP URBAN ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÁZÁR I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available his study is concerned with the examination of roughness factor affecting wind potential in low built-up urban areas (e.g. subdivision, light industrial area. The test interval is the transition between summer and winter, as a secondary wind maximum period. The ten-minute data-pairs empirical distribution was approached by several theoretical distributions where a fitting test research was also performed. Extrapolation to higher levels is possible by defining the Hellmann exponent. The wind speed in respective height and the specific wind power are derived from it. Knowing the daily progress of the Hellmann exponent value, more accurate estimation can be given of the wind potential calculated to different heights according to the measuring point. The results were compared to the surface cover of the surrounding area as well as to the literary alpha values.

  12. Measurement of bar pp single diffraction dissociation at √s =546 and 1800 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Albrow, M.; Amidei, D.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Apollinari, G.; Atac, M.; Auchincloss, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Baden, A.R.; Badgett, W.; Bailey, M.W.; Bamberger, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Bertolucci, S.; Biery, K.; Bhadra, S.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bolognesi, V.; Booth, A.W.; Boswell, C.; Brandenburg, G.; Brown, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carey, R.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Carroll, J.T.; Cashmore, R.; Castro, A.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chadwick, K.; Chapman, J.; Chapin, T.J.; Chiarelli, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Connor, D.; Contreras, M.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Crane, D.; Cunningham, J.D.; Day, C.; DeJongh, F.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dickson, M.; Drucker, R.B.; Dunn, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Eno, S.; Errede, S.; Etchegoyen, A.; Farhat, B.; Frautschi, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.; Fuess, T.; Fukui, Y.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gauthier, A.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Grieco, G.M.; Grindley, R.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Handler, R.; Hara, K.; Harral, B.; Harris, R.M.; Hauger, S.A.; Hauser, J.; Hawk, C.; Hessing, T.; Hollebeek, R.; Holloway, L.; Hoelscher, A.; Hong, S.; Houk, G.; Hu, P.; Hubbard, B.; Huffman, B.T.; Hughes, R.; Hurst, P.; Huth, J.; Hylen, J.; Incagli, M.; Ino, T.; Iso, H.; Jessop, C.P.; Johnson, R.P.; Joshi, U.; Kadel, R.W.; Kamon, T.; Kanda, S.; Kardelis, D.A.; Karliner, I.; Kearns, E.; Keeble, L.; Kephart, R.; Kesten, P.

    1994-01-01

    We report a measurement of the diffraction dissociation differential cross section d 2 σ SD /dM 2 dt for bar pp→ bar pX at √s =546 and 1800 GeV, M 2 /s 2 . Our results are compared to theoretical predictions and to extrapolations from experimental results at lower energies

  13. The bar in NGC 4596

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The SBa galaxy NGC 4596 is characterized on the basis of CCD photometry obtained with a broad red filter on the 61-cm telescope at Whipple Observatory during January 1986 and long-slit CCD spectra obtained with the 4-m telescope at KPNO in May 1988 and with the MMT in March 1989. The results are presented graphically and analyzed in detail. Three components are identified: (1) an oblate spheroidal bulge with true ellipticity 0.26 and luminosity 4.7 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities, (2) a 10.0 x 2.6-kpc rectangular bar with luminosity 6.7 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities, and (3) a lens of constant intensity with luminosity 3.9 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities out to a distance of 8.7 kpc. The characteristic slowdown time is calculated as 6-20 Gyr, and the velocity field is shown to deviate less from circular rotation than predicted by a simple dynamical model in which the disk kinematics are derived from an n-body simulation (Sparkle and Sellwood, 1987) and the bulge is assumed to be an oblate isotropic rotator. 31 refs

  14. Microplastics Affect Energy Balance and Gametogenesis in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardon, Tony; Reisser, Céline; Soyez, Claude; Quillien, Virgile; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2018-05-01

    Plastic pollution in the environment is increasing at global scale. Microplastics (MP) are derived from degradation of larger plastic items or directly produced in microparticles form (commercial interests, adult oysters were exposed to polystyrene microbeads (micro-PS of 6 and 10 μm) for 2 months. Three concentrations, 0.25, 2.5, and 25 μg L -1 , and a control were tested. Ingestion and respiration rate and assimilation efficiency were monitored on a metabolic measurement system to determine the individual energy balance (Scope For Growth, SFG). Effects on reproduction were also assessed. The assimilation efficiency decreased significantly according to micro-PS concentration. The SFG was significantly impacted by a dose-dependent decrease from 0.25 μg L -1 ( p balance of P. margaritifera, with negative repercussions on reproduction.

  15. Modified sine bar device measures small angles with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekaekara, M.

    1968-01-01

    Modified sine bar device measures small angles with enough accuracy to calibrate precision optical autocollimators. The sine bar is a massive bar of steel supported by two cylindrical rods at one end and one at the other.

  16. Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth). Median sound pressure levels (Leq) in third-octave bands during operation of the converter were 106-109 dB re. 1 μPa in the range 125-250 Hz, 1-2 dB above ambient noise levels (statistically significant). Outside the range 125-250 Hz the noise from the converter was undetectable above the ambient noise. During start and stop of the converter a more powerful tone at 150 Hz (sound pressure level (Leq) 121-125 dB re 1 μPa) was easily detectable. This tone likely originated from the hydraulic pump which was used to lower the absorbers into the water and lift them out of the water at shutdown. Noise levels from the operating wave converter were so low that they would barely be audible to marine mammals and the likelihood of negative impact from the noise appears minimal. A likely explanation for the low noise emissions is the construction of the converter where all moving parts, except for the absorbers themselves, are placed above water on a jack-up rig. The results may thus not be directly transferable to other wave converter designs but do demonstrate that it is possible to harness wave energy without noise pollution to the marine environment.

  17. Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Tougaard

    Full Text Available Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth. Median sound pressure levels (Leq in third-octave bands during operation of the converter were 106-109 dB re. 1 μPa in the range 125-250 Hz, 1-2 dB above ambient noise levels (statistically significant. Outside the range 125-250 Hz the noise from the converter was undetectable above the ambient noise. During start and stop of the converter a more powerful tone at 150 Hz (sound pressure level (Leq 121-125 dB re 1 μPa was easily detectable. This tone likely originated from the hydraulic pump which was used to lower the absorbers into the water and lift them out of the water at shutdown. Noise levels from the operating wave converter were so low that they would barely be audible to marine mammals and the likelihood of negative impact from the noise appears minimal. A likely explanation for the low noise emissions is the construction of the converter where all moving parts, except for the absorbers themselves, are placed above water on a jack-up rig. The results may thus not be directly transferable to other wave converter designs but do demonstrate that it is possible to harness wave energy without noise pollution to the marine environment.

  18. Dietary energy source affecting fat deposition mechanism, muscle fiber metabolic and overall meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Hijazeen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD, and sugar based diet (SD. Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability.

  19. Factors affecting the energy resolution in alpha particle spectrometry with silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fabio de.

    2005-01-01

    In this work are presented the studies about the response of a multi-structure guard rings silicon diode for detection and spectrometry of alpha particles. This ion-implanted diode (Al/p + /n/n + /Al) was processed out of 300 μm thick, n type substrate with a resistivity of 3 kΩ·cm and an active area of 4 mm 2 . In order to use this diode as a detector, the bias voltage was applied on the n + side, the first guard ring was grounded and the electrical signals were readout from the p + side. These signals were directly sent to a tailor made preamplifier, based on the hybrid circuit A250 (Amptek), followed by a conventional nuclear electronic. The results obtained with this system for the direct detection of alpha particles from 241 Am showed an excellent response stability with a high detection efficiency (≅ 100 %). The performance of this diode for alpha particle spectrometry was studied and it was prioritized the influence of the polarization voltage, the electronic noise, the temperature and the source-diode distance on the energy resolution. The results showed that the major contribution for the deterioration of this parameter is due to the diode dead layer thickness (1 μm). However, even at room temperature, the energy resolution (FWHM = 18.8 keV) measured for the 5485.6 MeV alpha particles ( 241 Am) is comparable to those obtained with ordinary silicon barrier detectors frequently used for these particles spectrometry. (author)

  20. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.

  1. Bar Formation in Milky Way type Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyachenko E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many barred galaxies, possibly including the Milky Way, have cusps in their centers. There is a widespread belief, however, that the usual bar instability, which occurs in bulgeless galaxy models, is impossible for cuspy models because of the presence of the inner Lindblad resonance for any pattern speed. At the same time, there is numerical evidence that the bar instability can form a bar. We analyze this discrepancy by performing accurate and diverse N-body simulations and calculating the normal modes. We show that bar formation in cuspy galaxies can be explained by taking into account the disk thickness. The exponential growth time is moderate (about 250 Myr for typical current disk masses, but it increases considerably (by a factor of two or more if the live halo and bulge are substituted by a rigid halo/bulge potential; the pattern speeds remain almost the same. Normal mode analysis with different disk mass favors a young bar hypothesis, according to which the bar instability has saturated only recently.

  2. Measurement of the Residual Resistivity Ratio of the Bus Bars Copper Stabilizer of the 13 kA Circuits of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Schmidt, R; Verweij, A; Siemko, A; Claudet, S; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H

    2012-01-01

    After the incident of September 2008, the operational beam energy of the LHC has been set to 3.5 TeV, since not all joints of the superconducting (SC) bus bars between magnets have the required quality for 7 TeV operation. This decision is based on simulations to determine the safe current in the main dipole and quadrupole circuits, reproducing the thermal behaviour of a quenched superconducting joint by taking into account all relevant factors that affect a possible thermal runaway. One important parameter is the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper stabilizer of the bus bar connecting the superconducting magnets. A dedicated campaign to measure the RRR for the main 13 kA circuits of the LHC in all sectors was performed during the Christmas stop in December 2010 and January 2011. The measurement method as well as the data analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  3. Exposure to atrazine affects the expression of key genes in metabolic pathways integral to energy homeostasis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, Renee M; Amini, Zakariya; Whitaker, Ashley S; Ide, Charles F

    2011-08-01

    In our laboratory, Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed throughout development to 200 or 400 μg/L atrazine, concentrations reported to periodically occur in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application, were smaller and had smaller fat bodies (the tadpole's lipid storage organ) than controls. It was hypothesized that these changes were due to atrazine-related perturbations of energy homeostasis. To investigate this hypothesis, selected metabolic responses to exposure at the transcriptional and biochemical levels in atrazine-exposed tadpoles were measured. DNA microarray technology was used to determine which metabolic pathways were affected after developmental exposure to 400 μg/L atrazine. From these data, genes representative of the affected pathways were selected for assay using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure changes in expression during a 2-week exposure to 400 μg/L. Finally, ATP levels were measured from tadpoles both early in and at termination of exposure to 200 and 400 μg/L. Microarray analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in metabolic pathways involved with energy homeostasis. Pathways with increased transcription were associated with the conversion of lipids and proteins into energy. Pathways with decreased transcription were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, fat storage, and protein synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, changes in gene expression indicative of an early stress response to atrazine were noted. Exposed tadpoles had significant decreases in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) and glucocorticoid receptor protein (GR) mRNA after 24 h of exposure, and near-significant (p=0.07) increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPAR-β) mRNA by 72 h. Decreases in AD suggested decreases in fatty acid β-oxidation while decreases in GR may have been a receptor desensitization response to a glucocorticoid surge. Involvement of PPAR-β, an energy homeostasis regulatory molecule, also

  4. Exposure to atrazine affects the expression of key genes in metabolic pathways integral to energy homeostasis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaya, Renee M.; Amini, Zakariya; Whitaker, Ashley S.; Ide, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    In our laboratory, Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed throughout development to 200 or 400 μg/L atrazine, concentrations reported to periodically occur in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application, were smaller and had smaller fat bodies (the tadpole's lipid storage organ) than controls. It was hypothesized that these changes were due to atrazine-related perturbations of energy homeostasis. To investigate this hypothesis, selected metabolic responses to exposure at the transcriptional and biochemical levels in atrazine-exposed tadpoles were measured. DNA microarray technology was used to determine which metabolic pathways were affected after developmental exposure to 400 μg/L atrazine. From these data, genes representative of the affected pathways were selected for assay using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure changes in expression during a 2-week exposure to 400 μg/L. Finally, ATP levels were measured from tadpoles both early in and at termination of exposure to 200 and 400 μg/L. Microarray analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in metabolic pathways involved with energy homeostasis. Pathways with increased transcription were associated with the conversion of lipids and proteins into energy. Pathways with decreased transcription were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, fat storage, and protein synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, changes in gene expression indicative of an early stress response to atrazine were noted. Exposed tadpoles had significant decreases in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) and glucocorticoid receptor protein (GR) mRNA after 24 h of exposure, and near-significant (p = 0.07) increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPAR-β) mRNA by 72 h. Decreases in AD suggested decreases in fatty acid β-oxidation while decreases in GR may have been a receptor desensitization response to a glucocorticoid surge. Involvement of PPAR-β, an energy homeostasis regulatory molecule

  5. Exposure to atrazine affects the expression of key genes in metabolic pathways integral to energy homeostasis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaya, Renee M., E-mail: renee.zaya@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Amini, Zakariya, E-mail: zakariya.amini@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Whitaker, Ashley S., E-mail: ashley.s.whitaker@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Ide, Charles F., E-mail: charles.ide@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    In our laboratory, Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed throughout development to 200 or 400 {mu}g/L atrazine, concentrations reported to periodically occur in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application, were smaller and had smaller fat bodies (the tadpole's lipid storage organ) than controls. It was hypothesized that these changes were due to atrazine-related perturbations of energy homeostasis. To investigate this hypothesis, selected metabolic responses to exposure at the transcriptional and biochemical levels in atrazine-exposed tadpoles were measured. DNA microarray technology was used to determine which metabolic pathways were affected after developmental exposure to 400 {mu}g/L atrazine. From these data, genes representative of the affected pathways were selected for assay using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure changes in expression during a 2-week exposure to 400 {mu}g/L. Finally, ATP levels were measured from tadpoles both early in and at termination of exposure to 200 and 400 {mu}g/L. Microarray analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in metabolic pathways involved with energy homeostasis. Pathways with increased transcription were associated with the conversion of lipids and proteins into energy. Pathways with decreased transcription were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, fat storage, and protein synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, changes in gene expression indicative of an early stress response to atrazine were noted. Exposed tadpoles had significant decreases in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) and glucocorticoid receptor protein (GR) mRNA after 24 h of exposure, and near-significant (p = 0.07) increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {beta} (PPAR-{beta}) mRNA by 72 h. Decreases in AD suggested decreases in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation while decreases in GR may have been a receptor desensitization response to a glucocorticoid surge. Involvement of PPAR-{beta}, an energy

  6. A Modern Picture of Barred Galaxy Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael; Weinberg, Martin; Katz, Neal

    2018-01-01

    Observations of disk galaxies suggest that bars are responsible for altering global galaxy parameters (e.g. structures, gas fraction, star formation rate). The canonical understanding of the mechanisms underpinning bar-driven secular dynamics in disk galaxies has been largely built upon the analysis of linear theory, despite galactic bars being clearly demonstrated to be nonlinear phenomena in n-body simulations. We present simulations of barred Milky Way-like galaxy models designed to elucidate nonlinear barred galaxy dynamics. We have developed two new methodologies for analyzing n-body simulations that give the best of both powerful analytic linear theory and brute force simulation analysis: orbit family identification and multicomponent torque analysis. The software will be offered publicly to the community for their own simulation analysis.The orbit classifier reveals that the details of kinematic components in galactic disks (e.g. the bar, bulge, thin disk, and thick disk components) are powerful discriminators of evolutionary paradigms (i.e. violent instabilities and secular evolution) as well as the basic parameters of the dark matter halo (mass distribution, angular momentum distribution). Multicomponent torque analysis provides a thorough accounting of the transfer of angular momentum between orbits, global patterns, and distinct components in order to better explain the underlying physics which govern the secular evolution of barred disk galaxies.Using these methodologies, we are able to identify the successes and failures of linear theory and traditional n-body simulations en route to a detailed understanding of the control bars exhibit over secular evolution in galaxies. We present explanations for observed physical and velocity structures in observations of barred galaxies alongside predictions for how structures will vary with dynamical properties from galaxy to galaxy as well as over the lifetime of a galaxy, finding that the transfer of angular

  7. TIME-DEPENDENT COROTATION RESONANCE IN BARRED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Taam, Ronald E. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Pfenniger, Daniel, E-mail: ytwu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: daniel.pfenniger@unige.ch, E-mail: taam@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland)

    2016-10-20

    The effective potential neighboring the corotation resonance region in barred galaxies is shown to be strongly time-dependent in any rotating frame, due to the competition of nearby perturbations of similar strengths with differing rotation speeds. Contrary to the generally adopted assumption that in the bar rotating frame the corotation region should possess four stationary equilibrium points (Lagrange points), with high quality N -body simulations, we localize the instantaneous equilibrium points (EPs) and find that they circulate or oscillate broadly in azimuth with respect to the pattern speeds of the inner or outer perturbations. This implies that at the particle level the Jacobi integral is not well conserved around the corotation radius. That is, angular momentum exchanges decouple from energy exchanges, enhancing the chaotic diffusion of stars through the corotation region.

  8. Does protein energy malnutrition affect the outcome in Tunisian cirrhotic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaifer, Rym; Cheikh, Myriam; Romdhane, Haifa; Sabbagh, Safa; Ben Nejma, Houda; Bougassas, Wassila; Bel Hadj, Najet

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is commonly seen in cirrhotic patients and has been shown to adversely affect outcome. However, it remains associated with the severity of cirrhosis. Therefore, its role as an independent prognostic factor is still under debate. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in cirrhotic patients and determine whether this condition was an independent prognostic factor. We prospectively analyzed the nutritional status of 104 consecutive patients with cirrhosis Subjective global nutritional assessment (SGA) and anthropometry [dry body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold (TSF), arm muscle circumference (AMC)] were used for the evaluation of the nutritional status. Complications of cirrhosis during follow-up and patient's survival were recorded. Global survival and survival without complications was studied by Kaplan Meier method and using Log Rank test. Prevalence of malnutrition ranged from 16.3 and 62.5% according to the method of nutritional assessment used. Survival without complications was reduced in malnourished patients. This difference was significant when assessing malnutrition by dry BMI (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis, malnutrition defined by dry BMImalnutrition was an independent predictor of complications in cirrhosis. However, it did not appear as an independent prognostic factor for global survival. These results raise again difficulties to clarify whether malnutrition influence itself the prognosis of cirrhosis or if it is only related to the severity of cirrhosis.

  9. First Measurement of σ(gg → t$\\bar{t}$)/σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamdari, Shabnaz Pashapour [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here is the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use an integrated luminosity of 0.96 ± 0.06 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions at √s of 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. We select t$\\bar{t}$ candidates by identifying a high-pT lepton candidate, a large missing ET as evidence for a neutrino candidate and at least four high ET jets, one of which has to be identified as originating from a b quark. The challenge is to discriminate between the two production processes with the identical final state, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$. We take advantage of the fact that compared to a quark, a gluon is more likely to radiate a low momentum gluon and therefore, one expects a larger number of charged particles with low pT in a process involving more gluons. Given the large uncertainties associated with the modeling of the low pT charged particle multiplicity, a data-driven technique was employed. Using calibration data samples, we show there exists a clear correlation between the observed average number of low pT charged particles and the average number of gluons involved in the production process predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Given the correlation, one can identify low pT charged particle multiplicity distributions associated with specific average number of gluons. The W + 0 jet sample and dijets sample with leading jet ET in the range of 80-100 GeV are used to find no-gluon and gluon-rich low p{sub T} charged particle multiplicity distributions, respectively. Using these no-gluon and gluon-rich distributions in a likelihood fit, we find the fraction of gluon-rich events in t{bar t} candidates. This fraction has contributions from the signal and background events. Taking into account these contributions and the gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar

  10. Affective stress responses during leisure time: Validity evaluation of a modified version of the Stress-Energy Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadžibajramović, Emina; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Håkansson, Carita; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa; Grimby-Ekman, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Psychosocial stress at work is one of the most important factors behind increasing sick-leave rates. In addition to work stressors, it is important to account for non-work-related stressors when assessing stress responses. In this study, a modified version of the Stress-Energy Questionnaire (SEQ), the SEQ during leisure time (SEQ-LT) was introduced for assessing the affective stress response during leisure time. The aim of this study was to investigate the internal construct validity of the SEQ-LT. A second aim was to define the cut-off points for the scales, which could indicate high and low levels of leisure-time stress and energy, respectively. Internal construct validity of the SEQ-LT was evaluated using a Rasch analysis. We examined the unidimensionality and other psychometric properties of the scale by the fit to the Rasch model. A criterion-based approach was used for classification into high and low stress/energy levels. The psychometric properties of the stress and energy scales of the SEQ-LT were satisfactory, having accommodated for local dependency. The cut-off point for low stress was proposed to be in the interval between 2.45 and 3.02 on the Rasch metric score; while for high stress, it was between 3.65 and 3.90. The suggested cut-off points for the low and high energy levels were values between 1.73-1.97 and 2.66-3.08, respectively. The stress and energy scale of the SEQ-LT satisfied the measurement criteria defined by the Rasch analysis and it provided a useful tool for non-work-related assessment of stress responses. We provide guidelines on how to interpret the scale values. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  12. Determining residential energy consumption-based CO2 emissions and examining the factors affecting the variation in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Melike; Akan, Perihan; Aydinalp Koksal, Merih; Gullu, Gulen

    2017-11-01

    Energy demand of Turkey has been showing a remarkable increase in the last two decades due to rapid increase in population and changes in consumption trends. In parallel to the increase in energy demand, the CO2 emissions in Turkey are also increasing dramatically due to high usage of fossil fuels. CO2 emissions from the residential sector covers almost one fourth of the total sectoral emissions. In this study, CO2 emissions from the residential sector are estimated, and the factors affecting the emission levels are determined for the residential sector in Ankara, Turkey. In this study, detailed surveys are conducted to more than 400 households in Ankara. Using the information gathered from the surveys, the CO2 emissions associated with energy consumption of the households are calculated using the methodology outlined at IPCC. The statistical analyses are carried out using household income, dwelling characteristics, and household economic and demographic data to determine the factors causing the variation in emission levels among the households. The results of the study present that the main factors impacting the amount of total energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions are household income, dwelling construction year, age, education level of the household, and net footage of the dwelling.

  13. Membrane re-modelling by BAR domain superfamily proteins via molecular and non-molecular factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tamako; Morone, Nobuhiro; Suetsugu, Shiro

    2018-04-17

    Lipid membranes are structural components of cell surfaces and intracellular organelles. Alterations in lipid membrane shape are accompanied by numerous cellular functions, including endocytosis, intracellular transport, and cell migration. Proteins containing Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domains (BAR proteins) are unique, because their structures correspond to the membrane curvature, that is, the shape of the lipid membrane. BAR proteins present at high concentration determine the shape of the membrane, because BAR domain oligomers function as scaffolds that mould the membrane. BAR proteins co-operate with various molecular and non-molecular factors. The molecular factors include cytoskeletal proteins such as the regulators of actin filaments and the membrane scission protein dynamin. Lipid composition, including saturated or unsaturated fatty acid tails of phospholipids, also affects the ability of BAR proteins to mould the membrane. Non-molecular factors include the external physical forces applied to the membrane, such as tension and friction. In this mini-review, we will discuss how the BAR proteins orchestrate membrane dynamics together with various molecular and non-molecular factors. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Irrigating poplar energy crops with landfill leachate negatively affects soil micro- and meso-fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David R; Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S; Wiese, Adam H

    2011-10-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generated worldwide combined with substantial demand for renewable energy has prompted testing and deployment of woody feedstock production systems that reuse and recycle wastewaters as irrigation and fertilization. Populus selections are ideal for such systems given their fast growth, extensive root systems, and high water usage rates. Maintaining ecological sustainability (i.e., the capacity for an ecosystem to maintain its function and retain its biodiversity over time) during tree establishment and development is an important component of plantation success, especially for belowground faunal populations. To determine the impact of solid waste leachate on soil micro- and meso-fauna, we compared soilfrom eight different Populus clones receiving municipal solid waste landfill leachate irrigation with clones receiving fertilized (N, P K) well water irrigation. Microfauna (i.e., nematodes) communities were more diverse in control soils. Mesofauna (i.e., insects) were associated with all clones; however, they were four times more abundant around trees found within the control plot than those that received leachate treatments. Nematode and insect abundance varied among Populus clones yet insect diversity was greater in the leachate-treated soils. Phytotechnologies must allow for soil faunal sustainability, as upsetting this balance could lead to great reductions in phytotechnology efficacy.

  15. Ethanol and Acetate Acting as Carbon/Energy Sources Negatively Affect Yeast Chronological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Orlandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chronological lifespan (CLS is defined as the length of time that a population of nondividing cells can survive in stationary phase. In this phase, cells remain metabolically active, albeit at reduced levels, and responsive to environmental signals, thus simulating the postmitotic quiescent state of mammalian cells. Many studies on the main nutrient signaling pathways have uncovered the strong influence of growth conditions, including the composition of culture media, on CLS. In this context, two byproducts of yeast glucose fermentation, ethanol and acetic acid, have been proposed as extrinsic proaging factors. Here, we report that ethanol and acetic acid, at physiological levels released in the exhausted medium, both contribute to chronological aging. Moreover, this combined proaging effect is not due to a toxic environment created by their presence but is mainly mediated by the metabolic pathways required for their utilization as carbon/energy sources. In addition, measurements of key enzymatic activities of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis, together with respiration assays performed in extreme calorie restriction, point to a long-term quiescent program favoured by glyoxylate/gluconeogenesis flux contrary to a proaging one based on the oxidative metabolism of ethanol/acetate via TCA and mitochondrial respiration.

  16. What makes the family of barred disc galaxies so rich: damping stellar bars in spinning haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Angela; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2018-05-01

    We model and analyse the secular evolution of stellar bars in spinning dark matter (DM) haloes with the cosmological spin λ ˜ 0-0.09. Using high-resolution stellar and DM numerical simulations, we focus on angular momentum exchange between stellar discs and DM haloes of various axisymmetric shapes - spherical, oblate, and prolate. We find that stellar bars experience a diverse evolution that is guided by the ability of parent haloes to absorb angular momentum, J, lost by the disc through the action of gravitational torques, resonant and non-resonant. We confirm that dynamical bar instability is accelerated via resonant J-transfer to the halo. Our main findings relate to the long-term secular evolution of disc-halo systems: with an increasing λ, bars experience less growth and basically dissolve after they pass through vertical buckling instability. Specifically, with increasing λ, (1) the vertical buckling instability in stellar bars colludes with inability of the inner halo to absorb J - this emerges as the main factor weakening or destroying bars in spinning haloes; (2) bars lose progressively less J, and their pattern speeds level off; (3) bars are smaller, and for λ ≳ 0.06 cease their growth completely following buckling; (4) bars in λ > 0.03 haloes have ratio of corotation-to-bar radii, RCR/Rb > 2, and represent so-called slow bars without offset dust lanes. We provide a quantitative analysis of J-transfer in disc-halo systems, and explain the reasons for absence of growth in fast spinning haloes and its observational corollaries. We conclude that stellar bar evolution is substantially more complex than anticipated, and bars are not as resilient as has been considered so far.

  17. Observation of $\\eta_{c}(2S) \\to p \\bar p$ and search for $X(3872) \\to p \\bar p$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2017-06-10

    The first observation of the decay $\\eta_{c}(2S) \\to p \\bar p$ is reported using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0\\rm \\, fb^{-1}$ recorded by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The $\\eta_{c}(2S)$ resonance is produced in the decay $B^{+} \\to [c\\bar c] K^{+}$. The product of branching fractions normalised to that for the $J/\\psi$ intermediate state, ${\\cal R}_{\\eta_{c}(2S)}$, is measured to be \\begin{align*} {\\cal R}_{\\eta_{c}(2S)}\\equiv\\frac{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to \\eta_{c}(2S) K^{+}) \\times {\\mathcal B}(\\eta_{c}(2S) \\to p \\bar p)}{{\\mathcal B}(B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+}) \\times {\\mathcal B}(J/\\psi\\to p \\bar p)} =~& (1.58 \\pm 0.33 \\pm 0.09)\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{align*} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. No signals for the decays $B^{+} \\to X(3872) (\\to p \\bar p) K^{+}$ and $B^{+} \\to \\psi(3770) (\\to p \\bar p) K^{+}$ are seen, and the 95\\% confidence level upper limits on their relative branching ratios ar...

  18. Sensitivity study of the Hb$\\bar{b}$ and Hc$\\bar{c}$ couplings for e$^+$- e$^-$ collisions at FCC

    CERN Document Server

    Heckmann, Lea Alina

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is one of the possible future projects proposed at CERN. With a circumference of 80 - 100km it should initially serve as an e$^+$- e$^-$ collider reaching energies between 90 - 350 GeV. While operating at centre of mass energies of 240 GeV and luminosities of 5*10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ FCC should be used as a Higgs factory with the aim of validating standard model predictions. Therefore, it should be able to measure the Higgs couplings with precisions around 1%. In order to estimate the sensitivity of the branching ratio for $H\\rightarrow c\\bar{c}$ (BR(Hcc)) a simultaneous simulation and analysis of Hb$\\bar{b}$ and Hc$\\bar{c}$ is necessary. Therefore, events were generated for both cases and afterwards the CMS detector with an added c-tagging method was used to simulate the detector response. Relevant events were selected and afterwards used for optimising a simultaneous fit determining BR(Hbb) and BR(Hcc) and its uncertainties. The same procedure was applied while chang...

  19. Fault bars in bird feathers: mechanisms, and ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovani, Roger; Rohwer, Sievert

    2017-05-01

    Fault bars are narrow malformations in feathers oriented almost perpendicular to the rachis where the feather vein and even the rachis may break. Breaks in the barbs and barbules result in small pieces of the feather vein being lost, while breaks in the rachis result in loss of the distal portion of the feather. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of 74 papers on fault bar formation in hopes of providing a clearer approach to their study. First, we review the evidence that the propensity to develop fault bars is modified by natural selection. Given that fault bars persist in the face of survival costs, we conclude that they must be an unfortunate consequence of some alternative adaptation that outweighs the fitness costs of fault bars. Second, we summarize evidence that the development of fault bars is triggered by psychological stress such as that of handling or predation attempts, and that they persist because the sudden contractions of the muscles in the feather follicle that control fright moults also causes the development of fault bars in growing feathers. Third, we review external and physiological (e.g. corticosterone) agents that may affect the likelihood that an acute stress will result in a growing feather exhibiting a fault bar. These modifying factors have often been treated as fundamental causes in the earlier literature on fault bars. Fourth, we then use this classification to propose a tentative model where fault bars of different severity (from light to severe) are the outcome of the interaction between the propensity to produce fault bars (which differs between species, individuals and feather follicles within individuals) and the intensity of the perturbation. This model helps to explain contradictory results in the literature, to identify gaps in our knowledge, and to suggest further studies. Lastly, we discuss ways in which better understanding of fault bars can inform us about other aspects of avian evolutionary ecology, such as the

  20. Energy expenditure and affect responses to different types of active video game and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, Javier; Murphy, Enda E; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare entertainment-themed active video game (AVG) and fitness-themed AVG play with traditional exercise to examine the interaction between physiological and psychological responses. Participants (N = 23) were randomly assigned to 30-min of (i) self-selected intensity exercise (SS-EX), (ii) moderate intensity exercise (MOD-EX), (iii) entertainment-themed video game (ET-VG) and (iv) fitness-themed video game (FT-VG). Physiological and psychological outcomes were recorded before, during and after each trial. All trials met the ACSM criteria for moderate or vigorous physical activity. The [Formula: see text] (68.3±13.9%) and rate of energy expenditure (10.3±3.1kcal/min) was significantly higher in the SS-EX trial with lowest values reported for ET-VG (p<0.05). No differences were found in % heart rate reserve between SS-EX and FT-VG (66.9±12.5% and 67.1±6% respectively). The AVG's were significantly more enjoyable than the exercise trials (p<0.05) and the ET-VG resulted in the highest core flow and psychological well-being (p<0.05). AVG's can elicit physiological responses that meet recommended exercise intensities but are more enjoyable than conventional exercise in young inactive adults. While further work is required, this study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between physiological outcomes and psychological states to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time.

  1. Energy expenditure and affect responses to different types of active video game and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monedero

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare entertainment-themed active video game (AVG and fitness-themed AVG play with traditional exercise to examine the interaction between physiological and psychological responses.Participants (N = 23 were randomly assigned to 30-min of (i self-selected intensity exercise (SS-EX, (ii moderate intensity exercise (MOD-EX, (iii entertainment-themed video game (ET-VG and (iv fitness-themed video game (FT-VG. Physiological and psychological outcomes were recorded before, during and after each trial.All trials met the ACSM criteria for moderate or vigorous physical activity. The [Formula: see text] (68.3±13.9% and rate of energy expenditure (10.3±3.1kcal/min was significantly higher in the SS-EX trial with lowest values reported for ET-VG (p<0.05. No differences were found in % heart rate reserve between SS-EX and FT-VG (66.9±12.5% and 67.1±6% respectively. The AVG's were significantly more enjoyable than the exercise trials (p<0.05 and the ET-VG resulted in the highest core flow and psychological well-being (p<0.05.AVG's can elicit physiological responses that meet recommended exercise intensities but are more enjoyable than conventional exercise in young inactive adults. While further work is required, this study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between physiological outcomes and psychological states to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time.

  2. Kick frequency affects the energy cost of aquatic locomotion in elite monofin swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitel, Guillaume; Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Alberty, Morgan; Nesi, Xavier; Bourdon, Lionel; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of kick frequency (K(F)) on the energy cost of aquatic locomotion in elite monofin (Mf) swimmers at the surface. Eight subjects of international calibre (4 females, 4 males) were requested to perform in a 50-m outdoor swimming pool: (1) a continuous multi-stage incremental test to determine maximal physiological responses and (2) a submaximal exercise composed of five constant Mf-swimming tests (600-m exercise, 5-min rest) at an intensity corresponding to 90% of the velocity at the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The first submaximal Mf-swimming test was systematically conducted at a freely chosen K(F) (FCK(F)) and the other tests were performed at FCK(F) - 15%, FCK(F) - 10%, FCK(F) + 10% and FCK(F) + 20% in a random order. No significant effect of K(F) on ventilation, heart rate and blood lactate concentration was observed throughout the submaximal Mf-swimming tests. However, mean values in Ec or fraction of VO2max were significantly lower during the FCK(F) + 10% condition as compared to those observed during the FCK(F) - 15% (-11.5 and -9.6%, respectively, P < 0.05) and FCK(F) - 10% (-10.4 and -9.3%, respectively, P < 0.05) conditions. In conclusion, the lack of significant differences between FCK(F) + 10% and FCK(F) or FCK(F) + 20% does not allow to identify a specific trend, but suggests the occurrence of an energetically optimal K(F) close to that freely chosen by the Mf swimmers. Variations in muscle activity level and active drag have been hypothesized to explain the observed differences in Ec consecutive to the selection of various K(F).

  3. Road-surface properties affecting rates of energy dissipation from vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igwe, E.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5080, Rivers State (Nigeria); Ayotamuno, M.J.; Okparanma, R.N. [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5080, Rivers State (Nigeria); Ogaji, S.O.T.; Probert, S.D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire Mk43 OAL (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The rates of energy that moving vehicles dissipate to road surfaces as well as noise emissions and their propensities for pitting (and hence their repair costs per year) all depend upon the structural properties of these surfaces. Thus, to increase the strength of bituminous concrete (i.e. a typical flexible road-surface) has been one of the major recent aims in highway engineering. The present study explored techniques that will increase these strength properties by modifying the material, using rubber latex, through rubberization and hence, improve the strength of the flexible trafficked surface when in contact with vehicles. At the optimal design asphalt (i.e. bitumen) content of 4.68%, the successive addition of various percentages of the rubber latex produced a design value of 1.65% rubber content, which increased the stability of the roadway from 1595 to 2639 N (i.e. an 65.5% increase) and the density from 2447 to 2520.8 kg/m{sup 3} (i.e. a 3.02% increase). This shows that the addition of rubber latex to bituminous concrete (a flexible road-surface) increased sustainability and the strength (in terms of stability and density). Similarly, the air voids and voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA) were reduced by introducing latex from 4.22% to 3.45% (i.e. a 17.06% reduction) and 16.25% to 13.43% (i.e. an 17.4% reduction), respectively. Whereas, the reduction in voidage volume added strength to the bituminous concrete by increasing its stability and density, the reduction in VMA had no positive impact on the strength properties of the flexible road-surface. (author)

  4. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  5. Resonant-bar gravitational radiation antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of gravitational radiation, and describes the worldwide research programme for the development of high-sensitivity resonant-bar antennas which are aimed at detecting gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources. (author)

  6. The Urban Fabric of the City as Its Affects Thermal Energy Responses Derived from Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The physical geography of the city affects numerous aspects of its interlinked biophysical, social, and land-atmosphere characteristics - those attributes that come together to form the total urban environment. One approach to studying the multitude of interactions that occur as a result of urbanization is to view the city from a systems ecology perspective, where energy and material cycle into and out of the urban milieu. Thus, the urban ecosystem is synergistic in linking land, air, water, and living organisms in a vast network of interrelated physical, human, and biological process. Given the number and the shear complexity of the exchanges and, ultimately, their effects, that occur within the urban environment, we are focusing our research on looking at how the morphology or urban fabric of the city, drives thermal energy exchanges across the urban landscape. The study of thermal energy attributes for different cities provides insight into how thermal fluxes and characteristics are partitioned across the city landscape in response to each city's morphology. We are using thermal infrared remote sensing data obtained at a high spatial resolution from aircraft, along with satellite data, to identify and quantify thermal energy characteristics for 4 U.S. cities: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. Analysis of how thermal energy is spatially distributed across the urban landscapes for these cities provides a unique perspective for understanding how the differing morphology of cities forces land-atmosphere exchanges, such as the urban heat island effect, as well as related meteorological and air quality interactions. Keyword: urban ecosystems, remote sensing, urban heat island

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Bar Edge Labeling in the Perioperative Assessment of Nuss Bar Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Filippo; Bertocchini, Alessia; Ghionzoli, Marco; Messineo, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Nuss bar removal after minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum in patients where bar ends are not palpable, can be a challenging procedure for the surgeon; a blind dissection toward the bar edges may lead to intercostal vessels or deep intercostal muscle injuries. In this article, we describe a fast, repeatable, low-cost technique to detect bar edge and stabilizers. A perioperative scan is performed by means of a portable ultrasonograph a few minutes before the operation. The bar edge stabilizer is detected as a hyperechogenic image with a concentric crescent while the bar edge is detected as a hyperechogenic dashed line with net edges. The scan is performed, and the actual projection on the skin of the metal plaque bulk is then labeled on the patient's chest by an ink marker. We believe that this method may improve morbidity, operative time, and consequently, hospitalization length and costs.

  8. New results from Fermilab E866 (NuSea) for d-bar/u-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenhower, L. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Fermilab dimuon experiment 866/NuSea measured Drell-Yan yields from an 800 GeV/c proton beam incident on liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. Over 370,000 Drell-Yan muon pairs were recorded. From these data, the ratio of anti-down (d-bar) to anti-up (u-bar) quark distributions in the proton sea is determined over a wide range in Bjorken-x. A strong x dependence is observed in the ratio d-bar/u-bar, showing substantial enhancement of d-bar with respect to u-bar for x < 0.2. The results presented here for the full data sets confirm previously published results from E866 and are compared with parametrizations of parton distribution functions calculated both before and after the publication of the high-mass E866 data

  9. A Search for the Higgs Boson Using Neural Networks in Events with Missing Energy and \\boldit{b}-quark Jets in $p\\bar p$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2009-11-01

    We report on a search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a W or Z boson in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV recorded by the CDF II experiment at the Tevatron in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.1 fb{sup -1}. We consider events which have no identified charged leptons, an imbalance in transverse momentum, and two or three jets where at least one jet is consistent with originating from the decay of a b hadron. We find good agreement between data and predictions. We place 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section for several Higgs boson masses ranging from 110 GeV/c{sup 2} to 150 GeV/c{sup 2}. For a mass of 115 GeV/c{sup 2} the observed (expected) limit is 6.9 (5.6) times the standard model prediction.

  10. A Study of B→c$\\bar{c}$γK in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulsom, Brian Gregory [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The BABAR Collaboration is a high energy physics experiment located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The primary goal of the experiment is to study charge and parity violation in the B-meson sector, however the copious production of B mesons decaying to other final states allows for a wide-ranging physics program. In particular, one can access the charmonium system via colour-suppressed b → c decays of the type B → c$\\bar{c}$K. This thesis presents a study of B →c$\\bar{c}$γK decays where c$\\bar{c}$ includes J/Ψ and Ψ(2S), and K includes K±, KS0 and K*(892). The particular emphasis is on a search for the radiative decays X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ. The X(3872) state is a recently-discovered resonance of undetermined quark composition, speculatively a conventional charmonium state or exotic four-quark di-meson molecule. This research is also sensitive to the well-known radiative charmonium decays B → χc1,2K, which are used as verification for the analysis technique. This dissertation sets the best B → χc1K branching fraction measurements to date, and sees the first evidence for factorization-suppressed B0 → χc2}K*0 decay at a level of 3.6σ. It also provides evidence for X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ with 3.6σ and 3.3σ significance, respectively. The product of branching fractions β(B± → X(3872)K±) • β(X(3872) → J/Ψγ) = (2.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and β(B{± → X(3872)K±) → β(X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ) = (9.5 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 0.9(syst.)) x 10-6 are measured. These results improve upon previous X(3872) → J/Ψγ measurements, and represent the first evidence for X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ.

  11. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR. By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  12. Practical, Reliable Error Bars in Quantum Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Faist, Philippe; Renner, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Precise characterization of quantum devices is usually achieved with quantum tomography. However, most methods which are currently widely used in experiments, such as maximum likelihood estimation, lack a well-justified error analysis. Promising recent methods based on confidence regions are difficult to apply in practice or yield error bars which are unnecessarily large. Here, we propose a practical yet robust method for obtaining error bars. We do so by introducing a novel representation of...

  13. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  14. Configurating computer-controlled bar system

    OpenAIRE

    Šuštaršič, Nejc

    2010-01-01

    The principal goal of my diploma thesis is creating an application for configurating computer-controlled beverages dispensing systems. In the preamble of my thesis I present the theoretical platform for point of sale systems and beverages dispensing systems, which are required for the understanding of the target problematics. As with many other fields, computer tehnologies entered the field of managing bars and restaurants quite some time ago. Basic components of every bar or restaurant a...

  15. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  16. The BaBar silicon vertex tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzi, C.; Carassiti, V.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Dittongo, S.; Folegani, M.; Piemontese, L.; Abbott, B.K.; Breon, A.B.; Clark, A.R.; Dow, S.; Fan, Q.; Goozen, F.; Hernikl, C.; Karcher, A.; Kerth, L.T.; Kipnis, I.; Kluth, S.; Lynch, G.; Levi, M.; Luft, P.; Luo, L.; Nyman, M.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Roe, N.A.; Zizka, G.; Roberts, D.; Barni, D.; Brenna, E.; Defendi, I.; Forti, A.; Giugni, D.; Lanni, F.; Palombo, F.; Vaniev, V.; Leona, A.; Mandelli, E.; Manfredi, P.F.; Perazzo, A.; Re, V.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Dutra, F.; Forti, F.; Gagliardi, D.; Giorgi, M.A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Profeti, A.; Rama, M.; Rampino, G.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Triggiani, G.; Tritto, S.; Vitale, R.; Burchat, P.; Cheng, C.; Kirkby, D.; Meyer, T.; Roat, C.; Bona, M.; Bianchi, F.; Daudo, F.; Girolamo, B. Di; Gamba, D.; Giraudo, G.; Grosso, P.; Romero, A.; Smol, A.; Trapani, P.; Zanin, D.; Bosisio, L.; Ricca, G. Della; Lanceri, L.; Pompili, A.; Poropat, P.; Prest, M.; Rastelli, C.; Vallazza, E.; Vuagnin, G.; Hast, C.; Potter, E.P.; Sharma, V.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Eppich, A.; Hale, D.; Hall, K.; Hart, P.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S.; Long, O.; May, J.; Richman, J.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A.M.; Frey, A.; Grillo, A.; Grothe, M.; Johnson, R.; Kroeger, W.; Lockman, W.; Pulliam, T.; Rowe, W.; Schmitz, R.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Turri, M.; Wilder, M.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Scott, I.; Walsh, J.; Zobernig, H.

    2000-01-01

    The BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is designed to provide the high-precision vertexing necessary for making measurements of CP violation at the SLAC B-Factory PEP-II. The instrument consists of five layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors and has been installed in the BaBar experiment and taking colliding beam data since May 1999. An overview of the design as well as performance and experience from the initial running will be presented

  17. A high protein diet during pregnancy affects hepatic gene expression of energy sensing pathways along ontogenesis in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages.

  18. Search for scalar leptoquark pairs decaying to νν-bar qq-bar in p anti-p collisions at √s = 1.96 Tev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, D.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a search for the pair production of scalar leptoquarks, LQ, using 191 pb -1 of proton-antiproton collision data recorded by the CDF experiment during Run II of the Tevatron. The leptoquarks are sought via their decay into a neutrino and quark yielding missing transverse energy and several jets of large transverse energy. No evidence for leptoquark production is observed, and limits are set on σ(p(bar p) → LQ(ovr OQ)X → v(bar v)q(bar q)X). Using a next-to-leading order theoretical prediction of the cross section for scalar leptoquark production, we exclude first-generation leptoquarks in the mass interval 78 to 117 GeV/c 2 at the 95% confidence level for BR(LQ → vq) = 100%

  19. Measurement of the t(bar t) production cross section in p(bar p) collisions at √s - 1.96 Tev using dilepton event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, D.; CDF Collaboration

    2004-01-01

    We report a measurement of the t(bar t) production cross section using dilepton events with jets and missing transverse energy in p(bar p) collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. Using a 197 ± 12 pb -1 data sample recorded by the upgraded Collider Detector at Fermilab, we use two complementary techniques to select candidate events. We compare the number of observed events and selected kinematical distributions with the predictions of the standard model and find good agreement. The combined result of the two techniques yields a t(bar t) production cross section of 7.0 -2.1 +2.4 (stat) -1.1 1 .6 (syst) ± 0.4(lum) pb

  20. The hydrogen 700 project - 700 Bar Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambone, L.; Webster, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Major automotive companies, including DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Hyundai, Nissan, PSA Peugeot-Citroen, and Toyota, are co-operating in the Hydrogen 700 project at Powertech to establish a global basis for high pressure hydrogen fuel systems for vehicles. The fuel systems will store compressed hydrogen on-board at pressures up to 700 bar (10,000psi). It is anticipated that the 700 bar storage pressure will provide hydrogen powered vehicles with a range comparable to the range of petroleum-fueled vehicles. The Hydrogen 700 project has contracted world leaders in high pressure technologies to provide 700 bar fuel system components for evaluation. The data from these tests will be used as the basis for the development of relevant standards and regulations. In a development that complements the Hydrogen 700 project, Powertech Labs has established the world's first 700 bar hydrogen station for fast filling operations. This prototype station will be used to evaluate the performance of the 700 bar vehicle fuel system components. The presentation will provide an overview of the Hydrogen 700 project. Safety issues surrounding the use of compressed hydrogen gas as a vehicle fuel, as well as the use of higher storage pressures, will be reviewed. Test data involving the fire testing of vehicles containing hydrogen fuel systems will be presented. The project is intended to result in the introduction of 700 bar fuel systems in the next generation of hydrogen powered vehicles. (author)

  1. Search for the Higgs boson in the ZH → νν-bar bb-bar channel with the D0 experiment at the TeVatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando, Ch.

    2008-09-01

    The origin of the electroweak symmetry breaking is one the pending questions at the beginning of the 21. century. Imagined in the 1960's, the Higgs mechanism offers a theoretical solution to this problem, while predicting a new particle, the Higgs boson, undiscovered up to now. This particle has been searched with the DO detector at the Tevatron hadronic collider, with a center of mass energy of 1,96 TeV. The analysis channel is ZH → νν-bar bb-bar. For this search, an optimization of the trigger conditions specific to signals with jets plus missing transverse energy final states has been performed. Moreover, a tool was designed to measure the corresponding efficiencies. A precise determination of the jet energies is also an essential ingredient for this analysis. A method was developed in order to correct the simulated jets for the differences observed in jet energy scale, energy resolution and reconstruction efficiency between data and simulation. The data analysis, performed with an integrated luminosity of 2.1 fb -1 , did not reveal any excess. For a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV, a limit has been set at 95% C.L. on the cross section times branching fraction of (pp-barb → H(Z/W)) x (H → bar bb-bar), which is 7.5 times larger than the standard model value. (author)

  2. Precision Measurement of the Mass of the Top Quark in p $\\bar{p}$ Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Carlos A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2007-01-01

    We report a measurement of the mass of the top quark (mtop) in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The analysis is based on p$\\bar{p}$→t$\\bar{t}$→ lepton+jets data recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Events were preselected in the e+jets (913 events/pb of data) and in the μ+jets (871 events/pb of data) channels. These were analyzed through a comparison of the matrix element for the production and decay of the t$\\bar{t}$ states with data, using a likelihood method and 'tagged' b quarks from the t → Wb decays.

  3. Diffractive Dijet Production in $\\bar{p}p$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Albrow, M.; /Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2012-06-01

    We report on a study of diffractive dijet production in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron {bar p}p collider. A data sample from 310 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by triggering on a high transverse energy jet, E{sub T}{sup jet}, in coincidence with a recoil antiproton detected in a Roman pot spectrometer is used to measure the ratio of single-diffractive to inclusive-dijet event rates as a function of x{sup {bar p}} of the interacting parton in the antiproton, the Bjorken-x, x{sub Bj}{sup {bar p}}, and a Q{sup 2} {approx} (E{sub T}{sup jet}){sup 2} in the ranges 10{sup -3} < x{sub Bj}{sup {bar p}} < 10{sup -1} and 10{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 10{sup 4} GeV{sup 2}, respectively. Results are presented for the region of {bar p}-momentum-loss fraction 0.03 < {zeta}{sub {bar p}} < 0.09 and a four-momentum transfer squared t{sub {bar p}} > -4 GeV{sup 2}. The t{sub {bar p}} dependence is measured as a function of Q{sup 2} and x{sub Bj}{sup {bar p}} and compared with that of inclusive single diffraction dissociation. We find weak x{sub Bj}{sup bar p}} and Q{sup 2} dependencies in the ratio of single diffractive to inclusive event rates, and no significant Q{sup 2} dependence in the diffractive t{sub {bar p}} distributions.

  4. Anisotropic chemical etching of semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} ZnO crystallographic planes: polarity versus dangling bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Lidon, E; Perez-GarcIa, B; Colchero, J; Vennegues, P; Zuniga-Perez, J; Munoz-Sanjose, V

    2009-01-01

    ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy along the nonpolar [112-bar] direction and exhibiting semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} facets have been chemically etched with HCl. In order to get an insight into the influence of the ZnO wurtzite structure in the chemical reactivity of the material, Kelvin probe microscopy and convergent beam electron diffraction have been employed to unambiguously determine the absolute polarity of the facets, showing that {101-bar +1} facets are unstable upon etching in an HCl solution and transform into (000+1)/{101-bar 1-bar} planes. In contrast, {101-bar 1-bar} undergo homogeneous chemical etching perpendicular to the initial crystallographic plane. The observed etching behavior has been explained in terms of surface oxygen dangling bond density, suggesting that the macroscopic polarity plays a secondary role in the etching process.

  5. Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.; Meade, R.

    2012-04-01

    A powerful metaphor in fluvial geomorphology has been that depositional features such as point bars (and other floodplain features) constitute the river's historical memory in the form of uniformly thick sedimentary deposits waiting for the geomorphologist to dissect and interpret the past. For the past three decades, along the channel of Powder River (Montana USA) we have documented (with annual cross-sectional surveys and pit trenches) the evolution of the shape of three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Subsequent erosion has substantially reshaped, at different time scales, the relic sediment deposits of varying age. At the weekly to monthly time scale (i.e., floods from snowmelt or floods from convective or cyclonic storms), the maximum scour depth was computed (by using a numerical model) at locations spaced 1 m apart across the entire point bar for a couple of the largest floods. The maximum predicted scour is about 0.22 m. At the annual time scale, repeated cross-section topographic surveys (25 during 32 years) indicate that net annual erosion at a single location can be as great as 0.5 m, and that the net erosion is greater than net deposition during 8, 16, and 32% of the years for the three point bars. On average, the median annual net erosion was 21, 36, and 51% of the net deposition. At the decadal time scale, an index of point bar preservation often referred to as completeness was defined for each cross section as the percentage of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011; computations indicate that 19, 41, and 36% of the initial deposits of sediment were eroded. Initial deposits were not uniform in thickness and often represented thicker pods of sediment connected by thin layers of sediment or even isolated pods at different elevations across the point bar in response to multiple

  6. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambruosi, Barbara; Uranio, Manuel Filioli; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  7. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements. Biological products must comply with the bar code requirements at § 201.25 of this chapter. However, the bar...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually increasing...

  9. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar admission...

  10. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  11. A search for bar νe appearance from stopped π+ and μ+ decay at LAMPF [Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    We report on a recent search for bar ν e appearance from stopped π + → μ + ν μ and μ + → e + ν e bar ν μ decay made by the LAMPF experiment E645. The appearance of bar ν e may occur from bar ν μ → bar ν e , ν e → bar ν eL , or ν μ → bar ν eL oscillations. Appearance may also occur from rare μ + → e + bar ν e ν μ decay, which is allowed by a multiplicative lepton charge conservation law. The neutrino energies range from E ν = 0 to 52.8MeV. The neutrino detector, which is located 26.1 meters from the neutrino source, consists of a segmented liquid scintillator and proportional drift tube central detector surrounded by both active and passive shielding. The central detector detects bar ν e through the bar ν e p → ne + Charge Current (CC) reaction, which is signaled by the direct detection of the final state positron and neutron. The hydrogen-rich liquid scintillators act as free proton targets for the bar ν e p CC reaction. The neutrons are detected through radiative neutron capture on gadolinium. We find no evidence for bar ν e appearance in the first year of running. New limits on the bar ν μ ,ν e ,ν μ → bar ν e oscillation parameters and the rare μ + → e + bar ν e ν μ decay branching ratio are presented. 87 refs., 45 figs., 17 tabs

  12. Structural and functional affection of the heart in protein energy malnutrition patients on admission and after nutritional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, H L; Nassar, M F; Habib, N M; Elmasry, O A; Gomaa, S M

    2006-04-01

    The pathogenesis of different malnutrition diseases was suggested to affect the heart. This study was designed to detect cardiac affection in protein energy malnutrition (PEM) patients, whether clinically or by electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram, and to assess the value of the cardiac marker troponin I in patients at risk of myocardial injury with special emphasis on the effect of nutritional rehabilitation. The present study was carried out on 30 PEM infants (16 nonedematous - 14 edematous) and 10 apparently healthy age and sex-matched infants acting as the control group. All studied infants were subjected to full history taking laying stress on dietetic history, thorough clinical and anthropometric measurements. Echocardiography and ECG were also performed. Laboratory investigations were performed including complete blood count, CRP, total proteins, albumin, liver and kidney functions as well as estimation of troponin-I in blood by immulite. Following initial evaluation, all malnourished infants were subjected to nutritional rehabilitation program for approximately 8 weeks, after which the patients were re-evaluated using the same preinterventional parameters. The results of the present study demonstrated that electrical properties of myocardium assessed by ECG showed significant decrease of R wave and QTc interval in patients compared to controls with significant improvement after nutritional rehabilitation. Echocardigraphic changes showed that cardiac mass index was significantly lower in both groups of malnourished cases compared to the controls with significant increase after nutritional rehabilitation. The study showed that the parameters of left ventricular (LV) systolic function which are the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and velocity of circumferential fiber shortening were not significantly reduced in patients compared to the controls. The diastolic function also showed no significant difference in the E wave/A wave (e/a) ratio between

  13. Search for the pair production of scalar top quarks in the acoplanar charm jet final state in pp-bar collisions at √=1.96 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.

    2007-01-01

    A search for the pair production of scalar top quarks, t-bar, has been performed in 360 pb -1 of data from pp-bar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, collected by the DO detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The t-bar decay mode considered is t-bar →cχ=-bar 1 0 , where χ-bar 1 0 is the lightest supersymmetric particle. The topology analyzed therefore consists of a pair of acoplanar heavy-flavor jets with missing transverse energy. The data and standard model expectation are in agreement, and a 95% C.L. exclusion domain in the (m t-bar ,m χ-bar 1 0 ) plane has been determined, extending the domain excluded by previous experiments

  14. Membrane-sculpting BAR domains generate stable lipid microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.

    2013-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR...... domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by "freezing" phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced...... phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved...

  15. Studying W‧ boson contributions in \\bar{B} \\rightarrow {D}^{(* )}{{\\ell }}^{-}{\\bar{\

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Long; Wei, Bin; Sheng, Jin-Huan; Wang, Ru-Min; Yang, Ya-Dong

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the Belle collaboration reported the first measurement of the τ lepton polarization P τ (D*) in \\bar{B}\\to {D}* {τ }-{\\bar{ν }}τ decay and a new measurement of the rate of the branching ratios R(D*), which are consistent with the Standard Model (SM) predictions. These could be used to constrain the New Physics (NP) beyond the SM. In this paper, we probe \\bar{B}\\to {D}(* ){{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell } (ℓ = e, μ, τ) decays in the model-independent way and in the specific G(221) models with lepton flavour universality. Considering the theoretical uncertainties and the experimental errors at the 95% C.L., we obtain the quite strong bounds on the model-independent parameters {C}{{LL}}{\\prime },{C}{{LR}}{\\prime },{C}{{RR}}{\\prime },{C}{{RL}}{\\prime },{g}V,{g}A,{g}V{\\prime },{g}A{\\prime } and the specific G(221) model parameter rates. We find that the constrained NP couplings have no obvious effects on all (differential) branching ratios and their rates, nevertheless, many NP couplings have very large effects on the lepton spin asymmetries of \\bar{B}\\to {D}(* ){{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell } decays and the forward–backward asymmetries of \\bar{B}\\to {D}* {{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell }. So we expect precision measurements of these observables would be researched by LHCb and Belle-II.

  16. GaInN quantum well design and measurement conditions affecting the emission energy S-shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzel, Carsten; Hatami, Soheil; Hoffmann, Veit; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wernicke, Tim; Kneissl, Michael [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Polarization fields and charge carrier localization are the dominant factors defining the radiative recombination processes in the quantum wells of most AlGaInN-based optoelectronic devices. Both factors determine emission energy, emission line width, recombination times, and internal quantum efficiency. For a deeper understanding of the charge carrier recombination processes, we have performed temperature and excitation power dependent photoluminescence experiments on epitaxially grown GaInN structures to study the S-shape of the temperature dependent emission energy. The S-shape behaviour in GaInN quantum wells (QWs) is dominated by the temperature dependence of the charge carrier localization. However, in polar QWs it is strongly affected by the charge carrier density which screens the piezoelectric field. External applied fields change the observable S-shape characteristic significantly. Semi- and nonpolar GaInN QWs feature an S-shape behaviour which points to much stronger charge carrier localization compared to polar QWs. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Coal lumps vs. electrons: How do Chinese bulk energy transport decisions affect the global steam coal market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz; Trüby, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the ways in which different Chinese bulk energy transport strategies affect the future steam coal market in China and in the rest of the world. An increase in Chinese demand for steam coal will lead to a growing need for additional domestic infrastructure as production hubs and demand centers are spatially separated, and domestic transport costs could influence the future Chinese steam coal supply mix. If domestic transport capacity is available only at elevated costs, Chinese power generators could turn to the global trade markets and further increase steam coal imports. Increased Chinese imports could then yield significant changes in steam coal market economics on a global scale. This effect is analyzed in China, where coal is mainly transported by railway, and in another setting where coal energy is transported as electricity. For this purpose, a spatial equilibrium model for the global steam coal market has been developed. One major finding is that if coal is converted into electricity early in the supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are lower than if coal is transported via railway. Furthermore, China's dependence on international imports is significantly reduced in this context. Allocation of welfare changes particularly in favor of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease.

  18. The many factors that affect the success of regulatory mechanisms designed to foster investments in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnikau [LBJ School of Public Affairs and Division of Statistics of the College of Natural Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    A utility's profit-maximizing level of investment in energy efficiency or demand-side management (DSM) programs and mix of programs is affected by natural load growth, the frequency of rate cases, program costs, and the structure of any mechanism designed to either compensate the utility for foregone profits or sever the link between sales and profits. Under a range of reasonable assumptions, decoupling can incent a utility to invest in DSM. However, a utility experiencing high natural load growth and little inflation is likely to resist the imposition of a decoupling mechanism, as it would tend to lower profits. A utility with low growth in per-customer sales will tend to favor decoupling, as it will tend to lead to higher profits than under traditional regulation. The results presented here are quite sensitive to the assumptions made regarding natural load growth, regulatory lag, the frequency of price changes, price elasticity of demand, and other factors. This suggests that there is not a single approach to promoting energy efficiency without penalizing utility profits that will work in all situations for all utilities.

  19. Search for Anomalous Production of Photon + Jets + Missing Transverse Energy in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$~TeV Using the CDF II Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewamanage, Samantha Kaushalya [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A model-independent signature-based search for physics beyond the Standard Model is performed in the photon + jets + missing transverse energy channel in \\ppbar collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector. Events with a photon + jets are predicted by the Standard Model and also by many theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. In the Standard Model, the main mechanisms for photon + jets production include quark-antiquark annihilation and quark-gluon scattering. No intrinsic missing transverse energy is present in any of these Standard Model processes. In this search, photon + $\\geq$1 jet and photon + $\\geq$2 jet events are analyzed with and without a minimum requirement on the missing transverse energy. Numerous mass distributions and kinematic distributions are studied and no significant excess over the background prediction is found. All results indicate good agreement with expectations of the Standard Model.

  20. Scroll bar growth on the coastal Trinity River, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The processes leading to the formation and growth of scroll bars remain relatively mysterious despite how often they are referenced in fluvial literature. Their definition is descriptive; they are characterized as arcuate topographic highs present on the inner banks of channel bends on meandering rivers, landward of point bars. Often, they are used as proxies for previous positions of point bars. This assumption of a one-to-one correspondence between point bars and scroll bars should be reconsidered as 1) planform curvature for scroll bars is consistently smaller than the curvature for adjacent point bars, and 2) deposition on the scroll bar is typically distinct and disconnected from the adjacent point bar deposition. Results from time-lapse airborne lidar data as well as from trenches through five separate scroll bar - point bar pairings on the Trinity River in east TX, USA, will be discussed in relation to formative scroll bar processes and their connection to point bars. On the lidar difference map, scroll bar growth appears as a strip of increased deposition flanked on both the land- and channel-ward sides by areas with no or limited deposition. Trenches perpendicular to these scrolls typically show a base of dune-scale cross stratification interpreted to be associated with a previous position of the point bar. These dune sets are overlain by sets of climbing-ripple cross-strata that form the core of the modern scroll bar and preserve a record of multiple transport directions (away from, towards, and parallel to the channel). Preliminary Trinity River grain-size analyses show that the constructional scrolls are enriched in all grain sizes less than 250 microns in diameter, while point bars are enriched in all grain sizes above this cut off. Scroll bars are hypothesized to be akin to levees along the inner banks of channels-flow expansion caused by the presence of point bars induces deposition of suspended sediment that defines the positions of the scroll bars.

  1. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At this time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable, however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  2. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  3. The He+H-bar → Hep-bar +e+ rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Allan C.; Armour, Edward A.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a summary of our work in progress on calculating cross sections for the He+H-bar ->Hep-bar +e + rearrangement process in HeH-bar scattering. This has involved a study of the system Hep-bar within the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation using the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method. This work has been reported in [A.C. Todd, E.A.G. Armour, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 3367] and is summarised here. Similar calculations are in progress for the He+H-bar entrance channel. We intend to use the entrance channel and rearrangement channel wave functions to obtain the cross sections for the rearrangement using the distorted wave Born approximation T-matrix method described elsewhere in these proceedings [E.A.G. Armour, S. Jonsell, Y. Liu, A.C. Todd, these Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.01.049

  4. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in long bars with application to Kolsky bar testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Material testing using the Kolsky bar, or split Hopkinson bar, technique has proven instrumental to conduct measurements of material behavior at strain rates in the order of 103 s-1. Test design and data reduction, however, remain empirical endeavors based on the experimentalist's experience. Issues such as wave propagation across discontinuities, the effect of the deformation of the bar surfaces in contact with the specimen, the effect of geometric features in tensile specimens (dog-bone shape), wave dispersion in the bars and other particulars are generally treated using simplified models. The work presented here was conducted in Q3 and Q4 of FY14. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of numerical simulations of Kolsky bar tests, which was done successfully.

  5. Does environmental regulation affect energy efficiency in China's thermal power generation? Empirical evidence from a slacks-based DEA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Gong-Bing; Song, Wen; Zhou, P.; Liang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has gained much popularity in performance measurement of power industry. This paper presents a slack-based measure approach to investigating the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and the environmental regulation of China's thermal power generation. We first calculate the total-factor energy efficiency without considering environmental constraints. An environmental performance indicator is proposed through decomposing the total-factor energy efficiency. The proposed approach is then employed to examine whether environmental regulation affects the energy efficiency of China's thermal power generation. We find that the environmental efficiency plays a significant role in affecting energy performance of China's thermal generation sector. Decreasing the discharge of major pollutants can improve both energy performance and environmental efficiency. Besides, we also have three main findings: (1) The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency were relatively low. (2) The energy and environmental efficiency scores show great variations among provinces. (3) Both energy efficiency and environmental efficiency are of obvious geographical characteristics. According to our findings, we suggest some policy implications. - Highlights: • We assess the energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency of China's thermal power generation simultaneously. • The energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency were relatively low during 2007–2009. • The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency show obvious geographic characters. • The environmental performance of a DMU plays a decisive role in the energy performance

  6. Development, Characterization, and Optimization of Protein Level in Date Bars Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to produce a nourishing date bar with commercial value especially for school going children to meet their body development requirements. Protein level of date bars was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Economical and underutilized sources, that is, whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates, were explored for protein supplementation. Fourteen date bar treatments were produced using a central composite design (CCD with 2 variables and 3 levels for each variable. Date bars were then analyzed for nutritional profile. Proximate composition revealed that addition of whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates improved the nutritional profile of date bars. Protein level, texture, and taste were considerably improved by incorporating 6.05% whey protein concentrate and 4.35% vetch protein isolates in date bar without affecting any sensory characteristics during storage. Response surface methodology was observed as an economical and effective tool to optimize the ingredient level and to discriminate the interactive effects of independent variables.

  7. Second-class currents and DELTA s in nu(nu-bar)p elastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, D H

    2001-01-01

    nu(nu-bar)p elastic scattering is sensitive to the magnitude, DELTA s, of the strange quark's presence within the proton. But it is also sensitive to the strength of second-class currents so we must be assured that the effect of such currents, having regard for the experimental upper limit to their strength, is negligible before extracting DELTA s from such scattering. It is shown that searches for DELTA s through nu(nu-bar)p elastic scattering are unlikely to be troubled by this consideration below neutrino energies of about 0.1 GeV but that at higher energies very serious uncertainty arises.

  8. Re-study of the contribution of scalar potential and spectra of cc-bar, bb-bar and bc-bar(b-bar c) families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xuhao; Ke Hongwei; Ding Yibing; Li Xueqian

    2012-01-01

    We indicated in our previous work that for QED the role of the scalar potential which appears at the loop level is much smaller than that of the vector potential and is in fact negligible. But the situation is different for QCD, one reason is that the loop effects are more significant because α s is much larger than α, and second the non-perturbative QCD effects may induce a sizable scalar potential. In this work, we study phenomenologically the contribution of the scalar potential to the spectra of charmonia, bottomonia and bc-bar (b-bar c) families. Taking into account both vector and scalar potentials, by fitting the well measured charmonia and bottomonia spectra, we re-fix the relevant parameters and test them by calculating other states of not only the charmonia and bottomonia families, but also the bc-bar family. We also consider the Lamb shift of the spectra. (authors)

  9. Measurement of the t (bar t) cross section at the Run II Tevatron using Support Vector Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, Benjamin Eric

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation measures the t(bar t) production cross section at the Run II CDF detector using data from early 2001 through March 2007. The Tevatron at Fermilab is a p(bar p) collider with center of mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. This data composes a sample with a time-integrated luminosity measured at 2.2 ± 0.1 fb -1 . A system of learning machines is developed to recognize t(bar t) events in the 'lepton plus jets' decay channel. Support Vector Machines are described, and their ability to cope with a multi-class discrimination problem is provided. The t(bar t) production cross section is then measured in this framework, and found to be σ t# bar t# = 7.14 ± 0.25 (stat) -0.86 +0.61 (sys) pb.

  10. Drunk and disorganised: relationships between bar characteristics and customer intoxication in European drinking environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; Quigg, Zara; Bellis, Mark A; Calafat, Amador; van Hasselt, Ninette; Kosir, Matej; Voorham, Lotte; Goossens, Ferry X; Duch, Mariangels; Juan, Montse

    2012-11-12

    Preventing alcohol-related harm in drinking environments is a growing international priority. Factors relating to the physical, social and staffing environments in bars can contribute to increased alcohol consumption and harm. Understanding the relationships between such factors and intoxication in European drinking environments is critical to developing appropriate interventions. We undertook a quantitative observational study in 60 bars in four European cities, in The Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK (n = 237 observational visits). Using a structured observational schedule, researchers recorded characteristics of the bar environment and rated customer intoxication levels. All physical bar characteristics showed associations with intoxication before interactions between them were controlled for. Hierarchical modelling found significant independent associations between intoxication and use of plastic glassware, promotion of non-alcoholic drinks (often energy drinks), permissive environments, poor washroom facilities, the presence of a dance floor, customer sexual activity/competitiveness and later observational time. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should focus on raising and enforcing managerial standards in bars. While harm reduction measures such as plastic glassware are often promoted for high risk bars, such measures are inadequate to address public health concerns and insufficient to demonstrate social responsibility.

  11. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ambruosi

    Full Text Available Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM, CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05. This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001 and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001. At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM, DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001 and ROS increase (P<0.0001 in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity, intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05, possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into

  12. Supersymmetry at e+e- and p bar p colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Searches for non-standard decay modes of the Z 0 boson at LEP and SLC have resulted in model-dependent supersymmetric particle mass limits of m approx-gt M Z /2. In this paper, the authors extract model-independent mass limits on particles from constraints on the total Z width and peak hadronic cross-section. The authors also point out what remains to be done at LEP in regards to the search for supersymmetry: this mainly entails searching for fractional number of neutrinos, and missing energy events. At p bar p colliders, the search for supersymmetry at the Tevatron is reviewed. Cascade decays of quarks and gluinos can be best searched for via usual searches for missing energy plus jet events, but also be searching for isolated same-sign dileptons, and events containing real Z bosons plus jets plus missing transverse energy

  13. CERN pp-bar project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, R.

    1987-01-01

    The recent epoch-making scientific discoveries at CERN of the intermediate vector bosons marked the culmination of what could perhaps be described as the most challenging and exciting adventure in the field of accelerator physics. The success of this daring enterprise required the utmost in the physics and engineering of accelerators and levels of reliability reminiscent of the Apollo space program. In what follows, I hope to be able to at least whet your appetites for what may well prove to be the beginning of a new era in High Energy Particle Accelerators

  14. The Disability Dilemma: A Skeptical Bench & Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy F. Hensel

    2008-01-01

    The legal profession is no stranger to the bias and prejudice present in American society. Members of the bar have been shown to engage in both conscious and subconscious sexism and racism, posing challenges to the profession as the profile of those practicing law has changed over the last several decades to admit increasing numbers of women and minorities.1 Nevertheless, it is notable that few, if any, members of the bar today would question openly whether women or people of color have the a...

  15. Jazz Chants Born in a Piano Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When I first arrived in New York in the late sixties, I began teaching ESL at New York University. I didn`t really think of teaching as a profession for me. I just thought it would pay the rent so I could do what I really wanted to do which was to sing and play ragtime piano in the piano bars. When I got my first piano job in an Irish Bar it was uptown, far away from NYU so I didn`t feel it was necessary to mention this night job to my boss.

  16. Precracking of round notched bars. Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibetta, M.

    1996-02-01

    Precracking round notched bars is the first step before fracture mechanics testing. This report gives an overview of the different techniques described in the literature. Difficulties generally encountered are linked to the crack length determination and the creation of eccentric cracks. As the compliance technique is often used, a detailed study of the stress intensity factor and the compliance of the precracked bar under bending and tension is presented. Comparison with finite element calculations is made to validate the proposed analytical formulation. Finally a practical way for precracking is described

  17. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  18. Imaging of physeal bars in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, David C.; Deeney, Vincent; Roach, James W.; Shah, Amisha J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth plate, also known as the physis or epiphyseal plate, is essential for longitudinal growth of bones in the immature skeleton. A variety of insults to the growth plate from trauma to infection to idiopathic causes can lead to physeal bar formation, an interruption in normal growth plate cartilage, where a bony or fibrous bridge develops between the metaphysis and epiphysis. This bridge restricts subsequent bone growth, leading to limb shortening and/or angular deformities. Early recognition of the presence of a physeal bar can help direct appropriate surgical management to restore linear growth of the bone. (orig.)

  19. Radar application in void and bar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2003-01-01

    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  20. A bar coding system for environmental projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.B.; Hunt, B.J.; Burgess, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents BeCode systems, a bar coding system which provides both nuclear and commercial clients with a data capture and custody management program that is accurate, timely, and beneficial to all levels of project operations. Using bar code identifiers is an essentially paperless and error-free method which provides more efficient delivery of data through its menu card-driven structure, which speeds collection of essential data for uploading to a compatible device. The effects of this sequence include real-time information for operator analysis, management review, audits, planning, scheduling, and cost control

  1. Development of a miniature tensile Kolsky bar for dynamic testing of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jastin V.

    Mechanical properties such as yield stress and ultimate strength are most commonly obtained under quasi-static (strain rate of 10--4 s--1) loading conditions Materials such as metals, ceramics, and polymers may exhibit significant changes in mechanical response when subjected to high strain rate (102 --105 per second) conditions. The loading rate or strain rate can affect the material properties such as elastic modulus, yield strength, work hardening, and ductility. To ensure product quality and reliability under impact conditions, the mechanical responses of materials under dynamic loading conditions must be characterized. A Kolsky bar is a tool that can be used to study the uniaxial compressive constitutive behavior of materials under high strain rates. The goal of this thesis is to develop a miniature Tensile Kolsky bar that can be used to test materials with thickness on the order of 200 micrometers (thin foils). The system consists of a cylindrical launch tube with an internal striker, a rectangular incident bar and a transmitted bar. The specimen is held in pockets that were milled directly into the incident and transmitted bar. The rectangular incident and transmitted bars facilitate specimen and strain gage mounting. The rectangular section also provides a reduced cross sectional bar area compared to a bar of circular cross section with diameter equivalent to the width of the rectangular bar, which increases the system sensitivity. This thesis presents the detailed description of the miniature Kolsky bar device, specimen geometry, diagnostic techniques and different calibration and validation techniques used for developing the system. The Kolsky bar setup was used to test 99.9 percent pure magnesium at two different strain rates (5000 and 10000 per second). Specimens were cut from billets processed via the 4Bc equal channel angular extrusion route and were tested in three different directions: extrusion, longitudinal and transverse. The results from the

  2. Artificial sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L

    2011-10-01

    Previous laboratory research on alcohol absorption has found that substitution of artificially sweetened alcohol mixers for sucrose-based mixers has a marked effect on the rate of gastric emptying, resulting in elevated blood alcohol concentrations. Studies conducted in natural drinking settings, such as bars, have indicated that caffeine ingestion while drinking is associated with higher levels of intoxication. To our knowledge, research has not examined the effects of alcohol mixers that contain both an artificial sweetener and caffeine, that is, diet cola. Therefore, we assessed the event-specific association between diet cola consumption and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons. We sought to determine whether putative increases in blood alcohol, produced by accelerated gastric emptying following diet cola consumption, as identified in the laboratory, also appear in a natural setting associated with impaired driving. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 2 nighttime field studies that collected anonymous information from 413 randomly selected bar patrons in 2008 and 2010. Data sets were merged and recoded to distinguish between energy drink, regular cola, diet cola, and noncaffeinated alcohol mixers. Caffeinated alcohol mixers were consumed by 33.9% of the patrons. Cola-caffeinated mixed drinks were much more popular than those mixed with energy drinks. A large majority of regular cola-caffeinated mixed drink consumers were men (75%), whereas diet cola-caffeinated mixed drink consumers were more likely to be women (57%). After adjusting for the number of drinks consumed and other potential confounders, number of diet cola mixed drinks had a significant association with patron intoxication (β = 0.233, p 0.05). Caffeine's effect on intoxication may be most pronounced when mixers are artificially sweetened, that is, lack sucrose which slows the rate of gastric emptying of alcohol. Risks associated with on-premise drinking may be reduced by greater

  3. Effects of Gravel Bars on Nutrient Spiraling in Bedrock-Alluvium Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iobst, B. R.; Carroll, E. P.; Furbish, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The importance of the connection between nutrient transport and local stream geomorphology is becoming increasingly important. Studies have shown that the interconnectivity of nutrient cycles in the downstream direction is in part controlled by the distribution and size of gravel bars in low order streams, as hyporheic flow occurs dominantly through alternate and mid-channel gravel bars. For this investigation multiple gravel bars in a 3rd order bedrock-alluvium stream were studied to determine general relationships between nutrient spiraling and hyporheic flow. The first goal was to understand (1) the extent to which water moves through hyporheic zones and (2) the basic chemistry of the hyporheic water. The second part of the study was to understand how nutrients, notably nitrogen, are affected in their cycling by the relatively long residence times encountered in gravel bars during hyporheic flow. Wells were installed along a 600 m reach of Panther Creek, KY in selected bars, as well as in a secondary location involving a grid installation pattern in one large bar. Results have shown that hyporheic flow through gravel bars is an important factor in influencing stream chemistry. Background water chemistry surveys have shown that certain parameters, specifically ammonium and nitrogen concentrations vary downstream, and that the dominant control over these changes is gravel bar location. Rhodamine WT was used in field tracer tests to track the travel times of water through bars as well as partitioning of water between the open channel and hyporheic flows. Further tests will be conducted utilizing a stable isotope study to determine how nitrogen is affected by hyporheic flow, and what implications this has for nutrient transport. We expect results to show that the spacing and size of gravel bars is a dominant control in key nutrient spiraling parameters, namely uptake lengths and overall nitrogen cycling rates. This has implications for how natural systems will

  4. Where do the highest energy CR's come from? and How does the Milky Way affect their arrival directions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronberg Philipp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A “grand magnetic design” for the Milky Way disk clearly emerges within ~1.5 kpc of the Galactic mid-plane near the Sun [1], and reveals a pitch angle of −5.5°. directed inward from the Solar tangential. This pitch angle can be expected to differ for Galactic disc locations other than ours. Above ~1.5 kpc, the field geometry is completely different, and its 3-D structure is not yet completely specified. However it appears that the UHECR (> 5 · 1019 eV propagation to us is not much affected by the halo field, at least for protons. I discuss new multi-parameter analyses of UHECR deflections which provide a conceptual “template” for future interpretations of energy-species-direction data from AUGER, HiRes etc., and their successors [2]. I show how the strength and structure of the cosmologically nearby intergalactic magnetic field, BIGM, is now well-estimated out to D ~5 Mpc from the Milky Way: − 20nG. These are the first VHECR data-based estimates of BIGM on nearby supragalactic scales, and are also important for understanding and modeling CR propagation in the more distant Universe. CR Acceleration to the highest energies is probably a natural accompanying phenomenon of Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH-associated jets and lobes [3]. I briefly describe what we know about magnetic configurations in these candidate sites for UHECR acceleration, and the first direct estimate of an extragalactic Poynting flux current, ~3 · 1018 Amperes [4, 5]. This number connects directly to SMBH accretion disk physics, and leads directly to ideas of how VHECR acceleration in jets and lobes, possibly involving magnetic reconnection, is likely to be common in the Universe. It remains to be fully understood.

  5. Identification and quantification of principal–agent problems affecting energy efficiency investments and use decisions in the trucking industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, David; Meier, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Energy related Principal–Agent (PA) problems cause inefficient combinations of investment, operating costs, and usage behavior. The complex market structure of the trucking industry contributes to split incentives because entities responsible for investments in energy efficiency do not always pay fuel costs and drivers are often not rewarded for fuel-efficient operation. Some contractual relationships exist in the trucking industry that hinder responses to fuel price signals. Up to 91% of total trucking fuel consumption in the U.S. is affected by “usage” PA problems, where the driver does not pay fuel costs and lacks incentive for fuel saving operation. Approximately 23% of trailers are exposed to an “efficiency problem” when owners of rented trailers do not pay fuel costs and therefore have little incentive to invest in efficiency upgrades such as improved trailer aerodynamics and reduced tire rolling resistance. This study shows that PA problems have the potential to significantly increase fuel consumption through avoided investments, insufficient maintenance, and fuel-wasting practices. Further research into the causes and effects of PA problems can shape policies to promote better alignment of costs and benefits, leading to reduced fuel use and carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We identify and quantify principal agent market failures in the trucking industry. ► Up to 91% of truck fuel consumption is exposed to a usage principal–agent market failure. ► Twenty-three percent of trailers are exposed to an efficiency principal–agent market failure. ► These market failures at least partially insulate key decision makers from fuel price signals.

  6. Human, donkey and cow milk differently affects energy efficiency and inflammatory state by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; Canani, Roberto Berni; Matamoros, Sebastien; Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Gaita, Marcello; Cerino, Pellegrino; Negri, Rossella; Greco, Luigi; Cani, Patrice D; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2015-11-01

    Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15 °C) and under an elevated temperature (24 °C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4 °C and 15 °C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15 °C compared with 4 °C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised.

  8. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  9. Search for New Physics in the Exclusive $\\gamma_{Delayed}$ + Missing Transverse Energy Channel in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaadi, Jonathan Abraham [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a search in the exclusive photon plus missing transverse energy ( γ + E T) finnal state in proton antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV using the Collider Detector at Fermilab experiment. The strategy used here is to search for delayed photons coming from gauge mediated supersymmetric events with the exclusive production of X~01 → γG~. In these models the ~ 01 is the lightest neutralino and has nanosecond lifetime before decaying to a photon ( γ) and gravitino (~G) which exits the detector unrecorded. In order to search for this process we select collisions that have a single photon plus missing transverse energy and little other activity in the detector and examine the arrival time of the photon. This arrival time is then compared against expectations from a data driven background of the standard model sources. In the data collected from the Fermilab Tevatron collider from December 2004 to June 2010, representing 6.3 fb-1 of data, we observe 322 events in the photon arrival timing region from 2 nanoseconds to 7 nanoseconds with a data driven background prediction of 257 ± 35. An excess of 65 events is observed, equivalent to a standard deviation (N σ) of 1.65 from the null hypothesis.

  10. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  11. Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar, research results 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Hueting, T.F.; Joosten, B.; Uittenbogaard, J.; Martens, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    This document reports the advances made in 2016 for the Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement: Adaptive Automation, sub-project Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar. The ambition of the large scale TNO Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement is to develop a transparent (human-in-the-loop)

  12. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorodzki, P.; Piatkowski, A.; Wasielewski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  13. A piezo-bar pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

    1967-01-01

    Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

  14. The BaBar Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1999-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by ana-lyzing the decays of a very large sample of B and B(Bar) mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-II accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detec-tor subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "Personality Card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data is read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. The current implementation of the BaBar data acquisition sys-tem has been shown to sustain a Level 1 trigger rate of 1.3...

  15. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, B

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter is a hermetic, total-absorption array of CsI(Tl)-crystals, operated at the asymmetric e sup - e sup + -collider PEP-II at SLAC. The design and the status of the performance as of February 2002 is presented.

  16. Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

    After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

  17. QCD corrections to leptonic and hadronic observables from p bar p→W+X→ bar τντX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.; Reno, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    We set up a formalism for calculating the O(α s ) corrections to the process p bar p→W + X→ bar τν τ X with spin-correlated τ decays to leptons and mesons. Our results are applicable to Monte Carlo integration, which allows easy construction of any desired observable at next-to-leading-log level, and the possibility to include experimental cuts. Our results are applied explicitly to the decay modes τ→ bar ν τ bar eν e , bar τ→ bar ν τ π + , and bar τ→ bar ν τ π + π 0 ; other decay modes may be included in a straightforward fashion. We show results for transverse momentum and rapidity variables in leading-log and next-to-leading-log approximations; the leptonic observables are compared to similar observables from direct W→ bar eν e

  18. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars... 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum...

  19. English Bar as a Venue to Boost Students' Speaking Self-Efficacy at the Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxu

    2013-01-01

    Research in EFL and ESL has confirmed that self-efficacy affects language learners' choices of learning tasks, persistence, motivation and achievement. As a cognitive construct, self-efficacy can be strengthened by both outcomes of behaviors and input from the environment. This paper studies the effects of an English Bar, a self-access center for…

  20. The Impact of Bar Code Medication Administration Technology on Reported Medication Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The use of bar-code medication administration technology is on the rise in acute care facilities in the United States. The technology is purported to decrease medication errors that occur at the point of administration. How significantly this technology affects actual rate and severity of error is unknown. This descriptive, longitudinal research…

  1. High Bar Swing Performance in Novice Adults: Effects of Practice and Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Ranz, Daniel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's a priori talent can affect movement performance during learning. Also, task requirements and motor-perceptual factors are critical to the learning process. This study describes changes in high bar swing performance after a 2-month practice period. Twenty-five novice participants were divided by a priori talent level…

  2. vertical bar Vub vertical bar from exclusive semileptonic B→π decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Jonathan M.; Nieves, Juan

    2007-01-01

    We use Omnes representations of the form factors f + and f 0 for exclusive semileptonic B→π decays, paying special attention to the treatment of the B* pole and its effect on f + . We apply them to combine experimental partial branching fraction information with theoretical calculations of both form factors to extract vertical bar V ub vertical bar. The precision we achieve is competitive with the inclusive determination and we do not find a significant discrepancy between our result, vertical bar V ub vertical bar=(3.90+/-0.32+/-0.18)x10 -3 , and the inclusive world average value (4.45+/-0.20+/-0.26)x10 -3 [Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG), hep-ex/0603003

  3. The dependence of bar frequency on galaxy mass, colour, and gas content - and angular resolution - in the local universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Peter

    2018-03-01

    I use distance- and mass-limited subsamples of the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) to investigate how the presence of bars in spiral galaxies depends on mass, colour, and gas content and whether large, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-based investigations of bar frequencies agree with local data. Bar frequency reaches a maximum of fbar ≈ 0.70 at M⋆ ˜ 109.7M⊙, declining to both lower and higher masses. It is roughly constant over a wide range of colours (g - r ≈ 0.1-0.8) and atomic gas fractions (log (M_{H I}/ M_{\\star }) ≈ -2.5 to 1). Bars are thus as common in blue, gas-rich galaxies are they are in red, gas-poor galaxies. This is in sharp contrast to many SDSS-based studies of z ˜ 0.01-0.1 galaxies, which report fbar increasing strongly to higher masses (from M⋆ ˜ 1010 to 1011M⊙), redder colours, and lower gas fractions. The contradiction can be explained if SDSS-based studies preferentially miss bars in, and underestimate the bar fraction for, lower mass (bluer, gas-rich) galaxies due to poor spatial resolution and the correlation between bar size and stellar mass. Simulations of SDSS-style observations using the S4G galaxies as a parent sample, and assuming that bars below a threshold angular size of twice the point spread function full width at half-maximum cannot be identified, successfully reproduce typical SDSS fbar trends for stellar mass and gas mass ratio. Similar considerations may affect high-redshift studies, especially if bars grow in length over cosmic time; simulations suggest that high-redshift bar fractions may thus be systematically underestimated.

  4. Daya Terima Proporsi Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus Radiata L) Dan Bekatul (Rice Bran) Terhadap Kandungan Serat Pada Snack Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Pricilya, Vyatri; Wirjatmadi, Bambang; Andriani, Merryana

    2015-01-01

    Snack bar is a product made from cereal and nuts that usually consumed between meals. Commercial snack bar contains energy, protein, and fiber. The fiber content in it is usually 1 gram per 25 grams serving. The fiber content is relatively low because food categorized as high fi ber if it has 5 grams per 100 gram products. Therefore, a new innovation to improve its fi ber content is required. Green bean and rice bran are type of food with high fiber content that possible to be added in snack bar. T...

  5. DAYA TERIMA PROPORSI KACANG HIJAU (PHASEOLUS RADIATA L) DAN BEKATUL (RICE BRAN) TERHADAP KANDUNGAN SERAT PADA SNACK BAR

    OpenAIRE

    Pricilya, Vyatri; Wirjatmadi, Bambang; Andriani, Merryana

    2017-01-01

    Snack bar is a product made from cereal and nuts that usually consumed between meals. Commercial snack bar contains energy, protein, and fiber. The fiber content in it is usually 1 gram per 25 grams serving. The fiber content is relatively low because food categorized as high fi ber if it has 5 grams per 100 gram products. Therefore, a new innovation to improve its fi ber content is required. Green bean and rice bran are type of food with high fiber content that possible to be added in snack bar. T...

  6. Measurement of vertical bar Vub vertical bar in semi-inclusive charmless B → πX decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.; Lee, Jake; Oha, Sechul

    2002-01-01

    We study semi-inclusive charmless decays B → πX, where X does not contain a charm (anti)quark. The mode B-bar 0 → π - X turns out to be be particularly useful for determination of the CKM matrix element vertical bar V ub vertical bar. We present the branching ratio (BR) of B-bar 0 → π - X as a function of vertical bar V ub vertical bar, with an estimation of possible uncertainty. The BR is expected to be an order of 10 -4

  7. Measurements of partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries in Z sup 0 decays into ss-bar, cc-bar and bb-bar-preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Axelsson, M G

    1999-01-01

    Measurements are reported of partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries in flavour-identified quark final states based on the full LEP1 statistics, corresponding to 3x10 sup 6 hadronic Z sup 0 decays collected by the DELPHI experiment from 1992 to 1995. Particle identification provided by the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters and the Time Projection Chamber is used to obtain clear D sup 0 , D sup + , D sub s sup + and LAMBDA sub c sup + signatures. A measurement of the charm multiplicity in bb-bar events is also presented. Identification of high-energy charged kaons is used to tag the s quark. Two methods for determination of the forward-backward asymmetry of the s quark are presented.

  8. DYNAMICAL CALCULATIONS OF (K)over-bar AND MULTI-(K)over-bar NUCLEI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 2-3 (2009), s. 438-441 ISSN 0217-751X. [Conference MESON 2008. Jagiellonian Univ, Cracow, 06.06.2008-10.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : (K)over-bar-nuclear RMF calculations * (K)over-bar-nuclear bound states * kaon condensation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009

  9. Differential cross sections for e-bar CO elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Deo; Meetu

    2005-01-01

    In a recent investigation, Raj and Kumar modified the absorption potential of Staszewska el at al in such a way that it yielded the best agreement between theory and experiment for elastic cross sections when applied to e-bar - O 2 scattering over a wide incident energy range. In the present investigation, the same modified absorption potential of Raj and Kumar has been employed to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (EDCS) for electron scattering by CO molecules at intermediate energies (100-800 eV). The independent atom model alongwith partial waves has been used for these calculations.The present results of EDCS are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  10. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  11. Observation of B-s(0) -> (D)over-bar(0)K(S)(0) and Evidence for B-s(0) -> (D)over-bar*K-0(S)0 Decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Everse, LA; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Coco, V.; David, P. N.Y.; De Bruyn, K.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Heijne, V.; Ketel, T.; Koopman, R. F.; Van Leerdam, J.; Merk, M.; Onderwater, C. J.G.; Raven, G.; Schiller, M.; Serra, N.; Snoek, H.; Storaci, B.; Syropoulos, V.; Van Tilburg, J.; Tolk, S.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.

    2016-01-01

    The first observation of the B-s(0) -> (D) over bar K-0(S)0 decay mode and evidence for the B-s(0) -> (D) over bar*K-0(S)0 decay mode are reported. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 collected in pp collisions by LHCb at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The

  12. Oscillations of rigid bar in the special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2011-12-01

    In the special relativity, a rigid bar slides on herself, with a extreme oscillating harmonically. We have discovered at the movement amplitude and in the bar length, indispensable for the elimination of non physical solutions

  13. Numerical estimation of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protchenko Kostiantyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces numerical investigation on mechanical performance of a concrete beam reinforced with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars, which can be competitive alternative to steel bars for enhancing concrete structures. The objective of this work is being identified as elaborating of reliable numerical model for predicting strength capacity of structural elements with implementation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The numerical model is based on experimental study prepared for the beams, which were reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP bars and steel bars (for comparison. The results obtained for the beams reinforced with steel bars are found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. However, the beams reinforced with BFRP bars in experimental programme demonstrated higher bearing capacity than those reinforced with steel bars, which is not in a good convergence with numerical results. Authors did attempt to describe the reasons on achieving experimentally higher bearing capacity of beams reinforced with BFRP bars.

  14. Comparing Monte Carlo acceptance/efficiency for tt-bar single lepton events with central and plug electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, M.

    2005-01-01

    The tt-bar production using MC events with one charged lepton (electron), neutrino and jets from pp-bar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV was investigated. The aim of this work was to compare the rate of events in central (|η|<1.1) and plug (1.1<|η|<2.8) region. (author)

  15. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, P.J.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Graaf, de Kees; Higgs, S.; Lluch, A.; Ness, A.R.; Penfold, C.; Perry, R.; Putz, P.; Yeomans, M.R.; Mela, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a

  16. Isolating integrals of the motion for stellar orbits in a rotating galactic bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandervoort, P.O.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the equilibrium of a rotating galactic bar requires an enumeration of the isolating integrals of the motion of a star in the prevailing gravitational field. In general, Jacobi's integral is the only exact isolating integral known. This paper describes a search for an additional isolating integral for orbits confined to a plane perpendicular to the axis of the bar's rotation. It is shown that, in general, the equations of motion admit an additional integral exactly which is a nonhomogeneous quadratic form in the momenta of the star only if (1) the gravitational potential is axisymmetric, (2) the gravitational potential is harmonic, or (3) the bar does not rotate and the gravitational potential is separable in elliptic coordinates. A formal integral of the motion is constructed for orbits in a slightly anharmonic potential. Numerical solutions of the equations of motion for orbits in a slightly anharmonic potential behave as if there were indeed an additional isolating integral, and that behavior is represented very well in terms of the formal integral. If the rotation of the bar is rapid and/or the nonaxisymmetry of the bar is weak, then the additional integral restricts the motion of a star in much the same way that the angular momentum restricts motion in an axisymmetric potential. Conversely, if the rotation of the bar is slow and/or the nonaxisymmetry of the bar is strong, then the additional integral restricts the motion in much the same way that the difference of the separable energies would if the motion were separable in Cartesian coordinates

  17. Latest ATLAS measurements of top quark properties using ${\\rm t{\\bar t}}$ events

    CERN Document Server

    Derue, Frederic; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Recent measurements of top quark properties with ${\\rm t{\\bar t}}$ events collected by the ATLAS experiment in proton-proton collisions at the center of mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=8$ and $13$ TeV, are presented. The measurements of the top quark width, spin and spin correlations, polarisation, the $W$ boson helicity fractions, charge and CP asymmetries are discussed. Finally, recent results obtained on colour flow effects in ${\\rm t{\\bar t}}$ events are presented. All the measurements are consistent with the Standard Model expectations.

  18. Systematics of bar Qq4 systems with a pure chromomagnetic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leandri, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1989-01-01

    In the framework of a pure chromomagnetic Hamiltonian, we study all the states of bar Qq 4 systems allowed by the Pauli principle. The wave functions are analyzed by group-theoretical techniques in a first step where the antiquark has an infinite mass and the quarks belong to an SU(3) F multiplet. The breaking of these symmetries is performed exactly through two parameters η and δ. The emphasis is put on the corresponding energies relative to the physical thresholds in bar Qq+q 3 . We propose a number of new multiquarks which could be stable under strong interactions

  19. Differential $t\\bar{t}$ Cross Section Measurements as a Function of Variables other than Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hindrichs, Otto Heinz

    2016-01-01

    An overview of cross section measurements as a function of jet multiplicities and jet kinematics in association with $t\\bar{t}$ production is presented. Both the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations performed a large number of measurements at different center-of-mass energies of the LHC using various $t\\bar{t}$ decay channels. Theoretical predictions of these quantities usually rely on parton shower simulations that strongly depends on tunable parameters and come with large uncertainties. The measurements are compared to various theoretical descriptions based on different combinations of matrix-element calculations and parton-shower models.

  20. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. PMID:24055060

  1. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  2. Mirrlees MB430 has 23 bar bmep potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    Nominally rates at 1000 bhp per cylinder, the new Mirrlees Blackstone MB430 diesel engine with 430 mm bore and 480 mm stroke runs at 600 rev/min under bmep of 21 bar. Initially the engine has been released at 19 bar with the prospect of uprating to 23 bar bmep in due course. The performance testing of the engine is discussed.

  3. Investigation into brittle failure of some starter bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, D.A.; Vliet, M.R.A. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the cause and consequences of an observed brittle behaviour of some starter bars on a construction site in the Netherlands. A few bars suddenly failed when they were bent in order to align them. For the investigation firstly a batch of starter bars that

  4. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2016-05-23

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\bar c s \\bar s$. Among other results, we argue that $Y(4140)$ is a $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state that has been not been seen in two-photon fusion largely as a consequence of the Landau-Yang theorem.

  5. The Potential Power of Bar-HRM Technology in Herbal Medicine Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The substitution of low-cost or adulterated herbal products for high-priced herbs makes it important to be able to identify and trace herbal plant species and their processed products in the drug supply chain. PCR-based methods play an increasing role in monitoring the safety of herbal medicines by detecting adulteration. Recent studies have shown the potential of DNA barcoding combined with high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis in herbal medicine identification. This method involves precisely monitoring the change in fluorescence caused by the release of an intercalating DNA dye from a DNA duplex as it is denatured by a gradual increase in temperature. Since the melting profile depends on the GC content, length, and strand complementarity of the amplification product, Bar-HRM analysis opens up the possibility of detecting single-base variants or species-specific differences in a short region of DNA. This review summarizes key factors affecting Bar-HRM analysis and describes how Bar-HRM is performed. We then discuss advances in Bar-HRM analysis of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution toward safe and effective herbal medicines.

  6. A train for the bus(bars)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On 8 April, the first SMACC (Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation) teams began work in the LHC tunnel. They are responsible for opening the interconnects between the magnets, laying the groundwork for the series of operations that will be performed by the team riding the ‘consolidation train’.   A technician installs the machine tool that allows them to prepare the surface of the section of the bar where the shunt will be fixed. The LHC’s 1,670 dipoles and quadrupoles are powered by power converters and connected by copper 'busbars’. The superconducting cables run through these bars, carrying a current of up to 11,850 amps. Six superconducting cables meet at each interconnect, where they are held together by a soldered (see box) electrical connection sandwiched between two pieces of copper, forming the splice between the busbars of the neighbouring magnets. The integrity of the electrical circuit is depen...

  7. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ''stop-and-go'' operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste

  8. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  9. Yukawa corrections from PGBs in OGTC model to the process γγ→bb-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinshu; Song Taiping; Song Haizhen; Lu gongru

    2000-01-01

    The Yukawa corrections from the pseudo-Goldstone bosons (PGBs) in the one generation technicolor (OGTC) model to the process γγ→bb-bar are calculated. The authors find the corrections from the PGBs to the cross section γγ→bb-bar are more than 10% in the certain parameter values region. The maximum of the relative corrections to the process e + e - →γγ→bb-bar may reach -51% in laser back-scattering photos mode, and is only -17.9% in Beamstrahlung photons mode. The corrections are greatly larger the contributions from the relevant particles in the standard model and the supersymmetric model. It can be considered as a signatures of finding the technicolor at the next-generation high energy photons collision

  10. Could we understand the 1 D2 → pp-bar charmonium decay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Negrao, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Massless perturbative QCD forbids, at leading order, the exclusive annihilation of proton-antiproton into charmonium states, which, however, have been observed in the pp-bar channel, indicating the significance of higher order and non perturbative effects in the few GeV energy region. The most well known cases are those of the 1 S 0 (η c ) and the 1P 1 . We consider here the 1 D 2 state, whose coupling to pp-bar in equally forbidden in p QCD, and study several possible non perturbative contributions. It turns out that the observation of the pp-bar → 1 D 2 process would be very intriguing indeed. (author)

  11. Final Report: BaBar Detector and Experimental at SLAC, September 30, 1998 - September 29, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    The Prairie View AandM University High Energy Physics Group with its contingent of three undergraduates physics majors, joined the BaBar Collaboration at SLAC in September 1994. BaBar is the experiment and detector running in the PEP-II ring at SLAC as part of the Asymmetric B Factory project there to study CP violation and heavy flavor physics. The focus of our effort before this year was with the Muon/Neutral Hadron Detector/Instrumented Flux Return (IFD) subgroup within the BaBar collaboration, and particularly with the GEANT simulation of the IFR-. With the GEANT3 simulation essentially FR-ozen, and the GEANT4 full simulation of the IFR- done, we have decided to redirect our efforts toward other areas

  12. Final Report BaBar Detector and Experimental at SLAC, September 30, 1998 - September 29, 1999

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, D J

    2000-01-01

    The Prairie View AandM University High Energy Physics Group with its contingent of three undergraduates physics majors, joined the BaBar Collaboration at SLAC in September 1994. BaBar is the experiment and detector running in the PEP-II ring at SLAC as part of the Asymmetric B Factory project there to study CP violation and heavy flavor physics. The focus of our effort before this year was with the Muon/Neutral Hadron Detector/Instrumented Flux Return (IFD) subgroup within the BaBar collaboration, and particularly with the GEANT simulation of the IFR-. With the GEANT3 simulation essentially FR-ozen, and the GEANT4 full simulation of the IFR- done, we have decided to redirect our efforts toward other areas.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Steel-FRP Composite Bars under Tensile and Compressive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The factory-produced steel-fiber reinforced polymer composite bar (SFCB is a new kind of reinforcement for concrete structures. The manufacturing technology of SFCB is presented based on a large number of handmade specimens. The calculated stress-strain curves of ordinary steel bar and SFCB under repeated tensile loading agree well with the corresponding experimental results. The energy-dissipation capacity and residual strain of both steel bar and SFCB were analyzed. Based on the good simulation results of ordinary steel bar and FRP bar under compressive loading, the compressive behavior of SFCB under monotonic loading was studied using the principle of equivalent flexural rigidity. There are three failure modes of SFCB under compressive loading: elastic buckling, postyield buckling, and no buckling (ultimate compressive strength is reached. The increase in the postyield stiffness of SFCB rsf can delay the postyield buckling of SFCB with a large length-to-diameter ratio, and an empirical equation for the relationship between the postbuckling stress and rsf is suggested, which can be used for the design of concrete structures reinforced by SFCB to consider the effect of reinforcement buckling.

  14. Moment-Curvature Behaviors of Concrete Beams Singly Reinforced by Steel-FRP Composite Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel-fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP composite bar (SFCB is a kind of rebar with inner steel bar wrapped by FRP, which can achieve a better anticorrosion performance than that of ordinary steel bar. The high ultimate strength of FRP can also provide a significant increase in load bearing capacity. Based on the adequate simulation of the load-displacement behaviors of concrete beams reinforced by SFCBs, a parametric analysis of the moment-curvature behaviors of concrete beams that are singly reinforced by SFCB was conducted. The critical reinforcement ratio for differentiating the beam’s failure mode was presented, and the concept of the maximum possible peak curvature (MPPC was proposed. After the ultimate curvature reached MPPC, it decreased with an increase in the postyield stiffness ratio (rsf, and the theoretical calculation method about the curvatures before and after the MPPC was derived. The influence of the reinforcement ratio, effective depth, and FRP ultimate strain on the ultimate point was studied by the dimensionless moment and curvature. By calculating the envelope area under the moment-curvature curve, the energy ductility index can obtain a balance between the bearing capacity and the deformation ability. This paper can provide a reference for the design of concrete beams that are reinforced by SFCB or hybrid steel bar/FRP bar.

  15. Measurement of $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ ratio at 13 TeV with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Young-kwon

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the cross section ratio $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is presented using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3~$\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ collected in pp collisions at \\\\ $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events with two leptons and at least four reconstructed jets, including at least two identified as b quark jets, in the final state are selected. The measured ratio is $0.022 \\pm 0.003$(stat.)$\\pm0.006$(syst.) in the full phase space. The measured cross section $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}$ is $3.9 \\pm 0.6$(stat.)$\\pm1.3$(syst.) pb and $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is $176 \\pm 5$(stat.)$ \\pm 33 $(syst.) pb.

  16. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  17. Analysis of the energy efficiency of short rotation woody crops biomass as affected by different methods of soil enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarski, Mariusz J.; Krzyżaniak, Michał; Tworkowski, Józef; Szczukowski, Stefan; Niksa, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy input and energy efficiency of the production of willow, poplar and black locust chips in four-year harvest rotation. The highest energy input was made in poplar production when soil was enriched with lignin and by mineral fertilisation (33.02 GJ ha −1 ). For willow production it was 30.76 GJ ha −1 when lignin, mycorrhiza and mineral fertilisation were used. The energy input in the production of black locust was much lower. The largest energy gain was obtained in the production of poplar when soil was enriched with lignin and mineral fertilisation (673.7 GJ ha −1 ). A similar level of this parameter (669.7 GJ ha −1 ) was achieved in the production of willow when lignin, mycorrhiza and mineral fertilisation was used. In general, a higher energy gain was obtained in the production of willow and poplar than in the production of black locust. On the other hand, the best energy efficiency ratio was achieved for willow (28.9) in the option with lignin. The ratio for poplar production ranged from 19.7 to 25.9. On the other hand, the energy efficiency ratio for black locust ranged from 10.6 to 21.7. - Highlights: • The energy input ranged from 6.69 GJ ha −1 to 33.02 GJ ha −1 . • The largest energy gain was obtained for poplar (673.7 GJ ha −1 ). • The best energy efficiency ratio was achieved for willow (28.9). • The energy efficiency ratio for poplar ranged from 19.7 to 25.9. • The energy efficiency ratio for black locust ranged from 10.6 to 21.7.

  18. Further study of CP violation and branching ratios for B-bar0 → J/ψKs and B-bar0 → φKs in the standard model and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong-Sheng Du; Mao-Zhi Yang

    1998-01-01

    In this work we study the CP violation for B-bar 0 → J/ψK s and B-bar 0 → φK s up to leading and next-to-leading order QCD corrections in the standard model, two-Higgs-doublet model and the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. We also study the effect of new physics on the branching ratios of these two decay modes. We find that within the parameter space constrained by the observation of the decay b→sγ, new physics does not affect the CP asymmetries greatly, and the prediction of new physics to the branching ratios of B-bar 0 → J/ψK s and B-bar 0 → φK s is the same as that of the standard model up to a minor discrepancy as far as the Yukama coupling constants are perturbative. (author)

  19. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Grider

    Full Text Available Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus

  20. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  1. Antihydrogen Production in $ \\bar{p} $ Z - interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS210 \\\\ \\\\ The production of the antihydrogen atom $ \\bar {H}^0 \\equiv \\bar{p}e $ as the simplest atomic bound state of antimatter has been studied. Nine $ \\bar {H}^0 $ have been observed.\\\\ \\\\ The production of $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is predominantly mediated by the two-photon mechanism in the antiproton-nucleus interaction. In principle $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is well suited for investigations of fundamental CPT violation studies under different forces, however, in the present experiment we concentrated on the production of this antimatter object, since so far it never had been observed.

  2. Measurement of the t$\\bar{t}$ production cross section in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s= 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappoccio, Salvatore Rocco [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-08-01

    We present the measurement of the t$\\bar{t}$ cross section in the lepton plus jets channel with ≥ 1 and ≥ 2 secondary vertex tags. We use the scalar sum of transverse energies of the event (HT) to discriminate t{bar t} from the other backgrounds. We also use the transverse mass of the leptonic W-boson (M$W\\atop{T}$) to further reduce the Non-W backgrounds. We use a combination of data and Monte Carlo to estimate the backgrounds from electroweak processes, single top, fake leptons, W+ Light Flavor fake tags, and real W+ Heavy Flavor production. We obtain a value of σ ≥1 = 8.7$+0.9\\atop{-0.9}$(stat)$+1.2\\atop{-0.9}$(sys) pb for the ≥1 tag cross section, and σ ≥2 = 8.7$+1.8\\atop{-1.6}$(stat)$+1.9\\atop{-1.3}$(sys) pb for the ≥2 tag cross section. The authors also present a measurement of the t$\\bar{t}$ cross section by fitting the Njet spectrum. They combine the =1 and ≥2 tag cross sections to obtain σt$\\bar{t}$ = 8.9$+0.9\\atop{-0.9}$(stat)$+1.4\\atop{-1.3}$(syst)pb.

  3. Decays of Higgs bosons to bb-bar, ττ-bar, and cc-bar as signatures of supersymmetry and CP phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2003-01-01

    The branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign), ττ-bar and cc-bar is sensitive to supersymmetric effects. We include in this work the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays. Specifically we compute the deviation of the CP phase dependent branching ratio from the standard model result. The analysis includes the full one loop corrections of fermion masses including CP phases involving the gluino, the chargino and the neutralino exchanges. The analysis shows that the supersymmetric effects with CP phases can change the branching ratios by as much as 100% for the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign) and ττ-bar with similar results holding for the heavier Higgs boson decays. A detailed analysis is also given for the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays into cc-bar. The deviations of R b/τ and R b/c from the standard model result are investigated as a possible signature of supersymmetry and CP effects. Thus a measurement of the decays of the Higgs boson into bb-bar, ττ-bar and cc-bar may provide important clues regarding the existence of supersymmetry and CP phases

  4. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (pbar induced the highest fullness rating and lowest hunger rating among the three snack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  5. Ceramic bar impact experiments for improved material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, N.S.; Proud, W.G.; Rajendran, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic bar-on-bar (uniaxial stress) experiments are performed to extend uniaxial strain deformation states imposed in flyer plate impact experiments. A number of investigators engaged in modeling the bar-on-bar experiments have varying degrees of success in capturing the observed fracture modes in bars and correctly simulating the measured in-situ axial stress or free surface velocity histories. The difficulties encountered are related to uncertainties in understanding the dominant failure mechanisms as a function of different stress states imposed in bar impacts. Free surface velocity of the far end of the target AD998 bar were measured using a VISAR in a series of bar-on-bar impact experiments at nominal impact speeds of 100 m/s, 220 m/s, and 300 m/s. Velocity history data at an impact of 100 m/s show the material response as elastic. At higher impact velocities of 200 m/s and 300 m/s the velocity history data suggest an inelastic material response. A high-speed (Imacon) camera was employed to examine the fracture and failure of impactor and target bars. High speed photographs provide comprehensive data on geometry of damage and failure patterns as a function of time to check the validity of a particular constitutive material model for AD998 alumina used in numerical simulations of fracture and failure of the bars on impact

  6. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    and the influence of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks in concrete. Moreover, the impact of fibres on corrosion-induced cover cracking was covered. The impact of steel fibres on propagation of reinforcement corrosion was investigated through studies of their impact on the electrical resistivity...... of concrete, which is known to affect the corrosion process of embedded reinforcement. The work concerning the impact of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks was linked to corrosion initiation and propagation of embedded reinforcement bars via additional studies. Cracks in the concrete cover...... are known to alter the ingress rate of depassivating substances and thereby influence the corrosion process. The Ph.D. study covered numerical as well as experimental studies. Electrochemically passive steel fibres are electrically isolating thus not changing the electrical resistivity of concrete, whereas...

  7. The business of desire: "Russian" bars in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beňová, Lenka

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses the type of work migrant women from the former Eastern European countries perform in nightclubs in Amman, Jordan. The fieldwork for this qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and is based on in-depth interviews with 13 women. The topic is approached from the perspective of describing women's choices and journeys to this work. It juxtaposes the sexualised nature of their work with their yearning for a "normal" family life, which they imagine, yet know, is impossible to achieve with the men they meet in their workplaces. Layered on top of these private desires among both women and their clients is the business strategy of the clubs, which operate in the lucrative but marginal space of selling exotic but respectable seduction. I draw on the literature about female migration to the Middle East in order to argue that hostesses in these bars perform affective labour akin to care work, within the neoliberal global economy that individualises risk.

  8. Kinematical and dynamical models for barred spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, E.

    1983-01-01

    This is a review of published works on the kinematics and dynamics of stellar bars and barred spiral galaxies. The periodic orbits of stars are elongated along the bar and enhance it out to a certain distance from the center. The important role of the interstellar gas is pointed out by the models of gas clouds and flows: the trajectories are also along the bar, but shock waves arise in front of the bar and transient spiral structures appear at its ends. These models reproduce the observed velocity fields fairly well. The investigations of the stability of axisymmetric galactic disks show that they are very unstable with respect to bar shaped perturbations and might explain why two thirds of the known spiral galaxies are barred [fr

  9. Dynamics of Nearshore Sand Bars and Infra-gravity Waves: The Optimal Theory Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchette, F.; Mohammadi, B.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that the dynamics of near-shore sand bars are partly controlled by the features (location of nodes, amplitude, length, period) of the so-called infra-gravity waves. Reciprocally, changes in the location, size and shape of near-shore sand bars can control wave/wave interactions which in their turn alter the infra-gravity content of the near-shore wave energy spectrum. The coupling infra-gravity / near-shore bar is thus definitely two ways. Regarding numerical modelling, several approaches have already been considered to analyze such coupled dynamics. Most of them are based on the following strategy: 1) define an energy spectrum including infra-gravity, 2) tentatively compute the radiation stresses driven by this energy spectrum, 3) compute sediment transport and changes in the seabottom elevation including sand bars, 4) loop on the computation of infra-gravity taking into account the morphological changes. In this work, we consider an alternative approach named Nearshore Optimal Theory, which is a kind of breakdown point of view for the modeling of near-shore hydro-morphodynamics and wave/ wave/ seabottom interactions. Optimal theory applied to near-shore hydro-morphodynamics arose with the design of solid coastal defense structures by shape optimization methods, and is being now extended in order to model dynamics of any near-shore system combining waves and sand. The basics are the following: the near-shore system state is through a functional J representative of the energy of the system in some way. This J is computed from a model embedding the physics to be studied only (here hydrodynamics forced by simple infra-gravity). Then the paradigm is to say that the system will evolve so that the energy J tends to minimize. No really matter the complexity of wave propagation nor wave/bottom interactions. As soon as J embeds the physics to be explored, the method does not require a comprehensive modeling. Near-shore Optimal Theory has already given

  10. A correction scheme for thermal conductivity measurement using the comparative cut-bar technique based on 3D numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Changhu; Folsom, Charles; Jensen, Colby; Ban, Heng; Marshall, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    As an important factor affecting the accuracy of thermal conductivity measurement, systematic (bias) error in the guarded comparative axial heat flow (cut-bar) method was mostly neglected by previous researches. This bias is primarily due to the thermal conductivity mismatch between sample and meter bars (reference), which is common for a sample of unknown thermal conductivity. A correction scheme, based on finite element simulation of the measurement system, was proposed to reduce the magnitude of the overall measurement uncertainty. This scheme was experimentally validated by applying corrections on four types of sample measurements in which the specimen thermal conductivity is much smaller, slightly smaller, equal and much larger than that of the meter bar. As an alternative to the optimum guarding technique proposed before, the correction scheme can be used to minimize the uncertainty contribution from the measurement system with non-optimal guarding conditions. It is especially necessary for large thermal conductivity mismatches between sample and meter bars. (paper)

  11. Does urbanization affect energy intensities across provinces in China?Long-run elasticities estimation using dynamic panels with heterogeneous slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive debate in the literature that addresses the impact of urbanization on total energy use, the relative magnitude of each impact channel has not been empirically examined and urbanization's effects on energy transition dynamics in China remains unknown. Using panel datasets at the provincial level from 1986 to 2011, this paper employs dynamic models to investigate both the long-run and short-run elasticities of urbanization on energy intensities and the most significant impact channel is identified. Coal intensity and electricity intensity are also modeled to reveal energy transition dynamics driven by urbanization. A set of newly developed regression techniques, namely well-performed common correlated effects mean group (CCEMG) and augmented mean group (AMG) estimators, are used to treat residual cross-sectional dependence, nonstationary residuals, and unlikely-to-hold homogeneous slope assumptions. The results obtained verify that the net effects of urbanization on overall energy intensity and electricity intensity are statistically positive, with long-run elasticities of 0.14% to 0.37% and 0.23% to 0.29%, respectively, whereas China's urbanization does not significantly increase coal intensity. The fact that short-run elasticities account for a majority of corresponding long-run values indicates that the short-run effect, that is, indirect energy use induced by urban infrastructures is the most significant impact channel of urbanization on energy use in China. An energy transition from high-pollution coal to clean electricity is also present in China, although the fundamental transition to renewable energy is still in its infancy. From a regional perspective, urbanization exerts asymmetric impacts on provincial energy use so that energy policies associated with urbanization should be province-specific. The findings also illustrate that for a panel dataset on regional dimension within large and fast-growing economies such

  12. Mineral absorption and excretion as affected by microbial phytase and their effect on energy metabolism in young piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kies, A.K.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Linden, van der K.L.; Zandstra, T.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Positive effects of dietary phytase supplementation on pig performance are observed not only when phosphorus is limiting. Improved energy utilization might be one explanation. Using indirect calorimetry, phytase-induced changes in energy metabolism were evaluated in young piglets with adequate

  13. Spin-dynamics in a p(bar p) ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisent, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper after a short introduction on the main concepts of spin dynamics, like the conservation of the polarization as a stability condition, the depolarizing resonances and their care by the Siberian Snake schema, two particular applications are discussed. In the European hadron Facility, and in the other future hadron machines in the same range of energies (30--40 Gev), the polarization in the main ring can be maintained using a Siberian Snake. We shall discuss the design of such a device. As a second example is considered the Spin Splitter, a proposed experiment with the aim of polarizing bar p. Also in this case the spin stability is realized by the Siberian Snake schema

  14. The su(2 vertical bar 3) dynamic spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beisert, Niklas

    2004-01-01

    The complete one-loop, planar dilatation operator of the N=4 superconformal gauge theory was recently derived and shown to be integrable. Here, we present further compelling evidence for a generalisation of this integrable structure to higher orders of the coupling constant. For that we consider the su(2 vertical bar 3) subsector and investigate the restrictions imposed on the spin chain Hamiltonian by the symmetry algebra. This allows us to uniquely fix the energy shifts up to the three-loop level and thus prove the correctness of a conjecture in hep-th/0303060. A novel aspect of this spin chain model is that the higher-loop Hamiltonian, as for N=4 SYM in general, does not preserve the number of spin sites. Yet this dynamic spin chain appears to be integrable

  15. Search for narrow structures in pp-barπ+ and Λp-bar+- systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.U.; Etkin, A.; Fernow, R.C.; Foley, K.J.; Goldman, J.H.; Kirk, H.; Kopp, J.; Lesnik, A.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Saulys, A.; Weygand, D.P.; Wheeler, C.D.; Willen, E.H.; Winik, M.; Bensinger, J.; Morris, W.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Mallik, U.; Bar-Yam, Z.; Dowd, J.; Kern, W.; Button-Shafer, J.; Dhar, S.; Lichti, R.

    1981-01-01

    We have performed a high-statistics search for narrow meson states (GAMMA - p interactions at 16 GeV/c and decaying into pp-barπ + or Λp-barπ +- . This is the first systematic search in channels requiring exchange of exotic mesons. The cross section for production of such states is ruled out at the 95% confidence level with upper limits ranging from approx.10 nb at 2.3 GeV to approx.40 nb at 2.8 GeV

  16. How does Germany's green energy policy affect electricity market volatility? An application of conditional autoregressive range models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a dynamic model for the high/low range of electricity prices, this article analyses the effects of Germany's green energy policy on the volatility of the electricity market. Using European Energy Exchange data from 2000 to 2015, we find rather high volatility in the years 2000–2009 but also that the weekly price range has significantly declined in the period following the year 2009. This period is characterised by active regulation under the Energy Industry Law (EnWG), the EU Emissions Trading Directive (ETD) and the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). In contrast to the preceding period, price jumps are smaller and less frequent (especially for day-time hours), implying that current policy measures are effective in promoting renewable energies while simultaneously upholding electricity market stability. This is because the regulations strive towards a more and more flexible and market-oriented structure which allows better integration of renewable energies and supports an efficient alignment of renewable electricity supply with demand. - Highlights: • We estimate a CARR model for German electricity price data. • We augment the model by dummies capturing important regulations. • We find a significant decline in the price range after the year 2009. • This implies effective price stabilisation by German energy policy.

  17. How HE (Hydrogen Energy) Knowledge and Innovativeness Affect Potential Innovators' Acceptance and Opinions Regarding HE An example from UNIDO-ICHET Web-site Users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis Tsai; Scott Warren; Reide Song; JingYi Gao

    2006-01-01

    According to innovation diffusion research, the innovators, opinion leaders, and diffusion agents play vital roles in promoting the acceptance of innovation. The purpose of this research is to investigate how HE innovators' knowledge affects their acceptance and opinions about HE and related products. The research method is an on-line survey and the sample is a voluntary sample. This survey successfully collected 1126 HE innovators' information. The researchers used SPSS statistics software to analyze the data and found the relationship between HE innovators' demographics, their knowledge about hydrogen energy, their innovativeness, and their familiarity with new energy technology with their acceptance and opinions about HE, and how they use the UNIDO-ICHET web-site. The researchers found HE knowledge could be used to predict new energy innovators' information resource usage, innovativeness, new energy product adoption and their opinions about HE. (authors)

  18. How Do Oil Prices, Macroeconomic Factors and Policies Affect the Market for Renewable Energy?:Oil Price, Macroeconomic Factors and Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Imran; Hiles, Carlie; Morley, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the nature of any relationship between renewable energy investment, oil prices, GDP and the interest rate, using a time series approach. We concentrate on three countries with different relationships to the renewable energy industry, with Norway and the UK being oil-exporters for most of the sample and the USA an importer. Following estimation using a VAR model, the results provide evidence of considerable heterogeneity across the countries, with the USA ...

  19. First observation of the decay $\\bar{B}^0_s \\to D^0 K^{*0}$ and measurement of the ratio of branching fractions $\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\bar{B}^0_s \\to D^0 K^{*0})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\bar{B}^0 \\to D^0\\rho^0)}$ with the LHCb experiment at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Martens, A

    2011-01-01

    In 36 pb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, we observe for the first time the decay $\\bar{B}^0_s \\to D^0 K^{*0}$. The $\\bar{B}^0_s \\to D^0 K^{*0}$ decay mode is a potentially dangerous background for the Cabibbo suppressed decay $B^0 \\to \\bar{D}^0 K^{*0}$ used in the measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$. A clear signal of 34.5$\\pm$6.9 events is obtained with a statistical significance over 9 standard deviations and we measure its branching ration relative to the $\\bar{B}^0 \\to D^0\\rho^0$ branching ratio.

  20. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  1. Predicting Error Bars for QSAR Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, Timon; Schwaighofer, Anton; Mika, Sebastian; Ter Laak, Antonius; Suelzle, Detlev; Ganzer, Ursula; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Mueller, Klaus-Robert

    2007-01-01

    Unfavorable physicochemical properties often cause drug failures. It is therefore important to take lipophilicity and water solubility into account early on in lead discovery. This study presents log D 7 models built using Gaussian Process regression, Support Vector Machines, decision trees and ridge regression algorithms based on 14556 drug discovery compounds of Bayer Schering Pharma. A blind test was conducted using 7013 new measurements from the last months. We also present independent evaluations using public data. Apart from accuracy, we discuss the quality of error bars that can be computed by Gaussian Process models, and ensemble and distance based techniques for the other modelling approaches

  2. Hadronic Physics Studies at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroili, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new resonance Y(4260) with a mass of 4259 ± 8 -6 +2 MeV/c 2 and J PC = 1 -- , discovered by the BaBar experiment shows peculiar behavior in his decay mode. The Λ c + baryon mass has been measured, using its decays to ΛK S 0 K + and Σ 0 K S 0 K + , and its value is 2286.46 ± 0.14 MeV/c 2 , the precision is greatly improved w.r.t. PDG value. Ξ c 0 and (Omega) c 0 decays and production have been studied with results greatly improved w.r.t. PDG

  3. Failure Waves in Cylindrical Glass Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazamias, James U.; Bless, Stephan J.; Marder, Michael P.

    1997-07-01

    Failure waves, a propagating front separating virgin and comminuted material, have been receiving a fair amount of attention the last couple of years. While most scientists have been looking at failure waves in plate impact geometries, we have conducted a series of experiments on Pyrex bars. In this paper, we present two types of photographic data from a series of tests. A streak camera was used to determine velocities of the failure front as a function of impact stress. A polaroid camera and a flash lamp provide detailed pictures of the actual event. Attempts were made to observe failure waves in amorphous quartz and acrylic.

  4. An ethnography of energy demand and working from home: exploring the affective dimensions of social practice in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Sam

    2017-01-01

    The practice of working from home has become widespread in developed countries, and the numbers of regular home workers are steadily increasing. There are potentially positive implications for energy consumption associated with home working, but these depend on myriad variables. This qualitative study, based on interviews with regular home workers, provides a more in-depth perspective on how and why energy is used compared with quantitative models of household consumption. Ethnographic resear...

  5. H and D curves of screen--film systems: factors affecting their dependence on x-ray energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyborny, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    The sensitometric properties of radiographic screen--film systems are investigated with regard to their dependence on x-ray energy. Sensitometric measurements and a heuristic model for density formation are used to show that variation in the relative amount of light emitted by front and back screens may be the most important factor influencing the change in system H and D curves with x-ray energy

  6. Considering a Threshold Energy in Reactive Transport Modeling of Microbially Mediated Redox Reactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rotiroti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide driven by organic matter oxidation is the primary mechanism accepted for As mobilization in several alluvial aquifers. These processes are often mediated by microorganisms that require a minimum Gibbs energy available to conduct the reaction in order to sustain their life functions. Implementing this threshold energy in reactive transport modeling is rarely used in the existing literature. This work presents a 1D reactive transport modeling of As mobilization by the reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide and subsequent immobilization by co-precipitation in iron sulfides considering a threshold energy for the following terminal electron accepting processes: (a Fe-oxide reduction, (b sulfate reduction, and (c methanogenesis. The model is then extended by implementing a threshold energy on both reaction directions for the redox reaction pairs Fe(III reduction/Fe(II oxidation and methanogenesis/methane oxidation. The optimal threshold energy fitted in 4.50, 3.76, and 1.60 kJ/mol e− for sulfate reduction, Fe(III reduction/Fe(II oxidation, and methanogenesis/methane oxidation, respectively. The use of models implementing bidirectional threshold energy is needed when a redox reaction pair can be transported between domains with different redox potentials. This may often occur in 2D or 3D simulations.

  7. APPL proteins FRET at the BAR: direct observation of APPL1 and APPL2 BAR domain-mediated interactions on cell membranes using FRET microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Chial

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Human APPL1 and APPL2 are homologous RAB5 effectors whose binding partners include a diverse set of transmembrane receptors, signaling proteins, and phosphoinositides. APPL proteins associate dynamically with endosomal membranes and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling pathways linking the cell surface to the cell nucleus. APPL proteins contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domain. Previous structural and biochemical studies have shown that the APPL BAR domains mediate homotypic and heterotypic APPL-APPL interactions and that the APPL1 BAR domain forms crescent-shaped dimers. Although previous studies have shown that APPL minimal BAR domains associate with curved cell membranes, direct interaction between APPL BAR domains on cell membranes in vivo has not been reported.Herein, we used a laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a spectral detector to carry out fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments with cyan fluorescent protein/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP FRET donor/acceptor pairs to examine interactions between APPL minimal BAR domains at the subcellular level. This comprehensive approach enabled us to evaluate FRET levels in a single cell using three methods: sensitized emission, standard acceptor photobleaching, and sequential acceptor photobleaching. We also analyzed emission spectra to address an outstanding controversy regarding the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor pairs in FRET acceptor photobleaching experiments, based on reports that photobleaching of YFP converts it into a CFP-like species.All three methods consistently showed significant FRET between APPL minimal BAR domain FRET pairs, indicating that they interact directly in a homotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL1 and APPL2-APPL2 and heterotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL2 manner on curved cell membranes. Furthermore, the results of our experiments

  8. NUTRIMAT BAR MENURUNKAN SISA MAKANAN PASIEN KEMOTERAPI DI RSUP SANGLAH DENPASAR, BALI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Nyoman Triwini

    2017-12-01

     Nutrimat Bar Decreases Leftover Food among Chemotherapy Patients In The General Hospital of Sanglah Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia Chemotherapy is one of cancer medication alternatives by using cytotoxic medicines to eliminate cancer cells or to stop the development of cancer cells. The Side effects of chemotherapy medication are nausea and vomit which influence the absorption of nutrients in cancer patients. Nutrimat bar is a food specially designed for chemotherapy patients in small size but contained high energy, protein and antioxidant. This study aimed to analyze of giving nutrimat bar to decrease leftover food of chemotherapy patients in the general hospital of Sanglah Denpasar, Bali in Indonesia. Quasi experimental study using non-randomized pre and post-test with control group design was done on 33 patients using purposive sampling technique. The treatment was done by giving nutrimat bar to the case group and hospital standard food to the control group. Measurement of leftover food was measured by using visual comstock method. Data analysis was applied using saphiro wilk test and independent t-test parametric test. The results showed that the average of leftover food of chemotherapy patients in case group is 28.94% (±8.50, while in the control group is 46.00% (±4.70. The result of t-test analysis indicated that there was a significant difference  between food waste in case group and control group as much as p<0.05. It was concluded that nutrimat bar was effective to decrease waste food  among chemotherapy patients in general hospital of Sanglah Denpasar.  Keywords: chemotherapy, waste food, nutrimat bar, Sanglah Hospital

  9. Large-scale laboratory study of breaking wave hydrodynamics over a fixed bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der A, Dominic A.; van der Zanden, Joep; O'Donoghue, Tom; Hurther, David; Cáceres, Iván.; McLelland, Stuart J.; Ribberink, Jan S.

    2017-04-01

    A large-scale wave flume experiment has been carried out involving a T = 4 s regular wave with H = 0.85 m wave height plunging over a fixed barred beach profile. Velocity profiles were measured at 12 locations along the breaker bar using LDA and ADV. A strong undertow is generated reaching magnitudes of 0.8 m/s on the shoreward side of the breaker bar. A circulation pattern occurs between the breaking area and the inner surf zone. Time-averaged turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is largest in the breaking area on the shoreward side of the bar where the plunging jet penetrates the water column. At this location, and on the bar crest, TKE generated at the water surface in the breaking process reaches the bottom boundary layer. In the breaking area, TKE does not reduce to zero within a wave cycle which leads to a high level of "residual" turbulence and therefore lower temporal variation in TKE compared to previous studies of breaking waves on plane beach slopes. It is argued that this residual turbulence results from the breaker bar-trough geometry, which enables larger length scales and time scales of breaking-generated vortices and which enhances turbulence production within the water column compared to plane beaches. Transport of TKE is dominated by the undertow-related flux, whereas the wave-related and turbulent fluxes are approximately an order of magnitude smaller. Turbulence production and dissipation are largest in the breaker zone and of similar magnitude, but in the shoaling zone and inner surf zone production is negligible and dissipation dominates.

  10. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  11. Search for W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar in muon-jet events at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransdell, J.

    1988-01-01

    A search for quark decays of the W and Z particles produced in proton-antiproton collisions at √s of 630 GeV in the UA1 experiment at the CERN collider is described. The search was made in the channels W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar where b and c quarks were identified by the presence of a high-p/sub T/ muon in or near a jet. Although these decay channels avoid the copious background of QCD produced light quark and gluon jets, it was not possible to detect a W or Z signal because of the large cross section for strong cc-bar and bb-bar production

  12. (How) does sectoral detail affect the robustness of policy insights from energy system models? The refining sector's example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Claire; Saint-Antonin, Valerie; Tchung-Ming, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we rekindle an old debate by questioning the impact on mitigating policy evaluation of detailing a sub-sector in a global energy-transportation model. We chose the refining sector because it is a relevant case of a sector for which representation widely differs across models and because it offers a unique set of complex joint production in the energy sector. To investigate whether the level of detail in the description of the refinery impacts optimal mitigation options, we take the example of a long-term, national, linear programming based, energy-transport system model (TIMES based). We found that the refinery description used in the energy system model matters when trying to evaluate energy or climate policy applied to the transportation sector. It impacts the policy costs but also the technology trajectories chosen at the optimum. Essentially, the balance between energy efficiency and carbon intensity of transport may be affected by the accuracy of the description of the pivotal refining sector. Consequently, increasing this sector accuracy level should not only be motivated by the wish to gain wider quantitative insights on potential evolution of the energy system but also by the wish to improve the robustness of the model outcomes. (authors)

  13. Energy absorption during impact on the proximal femur is affected by body mass index and flooring surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris C; Laing, Andrew C

    2014-07-18

    Impact mechanics theory suggests that peak loads should decrease with increase in system energy absorption. In light of the reduced hip fracture risk for persons with high body mass index (BMI) and for falls on soft surfaces, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of participant BMI, gender, and flooring surface on system energy absorption during lateral falls on the hip with human volunteers. Twenty university-aged participants completed the study with five men and five women in both low BMI (27.5 kg/m(2)) groups. Participants underwent lateral pelvis release experiments from a height of 5 cm onto two common floors and four safety floors mounted on a force plate. A motion-capture system measured pelvic deflection. The energy absorbed during the initial compressive phase of impact was calculated as the area under the force-deflection curve. System energy absorption was (on average) 3-fold greater for high compared to low BMI participants, but no effects of gender were observed. Even after normalizing for body mass, high BMI participants absorbed 1.8-fold more energy per unit mass. Additionally, three of four safety floors demonstrated significantly increased energy absorption compared to a baseline resilient-rolled-sheeting system (% increases ranging from 20.7 to 28.3). Peak system deflection was larger for high BMI persons and for impacts on several safety floors. This study indicates that energy absorption may be a common mechanism underlying the reduced risk of hip fracture for persons with high BMI and for those who fall on soft surfaces. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in the United States. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  15. Study of the ρ-bar, β-bar and Λ parameters of a light-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, R.

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = ρ-bar/β-bar and b = β-bar/Λ, which are definite, while the reactivity ρ-bar, the delayed neutron fraction (β-bar and the generation time Λ are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction β-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction β-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = β-bar/Λ = 129 s -1 and β