WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy agency heat

  1. International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. J.

    This trip was undertaken to participate in and represent the United States Industry at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) Task 14 Workshop. The meeting took place at the A1 Bani Hotel in Rome Italy.

  2. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

  3. International Energy Agency's Heat Pump Centre (IEA-HPC) Annual National Team Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broders, M. A.

    1992-09-01

    The traveler, serving as Delegate from the United States Advanced Heat Pump National Team, participated in the activities of the fourth IEA-HPC National Team Working Group meeting. Highlights of this meeting included review and discussion of 1992 IEA-HPC activities and accomplishments, introduction of the Switzerland National Team, and development of the 1993 IEA-HPC work program. The traveler also gave a formal presentation about the Development and Activities of the IEA Advanced Heat Pump U.S. National Team.

  4. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST): Volume 2: Cases E300-E545.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark J.; Judkoff, R.

    2004-12-01

    This report documents an additional set of mechanical system test cases that are planned for inclusion in ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 140. The cases test a program's modeling capabilities on the working-fluid side of the coil, but in an hourly dynamic context over an expanded range of performance conditions. These cases help to scale the significance of disagreements that are less obvious in the steady-state cases. The report is Vol. 2 of HVAC BESTEST Volume 1. Volume 1 was limited to steady-state test cases that could be solved with analytical solutions. Volume 2 includes hourly dynamic effects, and other cases that cannot be solved analytically. NREL conducted this work in collaboration with the Tool Evaluation and Improvement Experts Group under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 22.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of...

  6. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  7. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  8. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarensky, Mihael

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  9. US energy agency making progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) has the ability to make significant contributions to energy research but must be allowed time to do so, according to a report by the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine.

  10. Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community, International Atomic Energy Agency, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed legislative instruments, Adopted legislative instruments, Non-legislative instruments, Other activities (meetings). International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: The Russian Federation to join the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; Participation by the regulatory authorities of India and the United Arab Emirates in the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); NEA International Workshop on Crisis Communication, 9-10 May 2012; International School of Nuclear Law: 2013; Next NEA International Nuclear Law Essentials Course

  11. International Atomic Energy Agency and Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rahim Mohd Nor

    1985-01-01

    A review on IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and its relation with Malaysia is given. This article also discusses the background history of IAEA, its organization and functions in the field of nuclear energy

  12. 76 FR 69714 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA... Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will be held at the headquarters of... of Switzerland --Questionnaire Response of The Netherlands 5. Emergency Response Exercises...

  13. The International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.

    2000-01-01

    A system of international safeguards has been established to provide assurance that nuclear materials in civilian use are not diverted from their peaceful purpose. The safeguards system is administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency/Department of Safeguards and devolves from treaties and other international agreements. Inspectors from the Agency verify reports from States about nuclear facilities by audits, observation, and measurements. (author)

  14. The International Energy Agency's world energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, S.

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 edition of the World Energy Outlook to 2010 was reviewed. An overview of the energy projections was provided based on assumptions about economic growth and energy prices, geological potential, technological developments, the availability of traditional fuels outside the OECD and the future preferences of energy users. Demand vs. price movements were modelled, based on 'capacity constraints' and 'energy saving ' scenarios. Three major conclusions derived from the projections were: (1) world primary energy demand will grow steadily as it has over the past two decades, (2) fossil fuels will account for 90 per cent of total primary energy demand in 2010, and (3) a structural shift in the shares of different regions in world energy demand is likely to occur, i.e., the OECD share will fall in favor of the share of the ROW (rest of the world). 4 tabs., 9 figs

  15. Heat energy from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehler, A; Hofstetter, E M

    1977-11-01

    The most important themes dealt with at the European Seminar on Biological Solar Energy Conversion Systems, Autrans, near Grenoble, June 1977 are summarized: cultivation of rapid growing shrubs to be used as fuel; development of special installations for burning wood waste and straw using 2-stage combustion to overcome present obstacles to their satisfactory combustion. A straw-burning boiler is illustrated.

  16. Energy and environment policies. International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is made of how energy policies can be adapted to environmental concerns. The efficiency of measures solving environmental problems is investigated, in particular measures substituting energy carriers, improving energy efficiency rates, postfitting pollution control devices, and applying clean energy technologies. In connection with methods of state control the report deals with questions of taxation and regularization which are to induce the private sector to actively to something for the protection of the environment. (orig.) [de

  17. Free energy and heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, M.; Devanathan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Free energy and heat capacity of actinide elements and compounds are important properties for the evaluation of the safety and reliable performance of nuclear fuel. They are essential inputs for models that describe complex phenomena that govern the behaviour of actinide compounds during nuclear fuels fabrication and irradiation. This chapter introduces various experimental methods to measure free energy and heat capacity to serve as inputs for models and to validate computer simulations. This is followed by a discussion of computer simulation of these properties, and recent simulations of thermophysical properties of nuclear fuel are briefly reviewed. (authors)

  18. Nuclear energy and process heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a

  19. Nuclear energy and process heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozier, K.S.

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a determined

  20. On the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, S [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1963-07-15

    The main concepts motivating the decision to establish an international agency for peaceful uses of atomic energy are presented in the paper. They consists of: 1) co-ordination in the fields of safety field, legal liability and safeguards; 2) ensuring that scientific and technical data are made freely accessible on a worldwide scale and 3) assisting the developing countries in benefiting from this new science and technology and use the atomic energy for economic and social development

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1991-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1991. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency: Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, A.

    1992-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1992. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  3. 77 FR 61583 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ...) will meet on October 17 and 18, 2012, at the headquarters of the IEA in Paris, France in connection... the International Energy Agency (IEA) will be held at the headquarters of the IEA, 9, rue de la F... October 18. The purpose of this notice is to permit attendance by representatives of U.S. company members...

  4. Annual report 2001[International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2001. The report outlines the IAEA activities in the following fields: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management technology, comparative assessment for sustainable energy development; food and agriculture, human health, marine environment and water resources, applications of physical and chemical sciences, nuclear safety, radiation safety, radioactive waste safety, co-ordination of safety activities, safeguards, security of material, verification in Iraq pursuant to UNSC resolutions, management of technical co-operation for development, policy-making, management and support.

  5. Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    A goal of the 21. century is for society to pursue 'sustainable economic development and prosperous life by recycling resources', thus rejecting 'development based on the waste of resources'. For Japan, which has limited energy resources, it is important to secure safe, inexpensive, environmentally friendly energy resources having long-term availability. To contribute to long-term energy security and solve global environmental issues, and to create advanced competitive science and technology, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established by integrating the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in October 2005. JAEA is endeavoring to establish nuclear fuel cycles, to contribute to social improvement through hydrogen production initiated by atomic energy, and to pursue research and development of thermonuclear fusion and quantum beam technology. This paper reviews the main R and D activities of JAEA. The structure of the paper is the following: 1. Introduction; 2. Japan Atomic Energy Agency; 3. Efforts to Commercialize the Fast Reactor Cycle; 4. Monju Progress; 5. Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste R and D; 6. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor System R and D; 7. Fusion Research and Development; 8. LWR Spent Fuel Reprocessing Technology; 9. Quantum Beam Technologies; 10. Nuclear Safety Research and Regulatory Applications; 11. Basic Science and Engineering Research; 12. Contribution to the Enhanced International Nonproliferation Regimes; 13. Conclusions. To summarize, JAEA will promote the above R and D activities, addressing the following commitments: - On problems that atomic energy faces, we shall extend technical assistance in response to the government and the industrial sectors. - We shall produce technical options to attain political goals to secure medium to long-term stable energy supplies and to solve global environmental issues. - With the high potentials of atomic

  6. EPR ohmic heating energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.; Stillwagon, R.E.; King, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The Ohmic Heating (OH) Systems for all the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) designs to date have all used temporary energy storage to assist in providing the OH current charge required to build up the plasma current. The energies involved (0.8 x 10 9 J to 1.9 x 10 9 J) are so large as to make capacitor storage impractical. Two alternative approaches are homopolar dc generators and ac generators. Either of these can be designed for pulse duty and can be made to function in a manner similar to a capacitor in the OH circuit and are therefore potential temporary energy storage devices for OH systems for large tokamaks. This study compared total OH system costs using homopolar and ac generators to determine their relative merits. The total system costs were not significantly different for either type of machine. The added flexibility and the lower maintenance of the ac machine system make it the more attractive approach

  7. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel, the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the water temperature variation in the heat storage, depending on the heat load and the heat storage volume. Heat load is calculated for three reference days, with average daily temperatures from -5 to 5°C. The primary energy savings are also calculated for those days in the case of using heat storage in district heating.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  8. French local agencies of energy control; Agences locales francaise de maitrise de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the SAVE program, the European Commission brings financial assistance to the creation of local or regional agencies of energy control in municipalities and regions. The main criteria are the impacts on the energy demand, the reinforcement of the economic and social cohesion, the environmental quality and the contribution to the economic development and the employment creation. In this document, realized by Energie-Cites, the Ademe objective is to present a state of the art of french local agencies. Ten agencies are presented as case study. Each case deals with the following topics: the main context of the action which details the energy and the environmental policy of the municipality, the creation and the description of the agency, the implemented actions and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  9. French local agencies of energy control; Agences locales francaise de maitrise de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the SAVE program, the European Commission brings financial assistance to the creation of local or regional agencies of energy control in municipalities and regions. The main criteria are the impacts on the energy demand, the reinforcement of the economic and social cohesion, the environmental quality and the contribution to the economic development and the employment creation. In this document, realized by Energie-Cites, the Ademe objective is to present a state of the art of french local agencies. Ten agencies are presented as case study. Each case deals with the following topics: the main context of the action which details the energy and the environmental policy of the municipality, the creation and the description of the agency, the implemented actions and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  10. Establishment of 'Japan Atomic Energy Agency'. Its role and expectation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Toru; Itakura, Shuichiro; Shiozawa, Shusaku; Hino, Ryutaro; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Sakurada, Michio; Kimura, Itsuro; Kikuyama, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    In October 2005, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established as an independent administrative institution with the integration of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). JAEA is the only institute in Japan dedicated to comprehensive research and development in the field of nuclear energy. This paper put together a special article on its role and expectation. Firstly the essentials of comprehensive nuclear research and its future perspective were discussed mainly based on 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' of the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. Eight articles were followed on specific items such as quantum beams utilization, hydrogen production with nuclear heat, neutron science and ITER project, and put stress on joint works and smooth transfer of related technology to the private sector. (T. Tanaka)

  11. International Atomic Energy Agency activities in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenweaver, D W.; )

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been addressing the safety and technical issues of decommissioning for over 20 years, but their focus has been primarily on planning. Up to know, the activities have been on an ad hoc basis and sometimes, important issues have been missed. A new Action Plan on the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities has recently been approved by the Agency's board of Governors which will focus the Agency's efforts and ensure that our Member States' concerns are addressed. The new initiatives associated with this Action Plan will help ensure that decommissioning activities in the future are performed in a safe and coherent manner. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been preparing safety and technical documents concerning decommissioning since the mid-1980's. There have been over 30 documents prepared that provide safety requirements, guidance and supporting technical information. Many of these documents are over 10 years old and need updating. The main focus in the past has been on planning for decommissioning. During the past five years, a set of Safety Standards have been prepared and issued to provide safety requirements and guidance to Member States. However, decommissioning was never a real priority with the Agency, but was something that had to be addressed. To illustrate this point, the first requirements documents on decommissioning were issued as part of a Safety Requirements [1] on pre-disposal management of radioactive waste. It was felt that decommissioning did not deserve its own document because it was just part of the normal waste management process. The focus was mostly on waste management. The Agency has assisted Member States with the planning process for decommissioning. Most of these activities have been focused on nuclear power plants and research reactors. Now, support for the decommissioning of other types of facilities is being requested. The Agency is currently providing technical

  12. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  13. Profitability of heating entrepreneurship from the viewpoint of heating energy buyer, heating energy seller and energy wood seller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvula-Seppaelae, T.; Ulander, E. (Seinaejoki Univ. of Applied Sciences, Ahtari (Finland), School of Agriculture and Forestry), e-mail: tiina.sauvula-seppala@seamk.fi, e-mail: essi.ulander@seamk.fi

    2010-07-01

    The focus of this research was to study the profitability of heating entrepreneurships from the viewpoint of heating energy buyer, seller as well as energy wood seller. The average costs of heat production were Eur 44,8 / MWh and incomes Eur 43,4 /MWh. Energy wood purchase, comminution and long distance transportation formed slightly over a half of the heat production costs. Average net income in the group of the largest heating plants (>1000 kW) was Eur 29000 per year and in the group of the smallest (<200 kW) average net income was slightly over Eur 4000 per year. The net income from selling heat represents only a part of the income a heating entrepreneur receives from heat production. Other, significant parts are formed by income from selling energy wood to the plant as well as compensation for supervision and maintenance of the plant. The average net income of a forest owner from selling energy wood to heating entrepreneurs was Eur 18 / m3. Without state subsidies the net income would have been Eur 4 / m3. The price of the heating energy sold by heating entrepreneurs was very competitive. In 2006 it was Eur 30 / MWh cheaper than oil heat, Eur 34 / MWh cheaper than electric heat and Eur 3 / MWh cheaper than district heating. (orig.)

  14. International Atomic Energy Agency annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three pillars of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2006-2007 (GC(49)/2). The introductory chapter seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2006 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2006/. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to technology are: nuclear power; nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies; capacity building and nuclear knowledge maintenance for sustainable energy development; nuclear science; food and agriculture; human health; water resources; assessment and management of marine and terrestrial environments; radioisotope production and radiation technology; safety and security; incident and emergency preparedness and response; safety of nuclear installations; radiation and transport safety; management of radioactive waste; nuclear security

  15. Energy sustainable development through energy efficient heating devices and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, M.

    2006-01-01

    Energy devices and buildings are sustainable if, when they operate, they use sustainable (renewable and refuse) energy and generate nega-energy. This paper covers three research examples of this type of sustainability: (1) use of air-to-earth heat exchangers, (2) computer control of heating and cooling of the building (via heat pumps and heat-recovery devices), and (3) design control of energy consumption in a house. (author)

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of January 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=geo_heat.pr_crit_geo_heat_pumps

  17. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  18. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  19. The OEEC European Nuclear Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-07-15

    The European Nuclear Energy Agency (ENEA) was set up in December 1957 as part of the OEEC to develop nuclear collaboration in Western Europe. The promotion of joint undertakings is one of the most important functions of ENEA, and why one of the first committees of the Agency to be set up was its Top Level Group on Co-operation in the Reactor Field. International collaboration in joint undertakings enables resources in effort, equipment and money to be pooled for the maximum benefit of the countries participating, and is the only way whereby a sufficiently wide range of research possibilities can be covered in a reasonable time. Examples fro such projects are: 1) Halden project - a joint three-year project to exploit the boiling heavy water reactor built by the Norwegian Institute for Atom energy at Halden; 2) Dragon Project - to investigate the possibilities of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors centered on the construction and operation, by an international team, of an experimental 20 MWt high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (Dragon) at the UK Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith; 3) Eurochemic - with a principle objective to construct an experimental plant for the treatment of used uranium fuel from reactors in the participating countries; 4) Nuclear Shops. In addition to promoting joint undertakings, a function of ENEA is to encourage scientific and technical collaboration between national research organizations. Co-operation has been facilitated in the areas od nuclear data, food irradiation, environment radioactivity, training, information and nuclear legislation.

  20. The OEEC European Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The European Nuclear Energy Agency (ENEA) was set up in December 1957 as part of the OEEC to develop nuclear collaboration in Western Europe. The promotion of joint undertakings is one of the most important functions of ENEA, and why one of the first committees of the Agency to be set up was its Top Level Group on Co-operation in the Reactor Field. International collaboration in joint undertakings enables resources in effort, equipment and money to be pooled for the maximum benefit of the countries participating, and is the only way whereby a sufficiently wide range of research possibilities can be covered in a reasonable time. Examples fro such projects are: 1) Halden project - a joint three-year project to exploit the boiling heavy water reactor built by the Norwegian Institute for Atom energy at Halden; 2) Dragon Project - to investigate the possibilities of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors centered on the construction and operation, by an international team, of an experimental 20 MWt high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (Dragon) at the UK Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith; 3) Eurochemic - with a principle objective to construct an experimental plant for the treatment of used uranium fuel from reactors in the participating countries; 4) Nuclear Shops. In addition to promoting joint undertakings, a function of ENEA is to encourage scientific and technical collaboration between national research organizations. Co-operation has been facilitated in the areas od nuclear data, food irradiation, environment radioactivity, training, information and nuclear legislation

  1. Report to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.

    1986-07-01

    The results of research done under the International Atomic Energy Agency Contract no 4121/RB: 'Measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section on small samples' at the Institut of Nuclear Physics during the period from July 1, 1985 to June 30, 1986 are presented. The research was based on the Plexiglass thermal neutron diffusion parameters and on the method of preparation of the rock samples for the measurements according to the INP method. Three rock samples delivered by the IAEA: Ottawa Sand, Royer Dolomite and Dunite Sand have been measured. (author)

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner...

  3. Annual report 2003[International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development.

  4. Energy cascading in large district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    District heat transfer is the most economical utilization of the waste heat of power plants. Optimum utilization and heat transfer over large distances are possible because of a new energy distribution system, the ''energy cascading system,'' in which heat is transferred to several consumer regions at different temperature ranges. It is made more profitable by the use of heat pumps. The optimum flow-line temperature is 368 0 K, and the optimum return-line temperature is 288 0 K, resulting in an approximately 50% reduction of electric power loss at the power plant

  5. Oil substitution and energy saving - A research and development strategy of the International Energy Agency /IEA/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath-Nagel, S.

    1981-03-01

    Systems analyses were carried out by the International Energy Agency for the participating 15 countries in order to work out strategies and scenarios for lessening the dependence on imported oil and for developing new energy technologies. MARKAL model computations show the technology and energy mixes necessary for achieving a reduction of oil imports by two thirds over the next 40 years. The scenario 'high social security' examines the projected rise in energy consumption, the development of oil substitutes, the increase in alternative heating sources, the development of markets for liquid energy products, the demand for gas, and the relative usage of various energy generation methods. The recommended strategy involves as the most important points an increase in coal consumption, greater nuclear energy reliance and development of alternative technologies.

  6. Cognitive Simulation Driven Domestic Heating Energy Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thilakarathne, D.J.; Treur, J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy management for domestic heating is a non trivial research challenge, especially given the dynamics associated to indoor and outdoor air temperatures, required comfortable temperature set points over time, parameters of the heating source and system, and energy loss rate and capacity of a

  7. Heat Energy Markets: Trends of Spatial Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Dyomina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews competing forms of heat supply. It is shown that in Finland, Denmark, China and Russia the dominant form of heat supply is district heating system; in the United States and Canada the dominant form of heat supply is individual one. Using the countries’ data the author allocates 4 models of heat energy markets. The analysis is based on combinations of the following characteristics: the type of market, the orientation of market, the stage of market development, forms of state support of district heating systems and the approach to pricing. The results identified the failure of the current model of heat energy market in Russia (noncompetitive, manufacturer-oriented and evolved market with massive state support of its district heating system. The ‘target’ model of heat energy market in Russia is a model of noncompetitive, customer-oriented and evolved market with no state support of its district heating system. However, the ‘target’ model takes into account spatial heterogeneity of local heat energy markets in Russia only technically

  8. Recognising the potential for renewable energy heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyboth, Kristin; Beurskens, Luuk; Langniss, Ole; Sims, Ralph E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Heating and cooling in the industrial, commercial, and domestic sectors constitute around 40-50% of total global final energy demand. A wide range of renewable energy heating and cooling (REHC) technologies exists but they are presently only used to meet around 2-3% of total world demand (excluding from traditional biomass). Several of these technologies are mature, their markets are growing, and their costs relative to conventional heating and cooling systems continue to decline. However, in most countries, policies developed to encourage the wider deployment of renewable electricity generation, transport biofuels and energy efficiency have over-shadowed policies aimed at REHC technology deployment. This paper, based on the findings of the International Energy Agency publication Renewables for Heating and Cooling-Untapped Potential, outlines the present and future markets and compares the costs of providing heating and cooling services from solar, geothermal and biomass resources. It analyses current policies and experiences and makes recommendations to support enhanced market deployment of REHC technologies to provide greater energy supply security and climate change mitigation. If policies as successfully implemented by the leading countries were to be replicated elsewhere (possibly after modification to better suit local conditions), there would be good potential to significantly increase the share of renewable energy in providing heating and cooling services

  9. High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) Balloon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    This grant supported our work on the High Energy Antimatter Telescope(HEAT) balloon experiment. The HEAT payload is designed to perform a series of experiments focusing on the cosmic ray positron, electron, and antiprotons. Thus far two flights of the HEAT -e+/- configuration have taken place. During the period of this grant major accomplishments included the following: (1) Publication of the first results of the 1994 HEAT-e+/- flight in Physical Review Letters; (2) Successful reflight of the HEAT-e+/- payload from Lynn Lake in August 1995; (3) Repair and refurbishment of the elements of the HEAT payload damaged during the landing following the 1995 flight; and (4) Upgrade of the ground support equipment for future flights of the HEAT payload.

  10. The Regional Biomass-Energy Agency (ERBE): an opportunity for the biomass-energy development in Wallonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, P.; Menu, J.F.; Belle, J.F. van; Schenkel, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, the European Commission (Directorate-General for Energy) and the Walloon government set up a biomass-energy agency (ERBE), to promote and build biomass-energy projects in Wallonia (Belgium). A survey of biomass-energy potential indicates that wood-energy seems to offer the best utilization opportunities. Forest and logging residues, sawmills' and joineries' off-cuts, pallets residues, etc. could be burnt in wood district heating units with a significant social benefit. Consequently, the ERBE Agency is trying to set up projects in this way in Austria (+/- 100 wood heating systems) or in Sweden. It serves to inform industries and municipalities about biomass-energy, to advise them in the building of biomass-energy projects, to identify their energy needs and their biomass resources, to carry out prefeasibility studies, to inform them about financing opportunities, and so on. (author)

  11. Nuclear Energy Agency. 6. activity report. 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    NEA has, as a primary objective, to ensure through international co-operation that the nuclear option is available for consideration in its true worth. The safety and regulatory aspects of nulear development have represented in 1977 about two thirds of NEA's total effort; and a high degree of priority was given to questions of nuclear safety and of radioactive waste management. Similarly, the growing need of Member countries for an integrated appraisal of technical, economic, safety, environmental and political questions influencing the nuclear fuel cycle was increasingly taken into account. Finally, a general effort was made to achieve greater visibility for the positive results of the NEA programme, as a contribution to improved public understanding of the factors underlying nuclear power programmes. As in previous years, the NEA programme continued to involve close collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities. Within the OECD, close collaboration was maintained with the Combined Energy Staff and the Environment Directorate

  12. Seon heats with geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the combined use of ground water for the supply of drinking water for the municipality of Seon, Switzerland and as the basis for a district heating system. The use of the water, pumped up from a depth of 300 meters and exhibiting a temperature of 19.5 o C, as the heat source for heat pumps is described. The history of the project is discussed and figures are given on the district heating system that provides heat for an indoor swimming pool complex, industry and living accommodation in the village. Operational strategies used to make optimum use of tariff structures are described. The role played by local initiative in this innovative project is emphasised

  13. Annual report 2000[International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000.

  14. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangi, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Ancona, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  15. The International Energy Agency collaboration in wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, H.J.M.; Pershagen, B.

    1991-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) wind energy agreements have provided a useful framework for international cooperative efforts during more than thirteen years. Nine comprehensive research Tasks have been successfully completed and three Tasks are currently in progress. The sharing of research and information has clearly contributed to the development of wind technology, has eliminated unnecessary redundancy in national programmes, has encouraged utilization of the most efficient approaches to solve common problems, and has created a cooperative spirit among the professional groups that seems to be unique. After a brief introduction on the activities of the IEA on wind energy an overview is given of the ongoing tasks and other current activities with regard to the subject. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 9 refs

  16. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2011-BT-TP-0042] RIN 1904-AC53 Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for...

  17. 78 FR 29749 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE..., DC 20503 And to Mr. Dana O'Hara, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE- 2G), U.S...

  18. Energy efficient ammonia heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Claus; Pijnenburg, B.; Schumann Grindorf, H. [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Rolf [Alfa Laval, Lund (Sweden); Rasmussen, Bjarne D. [Grundfos, Bjerringbro (Denmark); Gram, S.; Fredborg Jakobsen, D. [Svedan Industri Koeleanlaeg, Greve (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    The report describes the development of a highly effective ammonia heat pump. Heat pumps play an increasingly important role in the search for more effective use of energy in our society. Highly efficient heat pumps can contribute to reduced energy consumption and improved economy of the systems which they are a part of. An ammonia heat pump with high pressure reciprocating compressor and a novel split condenser was developed to prove potential for efficiency optimization. The split of the condenser in two parts can be utilized to obtain smaller temperature approaches and, thereby, improved heat pump efficiency at an equal heat exchanger area, when compared to the traditional solution with separate condenser and de-superheater. The split condenser design can also be exploited for heating a significant share of the total heating capacity to a temperature far above the condensing temperature. Furthermore, the prototype heat pump was equipped with a plate type evaporator combined with a U-turn separator with a minimum liquid height and a liquid pump with the purpose of creating optimum liquid circulation ratio for the highest possible heat transfer coefficients at the lowest possible pressure drop. The test results successfully confirmed the highest possible efficiency; a COP of 4.3 was obtained when heating water from 40 deg. C to 80 deg. C while operating with evaporating/condensing temperatures of +20 deg C/+73 deg C. (Author)

  19. Geothermal energy in Denmark. The Committee for Geothermal Energy of the Danish Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Danish Energy Agency has prepared a report on the Danish geothermal resources and their contribution to the national energy potential.Environmental and socio-economic consequences of geothermal power systems implementation are reviewed. Organizational models and financing of geothermal-seismic research are discussed, and the Committee of the Energy Agency for Geothermal Energy recommends financing of a pilot plant as well as a prompt elucidation of concession/licensing problems. (EG)

  20. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadorn, J.-C.; Renaud, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Annual Report 2011 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2011. The main part of the report, starting on page 21, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2011 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available in electronic form only on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report.

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2013. The IAEA Annual Report 2013 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report, starting on page 15, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2012-2013 (GC(55)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2013 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available, in electronic form only, on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear- Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear-weapon State' is as used in

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2012. - The IAEA Annual Report 2012 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2012-2013 (GC(55)/5). - The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2012 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. - Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available, in electronic form only, on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report. - Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. - The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. - The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. - The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non- Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear-weapon State' is as used

  4. Turbulent energy losses during orchard heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Two rapid-response drag anemometers and low time constant thermocouples, all at 4 m above a heated orchard floor, sampled wind component in the vertical direction and temperature at 30 Hz. The turbulent heat flux calculated revealed not more than 10% of the heat lost from the orchard was via turbulent transort. The observations failed to support previous estimates that at least a third of the energy applied was lost through turbulent transport. Underestimation of heat loss due to mean flow and a newly revealed flux due to spatial variations in the mean flow may explain the unaccounted for loss.

  5. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  6. District heating with SLOWPOKE energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System, a benign nuclear heat source designed to supply 10 thermal megawatts in the form of hot water for local heating systems in buildings and institutions, is at the forefront of these developments. A demonstration unit has been constructed in Canada and is currently undergoing an extensive test program. Because the nuclear heat source is small, operates at atmospheric pressure, and produces hot water below 100 degrees Celcius, intrinsic safety features will permit minimum operator attention and allow the heat source to be located close to the load and hence to people. In this way, a SLOWPOKE Energy System can be considered much like the oil- or coal-fired furnace it is designed to replace. The low capital investment requirements, coupled with a high degree of localization, even for the first unit, are seen as attractive features for the implementation of SLOWPOKE Energy Systems in many countries

  7. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Annual Report 2010 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement and Background to the Safeguards Statement and Summary. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org./Publications/ Reports/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT.

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Annual Report 2010 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement and Background to the Safeguards Statement and Summary. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org./Publications/ Reports/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT.

  9. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Annual Report 2009 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2008-2009 (GC(51)/2). The introductory chapter, '2009 in Perspective', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2009 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional infomation covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Reports/Anrep2009/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Natinos document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT

  10. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The Annual Report 2009 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2008-2009 (GC(51)/2). The introductory chapter, '2009 in Perspective', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2009 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional infomation covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Reports/Anrep2009/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Natinos document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT

  11. The Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD through its history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarri, L.

    2008-01-01

    This year, 2008, marks the 50th Anniversary of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). During these years the Agency has adapted to the evolution of the world energy situation. At the beginning the Agency launches international collaboration projects to establish the technological bases required for nuclear energy, then helps member countries in the construction of nuclear power plants and later analyzes the safety criteria as a consequence of the Three Miles Island and Chernobyl accidents. Based on this experience, the NEA faces the X XI Century prepared to contribute, even more, to a better international collaboration for a safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of the nuclear energy. (Author)

  12. The International Atomic Energy Agency Flag Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the IAEA Flag Code which was promulgated by the Director General on 15 September 1999, pursuant to the decision of the Board of Governors on 10 June 1999 to adopt an Agency flag as described in document GOV/1999/41 and its use in accordance with a flag code to be promulgated by the Director General

  13. Australia and the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Australia's support for the IAEA's safeguards program is described. Through a program of bilateral assistance to the Agency, Austrlia has developed and sponsored special programs of assistance to the IAEA's Safeguards over the period 1980 to 1986. The speech by the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade, Mr Bill Hayden, to the IAEA Thirtieth Anniversary Conference in Vienna on 21 September 1987 is included

  14. The International Atomic Energy Agency Flag Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-17

    The document reproduces the text of the IAEA Flag Code which was promulgated by the Director General on 15 September 1999, pursuant to the decision of the Board of Governors on 10 June 1999 to adopt an Agency flag as described in document GOV/1999/41 and its use in accordance with a flag code to be promulgated by the Director General.

  15. Energy Conservation: Heating Navy Hangars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    temperature, IF Tf Inside air temperature 1 foot above the floor, OF T. Inside design temperature, IF To Hot water temperature setpoint , OF TON Chiller ...systems capable of optimizing energy usage base-wide. An add-on to an existing large scale EMCS is probably the first preference, followed by single...the building comfort conditions are met during hours of building occupancy. 2. Optimized Start/Stop turns on equipment at the latest possible time and

  16. Valorization of the energy potential of fossil and fissile fuels for heat production: dual-purpose power plants and heat-producing nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavite, Michel.

    1975-07-01

    The heat market is analyzed briefly within the French context: present structures and characteristics of the market, current means of heat production, predictable trend of the demand. The possible applications of nuclear energy to heat production, through the agency of combined electricity-steam stations or heat-producing stations, are then examined. Nuclear solutions are compared with others from the technico-economic and ecological wiewpoints and an estimate fo their respective impacts on the energy balance is attempted [fr

  17. Geothermal energy. Ground source heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy can be harnessed in 2 different ways: electricity or heat generation. The combined net electrical geothermal power of the European Union countries reached 719.3 MWe in 2008 (4.8 MW up on 2007) for 868.1 MWe of installed capacity. Gross electrical production contracted slightly in 2008 (down 1% on the 2007 level) and stood at 5809.5 GWh in 2008. Italy has a overwhelming position with a production of 5520.3 GWh. Geothermal heat production concerning aquifers whose temperature is 30-150 C. degrees generally at a depth of 1-3 km is called low- and medium-enthalpy energy. 18 of the 27 EU members use low- and medium-enthalpy energy totaling 2560.0 MWth of installed capacity that yielded 689.2 ktoe in 2008 and 3 countries Hungary, Italy and France totaling 480.3 ktoe. Very low-enthalpy energy concerns the exploitation of shallow geothermal resources using geothermal heat pumps. In 2008, 114452 ground heat pumps were sold in Europe. At the end of 2008, the installed capacity was 8955.4 MWth (16.5% up on 2007 level, it represented 785206 pumps. Over one million ground heat pumps are expected to be operating in 2010 in Europe. (A.C.)

  18. Environmental and energy efficiency evaluation of residential gas and heat pump heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganji, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Energy efficiency and source air pollutant emission factors of gas heaters, gas engine heat pumps, and electric heat pumps for domestic heating have been evaluated and compared. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, gas engine heat pumps have the highest energy efficiency followed by electric heat pumps and then gas heaters. Electric heat pumps produce more than twice as much NO x , and comparable CO 2 and CO per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. CO production per unit of useful heating energy from gas engine heat pumps without any emission control is substantially higher than electric heat pumps and natural gas heaters. NO x production per unit of useful heating energy from natural gas engine heat pumps (using lean burn technology) without any emission control is about the same as effective NO x production from electric heat pumps. Gas engine heat pumps produce about one-half CO 2 compared to electric heat pumps

  19. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. 3. Activity report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The main activities of the Agency are reviewed: study of nuclear power trends; regulatory aspects of nuclear power; technical developments: Eurochemic, Halden, Dragon, food irradiation, gas-cooled fast reactors, direct conversion, isotopic batteries; nuclear energy information

  20. Nuclear power issue as seen by the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, P.

    1976-01-01

    An account is given of the work of the International Energy Agency towards reducing the dependence of member states on imported oil. Forecasts of energy consumption are discussed, and the contributions that could be made by various energy sources, and by energy conservation, are examined. It is concluded that nuclear power is essential to a reduced dependence policy. The constraints on full realization of national nuclear programmes are stated as follows: licensing delays, waste disposal, financing, uranium supply, and fuel services. Ways in which these could be overcome by national and international action are suggested. Reference is made to the work of other atomic energy agencies: IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  1. The International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzutti, A.A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The origens, functions and objectives of the IAEA are analysed. The application of safeguards to avoid military uses of nuclear energy is discussed. In the final section the agrement between Brazil and Germany regarding IAEA safeguards, as well as the competence for executing the brazilian program are explained. It is, then, an informative study dealing with nuclear energy and its peaceful path, the creation of International Fuel Cycle Evaluation and nonproliferation [pt

  2. Role of executive agencies for energy efficiency with a view on activities of Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačić Bojan J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, particularly in Europe, have executive energy efficiency agencies at national, regional and local levels that are organized in different ways. For all of them, it is common that there are existing strategic needs in their countries for enhancement of conditions and measures for rational use of energy and fuels. Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency was established in 2002 within the reform of the energy sector in Serbia and its current status was defined in 2004 by the Energy Law. It contributes to the improvement of social responsibility towards energy in all structures of the state and society, by proposing energy efficiency incentives, promoting importance of energy efficiency, as well as by managing energy efficiency and renewable energy programs and projects.

  3. International Energy Agency 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    The IEA Executive Director's Annual Report 2013 is the second of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It was presented to the IEA Governing Board and is also released publicly to ensure transparency and to take stock of the organisation's activities from a strategic perspective. 2013 was a banner year for the IEA, given continued changes in the global energy economy as well as the IEA Ministerial meeting in November which brought together Energy Ministers from all 28 IEA member countries, accession countries Chile and Estonia, seven key partner countries - Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa - as well as more that 30 top-level executives from the energy industry. Key Ministerial outcomes included the first IEA Ministers' Joint Statement on Climate Change and a declaration of association by six key partner countries to build multilateral cooperation with the IEA.

  4. 78 FR 16665 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... this notice is to permit attendance by representatives of U.S. company members of the IAB at a meeting... meeting among company representatives at the same location at 8:30 a.m. on March 26. The agenda for this... Refining Crisis 8. Middle East Energy Exports and the Arab Spring 9. The Turmoil in North Africa and the...

  5. 75 FR 67711 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    .... Opening Session Address. 3. Introduction to IEA Emergency Response Policies and Objectives. 4. How the Global Oil Market Works. 5. Natural Gas Market. 6. IEA Energy Statistics and Oil Data Systems. 7. The.... Discussion (Plenary). Day 2 6. Introduction (Plenary). 7. Simulation (Breakout Groups). 8. Discussion...

  6. 77 FR 69613 - International Energy Agency Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6272(c)(1)(A)(i)) (EPCA), the following notice of meeting is... the IEA 2. IEA Emergency Response Policies, Market Assessment, Industry Perspective 3. IEA Oil Data...)(A)(ii) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6272(c)(1)(A)(ii)), the meeting of the...

  7. 76 FR 14003 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Hub? 9. Workshop Scene Setter --Commodity Derivatives Market and Recent Regulatory Trends 10. Other... Financial Market Participants on Energy Futures Markets 1. How do the investment strategies of financial... the Oil Market (SOM) on March 22; and on March 23 and March 24 in connection with a meeting of the SEQ...

  8. International Energy Agency 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    The IEA Executive Director's Annual Report 2013 is the second of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It was presented to the IEA Governing Board and is also released publicly to ensure transparency and to take stock of the organisation's activities from a strategic perspective. 2013 was a banner year for the IEA, given continued changes in the global energy economy as well as the IEA Ministerial meeting in November which brought together Energy Ministers from all 28 IEA member countries, accession countries Chile and Estonia, seven key partner countries - Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa - as well as more that 30 top-level executives from the energy industry. Key Ministerial outcomes included the first IEA Ministers' Joint Statement on Climate Change and a declaration of association by six key partner countries to build multilateral cooperation with the IEA.

  9. A comparison of the heat and mechanical energy of a heat-pump wind turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybek, A.; Arslan, S.; Yildiz, E.; Atik, K. [University of Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery

    2000-07-01

    While a variety of applications of wind energy have been studied in Turkey, no significant efforts have been made to utilize heat pumps for heat generation. The use of heat pumps in wind energy systems is worth considering because of the high efficiency of heat production. In this study, a directly coupled wind turbine-heat pump system was designed, constructed, and tested. Measurements determined the mechanical energy of the rotors of the wind turbine and the heat energy generated by the heat pump driven by the rotor shaft. Based on the comparisons between the power generated by the heat pump and the power of the Savonius rotors, it was found that the heat energy gained by the heat pump was four times greater than the mechanical energy obtained from the turbine. It was suggested that heat pumps could be efficiently used in wind energy systems. (Author)

  10. Energy efficiency of electrical infrared heating elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.J.; Farrelly, R.; O’Shaughnessy, S.M.; Robinson, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of the radiant energy efficiency of infrared heating elements. • Performed for a commercially available ceramic heater element for two cases. • Total radiant power and net radiant efficiency is computed. • Radiant efficiencies are strongly dependant on the input power to the element. • In-plane efficiencies depend on the distance from the heater. - Abstract: A measurement system has been designed to characterize the radiant energy efficiency of infrared heating elements. The system also allows for measurement of the radiant heat flux distribution emitted from radiant heater assemblies. To facilitate these, a 6-axis robotic arm is fitted with a Schmidt–Boelter radiant heat flux gauge. A LabVIEW interface operates the robot and positions the sensor in the desired location and subsequently acquires the desired radiant heat flux measurement. To illustrate the functionality of the measurement system and methodology, radiant heat flux distributions and efficiency calculations are performed for a commercially available ceramic heater element for two cases. In the first, a spherical surface is traced around the entire heater assembly and the total radiant power and net radiant efficiency is computed. In the second, 50 cm × 50 cm vertical planes are traced parallel to the front face of the heater assembly at distances between 10 cm and 50 cm and the in-plane power and efficiencies are computed. The results indicate that the radiant efficiencies are strongly dependant on the input power to the element and, for the in-plane efficiencies, depend on the distance from the heater.

  11. Renewable energy in the Lithuanian heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinaviciute, Inga; Bobinaite, Viktorija; Tarvydas, Dalius; Gatautis, Ramunas

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the role of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Lithuanian heating sector and the existing support measures. RES consumption has been continuously growing in Lithuania. During the period of 2000–2009, RES used for heat production in the district heating sector increased more than 4 times. Wood and wood products have been the most widely used RES for heat production (RES-H). The lower prices were one of the main reasons which motivated district heating companies to switch fuel to biomass. At the same time subsidies, soft loans, EU Structural Funds for 2007–2013 and some fiscal measures, which are currently available for RES-H promotion, also have some impact on the increase of RES consumption. However, seeking to achieve a 23% national RES target, additional support measures are essential. A qualitative analysis based on the selected set of criteria and consultation with stakeholders showed that energy policy package for RES promotion in the Lithuanian heating sector could encompass the following measures: tax relieves (differentiated VAT and personal income tax breaks), subsidies, soft loans, standardization, support for research, development and demonstration. These measures are market-oriented and meet cost efficiency and low transaction costs criteria. - Highlights: • Existing support measures are not strongly motivating market players. • In order to meet ambitious 23% targets consistent promotion policy package is required. • The proposed package could consist of 4 instruments: tax related, soft loans, standardization and support for RD and D. • The proposed support measures are market oriented and meets cost efficiency and low transaction costs criteria. • There is no single measure that is fairly suitable to support RES-H

  12. International Energy Agency 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The IEA Executive Director’s Annual Report 2012 is the first of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It is presented to the IEA Governing Board and released publicly to ensure transparency and also to take stock of the organisation’s activities from a strategic perspective. 2012 was a transitional year for the IEA, given fundamental changes in the global energy economy as well as internal management and budget issues. At the same time demand for IEA products set new records, and the public and political impact of IEA work through effective communication was measured as high.

  13. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy....... The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand...

  14. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Along with an examination of the state of worldwide nuclear-related developments last year, the IAEA Annual Report 2014 provides a comprehensive look at the Agency’s activities over the course of the year. From coordinating 125 research projects to conducting 2114 nuclear verification inspections worldwide, the IAEA’s 2560 employees continued to work on a wide range of areas to meet the evolving needs of Member States. The Annual Report, published in August, will be discussed and endorsed at the IAEA’s General Conference in September. Serving 162 Member States, two more than the year before, the IAEA’s activities in 2014 focused on the following areas, in line with its mandate: • Nuclear Energy: The IAEA assisted Member States in the introduction of nuclear power programmes and in the efficient and safe use of nuclear energy, fostering innovation and building capability in energy planning, analysis, and nuclear information and knowledge management. • Nuclear Sciences and Applications: The IAEA continued to assist Member States in building, strengthening and maintaining capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology. • Nuclear Safety and Security: The IAEA and its Member States continued to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide, including through the implementation of the Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which had been endorsed by the General Conference in 2011 after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant earlier that year. The IAEA also supported States, upon request, in their efforts to achieve effective security wherever nuclear and other radioactive materials are in use. • Nuclear Verification: The IAEA implemented safeguards in 180 States and as at the end of every year, it drew conclusions for each State for which safeguards were applied. • Technical Cooperation: The IAEA assisted Member States in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and in preparation for the post-2015 Sustainable

  15. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    that a least‐cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps. Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Renewable energy, Heating strategy, Heat savings, District heating, Smart energy......One of the important issues related to the implementation of future sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy sources is the heating of buildings. Especially, when it comes to long‐term investment in savings and heating infrastructures it is essential to identify long‐term least......‐cost strategies. With Denmark as a case, this paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental long...

  16. The origins of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, International Relations (France)

    1977-08-15

    On 23 October 1956 in New York, 81 member countries of the United Nations Organization or of its specialized agencies adopted the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was to go into formal operation before the end of 1957. A major step towards world-wide control of nuclear energy thus came to be taken more than ten years after the idea of establishing such control had been launched - the first tentative efforts, from 1946 to 1948, having ended in failure. The account follows in an attempt to retrace this 'prehistory' of the IAEA.

  17. The origins of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1977-01-01

    On 23 October 1956 in New York, 81 member countries of the United Nations Organization or of its specialized agencies adopted the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was to go into formal operation before the end of 1957. A major step towards world-wide control of nuclear energy thus came to be taken more than ten years after the idea of establishing such control had been launched - the first tentative efforts, from 1946 to 1948, having ended in failure. The account follows in an attempt to retrace this 'prehistory' of the IAEA

  18. Energy efficient heating and ventilation of large halls

    CERN Document Server

    Hojer, Ondrej; Kabele, Karel; Kotrbaty, Miroslav; Sommer, Klaus; Petras, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook is focused on modern methods for design, control and operation of energy efficient heating systems in large spaces and industrial halls. The book deals with thermal comfort, light and dark gas radiant heaters, panel radiant heating, floor heating and industrial air heating systems. Various heating systems are illustrated with case studies. Design principles, methods and modeling tools are presented for various systems.

  19. The prepossession of international institutions for energy. The example International Energy Agency (IEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the fact that large international energy agencies, which are advisory active in energy questions active, affect the world-wide policy. In particular, these are the International Atomic Energy Authority in Vienna (Austria) and the International Energy Agency in Paris (France). The International Energy Agency is considered world-wide as the most important institution for all energy questions. Nearly annually, it publishes the World Energy Outlook by summarizing the most important current energy data of the world, prognoses the future power supply and makes future energy prices. The reality of the International Energy Agency looks completely differently: It performs no own sciences, but consists of statisticians, who gather only statistical data without scientific analysis. The author of this contribution summarizes the work of the International Energy Agency in three points: (a) Promotion of the interests of companies in mineral oil, natural gas, coal and atomic energy; (b) Hindering the world-wide conversion of renewable energy; (c) Endangerment of the world economy and prevention of an effective climate protection. The International Energy Agency does not justice to its own goal of a reliable, economical and pollution free power supply

  20. Flexibility of Large-Scale Solar Heating Plant with Heat Pump and Thermal Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luc, Katarzyna Marta; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    to decrease biomass use in a district heating system. The paper focuses on the renewable energy-based district heating system in Marstal, Denmark, with heat produced in central solar heating plant, wood pellet boiler, heat pump and bio-oil boiler. The plant has been the object of research and developments...

  1. 77 FR 61592 - Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-110-000] Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission.... 825(h), Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation, Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, and its two...

  2. Environment. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment issued during the period 1980-1993. The major subjects covered include: effect of agrochemical residues on soils and aquatic ecosystems, application of radioisotopes in conservation of the environment, siting of nuclear power plants, environmental isotope data and environmental contamination due to nuclear accidents

  3. Radiation therapy. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Radiation Therapy, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  4. Environment. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1986-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1986 up to the end of 1999 and still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered important have also been included. The catalogue is in CD-ROM format

  6. Energy Literacy and Agency of New Zealand Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Bielschowsky, I.; Lawson, R.; Stephenson, J.; Todd, S.

    2017-01-01

    The development of energy literacy (knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviour) and agency of New Zealand children (age 9-10) were investigated through thematic and exploratory statistical analyses of interviews (October 2011-April 2012) with 26 children, their parents and teachers, focus groups and photo elicitation. The children knew that…

  7. Research of waste heat energy efficiency for absorption heat pump recycling thermal power plant circulating water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Liansheng; E, Zhijun; Wang, Kun; Wang, Ziyue; Li, Guohao; Qu, Bin

    2018-02-01

    The waste heat energy efficiency for absorption heat pump recycling thermal power plant circulating water has been analyzed. After the operation of heat pump, the influences on power generation and heat generation of unit were taken into account. In the light of the characteristics of heat pump in different operation stages, the energy efficiency of heat pump was evaluated comprehensively on both sides of benefits belonging to electricity and benefits belonging to heat, which adopted the method of contrast test. Thus, the reference of energy efficiency for same type projects was provided.

  8. Steady-state heat losses in pipes for low-energy district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The synergy between highly energy efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Distribution heat losses represent a key factor in the design o...

  9. Analysis of energy development sustainability: The example of the lithuanian district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveselis, Vaclovas; Dzenajavičienė, Eugenija Farida; Masaitis, Sigitas

    2017-01-01

    Today, sustainable energy development is one of key issues on European development agenda. The article describes one of sustainable energy development promoting tool - the eco-labelling scheme for district heating and cooling systems elaborated within the framework of Intelligent Energy for Europe program project “Ecoheat4cities” and partially funded by European Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation. The scheme is based on measured energy and environmental performance data of the district heating and cooling system and considers primary non-renewable energy usage together with the share of renewable energy and carbon dioxide emissions calculated using life-cycle analysis methodology. The “power bonus” approach is used for performance indicators of the heat generated in cogeneration installations. An analysis of a number of Lithuanian district heating companies using elaborated labelling criteria shows positive trends towards fulfilling Lithuania's energy policy goals. The labelling scheme gives opportunity for policy makers and urban planners to compare different heat supply options and decide upon exploiting district heating advantages and benefits for reaching EU energy and environment policy goals. - Highlights: • Overview of Lithuania's district heating sector was performed via main sustainability criteria. • Developing to greener and more efficient state was disclosed via analysis of three years activity results. • Green labelling may help district heating companies to maintain existing and attract new potential consumers.

  10. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    -scale solar thermal, large heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat, and waste incineration. Where the energy density in the building stock is not high enough for DH to be economical, geothermal heat pumps can be recommended for individual heating systems, even though biomass consumption is higher......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...

  11. Conversion of solar energy into heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devin, B.; Etievant, C.

    1975-01-01

    Argument prevails regarding the main parameters involved in the definition of installations designed to convert by means of a thermal machine, solar energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Between the temperature of the cold source and the stagnation temperature, there exists an optimal temperature which makes for the maximum efficiency of the collector/thermal machine unit. The optimal operating conditions for different types of collector are examined. Optimization of the surface of the collector is dealt with in particular. The structure and cost of solar installations are also analyzed with some examples as basis: solar pumps of 1 to 25kW, a 50MWe electrosolar plant. The cost involves three main elements: the collector, the thermal unit and the heat storage device. The latter is necessary for the integration of diurnal and nocturnal fluctuations of isolation. It is shown that thermal storage is economically payable only under certain conditions [fr

  12. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Fabian F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nielsen, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bunnik, Tim [MARIN (Netherlands); Touzon, Imanol [Tecnalia (Spain); Nam, Bo Woo [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Kim, Jeong Seok [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Janson, Carl Erik [Chalmers University (Sweden); Jakobsen, Ken-Robert [EDRMedeso (Norway); Crowley, Sarah [WavEC (Portugal); Vega, Luis [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Rajagopalan, Krishnakimar [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Mathai, Thomas [Glosten (United States); Greaves, Deborah [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Ransley, Edward [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Lamont-Kane, Paul [Queen' s University Belfast (United Kingdom); Sheng, Wanan [University College Cork (Ireland); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Thomas, Sarah [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Heras, Pilar [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Bingham, Harry [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Kurniawan, Adi [Aalborg University (Denmark); Kramer, Morten Mejlhede [Aalborg University (Denmark); Ogden, David [INNOSEA (France); Girardin, Samuel [INNOSEA (France); Babarit, Aurelien [EC Nantes (France); Wuillaume, Pierre-Yves [EC Nantes (France); Steinke, Dean [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Roy, Andre [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Beatty, Scott [Cascadia Coast Research (Canada); Schofield, Paul [ANSYS (United States); Kim, Kyong-Hwan [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Jansson, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); BCAM (Spain); Hoffman, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-10-16

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 was proposed by Bob Thresher (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) in 2015 and approved by the OES Executive Committee EXCO in 2016. The kickoff workshop took place in September 2016, wherein the initial baseline task was defined. Experience from similar offshore wind validation/verification projects (OC3-OC5 conducted within the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30) [1], [2] showed that a simple test case would help the initial cooperation to present results in a comparable way. A heaving sphere was chosen as the first test case. The team of project participants simulated different numerical experiments, such as heave decay tests and regular and irregular wave cases. The simulation results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards: Challenge and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Leonard S.

    2017-11-01

    This article provides a critical review of the nuclear accounting and inspection system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), known as "IAEA safeguards." The article focuses on the multiple challenges the Agency confronts in verifying that all nuclear activities in the countries under its safeguards system are being pursued for exclusively peaceful purposes. The principal challenges noted are those posed by: undeclared facilities, the development of enrichment and reprocessing capabilities, illicit procurement activities, denial of inspector access, difficulties in verifying absence of weaponization activities, and difficulties in establishing that all nuclear-relevant activities in a state are peaceful. The article is in the form of annotated PowerPoint briefing slides.

  14. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1986-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1986 up to the end of 1999 and still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is noted as C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number

  15. Offshore heat dissipation for nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, H.F.

    1978-09-01

    The technical, environmental, and economic aspects of utilizing the ocean or other large water bodies for the dissipation of reject heat from Nuclear Energy Centers (NECs) were investigated. An NEC in concept is an aggregate of nuclear power plants of 10 GW(e) capacity or greater on a common site. The use of once-through cooling for large power installations offers advantages including higher thermal efficiencies, especially under summer peak-load conditions, compared to closed-cycle cooling systems. A disadvantage of once-through cooling is the potential for greater adverse impacts on the aquatic environment. A concept is presented for minimizing the impacts of such systems by placing water intake and discharge locations relatively distant from shore in deeper water than has heretofore been the practice. This technique would avoid impacts on relatively biologically productive and ecologically sensitive shallow inshore areas. The NEC itself would be set back from the shoreline so that recreational use of the shore area would not be impaired. The characteristics of a heat-dissipation system of the size required for a NEC were predicted from the known characteristics of a smaller system by applying hydraulic scaling laws. The results showed that adequate heat dissipation can be obtained from NEC-sized systems located in water of appropriate depth. Offshore intake and discharge structures would be connected to the NEC pump house on shore via tunnels or buried pipelines. Tunnels have the advantage that shoreline and beach areas would not be disturbed. The cost of an offshore heat-dissipation system depends on the characteristics of the site, particularly the distance to suitably deep water and the type of soil or rock in which water conduits would be constructed. For a favorable site, the cost of an offshore system is estimated to be less than the cost of a closed-cycle system

  16. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What heating and cooling... heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities? Within the limitations of the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most...

  17. Geothermal energy: the earth, source of heat and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, D.

    2005-01-01

    This document provides information on the geothermal energy. It presents the different types of geothermal deposits (very low, low and medium energy geothermal energy), the french deposits and the heat production. The electric power production from the geothermal energy is also discussed with the example of Soultz-sous-Forets. The last part deals with the heat pumps. (A.L.B.)

  18. Simulation and energy analysis of distributed electric heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Han, Shenchao; Yang, Yanchun; Liu, Mingyuan

    2018-02-01

    Distributed electric heating system assistssolar heating systemby using air-source heat pump. Air-source heat pump as auxiliary heat sourcecan make up the defects of the conventional solar thermal system can provide a 24 - hour high - efficiency work. It has certain practical value and practical significance to reduce emissions and promote building energy efficiency. Using Polysun software the system is simulated and compared with ordinary electric boiler heating system. The simulation results show that upon energy request, 5844.5kW energy is saved and 3135kg carbon - dioxide emissions are reduced and5844.5 kWhfuel and energy consumption is decreased with distributed electric heating system. Theeffect of conserving energy and reducing emissions using distributed electric heating systemis very obvious.

  19. Energy and heat balance in wet DCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Viren; Moser, Alexander; Schaefer, Michael; Ritschel, Michael [BorgWarner Drivetrain Engineering GmbH, Ketsch (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Wet clutch systems are well known for their thermal robustness and versatility in a wide range of automotive applications. Conventional automatics have used them for a long time as torque converter lock-up clutches, shift elements and launch clutches. With the development of DCTs, wet clutch technology has evolved in terms of launch and shift performance, controllability, robustness and efficiency. This paper discusses improvements in the wet clutch and their impact on today's vehicle applications in terms of heat and energy management. Thermal robustness is a crucial aspect for an automatic transmission. In addition to the clutch thermal performance, the influence of transmission oil cooler and oil sump warm-up behavior are discussed. Based on our latest development activities, test results and simulations, we shall discuss the latest friction material enhancement and its impact on DCTs in terms of efficiency and performance. Drag loss is a much-discussed topic during the development of wet clutch systems. This paper discusses in detail the cause and break-up of various energy losses in a wet DCT. Efficient energy management strategies for actuation systems, cooling, and lubrication, clutch apply, and pre-selection in modern power trains with engine start / stop are evaluated based on the latest test and simulation results. Finally, the paper summarizes the performance and efficiency optimized moist clutch system. (orig.)

  20. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating and the rest from individual heat pumps.

  1. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  2. A Conceptual Change Model for Teaching Heat Energy, Heat Transfer and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the existing knowledge that pre-service elementary teachers (PSETs) have regarding heat energy, heat transfer and insulation. The PSETs' knowledge of heat energy was initially assessed by using an activity: determining which container would be best to keep hot water warm for the longest period of time. Results showed that PSETs…

  3. Environment, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Environment and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  4. Earth sciences. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 31 May 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. This is noted as A for Arabic, C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish before the relevant ISBN number

  5. Analytical quality control services of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency provides quality control services to analytical laboratories. These services which include the provision of reference materials and the organisation of intercomparisons are rendered for the purpose of assisting laboratories in determining the accuracy of their analytical work. The following classes of materials are presently available: nuclear materials, environmental materials, animal and plant materials, materials for biomedical studies and materials of marine origin. (orig.) [de

  6. Current radiation protection activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program of the Radiation Safety Section is described in this paper. The Section has two main components: (1) the development of consensus safety documentation and (2) the use of that documentation as the basis for assisting countries to deal safely with their applications of radiation and radioactivity. Main activities of the section are listed for each of these components. Activities include documentation, coordinated research programs, and assistance to developing countries. 14 tabs

  7. Performance of Space Heating in a Modern Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we study the performance of a number of heat supply technologies. The background of the study is the changes in the Danish energy systems over the last three decades which have caused integration of large shares of combined heat and power (CHP), renewable fuels and wind power....... These changes mean that there is a significant integration of electricity and heat supply in the system and that several technologies may be beneficial. In particular, heat pumps are under consideration and are often considered to be renewable energy. We study how to distribute fuel and emissions to the heat...... supply. We find that heat supply is low-efficient seen from an exergy viewpoint, between 1% and 26% utilization. As exergy is a quantification of primary energy, we conclude that far better utilization of primary energy is possible. We also find that combined heat and power and domestic heat pumps...

  8. Annual report 2005[International Atomic Energy Agency]; Informe anual 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 13, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2005. The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Cooperation Report. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is also provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency?s iaea.org web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2005/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Technologies; Capacity Building and Nuclear Knowledge Maintenance for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environment; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to Safety and Security discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation and Transport Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Nuclear Security. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate

  9. Geothermal Heat Pump Profitability in Energy Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-11-01

    If geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are to make a significant mark in the market, we believe that it will be through energy service pricing contracts offered by retailcos. The benefits of GHPs are ideally suited to energy service pricing (ESP) contractual arrangements; however, few retailcos are thoroughly familiar with the benefits of GHPs. Many of the same barriers that have prevented GHPs from reaching their full potential in the current market environment remain in place for retailcos. A lack of awareness, concerns over the actual efficiencies of GHPs, perceptions of extremely high first costs, unknown records for maintenance costs, etc. have all contributed to limited adoption of GHP technology. These same factors are of concern to retailcos as they contemplate long term customer contracts. The central focus of this project was the creation of models, using actual GHP operating data and the experience of seasoned professionals, to simulate the financial performance of GHPs in long-term ESP contracts versus the outcome using alternative equipment. We have chosen two case studies, which may be most indicative of target markets in the competitive marketplace: A new 37,000 square foot office building in Toronto, Ontario; we also modeled a similar building under the weather conditions of Orlando, Florida. An aggregated residential energy services project using the mass conversion of over 4,000 residential units at Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Our method of analyses involved estimating equipment and energy costs for both the base case and the GHP buildings. These costs are input in to a cash flow analysis financial model which calculates an after-tax cost for the base and GHP case. For each case study customers were assumed to receive a 5% savings over their base case utility bill. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to determine how key variables affect the attractiveness of a GHP investment.

  10. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  11. Heat Saving Strategies in Sustainable Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Aggerholm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to which extent heat should be saved rather than produced and to which extent district heating infrastructures, rather than individual heating solutions, should be used in future sustainable smart energy systems. Based on a concrete proposal to implement the Danish...... governmental 2050 fossil-free vision, this paper identifies marginal heat production costs and compares these to marginal heat savings costs for two different levels of district heating. A suitable least-cost heating strategy seems to be to invest in an approximately 50% decrease in net heat demands in new...... buildings and buildings that are being renovated anyway, while the implementation of heat savings in buildings that are not being renovated hardly pays. Moreover, the analysis points in the direction that a least-cost strategy will be to provide approximately 2/3 of the heat demand from district heating...

  12. The Strategic Plan of the Nuclear Energy Agency, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The OECD has been engaged in the past few years in a process of reform to take account of the impact of globalization on its Members' economies, and to allow for proper refocusing of its work, notably on the subject of sustainable development. These developments are having an impact on the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). The group on the future role of the NEA delivered its report at the end of January 1998 and one key recommendation is the elaboration of a strategic plan for the Agency. The recommendations made in the report served to stimulate a review of NEA goals, priorities, methods of work and products. This review has taken account of the recommendations in the report. The review served as the basis for this Strategic Plan for the NEA, which has been developed to provide guidance to the Agency in planning its activities and implementing its programmes over a five-year period. The report contains detailed description of the following topics:Mission of NEA: Strategic arenas of work, including sectorial arenas, Data bank, Information and communication; Interactions; Relations with non-member countries; Role of the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy; Working methods; Resources. (R.P.)

  13. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    is designed to supply heating for 30 low energy detached residential houses. The network operational supply/return temperature is set as 55 °C/25 °C, which is in line with a pilot project carried out in Denmark. Two types of in-house substations are analyzed to supply the consumer domestic hot water demand...... energy/exergy losses and increase the quality match between the consumer heating demand and the district heating supply.......Low temperature district heating with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building heating demand and the low quality heating supply from waste heat or renewable energy. In this paper, a hypothetical low temperature district heating network...

  14. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  15. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035......Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...

  16. Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dietrich; Kallert, Anna; Blesl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    of the building stock. Low temperature district heating (LTDH) can contribute significantly to a more efficient use of energy resources as well as better integration of renewable energy (e.g. geothermal or solar heat), and surplus heat (e.g. industrial waste heat) into the heating sector. LTDH offers prospects......The building sector is responsible for more than one third of the final energy consumption of societies and produces the largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions of all sectors. This is due to the utilisation of combustion processes of mainly fossil fuels to satisfy the heating demand...... for both the demand side (community building structure) and the supply side (network properties or energy sources). Especially in connection with buildings that demand only low temperatures for space heating. The utilisation of lower temperatures reduces losses in pipelines and can increase the overall...

  17. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature district heating with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building heating demand and the low quality heating supply from waste heat or renewable energy. In this paper, a hypothetical low temperature district heating network is designed to supply heating for 30 low energy detached residential houses. The network operational supply/return temperature is set as 55 °C/25 °C, which is in line with a pilot project carried out in Denmark. Two types of in-house substations are analyzed to supply the consumer domestic hot water demand. The space heating demand is supplied through floor heating in the bathroom and low temperature radiators in the rest of rooms. The network thermal and hydraulic conditions are simulated under steady state. A district heating network design and simulation code is developed to incorporate the network optimization procedure and the network simultaneous factor. Through the simulation, the overall system energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated and the exergy losses for the major district heating system components are identified. Based on the results, suggestions are given to further reduce the system energy/exergy losses and increase the quality match between the consumer heating demand and the district heating supply. -- Highlights: ► Exergy and energy analysis for low and medium temperature district heating systems. ► Different district heating network dimensioning methods are analyzed. ► Major exergy losses are identified in the district heating network and the in-house substations. ► Advantages to apply low temperature district heating are highlighted through exergy analysis. ► The influence of thermal by-pass on system exergy/energy performance is analyzed.

  18. International Atomic Energy Agency thirty-third general conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A brief account is given of the 33rd session of IAEA General Conference held in Vienna from 25 to 29 September 1989. The Minister for Primary Industry and Energy, Mr John Kerin, led the Australian delegation. His statement to the General Conference highlighted Australia's role as a major uranium exporter, its committment to the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon Treaty and support for the role which the Agency plays in it. The major Australian policy initiatives in environmental areas were also outlined. Australia continues to make a substantial extra-budgetary contribution to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for Asia and Pacific (RCA), and it has recently expanded its committment by agreeing to support a series of new RCA projects. In this context, the role played by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization for the provision of technical assistance and cooperation in many areas of the Agency's activities is discussed. ills

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1980-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1980 up to the end of 1995 an still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is noted as C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S For Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, seminars and panels, of experts contain papers in their original language (English, French, Russian or Spanish) with abstracts in English and in the original language.

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1980-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1980 up to the end of 1995 an still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is noted as C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S For Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, seminars and panels, of experts contain papers in their original language (English, French, Russian or Spanish) with abstracts in English and in the original language

  1. Technology data for energy plants. Individual heating plants and energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    The present technology catalogue is published in co-operation between the Danish Energy Agency and Energinet.dk and includes technology descriptions for a number of technologies for individual heat production and energy transport. The primary objective of the technology catalogue is to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for the work with energy planning and the development of the energy sector, including future outlooks, scenario analyses and technical/economic analyses. The technology catalogue is thus a valuable tool in connection with energy planning and assessment of climate projects and for evaluating the development opportunities for the energy sector's many technologies, which can be used for the preparation of different support programmes for energy research and development. The publication of the technology catalogue should also be viewed in the light of renewed focus on strategic energy planning in municipalities etc. In that respect, the technology catalogue is considered to be an important tool for the municipalities in their planning efforts. (LN)

  2. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the most important activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency during the period September 1992 - September 1993, in particular in the following areas: (i) nuclear power; (ii) nuclear fuel cycle; (iii) radioactive waste management; (iv) comparative assessment of energy sources; (v) IAEA laboratory activities; (vi) nuclear applications in the food industry and in agriculture; (vii) human health applications of nuclear techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of diseases and in the analysis of health problems related to the environment; (viii) industry and earth sciences; (ix) physical and chemical sciences; (x) radiation protection; (xi) safety of nuclear installations; (xii) safeguards and non-proliferation activities; (xiii) activities in the area of public and technical information such as the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and other IAEA computerized databases and reference systems, the publication Nuclear Fusion, a monthly scientific journal of articles on thermonuclear fusion research and development, and the organization of meetings on atomic energy; and (xiv) a description of the Agency's technical assistance activities, including financial data

  4. On energy optimisation in multipurpose batch plants using heat storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, T

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available time interval. Indirect heat integration makes use of a heat transfer fluid for storing energy and allows heat integration of processes regardless of the time interval. This is possible as long as the source process takes place before the sink process...

  5. Energy-Storage Modules for Active Solar Heating and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    34 page report describes a melting salt hydrate that stores 12 times as much heat as rocks and other heavy materials. Energy is stored mostly as latent heat; that is, heat that can be stored and recovered without any significant change in temperature. Report also describes development, evaluation and testing of permanently sealed modules containing salt hydrate mixture.

  6. Safety Culture Implementation in Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurwidi Astuti, Y.H.; Dewanto, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Indonesia Nuclear Energy Act no. 10 of 1997 clearly stated that Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is the Nuclear Regulatory Body. This is the legal basis of BAPETEN to perform regulatory functions on the use of nuclear energy in Indonesia, including regulation, authorisation, inspection and enforcement. The Independent regulatory functions are stipulated in Article 4 and Article 14 of the Nuclear Energy Act no. 10 (1997) which require the government to establish regulatory body that is reporting directly to the president and has responsibility to control of the use of nuclear energy. BAPETEN has been start fully its functioning on January 4, 1999. In it roles as a regulatory body, the main aspect that continues and always to be developed is the safety culture. One of the objectives of regulatory functions is “to increase legal awareness of nuclear energy of the user to develop safety culture” (Article 15, point d), while in the elucidation of article 15 it is stipulated that “safety culture is that of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individual that emphasise the importance of safety”.

  7. Geothermal energy - effective solutions for heating and cooling of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleska, Viktorija

    2014-01-01

    Energy and natural resources are essential prerequisites for the maintenance of the life and the development of human civilization. With the advancement of technology is more emphasis on energy efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Energy efficiency is using less power without reducing the quality of life. Almost half of the energy used is devoted to buildings, including heating and cooling. Buildings are a major source of CO_2 emissions in the atmosphere. Reducing the impact of buildings on the environment and the development of renewable energy, energy solutions are key factor in terms of sustainable development. Energy and geothermal pumps posts represent effective solutions for large facilities for heating and cooling. Geothermal energy piles represent a system of pipes that circulate thermal fluid and embedded in earth, thus extracting heat from the bearing to satisfy the needs for heating and cooling. Experience has shown that this type of energy piles can save up to two thirds of the cost of conventional heating, while geothermal pump has the ability to low temperature resources (such as groundwater and earth) to extract energy and raise the higher level needed for heating buildings. Their implementation is supported by an active group of researchers working with industry to demonstrate the benefits of dual benefit performance at the foundations. Initiative for renewable heat and potential for further adoption of solutions with these technologies is rapidly expanding. The use of this source of energy has great potential due to environmental, economic and social benefits. (author)

  8. Safeguards and legal matters 1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all currently valid sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  9. Earth sciences 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences issued during the period 1969-1994. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  10. R and D programs of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the collaborative research program of the International Energy Agency. Focusing on the organization of the program, rather than attempting to cover the technical content of the research, the discussion conveys how its operation is facilitated through a framework that takes account of the interests of participating governments as well as technical objectives. Some Canadian activities in the IEA program are briefly described as illustration and a list of current IEA Research Agreements and associated activities is presented in an Appendix

  11. Consumer Unit for Low Energy District Heating Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Otto; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    to reduce heat loss in the network. The consumer’s installation is a unit type with an accumulation tank for smoothing the heat load related to the domestic hot water. The building heat load is delivered by an under-floor heating system. The heavy under-floor heating system is assumed to smooth the room...... heat load on a daily basis, having a flow temperature control based on outdoor climate. The unit is designed for a near constant district heating water flow. The paper describes two concepts. The analyses are based on TRNSYS (Klein et al., 2006) simulation, supplied with laboratory verification......A low energy/ low temperature consumer installation is designed and analyzed. The consumer type is a low energy single family house 145 m2 with annual energy consumption in the range of 7000 kWh, incl. domestic hot water in a 2800 degree day climate. The network is an extreme low temperature system...

  12. Nuclear and geothermal energy as a direct heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    After some remarks on economic aspects, the swimming pool reactor simplified for the purpose of heat generation is described, the core of which supplies heat of 100-120 0 C for district heating. In this context, ways of storing waste heat are discussed. The alternative is pointed out that energy may be transferred by means of hydrogen. In conclusion, it is demonstrated on a French plant how geothermal water can be used directly via heat exchangers for district heating. (UA/LN) [de

  13. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaetzle, W.J.; Brett, C.E.; Seppanen, M.S.

    1979-12-01

    The heat-pump-centered integrated community energy system (HP-ICES) supplies district heating and cooling using heat pumps and a thermal energy storage system which is provided by nature in underground porous formations filled with water, i.e., aquifers. The energy is transported by a two-pipe system, one for warm water and one for cool water, between the aquifers and the controlled environments. Each energy module contains the controlled environments, an aquifer, wells for access to the aquifer, the two pipe water distribution system and water source heat pumps. The heat pumps upgrade the energy in the distribution system for use in the controlled environments. Economically, the system shows improvement on both energy usage and capital costs. The system saves over 60% of the energy required for resistance heating; saves over 30% of the energy required for most air-source heat pumps and saves over 60% of the energy required for gas, coal, or oil heating, when comparing to energy input required at the power plant for heat pump usage. The proposed system has been analyzed as demonstration projects for a downtown portion of Louisville, Kentucky, and a section of Fort Rucker, Alabama. The downtown Louisville demonstration project is tied directly to major buildings while the Fort Rucker demonstration project is tied to a dispersed subdivision of homes. The Louisville project shows a payback of approximately 3 y, while Fort Rucker is approximately 30 y. The primary difference is that at Fort Rucker new heat pumps are charged to the system. In Louisville, either new construction requiring heating and cooling systems or existing chillers are utilized. (LCL)

  14. Energy saving and emission reduction of China's urban district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xia; Wang, Li; Tong, Lige; Sun, Shufeng; Yue, Xianfang; Yin, Shaowu; Zheng, Lifang

    2013-01-01

    China's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission ranks highest in the world. China is committed to reduce its CO 2 emission by 40% to 45% from the 2005 levels by 2020. To fulfill the target, China's CO 2 emission reduction must exceed 6995 million tons. Energy consumption and CO 2 emission of China's urban district heating (UDH) are increasing. The current policy implemented to improve UDH focuses on replacing coal with natural gas to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emission to some extent. This paper proposes that heat pump heating (HPH) could serve as a replacement for UDH to help realize energy-saving and emission-reduction goals to a greater extent. The paper also analyzes the impact of this replacement on the heating and power generation sectors. The results show that replacing coal-based UDH with HPH decreases energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 43% in the heating sector. In the power generation sector, the efficiency of power generation at the valley electricity time increases by 0.512%, and the ratio of peak–valley difference decreases by 16.5%. The decreases in CO 2 emission from the heating and power generation sectors cumulatively account for 5.55% of China's total CO 2 emission reduction target in 2020. - Highlights: ► Replacing urban district heating with heat pump heating. ► Impact of heat pump heating on heating and power generation sectors. ► Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. ► China should adjust current urban heating strategy

  15. Supplementary plasma heating studies in the Atomic Energy Commission France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, T.

    1976-01-01

    The research on supplementary heating of toroidal plasma made in France at the Atomic Energy Commission and in the European Community are described (with special reference to the J.E.T. project) in the frame of the national programs. A non exhaustive description of the world effort in this topic is also presented: (neutral injection heating, TTMP (transit time magnetic pumping) heating, electron and ion cyclotron resonance, and lower hybrid resonance heating)

  16. Analyzing energy consumption while heating one-layer building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytchikov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.

  17. Optimal Placement of A Heat Pump in An Integrated Power and Heat Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyapovskiy, Sergey; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    With the present trend towards Smart Grids and Smart Energy Systems it is important to look for the opportunities for integrated development between different energy sectors, such as electricity, heating, gas and transportation. This paper investigates the problem of optimal placement of a heat...... pump – a component that links electric and heating utilities together. The system used to demonstrate the integrated planning approach has two neighboring 10kV feeders and several distribution substations with loads that require central heating from the heat pump. The optimal location is found...

  18. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux; surface energy balance; Bowen's ratio; sensible and latent ... The energy storage term for the soil layer 0–0.05 m is calculated and the ground heat ... When a new method that accounts for both soil thermal conduction and soil ...

  19. Proposal for the International Atomic Energy Agency Training Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site has hosted similar activities, including both Hanford Summits I and II. The Hanford Summits were two-day televised events to discuss the commitment of the current Presidential administration to the environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. Public involvement and strategic issues established from Hanford Summit I include: Regulatory issues, training and education, economic development and partnership, and technology transfer. Hanford Summit II provided a summary of how Secretary of Energy O'Leary is proceeding on the above strategic issues. The DOE and Westinghouse School for Environmental Excellence frequently offers a six-week course for environmental professionals and workers. Approximately thirty to forty individuals attend the training course, which provides training in environmental regulation compliance. The Hanford Site has hosted two previous International Atomic Energy Agency training courses. The courses lasted two weeks and had approximately eight to ten participants. Nuclear Material Management and Neutron Monitoring were the courses hosted by the Hanford Site

  20. The indicators of energy security of decentralized heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vitalyevna Bykova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the new additional indicators of energy security with the purpose to include decentralized heating sector is developed in the work. The structure of the housing stock of the country is analyzed, which includes different types of central heating boilers and CHP, individual gas or electric heating and stove heating.The analysis of the existing thermal supply (per unit area and per capita living for each sector is carried out. It is found that heat consumed in the residential sector with central heating from CHP and boilers is significantly higher of heat consumed in other sectors. The missing amount of heat energy, which can be produced in two ways, is calculated. Part of the deficit heat can be produced at existing sources that are not loaded enough to the nominal parameters at the moment. The second part can be obtained from small new sources (for inhabited localities that do not have a centralized heat supply infrastructure. New indicators complement the system of indicators to be used to analyze and monitoring the level of Moldova's energy security. They allowed including decentralized heat supply sector, which is not reflected in the official statistics. At the same, the calculation methodology has been improved and the overall integral indicator of the energy security level, which was even more crisis than previously thought.

  1. Simulation Study of the Energy Performance of Different Space Heating Methods in Plus-energy Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Jacob; Andersen, Mads E.; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    Due to a shortage of energy resources, the focus on indoor environment and energy use in buildings is increasing which sets higher standards for the performance of HVAC systems in buildings. The variety of available heating systems for both residential buildings and office buildings is therefore...... cases the heat source was a natural gas fired condensing boiler, and for the floor heating cases also an air-to-water heat pump was used to compare two heat sources. The systems were also compared in terms of auxiliary energy use for pumps and fans. The results show that the investigated floor heating...... from the low temperature heating potential since an increased floor covering requires higher average water temperatures in the floor loops and decreases the COP of the heat pump. The water-based heating systems required significantly less auxiliary energy input compared to the air-based heating system...

  2. Experimental Investigation of A Heat Pipe-Assisted Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiari, Saeed; Mahdavi, Mahboobe; Qiu, Songgang

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, different operation modes of a latent heat thermal energy storage system assisted by a heat pipe network were studied experimentally. Rubitherm RT55 enclosed by a vertical cylindrical container was used as the Phase Change Material (PCM). The embedded heat pipe network consisting of a primary heat pipe and an array of four secondary heat pipes were employed to transfer heat to the PCM. The primary heat pipe transports heat from the heat source to the heat sink. The secondary heat pipes transfer the extra heat from the heat source to PCM during charging process or retrieve thermal energy from PCM during discharging process. The effects of heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow rate and temperature on the thermal performance of the system were investigated for both charging and discharging processes. It was found that the HTF flow rate has a significant effect on the total charging time of the system. Increasing the HTF flow rate results in a remarkable increase in the system input thermal power. The results also showed that the discharging process is hardly affected by the HTF flow rate but HTF temperature plays an important role in both charging and discharging processes. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial supports by Temple University for the project.

  3. Energy savings for solar heating systems; Solvarmeanlaegs energibesparelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Fan, J.

    2011-01-15

    Energy savings for a number of new solar heating systems in one family houses have been determined by means of information on the energy consumption of the houses before and after installation of the solar heating systems. The investigated solar heating systems are marketed by Velux Danmark A/S, Sonnnenkraft Scandinavia A/S and Batec Solvarme A/S. Solar domestic hot water systems as well as solar combi systems are included in the investigations The houses have different auxiliary energy supply systems: Natural gas boilers, oil fired burners, electrical heating and district heating. Some of the houses have a second auxiliary energy supply system. The collector areas vary from 1.83 m{sup 2} to 9.28 m{sup 2}. Some of the solar heating systems are based on energy units with a new integrated natural gas boiler and a heat storage for the solar heating system. The existing energy systems in the houses are for most of the houses used as the auxiliary energy systems for the solar heating systems. The yearly energy savings for the houses where the only change is the installation of the solar heating system vary from 300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 1300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 670 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector are not influenced by the solar heating system type, the company marketing the system, the auxiliary energy supply system, the collector area, the collector tilt, the collector azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. The yearly energy savings for the houses with solar heating systems based on energy units including a new natural gas boiler vary from 790 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2090 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 1520 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector for

  4. The International Atomic Energy Agency: activities and relationship with Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abud Osuna, Javier.

    1987-01-01

    Legal and political studies on the activities of the IAEA infer that the pacific uses of nuclear energy become more significant every day in the ambit of international relationships. The studies analyze as a whole relationships among member states. The first part is divided into four chapters, starting with the background and creation of the agency, its structure, statutes, amendments and the performance of its main organisms. It continues to describe mechanisms and programmes carried out, including cooperation agreements between the IAEA and other specialized organizations in the United Nations. It ends up with the IAEA performance resulting from different treaties. The second part examines Mexican norms on nuclear matter as well as relationships between Mexico and the IAEA. It demonstrates that achievements in the Agency have been possible because of the establishment of an international cooperation basis, which avoids duplicity of actions. The conclusions recommend joint efforts from both the developed and the developing countries in the following: a) to imbue public opinion with the goodness of nuclear energy; b) to discourage the construction and operation of nuclear installations; c) to unify national standards on nuclear safety and control; d) to decrease export restrictions, based on safeguards; e) to promote internal nuclear research in Mexico or throught regional integration agreements, with technical assistance and support from the IAEA. (author)

  5. Heat Pump Water Heating Modeling in EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's development of a HPWH model for use in hourly building energy simulation programs, such as BEopt; this presentation was given at the Building America Stakeholder meeting on March 1, 2012, in Austin, Texas.

  6. An optimisation framework for thermal energy storage integration in a residential heat pump heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaldi, R.; Kiprakis, A.; Friedrich, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated framework for the optimal design of low carbon heating systems. • Development of a synthetic heat demand model with occupancy profiles. • Linear model of a heat pump with thermal energy storage heating system. • Evaluation of domestic heating system from generally available input parameters. • The lower carbon heating system can be cost competitive with conventional systems. - Abstract: Domestic heating has a large share in the UK total energy consumption and significant contribution to the greenhouse gas emissions since it is mainly fulfilled by fossil fuels. Therefore, decarbonising the heating system is essential and an option to achieve this is by heating system electrification through heat pumps (HP) installation in combination with renewable power generation. A potential increase in performance and flexibility can be achieved by pairing HP with thermal energy storage (TES), which allows the shifting of heat demand to off peak periods or periods with surplus renewable electricity. We present a design and operational optimisation model which is able to assess the performance of HP–TES relative to conventional heating systems. The optimisation is performed on a synthetic heat demand model which requires only the annual heat demand, temperature and occupancy profiles. The results show that the equipment and operational cost of a HP system without TES are significantly higher than for a conventional system. However, the integration of TES and time-of-use tariffs reduce the operational cost of the HP systems and in combination with the Renewable Heating Incentive make the HP systems cost competitive with conventional systems. The presented demand model and optimisation procedure will enable the design of low carbon district heating systems which integrate the heating system with the variable renewable electricity supply.

  7. Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, Rufus; Pietruschka, Dirk; Sipilä, Kari

    participants being VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Stuttgart Technology University of Applied Sciences (HFT) and SSE Enterprise in United Kingdom. The demonstration cases described in the report......This report titled “Case studies and demonstrations” is the subtask D report of the IEA DHC|CHP Annex TS1 project “Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems” carried out between 2013 and 2016. The project was led by Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics (IBP) with the other...... include examples on low temperature district heating systems, solar heating in a district heating system, heat pump based heat supply and energy storages for both peak load management and for seasonal heat storage. Some demonstrations have been implemented while others are at planning phase...

  8. Heat pipe heat exchanger and its potential to energy recovery in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Yat H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat recovery by the heat pipe heat exchangers was studied in the tropics. Heat pipe heat exchangers with two, four, six, and eight numbers of rows were examined for this purpose. The coil face velocity was set at 2 m/s and the temperature of return air was kept at 24°C in this study. The performance of the heat pipe heat exchangers was recorded during the one week of operation (168 hours to examine the performance data. Then, the collected data from the one week of operation were used to estimate the amount of energy recovered by the heat pipe heat exchangers annually. The effect of the inside design temperature and the coil face velocity on the energy recovery for a typical heat pipe heat exchanger was also investigated. In addition, heat pipe heat exchangers were simulated based on the effectiveness-NTU method, and their theoretical values for the thermal performance were compared with the experimental results.

  9. Regional Energy Planning Tool for Renewable Integrated Low-Energy District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy district heating systems, operating at low temperature of 55 °C as supply and 25°C as return, can be the energy solution as being the prevailing heating infrastructure in urban areas, considering future energy schemesaiming at increased exploitation of renewable energy sources together...... with low-energy houses in focus with intensified energy efficiency measures. Employing low-temperature operation allows the ease to exploit not only any type of heat source but also low-grade sources, i.e., renewable and industrial waste heat, which would otherwise be lost. In this chapter, a regional...... energy planning tool is described considered with various energy conversion systems based on renewable energy sources to be supplied to an integrated energy infrastructure involving a low-energy district heating, a district cooling, and an electricity grid. The developed tool is performed for two case...

  10. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...... to investigate its energy performance. Energy consumption of the prototype of CAHP was measured in laboratory at different climate conditions including mild-cold, mildhot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy saving potential of the clean air heat pump compared to a conventional ventilation and air......-conditioning system was calculated. The experimental results showed that the clean air heat pump saved substantial amount of energy compared to the conventional system. For example, the CAHP can save up to 59% of electricity in Copenhagen, up to 40% of electricity in Milan and up to 30% of electricity in Colombo...

  11. Energy confinement comparison of ohmically heated stellarators to tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.; Lee, Y.C.

    1979-12-01

    An empirical scaling prescribes that the energy confinement time in ohmically heated stellarators and tokamaks is proportional to the internal energy of the plasma and the minor radius, and inversely proportional to the current density. A thermal-conduction energy transport model, based on a heuristic assumption that the effective momentum transfer in the radial direction is proportional to the classical parallel momentum transfer which results in ohmic heating, is used to explain this scaling

  12. The costs and profitability of heat-energy entrepreneurship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solmio, H.

    1998-01-01

    Heat-energy entrepreneurs are responsible for the supply of fuel to and the labour input required by heating of buildings in their locality. An individual heat-energy entrepreneur or a consortium of them, a company or a co-operative is paid for the work according to the amount of heat-energy produced. In Finland there are about 50 operational heating targets and about 100 in planning stage. TTS-Institute has studied the activities of heat-energy entrepreneurs since 1993 in connection with research projects included in the national Bioenergy research programme. This study covered 10 heating plants with capacities 60 - 1000 kW, two of which are district heating plants. Five of the targets (60 - 370 kW) were included in the previous heat-energy entrepreneurs follow-up study conducted in 1993 - 1995 and five (80 - 1000 kW) were new. The main fuel used in all the targets was wood chips with light fuel oil reserve or auxiliary fuel. All but one of the entrepreneurs, supplying these heating targets located in Central and Southern Finland, are farmers, who procure the fuelwood and take care of heating and its supervision. Transportation of wood chips, topping up of the silo and heating work and working path consumed 0.12-0.78 h of time/MWh. When compared to the five study targets' follow-up results of the years 1993 - 1995, the results of the present study show reduction in labour consumption on part of the heat-energy entrepreneurs in all these targets. Profit margins of the entrepreneurs supplying heating energy were 73 - 132 FIM/h (excluding the interest on the equipment acquisition (agricultural tractor and associated equipment), and insurance and storage costs). When these costs were also taken into account, the resulting profit margin was 71 - 127 FIM/h. The margin included the entrepreneurs' earnings incl. monitoring of the heating plant, social security costs connected to earnings and entrepreneur's risk. When compared to the previous follow-up study, also the

  13. Substituting natural gas heating for electric heating: assessment of the energy and environmental effects in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.; Sy, E.; Gharghouri, P.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to find practical ways to reduce Ontario's energy consumption and environmental emissions. A major portion of the study focused on the advantages of cogeneration in certain regions and sectors of Ontario. Substituting direct fuel heating with natural gas for electric heating was the principal recommendation. Results of a technical analysis of the effects of substituting electric heating with natural gas heating were described. One of the benefits of this substitution would be reduced fuel energy requirements for direct heating, relative to the two-step process of electricity generation followed by electric heating. It was suggested that natural gas should still be used for electricity generation because natural gas has many advantages as an electricity supply option including reductions in coal and uranium use and related emissions. It was recommended that developers and designers of energy systems seriously consider this option. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Geothermal energy and heat storage in aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewalts, W.P.G.; Geluk, M.C.; Heederik, J.P.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Mourik, G.J. van; Postma, A.D.; Snijders, A.L.; Walter, F.; Willemsen, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the first energy crisis in 1973 various research programmes to do with energy conservation and diversification of energy resources were set up in the Netherlands. A number of these were directed to the rest of the subsoil for the following purposes: - the extraction of geothermal energy from

  15. Radiation shielding activities at the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Enrico; Vaz, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has devoted considerable effort over the years to radiation shielding issues. The issues are addressed through international working groups. These activities are carried out in close co-ordination and co-operation with the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). The areas of work include: basic nuclear data activities in support of radiation shielding, computer codes, shipping cask shielding applications, reactor pressure vessel dosimetry, shielding experiments database. The method of work includes organising international code comparison exercises and benchmark studies. Training courses on radiation shielding computer codes are organised regularly including hands-on experience in modelling skills. The scope of the activity covers mainly reactor shields and spent fuel transportation packages, but also fusion neutronics and in particular shielding of accelerators and irradiation facilities. (author)

  16. The International Atomic Energy Agency's program on decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feraday, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) is developing an integrated information base that will systematically cover the technical, regulatory, radiation protection, planning, and economic aspects related to the decontamination and decommissioning (D/D) of nuclear facilities. The object of this program is to assist member states in developing the required expertise, equipment, and programs so that they can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe, timely, and cost-effective manner. In addition to providing information, the IAEA encourages research and provides technical assistance in the form of expert missions, equipment design and procurement, etc., to assist member states in implementing their D/D programs. The technology contained in some recent IAEA reports is reviewed, including the decontamination, segmentation, and demolition of concrete and steel; the recycle/reuse of components from decommissioning; and the reduction of occupational exposures in D/D and the regulatory process in decommissioning. The IAEA's future program is briefly reviewed

  17. Optimal allocation of International Atomic Energy Agency inspection resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1987-12-01

    The Safeguards Department of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections to assure the peaceful use of a state's nuclear materials and facilities. Because of limited resources for conducting inspections, the careful disposition of inspection effort among these facilities is essential if the IAEA is to attain its safeguards goals. This report describes an optimization procedure for assigning an inspection effort to maximize attainment of IAEA goals. The procedure does not require quantitative estimates of safeguards effectiveness, material value, or facility importance. Instead, the optimization is based on qualitative, relative prioritizations of inspection activities and materials to be safeguarded. This allocation framework is applicable to an arbitrary group of facilities such as a state's fuel cycle, the facilities inspected by an operations division, or all of the facilities inspected by the IAEA

  18. Safeguards and legal matters 1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters issued during the period 1970-1994. Most publications are published in English, through some are also available in French, Russian and Spanish. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. If publications are also available in other languages than English, this is noted as C for Chinese, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  19. TWO-STAGE HEAT PUMPS FOR ENERGY SAVING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Denysova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of energy saving becomes one of the most important in power engineering. It is caused by exhaustion of world reserves in hydrocarbon fuel, such as gas, oil and coal representing sources of traditional heat supply. Conventional sources have essential shortcomings: low power, ecological and economic efficiencies, that can be eliminated by using alternative methods of power supply, like the considered one: low-temperature natural heat of ground waters of on the basis of heat pump installations application. The heat supply system considered provides an effective use of two stages heat pump installation operating as heat source at ground waters during the lowest ambient temperature period. Proposed is a calculation method of heat pump installations on the basis of groundwater energy. Calculated are the values of electric energy consumption by the compressors’ drive, and the heat supply system transformation coefficient µ for a low-potential source of heat from ground waters allowing to estimate high efficiency of two stages heat pump installations.

  20. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  1. Heat pumps in urban space heating systems: Energy and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, M.; Impero Abenavoli, R.; Rome Univ. La Sapienza

    1991-01-01

    A statistical survey is conducted of air pollution in the city of Rome (Italy) due to conventional building space heating systems burning fossil fuels. The survey identifies the annual consumption of the different fuels and the relative amounts of the various pollutants released into the atmosphere by the heating plants, e.g., sulfur and nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, etc. Comparisons are then made between the ratios of urban heating plant air pollutants produced per tonne of fuel employed and those for ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) coal, oil and natural gas fired power plants, in order to demonstrate the better environmental performances of the utility operated energy plants. The building space heating system energy consumption and pollution data are then used in a cost benefit analysis favouring the retrofitting of conventional heating systems with heat pump systems to obtain substantial reductions in energy consumption, heating bills and urban air pollution. The use of readily available, competitively priced and low polluting (in comparison with fuel oil and coal) methane as the energy source for space heating purposes is recommended. The paper also notes the versatility of the heat pump systems in that they could also be used for summer air conditioning

  2. Heat storage. Role in the energy system of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer, Andreas; Woerner, Antje; Kranz, Stefan; Schumacher, Patrick; Gschwander, Stefan; Appen, Jan von; Hidalgo, Diego; Gross, Bodo; Grashof, Katherina

    2015-01-01

    For the implementation of the energy transition in Germany can contribute in a variety of applications thermal energy storage. Both at the integration of renewable energy sources, as well as in increasing the energy efficiency in the building sector and industry can utilize heat and cold storage great potential. For this diverse storage technologies are available. In Germany numerous research and development projects are running currently, covering the broad possibilities of thermal energy storage. [de

  3. Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The editorial and the volume presents work on district heating system scenarios in Austria, grid optimisation using genetic algorithms and finally design of energy scenarios for the Italian Alpine town Bressanone-Brixen from a smart energy approach. © 2016, Aalborg...

  4. Investigation of energy confinement during ICRF heating on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. Q.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Qin, C. M.; Cheng, Y.; Mao, Y. Z.; Yang, H.; Yuan, S.; Wang, L.; Ju, S. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhang, J. H.; Wang, J. H.; Chen, Z.; Wan, B. N.; Gong, X. Z.; Qian, J. P.; Zhang, T.; Li, J. G.; Song, Y. T.; Lin, Y.; Taylor, G.; Hosea, J. C.; Perkins, R. J.; Wukitch, S.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Kumazawa, R.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.

    2017-09-01

    A summary is given on recent experiments in L-mode with ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) of hydrogen minority in deuterium plasmas on EAST. Experiments show a degradation of confinement with increasing power. Furthermore, the energy confinement time increases with plasma current and magnetic field, whereas it is insensitive to line averaged density. Minority heating has been found to be efficient, and parameters were optimized to maximize its efficiency. ICRH in lower hybrid waves heated plasma was also investigated.

  5. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R. N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  6. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  7. French know-how in the field of geothermal energy. District heating and electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This brochure is aimed at presenting the French expertise, public and private, at international level in the field of geothermal energy (district heating and electricity generation systems). It presents a summary of the French public policy framework, measures to support Research and Development, innovation and training and offers from private companies. It has been designed by the ADEME in cooperation with the French ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development, the French association of geothermal energy professionals, Ubifrance (the French Agency for international business development) and the French renewable energies union

  8. Knowledge Management Implementation In Indonesia Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurwidi Astuti, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) acquires the task and function to control the safety, security and safeguards in the field of nuclear energy through the development of legislation, licensing services, inspection and enforcement. Which is supported by review and assessment, emergency preparedness. Knowledge Management (KM) is importance for BAPETEN to achieve the Regulatory body effectiveness and product innovation. The Chairman of BAPETEN has set policies statement for KM implementation. To implement a knowledge management program, BAPETEN creates KM guidelines that includes blueprint and roadmap KM programme based on a KM readiness survey. The KM readiness survey involves 20% of staff who represent each unit and discussions with the senior manager of BAPETEN, and the result of readiness survey produce 13 KM BAPETEN initiatives strategic. After the initiative strategic has been obtained, BAPETEN creates the Roadmap of BAPETEN Knowledge Management for 2015–2019 programme for KM People with the activity sozialization of KM Guidebook, workshop SMART knowledge worker, nurture Community of practices (COP) and develop social network analysis (SNE). KM Process with activity focus group discussion, KM Readyness survey, KM Statement, KM Bapeten Guidebook, knowledge mapping, knowledge harvesting. KM Technology with activity develop knowledge system or portal, e-learning. (author

  9. Comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of a renewable energy sourced hybrid heating system combined with latent heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlu, Zafer; Aydın, Devrim; Kıncay, Olcay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental thermal investigation of hybrid renewable heating system is presented. • Analyses were done by using real data obtained from a prototype structure. • Exergy efficiency of system components investigated during discharging period are close to each other as 32%. • The average input energy and exergy rates to the LHS were 0.770 and 0.027 kW. • Overall total energy and exergy efficiencies of LHS calculated as 72% and 28.4%. - Abstract: In this study an experimental thermal investigation of hybrid renewable heating system is presented. Latent heat storage stores energy, gained by solar collectors and supplies medium temperature heat to heat pump both day time also night time while solar energy is unavailable. In addition to this an accumulation tank exists in the system as sensible heat storage. It provides supply–demand balance with storing excess high temperature heat. Analyses were done according to thermodynamic’s first and second laws by using real data obtained from a prototype structure, built as part of a project. Results show that high percent of heat loses took place in heat pump with 1.83 kW where accumulator-wall heating cycle followed it with 0.42 kW. Contrarily highest break-down of exergy loses occur accumulator-wall heating cycle with 0.28 kW. Averagely 2.42 kW exergy destruction took place in whole system during the experiment. Solar collectors and heat pump are the promising components in terms of exergy destruction with 1.15 kW and 1.09 kW respectively. Exergy efficiency of system components, investigated during discharging period are in a close approximately of 32%. However, efficiency of solar collectors and charging of latent heat storage are 2.3% and 7% which are relatively low. Average overall total energy and exergy efficiencies of latent heat storage calculated as 72% and 28.4% respectively. Discharging energy efficiency of latent heat storage is the highest through all system components. Also heat

  10. Multipurpose nuclear process heat for energy supply in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, U.; Inden, P.; Oesterwind, D.; Hukai, R.Y.; Pessine, R.T.; Pieroni, R.R.; Visoni, E.

    1978-11-01

    The industrialized nations require 75% of the energy as heat and it is likely that developing countries in the course of industrialization will show a comparable energy consumption structure. The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) allows the utilization of nuclear energy at high temperatures as process heat. In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the development in the relevant technical areas is well advanced and warrants investigation as a matter for transfer to Brazil. In Brazil nuclear process heat finds possible applications in steel making, shale oil extraction, petroleum refining, and in the more distant future coal gasification with distribution networks. Based on growth forecasts for these industries a theoretical potential market of 38-53 GW (th) can be identified. At present nuclear process heat is marginally more expensive than conventional fossil technologies but the anticipated development is expected to add an economic incentive to the emerging necessity of providing a sound energy base in the developing countries. (author)

  11. The annual report for 1997. International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1997

  12. The annual report for 1994[International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1994.

  13. The annual report for 1997. International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1997.

  14. The annual report for 1996[International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1996.

  15. The annual report for 1999. International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1999

  16. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014. Additional Annex Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This annex contains information on: • Coordinated research projects completed in 2014; • Publications issued in 2014; • Training courses, seminars and workshops held in 2014; • Relevant Agency web sites; • Number and types of facilities under Agency safeguards by State as of 31 December 2014 and • Facilities under Agency safeguards or containing safeguarded nuclear material on 31 December 2014

  17. The annual report for 1999. International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1999.

  18. The annual report for 1998. International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1998

  19. The annual report for 1998. International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1998.

  20. The annual report for 1995[International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1995.

  1. Combined generation of electric and heating energy in future development of Yugoslav energy sector until 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djajic, Nenad; Zivanovic, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    Development of the district heating system in the FR Yugoslavia, beside the combined generation of electric and heating energy presents a necessity for energy, economic and ecological reasons. Although the structure of energy reserves is rather unfavourable considering that the lignite is being predominantly used, available reserves of energy raw material are able to ensure the long-term development of Yugoslav energy sector, and to offer real possibilities for considerable substitution of foreign good quality fuels, especially in district heating systems. Their further development will depend, among other things: on the implementation of new technological solutions for the exploitation of local energy resources; need of reconstruction, revitalisation and transformation of old condensing thermal power plants into the cogeneration plants; installation of remote controlled transmission of heating energy as well as on development of heating plants and smaller co-generation plants based on local energy resources. (Authors)

  2. Utilizing waste heat. Energy recovery options for trade and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, W

    1988-08-01

    The article shows options for efficient and low-cost thermal energy recovery. Heat recovery involves a number of problems, e.g. the type of waste heat, the uses of the energy recovered, and the best way of utilizing it. There is no generally applicable way of solving these problems. Some practical examples are presented. Economically efficient solutions require detailed technical knowledge as well as a good portion of creativity and imagination. (BR).

  3. Heat pipe solar receiver with thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    An HPSR Stirling engine generator system featuring latent heat thermal energy storge, excellent thermal stability and self regulating, effective thermal transport at low system delta T is described. The system was supported by component technology testing of heat pipes and of thermal storage and energy transport models which define the expected performance of the system. Preliminary and detailed design efforts were completed and manufacturing of HPSR components has begun.

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT WAYS OF CENTRAL HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Piir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article shows the calculation comparison of fuel for producing of heat-line water with a help of different technological installations, transforming (converting high-grade heat from burning process of fuel or in the process of non-reversible heat exchange with coolant (heating agent, or with a help of heat engines, which allow to decrease losses of working efficiency and thus to reduce the use of fuel. There were considered five types of plants beginning from the  simplest  one  up  to  the  most  complex  in  two  variants,  when  the  heat  exchangers and machines are perfect (ideal and when equipment has the known degree of efficiency (perfection:1 water-heat boiler station, working on organic fuel;2 electrical boiler station, obtaining energy on power transmission lines from condensing power station;3 line heater of TPP, obtaining steam from heating turbine;4 line heater CPP, powered by steam from pressure reducing unit;5 heat pump, producing energy on power supply lines from TPP.In this article were investigated three ideal reversible ways of transformation of   high- grade heat into low-grade heat with a help of decreasing and increasing and combined (suggested by the authors heat transformers and their thermodynamic equivalence was shown in this article. And there were suggested universal installation for electric energy generation, cold and heat of two grades for heat-water supply and the heating process on the base of gascompressors   gas turbines. These results are so important (actual for power engineers of the countries with  increasing consumption  of organic  fuel and  its enhancement in  value and realizing programs of energy saving .The analysis shows, that the quality of produced low-grade heat per unit of used high-grade heat for ideal plants (installations is: electrical boiler unit – 0.7;  water boiler unit – 1.0; for heat pump, heating turbine, combined heat transformers   – 4

  5. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    , various simulations of solar heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model...... gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated in this paper....

  6. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model used to calculate the boiler efficiency on a monthly basis was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions...

  7. Temperature distribution of the energy consumed as heat in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttagunta, V.R.

    1974-10-01

    The amount of energy consumed as heat (excluding thermal generation of electricity) in Canada is estimated from statistical data available on the total consumption of energy for the years 1958 to 2000. Based on some actual plant data and other statistical information this energy consumption is sub-divided into four temperature categories: high (>260 degrees C), intermediate (140-260 degrees C), low (100-140 degrees C), and space heating (<100 degrees C). The results of this analysis show that approximately half of all the energy consumed in Canada has an end use as heat. Less than 10 percent of the energy consumed as heat is in the high temperature category, 12 to 14 percent is in the intermediate temperature range, 21 to 27 percent is in the low temperature range, and 50 to 58 percent is used for space heating. Over 90 percent of the energy consumed as heat in Canada is within the temperature capability of the CANDU-PHW reactor. (author)

  8. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL HEATING: TAXATION, SUBSIDIES, AND COMPARATIVE COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This analysis is in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It examines the effect of economic incentives on public and private decisions affecting energy production and us...

  9. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edward C.; Huxtable, Douglas D.

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  10. High performance passive solar heating system with heat pipe energy transfer and latent heat storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.A.L.; Galen, van E; Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminar results are reported from a current project on the development of a high performance passive solar heating system. Two special components are introduced: a. A heat pipe as a thermal diode tube for the efficient transfer of collected solar heat from the absorber plate to behind an

  11. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, A.; Briffaerts, K.; Engels, L.

    2011-01-01

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: → The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. → Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. → A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. → Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  12. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, A., E-mail: amaryllis.audenaert@artesis.be [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Department of Environment, Technology and Technology Management, University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 13, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Briffaerts, K. [Unit Transition Energy and Environment, VITO NV, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Engels, L. [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: > The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. > Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. > A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. > Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  13. Kepentingan Indonesia Bergabung dengan Irena (International Renewable Energy Agency) Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Harto, Syafri; ", Zulfadli

    2016-01-01

    This research will explain about Indonesia interest joined with IRENA ( International Renewable Energy Agency). Nowadays energy condition is so far from standart of energy endurance. Indonesia energy needs still dominated by fossil energy. In 2013, Fossil Energy produces 93,4% of energy consumtion, 5,7% by renewable energy. 7% oil, 20,1% gas, 24,5% from coal. With Indonesia energy endurance and global market that affected domestic energy condition, Indonesia need to comply the national intere...

  14. Energy source completion for geothermal district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal district heating systems differs from the others mainly in the part of energy source completion and its connection to the heat distribution systems rather known problem. Even rather known problematic in the countries where geothermal energy is in wide application, new appearances of mistakes are always present due to the fact that necessary literature is difficult to be found. Essentials of the geothermal well completion and connection of geothermal source to the district heating distribution system are summarized in the paper and several examples of geothermal projects in flow are presented. (Author)

  15. Heating energy flexibility of dwellings. Asuinrakennusten laemmityksen energiajoustavuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapalahti, P [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Yhdyskunta- ja rakennussuojelun Lab

    1989-02-01

    The problem area under study concens the heating of dwellings fluctuations in energy supply. The research has been restricted to dwellings only and those activities linked to energy production and transportation have been excluded. During energy shortage, home-owners are faced with two alternatives: to cut down their energy consumption or to use other forms of energy as substitutes for primary energy. In the case of a serious crisis regarding domestic fuel, wood in particular can be considered as a viable alternative. However, when considering present-day installations, any increase in use of wood as a fuel must be seen as limited. Thus the saving of energy in times of shortage is rendered still more important. Energy-savings is, of course, possible in terms of reduced comfort and quality factors in comparison to those preveiling under normal circumstances. For example, indoor temperatures can be lowered, ventilation diminished or the consumption of warm water deccreased. With respect to saving activities, the adjustability of heating and ventilation should be as efficient as possible. With regard to altering situations regarding energy prices, energy flexibility means, primarily, changing energy sources. Replacing an energy source is, however, a quite an expensive operation and economic dependence on the chosen system is considerable.Energy flexibility, particularly in the choice of main heating system, is easiest to achieve during new building phases and can be improved by recourse to various main solutions such as, for instance, the construction of fireplace. Mechanical incoming and exhaust air system can be chosen for direct electrical heating for a ventilation system. The control of the indoor temperature and ventilation of each separate room can be developed in all heating systems.

  16. Technology Roadmaps: Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost a third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling as well as hot water are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and save 710 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of energy by 2050. Most of these technologies -- which include solar thermal, combined heat and power (CHP), heat pumps and thermal energy storage -- are commercially available today. The Energy-Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment Roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of the key underlying technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if the building stock of the future is to consume less energy and result in lower CO2 emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap's vision.

  17. Geothermal heat; Energie aus der Tiefe. Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Karl

    2012-09-15

    The temperature in the interior of the earth increases with the depth. But for a long time, the geothermal energy only could be used at selected locations. Therefore, almost all major geothermal power plants are located at volcanic regions. The potential of the geothermal energy is not exhausted. Currently, many new power plants are developed. Although there is no volcanic activity in Germany, also some pilot plants develop the hot surface. The deep geothermal energy sometimes is difficult to be controlled. Before drilling experts rarely know how productive the subsoil is. Also, the drillings may trigger small earthquakes.

  18. Exergy and Energy Analysis of Low Temperature District Heating Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    is in line with a pilot project that is carrying out in Denmark with network supply/return temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The consumer domestic hot water (DHW) demand is supplied with a special designed district heating (DH) storage tank. The space heating (SH) demand is supplied with a low temperature radiator......Low temperature district heating (LTDH) with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building thermal demand and the low quality waste heat supply. In this paper, an exemplary LTDH network was designed for 30 low energy demand residential houses, which....... The network thermal and hydraulic conditions were simulated under steady state with an in-house district heating network design and simulation code. Through simulation, the overall system energetic and exergetic efficiencies were calculated and the exergy losses for the major district heating system...

  19. Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Duic, Neven; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2016-01-01

    scientific understanding on how we can design and implement a suitable and least-cost transformation into a sustainable energy future. The concept of Smart Energy Systems emphasizes the importance of being coherent and cross-sectoral when the best solutions are to be found and how this also calls......This editorial gives an introduction to the important relationship between Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating and presents a number of selected papers from the 1st International Conference on the topic. All of the papers elaborate on or otherwise contribute to the theoretical...... for the active inclusion of the heating and cooling sectors. The concept of 4th Generation District Heating emphasizes that district heating and cooling are both important elements but also technologies that have to be developed further into a 4th generation version to be able to fulfil their roles in future...

  20. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites.

  1. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280 0 C, LMRs up to 540 0 C, and GCRs up to 950 0 C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized

  2. Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu; Klugman, Sofia; Henning, Dag; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO 2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO 2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO 2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios

  3. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities on PTS evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Safety Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency provides the secretariat for the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), which deals with technological aspects, and for the Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) dealing with regulatory aspects. Under these committees, activities are carried out through five Principal Working Groups (PWGs). The relevant group for PTS is PWG-3 on the integrity of structures and components. There is also PWG-2 on coolant system behavior, but the thermal hydraulic aspects of PTS have not been considered by PWG-2. PWG-3 carries out it work in a similar manner to the IAEA IWG LMNPP, by preparing reports and organizing round robins, Specialists Meetings and Workshops. The general context of RPV PTS has been considered in several workshops: on the 'Complementary roles of Fracture Mechanics and Non-Destructive Examination in the Safety Assessment of Components' in Wuerenlingen in 1988; on the 'Safety Assessment of RPVs' in Espoo in 1990; and on 'Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large Scale Testing' (joint with IAEA) at Oak Ridge in 1992. Activities specific to PTS have been an international survey on regulatory practices on PTS carried out in 1991, and a series of fracture round robins addressing PTS conditions organized by GRS in Germany and ORNL in the USA. 3 refs, 5 tabs

  4. Optimal allocation of international atomic energy agency inspection resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Each year the Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections to confirm that nuclear materials and facilities are employed for peaceful purposes. Because of limited inspection resources, however, the IAEA cannot fully attain its safeguards goals either quantitatively as measured by the inspection effort negotiated in the facility attachments or qualitatively as measured by the IAEA criteria for evaluating attainment of safeguards goals. Under current IAEA procedures the allocation of inspection resources assigns essentially equal inspection effort to facilities of the same type. An alternative approach would incorporate consideration of all material categories and facilities to be assigned inspection resources when allocating effort to a particular facility. One such method for allocating inspection resources is based on the IAEA criteria. The criteria provide a framework for allocating inspection effort that includes a ranking of material types according to their safeguards importance, an implicit definition of inspection activities for each material and facility type, and criteria for judging the attainment of safeguards goals in terms of the quality and frequency of these inspection activities. This framework is applicable to resource allocation for an arbitrary group of facilities such as a state's fuel cycle, the facilities inspected by an operations division, or all of the facilities inspected by the IAEA

  5. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities on PTS evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A [NEA Nuclear Safety Div., Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1997-09-01

    The Safety Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency provides the secretariat for the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), which deals with technological aspects, and for the Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) dealing with regulatory aspects. Under these committees, activities are carried out through five Principal Working Groups (PWGs). The relevant group for PTS is PWG-3 on the integrity of structures and components. There is also PWG-2 on coolant system behavior, but the thermal hydraulic aspects of PTS have not been considered by PWG-2. PWG-3 carries out it work in a similar manner to the IAEA IWG LMNPP, by preparing reports and organizing round robins, Specialists Meetings and Workshops. The general context of RPV PTS has been considered in several workshops: on the `Complementary roles of Fracture Mechanics and Non-Destructive Examination in the Safety Assessment of Components` in Wuerenlingen in 1988; on the `Safety Assessment of RPVs` in Espoo in 1990; and on `Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large Scale Testing` (joint with IAEA) at Oak Ridge in 1992. Activities specific to PTS have been an international survey on regulatory practices on PTS carried out in 1991, and a series of fracture round robins addressing PTS conditions organized by GRS in Germany and ORNL in the USA. 3 refs, 5 tabs.

  6. Possibilities of heat energy recovery from greywater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecka, Kaja

    2018-02-01

    Waste water contains a large amount of heat energy which is irretrievably lost, so it is worth thinking about the possibilities of its recovery. It is estimated that in a residential building with full sanitary fittings, about 70% of the total tap water supplied is discharged as greywater and could be reused. The subject of the work is the opportunity to reuse waste water as an alternative source of heat for buildings. For this purpose, the design of heat exchangers used in the process of greywater heat recovery in indoor sewage systems, public buildings as well as in industrial plants has been reviewed. The possibility of recovering heat from waste water transported in outdoor sewage systems was also taken into consideration. An exemplary waste water heat recovery system was proposed, and the amount of heat that could be obtained using a greywater heat recovery system in a residential building was presented. The work shows that greywater heat recovery systems allow for significant savings in preheating hot tap water, and the rate of cost reimbursement depends on the purpose of the building and the type of installation. At the same time, the work shows that one should adjust the construction solutions of heat exchangers and indoor installations in buildings to the quality of the medium flowing, which is greywater.

  7. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles - Energy systems analysis and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, K.

    2013-09-15

    This PhD investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing research, the main focus is put on individual heat pumps in the residential sector (one-family houses) and the possibilities for flexible operation, using the heat storage options available. Several energy systems analyses are performed using the energy system models, Balmorel, developed at the former TSO, ElkraftSystem, and, EnergyPLAN, developed at Aalborg University. The Danish energy system towards 2030, with wind power penetrations of up to 60 %, is used as a case study in most of the analyses. Both models have been developed further, resulting in an improved representation of individual heat pumps and heat storages. An extensive model add-on for Balmorel renders it possible to optimise investment and operation of individual heat pumps and different types of heat storages, in integration with the energy system. Total costs of the energy system are minimised in the optimisation. The add-on incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various different heat storage options: intelligent heat storage in the building structure for houses with radiator heating and floor heating, respectively, heat accumulation tanks on the space heating circuit, as well as hot water tanks. In EnergyPLAN, some of the heat storage options have been modelled in a technical optimisation that minimises fuel consumption of the energy system and utilises as much wind power as possible. The energy systems analyses reveal that in terms of supporting wind power integration, the installation of individual heat pumps is an important step, while adding heat storages to the heat pumps is less influential. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only moderate system benefits can be gained. Hereof, the main system benefit is that the need for peak/reserve capacity investments can be reduced through peak load shaving; in

  8. Integrating global energy and climate governance: The changing role of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubaum, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long-recognized interlinkages between global energy consumption and climate change, there has historically been only limited policy interaction, let alone integration, between the two fields. This compartmentalization is mirrored in scholarship, where much research has focused on the fragmentation of, respectively, global energy and global climate governance, but only little has been said about how these fields might be integrated. Our analysis of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) changing activities in recent years shows that governance integration – both within global energy governance and between global energy and climate governance – is now happening. The IEA has broadened its portfolio to embrace the full spectrum of energy issues, including renewable energy and climate change; it has built and is expanding key partnerships with both the UN climate convention and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA); and it has become an authoritative advocate for the inter-related goals of a low-carbon transition and climate change mitigation. We show that these developments are not the result of a top-down plan, but have rather emerged through the Agency’s various efforts to pursue its energy-centric mandate in a fast-changing global policy environment. - Highlights: • Assesses integration between global energy and global climate governance. • Analyzes organizational change in the IEA and its impact on governance integration. • Discusses recent activities and advocacy by the IEA in relation to climate change.

  9. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  10. Heat pump for comfort, with added energy savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg, H.; Van de Dobbelsteen, A.; Van der Spoel, W.; Van de Graaf, A.

    2005-01-01

    The high-efficiency central heating boiler is about to reach the limits of its potential, so innovative insulation and other energy efficiency solutions are required, even though energy consumption in the Netherlands per household has dropped by 70% since 1986. Now that houses and offices are being

  11. Renewable energy for passive house heating. Part 1. Building description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, V. [Polytechnic Univ., Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Sicre, B. [Technical Univ., Chemnitz (Germany). Computational Physics

    2003-12-01

    A passive house is a cost-efficient building that can manage throughout the heating period, due to its specific construction design, with more than 10 times less heat energy than the same building designed to standards presently applicable across Europe. Its extended thermal insulation and enhanced air-tightness removes the need for temperatures higher than 50 {sup o}C. This makes renewable energy sources particularly suitable for heating, cooling and domestic hot water production. Modeling of renewable energy usage for space heating requires as a preliminary stage the detailed description of the building structure, of the HVAC equipment and of the internal heat sources. This paper shows the main data used to model the thermal behavior of a passive house. Details about Pirmasens Passive House (Rhineland Palatinate, Germany) are given, as for example, the internal heat sources, including electric appliances, heat and humidity released by human bodies, thermal internal facilities as hot and cold water pipes. All these are quantified by using statistically derived data. A detailed time schedule for a standard German family with two adults and two children was prepared. It takes into account the national celebrations, vacation and weekends among others. (Author)

  12. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, E.A. (ed.)

    1992-11-01

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  13. Use of Danish Heat Atlas and energy system models for exploring renewable energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2013-01-01

    networks in relation with significant heat saving measures that are capital intensive infrastructure investments require highly detailed decision - support tools. The Heat Atlas for Denmark provides a highly detailed database and includes heat demand and possible heat savings for about 2.5 million...... buildings with associated costs included. Energy systems modelling tools that incorporate economic, environmental, energy and engineering analysis of future energy systems are considered crucial for quantitative assessment of transitional scenarios towards future milestones, such as (i) EU 2020 goals...... of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing share of renewable energy and improving energy efficiency and (ii) Denmark’s 2050 goals of covering entire energy supply by renewable energy. Optimization and simulation energy system models are currently used in Denmark. The present paper tends to provide...

  14. Solar energy and global heat balance of a city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, Claude-Alain [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lab. d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    The global energy balance of a city involves numerous energy flows and is rather complex. It includes, among others, the absorbed solar radiation and the energy fuels on one hand, and the heat loss to the environment --- by radiation, convection and evaporation --- on the other hand. This balance generally results in a temperature in the town that is slightly higher than in the surrounding country. Using solar energy saves imported fuels on one hand, but increases the absorption of solar radiation on the other hand. Simple, steady state models are used to assess the change of heat released to the environment when replacing the use of classical fuels by solar powered plants, on both the global and city scale. The conclusion is that, in most cases, this will reduce the heat released to the environment. The exception is cooling, for which a good solar alternative does not exist today. (Author)

  15. Nuclear energy and non proliferation. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.; Rauf, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons. The IAEA verifies States compliance with their non-proliferation commitments through the application of safeguards on their civilian nuclear programmes to ensure that they are being used solely for peaceful purposes. The IAEA safeguards have evolved in the course of five decades and have become an integral part of the international non-proliferation regime and the global security system. To continue to serve the international community, they need to continue to move with the times, especially in light of the renewed interest in nuclear energy. (Author)

  16. Exchanging and Storing Energy. Reducing Energy Demand through Heat Exchange between Functions and Temporary Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillem, E.

    2011-06-15

    As typical office buildings from the nineties have large heating and cooling installations to provide heat or cold wherever and whenever needed, more recent office buildings have almost no demand for heating due to high internal heat loads caused by people, lighting and office appliances and because of the great thermal qualities of the contemporary building envelope. However, these buildings still have vast cooling units to cool down servers and other energy consuming installations. At the same time other functions such as dwellings, swimming pools, sporting facilities, archives and museums still need to be heated most of the year. In the current building market there is an increasing demand for mixed-use buildings or so called hybrid buildings. The Science Business Centre is no different and houses a conference centre, offices, a museum, archives, an exhibition space and a restaurant. From the initial program brief it seemed that the building will simultaneously house functions that need cooling most of the year and functions that will need to be heated the majority of the year. Can this building be equipped with a 'micro heating and cooling network' and where necessary temporarily store energy? With this idea a research proposal was formulated. How can the demand for heating and cooling of the Science Business Centre be reduced by using energy exchange between different kinds of functions and by temporarily storing energy? In conclusion the research led to: four optimized installation concepts; short term energy storage in pavilion concept and museum; energy exchange between the restaurant and archives; energy exchange between the server space and the offices; the majority of heat and cold will be extracted from the soil (long term energy storage); the access heat will be generated by the energy roof; PV cells from the energy roof power all climate installations; a total energy plan for the Science Business Centre; a systematic approach for exchanging

  17. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2011 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Annual Report 2011 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2011. The main part of the report, starting on page 21, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2011 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available in electronic form only on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report.

  18. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2011 (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Annual Report 2011 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2011. The main part of the report, starting on page 21, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2011 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available in electronic form only on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report.

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2011 (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Annual Report 2011 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2011. The main part of the report, starting on page 21, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2011 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available in electronic form only on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report.

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2011 (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Annual Report 2011 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2011. The main part of the report, starting on page 21, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2011 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available in electronic form only on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report.

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2011 (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Annual Report 2011 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2011. The main part of the report, starting on page 21, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2011 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available in electronic form only on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report.

  2. Flexibility of a combined heat and power system with thermal energy storage for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuytten, Thomas; Claessens, Bert; Paredis, Kristof; Van Bael, Johan; Six, Daan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A generic model for flexibility assessment of thermal systems is proposed. ► The model is applied to a combined heat and power system with thermal energy storage. ► A centrally located storage offers more flexibility compared to individual units. ► Increasing the flexibility requires both a more powerful CHP and a larger buffer. - Abstract: The trend towards an increased importance of distributed (renewable) energy resources characterized by intermittent operation redefines the energy landscape. The stochastic nature of the energy systems on the supply side requires increased flexibility at the demand side. We present a model that determines the theoretical maximum of flexibility of a combined heat and power system coupled to a thermal energy storage solution that can be either centralized or decentralized. Conventional central heating, to meet the heat demand at peak moments, is also available. The implications of both storage concepts are evaluated in a reference district. The amount of flexibility created in the district heating system is determined by the approach of the system through delayed or forced operation mode. It is found that the distinction between the implementation of the thermal energy storage as a central unit or as a collection of local units, has a dramatic effect on the amount of available flexibility

  3. The role of district heating in future renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Möller, Bernd; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    Based on the case of Denmark, this paper analyses the role of district heating in future Renewable Energy Systems. At present, the share of renewable energy is coming close to 20 per cent. From such point of departure, the paper defines a scenario framework in which the Danish system is converted...... to 100 per cent Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the year 2060 including reductions in space heating demands by 75 per cent. By use of a detailed energy system analysis of the complete national energy system, the consequences in relation to fuel demand, CO2 emissions and cost are calculated for various...... as in a potential future system based 100 per cent on renewable energy....

  4. Study of thermal energy storage using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weast, T. E.; Shannon, L. J.; Ananth, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of fluid bed heat exchangers (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES) in waste heat recovery applications is assessed by analysis of two selected conceptual systems, the rotary cement kiln and the electric arc furnace. It is shown that the inclusion of TES in the energy recovery system requires that the difference in off-peak and on-peak energy rates be large enough so that the value of the recovered energy exceeds the value of the stored energy by a wide enough margin to offset parasitic power and thermal losses. Escalation of on-peak energy rates due to fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  5. Heat storage in forest biomass improves energy balance closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation very well. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy covariance

  6. The International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Security Education Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUNEGGER-GUELICH, A.; RUKHLO, V.; GREGORIC, M.; COLGAN, P.

    2011-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has not diminished. In response to the concerns of States, an international nuclear security framework has emerged through the establishment of a number of legally binding and non-binding international instruments which obligates or commits States to carry out a number of actions to protect against nuclear terrorism. In this context, the need for human resource development programmes in nuclear security was underscored at several International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conferences and Board of Governors' Meetings. In the pursuit of this need, the IAEA provides a comprehensive nuclear security training programme to States on a regular basis, and has developed a concept that seeks to effectively pass ownership of nuclear security knowledge and skills to States through the establishment of a Nuclear Security Support Centre. In addition, the IAEA has developed a technical guidance titled IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12 - Educational Programme in Nuclear Security that consists of a model of a Master of Science (M.Sc.) and assists educational institutions to provide nuclear security education. The article sets out IAEA efforts in the area of nuclear security training and education, including the assistance to States for establishing a Nuclear Security Support Centre. It underlines the objective and content of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12, discusses different concepts on how to establish nuclear security at universities and, emphasizes on the IAEA efforts to assist educational and research institutions, and other stake holders to enhance global nuclear security by developing, sharing and promoting excellence in nuclear security education. (author)

  7. Energy balance in the ohmically heated FT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.; Brusati, M.; Cilloco, F.

    1981-01-01

    A typical discharge in the FT Tokamak at 60 kG has been studied in detail in order to derive the power balance between the ohmic input and the plasma losses. Impurity and radiation losses together with ion and electron energy balance are discussed. A power transport term for electrons is derived which is ascribed to anomalous thermal conduction. This resulting thermal transport is compared with those derived from different proposed scalings

  8. Experience in the use of wind energy for greenhouse heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flaherty, T; Kocsis, K; Petersen, H [eds.

    1987-05-01

    Study of the appliction of wind energy for greenhouse heating began at Kinsealy Research Centre in 1980 with the installation of a multi-blade 6m diamter wind turbine. This produced electricity which was used to provide root zone warming for a glasshouse tomato crop. The application worked well and the wind turbine is still in operation, although it has been out of service for substantial periods and has required major refurbishment. In July 1985 a new wind turbine was commissioned as an EEC Wind Energy Demonstration Project. This is an 11m diameter grid-connected unit, and the project involves using its output to power a heat pump which in turn supplies heat to a greenhouse. The system is operating well and initial performance results have been obtained during the 1985-'86 heating season. The paper summarises the experience to data with both of these projects.

  9. Liquid neon heat intercept for superconducting energy storage magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; McIntosh, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Previous analyses of heat intercept solutions are extended to include both insulation and strut heat leaks. The impact of using storable, boiling cryogens for heat intercept fluids, specifically liquid neon and nitrogen, is also examined. The selection of fluid for the heat intercepts is described. Refrigeration power for 1000 and 5000 MWhr SMES units is shown with optimum refrigeration power for each quantity shown in tables. Nitrogen and Neon cooled intercept location for minimum total refrigeration power for a 5000 MWhr SMES are each shown, as well as the location of nitrogen and neon cooled intercepts for minimum total refrigeration power for 5000 MWhr SMES. Cost comparisons are itemized and neon cost and availability discussed. For a large energy storage magnet system, liquid neon is a more effective heat intercept fluid than liquid nitrogen. Reasons and application of the conclusion are amplified

  10. Heat pump used in milk pasteurization: an energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozyurt, O.; Comakli, O.; Yilmaz, M. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Karsli, S. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Vocational School of Higher Education

    2004-07-01

    This study investigates the applicability of heat pumps to milk pasteurization for cheese production and to compare the results with classical pasteurization systems. The experiments are conducted in a liquid-to-liquid vapour compression heat pump system and a milk-to-milk plate heat exchanger is used as an economizer. The experiments are also conducted in a double jacket boiler system and a plate pasteurization system, which are classical milk pasteurization systems. The results for the three systems are compared and the advantages/disadvantages of using heat pump for milk pasteurization instead of classical systems are determined. It is found that the heat pump consumes less energy than the other two classical systems. (Author)

  11. Method for optimal design of pipes for low-energy district heating, with focus on heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The synergy between highly energy-efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy-saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Network transmission and distribution heat loss is one of the k...

  12. Improved energy efficiency in juice production through waste heat recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.-O.; Elfgren, E.; Westerlund, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A heating system at a juice production was investigated and improved. • Different impacts of drying cycle improvements at the energy usage were explored. • The total heat use for drying could thereby be decreased with 52%. • The results point out a significant decrease of heat consumption with low investment costs. - Abstract: Berry juice concentrate is produced by pressing berries and heating up the juice. The by-products are berry skins and seeds in a press cake. Traditionally, these by-products have been composted, but due to their valuable nutrients, it could be profitable to sell them instead. The skins and seeds need to be separated and dried to a moisture content of less than 10 %wt (on dry basis) in order to avoid fermentation. A berry juice plant in the north of Sweden has been studied in order to increase the energy and resource efficiency, with special focus on the drying system. This was done by means of process integration with mass and energy balance, theory from thermodynamics and psychrometry along with measurements of the juice plant. Our study indicates that the drying system could be operated at full capacity without any external heat supply using waste heat supplied from the juice plant. This would be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the dryer by recirculation of the drying air and by heat supply from the flue gases of the industrial boiler. The recirculation would decrease the need of heat in the dryer with about 52%. The total heat use for the plant could thereby be decreased from 1262 kW to 1145 kW. The improvements could be done without compromising the production quality

  13. Thermionic Power Cell To Harness Heat Energies for Geothermal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Greer, Harold F.

    2011-01-01

    A unit thermionic power cell (TPC) concept has been developed that converts natural heat found in high-temperature environments (460 to 700 C) into electrical power for in situ instruments and electronics. Thermionic emission of electrons occurs when an emitter filament is heated to gwhite hot h temperatures (>1,000 C) allowing electrons to overcome the potential barrier and emit into the vacuum. These electrons are then collected by an anode, and transported to the external circuit for energy storage.

  14. Using Heat Pump Energy Storages in the Power Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2011-01-01

    The extensive growth of installed wind energy plants lead to increasing balancing problems in the power grid due to the nature of wind fields and diurnal variations in consumption. One way to overcome these problems is to move consumption to times where wind power otherwise cause overproduction...... and large fluctuations in prices. The paper presents a method which takes advantage of heat capacity in single-family houses using heat pumps which are anticipated to be installed in large numbers in Denmark in next decade. This type of heating gives a large time constant and it is shown possible to move...

  15. Heat rejection efficiency research of new energy automobile radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W. S.; Shen, W. X.; Zhang, L. W.

    2018-03-01

    The driving system of new energy vehicle has larger heat load than conventional engine. How to ensure the heat dissipation performance of the cooling system is the focus of the design of new energy vehicle thermal management system. In this paper, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the hybrid electric vehicle is taken as the research object, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the new energy vehicle is studied through the multi-working-condition enthalpy difference test. In this paper, the test method in the current standard QC/T 468-2010 “automobile radiator” is taken, but not limited to the test conditions specified in the standard, 5 types of automobile radiator are chosen, each of them is tested 20 times in simulated condition of different wind speed and engine inlet temperature. Finally, regression analysis is carried out for the test results, and regression equation describing the relationship of radiator heat dissipation heat dissipation efficiency air side flow rate cooling medium velocity and inlet air temperature is obtained, and the influence rule is systematically discussed.

  16. Performance of Radiant Heating Systems of Low-Energy Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbu, Ioan; Mirza, Matei; Crasmareanu, Emanuel

    2017-10-01

    After the introduction of plastic piping, the application of water-based radiant heating with pipes embedded in room surfaces (i.e., floors, walls, and ceilings), has significantly increased worldwide. Additionally, interest and growth in radiant heating and cooling systems have increased in recent years because they have been demonstrated to be energy efficient in comparison to all-air distribution systems. This paper briefly describes the heat distribution systems in buildings, focusing on the radiant panels (floor, wall, ceiling, and floor-ceiling). Main objective of this study is the performance investigation of different types of low-temperature heating systems with different methods. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the energy, environmental, and economic performances of floor, wall, ceiling, and floor-ceiling heating using numerical simulation with Transient Systems Simulation (TRNSYS) software is performed. This study showed that the floor-ceiling heating system has the best performance in terms of the lowest energy consumption, operation cost, CO2 emission, and the nominal boiler power. The comparison of the room operative air temperatures and the set-point operative air temperature indicates also that all radiant panel systems provide satisfactory results without significant deviations.

  17. Increasing RES Penetration and Security of Energy Supply by Use of Energy Storages and Heat Pumps in Croatian Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajačić, Goran; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duić, Neven

    2010-01-01

    electricity, heat and transport demands, and including renewable energy, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating. Using the 2007 energy system the wind power share is increased by two energy storage options: Pumped hydro and heat pumps in combination with heat storages....... The results show that such options can enable an increased penetration of wind power. Using pumped hydro storage (PHS) may increase wind power penetration from 0.5 TWh, for existing PHS installations and up to 6 TWh for very large installations. Using large heat pumps and heat storages in combination...... with specific regulation of power system could additionally increase wind penetration for 0.37 TWh. Hence, with the current technologies installed in the Croatian energy system the installed pumped hydro-plant may facilitate more than 10% wind power in the electricity system. Large-scale integration of wind...

  18. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  19. Renewable energies heat act and government grants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nast, M.

    2010-01-01

    In Germany renewable energies in the heat market are promoted by the Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWaermeG) and by government grants. Ultimately, these two instruments are not only about short-term market success, but rather about the perspectives of climate protection and resource conservation. The focus of this report is therefore on the long-term significance of the current design of government grants and EEWaermeG. We will introduce and discuss the quantitative goals and structural changes strived for as well as - on a slightly shorter time horizon - the quality assurance regulations which must accompany the steady and stable growth of renewable energies. In the process, we will elaborate in particular on heat pumps, which have recently been added to the government support programme, along with solar collectors. Some explanations regarding the structural relationships between EEWaermeG and government grants round off this contribution. (author)

  20. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. 5 activity report. 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The main activities of the Agency are reviewed: nuclear power trends; regulatory aspects of nuclear power; technical developments: Eurochemic, Halden, Dragon, food irradiation; gas-cooled fast reactors, isotopic batteries; nuclear data Centers

  1. Highlights 96. International Atomic Energy Agency annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinley, D H [ed.

    1997-12-31

    The past year saw a process of strengthening in some important areas of the work of the Agency with the aim of improving the impact and efficiency of its activities. The activities in these areas are described.

  2. Highlights 96. International Atomic Energy Agency annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinley, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    The past year saw a process of strengthening in some important areas of the work of the Agency with the aim of improving the impact and efficiency of its activities. The activities in these areas are described

  3. 75 FR 4836 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements (TERAs)'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for renewal... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of request...

  4. Thermal energy storage using thermo-chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, M.A.; Rossides, S.D.; Haj Khalil, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Understanding of the performance of thermo chemical heat pump. ► Tool for storing thermal energy. ► Parameters that affect the amount of thermal stored energy. ► Lithium chloride has better effect on storing thermal energy. - Abstract: A theoretical study was performed to investigate the potential of storing thermal energy using a heat pump which is a thermo-chemical storage system consisting of water as sorbet, and sodium chloride as the sorbent. The effect of different parameters namely; the amount of vaporized water from the evaporator, the system initial temperature and the type of salt on the increase in temperature of the salt was investigated and hence on the performance of the thermo chemical heat pump. It was found that the performance of the heat pump improves with the initial system temperature, with the amount of water vaporized and with the water remaining in the system. Finally it was also found that lithium chloride salt has higher effect on the performance of the heat pump that of sodium chloride.

  5. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Performance of Heated Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammulamadaka, Hari Swarup

    The study about the evaluation of the performance of the heated windows was funded by the WVU Research Office as a technical assistance award at the 2014 TransTech Energy Business Development Conference to the Green Heated Glass company/project owned by Frank Dlubak. The award supports a WVU researcher to conduct a project important for commercialization. This project was awarded to the WVU Industrial Assessment Center in 2015. The current study attempted to evaluate the performance of the heated windows by developing an experimental setup to test the window at various temperatures by varying the current input to the window. The heated double pane window was installed in an insulated box. A temperature gradient was developed across the window by cooling one side of the window using gel based ice packs. The other face of the window was heated by passing current at different wattages through the window. The temperature of the inside and outside panes, current and voltage input, room and box temperature were recorded, and used to calculate the apparent R-value of the window when not being heated vs when being heated. It has been concluded from the study that the heated double pane window is more effective in reducing heat losses by as much as 50% than a non-heated double pane window, if the window temperature is maintained close to the room temperature. If the temperature of the window is much higher than the room temperature, the losses through the window appear to increase beyond that of a non-heated counterpart. The issues encountered during the current round of experiments are noted, and recommendations provided for future studies.

  6. Free Magnetic Energy and Coronal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy; Moore, Ron; Falconer, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the coronal X-ray luminosity of an active region increases roughly in direct proportion to the total photospheric flux of the active region's magnetic field (Fisher et al. 1998). It is also observed, however, that the coronal luminosity of active regions of nearly the same flux content can differ by an order of magnitude. In this presentation, we analyze 10 active regions with roughly the same total magnetic flux. We first determine several coronal properties, such as X-ray luminosity (calculated using Hinode XRT), peak temperature (calculated using Hinode EIS), and total Fe XVIII emission (calculated using SDO AIA). We present the dependence of these properties on a proxy of the free magnetic energy of the active region

  7. An energy and cost analysis of residential heat pumps in northern climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. K.; Oneal, D. L.

    1980-04-01

    Lack of natural gas and high oil prices, combined with the large energy costs of electric resistance heat have forced renewed attention to the heat pump in colder climates. The diversity in heating energy use and cost effectiveness of forty-one currently retailed heat pumps in three northern cities, Boston, Denver, and Minneapolis, were examined. Heat pump heating energy use and annualized life cycle costs were compared with other forms of space heating equipment in those same cities.

  8. Theoretical energy and exergy analyses of solar assisted heat pump space heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmaca Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to use of alternative energy sources and energy efficient operation, heat pumps come into prominence in recent years. Especially in solar-assisted heat pumps, sizing the required system is difficult and arduous task in order to provide optimum working conditions. Therefore, in this study solar assisted indirect expanded heat pump space heating system is simulated and the results of the simulation are compared with available experimental data in the literature in order to present reliability of the model. Solar radiation values in the selected region are estimated with the simulation. The case study is applied and simulation results are given for Antalya, Turkey. Collector type and storage tank capacity effects on the consumed power of the compressor, COP of the heat pump and the overall system are estimated with the simulation, depending on the radiation data, collector surface area and the heating capacity of the space. Exergy analysis is also performed with the simulation and irreversibility, improvement potentials and exergy efficiencies of the heat pump and system components are estimated.

  9. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2010 [Russian Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Annual Report 2010 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement and Background to the Safeguards Statement and Summary. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org./Publications/ Reports/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT.

  10. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2010 [French Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Annual Report 2010 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement and Background to the Safeguards Statement and Summary. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org./Publications/ Reports/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT.

  11. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2010 [Chinese Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Annual Report 2010 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement and Background to the Safeguards Statement and Summary. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org./Publications/ Reports/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT.

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2010 [Chinese Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Annual Report 2010 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement and Background to the Safeguards Statement and Summary. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org./Publications/ Reports/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT.

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2010 [Spanish Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Annual Report 2010 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2010-2011 (GC(53)/5). The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement and Background to the Safeguards Statement and Summary. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org./Publications/ Reports/index.html. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) The term 'nuclear weapon State' is as used in the NPT.

  14. Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, E. Bruce [Thermal Energy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, Tim [Thermal Energy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Mardiat, Ed [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc., Kansas City, MI (United States)

    2011-12-31

    To meet the planned heating and cooling load growth at the Texas Medical Center (TMC), Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) implemented Phase 1 of a Master Plan to install an additional 32,000 tons of chilled water capacity, a 75,000 ton-hour (8.8 million gallon) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank, and a 48 MW Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. The Department of Energy selected TMC for a $10 million grant award as part of the Financial Assistance Funding Opportunity Announcement, U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology, Recovery Act: Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficiency Industrial Equipment Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000044 to support the installation of a new 48 MW CHP system at the TMC located just outside downtown Houston. As the largest medical center in the world, TMC is home to many of the nation's best hospitals, physicians, researchers, educational institutions, and health care providers. TMC provides care to approximately six million patients each year, and medical instruction to over 71,000 students. A medical center the size of TMC has enormous electricity and thermal energy demands to help it carry out its mission. Reliable, high-quality steam and chilled water are of utmost importance to the operations of its many facilities. For example, advanced medical equipment, laboratories, laundry facilities, space heating and cooling all rely on the generation of heat and power. As result of this project TECO provides this mission critical heating and cooling to TMC utilizing a system that is both energy-efficient and reliable since it provides the capability to run on power independent of the already strained regional electric grid. This allows the medical center to focus on its primary mission providing top quality medical care and instruction without worrying about excessive energy costs or the loss of heating and cooling due to the risk of power

  15. Health Externalities and Heat savings in Energy System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    Energy consumption and production can cause air pollution with global impact, such as CO2, and local/regional air pollutants, such as SO2, NOx and PM2.5, as a result of fuel combustion. Use of fossil fuels leads to global CO2 emissions and causes global warming effects, regardless place or height......-related external costs can be internalised, for instance, in energy system modelling. External costs of global warming and human health damage can be of comparable magnitude.However, in contrast to global CO2 impacts, air pollution damage to human health depends on a number of factors, related to location...... and included in an energy system optimisation model. The performed analysis of the Danish heat and power sector concludes that accounting for spatial variation of health damage costs in heat and power system optimisation model has an effect on the optimal technology mix and distribution of energy plants among...

  16. Dossier: renewable energies for heat production; Dossier: energies renouvelables pour la production de chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-09-01

    This dossier makes a state-of-the-art of today's applications of renewable energy sources in the residential, collective and tertiary sectors for the space heating and the hot water production. In France, three energy sources profit by a particularly favorable evolution: the solar thermal, the wood fuel and the geothermal energies. In these sectors, the offer of reliable and technically achieved appliances has been considerably widen thanks to the impulse of some French and German manufacturers. Part 1 - solar thermal: individual solar water heaters (monobloc, thermosyphon with separate tank, forced circulation systems, auxiliary heating systems); combined solar systems (direct heating floor, system with storage); collective solar systems for hot water production (receivers, efficiency, heat storage and transfer, auxiliary heating, decentralized systems); heating of open-air swimming pools; some attempts in air-conditioning; the warranty of results. Part 2 - wood fuels: domestic space heating (log boilers, installation rules, hydro-accumulation, automatic boilers); collective and tertiary wood-fueled heating plants (design of boiler plants, fuel supply, combustion chamber, smoke purification systems, ash removal, regulation system), fuels for automatic collective plants, design and installation rules. Part 3 - geothermal energy: different types (water-source and ground-source heat pumps, financial incentive). (J.S.)

  17. 78 FR 29364 - Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., and Florida Municipal Power Agency v. Duke Energy Florida...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-63-000] Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., and Florida Municipal Power Agency v. Duke Energy Florida, Inc.; Notice of... of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 and sections 206, 306, and...

  18. 78 FR 50409 - Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL13-84-000] Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, Southwest... 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824e and 825e and Rule 206 of the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  19. Binding energy and formation heat of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.R. de; Veado, J.T.; Siqueira, M.L. de

    The Born-Haber cycle is utilized for the calculation of the heat of formation of UO 2 , on the assumption that the binding energy is predominantly ionic in character. The ionization potentials of U and the repulsion energy are two critical values that influence calculations. Calculations of the ionization potentials with non-relativistic Hartree-Fock-Gaspar-Kohn-Sham approximation are presented [pt

  20. Membrane heat exchanger in HVAC energy recovery systems, systems energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, M. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Opus International Consultants (New Zealand); AL-Waked, R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University (PMU), P.O. Box 1614, AlKhobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Morrison, G. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Behnia, M. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The thermal performance of an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is experimentally investigated. The heat exchanger utilizes a 60gsm Kraft paper as the heat and moisture transfer surface for HVAC energy recovery. The heat exchanger sensible, latent and total effectiveness have been determined through temperature and moisture content measurements. The annual energy consumption of an air conditioner coupled with an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is also studied and compared with a conventional air conditioning cycle using in-house modified HPRate software. The heat exchanger effectiveness are used as thermal performance indicators and incorporated in the modified software. Energy analysis showed that an air conditioning system coupled with a membrane heat exchanger consumes less energy than a conventional air conditioning system in hot and humid climates where the latent load is high. It has been shown that in humid climate a saving of up to 8% in annual energy consumption can be achieved when membrane heat exchanger is used instead of a conventional HVAC system. (author)

  1. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn M. Allan; Patricia M. Strickland; Holly S. Shulman

    2009-11-11

    Ceralink Inc. developed FastFuse™, a rapid, new, energy saving process for lamination of glass and composites using radio frequency (RF) heating technology. The Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate the innovation from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. The attached report provides an overview of the technical and commerical progress achieved for FastFuse™ during the course of the project. FastFuse™ has the potential to revolutionize the laminate manufacturing industries by replacing energy intensive, multi-step processes with an energy efficient, single-step process that allows higher throughput. FastFuse™ transmits RF energy directly into the interlayer to generate heat, eliminating the need to directly heat glass layers and the surrounding enclosures, such as autoclaves or vacuum systems. FastFuse™ offers lower start-up and energy costs (up to 90% or more reduction in energy costs), and faster cycles times (less than 5 minutes). FastFuse™ is compatible with EVA, TPU, and PVB interlayers, and has been demonstrated for glass, plastics, and multi-material structures such as photovoltaics and transparent armor.

  2. Habit formation and consumption of energy for heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask if consumption of energy for space heating by households is habit forming. A model of intertemporal consumption allocation allowing for habit-forming preferences is estimated on a register-based panel data set with high quality information about consumption of natural gas...... for a sample of Danish households. Results indicate that preferences are weakly habit forming...

  3. District Heating in Areas with Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan Ibrahim

    -energy houses involved, together with the idea of utilizing booster pumps in the district heating network and (ii) use of network layouts of either a branched (tree-like) or a looped type. The methods developed were applied in a case study, the data of which was provided by the municipality of Roskilde...... in Denmark. The second case study was aimed at solving another regional energy planning scheme, one concerned with already existing houses, the heat requirements of which were currently being met by use of a natural gas grid or a conventional high-temperature district heating network. The idea considered......This PhD thesis presents a summary of a three-year PhD project involving three case studies, each pertaining to a typical regional Danish energy planning scheme with regard to the extensive use of low-energy district heating systems, operating at temperatures as low as 55°C for supply and 25°C...

  4. Role of Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in the spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring the performance of the water-heating systems since May 2014.

  5. Link between intermittent electrical energy sources and district heating sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo

    2016-01-01

    Energy has always been one of the key challenges in planning of societies' development worldwide. The COP conference in Paris in December 2015 has shown unprecedented mutual understanding of harmful consequences climate change can cause. Integrating power and heating sectors in an efficient way...

  6. Energy density enhancement of chemical heat storage material for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myagmarjav, Odtsetseg; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Ryu, Junichi; Kato, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    A novel candidate chemical heat storage material having higher reaction performance and higher thermal conductivity used for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump was developed in this study. The material, called EML, was obtained by mixing pure Mg(OH)_2 with expanded graphite (EG) and lithium bromide (LiBr), which offer higher thermal conductivity and reactivity, respectively. With the aim to achieve a high energy density, the EML composite was compressed into figure of the EML tablet (ϕ7.1 mm × thickness 3.5 mm). The compression force did not degrade the reaction conversion, and furthermore it enabled us to achieve best heat storage and output performances. The EML tablet could store heat of 815.4 MJ m_t_a_b"−"3 at 300 °C within 120 min, which corresponded to almost 4.4 times higher the heat output of the EML composite, and therefore, the EML tablet is the solution which releases more heat in a shorter time. A relatively larger volumetric gross heat output was also recorded for the EML tablet, which was greater than one attained for the EML composite at certain temperatures. As a consequence, it is expected that the EML tablet could respond more quickly to sudden demand of heat from users. It was concluded that the EML tablet demonstrated superior performances. - Highlights: • A new chemical heat storage material, donated as EML, was developed. • EML composite made from pure Mg(OH)_2, expanded graphite and lithium bromide. • EML tablet was demonstrated by compressing the EML composite. • Compression force did not degrade the conversion in dehydration and hydration. • EML tablet demonstrated superior heat storage and output performances.

  7. Heat Driven Cooling in District Energy Systems; Vaermedriven Kyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydstrand, Magnus; Martin, Viktoria; Westermark, Mats [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2004-07-01

    This report is reviewing different heat driven technologies for the production of cooling. It is shown that the supply of cooling gives the highest fuel utilization if heat from CHP production is used for the production of cooling instead of maximizing the electricity output in a condensing plant. High fuel utilization is reached since the direct production of cooling from heat is a thermodynamic shortcut as compared to the production of electricity as an intermediate product before cooling is produced. At direct production of cooling from heat it is possible to obtain 70 percent of the obtainable cooling of an ideal process. If electricity is produced from heat, 70 percent electricity could be obtained as compared to an ideal process. If this electricity would be used for the production of cooling 70 percent of the obtainable cooling in an ideal process would the result. The total production of cooling from heat with electricity as an intermediate product would therefore give 50 percent cooling as compared to an ideal process. Hence, heat driven cooling will give more cooling for a given fuel input. In the review of the different heat driven cooling options it was found that there are many alternatives suitable for different applications. Absorption cooling is suitable for water distributed cooling if the latent cooling load is low. Desiccant cooling is believed to have a large market in climates (applications) with high latent cooling loads. In the energy efficiency evaluation it is found that the highest fuel utilization is given for a central production of electricity using either district heating or district cooling as the energy carrier to supply cooling. In fact the potential of district heating as the energy carrier is thought to be the largest in large cities with humid climates. Further it is found that the chiller heat sink can contribute significantly to the cost in many applications, especially if water and/or electricity consumption are issues with

  8. World Energy Outlook 2004. The new report of the International Energy Agency; World Energy Outlook 2004. Le nouveau rapport de l'Agence Internationale de l'Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    Here is given the complete text of the summary of the World Energy Outlook report of the International Energy Agency. This report includes an alternative scenario which gives the image of an energy future more efficient and more respectful of the environment than those of the reference scenario. (O.M.)

  9. The nuclear energy outlook--a new book from the OECD nuclear energy agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Uichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the key points of a report titled Nuclear Energy Outlook, published in 2008 by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which has 30 member nations. The report discusses the commitment of many nations to increase nuclear power generating capacity and the potential rate of building new electricity-generating nuclear plants by 2030 to 2050. The resulting decrease in carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion resulting from an increase in nuclear power sources is described. Other topics that are discussed include the need to develop non-proliferative nuclear fuels, the importance of developing geological disposal facilities or reprocessing capabilities for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, and the requirements for a larger nuclear workforce and greater cost competitiveness for nuclear power generation. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  10. The Euratom supply agency. A small ENERGY UNION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohm-Hieber, Ute [European Commission, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Unit - Nuclear Fuel Market Operations

    2015-11-15

    In the 1950s, when the European Communities were founded the ECSC (Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community), concluded for 50 years and the EURATOM Treaty (Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community), with unlimited validity, were signed. On the present political agenda of the European Union, energy supply security has a high priority. The Juncker Commission therefore focusses on the concept of an Energy Union. The Euratom Treaty provides one successful example of a ''small sectorial Energy Union'' and may serve as stimulation for reflections for the Energy Union in other sectors.

  11. DOE Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) Project is a multiphase undertaking seeking to demonstrate one or more operational HP-ICES by the end of 1983. The seven phases include System Development, Demonstration Design, Design Completion, HP-ICES Construction, Operation and Data Acquisition, HP-ICES Evaluation, and Upgraded Continuation. This project is sponsored by the Community Systems Branch, Office of Buildings and Community Systems, Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applicaions, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is part of the Community Systems Program and is managed by the Energy and Environmental Systems Division of Argonne Natinal Laboratory.

  12. Investigation of the possibility of using residual heat reactor energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Yurin, V. E.; Bessonov, V. N.

    2017-11-01

    The largest contribution to the probable frequency of core damage is blackout events. The main component of the heat capacity at each reactor within a few minutes following a blackout is the heat resulting from the braking of beta-particles and the transfer of gamma-ray energy by the fission fragments and their decay products, which is known as the residual heat. The power of the residual heat changes gradually over a long period of time and for a VVER-1000 reactor is about 15-20 MW of thermal power over 72 hours. Current cooldown systems increase the cost of the basic nuclear power plants (NPP) funds without changing the amount of electricity generated. Such systems remain on standby, accelerating the aging of the equipment and accordingly reducing its reliability. The probability of system failure increases with the duration of idle time. Furthermore, the reactor residual heat energy is not used. A proposed system for cooling nuclear power plants involves the use of residual thermal power to supply the station’s own needs in emergency situations accompanied by a complete blackout. The thermal power of residual heat can be converted to electrical energy through an additional low power steam turbine. In normal mode, the additional steam turbine generates electricity, which makes it possible to ensure spare NPP and a return on the investment in the reservation system. In this work, experimental data obtained from a Balakovo NPP was analyzed to determine the admissibility of cooldown of the reactors through the 2nd circuit over a long time period, while maintaining high-level parameters for the steam generated by the steam generators.

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency publications. New publications Autumn 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Publications Catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA issued and forthcoming for the period Autumn 2003 - early 2004. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is indicated at the bottom of the book entry. A complete listing of all IAEA priced publications is available on the IAEA's web site: http://www.iaea.org/books

  14. International Atomic Energy Agency publications. New publications Spring 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Publications Catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA issued and forthcoming during the period Spring 2003. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is indicated at the bottom of the book entry. A complete listing of all IAEA priced publications is available on the IAEA's web site: http://www.iaea.org/books

  15. Mathematical modeling of the energy consumption of heated swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bel, C.; Millette, J. [LTE Shawinigan, Shawinigan, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A mathematical model was developed to estimate the water temperature of a residential swimming pool. The model can compare 2 different situations and, if local climatic conditions are known, it can accurately predict energy costs of the pool relative to the total energy consumption of the house. When used with the appropriate energy transfer coefficient and weather file, the model can estimate the water temperature of a residential swimming pool having specific characteristics, such as in-ground, above-ground, heated or non-heated. The model is suitable for determining residential loads. It can be applied to different pool types and sizes, for different water heating scenarios and different climatic regions. Data obtained from the monitoring of water temperature and electricity use of 57 residential swimming pools was used to validate the model. In addition, 5 above-ground pools were installed on the property of LTE Shawinigan to allow for a more detailed study of the parameters involved in the thermal balance of a pool. The mathematical model, based on a global heat transfer coefficient, can determine the effect of a solar blanket and the effect of water volume. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  16. Agreements registered with the International Atomic Energy Agency. 11 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The eleventh edition of Legal Series No. 3 contains agreements registered up to 31 December 1993. The book is divided into three parts. Part I consists of a chronological list, by date of entry into force, of all agreements registered with the Agency. Part II of the booked is devoted to six major multilateral agreements for which the Agency is depository. All these agreements are listed in Part I in the appropriate chronological order, but information relating to signatories and parties appears in Part II. Since this listing reflects the current, not historical, situations, it does not reflect countries which are no longer parties. Part III is the Country Annex, with an additional section including international organizations and other parties with whom the Agency has agreements. It gives a tabular, alphabetical presentation of information set out in Parts I and II, which may serve as an index to specific agreements and an overview of the types of agreements to which particular countries are party. For historical purposes, Part III reflects all countries, even those no longer existing, which were or are party to a specific agreement

  17. Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Stanton [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-12-12

    The project goal was to develop a revolutionary energy saving technology for residential clothes drying. The team developed an IR (infrared) heating system and NESP (Nebulizer and Electro-Static Precipitator) for integration into a ventless clothes dryer. The proposed technology addresses two of the major inefficiencies in current electric vented dryers by providing effective energy transfer for the removal of the water and recapture of the vapor latent heat. The IR heaters operating in the mid wave (2.5-10um) are very efficient as they target the 3-micron peak absorption of the water molecule. This allows direct energy absorption, unlike conventional element heaters where heat is transferred by convection. The low power NESP removes water vapor from the exhausted stream and recaptures the latent heat in the ESP (Electro-Static Precipitator) exchanger section. This allows the warm dry air to be recirculated back into the drum for additional efficiency savings. The remaining majority of the dryer hardware stays the same. Summing the efficiency gain from the two subcomponents we anticipated the EF (Efficiency Factor) to exceed the goal of 4.04. EF is obtained by dividing the weight (lbs) of water removed by the energy (kWhr) used, where the test load size is 8.45 lbs of bone dry clothing wetted to 57.5% or 4.8lbs of water, and dried to a remaining moisture content of 2.5-5%. Additional benefits include not having to recondition (heat or cool) the large amounts of make-up air to replace the air exhausted by a vented dryer. It was anticipated that the NESP/heat exchanger would be the most challenging and highest risk element in the program. Therefore, the team focused their efforts during Phase 1 of the program on the design, construction, testing, and optimization of the NESP/heat exchanger. At the end Phase 1, the team compared the performance of the NESP/heat exchanger with the system level requirements and made a Go/No-Go decision on proceeding with the second

  18. Demonstration of low-energy district heating for low-energy buildings in EnergyFlexHouse. Subreport 1; Demonstration af lavenergifjernvarme til lavenergibyggeri i energyflexhouse. Delrapport 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Christiansen, C.

    2011-05-15

    This report concerns demonstration of a new concept for low temperature district heating to low energy buildings with district heating flow temperatures on just above 50 deg. C. The concept was developed in a previous energy research project under the EFP-2007-programme supported by the Danish Energy Agency. New types of prototypes for district heating consumer substations and district heating pipes in very small dimensions were developed and manufactured. Demonstration has been carried out in the Danish Technological Institute test houses 'EnergyFlexHouse' with the objective of analyzing and evaluating the performance of the concept in a real low energy house. The EnergyFlexHouse is actually two houses either each designed to be energy neutral with PV's but also fulfilling the Danish building codes low energy class 2015 requirements without the PV's. The two houses are called 'Lab' and 'Family' and are supplied with district heating from a small local distribution network. The tests are carried out in the 'Lab' house connected with a district heating branch twin pipe with two service pipes of just 10 mm inner diameter/14 mm outer diameter and with outer casing diameter of 110 mm corresponding to series 2 insulation. An accumulator consumer substation with a 175 liter storage tank on the primary side (district heating side) has been subject to tests. Tree different tapping patterns of domestic hot water were performed including tapping patterns based on the European standard PrEN50440. Generally the results show that balancing the primary loading flow in relation to actual tapping patterns and domestic hot water consumption is important in order to keep the district heating return temperature as low as possible. Based on the results different options are proposed in order to optimize the operation of the consumer substation. Recently a new project under the EUDP 2010-II has received grant to continue improving and

  19. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The text of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959, is re produced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. As required by section 38 of the Agreement, the Director General will transmit certified copies, in the Agency's four working languages, to the Government of each Member State

  20. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-08-17

    The text of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959, is re produced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. As required by section 38 of the Agreement, the Director General will transmit certified copies, in the Agency's four working languages, to the Government of each Member State.

  1. Measurements of low energy neutral hydrogen efflux during ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Ruzic, D.; Voss, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    Using the Low Energy Neutral Atom Spectrometer, measurements were made of the H 0 and D 0 efflux from PLT during ion cyclotron heating experiments. The application of rf power at frequencies appropriate to fundamental and 2nd-harmonic heating results in a rapid, toroidally uniform rise in the charge-exchange efflux at a rate of about 10 15 cm -2 s -1 MW -1 . This flux increase is larger at lower plasma currents. The cause of this flux and its impact on plasma behavior are discussed

  2. Development of heat pump technology in eco-energy city project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omata, Tomio [New Energy Development Organization (Japan); Ogisu, Yoshihiro [Office of Eco-Energy City Project, Energy Conservation Center (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the New Sunshine Project conducted by MITI Japan, Eco-Energy City-Project covers the research area of utilization of industrial and municipal waste heat. For the further utilization of waste heat, several research programs are carried out for recovery and conversion of waste heat, transportation and storage of waste heat and final use of rather low temperature heat transported. Various types of heat driven heat pumps are developed in the Eco-Energy City Project. Concept of the Project is to utilize industrial and municipal waste heat for the city where energy demand is increasing. These heat pumps will contribute for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emission. (orig.)

  3. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  4. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  5. Energy and cost savings potential of oscillating heat pipes for waste heat recovery ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Mahajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using finned oscillating heat pipes (OHPs for heat exchange between counter-flowing air streams in HVAC air systems (i.e., outdoor and exhaust air flows, along with the associated cost savings in typical North American climates, is investigated. For a prescribed temperature difference and volumetric flow rate of air, rudimentary design parameters for a viable OHP Heat Recovery Ventilator (OHP-HRV were determined using the ε-NTU (effectiveness-Number of Transfer Unit method. The two-phase heat transfer within the OHP-HRV is modeled via effective evaporation/condensation heat transfer coefficients, while the latent heat transfer required to initiate OHP operation via boiling and evaporation is also considered. Results suggest that an OHP-HRV can possess a reasonable pressure drop (5 kW. The proposed OHP-HRV can possess an effectiveness near 0.5 and can pre-cool/heat HVAC air by >5°C. Potential energy and cost savings associated with using an OHP-HRV were estimated for commercial building envelopes in various regions of the United States. It is found that the proposed OHP-HRV can save more than $2500 annually in cities that have continental climatic conditions, such as Chicago and Denver, and for the selected locations the average yearly cost savings per building is found to be on-the-order of $700. Overall, the OHP-HRV shows potential in effectively reducing energy consumption and the operational cost of air handling units in buildings.

  6. 78 FR 23290 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B813.IA001113] Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... 1995, the Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of...

  7. 78 FR 19005 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of request...--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for...

  8. 78 FR 37567 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B811.IA000913] Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior... Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget...

  9. 78 FR 4867 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Secretary--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

  10. Low-energy district heating in energy-efficient building areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2011-01-01

    of a low-energy network for low-energy houses in Denmark. We took into account the effect of human behaviour on energy demand, the effect of the number of buildings connected to the network, a socio-economic comparison with ground source heat pumps, and opportunities for the optimization of the network...... to 0.20 MWh/(m year), and that the levelized cost of energy in low-energy DH supply is competitive with a scenario based on ground source heat pumps. The investment costs represent up to three quarters of the overall expenditure, over a time horizon of 30 years; so, the implementation of an energy...... system that fully relies on renewable energy needs substantial capital investment, but in the long term this is sustainable from the environmental and socio-economic points of view. Having demonstrated the value of the low-energy DH concept, we evaluated various possible designs with the aim of finding...

  11. The 25th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osztrovszki, Gy.

    1982-01-01

    The leader of the Hungarian delegation at the 26th General Assembly of the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) held in Vienna in September, 1982, on the occasion of the IAEA's 25th anniversary, presented a short review of the IAEA's activities during its existence, the Hungarian participation in them and Hungary's efforts in the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy. (A.L.)

  12. Low-energy district heating in energy-efficient building areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Rosa, A.; Christensen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative low-energy district heating (DH) concept based on low-temperature operation. The decreased heating demand from low-energy buildings affects the cost-effectiveness of traditionally-designed DH systems, so we carried out a case study of the annual energy performance of a low-energy network for low-energy houses in Denmark. We took into account the effect of human behaviour on energy demand, the effect of the number of buildings connected to the network, a socio-economic comparison with ground source heat pumps, and opportunities for the optimization of the network design, and operational temperature and pressure. In the north-European climate, we found that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher heating power than those anticipated in the reference values in the standard calculations for energy demand patterns in energy-efficient buildings. This considerable impact of human behaviour should clearly be included in energy simulations. We also showed that low-energy DH systems are robust systems that ensure security of supply for each customer in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way in areas with linear heat density down to 0.20 MWh/(m year), and that the levelized cost of energy in low-energy DH supply is competitive with a scenario based on ground source heat pumps. The investment costs represent up to three quarters of the overall expenditure, over a time horizon of 30 years; so, the implementation of an energy system that fully relies on renewable energy needs substantial capital investment, but in the long term this is sustainable from the environmental and socio-economic points of view. Having demonstrated the value of the low-energy DH concept, we evaluated various possible designs with the aim of finding the optimal solution with regard to economic and energy efficiency issues. Here we showed the advantage of low supply and return temperatures, their effect on energy efficiency and that

  13. Integration of Building energy and energy supply simulations for low-energy district heating supply to energy-efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The future will demand implementation of C02 neutral communities, the consequences being a far more complex design of the whole energy system, since the future energy infrastructures will be dynamic and climate responsive systems. Software able to work with such level of complexity is at present...... a missing link in the development. In this paper is demonstrated how a link between a dynamic Building Simulation Programme (BSP) and a simulation program for District Heating (DH) networks can give important information during the design phase. By using a BSP it is possible to analyze the influence...... of the human behaviour regarding the building and link the results to the simulation program for DH networks. The results show that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher peak loads than expected according to reference values in standardized calculation of energy demand...

  14. Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, Nic

    2007-01-01

    .... The Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service (MMS) indicates that the Energy Policy Act of 2005, 388, gave it authority as the lead agency for projects proposed on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...

  15. Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, Nic

    2008-01-01

    .... The Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service (MMS) indicates that the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and 388, gave it authority as the lead agency for projects proposed on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...

  16. Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion for Cyclic Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Benjamin E.

    Today, we find cyclic heat loads almost everywhere. When we drive our cars, the engines heat up while we are driving and cool while parked. Processors heat while the computer is in use at the office and cool when idle at night. The sun heats the earth during the day and the earth radiates that heat into space at night. With modern technology, we have access to a number of methods to take that heat and convert it into electricity, but, before selecting one, we need to identify the parameters that inform decision making. The majority of the parameters for most systems include duty cycle, total cost, weight, size, thermal efficiency, and electrical efficiency. However, the importance of each of these will depend on the application. Size and weight take priority in a handheld device, while efficiency dominates in a power plant, and duty cycle is likely to dominate in highly demanding heat pump applications. Over the past decade, developments in semiconductor technology has led to the creation of the thermoelectric generator. With no moving parts and a nearly endlessly scalable nature, these generators present interesting opportunities for taking advantage of any source of waste heat. However, these generators are typically only capable of 5-8% efficiency from conversion of thermal to electric energy. [1]. Similarly, advancements in photovoltaic cells has led to the development of thermophotovoltaics. By heating an emitter to a temperature so it radiates light, a thermophotovoltaic cell then converts that light into electricity. By selecting materials that emit light in the optimal ranges of the appropriate photovoltaic cells, thermophotovoltaic systems can potentially exceed the current maximum of 10% efficiency. [2]. By pressurizing certain metal powders with hydrogen, hydrogen can be bound to the metal, creating a metal hydride, from which hydrogen can be later re-extracted under the correct pressure and temperature conditions. Since this hydriding reaction is

  17. Flexible and stable heat energy recovery from municipal wastewater treatment plants using a fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Ren, Xianghao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Specially designed fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system was developed. • Hybrid operation performed better at part loads than single inverter operation. • The applied heat pump can work stably over a wide range of heat load variations. • Heat energy potential of treated effluent was better than influent. • The heat pump’s COP from the field test was 4.06 for heating and 3.64 for cooling. - Abstract: Among many options to improve energy self-sufficiency in sewage treatment plants, heat extraction using a heat pump holds great promise, since wastewater contains considerable amounts of thermal energy. The actual heat energy demand at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) varies widely with time; however, the heat pumps typically installed in WWTPs are of the on/off controlled fixed-speed type, thus mostly run intermittently at severe part-load conditions with poor efficiency. To solve this mismatch, a specially designed, fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system incorporating a fixed-speed compressor and an inverter-driven, variable-speed compressor was developed and tested in a real WWTP. In this hybrid configuration, to improve load response and energy efficiency, the base-heat load was covered by the fixed-speed compressor consuming relatively less energy than the variable-speed type at nominal power, and the remaining varying load was handled by the inverter compressor which exhibits a high load-match function while consuming relatively greater energy. The heat pump system developed reliably extracted heat from the treated effluent as a heat source for heating and cooling purposes throughout the year, and actively responded to the load changes with a high measured coefficient of performance (COP) of 4.06 for heating and 3.64 for cooling. Moreover, this hybrid operation yielded a performance up to 15.04% better on part loads than the single inverter operation, suggesting its effectiveness for improving annual energy saving when

  18. Combined heat and power and solar energy; BHKW und solare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, M.; Schmidt, A.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at a new apartment complex in Buelach, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie' low energy-consumption standard and also features solar-thermal heat generation. This solar installation provides heat for the provision of domestic hot water and, also, heat for the space-heating system of the building complex. The solar collectors cover an area of 153 m{sup 2}; their power is rated at 96 kW. Further elements of the building's technical services include a combined heat and power plant, a heat-pump and a gas-fired boiler. The article discusses ecological and social aspects of the design and construction of the building complex and briefly describes the installations, which also include a 'Minergie' fan-assisted balanced ventilation system.

  19. Role of Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: 1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads; 2) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes; 3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating; and 4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support from the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  20. Hydrogen and renewable energy sources integrated system for greenhouse heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A research is under development at the Department of Agro- Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” in order to investigate the suitable solutions of a power system based on solar energy (photovoltaic and hydrogen, integrated with a geothermal heat pump for powering a self sustained heated greenhouse. The electrical energy for heat pump operation is provided by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules, which supplies also a water electrolyser system controlled by embedded pc; the generated dry hydrogen gas is conserved in suitable pressured storage tank. The hydrogen is used to produce electricity in a fuel cell in order to meet the above mentioned heat pump power demand when the photovoltaic system is inactive during winter night-time or the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the electrical demand. The present work reports some theoretical and observed data about the electrolyzer operation. Indeed the electrolyzer has required particular attention because during the experimental tests it did not show a stable operation and it was registered a performance not properly consistent with the predicted performance by means of the theoretical study.

  1. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  2. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Accord sur les Privileges et Immunites ee 'Agence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-31

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [French] Le texte de l'Accord sur les privileges et immunites de l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique, qui a ete approuve par le Conseil des gouverneurs le 1er juillet 1959, est reproduit dans le present document pour l'information de tous les Etats Membres. Conformment aux dispositions de la section 38 de l'Accord, le Directeur general a adresse au gouvernement de chaque Etat Membre une copie certifiee conforme de l'Accord et en enverra une auv gouvernement de chaque nouvel Etat Membre.

  3. Various multistage ensembles for prediction of heating energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisa Jovanovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward neural network models are created for prediction of daily heating energy consumption of a NTNU university campus Gloshaugen using actual measured data for training and testing. Improvement of prediction accuracy is proposed by using neural network ensemble. Previously trained feed-forward neural networks are first separated into clusters, using k-means algorithm, and then the best network of each cluster is chosen as member of an ensemble. Two conventional averaging methods for obtaining ensemble output are applied; simple and weighted. In order to achieve better prediction results, multistage ensemble is investigated. As second level, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with various clustering and membership functions are used to aggregate the selected ensemble members. Feedforward neural network in second stage is also analyzed. It is shown that using ensemble of neural networks can predict heating energy consumption with better accuracy than the best trained single neural network, while the best results are achieved with multistage ensemble.

  4. Geothermal heat pumps as one of possibilities of an alternative energy used for objects heating objects in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Ryška

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of geothermal energy for more localised energy requirements is becoming more apparent with the use of geothermal heat pumps. The use of heat from the upper portion of the earth's crust can be useful and efficient method of energy saving. At around 50 m below the earth's surface the ambient temperature fluctuates between around 8-12 oC. This heat can be used by being transferred to the surface via a loop system using a high-efficiency refrigerant type of material.These systems are also typically more efficient than gas or oil-fired heating systems. They are more energy efficient than air-source heat pumps because they draw heat from, or release heat to, the earth, which has moderate temperatures all the year, rather than to the air. Geothermal heat pumps use the relatively constant temperature of the ground or water several meters below the earth's surface as source of heating and cooling. Geothermal heat pumps are appropriate for retrofit or new homes, where both heating and cooling are desired. In addition to heating and cooling, geothermal heat pumps can provide domestic hot water. They can be used for virtually any home size or lot in any region of the Czech Republic.

  5. A review of chemical heat pumps, thermodynamic cycles and thermal energy storage technologies for low grade heat utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.W.; Ling-Chin, J.; Roskilly, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    A major cause of energy inefficiency is a result of the generation of waste heat and the lack of suitable technologies for cost-effective utilisation of low grade heat in particular. The market potential for surplus/waste heat from industrial processes in the UK is between 10 TWh and 40 TWh, representing a significant potential resource which has remained unexploited to date. This paper reviews selected technologies suitable for utilisation of waste heat energy, with specific focus on low grade heat, including: (i) chemical heat pumps, such as adsorption and absorption cycles for cooling and heating; (ii) thermodynamic cycles, such as the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), the supercritical Rankine cycle (SRC) and the trilateral cycle (TLC), to produce electricity, with further focus on expander and zeotropic mixtures, and (iii) thermal energy storage, including sensible and latent thermal energy storages and their corresponding media to improve the performance of low grade heat energy systems. - Highlights: ► The review of various thermal technologies for the utilisation of under exploited low grade heat. ► The analyses of the absorption and adsorption heat pumps possibly with performance enhancement additives. ► The analyses of thermal energy storage technologies (latent and sensible) for heat storage. ► The analyses of low temperature thermodynamic cycles to maximise power production.

  6. Heat savings in energy systems with substantial distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2004-01-01

    The integration of flutuating wind power is an important issue for the future development of sustainable energy systems. In Denmark, the integration is affected by a large amount of cogeneration of heat and power. This gives possibilities as well as sets restraints. The paper shows that with anci...... that with ancillary services supplied by large-scale condensation and CHP-plants, a certain degree of large-scale generation is required regardless of momentary wind input....

  7. Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizen’s daily life, as well as the Nation’s economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness “alternative energies”—primarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of “not putting all eggs in one basket.” This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nation’s vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earth’s natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes—principally of uranium, thorium, and potassium—that occur in small amounts in all rocks

  8. A decay heat removal system requiring no external energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.; Fermandjian, J.

    1983-12-01

    A new Decay heat Removal System is described for PWR's with dry containment, i.e. a containment building which encloses no permanent reserve of cooling water. This new system is intended to provide a high level of safety since it uses no external energy, but only the thermodynamic energy of the air-steam-liquid water mixture generated in the containment after the failure of the primary circuit (''LOCA'') or of the secondary circuit. Thermodynamics of the system is evaluated first: after some design considerations, the use of the system for protecting actual PWR's is addressed

  9. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  10. Large Combined Heat and Power Plants for Sustainable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    . CHP (combined heat and power) plants in Denmark will change their role from base load production to balancing the fluctuation in renewable energy supply, such as wind power and at the same time they have to change to renewable energy sources. Some solutions are already being planned by utilities...... in Denmark; conversion of pulverised fuel plants from coal to wood pellets and a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) plant for wood chips. From scientific research projects another solution is suggested as the most feasible; the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant. In this study a four scenarios...

  11. Energy and Heat Fluctuations in a Temperature Quench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zannetti, M.; Corberi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Caianiello”, and CNISM, Unità di Salerno, Università di Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Gonnella, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari and INFN, Sezione di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Piscitelli, A., E-mail: mrc.zannetti@gmail.com, E-mail: corberi@sa.infn.it, E-mail: gonnella@ba.infn.it, E-mail: antps@hotmial.it [Division of Physical Sciences, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, 637371 (Singapore)

    2014-10-15

    Fluctuations of energy and heat are investigated during the relaxation following the instantaneous temperature quench of an extended system. Results are obtained analytically for the Gaussian model and for the large N model quenched below the critical temperature T{sub c}. The main finding is that fluctuations exceeding a critical threshold do condense. Though driven by a mechanism similar to that of Bose—Einstein condensation, this phenomenon is an out-of-equilibrium feature produced by the breaking of energy equipartition occurring in the transient regime. The dynamical nature of the transition is illustrated by phase diagrams extending in the time direction. (general)

  12. Hope over fear. The establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forland, A.

    1995-01-01

    President Eisenhower's ''Atoms for Peace'' speech in 1953 started a process that led to the establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This study analyses the negotiations of the Statute of the Agency. It focuses on how the Agency's scope of action regarding safeguards was negotiated. The Statute is seen as a reflection of the dual purpose of the new Agency to promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to control that peaceful nuclear activities receiving IAEA assistance are not diverted to military purposes. On one hand, the countries receiving assistance from the Agency accepted a degree of international control that represented a breakthrough in international relations. On the other hand, many countries strongly resented controls. Consequently, compromises had to be made in the course of the negotiations in order to reach a consensus. Thus, although the IAEA was established as a competent and technical body, the underlying compromises meant that its scope of actions was restricted. 6 refs

  13. Thermal performance and heat transport in aquifer thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, W. T.; Doornenbal, P. J.; Drijver, B. C.; van Gaans, P. F. M.; Leusbrock, I.; Grotenhuis, J. T. C.; Rijnaarts, H. H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is used for seasonal storage of large quantities of thermal energy. Due to the increasing demand for sustainable energy, the number of ATES systems has increased rapidly, which has raised questions on the effect of ATES systems on their surroundings as well as their thermal performance. Furthermore, the increasing density of systems generates concern regarding thermal interference between the wells of one system and between neighboring systems. An assessment is made of (1) the thermal storage performance, and (2) the heat transport around the wells of an existing ATES system in the Netherlands. Reconstruction of flow rates and injection and extraction temperatures from hourly logs of operational data from 2005 to 2012 show that the average thermal recovery is 82 % for cold storage and 68 % for heat storage. Subsurface heat transport is monitored using distributed temperature sensing. Although the measurements reveal unequal distribution of flow rate over different parts of the well screen and preferential flow due to aquifer heterogeneity, sufficient well spacing has avoided thermal interference. However, oversizing of well spacing may limit the number of systems that can be realized in an area and lower the potential of ATES.

  14. 4. Activity report of the Nuclear Energy Agency. 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Despite the many economic and related difficulties experienced throughout the OECD area during 1975, for nuclear power the year brought much promise, together with consolidation and some incouragement for the nuclear industry. 1975 saw a concentration of NEA's technical work on nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, and studies related to the nuclear fuel cycle. NEA's work on regulatory questions was also important. Besides NEA's substantial involvement in the preparation of Extension Agreements for the Halden and Dragon Reactor Projects and for the International Food Irradiation Project, as well as the Agreement to establish a research and development program at Eurochemic on high-activity waste treatment, the Agency has also been closely concerned with scientific and technological developments both within these Projects and in other areas

  15. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved

  16. 76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... included the HPBA membership directory, Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI.... Summary of the Proposed Rule II. History of the Energy Conservation Standards Rulemaking and Current... notice. DOE's rationale is presented in further detail immediately below. II. History of the Energy...

  17. Heat pipe based cold energy storage systems for datacenter energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Mashiko, Koichi; Nguyen, Thang

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, design and economics of the novel type of thermal control system for datacenter using heat pipe based cold energy storage has been proposed and discussed. Two types of cold energy storage system namely: ice storage system and cold water storage system are explained and sized for datacenter with heat output capacity of 8800 kW. Basically, the cold energy storage will help to reduce the chiller running time that will save electricity related cost and decrease greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the electricity generation from non-renewable sources. The proposed cold energy storage system can be retrofit or connected in the existing datacenter facilities without major design changes. Out of the two proposed systems, ice based cold energy storage system is mainly recommended for datacenters which are located in very cold locations and therefore can offer long term seasonal storage of cold energy within reasonable cost. One of the potential application domains for ice based cold energy storage system using heat pipes is the emergency backup system for datacenter. Water based cold energy storage system provides more compact size with short term storage (hours to days) and is potential for datacenters located in areas with yearly average temperature below the permissible cooling water temperature (∼25 o C). The aforesaid cold energy storage systems were sized on the basis of metrological conditions in Poughkeepsie, New York. As an outcome of the thermal and cost analysis, water based cold energy storage system with cooling capability to handle 60% of datacenter yearly heat load will provide an optimum system size with minimum payback period of 3.5 years. Water based cold energy storage system using heat pipes can be essentially used as precooler for chiller. Preliminary results obtained from the experimental system to test the capability of heat pipe based cold energy storage system have provided satisfactory outcomes and validated the proposed

  18. End users heat energy savings using thermostat regulation valves radiators, v. 16(64)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, Emilija Misheva; Potsev, Eftim

    2008-01-01

    Billing the used heat energy offers the opportunity to motivate end users to use the heat energy rationally and to save the energy. Installing the thermostat valves on the radiators it is possible frequently to regulate the room temperature and to use the heat gains, obtaining comfortable climate in the apartments and saving the energy. Thermostat valves give the possibility to use the heat energy rationally and save the energy, and these way and users can regulate the heat energy consumption according to their own level of thermal comfort. (Author)

  19. End users heat energy savings using thermostat regulation valves radiators, v. 16(63)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, Emilija Misheva; Potsev, Eftim

    2008-01-01

    Billing the used heat energy offers the opportunity to motivate end users to use the heat energy rationally and to save the energy. Installing the thermostat valves on the radiators it is possible frequently to regulate the room temperature and to use the heat gains, obtaining comfortable climate in the apartments and saving the energy. Thermostat valves give the possibility to use the heat energy rationally and save the energy, and these way and users can regulate the heat energy consumption according to their own level of thermal comfort. (Author)

  20. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    district heating enables the use of combined heat and power production (CPH) and other renewable resources than biomass such as large-scale solar thermal, large-heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat etc. which is important for reducing the biomass consumption. Where the energy density......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting...... the dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources as it enables fuel efficient and lower cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. And also...

  1. Combination of a gas heat pump with geothermal energy and solar heat utilisation; Kombination einer Gaswaermepumpe mit Geothermie und Solarwaermenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Andreas [Robur GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A home for handicapped persons in Berlin was modernised. This included the installation of a gas-fuelled absorption heat pump combined with geothermal heat supply and solar heating. CO2 emissions and primary energy consumption were reduced considerably by this concept. (orig.)

  2. Heat demand profiles of energy conservation measures in buildings and their impact on a district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundström, Lukas; Wallin, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy savings impact on an low CO 2 emitting district heating system. • Heat profiles of eight building energy conservation measures. • Exhaust air heat pump, heat recovery ventilation, electricity savings etc. • Heat load weather normalisation with segmented multivariable linear regression. - Abstract: This study highlights the forthcoming problem with diminishing environmental benefits from heat demand reducing energy conservation measures (ECM) of buildings within district heating systems (DHS), as the supply side is becoming “greener” and more primary energy efficient. In this study heat demand profiles and annual electricity-to-heat factors of ECMs in buildings are computed and their impact on system efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of a Swedish biomass fuelled and combined heat and power utilising DHS are assessed. A weather normalising method for the DHS heat load is developed, combining segmented multivariable linear regressions with typical meteorological year weather data to enable the DHS model and the buildings model to work under the same weather conditions. Improving the buildings’ envelope insulation level and thereby levelling out the DHS heat load curve reduces greenhouse gas emissions and improves primary energy efficiency. Reducing household electricity use proves to be highly beneficial, partly because it increases heat demand, allowing for more cogeneration of electricity. However the other ECMs considered may cause increased greenhouse gas emissions, mainly because of their adverse impact on the cogeneration of electricity. If biomass fuels are considered as residuals, and thus assigned low primary energy factors, primary energy efficiency decreases when implementing ECMs that lower heat demand.

  3. Model of a thermal energy storage device integrated into a solar assisted heat pump system for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, Viorel

    2003-01-01

    Details about modelling a sensible heat thermal energy storage (TES) device integrated into a space heating system are given. The two main operating modes are described. Solar air heaters provide thermal energy for driving a vapor compression heat pump. The TES unit ensures a more efficient usage of the collected solar energy. The TES operation is modeled by using two non-linear coupled partial differential equations for the temperature of the storage medium and heat transfer fluid, respectively. Preliminary results show that smaller TES units provide a higher heat flux to the heat pump vaporiser. This makes the small TES unit discharge more rapidly during time periods with higher thermal loads. The larger TES units provide heat during longer time periods, even if the heat flux they supply is generally smaller. The maximum heat flux is extracted from the TES unit during the morning. Both the heat pump COP and exergy efficiency decrease when the TES unit length increases. Also, the monthly thermal energy stored by the TES unit and the monthly energy necessary to drive the heat pump compressor are increased by increasing the TES unit length

  4. International Atomic Energy Agency highlights of activities. 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The IAEA activities are outlined in the following areas: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management, comparative assessment of energy sources, IAEA laboratories, research and technical cooperation, food and agriculture, human health, industry and earth sciences, physical and chemical sciences, safety of nuclear installations, radiation protection, safeguards and non-proliferation activities, public and technical information

  5. Highlights 97. International Atomic Energy Agency. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinley, D.H. III

    1997-09-01

    The report outlines the IAEA activities in the following fields: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management, comparative assessment of nuclear power and other energy sources, food and agriculture, human health, industry and earth sciences, physical and chemical sciences, radiation safety, safety of nuclear installations, safeguards, financing

  6. Highlights 97. International Atomic Energy Agency. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinley, III, D H [ed.

    1997-09-01

    The report outlines the IAEA activities in the following fields: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management, comparative assessment of nuclear power and other energy sources, food and agriculture, human health, industry and earth sciences, physical and chemical sciences, radiation safety, safety of nuclear installations, safeguards, financing.

  7. International Atomic Energy Agency holds first industry forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives information about the first forum organized by the IAEA with representatives of entities dealing with industrial aspects of nuclear energy (Vienna, January 25-26, 2000). 35 participants from such groups with broad geographical distribution participated in the discussions. The main issues debated were: Innovative Technical Developments, Safety and Regulation, Economic Competitiveness and Back-end of the Fuel Cycle

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency programme and activity on the utilization of low energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalnov, A.V.; Whetstone, S.L.

    1974-01-01

    One of the chief missions of the Agency is as intermediary between the more highly developed of its member states and the less developed. This involves transmittal of needs of the latter to the former and, where possible, in response to the needs, an appropriate transfer of information and technical assistance. The physics section of the IAEA has recently encouraged and supported requests for technical assistance for programs based on neutron activation studies or pedagogic neutron physics experiments for institutes entering the nuclear field. Neutron generator laboratories have been set up with IAEA-assistance most recently in Burma, Hong Kong, Lebanon. Other recent technical assistance projects involving low-energy accelerators include: (1) consultation on the future program for the accelerator laboratory in Algeria; (2) equipment and experts to assist the nuclear physics program at the Van de Graaff in Bangladesh; (3) expert assistance and equipment in support of the installation of an electron linear accelerator in Egypt; and (4) expert assistance for nuclear physics studies at the cyclotron in Chile. A large number of young scientists, particularly from S.E. Europe, but also from the Middle East and South America, have received training in nuclear physics experimentation by advanced countries at low energy accelerator laboratories under the IAEA fellowship program

  9. Optimization of flat-plate solar energy heat pipe collector parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Garakovich, L P; Khrustalev, D K

    1984-01-01

    Performance characteristics of flat solar energy collectors with heat pipes have been analysed with regard to various parameters. Their advantages are discussed. The use of heat pipes in solar energy collectors is proved to be efficient.

  10. How much Energy is Embodied in your Central Heating Boiler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubogiannis, D.; Nouhou, C.

    2016-11-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is an important tool in current research to quantitatively assess energy consumption and environmental impact of a building. In the context of LCA, the Embodied Energy (EE) related to the building and the corresponding Embodied CO2 emissions are valuable data. In such a case, these data concern the constitutive materials of the building and any subsystem, component or equipment in it. Usually, after calculating the mass of these materials, embodied energy values are estimated multiplying them by the corresponding EE coefficients concerning the production of these materials (EEMP). However, apart from transportation energy costs, another part of EE is that consumed for the manufacturing of any item as a finished product. The present work focuses on the manufacturing EE (EEMFG) of central heating boilers in Hellenic dwellings. Six typical boilers of different types are studied. Each of them is analyzed to its constitutive materials and its EEMP is estimated. For four of them, the boiler house where it was constructed in Greece was visited and data were collected. Based on them the corresponding boiler EEMFG values are estimated. The results concerning the EE for material production and manufacturing, as well as the results concerning the corresponding ECO2 values are discussed and assessed. Benchmark values correlating EE and ECO2 with the mass or the heat rate of the boiler are extracted.

  11. Phase Change Energy Storage Material Suitable for Solar Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Li, Haihua; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Zhenfa

    2018-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal properties of palmitic acid, myristic acid, laurel acid and the binary composite of palmitic/laurel acid and palmitic/myristic acid. The results showed that the phase transition temperatures of the three monomers were between 46.9-65.9°C, and the latent heats were above 190 J/g, which could be used as solar energy storage material. When the mass ratio of Palmitic acid and myristic was 1:1, the eutectic mixture could be formed. The latent heat of the eutectic mixture was 186.6 J/g, the melting temperature and the solidification temperature was 50.6°C and 43.8°C respectively. The latent heat of phase change and the melting temperature had not obvious variations after 400 thermal cycles, which proved that the binary composite had good thermal stability and was suitable for solar floor radiant heating system.

  12. Experimental and numerical study of latent heat thermal energy storage systems assisted by heat pipes for concentrated solar power application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiari, Saeed

    A desirable feature of concentrated solar power (CSP) with integrated thermal energy storage (TES) unit is to provide electricity in a dispatchable manner during cloud transient and non-daylight hours. Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) offers many advantages such as higher energy storage density, wider range of operating temperature and nearly isothermal heat transfer relative to sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES), which is the current standard for trough and tower CSP systems. Despite the advantages mentioned above, LHTES systems performance is often limited by low thermal conductivity of commonly used, low cost phase change materials (PCMs). Research and development of passive heat transfer devices, such as heat pipes (HPs) to enhance the heat transfer in the PCM has received considerable attention. Due to its high effective thermal conductivity, heat pipe can transport large amounts of heat with relatively small temperature difference. The objective of this research is to study the charging and discharging processes of heat pipe-assisted LHTES systems using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental testing to develop a method for more efficient energy storage system design. The results revealed that the heat pipe network configurations and the quantities of heat pipes integrated in a thermal energy storage system have a profound effect on the thermal response of the system. The optimal placement of heat pipes in the system can significantly enhance the thermal performance. It was also found that the inclusion of natural convection heat transfer in the CFD simulation of the system is necessary to have a realistic prediction of a latent heat thermal storage system performance. In addition, the effects of geometrical features and quantity of fins attached to the HPs have been studied.

  13. Modeling Pumped Thermal Energy Storage with Waste Heat Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarr, Miles L. Lindsey

    This work introduces a new concept for a utility scale combined energy storage and generation system. The proposed design utilizes a pumped thermal energy storage (PTES) system, which also utilizes waste heat leaving a natural gas peaker plant. This system creates a low cost utility-scale energy storage system by leveraging this dual-functionality. This dissertation first presents a review of previous work in PTES as well as the details of the proposed integrated bottoming and energy storage system. A time-domain system model was developed in Mathworks R2016a Simscape and Simulink software to analyze this system. Validation of both the fluid state model and the thermal energy storage model are provided. The experimental results showed the average error in cumulative fluid energy between simulation and measurement was +/- 0.3% per hour. Comparison to a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model showed heat transfer. The system model was used to conduct sensitivity analysis, baseline performance, and levelized cost of energy of a recently proposed Pumped Thermal Energy Storage and Bottoming System (Bot-PTES) that uses ammonia as the working fluid. This analysis focused on the effects of hot thermal storage utilization, system pressure, and evaporator/condenser size on the system performance. This work presents the estimated performance for a proposed baseline Bot-PTES. Results of this analysis showed that all selected parameters had significant effects on efficiency, with the evaporator/condenser size having the largest effect over the selected ranges. Results for the baseline case showed stand-alone energy storage efficiencies between 51 and 66% for varying power levels and charge states, and a stand-alone bottoming efficiency of 24%. The resulting efficiencies for this case were low compared to competing technologies; however, the dual-functionality of the Bot-PTES enables it to have higher capacity factor, leading to 91-197/MWh levelized cost of energy compared to 262

  14. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting syst......–20% of the building energy demand. The additional loss depends on the type of heat emitter, type of control, pump and boiler. Keywords: Heating systems; CEN standards; Energy performance; Calculation methods......According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant...

  15. Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3oC to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60oC by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of £11,662 and operating cost of £1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of £0.50 per kWh for domestic water and £0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

  16. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1994-09-01

    The document presents the main activities of the IAEA between September 1993-September 1994 in the following fields: Nuclear power, Nuclear fuel cycle, Radioactive waste management, Comparative assessment of energy sources, IAEA laboratories, Food and agriculture, Human health, Industry and earth sciences, Radiation protection, Safety of nuclear installations, Safeguards and non-proliferation activities, Public and technical information, Research and technical co-operation. There are also given information about IAEA secretariat, organization and administration, the 1993 IAEA General Conference, IAEA Member States and IAEA Network

  17. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio-Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly S.; Allan, Shawn M.

    2009-11-11

    This Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate Ceralink's energy saving process for flat glass lamination from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. Radio-frequency heating was any un-explored option for laminating glass prior to this program. With significant commercial success through time and energy savings in the wood, paper, and plastics industries, RF heating was found to have significant promise for the energy intensive glass lamination industry. A major technical goal of the program was to demonstrate RF lamination across a wide range of laminate sizes and materials. This was successfully accomplished, dispelling many skeptics' concerns about the abilities of the technology. Ceralink laminated panels up to 2 ft x 3 ft, with four sets processed simultaneously, in a 3 minute cycle. All major categories of interlayer materials were found to work with RF lamination. In addition to laminating glass, other materials including photovoltaic silicon solar cells, light emitting diodes, metallized glass, plastics (acrylic and polycarbonate), and ceramics (alumina) were found compatible with the RF process. This opens up a wide range of commercial opportunities beyond the initially targeted automotive industry. The dramatic energy savings reported for RF lamination at the bench scale were found to be maintained through the scale up of the process. Even at 2 ft x 3 ft panel sizes, energy savings are estimated to be at least 90% compared to autoclaving or vacuum lamination. With targeted promotion through conference presentations, press releases and internet presence, RF lamination has gained significant attention, drawing large audiences at American Ceramic Society meetings. The commercialization success of the project includes the establishment of a revenue-generating business model for providing process development and demonstrations for

  18. Environmental Aspects as Assessment Criteria in Municipal Heat Energy Decisions - Case of Eno Energy Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhakka, Asko [North Karelia Univ. of Applied Sciences, Joensuu (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide information whether it is possible to consider the sustainable development perspectives in the decision making of the district energy decision. The new EU-directives concerning public procurements allow the use of environmental aspects as selection criteria. The focus here is on small-scale district heating systems and their fuel-supply chains. The comparable fuels included the analysis are forest chips, heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil and peat. The paper focuses to the concept of the sustainable development and establishes the indicators for ecological-, social- and economical aspects of the district heating. The indicators are utilized in the case study on the Eno Energy Cooperative. The equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and the combustion of the fuel, the employment impacts of the fuel production and the formation of the price of energy for the consumers are considered. After presenting the sustainable development indicators in the case of Eno Energy Cooperative, the investment models of heat entrepreneurship business are discussed. Finally, we also raise an attention into important aspects to be considered when establishing a local district heating scheme. The indicators used in this presentation show that the use of forest chips in energy production has positive effect through the reduced greenhouse gases. The use of wood in energy production also provides employment opportunities and is more favourable to consumers, because of the steady fuel price when compared to other alternative fuels.

  19. Adaptive heat pump and battery storage demand side energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieczky, Florian; Lettner, Christian; Natschläger, Thomas; Traxler, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    An adaptive linear model predictive control strategy is introduced for the problem of demand side energy management, involving a photovoltaic device, a battery, and a heat pump. Moreover, the heating influence of solar radiation via the glass house effect is considered. Global sunlight radiation intensity and the outside temperature are updated by weather forecast data. The identification is carried out after adapting to a time frame witch sufficiently homogeneous weather. In this way, in spite of the linearity an increase in precision and cost reduction of up to 46% is achieved. It is validated for an open and closed loop version of the MPC problem using real data of the ambient temperature and the global radiation.

  20. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN HOUSES HEATING SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Mingaleva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is widely used around the world for electricity generation and heating systems in municipal services. But its use is complicated in the number of territories with uneven receipts of solar radiation on the earth’s surface and large number of cloudy days during a year. A hypothesis on the possibility of application of individual solar collectors for heating of houses in the number of cities of Russia has been tested. The existing designs of solar collectors and checking the possibility of their application in northern territories of Russia are investigated. The analysis was carried out taking into account features of relief and other climatic conditions of the Perm and Sverdlovsk regions. As the result of research, the basic recommended conditions for application of solar batteries in houses of the northern Russian cities have been resumed.

  1. Analysis of electrical energy consumers operation in the heating plant with proposal of energy savings measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of power quality measurements, obtained during an energy audit in the heating plant Vreoci in the Electric Power System of Serbia, are presented in the paper. Two steam boilers, rated at 120MW each, are installed in this heating plant, using coal as a fuel. The energy audit encompassed the measurements of the complete set of parameters needed to determine the thermal efficacy of boilers and the entire heating plant. Based on the measurement results, several technical measures for improving energy efficiency of the plant are proposed. The measures evaluated in the paper should contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel usage and CO2 emissions, thereby resulting in a significant impact in both financial and ecological areas.

  2. Saline Cavern Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Sand as Heat Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Haemmerle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic compressed air energy storage systems offer large energy storage capacities and power outputs beyond 100MWel. Salt production in Austria produces large caverns which are able to hold pressure up to 100 bar, thus providing low cost pressurized air storage reservoirs for adiabatic compressed air energy storage plants. In this paper the results of a feasibility study is presented, which was financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, with the objective to determine the adiabatic compressed air energy storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns. The study contains designs of realisable plants with capacities between 10 and 50 MWel, applying a high temperature energy storage system currently developed at the Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics in Vienna. It could be shown that the overall storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns exceeds a total of 4GWhel in the year 2030 and, assuming an adequate performance of the heat exchanger, that a 10MWel adiabatic compressed air energy storage plant in Upper Austria is currently feasible using state of the art thermal turbomachinery which is able to provide a compressor discharge temperature of 400 °C.

  3. Quantifying demand flexibility of power-to-heat and thermal energy storage in the control of building heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finck, Christian; Li, Rongling; Kramer, Rick

    2018-01-01

    restricted by power-to-heat conversion such as heat pumps and thermal energy storage possibilities of a building. To quantify building demand flexibility, it is essential to capture the dynamic response of the building energy system with thermal energy storage. To identify the maximum flexibility a building......’s energy system can provide, optimal control is required. In this paper, optimal control serves to determine in detail demand flexibility of an office building equipped with heat pump, electric heater, and thermal energy storage tanks. The demand flexibility is quantified using different performance...... of TES and power-to-heat in any case of charging, discharging or idle mode. A simulation case study is performed showing that a water tank, a phase change material tank, and a thermochemical material tank integrated with building heating system can be designed to provide flexibility with optimal control....

  4. HEAT PUMP TECHNOLOGY – POTENTIAL IMPACT ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROBLEM AND CLIMATE ACTION GOALS WITHIN UKRAINIAN ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ostapenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of energy sources for urban, household and industrial facilities requires strategies development for seeking new energy sources. In recent years an important problem is to have energy storage, energy production and energy consumption which fulfill the environment friendly expectations. A lot of attention is devoted to renewable energy sources. One of the most attracting among them is energy production form geothermal sources. At a few meters below the earth’s surface the underground maintains a constant temperature in an approximation through the year allowing to withdraw heat in winter for heating needs and to surrender heat during summer for air-conditioning purposes. Heat pump is a rapidly developing technology for heating and domestic hot water production. Using ground as a heat source, heat exchange is carried out with heat pumps compound to vertical ground heat exchanger tubes that allows the heating and cooling of the buildings utilizing a single unit installation. Heat pump unit provides a high degree of productivity with moderate electric power consumption. In this paper a theoretical performance study of a vapor compression heat pump system with various natural and synthetic refrigerants (HFCs is presented. Operation mode of the heat pump unit was chosen according to European Standard EN14511-2:2007 and EN255-2. An influence of discharge temperature on system performance was evaluated at different boiling temperatures. The comparison of mass flow rate and coefficient of performance for considered refrigerants at constant cooling capacity and condensation temperature was performed.

  5. Energy conversion processes for the use of geothermal heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R. [Minder Energy Consulting, Oberlunkhofen (Switzerland); Koedel, J.; Schaedle, K.-H.; Ramsel, K. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland); Girardin, L.; Marechal, F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory for industrial energy systems (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on energy conversion processes that can be used when geothermal heat is to be used. The study deals with both theoretical and practical aspects of the conversion of geothermal heat to electricity. The report is divided into several parts and covers general study, practical experience, planning and operation of geothermal power plants as well as methodology for the optimal integration of energy conversion systems in geothermal power plants. In the first part, the specific properties and characteristics of geothermal resources are discussed. Also, a general survey of conversion processes is presented with special emphasis on thermo-electric conversion. The second part deals with practical aspects related to planning, construction and operation of geothermal power plant. Technical basics, such as relevant site-specific conditions, drilling techniques, thermal water or brine quality and materials requirements. Further, planning procedures are discussed. Also, operation and maintenance aspects are examined and some basic information on costs is presented. The third part of the report presents the methodology and results for the optimal valorisation of the thermodynamic potential of deep geothermal systems.

  6. Ultra high temperature latent heat energy storage and thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Datas Medina, Alejandro; Ramos Cabal, Alba; Martí Vega, Antonio; Cañizo Nadal, Carlos del; Luque López, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A conceptual energy storage system design that utilizes ultra high temperature phase change materials is presented. In this system, the energy is stored in the form of latent heat and converted to electricity upon demand by TPV (thermophotovoltaic) cells. Silicon is considered in this study as PCM (phase change material) due to its extremely high latent heat (1800 J/g or 500 Wh/kg), melting point (1410 C), thermal conductivity (~25 W/mK), low cost (less than $2/kg or $4/kWh) and a...

  7. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter

  8. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [ru

  9. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [fr

  10. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the text of which is reproduced herein, was approved by the Board of Governors on 1 July 1959. As required by section 38, the Director General has transmitted a certified copy of the Agreement to the Government of each Member of the Agency, and will transmit such a copy to the Government of every State that becomes a Member hereafter [es

  11. Nanoparticles for heat transfer and thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Cingarapu, Sreeram; Timofeeva, Elena V.; Moravek, Michael

    2015-07-14

    An article of manufacture and method of preparation thereof. The article of manufacture and method of making the article includes an eutectic salt solution suspensions and a plurality of nanocrystalline phase change material particles having a coating disposed thereon and the particles capable of undergoing the phase change which provides increase in thermal energy storage. In addition, other articles of manufacture can include a nanofluid additive comprised of nanometer-sized particles consisting of copper decorated graphene particles that provide advanced thermal conductivity to heat transfer fluids.

  12. Policies to support renewable energies in the heat market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, Veit; Klinski, Stefan; Lehr, Ulrike; Leprich, Uwe; Nast, Michael; Ragwitz, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the contribution from renewable energies in the electrical power market is increasing rapidly, similar progress in the heat market is yet to be made. A prerequisite for progress is the development of innovative support instruments that transcend the usual support through public subsidies or tax reductions. We present an overview of the various classes of possible instruments. Some particularly interesting instruments will be selected and evaluated, comparing them qualitatively and quantitatively for the case of Germany. The most favourable model is found to be a new, allocation-financed model known as the Bonus Model. This model will be described in more detail

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional No. 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida do Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: nunoni@itn.pt; Arstila, K. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Battistig, G. [MFA Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Bianconi, M. [CNR-IMM-Sezione di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Dytlewski, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kotai, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lulli, G. [CNR-IMM-Sezione di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rauhala, E. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Thompson, M. [Department of MS and E/Bard Hall 328, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) includes a group of techniques for the determination of elemental concentration depth profiles of thin film materials. Often the final results rely on simulations, fits and calculations, made by dedicated codes written for specific techniques. Here we evaluate numerical codes dedicated to the analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis and non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis data. Several software packages have been presented and made available to the community. New codes regularly appear, and old codes continue to be used and occasionally updated and expanded. However, those codes have to date not been validated, or even compared to each other. Consequently, IBA practitioners use codes whose validity, correctness and accuracy have never been validated beyond the authors' efforts. In this work, we present the results of an IBA software intercomparison exercise, where seven different packages participated. These were DEPTH, GISA, DataFurnace (NDF), RBX, RUMP, SIMNRA (all analytical codes) and MCERD (a Monte Carlo code). In a first step, a series of simulations were defined, testing different capabilities of the codes, for fixed conditions. In a second step, a set of real experimental data were analysed. The main conclusion is that the codes perform well within the limits of their design, and that the largest differences in the results obtained are due to differences in the fundamental databases used (stopping power and scattering cross section). In particular, spectra can be calculated including Rutherford cross sections with screening, energy resolution convolutions including energy straggling, and pileup effects, with agreement between the codes available at the 0.1% level. This same agreement is also available for the non-RBS techniques. This agreement is not limited to calculation of spectra from particular structures with predetermined

  14. 2011 NDIA Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy/DoD Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    for Handoffs Advanced Research Projects AgencyEnergy Portfolio of Projects UNIVERSITY/ LAB SMALL BUSINESS CORPORATION Fuel-Free Isothermal...2011 Present Programs • Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology (ADEPT) • Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation ( BEEST ...Technologies for Energy (REACT) • Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology (Solar – ADEPT) The BEEST : An Overview of ARPA-E’s Program in Ultra-High

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Russian Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Along with an examination of the state of worldwide nuclear-related developments last year, the IAEA Annual Report 2014 provides a comprehensive look at the Agency’s activities over the course of the year. From coordinating 125 research projects to conducting 2114 nuclear verification inspections worldwide, the IAEA’s 2560 employees continued to work on a wide range of areas to meet the evolving needs of Member States. The Annual Report, published in August, will be discussed and endorsed at the IAEA’s General Conference in September. Serving 162 Member States, two more than the year before, the IAEA’s activities in 2014 focused on the following areas, in line with its mandate: • Nuclear Energy: The IAEA assisted Member States in the introduction of nuclear power programmes and in the efficient and safe use of nuclear energy, fostering innovation and building capability in energy planning, analysis, and nuclear information and knowledge management. • Nuclear Sciences and Applications: The IAEA continued to assist Member States in building, strengthening and maintaining capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology. • Nuclear Safety and Security: The IAEA and its Member States continued to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide, including through the implementation of the Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which had been endorsed by the General Conference in 2011 after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant earlier that year. The IAEA also supported States, upon request, in their efforts to achieve effective security wherever nuclear and other radioactive materials are in use. • Nuclear Verification: The IAEA implemented safeguards in 180 States and as at the end of every year, it drew conclusions for each State for which safeguards were applied. • Technical Cooperation: The IAEA assisted Member States in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and in preparation for the post-2015 Sustainable

  16. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Chinese Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Along with an examination of the state of worldwide nuclear-related developments last year, the IAEA Annual Report 2014 provides a comprehensive look at the Agency’s activities over the course of the year. From coordinating 125 research projects to conducting 2114 nuclear verification inspections worldwide, the IAEA’s 2560 employees continued to work on a wide range of areas to meet the evolving needs of Member States. The Annual Report, published in August, will be discussed and endorsed at the IAEA’s General Conference in September. Serving 162 Member States, two more than the year before, the IAEA’s activities in 2014 focused on the following areas, in line with its mandate: • Nuclear Energy: The IAEA assisted Member States in the introduction of nuclear power programmes and in the efficient and safe use of nuclear energy, fostering innovation and building capability in energy planning, analysis, and nuclear information and knowledge management. • Nuclear Sciences and Applications: The IAEA continued to assist Member States in building, strengthening and maintaining capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology. • Nuclear Safety and Security: The IAEA and its Member States continued to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide, including through the implementation of the Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which had been endorsed by the General Conference in 2011 after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant earlier that year. The IAEA also supported States, upon request, in their efforts to achieve effective security wherever nuclear and other radioactive materials are in use. • Nuclear Verification: The IAEA implemented safeguards in 180 States and as at the end of every year, it drew conclusions for each State for which safeguards were applied. • Technical Cooperation: The IAEA assisted Member States in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and in preparation for the post-2015 Sustainable

  17. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [French Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Along with an examination of the state of worldwide nuclear-related developments last year, the IAEA Annual Report 2014 provides a comprehensive look at the Agency’s activities over the course of the year. From coordinating 125 research projects to conducting 2114 nuclear verification inspections worldwide, the IAEA’s 2560 employees continued to work on a wide range of areas to meet the evolving needs of Member States. The Annual Report, published in August, will be discussed and endorsed at the IAEA’s General Conference in September. Serving 162 Member States, two more than the year before, the IAEA’s activities in 2014 focused on the following areas, in line with its mandate: • Nuclear Energy: The IAEA assisted Member States in the introduction of nuclear power programmes and in the efficient and safe use of nuclear energy, fostering innovation and building capability in energy planning, analysis, and nuclear information and knowledge management. • Nuclear Sciences and Applications: The IAEA continued to assist Member States in building, strengthening and maintaining capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology. • Nuclear Safety and Security: The IAEA and its Member States continued to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide, including through the implementation of the Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which had been endorsed by the General Conference in 2011 after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant earlier that year. The IAEA also supported States, upon request, in their efforts to achieve effective security wherever nuclear and other radioactive materials are in use. • Nuclear Verification: The IAEA implemented safeguards in 180 States and as at the end of every year, it drew conclusions for each State for which safeguards were applied. • Technical Cooperation: The IAEA assisted Member States in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and in preparation for the post-2015 Sustainable

  18. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Arabic Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Along with an examination of the state of worldwide nuclear-related developments last year, the IAEA Annual Report 2014 provides a comprehensive look at the Agency’s activities over the course of the year. From coordinating 125 research projects to conducting 2114 nuclear verification inspections worldwide, the IAEA’s 2560 employees continued to work on a wide range of areas to meet the evolving needs of Member States. The Annual Report, published in August, will be discussed and endorsed at the IAEA’s General Conference in September. Serving 162 Member States, two more than the year before, the IAEA’s activities in 2014 focused on the following areas, in line with its mandate: • Nuclear Energy: The IAEA assisted Member States in the introduction of nuclear power programmes and in the efficient and safe use of nuclear energy, fostering innovation and building capability in energy planning, analysis, and nuclear information and knowledge management. • Nuclear Sciences and Applications: The IAEA continued to assist Member States in building, strengthening and maintaining capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology. • Nuclear Safety and Security: The IAEA and its Member States continued to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide, including through the implementation of the Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which had been endorsed by the General Conference in 2011 after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant earlier that year. The IAEA also supported States, upon request, in their efforts to achieve effective security wherever nuclear and other radioactive materials are in use. • Nuclear Verification: The IAEA implemented safeguards in 180 States and as at the end of every year, it drew conclusions for each State for which safeguards were applied. • Technical Cooperation: The IAEA assisted Member States in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and in preparation for the post-2015 Sustainable

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Spanish Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Along with an examination of the state of worldwide nuclear-related developments last year, the IAEA Annual Report 2014 provides a comprehensive look at the Agency’s activities over the course of the year. From coordinating 125 research projects to conducting 2114 nuclear verification inspections worldwide, the IAEA’s 2560 employees continued to work on a wide range of areas to meet the evolving needs of Member States. The Annual Report, published in August, will be discussed and endorsed at the IAEA’s General Conference in September. Serving 162 Member States, two more than the year before, the IAEA’s activities in 2014 focused on the following areas, in line with its mandate: • Nuclear Energy: The IAEA assisted Member States in the introduction of nuclear power programmes and in the efficient and safe use of nuclear energy, fostering innovation and building capability in energy planning, analysis, and nuclear information and knowledge management. • Nuclear Sciences and Applications: The IAEA continued to assist Member States in building, strengthening and maintaining capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology. • Nuclear Safety and Security: The IAEA and its Member States continued to strengthen nuclear safety worldwide, including through the implementation of the Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which had been endorsed by the General Conference in 2011 after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant earlier that year. The IAEA also supported States, upon request, in their efforts to achieve effective security wherever nuclear and other radioactive materials are in use. • Nuclear Verification: The IAEA implemented safeguards in 180 States and as at the end of every year, it drew conclusions for each State for which safeguards were applied. • Technical Cooperation: The IAEA assisted Member States in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and in preparation for the post-2015 Sustainable

  20. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by

  1. District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m{sup 2}. One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO{sub 2} emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO{sub 2} emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures. (author)

  2. District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO 2 emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m 2 . One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO 2 emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO 2 emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures

  3. Overview of nuclear data activities at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel-Sendis, F.; Dupont, E.; Gulliford, J.; Nordborg, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a specialised agency within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The mission of the NEA is to assist its member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the scientific, technological and legal bases required for the safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. All activities relevant to nuclear data measurements, evaluations and applications are managed by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee through the Nuclear Science section and the Data Bank, which work closely together. This paper gives an overview of current and planned nuclear data activities at the Nuclear Energy Agency through the program of work of the Data Bank in general and of the NEA Working Party on international nuclear data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) in particular. (authors)

  4. Environmental performance data in 'Japan Atomic Energy Agency Report 2016'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yurina; Kanai, Katsuta; Sato, Sadayuki; Tatebe, Kazuaki

    2017-03-01

    In September, 2016 Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) published results of environmental activity as a part of 'Japan Atomic Energy Agency Report 2016' concerning the activities of FY 2015 under 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc., by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures'. This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2015 as the base of the 'Japan Atomic Energy Agency Report 2016'. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA. (author)

  5. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance

  6. The law for the Independent Administrative Institution Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The Law no.155 of 3 Dec. 2004(the latest revision, Law no.87 of 26 July 2005) is the law to define the objective, scope of activities, etc. of the independent administrative institution Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The agency is established under the atomic energy basic law to make comprehensive research and development associated with nuclear energy and establishment of nuclear fuel cycle and to contribute to promote research, development and utilization of it. The agency has its main office in Ibaraki prefecture and its capital is the amount of contributions by the government and persons other than the government. The officers are consisted of a president, an executive vice president, less than 7 executive directors and 2 auditors. The president is appointed by the Minister of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology with the consent of the atomic energy commission. The term of the president is from the day of the appointment to the end of midterm goal period and that of auditors is 2 years. Activities of the agency include basic and application research of nuclear energy, technical establishment of nuclear fuel cycle (R and D of Fast Breeder Reactor, nuclear fuel for FBR, reprocessing and treatment and disposal of HLW), promotion of application of R and D results of above areas, utilization sharing of facility and equipment, human resource development of nuclear energy field, collection, arrangement and dissemination of nuclear information and study and analysis requested by the government. (T. Tanaka)

  7. REopt Screenings Catalyze Development of Hundreds of Megawatts of Renewable Energy for Federal Agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-04-26

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) offers renewable energy project assistance to federal agencies, which often begins with a desktop screening to develop a prioritized portfolio of project opportunities. FEMP uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's REopt energy planning platform to screen potential renewable energy opportunities at a single site or across a range of sites. REopt helps organizations prioritize the most economi­cally and technically viable projects for further study and identifies the size and mix of technologies that meet the orga­nization's goals at minimum cost, along with the optimal operating strategies.

  8. Energy-Recovery Pressure-Reducer in District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Borkowski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Already existing man-made infrastructures that create water flow and unused pressure are interesting energy sources to which micro-hydropower plants can be applied. Apart from water supply systems (WSSs, which are widely described in the literature, significant hydropower potential can also be found in district heating systems (DHSs. In this paper, a prototype, a so-called energy-recovery pressure-reducer (ERPR, utilized for a DHS, is presented. It consisted of a pump as a turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The latter was connected to the power grid through the power electronic unit (PEU. The variable-speed operation allowed one to modify the turbine characteristics to match the substation’s hydraulic conditions. The proposed ERPR device could be installed in series to the existing classic pressure reducing valve (PRV as an independent device that reduces costs and simplifies system installation. The test results of the prototype system located in a substation of Cracow’s DHS are presented. The steady-state curves and regulation characteristics show the prototype’s operating range and efficiency. In this study, the pressure-reducer impact on the electrical and hydraulic systems, and on the environment, were analyzed. The operation tests during the annual heating season revealed an average system’s efficiency of 49%.

  9. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  10. Simultaneous integrated optimal energy flow of electricity, gas, and heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanpour-Haghighi, Amin; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks is studied. • Part-load performances of units are considered in modeling. • A modified teaching–learning based optimization is used to solve the problem. • Results show the advantages of the integrated optimization approach. - Abstract: In this paper, an integrated approach to optimize electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks simultaneously is studied. Several interdependencies between these infrastructures are considered in details including a nonlinear part-load performance for boilers and CHPs besides the valve-point effect for generators. A novel approach based on selecting an appropriate set of state-variables for the problem is proposed that eliminates the addition of any new variable to convert irregular equations into a regular set while the optimization problem is still solvable. As a large optimization problem, the optimal solution cannot be achieved by conventional mathematical techniques. Hence, it is better to use evolutionary algorithms instead. In this paper, the well-known modified teaching–learning based optimization algorithm is utilized to solve the multi-period optimal power flow problem of multi-carrier energy networks. The proposed scheme is implemented and applied to a typical multi-carrier energy network. Results are compared with some other conventional heuristic algorithms and the applicability and superiority of the proposed methodology is verified

  11. Actual heating energy savings in thermally renovated Dutch dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, Daša; Itard, Laure; Visscher, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The register of the Dutch social housing stock was analysed, containing 300.000 dwellings, renovated between 2010 and 2013. The main objective was twofold: to evaluate the performance gap in these dwellings before and after the renovation and to establish what renovation measures achieve the highest reduction of consumption, particularly in practice (actual savings). The results showed large performance gaps in dwellings with low R and high U values, local heating systems, changes from a non-condensing into a condensing boiler and upgrades to a natural ventilation system. Regarding the actual effectiveness of renovation measures, replacement of old gas boilers with more efficient ones yields the highest energy reduction, followed by deep improvements of windows. Installing mechanical ventilation yields a small reduction compared to other measures, but still much larger than theoretically expected. The paper shows once more that the calculation method currently in use cannot be considered accurate if compared to actual consumption. The study demonstrated that unrealistic theoretical efficiencies of heating systems and insulation values are causing a part of the performance gap. Nowadays, large datasets of buildings thermal performance and actual consumption offer an opportunity to improve these misconceptions. - Highlights: • Performance gap is lower in more efficient buildings. • Replacements of gas boilers – the most energy reduction among renovation measures. • Replacing the ventilation system yields a much larger reduction than expected. • How well are the standard values of the calculation methods defined? • Provide large public building performance databases including actual use data.

  12. ORC waste heat recovery in European energy intensive industries: Energy and GHG savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, F.; Bianchi, M.; Branchini, L.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Baresi, M.; Fermi, A.; Rossetti, N.; Vescovo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to estimate ORC industrial heat recovery potential is defined. • Heat recovery applications for different industrial processes are shown. • Cement, steel, glass and oil and gas applications are considered in EU27. • Savings in electricity costs and greenhouse gases are quantified. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a technology with important opportunities in heat recovery from energy intensive industrial processes. This paper represents the first comprehensive estimate of ORC units that can be installed in cement, steel, glass and oil and gas industries in the 27 countries of the European Union based on an accurate methodology related to real plants in operation or under construction. An evaluation of energy savings, depending on the number of operating hours per year and of the consequent decrease in CO 2 emission and electricity expenditure, is also provided. The study, carried out in the framework of an European research project on heat recovery in energy intensive industries, found that, in the most convenient considered scenario, up to about 20,000 GW h of thermal energy per year can be recovered and 7.6 M ton of CO 2 can be saved by the application of ORC technology to the investigated and most promising industrial sectors

  13. Obsolete or resurgent? The International Energy Agency in a changing global landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Graaf, Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Founded in response to the 1973 oil shock, the International Energy Agency (IEA) is arguably still the most important multilateral organization for energy-importing countries. Yet, the global geopolitical landscape has changed considerably since the IEA's creation. The rise of new energy consumers, new energy-related challenges and new international energy forums prompt a rethink of the agency's current role and institutional design. This article seeks to contribute to the recent debate on the future role of the IEA by examining specific drivers, avenues and constraints for institutional reform. The method used is SWOT analysis, which allows to summarize the key factors emanating from an assessment of an organization's internal characteristics (strengths and weaknesses) and its external environment (opportunities and threats). Building on this SWOT analysis, the article formulates a strategy for the IEA to remain the focal point in global energy governance. Key elements of this strategy include: stronger engagement with new consumers, rapprochement with OPEC, becoming a leading voice in the energy transition, and changing the agency's internal governance practices. - Highlights: ► The IEA is challenged by the rise of new consumers, threats and organizations. ► Assessment of the agency’s internal characteristics and external environment. ► The IEA needs to step up its outreach policy and fully embrace sustainable energy.

  14. Optimisation of a Swedish district heating system with reduced heat demand due to energy efficiency measures in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åberg, M.; Henning, D.

    2011-01-01

    The development towards more energy efficient buildings, as well as the expansion of district heating (DH) networks, is generally considered to reduce environmental impact. But the combined effect of these two progressions is more controversial. A reduced heat demand (HD) due to higher energy efficiency in buildings might hamper co-production of electricity and DH. In Sweden, co-produced electricity is normally considered to displace electricity from less efficient European condensing power plants. In this study, a potential HD reduction due to energy efficiency measures in the existing building stock in the Swedish city Linköping is calculated. The impact of HD reduction on heat and electricity production in the Linköping DH system is investigated by using the energy system optimisation model MODEST. Energy efficiency measures in buildings reduce seasonal HD variations. Model results show that HD reductions primarily decrease heat-only production. The electricity-to-heat output ratio for the system is increased for HD reductions up to 30%. Local and global CO 2 emissions are reduced. If co-produced electricity replaces electricity from coal-fired condensing power plants, a 20% HD reduction is optimal for decreasing global CO 2 emissions in the analysed DH system. - Highlights: ► A MODEST optimisation model of the Linköping district heating system is used. ► The impact of heat demand reduction on heat and electricity production is examined. ► Model results show that heat demand reductions decrease heat-only production. ► Local and global CO 2 emissions are reduced. ► The system electricity-to-heat output increases for reduced heat demand up to 30%.

  15. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings; Combined geothermal and gas district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    The City of Oradea, Romania, has a population of about 230 000 inhabitants. Almost 70% of the total heat demand, including industrial, is supplied by a classical East European type district heating system. The heat is supplied by two low grade coal fired co-generation power plants. The oldest distribution networks and substitutions, as well as one power plant, are 35 years old and require renovation or even reconstruction. The geothermal reservoir located under the city supplies at present 2,2% of the total heat demand. By generalizing the reinjection, the production can be increased to supply about 8% of the total heat demand, without any significant reservoir pressure or temperature decline over 25 years. Another potential energy source is natural gas, a main transport pipeline running close to the city. Two possible scenarios are envisaged to replace the low grade coal by natural gas and geothermal energy as heat sources for Oradea. In one scenario, the geothermal energy supplies the heat for tap water heating and the base load for space heating in a limited number of substations, with peak load being produced by natural gas fired boilers. In the other scenario, the geothermal energy is only used for tap water heating. In both scenarios, all substations are converted into heat plants, natural gas being the main energy source. The technical, economic, and environmental assessment of the two proposed scenarios are compared with each other, as well as with the existing district heating system. Two other possible options, namely to renovate and convert the existing co-generation power plants to natural gas fired boilers or to gas turbines, are only briefly discussed, being considered unrealistic, at least for the short and medium term future. (Author)

  16. Sensitivity of energy and exergy performances of heating and cooling systems to auxiliary components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    . Different forms of energy (electricity and heat) are used in heating and cooling systems, and therefore, a holistic approach to system design and analysis is needed. In particular, distribution systems use electricity as a direct input to pumps and fans, and to other components. Therefore, exergy concept......Heating and cooling systems in buildings consist of three main subsystems: heating/cooling plant, distribution system, and indoor terminal unit. The choice of indoor terminal unit determines the characteristics of the distribution system and the heating and cooling plants that can be used...... should be used in design and analysis of the whole heating and cooling systems, in addition to the energy analysis. In this study, water-based (floor heating and cooling, and radiator heating) and air-based (air heating and cooling) heating and cooling systems were compared in terms of their energy use...

  17. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  18. Advanced ceramics for nuclear heat utilization and energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Deep; Purohit, R.D.; Sinha, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years concerns related to global warming and green house gas emissions have focused the attention towards lowering the carbon foot print of energy generation. In this scenario, nuclear energy is considered as one of the strongest options to take on the challenges. Further, the nuclear heat, originated from the fission of nuclear fuels may be utilized not only by conversion to electricity using conventional techniques, but also may be used for production of hydrogen by splitting water. In the endeavor of realizing sustainable energy generation technologies, ceramic materials find key role as critical components. This paper covers an overview of various ceramic materials which are potential candidates for energy and hydrogen generation devices. These include solid oxide fuel cells, thermoelectric oxides and sodium conducting beta-alumina for alkali metal thermoelectric converters (AMTEC). The materials, which are generally complex oxides often need to be synthesized using chemical methods for purity and compositional control. Further, ceramic materials offer advantages in terms of doping different cations to engineer defects and maneuver properties. Nonetheless, shaping of ceramics to complex components is a challenging task, due to which various techniques such as isopressing, tape-casting, extrusion, slurry coating, spray deposition etc. are employed. The paper also provides a highlight of fabrication techniques and demonstration of miniature devices which are at various stages of development. (author)

  19. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters established under the Energy Policy and... U.S.C. 6293(e)(2)) The current energy conservation standards for direct heating equipment and pool... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2013-BT-TP-0004] RIN 1904-AC94 Energy...

  20. Hope over fear. The establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, A.

    1995-12-01

    President Eisenhower`s ``Atoms for Peace`` speech in 1953 started a process that led to the establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This study analyses the negotiations of the Statute of the Agency. It focuses on how the Agency`s scope of action regarding safeguards was negotiated. The Statute is seen as a reflection of the dual purpose of the new Agency to promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to control that peaceful nuclear activities receiving IAEA assistance are not diverted to military purposes. On one hand, the countries receiving assistance from the Agency accepted a degree of international control that represented a breakthrough in international relations. On the other hand, many countries strongly resented controls. Consequently, compromises had to be made in the course of the negotiations in order to reach a consensus. Thus, although the IAEA was established as a competent and technical body, the underlying compromises meant that its scope of actions was restricted. 6 refs.

  1. USING REGIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURSES FOR HEATING SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study analyzed the possibility and conditions for the effective operation of heating systems during the transition of the heat-generating capacity to biofuels energy. The straw of cereal crops, which are prevailing in Dnipro region, is used for this. The main purpose is scientific calculation of opportunities and cost of specific measures for such a transition. As an example it was taken the boiler-room of campus at Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan (DNURT that consumes natural gas. Methodology. The work analyses the legislative base of Ukraine, which promotes the using of renewable energy sources as fuel, as well as the incentive mechanisms for the development of this trend. The paper identifies opportunities of Prydniprovsk region to ensure straw supply for the boiler-room. Cost parameters of cargo transportation on the territory of Ukraine in 2016, which depend on the distance and the size of the trucks, are analysed. These indicators, as well as indicators related to its purchase, are considered together with energy potential of using the straw as fuel. Findings. With existing in Ukraine (as of 2016 the grain yielding capacity in the agriculture and cost indicators in the field of transportations, the transition of capacity share to biofuel is sufficiently profitable. The thermal power unit cost can be reduced fourfold. Originality. For the first time it is proposed to use the new integrated approaches to assess the cost of thermal power unit boiler with its transition to the use of renewable energy sources. The authors also proposed a new logistics delivery of these sources to the place of their application. From a technical and cost points of view it was determined the optimal order of capacity transfer for new renewable sources of energy in a given region depending on the structure of areas under crops and their productivity. Originality. The introduction of the

  2. Encapsulated nuclear heat source reactors for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Susplugas, A.; Hong, S.G.; Monti, L.; Sumini, M.; Okawa, T.

    2006-01-01

    A spectrum of Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactors have been conceptually designed over the last few years; they span a power range from 10 MWe to -200 MWe and consider a number of coolants and fuel types. Common features of all these designs include very long life cores - exceeding 20 effective full power years; nearly zero burnup reactivity swing; natural circulation; superb safety; autonomous load following capability; simplicity of operation and maintenance. ENHS reactors could be of particular interest for providing electricity, thermal energy and, possibly, desalinated water to communities that are not connected to a central electricity grid such as to many pacific islands and to remote communities in the mainland of different countries. ENHS reactors provide energy security by virtue of a couple of features: (1) Once an ENHS reactor is commissioned, the community has assured clean energy supply for at least 20 years without needing fuel supply. (2) The energy value of the fuel loaded (in the factory) in the ENHS module is preserved; what is needed for generating energy for additional 20+ years is to remove the fission products, add depleted uranium for makeup fuel, refabricate fuel rods and load into a new module. This fuel recycling is envisioned done by either the supplier country or by a regional or international fuel cycle centre. As the ENHS module is replaced at its entirety at the end of the core life - that is brought about by radiation damage, the ENHS plant life is likely to last for over 100 years. The above features also offer exceptional stability in the price of energy generated by the ENHS reactor. The reference ENHS design will be described followed by a brief description of the design options developed and a summary of their performance characteristics

  3. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles – Energy systems analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten

    The fluctuating and only partly predictable nature of wind challenges an effective integration of large wind power penetrations. This PhD thesis investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing...... in an energy system context. Energy systems analyses reveal that the heat pumps can even without flexible operation contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only...... moderate additional benefits are achieved. Hereof, the main benefit is that the need for investing in peak/reserve capacities can be reduced through peak load shaving. It is more important to ensure flexible operation of electric vehicles than of individual heat pumps, due to differences in the load...

  4. Public perception of the activities of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies Agency of Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Marta; Arencibia, Alois; Alvarado, Jorge; Garcia, Dulce; Rodriguez, Ingrids; Hernandez, Noslen [Centro de Gestion de la Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia (CUBAENERGIA), La Habana (Cuba); Aguilar, Aurora; Perera, Maricela [Centro de Investigaciones Psicologicas y Sociologicas (CIPS), La Habana, (Cuba); Rodriguez, Ramon [Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada (AENTA), La Habana, (Cuba); Alonso, Ivonne [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana, (Cuba); Quintana, Natacha [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), La Habana, (Cuba); Cardenas, Juan; Ramos, Odalys [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana, (Cuba); Elias, Lidia Lauren [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana, (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The work presents the results of a study of perception of the nuclear activities of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies Agency of Cuba, carried out by means of a study of image. The public object was a wide group of clients, providers, journalists and experts of the governing and regulatory organs which constitute its external public. For the investigation a methodology was prepared with a questionnaire and a semi structured interview, which allowed to obtain complementary information of qualitative character. In general, the perception of the Agency turned out to be positive and the human resources were the best evaluated aspect. Nevertheless, the visibility of the Agency in the public day pupils is considered to be insufficient. The study provided the necessary information so as to design the strategy of communication of the Agency. (author)

  5. Public perception of the activities of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies Agency of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, Marta; Arencibia, Alois; Alvarado, Jorge; Garcia, Dulce; Rodriguez, Ingrids; Hernandez, Noslen; Aguilar, Aurora; Perera, Maricela; Rodriguez, Ramon; Alonso, Ivonne; Quintana, Natacha; Cardenas, Juan; Ramos, Odalys; Elias, Lidia Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The work presents the results of a study of perception of the nuclear activities of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies Agency of Cuba, carried out by means of a study of image. The public object was a wide group of clients, providers, journalists and experts of the governing and regulatory organs which constitute its external public. For the investigation a methodology was prepared with a questionnaire and a semi structured interview, which allowed to obtain complementary information of qualitative character. In general, the perception of the Agency turned out to be positive and the human resources were the best evaluated aspect. Nevertheless, the visibility of the Agency in the public day pupils is considered to be insufficient. The study provided the necessary information so as to design the strategy of communication of the Agency. (author)

  6. Energy need, energy production, waste heat quantities - the present state and a look into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikarski, W.

    1975-01-01

    The possibilities and methods to keep the waste heat low in our society so dependent on energy, are manifold and they affect many aspects of our economic and social life. A society which shows concern for its environment will not hesitate to explore all possible avenues and to realize them. Nevertheless, one has to start from the assumption that the energy consumption, which is closely connected with the standard of living, will increase in the near future. Thus, we have to reckon with more waste heat. Therefore, on a medium-term basis, the amount of waste heat we will be confronted with and its distribution in the environment is to be investigated carefully in order that on the one hand hydrosphere and atmosphere, the limit load of which is given, are not burdened in excess, and that on the other hand the media taking up waste heat are utilized in an optimal way (cooling management). On a long-term basis, the limits of waste heat discharge into water and atmosphere have to be determined carefully, something which can probably be done on the basis of climatological consequences. (orig.) [de

  7. Heat transfer and energy efficiency in infrared paper dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Magnus

    1999-11-01

    Infrared (IR) dryers are widely used in the paper industry, mainly in the production of coated paper grades. The thesis deals with various aspects of heat transfer and energy use in infrared heaters and dryers as employed in the paper industry. Both gas-fired and electric IR dryers are considered and compared. The thesis also provides an introduction to infrared heaters and infrared drying, including a review of recent literature in the field. The transport of thermal radiation inside a paper sheet was investigated and different IR dryers were compared in terms of their ability to transfer energy to the internal parts of a paper sheet. Although there were evident differences in the absorption of radiation between gas-fired and electric IR dryers, the distinction was found not to be as important as has generally been believed. The main differences appeared to be due to the choice of a one- or a two-sided dryer solution, rather than the spectral distributions emitted by the dryers. A method for evaluating the radiation efficiency of IR heaters was proposed. An electric IR heater was evaluated in the laboratory. The radiation efficiency of the heater was shown to be strongly dependent on the power level. The maximum efficiency, found at high power level, was close to 60 %. A procedure for evaluation of the total energy transfer efficiency of an infrared paper dryer was proposed and used in the evaluation of an electric IR dryer operating in an industrial coating machine. The efficiency of the dryer was roughly 40 %. A model for an electric IR heater was developed. The model includes non-grey radiative heat transfer between the different parts of the heater, as well as conduction in reflector material and convective cooling of the surfaces. Using IR module voltage as the only input, model predictions of temperatures and heat flux were found to agree well with experimental data both at steady state and under transient conditions. The model was also extended to include

  8. Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, C. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. Many aspects of the NGNP must be researched and developed in order to make recommendations on the final design of the plant. Parameters such as working conditions, cycle components, working fluids, and power conversion unit configurations must be understood. Three configurations of the power conversion unit were demonstrated in this study. A three-shaft design with 3 turbines and 4 compressors, a combined cycle with a Brayton top cycle and a Rankine bottoming cycle, and a reheated cycle with 3 stages of reheat were investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting process heat to a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and an 80% nitrogen, 20% helium mixture (by weight) were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms cycle efficiency and development cost. In each of these configurations the relative component size were estimated for the different working fluids. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the three-shaft and combined cycles were performed to determine the effect of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of these cycles to various

  9. Public Information on the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technology Agency of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Izquierdo, Marta Alicia

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technology Agency of Cuba is the promoting and controlling of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and radiation application; additionally, they have to inform the general public about those technologies. The main of this work is to expose the methodology and results of the studies of the attitudes toward the nuclear applications of the users of the nuclear techniques

  10. Theory of energy level and its application in water-loop heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qi Dong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel theory of saving energy and its application in water loop heat pump. • Reverse energy caused by units to water loop and its solution. • New method for determining the energy-saving range of water loop heat pump. • Capacity model of auxiliary heat source and its size for all building types. • Advice for reducing total energy consumption of water loop heat pump. - Abstract: It is a difficult problem to how to determine the reverse energy caused by units to water loop when a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) is in cooling and heating simultaneous mode, which not only has a great impact on energy-saving rate but also decides the use of auxiliary heat source in winter. This paper presents a theory of energy level to improve the research on WLHP system by using the relationship among building, circulating water and units. In this theory, the circulating water replaces building load as a new method to convert the reverse energy into energy change of circulating water and the equation of energy level also is built to determine the energy-saving range of WLHP system and report the capacity model of auxiliary heat source for all building types. An office building with different auxiliary powers is tested to analyze system operation characteristic and the effect of auxiliary heat source on unit and system and the results validate previous conclusions and suggest that an energy balance should be considered between units and auxiliary power to improve overall operation.

  11. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weast, T.; Shannon, L.

    1980-06-01

    A rotary cement kiln and an electric arc furnace were chosen for evaluation to determine the applicability of a fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES). Multistage shallow bed FBHX's operating with high temperature differences were identified as the most suitable for TES applications. Analysis of the two selected conceptual systems included establishing a plant process flow configuration, an operational scenario, a preliminary FBHX/TES design, and parametric analysis. A computer model was developed to determine the effects of the number of stages, gas temperatures, gas flows, bed materials, charge and discharge time, and parasitic power required for operation. The maximum national energy conservation potential of the cement plant application with TES is 15.4 million barrels of oil or 3.9 million tons of coal per year. For the electric arc furnance application the maximum national conservation potential with TES is 4.5 million barrels of oil or 1.1 million tons of coal per year. Present time of day utility rates are near the breakeven point required for the TES system. Escalation of on-peak energy due to critical fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  12. Model-based energy performance assessment of the world largest underground seasonal thermal energy storage in a pilot district heating system in Chifeng City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Torrens Galdiz, J.I.; Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    District heating systems play an important role in supporting energy transition by using and storing energy delivered by renewable and other low-grade energy sources such as industrial waste heat. However, this low-grade heat is not always able to satisfy the heating demand, including space heating

  13. The role of international atomic energy agency in maintaining nuclear safety competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, I.; Mazour, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides information how International Atomic Energy Agency can assist Member States in maintaining and developing nuclear safety competence. The topics covered include the development of safety standards, organisation of nuclear safety related conferences, provision of safety reviews, organisation of training courses and topical workshops and publication of training related documents. Usefulness of these activities for competence development is discussed. (author)

  14. NEA activities in 1992. 21. Annual report of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This annual report gives informations on OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities in 1992. This report is divided into ten chapters: 1 Trends in nuclear power. 2 Nuclear development and the fuel cycle. 3 Reactor safety and regulation. 4 Radiation protection. 5 Radioactive waste management. 6 Nuclear science. 7 Joint projects. 8 Legal affairs. 9 Informations programs. 10 Relations with non-member countries

  15. Transport of radioactive material. 1994-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This document lists all sales publications, IAEA-TECDOC Series, Training Course Series and National Competent Authorities Lists of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the transport of radioactive materials during the period 1994-2002. It gives a short abstract and contents of these issues along with their costs in EURO

  16. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Food And Agriculture during the period 1980-1994. The major subjects covered include: food irradiation, insect and pest control, mutation plant breeding, plant biotechnology, soil fertility and irrigation, agrochemicals animal production and health

  17. Nuclear power. Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, issued during the period 1990-2002. It gives a short abstract of these publications along with contents and their costs

  18. Atoms for peace - the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, J.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which is situated in Vienna. The aims of the IAEA and its work are described. The safeguards system; promotional work; technical cooperation programme; and nuclear safety work concerned with basic safety standards for radiation protection; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Case Studies in Low-Energy District Heating Systems: Determination of Dimensioning Methods for Planning the Future Heating Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Svendsen, Svend

    suggests a plan for an energy efficient District Heating (DH) system with low operating temperatures, such as 55°C supply and 25°C return; connected to low-energy buildings. Different case studies referring to typical DH planning situations could show the rational basis for the integrated planning...... of the future’s sustainable and energy efficient heating infrastructure. In this paper, a case study which focuses on dimensioning method of piping network of low-energy DH system in a new settlement, located in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark, is presented. In addition to the developed dimensioning method......, results about the optimal network layout and substation type for low-energy DH systems are also pointed out regarding to this case study. A second case study, included in this paper, focuses on technical and economical aspects of replacing natural gas heating system to low-energy DH system in an existing...

  20. Experimental investigation of using ambient energy to cool Internet Data Center with thermosyphon heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, F.; Tian, X.; Ma, G. [Beijing Univ. of Technology, Beijing (China). College of Environmental and Energy Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The energy consumption of the air-conditioning system at the Internet Data Center (IDC) in Beijing comprises 40 per cent of the building's total energy consumption. Of all the energy energy management strategies available at the IDC, the most unique one is the use of ambient energy to cool the IDC by the thermosyphon heat exchanger. Atmospheric energy can reduce the air conditioner's running time while maintaining the humidity and cleanliness of the IDC. In this study, an IDC test model was set up to analyze the heat dissipating characteristics and the energy consumption of the thermosyphon heat exchanger and the air conditioner in the IDC for winter conditions. The heat dissipating capacity of the building envelope was measured and calculated. The energy consumption of the air conditioner was compared under different indoor and outdoor temperatures. The study showed that the heat dissipating need of the IDC cannot be met just by the heat dissipation of the building envelope in winter conditions. The heat dissipating capacity of the IDC building envelope comprises 19.5 per cent of the total heat load. The average energy consumption of the air conditioner is 3.5 to 4 kWh per day. The temperature difference between indoor and outdoor temperature in the IDC with the thermosyphon heat exchanger was less than 20 degrees C, and the energy consumption of the thermosyphon heat exchanger comprised only 41 per cent of that of the air conditioner. 8 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Marcus; Gustafsson, Moa Swing; Myhren, Jonn Are; Bales, Chris; Holmberg, Sture

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving measures can be cost-effective as part of a planned renovation. • Primary energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption and CO_2 emissions are assessed for different electricity mixes. • EAHP can be a cost-effective and environmentally beneficial complement to district heating. • EAHP has lower LCC and significantly shorter payback time than ventilation with heat recovery. • Low-temperature ventilation radiators improve the COP of the heat pump. - Abstract: Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work toward increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO_2 emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump. Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO_2 emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the

  2. Influence of individual heat pumps on wind power integration – Energy system investments and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Individual heat pumps can significantly support the integration of wind power. • The heat pumps significantly reduce fuel consumption, CO 2 emissions, and costs. • Heat storages for the heat pumps can provide only moderate system benefits. • Main benefit of flexible heat pump operation is a lower peak/reserve capacity need. • Socio-economic feasibility only identified for some heat storages to some extent. - Abstract: Individual heat pumps are expected to constitute a significant electricity demand in future energy systems. This demand becomes flexible if investing in complementing heat storage capabilities. In this study, we analyse how the heat pumps can influence the integration of wind power by applying an energy system model that optimises both investments and operation, and covers various heat storage options. The Danish energy system by 2030 with around 50–60% wind power is used as a case study. Results show that the heat pumps, even without flexible operation, can contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO 2 emissions. Investments in heat storages can provide only moderate system benefits in these respects. The main benefit of the flexible heat pump operation is a reduced need for peak/reserve capacity, which is also crucial for the feasibility of the heat storages. Socio-economic feasibility is identified for control equipment enabling intelligent heat storage in the building structure and in existing hot water tanks. In contrast, investments in new heat accumulation tanks are not found competitive

  3. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments. - Highlights: • Model optimising heat pumps and heat storages in integration with the energy system. • Optimisation of both energy system investments and operation. • Heat storage in building structure and thermal storage tanks included. • Model well qualified for analysing system benefits of flexible heat pump operation. • Covers peak load shaving and operation prioritised for low electricity prices

  4. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  5. Shortage of energy increases profitability of district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand will cause the price of district heating to increase, but not to the level of the price of electricity. The cheapest heating alternative in Denmark, Norway and Sweden is district heating. In Norway, district heating is developed primarily for commercial buildings and housing cooperatives. Thirty per cent of all buildings under construction are prepared for district heating and the percentage will increase strongly in the coming time. The total net production of district heating in Norway in 2001 was 2000 GWh, which is only a small part of the total potential for district heating

  6. Generalized Scaling of Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Applications for Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-W. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work from this laboratory, it has been found that the urban heat island intensity (UHI can be scaled with the urban length scale and the wind speed, through the time-dependent energy balance. The heating of the urban surfaces during the daytime sets the initial temperature, and this overheating is dissipated during the night-time through mean convection motion over the urban surface. This may appear to be in contrast to the classical work by Oke (1973. However, in this work, we show that if the population density is used in converting the population data into urbanized area, then a good agreement with the current theory is found. An additional parameter is the “urban flow parameter,” which depends on the urban building characteristics and affects the horizontal convection of heat due to wind. This scaling can be used to estimate the UHI intensity in any cities and therefore predict the required energy consumption during summer months. In addition, all urbanized surfaces are expected to exhibit this scaling, so that increase in the surface temperature in large energy-consumption or energy-producing facilities (e.g., solar electric or thermal power plants can be estimated.

  7. Bio energy heating plant heats municipal buildings in Nord-Odal; Bioenergisentral varmer kommunale bygg i Nord-Odal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    When Nord-Odal planned to build a new nursing home, they wanted to find a more environmental friendly heating system than based on oil and electricity. Several energy consultants evaluated the task. But when all consultants concluded there would be no cost benefit in this task, local experts looked into it - and because they got a long term agreement, it was possible to finance a local bio energy heat plant. (AG)

  8. Estimation of the Relationship Between Remotely Sensed Anthropogenic Heat Discharge and Building Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Weng, Qihao; Gurney, Kevin R.; Shuai, Yanmin; Hu, Xuefei

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from residential and commercial buildings across multiple scales in the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. The anthropogenic heat discharge was estimated with a remote sensing-based surface energy balance model, which was parameterized using land cover, land surface temperature, albedo, and meteorological data. The building energy use was estimated using a GIS-based building energy simulation model in conjunction with Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration survey data, the Assessor's parcel data, GIS floor areas data, and remote sensing-derived building height data. The spatial patterns of anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from residential and commercial buildings were analyzed and compared. Quantitative relationships were evaluated across multiple scales from pixel aggregation to census block. The results indicate that anthropogenic heat discharge is consistent with building energy use in terms of the spatial pattern, and that building energy use accounts for a significant fraction of anthropogenic heat discharge. The research also implies that the relationship between anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use is scale-dependent. The simultaneous estimation of anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use via two independent methods improves the understanding of the surface energy balance in an urban landscape. The anthropogenic heat discharge derived from remote sensing and meteorological data may be able to serve as a spatial distribution proxy for spatially-resolved building energy use, and even for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions if additional factors are considered.

  9. Lowering district heating temperatures – Impact to system performance in current and future Danish energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    CHP (Combined heat and power) production in connection with DH (district heating) systems has previously demonstrated a significant reduction in primary energy consumption. With extended installation of intermittent sustainable sources, such as eg. wind turbines rather than thermal units, the cha......CHP (Combined heat and power) production in connection with DH (district heating) systems has previously demonstrated a significant reduction in primary energy consumption. With extended installation of intermittent sustainable sources, such as eg. wind turbines rather than thermal units...

  10. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  11. Energy efficiency improvements utilising mass flow control and a ring topology in a district heating network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laajalehto, Tatu; Kuosa, Maunu; Mäkilä, Tapio; Lampinen, Markku; Lahdelma, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Heating and cooling have a major role in the energy sector, covering 46% of total final energy use worldwide. District heating (DH) is a significant technology for improving the energy efficiency of heating systems in communities, because it enables waste heat sources to be utilised economically and therefore significantly reduces the environmental impacts of power generation. As a result of new and more stringent construction regulations for buildings, the heat demands of individual buildings are decreasing and more energy-efficient heating systems have to be developed. In this study, the energy efficiency of a new DH system which includes both a new control system called mass flow control and a new network design called a ring network is examined. A topology in the Helsinki region is studied by using a commercial DH network modelling tool, Grades Heating. The district heating network is attached to a wood-burning heat station which has a heat recovery system in use. Examination is performed by means of both technical and economic analysis. The new non-linear temperature programme that is required is adopted for supply and return temperatures, which allows greater temperature cooling and smaller flow rates. Lower district heating water temperatures are essential when reducing the heat losses in the network and heat production. Mass flow control allows smaller pressure drops in the network and thus reduces the pumping power. The aim of this study was to determine the most energy-efficient DH water supply temperatures in the case network. If the ring network design is utilised, the district heating system is easier to control. As a result the total heat consumption within the heating season is reduced compared to traditional DH systems. On the basis of the results, the new DH system is significantly more energy-efficient in the case network that was examined than the traditional design. For example, average energy losses within the constraints (which consist of heat

  12. World energy outlook 2006: the International energy Agency (I.E.A.) report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2006-01-01

    Between the increasing of energy consumption and then, increasing of carbon dioxide emissions, and the decreasing of hydrocarbon reserves it is urgent to find others energy supplies strategies. The nuclear energy is able to bring a determining contribution to the solution of the world energy problem. (N.C.)

  13. The energy efficiency ratio of heat storage in one shell-and-one tube phase change thermal energy storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Liang-Bi; He, Ya-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A parameter to indicate the energy efficiency ratio of PCTES units is defined. • The characteristics of the energy efficiency ratio of PCTES units are reported. • A combined parameter of the physical properties of the working mediums is found. • Some implications of the energy efficiency ratio in design of PCTES units are analyzed. - Abstract: From aspect of energy consuming to pump heat transfer fluid, there is no sound basis on which to create an optimum design of a thermal energy storage unit. Thus, it is necessary to develop a parameter to indicate the energy efficiency of such unit. This paper firstly defines a parameter that indicates the ratio of heat storage of phase change thermal energy storage unit to energy consumed in pumping heat transfer fluid, which is called the energy efficiency ratio, then numerically investigates the characteristics of this parameter. The results show that the energy efficiency ratio can clearly indicate the energy efficiency of a phase change thermal energy storage unit. When the fluid flow of a heat transfer fluid is in a laminar state, the energy efficiency ratio is larger than in a turbulent state. The energy efficiency ratio of a shell-and-tube phase change thermal energy storage unit is more sensitive to the outer tube diameter. Under the same working conditions, within the heat transfer fluids studied, the heat storage property of the phase change thermal energy storage unit is best for water as heat transfer fluid. A combined parameter is found to indicate the effects of both the physical properties of phase change material and heat transfer fluid on the energy efficiency ratio

  14. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO 2 accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO 2 saving of 48 kg CO 2 /GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO 2 /GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  15. Reorganization of the Ministries and Agencies and future nuclear energy policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagishi, Tatsuro; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Enomoto, Toshiaki; Kawase, Kazuharu; Izuriha, Isao; Shimohirao, Isao; Sakurai, Jun

    2001-01-01

    Japanese governmental Ministries and Agencies were reorganized to a system of one Cabinet Office and twelve Ministries and Agencies on January 6, 2001, by reformation after an interval of about a half of century. Together with this reformation, for an organization executing nuclear energy administration, the Cabinet Office, the Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) started. Especially, at the METI, the 'Nuclear Energy Safety and Security Agency' was newly established to unitarity manage safety regulation of the nuclear energy facilities, to enforce system to upgrading of their safety Here were introduced on every content of the organization in the nuclear energy administration, to follow its future subjects under some items on new system and its development, new organization play in liberalization market, expectation to nuclear energy administration at the new system, question on national nuclear safety countermeasure from a standpoint of landing site, stable supply system of electric power, and expectation to suitable safety regulation to secure safety of old nuclear facilities. (G.K.)

  16. Numerical Investigation of Floor Heating Systems in Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Jensen, Claus Franceos

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an investigation of floor heating systems is performed with respect to heating demand and room temperature. Presently (2001) no commercially available building simulation programs that can be used to evaluate heating demand and thermal comfort in buildings with building integrated....... The model calculates heating demand, room temperatures, and thermal comfort parameters for a person in the room. The model is based on a numerical Finite Control Volume (FCV) method for the heat transfer in walls, ceiling, windows and floor. The model uses both convective and radiative heat transfer...... to the room air and between the room surfaces. The simulation model has been used to calculate heating demand and room temperature in a typical well insulated Danish single-family house with a heating demand of approximately 6000 kWh per year, for a 130 m² house. Two different types of floor heating systems...

  17. Energy dashboard for real-time evaluation of a heat pump assisted solar thermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, David Allen

    The emergence of net-zero energy buildings, buildings that generate at least as much energy as they consume, has lead to greater use of renewable energy sources such as solar thermal energy. One example is a heat pump assisted solar thermal system, which uses solar thermal collectors with an electrical heat pump backup to supply space heating and domestic hot water. The complexity of such a system can be somewhat problematic for monitoring and maintaining a high level of performance. Therefore, an energy dashboard was developed to provide comprehensive and user friendly performance metrics for a solar heat pump system. Once developed, the energy dashboard was tested over a two-week period in order to determine the functionality of the dashboard program as well as the performance of the heating system itself. The results showed the importance of a user friendly display and how each metric could be used to better maintain and evaluate an energy system. In particular, Energy Factor (EF), which is the ratio of output energy (collected energy) to input energy (consumed energy), was a key metric for summarizing the performance of the heating system. Furthermore, the average EF of the solar heat pump system was 2.29, indicating an efficiency significantly higher than traditional electrical heating systems.

  18. Forum environmental and energy technology 2013. Power-heat cogeneration and air pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlowitz, Otto; Meyer, Sven

    2013-01-01

    The volume covers the following topics: The teaching reward 2013 - concept and implementation of the ''Forum environmental and energy technology''; energy efficient air pollution control and material recovery; air pollution control by oxidation; electrical energy production from low-temperature waste heat (ORC processes), electrical power production and process heat utilization.

  19. Performance of low-temperature district heating for low-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    A Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) network supplying district heating water with temperature 50°C was built in Lærkehaven-Lystrup, Denmark, as a part of the ongoing “Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Programme” [EUDP, 2008] focused on “CO2-reduction in low energy buildings and com...

  20. The International Atomic Energy Agency - Organization, Work and Services in Selected Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köteles, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    In an address to the 8th General Assembly of the United Nations (1953) the President of the United States suggested that Governments should begin to make joint contributions from their stockpiles of fissile materials to an international atomic energy agency which would be set up under the aegis of the United Nations. The fissile material so collected would be used to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind. Experts would be mobilized to apply atomic energy to the needs of agriculture, medicine and other peaceful purposes and a special effort would be made to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world. This suggestion was taken up. A Statute which defines the structure and purpose of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was prepared by a group of nations and approved by a conference at the United Nations Headquarters in 1956. The Statute entered into force on 29 July 1957. The Agency's objectives, as defined in its Statute, are that it ''shall seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. It shall ensure, as far as it is able, that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose''. To attain these objectives, the IAEA is authorized ''to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world; and, if requested to do so, to act as an intermediary for the purposes of securing the performance of services or the supplying of materials, equipment, or facilities by one member of the Agency for another''; to ''... assemble and make available in an accessible form the [scientific] information made available to it...'' and furthermore ''to make provision, ... for materials, services, equipment, and facilities to meet the

  1. REopt Screenings Catalyze Development of Hundreds of Megawatts of Renewable Energy for Federal Agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) offers project assistance to federal agencies, which often begins with a desktop screening to develop a prioritized portfolio of renewable energy project opportunities. FEMP uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) REopt energy planning platform to quickly and efficiently screen potential renewable energy opportunities at a single site or across a range of sites. REopt helps organizations prioritize the most economically and technically viable projects for further study, and identifies the size and mix of technologies that meet the organization's goals at minimum cost, along with the optimal operating strategies.

  2. The assessment of global thermo-energy performances of existing district heating systems optimized by harnessing renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şoimoşan, Teodora M.; Danku, Gelu; Felseghi, Raluca A.

    2017-12-01

    Within the thermo-energy optimization process of an existing heating system, the increase of the system's energy efficiency and speeding-up the transition to green energy use are pursued. The concept of multi-energy district heating system, with high harnessing levels of the renewable energy sources (RES) in order to produce heat, is expected to be the key-element in the future urban energy infrastructure, due to the important role it can have in the strategies of optimizing and decarbonizing the existing district heating systems. The issues that arise are related to the efficient integration of different technologies of harnessing renewable energy sources in the energy mix and to the increase of the participation levels of RES, respectively. For the holistic modeling of the district heating system, the concept of the energy hub was used, where the synergy of different primary forms of entered energy provides the system a high degree energy security and flexibility in operation. The optimization of energy flows within the energy hub allows the optimization of the thermo-energy district system in order to approach the dual concept of smart city & smart energy.

  3. A system design for distributed energy generation in low temperature district heating (LTDH) networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sean; Gillott, Mark C.; Boukhanouf, Rabah; Walker, Gavin S.; Tunzi, Michele; Tetlow, David; Rodrigues, Lucélia Taranto; Sumner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Project SCENIC (Smart Controlled Energy Networks Integrated in Communities) involves connecting properties at the University of Nottingham’s Creative Energy Homes test site in a community scale, integrated heat and power network. Controls will be developed to allow for the most effective heat load allocation and power distribution scenarios. Furthermore, the system will develop the prosumer concept, where consumers are both buyers and sellers of energy in both heat and power systems. \\ud \\ud ...

  4. The role of large‐scale heat pumps for short term integration of renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Blarke, Morten; Hansen, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    technologies is focusing on natural working fluid hydrocarbons, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Large-scale heat pumps are crucial for integrating 50% wind power as anticipated to be installed in Denmark in 2020, along with other measures. Also in the longer term heat pumps can contribute to the minimization...... savings with increased wind power and may additionally lead to economic savings in the range of 1,500-1,700 MDKK in total in the period until 2020. Furthermore, the energy system efficiency may be increased due to large heat pumps replacing boiler production. Finally data sheets for large-scale ammonium......In this report the role of large-scale heat pumps in a future energy system with increased renewable energy is presented. The main concepts for large heat pumps in district heating systems are outlined along with the development for heat pump refrigerants. The development of future heat pump...

  5. Effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interface temperature and surface energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wen

    Full Text Available The microwave-assisted leaching was a new approach to intensify the copper recovery from chalcopyrite by hydrometallurgy. In this work, the effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interfacial reaction temperature and surface energy were investigated. The activation energy of chalcopyrite leaching was affected indistinctively by the microwave-assisted heating (39.1 kJ/mol compared with the conventional heating (43.9 kJ/mol. However, the boiling point of the leaching system increased through microwave-assisted heating. Because of the improved boiling point and the selective heating of microwave, the interfacial reaction temperature increased significantly, which gave rise to the increase of the leaching recovery of copper. Moreover, the surface energy of the chalcopyrite through microwave-assisted heating was also enhanced, which was beneficial to strengthen the leaching of chalcopyrite. Keywords: Microwave-assisted heating, Chalcopyrite, Leaching kinetics, Interface temperature, Surface energy

  6. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  7. A review on transportation of heat energy over long distance. Exploratory development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Q.; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Luo, L.; Sauce, G. [LOCIE, Polytech' Savoie, Campus Scientifique, Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget-Du-Lac cedex (France)

    2009-08-15

    This paper presents a review on transportation of heat energy over long distance. For the transportation of high-temperature heat energy, the chemical catalytic reversible reaction is almost the only way available, and there are several reactions have been studied. For the relatively low-temperature heat energy, which exists widely as waste heat, there are mainly five researching aspects at present: chemical reversible reactions, phase change thermal energy storage and transportation, hydrogen-absorbing alloys, solid-gas adsorption and liquid-gas absorption. The basic principles and the characteristics of these methods are discussed. (author)

  8. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  9. Design of energy-efficient buildings using interaction between Building Simulation Programme and Energy Supply Simulations for District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Nagla, Inese

    potential of the energy saving in the society it is very important to address the decisive involvement of the end-users. The human behaviour is the factor that affects the most the energy use in low-energy buildings and should be included in energy simulations. The results can then be linked to programs...... the implementation of C02 neutral communities. A link between a dynamic energy simulation program for buildings and a simulation program for district heating networks is demonstrated. The results of the investigation give an example of how to analyze a community and make recommendations for applying the low...... in a cost-effective way in areas with linear heat densities down to 0.20 MWh/(m.year). Even in cases where the user behaviour is not optimal, the system is able to deliver heat to each customer. The low-energy district heating concept could be strategic for reaching ambitious energy and climate targets...

  10. IEA HPP Annex 32 - Economical heating and cooling systems for low-energy houses. State-of-the-art report Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2007-04-01

    Norway is a member of Annex 32, 'Economical heating and cooling systems for low-energy houses' (2006-2008), organized under the umbrella of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the IEA Heat Pump Programme (HPP). The 9 participating countries are Switzerland (Operating Agent), Austria, Canada, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the USA. The Norwegian participation is financed by Enova SF, and SINTEF Energy Research is responsible for planning and carrying out the Norwegian activities. Task 1 of the project is a state-of the art analysis of the low-energy building market and heat pump technologies applied in this type of buildings. Heating demands for low-energy houses and passive houses in Norwegian climate are characterized as follows: The ratio of the annual heating demand for hot water heating and the total annual heating demand of the houses typically range from 40 to 85 percent, and the heating season for space heating and heating of ventilation air range from about 5-7 and 4-6 months per year for semi-detached houses and flats, respectively (Oslo climate). In comparison, the heating season for semi-detached houses and flats constructed in accordance with the Norwegian building codes of 1997 is 8 and 9 months, respectively. Development companies for residential properties, co-operative building societies as well as housing manufactures are now showing great interest in low-energy houses and passive houses. According to The Norwegian State Housing Bank, almost 10.000 residences with low-energy or passive house standard are now being planned, constructed or have been completed. The projects include single-family houses, semi-detached houses, row houses, block of flats and apartment buildings. The main focus in these projects has been on the architectural design, building construction and efficient ventilation systems, and less on the heating (and cooling) systems. The heat pump market in this market segment is regarded to be promising due to

  11. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Shawn M; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  12. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.155 - What energy conservation policy must Federal agencies follow in the management of facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... policy must Federal agencies follow in the management of facilities? 102-74.155 Section 102-74.155 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.155 What energy conservation policy must Federal agencies follow in the management of facilities...

  14. The strategic plan of the Nuclear Energy Agency 2017-2022

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is an intergovernmental agency which operates under the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). It facilitates co-operation among countries with advanced nuclear technology infrastructures to seek excellence in nuclear safety, technology, science, related environmental and economic matters and law. The 2017-2022 NEA Strategic Plan sets out the Agency's mission statement, general strategies and priorities, outlines NEA activities sector by sector, and describes the governance of the Agency and its interactions with external stakeholders, including those within the OECD family. The NEA is a centre of excellence, capable of meeting new challenges and adapting to circumstances by providing expert analyses and recommendations in a timely manner to its member countries and other interested stakeholders. Its mission over the six-year period is to assist its member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the scientific, technological and legal bases required for a safe, environmentally sound and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It strives to provide authoritative assessments and to forge common understandings on key issues as input to government decisions on nuclear energy policy and to broader OECD policy analyses in areas such as energy, education and the development of long-term sustainable economic growth. To fulfil its mission, the Agency will serve as a forum for sharing and analysing information and experience among member countries, foster international co-operation in the nuclear field, help member countries to pool and maintain their technical expertise and human infrastructure, and support nuclear activities by providing member countries with nuclear policy analyses. The NEA's specific goals are defined on a sector-by-sector basis in the following areas, with nuclear safety constituting a leading priority: Nuclear safety

  15. Theoretical evaluation on the impact of heat exchanger in Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xuemei; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established based on thermodynamic theory. • Four Cases about pressure loss and effectiveness of heat exchanger are investigated. • The impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive. • The impact of heat exchanger effectiveness in charge process on system is stronger. • Pressure loss in heat exchanger affects the change trends of system efficiency. - Abstract: Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) is a large-scale energy storage system based on gas turbine technology and thermal energy storage (TES). Electrical energy can be converted into internal energy of air and heat energy in TES during the charge process, while reverse energy conversion proceeds during discharge process. The performance of AA-CAES system requires further improvement in order to increase efficiency. In this paper, a multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established, and the influence of effectiveness and pressure loss in heat exchanger on energy conversion and utilization efficiency of AA-CAES system is analyzed theoretically based on the theory of thermodynamics. Four Cases about effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are investigated and compared with each other. It is found that effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are directly related to energy conversion and utilization in AA-CAES system. System efficiency changes with the variation of heat exchanger effectiveness and the impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive than that of internal energy of air. Pressure loss can cause the complexity of system efficiency change. With appropriate selection of the values of heat exchanger effectiveness for both charge and discharge processes, an AA-CAES system with a higher efficiency could be expected

  16. On variations of space-heating energy use in office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hung-Wen; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Space heating is the largest energy end use in the U.S. building sector. • A key design and operational parameters have the most influence on space heating. • Simulated results were benchmarked against actual results to analyze discrepancies. • Yearly weather changes have significant impact on space heating energy use. • Findings enable stakeholders to make better decisions on energy efficiency. - Abstract: Space heating is the largest energy end use, consuming more than seven quintillion joules of site energy annually in the U.S. building sector. A few recent studies showed discrepancies in simulated space-heating energy use among different building energy modeling programs, and the simulated results are suspected to be underpredicting reality. While various uncertainties are associated with building simulations, especially when simulations are performed by different modelers using different simulation programs for buildings with different configurations, it is crucial to identify and evaluate key driving factors to space-heating energy use in order to support the design and operation of low-energy buildings. In this study, 10 design and operation parameters for space-heating systems of two prototypical office buildings in each of three U.S. heating climates are identified and evaluated, using building simulations with EnergyPlus, to determine the most influential parameters and their impacts on variations of space-heating energy use. The influence of annual weather change on space-heating energy is also investigated using 30-year actual weather data. The simulated space-heating energy use is further benchmarked against those from similar actual office buildings in two U.S. commercial-building databases to better understand the discrepancies between simulated and actual energy use. In summary, variations of both the simulated and actual space-heating energy use of office buildings in all three heating climates can be very large. However

  17. Possible uses of nuclear energy in central heating of Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agirsoy, L.

    1987-01-01

    In this master thesis, a study was carried out for the district heating of the plateau region where the population and air pollution densities are the highest. First the heat requirements of differently populated regions were calculated, then by taking different temperature decreases of hot water in buildings; flow rates, pipe diameters and pressure losses corres-ponding to these temperature decreases were obtained. An optimum division of total heat load as peak and base loads was studied and it was seen that the unit heat cost could be lowered by employing two stations for the heating of buildings. The optimum division and unit heat cost calculations were carried out for various alternative heating systems and it was seen that nuclear combined cycle base-load station and a peak-load station operating on fuel-oil was obtained to be the most advantageous system from an economic point of view. (author)

  18. Evaluation of a ground thermal energy storage system for heating and cooling of an existing dwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, W.H; Lawrence, C.J. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tarnawski, V.R. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Rosen, M.A. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2006-07-01

    A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system for heating and cooling a residential house in Ontario was simulated. The system uses the surface ground as a thermal energy storage for storing thermal energy in the summer for later use in the winter. In the summer, the ground receives both solar energy and the heat rejected by the system during cooling operation. The relationship between a heat pump and the ground is a ground heat exchanger (GHE). This presentation described the vertical and horizontal configurations of the GHE, which are the 2 basic configurations. It also described the modelling and analysis of the GCHP system. The modelling involved both simplified and comprehensive models. The simplified models of heating and cooling loads of a building, a heat pump unit, and heat transfer at the ground heat exchanger provided a direct link to the comprehensive model of heat and moisture transfer in the ground, based on the finite element method. This combination of models provided an accurate and practical simulation tool for GCHP systems. The energy analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the system. The use of a horizontal ground heat exchanging pipe and the impact of heat deposition and extraction through it in the ground were also studied with reference to the length of pipe, depth of pipe and layout of the pipe loop. The objective of the analysis was to find ways to optimize the thermal performance of the system and environmental sustainability of the ground. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371572037; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, David; Manzella, Adelle; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123556856; Cloetingh, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069161836; van Wees, J.-D.

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  20. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers: A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, M.; Bruhn, D.; Manzella, A.; Calcagno, P.; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; Wees, J.D. van

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  1. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, Jon; Boxem, Thijs; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, D.F.; Manzella, Adele; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Wees, Jan Diederik

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  2. Wood energy for residential heating in Alaska: current conditions, attitudes, and expected use

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Valerie. Barber

    2010-01-01

    This study considered three aspects of residential wood energy use in Alaska: current conditions and fuel consumption, knowledge and attitudes, and future use and conditions. We found that heating oil was the primary fuel for home heating in southeast and interior Alaska, whereas natural gas was used most often in south-central Alaska (Anchorage). Firewood heating...

  3. Operation of heat pumps for smart grid integrated buildings with thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.J.; Li, R.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    A small scale office building consisting of radiant heating, a heat pump, and a water thermal energy storage tank is implemented in an optimal control framework. The optimal control aims to minimize operational electricity costs of the heat pump based on real-time power spot market prices. Optimal

  4. IAEA technical documents (TECDOCs) 1992-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all technical documents (TECDOCs) of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1992 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all documents in numerical order, starting with the most recent publication. The second part lists all documents by subject category, in alphabetical order within each category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages

  5. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications, including technical documents (TECDOCs), of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all sales publications in alphabetical order by subject category whereas the second part lists all TECDOCs in alphabetical order by subject category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages

  6. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications, including technical documents (TECDOCs), of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all sales publications in alphabetical order by subject category whereas the second part lists all TECDOCs in alphabetical order by subject category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages.

  7. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1986-1999. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle and waste management and issued during the period of 1986-1999. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  8. NEA activities in 1991. 20. Annual report of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report gives informations on OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities in 1991. This report is divided into ten chapters: 1 Trends in nuclear power. 2 Nuclear development and the fuel cycle. 3 Nuclear safety and regulation. 4 Radiation protection. 5 Radioactive waste management and disposal. 6 Nuclear science: Reactor physics, nuclear data, NEA data bank. 7 Joint projects and coordinated research programs. 8 Legal affairs. 9 informations programs. 10 relations with non-member countries

  9. Nuclear and radiological safety 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear and Radiological Safety issued during the period 1980-1994. The following aspects are covered: Uranium mining and milling, Fuel fabrication and storage, Nuclear power plants, Research reactors, Radiation sources and accelerators, Transport of radioactive materials, Waste repositories, Radiation protection, Accident response, Radioactive waste management, Safety analysis, Quality management, Legal and governmental aspects

  10. Energy efficiency analysis of styrene production by adiabatic ethylbenzene dehydrogenation using exergy analysis and heat integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Emad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Styrene is a valuable commodity for polymer industries. The main route for producing styrene by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene consumes a substantial amount of energy because of the use of high-temperature steam. In this work, the process energy requirements and recovery are studied using Exergy analysis and Heat Integration (HI based on Pinch design method. The amount of steam plays a key role in the trade-off between Styrene yield and energy savings. Therefore, optimizing the operating conditions for energy reduction is infeasible. Heat integration indicated an insignificant reduction in the net energy demand and exergy losses, but 24% and 34% saving in external heating and cooling duties, respectively. When the required steam is generated by recovering the heat of the hot reactor effluent, a considerable saving in the net energy demand, as well as the heating and cooling utilities, can be achieved. Moreover, around 68% reduction in the exergy destruction is observed.

  11. Effect of energetic ion loss on ICRF heating efficiency and energy confinement time in heliotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M.; Nuehrenberg, J.

    1999-06-01

    ICRF heating efficiency and the global energy confinement time during ICRF heating are investigated including the effect of energetic ion loss in heliotrons. The approximate formula of ICRF heating efficiency is derived using the results based on Monte Carlo simulations. The global energy confinement time including energetic ion effect can be expressed in terms of ICRF heating power, plasma density, and magnetic field strength in heliotrons. Our results in the CHS plasma show the systematic decrement of the global energy confinement time due to the energetic ion loss from the assumed energy confinement scaling law, which is consistent with the experimental observations. Also we apply our model to the ICRF minority heating in the LHD plasma in two cases of typical magnetic configurations. The clear increment of the global energy confinement time due to the stored energy of energetic tail ions is obtained in the 'orbit improved' configuration, while the decrement is observed in the 'standard' configuration. (author)

  12. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems: system development summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An introduction to district heating systems employing heat pumps to enable use of low-temperature energy sources is presented. These systems operate as thermal utilities to provide space heating and may also supply space cooling, service-water heating, and other thermal services. Otherwise-wasted heat from industrial and commercial processes, natural sources including solar and geothermal heat, and heat stored on an annual cycle from summer cooling may be effectively utilized by the systems described. These sources are abundant, and their use would conserve scarce resources and reduce adverse environmental impacts. More than one-quarter of the energy consumed in the United States is used to heat and cool buildings and to heat service water. Natural gas and oil provide approximately 83% of this energy. The systems described show potential to reduce net energy consumption for these services by 20 to 50% and to allow fuel substitution with less-scarce resources not practical in smaller, individual-building systems. Seven studies performed for the system development phase of the Department of Energy's Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project and to related studies are summarized. A concluding chapter tabulates data from these separately published studies.

  13. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamov, S.; Zlateva, M.; Gechkov, N.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is for the technical possibilities for reducing the energy consumption in existing buildings by means of the heat control and measurement. The basic performances of the heat capacity control methods, of the hierarchy structure of the control and of the heat measurement technologies are presented. This paper also presents the results from the long-term investigation of energy consumption for heating. The results area consist of three typical and uniform buildings in the city of Kazanlak (Bulgaria). The outcome of the investigation provides a valuable basis for future decisions to be made concerning reconstruction of heating installations and enables the results to be transferred. (Authors)

  14. Heating and cooling energy demand in underground buildings : potential for saving in various climates and functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dronkelaar, C.; Costola, D.; Mangkuto, R.A.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Underground buildings are pointed out as alternatives to conventional aboveground buildings for reducing total energy requirements, while alleviating land use and location problems. This paper investigates the potential in reducing the heating and cooling energy demand of underground buildings

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency use of facility calorimeters for safeguards purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRae, L.P.; Delegard, C.H.; Hamilton, R.A.; Westsik, G.A.; Moriarty, T.F.; Lemaire, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing nuclear materials safeguards on an inventory of pure and scrap plutonium oxide powder materials held in Vault 3 of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The International Atomic Energy Agency uses qualitative and quantitative techniques to verify the presence and quantity of the nuclear materials under safeguards. The Agency uses weighing, sampling, and destructive analyses to obtain the most accurate verification measurements of containers of plutonium powders. In contrast, the plant operator generally uses non-destructive plutonium assay based on gamma spectrometry and calorimetry for its most accurate plutonium powder container measurements. Recent results have shown that the operator''s calorimeter system achieves measurement variabilities comparable with, or better than, the destructive analyses, particularly for scrap. The results are achieved more quickly and economically, with less waste and lower radiation exposure and contamination hazard, by calorimetry than by classical destructive analyses. Techniques, including authentication methods, are being jointly developed to permit use of the operator''s calorimeter system for international safeguards purposes. The authentication is to ensure the independence of, and to substantiate the validity of, calorimeter measurements for international safeguards. The authentication methods considered and being developed are discussed

  16. Influence of individual heat pumps on wind power integration – Energy system investments and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Individual heat pumps are expected to constitute a significant electricity demand in future energy systems. This demand becomes flexible if investing in complementing heat storage capabilities. In this study, we analyse how the heat pumps can influence the integration of wind power by applying...... an energy system model that optimises both investments and operation, and covers various heat storage options. The Danish energy system by 2030 with around 50–60% wind power is used as a case study. Results show that the heat pumps, even without flexible operation, can contribute significantly...... to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. Investments in heat storages can provide only moderate system benefits in these respects. The main benefit of the flexible heat pump operation is a reduced need for peak/reserve capacity, which is also...

  17. Targeting energy justice: Exploring spatial, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in urban residential heating energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reames, Tony Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Fuel poverty, the inability of households to afford adequate energy services, such as heating, is a major energy justice concern. Increasing residential energy efficiency is a strategic fuel poverty intervention. However, the absence of easily accessible household energy data impedes effective targeting of energy efficiency programs. This paper uses publicly available data, bottom-up modeling and small-area estimation techniques to predict the mean census block group residential heating energy use intensity (EUI), an energy efficiency proxy, in Kansas City, Missouri. Results mapped using geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical analysis, show disparities in the relationship between heating EUI and spatial, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic block group characteristics. Block groups with lower median incomes, a greater percentage of households below poverty, a greater percentage of racial/ethnic minority headed-households, and a larger percentage of adults with less than a high school education were, on average, less energy efficient (higher EUIs). Results also imply that racial segregation, which continues to influence urban housing choices, exposes Black and Hispanic households to increased fuel poverty vulnerability. Lastly, the spatial concentration and demographics of vulnerable block groups suggest proactive, area- and community-based targeting of energy efficiency assistance programs may be more effective than existing self-referral approaches. - Highlights: • Develops statistical model to predict block group (BG) residential heating energy use intensity (EUI), an energy efficiency proxy. • Bivariate and multivariate analyses explore racial/ethnic and socioeconomic relationships with heating EUI. • BGs with more racial/ethnic minority households had higher heating EUI. • BGs with lower socioeconomics had higher heating EUI. • Mapping heating EUI can facilitate effective energy efficiency intervention targeting.

  18. Case Study of a Low-Energy District Heating Network in Energy-Efficient Settlements in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    for low-energy houses in Denmark was investigated. We considered the influence of the human behavior on the energy demand, the importance of the degree of buildings connected to the network and a socio-economical comparison with ground source heat pumps. In the North European climate, the human behavior...... customer in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way in areas with linear heat density down to 0.20 MWh/(m.year). This suggests that the mandatory connection of low-energy buildings to DH in specific areas, by means of detailed energy planning, would improve the energy efficiency and the overall...... socio-economy and it is strategic for effective energy policy. The levelised cost of energy in case of low-energy DH supply is competitive with the scenario based on ground source heat pumps. The investment costs represent up to three quarters of the overall expenditure, over a time horizon of 30 years...

  19. Experimental study of energy performance in low-temperature hydronic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesaraki, Arefeh; Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Ploskić, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption, thermal environment and environmental impacts were analytically and experimentally studied for different types of heat emitters. The heat emitters studied were conventional radiator, ventilation radiator, and floor heating with medium-, low-, and very-low-temperature supply....... The supply water temperature in all measurements for conventional radiator was significantly higher than ventilation radiator and floor heating; namely, 45°C. Experimental results indicated that the mean indoor temperature was close to the acceptable level of 22°C in all cases. For energy calculations......, it was assumed that all heat emitters were connected to a ground-source heat pump. Analytical calculations showed that using ventilation radiator and floor heating instead of conventional radiator resulted in a saving of 17% and 22% in heat pump's electricity consumption, respectively. This would reduce the CO2...

  20. OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency. 25 years of international cooperation within the framework of the NEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadie, Klaus B. [OECD, Paris (France). Safety and Regulation

    2015-11-15

    The nuclear atomic association NEA of the OECD, to which 23 western industrial countries belong to, was established 25 years ago (1959) as ''Nuclear Energy Agency'', almost simultaneously with other large international nuclear energy organisations. The NEA undertook special tasks during the international cooperation, which have shifted over time. A special feature today is the cooperation by means of international committees, which are supported by a small own staff of the organisation. The focus points lie within the area of safety and regimentation and on chosen scientific and technical studies.

  1. Earth sciences: Uranium geology, exploration and mining, hydrology, 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with earth sciences and issued during the period of 1986-1996. These topics are mainly in the field of uranium geology, exploration and mining, isotope applications in hydrology, IAEA Yearbook 1996 on the developments in nuclear science and technology and meetings on atomic energy. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English but all of these papers have English abstracts. The prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings

  2. Renewable energy in district heating grids. A realistic perspective?; Erneuerbare Energien in Waermenetzen. Eine realistische Perspektive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, Elke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschaftsarchitektur und Umweltplanung; Futterlieb, Matthias; Ohlhorst, Doerte [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Zentrum Technik und Gesellschaft (ZTG); Wenzel, Bernd [Ingenieurbuero fuer neue Energie (IfnE), Teltow (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    The heating sector holds high potentials for cutting CO{sub 2} emissions by using renewable energy. These potentials can be tapped either by substituting fossil fuels in individual heating units or by using renewable energy in district heating networks, which may be more efficient. This paper asks for the options to increase the share of renewable energy in Germany's district heating infrastructure and for the restrictions that are hampering further development in this field. It critically discusses the relevant technical, political and economic challenges and determinants. District heating networks fuelled by renewable energy are not only competing with fossil fuels in individual heating units. They are also facing the more fundamental question regarding the preconditions for a profitable and worthwhile operation of grid-bound heat supply. The economic viability of heat grids has to be analyzed on a case-by-case basis, since it depends predominantly on individual framework conditions. Those include a decreasing heat demand due to improving energy performance of buildings, competing gas grids already in place and the complex interest structures of the actors involved. The growth rates that were observed in the last years were predominantly achieved in small renewably fuelled district heating networks. Even under favourable framework conditions, there is a need for additional supportive measures to increase the share of renewable energy in district heating grids. This mix of policy instruments should encompass measures to increase the implementation rates of municipal heat utilization concepts, measures to decrease the initial investments needed, as well as public relations to improve the user perception of grid-bound heat supply. However, the options to increase the share of renewable heat in existing large-scale grids are considered to be rather limited. (orig.)

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency annual report 2007: 50 years of atoms for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three pillars of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2006-2007 (GC(49)/2). The introductory chapter seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2007 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2007/. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to technology are: nuclear power; nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies; capacity building and nuclear knowledge maintenance for sustainable energy development; nuclear science; food and agriculture; human health; water resources; assessment and management of marine and terrestrial environments; radioisotope production and radiation technology; safety and security; incident and emergency preparedness and response; safety of nuclear installations; radiation and transport safety; management of radioactive waste; nuclear security

  4. Current status of ground source heat pumps and underground thermal energy storage in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B. [Justus Liebig University, Giessen (Germany). Institute of Applied Geosciences; Karytsas, C.; Mendrinos, D. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi (Greece); Rybach, L. [Geowatt AG, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-12-01

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, or Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHP), are systems combining a heat pump with a ground heat exchanger (closed loop systems), or fed by ground water from a well (open loop systems). They use the earth as a heat source when operating in heating mode, with a fluid (usually water or a water-antifreeze mixture) as the medium that transfers the heat from the earth to the evaporator of the heat pump, thus utilising geothermal energy. In cooling mode, they use the earth as a heat sink. With Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHE), geothermal heat pumps can offer both heating and cooling at virtually any location, with great flexibility to meet any demands. More than 20 years of R and D focusing on BUE in Europe has resulted in a well-established concept of sustainability for this technology, as well as sound design and installation criteria. Recent developments are the Thermal Response Test, which allows in-situ-determination of ground thermal properties for design purposes, and thermally enhanced grouting materials to reduce borehole thermal resistance. For cooling purposes, but also for the storage of solar or waste heat, the concept of underground thermal energy storage (UTES) could prove successful. Systems can be either open (aquifer storage) or can use BHE (borehole storage). Whereas cold storage is already established on the market, heat storage, and, in particular, high temperature heat storage (> 50{sup o}C) is still in the demonstration phase. Despite the fact that geothermal heat pumps have been in use for over 50 years now (the first were in the USA), market penetration of this technology is still in its infancy, with fossil fuels dominating the space heating market and air-to-air heat pumps that of space cooling. In Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, France and the USA, large numbers of geothermal heat pumps are already operational, and installation guidelines, quality control and contractor certification are now major issues

  5. Geothermal energy developments in the district heating of Szeged

    OpenAIRE

    Osvald, Máté; Szanyi, János; Medgyes, Tamás; Kóbor, Balázs; Csanádi, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The District Heating Company of Szeged supplies heat and domestic hot water to 27,000 households and 500 public buildings in Szeged. In 2015, the company decided to introduce geothermal sources into 4 of its 23 heating circuits and started the preparation activities of the development. Preliminary investigations revealed that injection into the sandstone reservoir and the hydraulic connection with already existing wells pose the greatest hydrogeological risks, while placement and operation of...

  6. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  7. Draft nuclear energy policy statement for DOE report to the International Energy Agency: long version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    US national energy policy recognizes that the continued development of commercial nuclear power in the United States is vital to US national security and energy stability since it is a significant domestic energy resource that is relatively free from international pressures. As of this writing (August 1989) the United States had 108 nuclear power reactors in commercial status. In January 1989 nuclear energy produced 46 billion KwH or 20% of total US electricity generated in contrast to 45 billion KwH (18.8%) produced in January 1988. The US Federal Government has been engaged in a variety of activities to ensure that nuclear energy remains a safe, economically competitive and environmentally acceptable option. Much of the federal effort in recent months has been devoted to developing initiatives designed to remove institutional and regulatory obstacles to the continued use of nuclear power as part of the US energy system. Within this context, the following paragraphs summarize the major features of the current status of the US nuclear energy program and policies

  8. Solar heating - a major source of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselaar, L.

    2001-01-01

    Actions that can be taken to increase the uptake of technology for solar water heaters and solar buildings are discussed. An overview of existing technology covers solar water heating, solar buildings, space heating, solar cooling, solar drying, solar desalination. Solar water heating, solar buildings and solar crop drying are discussed individually under the sub-headings of (a) the technology; (b) the market; (c) potential; (d) economics and (e) market acceleration strategies. Other subjects discussed are market acceleration, main opportunities, R and D needs and conclusions. The IEA solar heating and solar cooling programme is described

  9. Primary energy use for heating in the Swedish building sector-Current trends and proposed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.; Nylander, A.; Johnsson, F.

    2007-01-01

    One goal of the Swedish energy policy is to reduce the amount of electricity used for heating in the building sector. This means to reduce the primary energy used for heating which in this paper is analyzed in the context of various heating technologies and CO 2 emissions. The analysis is applied to a region in Sweden (southern Sweden) for which detailed information on the energy infrastructure (the capital stock of the buildings and heating systems together with geographical variations in heat intensity) is available from a previous work [Johansson, P., Nylander, A., Johnsson, F., 2005. Electricity dependency and CO 2 emissions from heating in the Swedish building sector-current trends in conflict with governmental policy? Energy policy] and which is large enough to be assumed representative for Sweden as a whole. The detailed mapping of the energy infrastructure allows a good estimate on the rate at which the energy system can be expected to be replaced with respect to economical lifetime of the capital stock (the year 2025 in this case). Two scenarios are investigated; a target scenario for which energy savings are employed (e.g. improving climate shell in buildings) and oil and most of the electricity used for heating purposes are phased out and a second for which the current trend in the heating market continues. In the target scenario it is shown that although only applying commercially competitive heating technologies, it is possible to achieve a 47% reduction in primary energy use for heating with a 34% decrease in heat demand together with significant reduction in CO 2 emissions. However, the scenario which continues the current trends on the heating market instead yields an increase (of about 10%) in primary energy use (reduction in conversion efficiency) of the heating system of the region over the period studied, in spite of a slight decrease in heat demand (9%, mainly due to energy efficiency measures) as well as in CO 2 emissions. In light of the

  10. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU), “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analy...

  11. Natural gas heating. The energy saving concept. Topical tasks of consumer guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windfeder, H

    1978-01-01

    Brief comments on natural gas, the technology of using natural gas for heating purposes, consumer psychology, and on energy policies are presented. It is concluded that the more natural gas heating is installed, the more primary energy can be saved. Some fundamental thoughts on consumer guidance are given for discussion.

  12. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  13. Improving adsorption dryer energy efficiency by simultaneous optimization and heat integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Conventionally, energy-saving techniques in drying technology are sequential in nature. First, the dryer is optimized without heat recovery and then, based on the obtained process conditions, heat recovery possibilities are explored. This work presents a methodology for energy-efficient adsorption

  14. Guided design of heating and cooling mains for lower water and energy consumption and increased efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water cooling and water heating is an important source of energy consumption, accounting for more than 20% of all energy consumption in manufacturing industry. It is clear that the development of heat recycling schemes and better structural design...

  15. Relaxation of ion energy spectrum just after turbulent heating pulse in TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Yukio; Itoh, Satoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1982-07-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial profile of the ion energy spectrum just after the application of a toroidal current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in the TRIAM-1 tokamak and also numerically using the Fokker-Planck equation. The two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to a single one within tausub(i) (the ion collision time).

  16. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were ... mate source of energy for all physical and bio- logical processes ... May) account for major thunderstorm activity in the state and winter ...

  17. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies. (letter)

  18. Study of high energy ion loss during hydrogen minority heating in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1994-03-01

    High energy ion loss during hydrogen minority ICRF heating is measured and compared with the loss of the D-D fusion products. During H minority heating a relatively large loss of high energy ions is observed at 45 degrees below the outer midplane, with or without simultaneous NBI heating. This increase is most likely due to a loss of the minority tail protons, a possible model for this process is described

  19. Small-scale automated biomass energy heating systems: a viable option for remote Canadian communities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallum, B. [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Industry, Economics and Programs Branch

    1997-12-31

    The potential benefits of wood energy (forest biomass) for space heating in Canada`s remote communities was discussed. Diesel fuel and heating oil must be transported into these communities to produce electricity and to heat large public buildings. Below the treeline, roundwood is often used to heat private homes. The move toward environmentally sustainable development has focussed much attention on renewable energy technologies such as biomass energy, (i.e. any form of energy derived from plant or animal materials). Wood is the most readily available biomass fuel in remote communities. Woodchips and sawmill waste can be burned in automated biomass heating systems which provide a convenient way to use low-grade wood to heat large buildings or groups of buildings which would not be feasible to heat with roundwood. It was shown that one cord of spruce can produce 1.5 tonnes of woodchips to ultimately displace 300 litres of heating oil. A description of a small-commercial and small-industrial biomass system was presented. The benefits of biomass were described as: (1) direct savings compared to high-cost oil heat, (2) increased circulation of energy dollars inside the community, and (3) employment opportunities in harvesting, processing and operating biomass systems. A steady supply of good quality woodchips to the heating plant must be ensured. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  20. Energy and sustainable development. Perspectives from the Paris-based International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1999-01-01

    The G-8 leaders issued a statement expressing their commitment 'to encourage the development of energy markets' and declared that 'the greatest environmental threat of our future prosperity remains climate change and we confirm our determination to address it'. One of the options for tackling the greenhouse gas problem is to encourage substitution of carbon free fuels for conventional fossil fuels. This includes renewable energy sources and nuclear power, which has significant advantages to a society troubled by the prospect of climate change triggered by carbon emissions. Fuel supply to civil nuclear power plants is potentially, indefinitely sustainable. Uranium resources are globally widespread and could last 60 years, longer than the known reserves of oil and gas. Technological options are known for increasing the energy extracted from natural uranium. A recent IEA publication 'Nuclear Power Sustainability: Climate Change, Competition' discusses what would be necessary to make both renewable and nuclear energy sources cost-effective