Turbulent Friction in Rough Pipes and the Energy Spectrum of the Phenomenological Theory
Gioia, G; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2005-01-01
The classical experiments on turbulent friction in rough pipes were performed by J. Nikuradse in the 1930's. Seventy years later, they continue to defy theory. Here we model Nikuradse's experiments using the phenomenological theory of Kolmogorov, a theory that is widely thought to be applicable only to highly idealized flows. Our results include both the empirical scalings of Blasius and Strickler, and are otherwise in minute qualitative agreement with the experiments; they suggest that the phenomenological theory may be relevant to other flows of practical interest; and they unveil the existence of close ties between two milestones of experimental and theoretical turbulence.
Phenomenological theory of mortality
Azbel, Mark Ya.
1997-09-01
Extensive demographic studies relate aging to the increase in mortality, terminated by the species-specific lifespan limit. Meanwhile, recent experiments demonstrate that medfly mortality decreases at older ages, and challenge a limited lifespan paradigm. This paper proves that there exists a genetically programmed probability to die at any given age, and presents its phenomenological theory. The implications of the universal mortality law crucially depend on the cohort heterogeneity. For relatively high heterogeneity the law predicts unitarily vanishing old age mortality; this is verified with medfly data. For relatively low heterogeneity it predicts a precipitous drop in mortality fluctuations in old age. This is verified with demographic data. If comprehensive studies verify a species-specific characteristic age, then that age may be genetically manipulated. If the studies verify a unitary law of mortality, the results may be generalized to all species. A phenomenological model of mortality is presented.
Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology
Parke, Stephen
2013-10-22
The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.
Schmitz, Fabian; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt
2014-07-01
The computation of interfacial free energies between coexisting phases (e.g., saturated vapor and liquid) by computer simulation methods is still a challenging problem due to the difficulty of an atomistic identification of an interface and interfacial fluctuations on all length scales. The approach to estimate the interfacial tension from the free-energy excess of a system with interfaces relative to corresponding single-phase systems does not suffer from the first problem but still suffers from the latter. Considering d-dimensional systems with interfacial area Ld -1 and linear dimension Lz in the direction perpendicular to the interface, it is argued that the interfacial fluctuations cause logarithmic finite-size effects of order ln(L)/Ld -1 and order ln(Lz)/Ld -1, in addition to regular corrections (with leading-order const/Ld -1). A phenomenological theory predicts that the prefactors of the logarithmic terms are universal (but depend on the applied boundary conditions and the considered statistical ensemble). The physical origin of these corrections are the translational entropy of the interface as a whole, "domain breathing" (coupling of interfacial fluctuations to the bulk order parameter fluctuations of the coexisting domains), and capillary waves. Using a new variant of the ensemble switch method, interfacial tensions are found from Monte Carlo simulations of d =2 and d =3 Ising models and a Lennard-Jones fluid. The simulation results are fully consistent with the theoretical predictions.
Neutrino oscillations: theory and phenomenology
Akhmedov, E.K., E-mail: akhmedov@ictp.trieste.it [Department of Theoretical Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2011-12-15
A brief overview of selected topics in the theory and phenomenology of neutrino oscillations is given. These include: oscillations in vacuum and in matter; phenomenology of 3-flavour neutrino oscillations; CP and T violation in neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter; matter effects on {nu}{sub {mu}}{r_reversible}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations; parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations inside the earth; oscillations below and above the MSW resonance; unsettled issues in the theory of neutrino oscillations.
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
Gori, Stefania
2017-01-01
The discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider marks the culmination of a decades-long hunt for the last ingredient of the Standard Model. At the same time, there are still many puzzles in particle physics, foremost the existence of a relatively light Higgs boson, seemingly without any extra weak scale particles that would stabilize the Higgs mass against quantum corrections, and the existence of Dark Matter. This talk will give an overview of the most interesting theories that address these problems and how to test these theories at the LHC.
Phenomenology of dark energy: exploring the space of theories with future redshift surveys
Piazza, Federico; Marinoni, Christian
2013-01-01
We use the effective field theory of dark energy to explore the space of modified gravitymodels which are capable of driving the present cosmic acceleration. We identify five universal functions of cosmic time, which are enough to describe a wide range of theories containing a single scalar degree of freedom in addition to the metric. The first function (the effective equation of state) uniquely controls the expansion history of the universe. The remaining four functions appear in the linear cosmological perturbation equations, but only three of them regulate the growth history of large scale structures. We propose a specific parameterization of such functions in terms of characteristic coefficients that serve as coordinates in the space of modified gravity theories and can be effectively constrained by the next generation of cosmological experiments. We address in full generality the problem of the soundness of the theory against ghost-like and gradient instabilities and show how the space of non-pathologica...
Astroparticle physics theory and phenomenology
Sigl, Günter
2017-01-01
This books aims at giving an overview over theoretical and phenomenological aspects of particle astrophysics and particle cosmology. To be of interest for both students and researchers in neighboring fields of physics, it keeps a balance between well established foundations that will not significantly change in the future and a more in-depth treatment of selected subfields in which significant new developments have been taking place recently. These include high energy particle astrophysics, such as cosmic high energy neutrinos, the interplay between detection techniques of dark matter in the laboratory and in high energy cosmic radiation, axion-like particles, and relics of the early Universe such as primordial magnetic fields and gravitational waves. It also contains exercises and thus will be suitable for both introductory and advanced courses in astroparticle physics.
Phenomenology of SU(5) finite unified theories
Heinemeyer, S [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Edificio Juan Jorda, Avda. de Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Mondragon, M [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, Mexico 01000 D.F. (Mexico); Zoupanos, G, E-mail: heinemey@mail.cern.c, E-mail: myriam@fisica.unam.m, E-mail: zoupanos@mail.cern.c [Physics Department, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus: Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou, Athens (Greece)
2009-06-01
Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are N = 1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) which can be made finite to all-loop orders, leading to a large reduction in the number of free parameters. We confront the predictions of SU(5) FUTs with the top and bottom quark masses, which allows us to discriminate among different models. We include further low-energy phenomenology constraints, such as B physics observables, the bound on the SM Higgs mass and the cold dark matter density, and then are able to make predictions for the lightest Higgs boson mass and the sparticle spectrum.
Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics
Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.
1990-08-29
This paper deals with research being conducted at the University of Arizona in the theory of strong and weak interactions. Topics in Quantum chromodynamics, quantum electrodynamics, symmetry principle, hadronic structure of the photon and other are discussed. (LSP)
Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity
Felice, Antonio De [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Mukohyama, Shinji [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,277-8583, Chiba (Japan)
2016-04-15
We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.
Dark energy interacting with neutrinos and dark matter: a phenomenological theory
Kremer, G M
2007-01-01
A model for a flat homogeneous and isotropic Universe composed of dark energy, dark matter, neutrinos, radiation and baryons is analyzed. The fields of dark matter and neutrinos are supposed to interact with the dark energy. The dark energy is considered to obey either the van der Waals or the Chaplygin equations of state. The ratio between the pressure and the energy density of the neutrinos varies with the red-shift simulating massive and non-relativistic neutrinos at small red-shifts and non-massive relativistic neutrinos at high red-shifts. The model can reproduce the expected red-shift behaviors of the deceleration parameter and of the density parameters of each constituent.
Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.
1988-01-22
This paper contains progress information on the following topics in High Energy Physics: strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions; aspects of quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays, and structure; the dynamical generation of a mass gap and the role and truthfulness of perturbation theory; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production; and realization of chiral symmetry and temperature effects in supersymmetric theories. (LSP)
Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity
De Felice, Antonio
2015-01-01
We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar ...
Phenomenology of Noncommutative Field Theories
Carone, C D
2006-01-01
Experimental limits on the violation of four-dimensional Lorentz invariance imply that noncommutativity among ordinary spacetime dimensions must be small. In this talk, I review the most stringent bounds on noncommutative field theories and suggest a possible means of evading them: noncommutativity may be restricted to extra, compactified spatial dimensions. Such theories have a number of interesting features, including Abelian gauge fields whose Kaluza-Klein excitations have self couplings. We consider six-dimensional QED in a noncommutative bulk, and discuss the collider signatures of the model.
Phenomenological Justification of Theory of Time
Perminov V. Ya.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article exposes Husserl’s theory of time and provides its detailed comparison with theories of time of I. Kant and F. Brentano. The author first examines the general principles of the phenomenological theory of consciousness, and then analyzes the time concept of F. Brentano and Husserl’s criticism of these ideas, and eventually makes a comparison of Husserl’s and Kant’s theories of time. The author is inclined to conclude that progress in the interpretation of the time made by Husserl, is largely external, based on unacceptable epistemological principles. Critique of these principles the author plans to carry out in one of the next issues of the magazine.
Marquet, C
2006-09-15
When probing small distances inside a hadron, one can resolve its partonic constituents: quarks and gluons that obey the laws of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This substructure reveals itself in hadronic collisions characterized by a large momentum transfer: in such collisions, a hadron acts like a collection of partons whose interactions can be described in QCD. In a collision at moderate energy, a hadron looks dilute and the partons interact incoherently. As the collision energy increases, the parton density inside the hadron grows. Eventually, at some energy much bigger than the momentum transfer, one enters the saturation regime of QCD: the gluon density has become so large that collective effects are important. We introduce a formalism suitable to study hadronic collisions in the high-energy limit in QCD, and the transition to the saturation regime. In this framework, we derive known results that are needed to present our personal contributions and we compute different cross-sections in the context of hard diffraction and particle production. We study the transition to the saturation regime as given by the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. In particular we derive properties of its solutions.We apply our results to deep inelastic scattering and show that, in the energy range of the HERA collider, the predictions of high-energy QCD are in good agreement with the data. We also consider jet production in hadronic collisions and discuss the possibility to test saturation at the Large Hadron Collider. (author)
Phenomenological Theory of the Photoevaporation Front Instability
Ryutov, D D; Kane, J O; Mizuta, A; Pound, M W; Remington, B A
2006-04-10
The dynamics of photoevaporated molecular clouds is determined by the ablative pressure acting on the ionization front. An important step in the understanding of the ensuing motion is to develop the linear stability theory for the initially flat front. Despite the simplifications introduced by the linearization, the problem remains quite complex and still draws a lot of attention. The complexity is related to the large number of effects that have to be included in the analysis: acceleration of the front, possible temporal variation of the intensity of the ionizing radiation, the tilt of the radiation flux with respect to the normal to the surface, and partial absorption of the incident radiation in the ablated material. In this paper, we describe a model where all these effects can be taken into account simultaneously, and a relatively simple and universal dispersion relation can be obtained. The proposed phenomenological model may prove to be a helpful tool in assessing the feasibility of the laboratory experiments directed towards scaled modeling of astrophysical phenomena.
Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.
Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime
2015-12-01
The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls.
Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology
Signell, P.
1981-03-01
This project involves five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the ..pi..N and ..pi pi.. physical regions of the N anti N ..-->.. ..pi pi.. amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly; (4) the introduction of a K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0-1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon reseachers.
Causal Set theory, non-locality and phenomenology
Belenchia, Alessio
2015-01-01
This proceeding is based on a talk prepared for the XIV Marcel Grossmann meeting. We review some results on causal set inspired non-local theories as well as work in progress concerning their phenomenology.
Phenomenology and cosmology of weakly coupled string theory
Gaillard, Mary K.
1998-05-18
The weakly coupled vacuum of E{sub 8} {circle_times} E{sub 8} heterotic string theory remains an attractive scenario for phenomenology and cosmology. The particle spectrum is reviewed and the issues of gauge coupling unification, dilaton stabilization and modular cosmology are discussed. A specific model for condensation and supersymmetry breaking, that respects known constraints from string theory and is phenomenologically viable, is described.
Theoretical and Phenomenological Aspects of Superstring Theories
Kokorelis, C E
1997-01-01
We discuss aspects of the heterotic string effective field theories in orbifold constructions of the heterotic string. We calculate the moduli dependence of threshold corrections to gauge couplings in (2,2) symmetric orbifold compactifications. We perform the calculation of the threshold corrections for a particular class of abelian (2,2) symmetric non-decomposable orbifold models... internal twist is realized as generalized Coxeter automorphism. We define the limits for the existence of states causing singularities in the moduli space in the perturbative regime for a generic vacuum of the heterotic string. The 'proof' provides evidence for the explanation of the stringy 'Higgs effect'. Furthermore, we calculate the moduli dependence of threshold corrections as target space invariant free energies for non-decomposable orbifolds, identifying the Hauptmodul' functions for the relevant congruence subgroups. The required solutions provide for the \\mu mass term generation in the effective low energy theory and aff...
钟维烈; 王玉国; 张沛霖; 曲保东
1997-01-01
The relationship between the transverse field Ising model and the Landau phenomenological theory for ferroelectrics is analyzed, and the Landau free energy expression for ferroelectrics having surfaces is derived. It is pointed out that the traditional expression in which the surface integral has only a term of the square polarization is valid only for special cases, in general a term of the polarization to the four should be included as well. By use of the newly derived free energy expression, the thickness-dependence of the spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature of ferroelectric films is calculated; thereby some experimental results incompatible with the traditional phenomenological theory are successfully explained.
Theory and Phenomenology of an Exceptional Supersymmetric Standard Model
King, S F; Nevzorov, R
2006-01-01
We make a comprehensive study of the theory and phenomenology of a low energy supersymmetric standard model originating from a string-inspired $E_6$ grand unified gauge group. The Exceptional Supersymmetric Standard Model (ESSM) considered here is based on the low energy SM gauge group together with an extra $Z'$ corresponding to an extra $U(1)_{N}$ gauge symmetry under which right--handed neutrinos have zero charge. The low energy matter content of the ESSM corresponds to three 27 representations of the $E_6$ symmetry group, to ensure anomaly cancellation, plus an additional pair of Higgs--like doublets as required for high energy gauge coupling unification. The ESSM is therefore a low energy alternative to the MSSM or NMSSM. The ESSM involves extra matter beyond the MSSM contained in three $5+5^*$ representations of SU(5), plus three SU(5) singlets which carry $U(1)_{N}$ charges, one of which develops a VEV, providing the effective $\\mu$ term for the Higgs doublets, as well as the necessary exotic fermion m...
Phenomenology of hard diffraction at high energies
Machado, Magno V T
2016-01-01
We present some of the topics covered in two lectures under the same title that was given at the "Summer School on High Energy Physics at the LHC: New trends in HEP" in Natal, Brazil. In this contribution we give a brief review on the application of perturbative QCD to the hard diffractive processes. Such reactions involving a hard scale can be understood in terms of quarks and gluons degrees of freedom and have become an useful tool for investigating the low-$x$ structure of the proton and the behavior of QCD in the high-density regime. We start using the information from the $ep$ collisions at HERA concerned to the inclusive diffraction to introduce the concept of diffractive parton distributions. Their interpretation in the resolved pomeron model is addressed and we discuss the limits of diffractive hard-scattering factorization for hadron-hadron collisions. Some examples of phenomenology for the diffractive production of $W/Z$, heavy $Q\\bar{Q}$ and quarkonium in hadron-hadron reactions are presented. We a...
Quantum Fields on Noncommutative Spacetimes: Theory and Phenomenology
Aiyalam P. Balachandran
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In the present work we review the twisted field construction of quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetimes based on twisted Poincaré invariance. We present the latest development in the field, in particular the notion of equivalence of such quantum field theories on a noncommutative spacetime, in this regard we work out explicitly the inequivalence between twisted quantum field theories on Moyal and Wick-Voros planes; the duality between deformations of the multiplication map on the algebra of functions on spacetime F(R^4 and coproduct deformations of the Poincaré-Hopf algebra HP acting on F(R^4; the appearance of a nonassociative product on F(R^4 when gauge fields are also included in the picture. The last part of the manuscript is dedicated to the phenomenology of noncommutative quantum field theories in the particular approach adopted in this review. CPT violating processes, modification of two-point temperature correlation function in CMB spectrum analysis and Pauli-forbidden transition in Be^4 are all effects which show up in such a noncommutative setting. We review how they appear and in particular the constraint we can infer from comparison between theoretical computations and experimental bounds on such effects. The best bound we can get, coming from Borexino experiment, is >10^{24} TeV for the energy scale of noncommutativity, which corresponds to a length scale <10^{-43} m. This bound comes from a different model of spacetime deformation more adapted to applications in atomic physics. It is thus model dependent even though similar bounds are expected for the Moyal spacetime as well as argued elsewhere.
Phenomenological theory of mortality and aginge
Azbel', Mark Ya.
There are many theories of mortality, but no consensus even on the basic problem: is it genetically determined? In a general case, the problem is mathematically unsolvable. Yet, in the case of mortality, a physical approach yields its universal law. The law predicts, e.g., that mortality and senescence may decrease with age. Experiments verify it. I suggest experiments, which are supposed to produce genetic Methuselas, who live, e.g., over 20 η ( η is the mean life span), but whose biological age is less than η/2. If the universal mortality law is convincingly proven, it may lead to a quantitative model and theory of mortality and aging.
UHECR theory and phenomenology: Summary and outlook
Olinto Angela V.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Theorists and phenomenologists have contributed significantly to the development of the field of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs. Great progress has been achieved in modeling hadronic interactions, developing precise propagation codes, understanding the role of different backgrounds and magnetic fields in the propagation of ultrahigh energy protons and nuclei, predicting the flux of secondary neutrinos and photons, modeling astrophysical sources and their acceleration mechanisms, developing new techniques to test anisotropies in the sky distribution, proposing new physics phenomena that can be tested at ultrahigh energy, and sharpening the distinction between astrophysical interpretations of unexpected trends (such as the composition at the highest energies and new physics at play in hadronic interactions at energies well beyond the reach of terrestrial laboratories. Better developed models when combined with recent data have framed current open questions. 1. Is the spectral feature at the highest energies the GZK cutoff or the effect of Emax? 2. Is the composition of primaries changing at the highest energies or are new interactions responsible for the change in behavior of extensive air showers? 3. At what energy and sensitivity will sources be observed? 4. At what energies cosmic rays transition from being Galactic to becoming extragalactic? And the most basic question remains, 5. what are the sources (and the acceleration mechanism of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays? To answer these questions more observations are needed. Chief among the theorists’ wish list is the increase in statistics at the highest energies and the second wish is for full sky coverage. These efforts should lead to the localization of a source (or sources in the sky which would revolutionize the field. Another avenue for major progress would be the detection of neutrino and photon secondaries, especially at ultrahigh energies. More immediate progress can be reached
Theory and Phenomenology of Spacetime Defects
Hossenfelder, Sabine
2014-01-01
Whether or not space-time is fundamentally discrete is of central importance for the development of the theory of quantum gravity. If the fundamental description of space-time is discrete, typically represented in terms of a graph or network, then the apparent smoothness of geometry on large scales should be imperfect -- it should have defects. Here, we review a model for space-time defects and summarize the constraints on the prevalence of these defects that can be derived from observation.
Phenomenological theory of collective decision-making
Zafeiris, Anna; Koman, Zsombor; Mones, Enys
2017-01-01
An essential task of groups is to provide efficient solutions for the complex problems they face. Indeed, considerable efforts have been devoted to the question of collective decision-making related to problems involving a single dominant feature. Here we introduce a quantitative formalism...... requires that the specialists also have some insight into the sub-problems beyond their unique field(s). We present empirical results obtained by using a large-scale database of citations being in good agreement with the above theory. The framework we have developed can easily be adapted to a variety...
Broken flavor symmetries in high energy particle phenomenology
Antaramian, A.
1995-02-22
Over the past couple of decades, the Standard Model of high energy particle physics has clearly established itself as an invaluable tool in the analysis of high energy particle phenomenon. However, from a field theorists point of view, there are many dissatisfying aspects to the model. One of these, is the large number of free parameters in the theory arising from the Yukawa couplings of the Higgs doublet. In this thesis, we examine various issues relating to the Yukawa coupeng structure of high energy particle field theories. We begin by examining extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics which contain additional scalar fields. By appealing to the flavor structure observed in the fermion mass and Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, we propose a reasonable phenomenological parameterization of the new Yukawa couplings based on the concept of approximate flavor symmetries. It is shown that such a parameterization eliminates the need for discrete symmetries which limit the allowed couplings of the new scalars. New scalar particles which can mediate exotic flavor changing reactions can have masses as low as the weak scale. Next, we turn to the issue of neutrino mass matrices, where we examine a particular texture which leads to matter independent neutrino oscillation results for solar neutrinos. We, then, examine the basis for extremely strict limits placed on flavor changing interactions which also break lepton- and/or baryon-number. These limits are derived from cosmological considerations. Finally, we embark on an extended analysis of proton decay in supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories. In such theories, the dominant decay diagrams involve the Yukawa couplings of a heavy triplet superfield. We argue that past calculations of proton decay which were based on the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model require reexamination because the Yukawa couplings of that theory are known to be wrong.
Phenomenological theory of collective decision-making
Zafeiris, Anna; Koman, Zsombor; Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás
2017-08-01
An essential task of groups is to provide efficient solutions for the complex problems they face. Indeed, considerable efforts have been devoted to the question of collective decision-making related to problems involving a single dominant feature. Here we introduce a quantitative formalism for finding the optimal distribution of the group members' competences in the more typical case when the underlying problem is complex, i.e., multidimensional. Thus, we consider teams that are aiming at obtaining the best possible answer to a problem having a number of independent sub-problems. Our approach is based on a generic scheme for the process of evaluating the proposed solutions (i.e., negotiation). We demonstrate that the best performing groups have at least one specialist for each sub-problem - but a far less intuitive result is that finding the optimal solution by the interacting group members requires that the specialists also have some insight into the sub-problems beyond their unique field(s). We present empirical results obtained by using a large-scale database of citations being in good agreement with the above theory. The framework we have developed can easily be adapted to a variety of realistic situations since taking into account the weights of the sub-problems, the opinions or the relations of the group is straightforward. Consequently, our method can be used in several contexts, especially when the optimal composition of a group of decision-makers is designed.
The Phenomenological Status of the Theory of Natural Selection
Santiago Ginnobili
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Some scholars have pointed out the phenomenological character of the theory of natural selection, in the sense that it does not propose new theoretical terms. Since others have held that one of the characteristics of explanatory theories is that they conceptually enrich their field of application, it could be said that the theory in question is lacking with respect to its explanatory capacity. The article addresses this issue by proposing an informal reconstruction of the Darwinian theory of natural selection using structuralist meta-theoretical tools. The objective is to show that the theory suggests at least one explanatory concept, which could be called “aptitude”, although all of its concepts are non-theoretical in the structuralist sense.
Enveloping algebra Noncommutative SM: Renormalisability and High Energy Physics Phenomenology
Trampetic, Josip
2009-01-01
In this talk we discuss enveloping algebra based noncommutative gauge field theory, constructed at the first order in noncommutative parameter theta, as an effective, anomaly free theory, with one-loop renormalizable gauge sector. Limits on the scale of noncommutativity parameter Lambda_NC, via related phenomenology and associated experiments, are analyzed and a firm bound to the scale of the noncommutativity is set around few TeV's.
Phenomenological Theory for Spatiotemporal Chaos in Rayleigh-Benard Convection
Li, Xiao-jun; Xi, Hao-wen; Gunton, J. D.
1997-01-01
We present a phenomenological theory for spatiotemporal chaos (STC) in Rayleigh-Benard convection, based on the generalized Swift-Hohenberg model. We apply a random phase approximation to STC and conjecture a scaling form for the structure factor $S(k)$ with respect to the correlation length $\\xi_2$. We hence obtain analytical results for the time-averaged convective current $J$ and the time-averaged vorticity current $\\Omega$. We also define power-law behaviors such as $J \\sim \\epsilon^\\mu$,...
TOPICAL PROBLEMS: The phenomenological theory of world population growth
Kapitza, Sergei P.
1996-01-01
Of all global problems world population growth is the most significant. Demographic data describe this process in a concise and quantitative way in its past and present. Analysing this development it is possible by applying the concepts of systems analysis and synergetics, to work out a mathematical model for a phenomenological description of the global demographic process and to project its trends into the future. Assuming self-similarity as the dynamic principle of development, growth can be described practically over the whole of human history, assuming the growth rate to be proportional to the square of the number of people. The large parameter of the theory and the effective size of a coherent population group is of the order of 105 and the microscopic parameter of the phenomenology is the human lifespan. The demographic transition — a transition to a stabilised world population of some 14 billion in a foreseeable future — is a systemic singularity and is determined by the inherent pattern of growth of an open system, rather than by the lack of resources. The development of a quantitative nonlinear theory of the world population is of interest for interdisciplinary research in anthropology and demography, history and sociology, for population genetics and epidemiology, for studies in evolution of humankind and the origin of man. The model also provides insight into the stability of growth and the present predicament of humankind, and provides a setting for discussing the main global problems.
Phenomenology of TeV little string theory from holography.
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Giveon, Amit
2012-02-24
We study the graviton phenomenology of TeV little string theory by exploiting its holographic gravity dual five-dimensional theory. This dual corresponds to a linear dilaton background with a large bulk that constrains the standard model fields on the boundary of space. The linear dilaton geometry produces a unique Kaluza-Klein graviton spectrum that exhibits a ~TeV mass gap followed by a near continuum of narrow resonances that are separated from each other by only ~30 GeV. Resonant production of these particles at the LHC is the signature of this framework that distinguishes it from large extra dimensions, where the Kaluza-Klein states are almost a continuum with no mass gap, and warped models, where the states are separated by a TeV.
Ibáñez, Luis E
2015-01-01
This chapter reviews a number of topics in the field of string phenomenology, focusing on orientifold/F-theory models yielding semirealistic low-energy physics. The emphasis is on the extraction of the low-energy effective action and possible tests of specific models at the LHC.
High Energy Phenomenology - Proceedings of the Workshop
Pérez, Miguel A.; Huerta, Rodrigo
1992-06-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Radiative Corrections in the Electroweak Standard Model * Introduction * The Electroweak Standard Model and its Renormalization * Basic Properties of the Standard Model * Renormalization of the Standard Model * Calculation of Radiative Corrections * One-Loop Integrals * Corrected Matrix Elements and Cross Sections * Photonic Corrections * Physical Applications and Results * Parameter Relations in Higher Orders * Decay Widths * Z Physics * W-Pair Production * Higgs Production in e+e- Annihilation * Conclusion * Appendix: Feynman Rules * References * Hadron Collider Physics * Introduction * e+ e- Annihilation * The Standard Model * The Drell-Yan Process in Hadronic Collisions * The Structure Functions * Hadronic Z Production * Hadronic W Production * The Transverse Mass * Quark Decays of W's * Weak Interactions * Neutrino Scattering * Weak Neutral Currents * The Standard Model * Symmetries and Lagrangians * Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking * The Standard Model Again * Experimental Situation * Appendix * References * Lectures on Heavy Quark Effective Theory * Introduction * Motivation * Physical Intuition * The Heavy Quark Effective Theory * The Effective Lagrangian and its Feynman Rules * What is an Effective Theory? * The Effective Theory Beyond Tree Level * External Currents * Leading-Logs or No Leading-Logs; A digression * Sample Calculations * Symmetries * Flavor-SU(N) * Spin-SU(2) * Spectrum * Strong Transitions * Covariant Representation of States * Meson Decay Constants * Preliminaries * Formal Derivation: Green Functions * Quick and Dirty Derivation: States in the HQET * Vector Meson Decay Constant * Corrections * Form Factors in overline {B} rightarrow Deν and overline {B} rightarrow D ^ast {e}ν * Preliminaries * Form Factors in the HQET * Form Factors in order αs * 1/MQ * The Correcting Lagrangian * The Corrected Currents * Corrections of order mc/mb * Corrections of order overline {
Phenomenological theory of bulk diffusion in metal oxides
Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Smirnova, E. S.
2016-07-01
Phenomenological description of bulk diffusion in oxide ceramics has been proposed. Variants of vacancy and vacancy-free diffusion models have been considered. In the vacancy models, ion migration is described as a fluctuation with the formation of a "liquid corridor," along which the diffusion ion transport in a "melt" is performed, or, as a fluctuation with the formation of an "empty corridor," in which the ion motion proceeds without activation. The vacancy-free model considers a fluctuation with the formation of a spherical liquid region whose sizes correspond to the first coordination sphere. It has been shown that both the vacancy models work in cubic metal oxides and the vacancy-free model is effective for describing diffusion in oxides having a noncubic structure. Detailed comparison of the models developed has been performed. It has been shown that the values of the activation energies for diffusion of metal and oxygen ions agree with the published data on bulk diffusion in stoichiometric oxide ceramics.
Textual Practitioners: A Comparison of Hypertext Theory and Phenomenology of Reading
Carusi, Annamaria
2006-01-01
The article is an exploration of online reading from the perspective of theories of reading and interpretation based on literary theory and the phenomenology of reading literary text. One of its aims is to show that such theories can make a contribution to our understanding of reading and to our design of online reading spaces. The precursor of…
Topics in phenomenology of unified gauge theories of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions
Kang, Y.S.
1982-11-01
Three phenomenological analyses on the current unification theories of elementary particle interactions are presented. In Chapter I, the neutral current phenomenology of a class of supersymmetric SU(2) x U(1) x U tilde(1) models is analyzed. A model with the simplest fermion and Higgs structure allowing a realistic mass spectrum is considered first. Its neutral current sector is parametrized in terms of two mixing angles and the strength of the new U tilde(1) interactions. Expressions for low-energy model-independent parameters are derived and compared with those of the standard model. Bounds on the neutral gauge boson masses are obtained from the data for various neutrino interactions, eD scattering, and the asymmetry in e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/. In Chapter II, the evolution of fermion mass in grand unified theories is reexamined. In particular, the question of gauge invariance of mass ratios in left-right asymmetric theories is considered. A simple expression is derived for the evolution of the Higgs-fermion-fermion coupling which essentially governs the scale dependence of fermion mass. At the one loop level the expression is gauge invariant and involves only the representation content of left- and right-handed fermions but not that of Higgs. The corresponding expression for supersymmetric theories is also given. In Chapter III, the production and the subsequent decays of a heavy lepton pair L/sup + -/ near the Z peak in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation are considered as a test of the standard model. The longitudinal polarization is derived from the spin-dependent production cross-section, and the decays L ..-->.. ..pi.. nu and L ..-->.. l nu nu are used as helicity analyzers.
The theory and phenomenology of coloured quark models
Close, F E
1975-01-01
A general introduction to coloured quark models is given and their phenomenology is described with particular reference to the new particles. It is shown that there are essentially three types of colour models with colour excitation when the colour group is SU(3)- Han-Nambu, Greenberg and a model which has the same charges as that of Tati and which can be thought of as the Gell-Mann colour scheme with excitation of the colour degrees of freedom. Particular attention is paid to the four problems of colour models for psi phenomenology-the radiative decays, the G parity conservation, the lack of deep inelastic threshold phenomena and the apparent discovery of dileptons at SPEAR. (40 refs).
A phenomenological theory for polarization flop in spiral multiferroic TbMnO$_3$
Tiwari Shruti; Sa Debanand
2016-04-01
A phenomenological Landau theory has been used to explain magnetic field-driven polarization flop in TbMnO3. The Néel wall-like magnetic structure in spiral multiferroics induces a space-dependent internal magnetic field which exerts a torque on spins to rotate bc-spiral to abspiral. The external magnetic field is argued to be competing with easy axis anisotropy and the system stabilizes when anisotropy is minimum.With the help of Landau free energy with DM magnetoelectric coupling and a general ansatz for magnetization, the phenomenon of polarization flop has been explained. Relation between Tflop and critical magnetic field has been established and found to be in good agreement with the experiment. This could be an indication that anisotropy ofthe system is temperature- and magnetic field-dependent.
Phenomenological Theory of Isotropic-Genesis Nematic Elastomers
Lu, Bing-Sui; Ye, Fangfu; Xing, Xiangjun; Goldbart, Paul M.
2012-06-01
We consider the impact of the elastomer network on the nematic structure and fluctuations in isotropic-genesis nematic elastomers, via a phenomenological model that underscores the role of network compliance. The model contains a network-mediated nonlocal interaction as well as a new kind of random field that reflects the memory of the nematic order present at network formation and also encodes local anisotropy due to localized nematogenic polymers. This model enables us to predict regimes of short-ranged oscillatory spatial correlations (thermal and glassy) in the nematic alignment.
Neutrino Phenomenology of Very Low-Energy Seesaws
De Gouvêa, A; Vasudevan, N; Gouvea, Andre de; Jenkins, James; Vasudevan, Nirmala
2007-01-01
The Standard Model augmented by the presence of gauge-singlet right-handed neutrinos proves to be an ideal scenario for accommodating nonzero neutrino masses. Among the new parameters of this ``New Standard Model'' are right-handed neutrino Majorana masses M. Theoretical prejudice points to M much larger than the electroweak symmetry breaking scale, but it has recently been emphasized that all M values are technically natural and should be explored. Indeed, M around 1-10 eV can accommodate an elegant oscillation solution to the LSND anomaly, while other M values lead to several observable consequences. We consider the phenomenology of low energy seesaw scenarios with M less than and equal to approximately 1 keV. By exploring such a framework with three right-handed neutrinos, we can consistently fit all oscillation data -- including those from LSND -- while partially addressing several astrophysical puzzles, including anomalous pulsar kicks, heavy element nucleosynthesis in supernovae, and the existence of wa...
Rosen, Steven M
2017-07-04
This paper carries forward the author's contribution to PBMP's previous special issue on Integral Biomathics (Rosen 2015). In the earlier paper, the crisis in contemporary theoretical physics was described and it was demonstrated that the problem can be addressed effectively only by shifting the foundations of physics from objectivist Cartesian philosophy to phenomenological philosophy. To that end, a phenomenological string theory was proposed based on qualitative topology and hypercomplex numbers. The current presentation takes this further by delving into the ancient Chinese origin of phenomenological string theory. First, we discover a deep connection between the Klein bottle, which is crucial to the theory, and the Ho-t'u, an old Chinese number archetype central to Taoist cosmology. The two structures are seen to mirror each other in expressing the curious psychophysical (phenomenological) action pattern at the heart of microphysics. But tackling the question of quantum gravity requires that a whole family of topological dimensions be brought into play. What we find in engaging with these structures is a closely related family of Taoist forebears that, in concert with their successors, provide a blueprint for cosmic evolution. Whereas conventional string theory accounts for the generation of nature's fundamental forces via a notion of symmetry breaking that is essentially static and thus unable to explain cosmogony successfully, phenomenological/Taoist string theory is guided by the dialectical interplay between symmetry and asymmetry inherent in the principle of synsymmetry. This dynamic concept of cosmic change is elaborated on in the three concluding sections of the paper. Here, a detailed analysis of cosmogony is offered, first in terms of the theory of dimensional development and its Taoist (yin-yang) counterpart, then in terms of the evolution of the elemental force particles through cycles of expansion and contraction in a spiraling universe. The paper
A phenomenological theory of world population growth and global problems
Kapitza, Sergei P
1996-01-01
Of all global problems world population growth is the most significant one. To describe this process in its past and project it into the future a mathematical model is worked out. It treats the world population as an entity, seen as an open and evolv The approach is phenomenological and growth over very many generations is assumed to be selfsimilar and described by scaling. In terms of kinetics, the growth rate is proportional to the square of the total number of people and the nonlinear hyperbol of all mechanisms that contribute to our development in a collective interactive process. The model gives an estimate of the beginning of human evolution c.a. 4.4 million years ago and of the total number of people who ever lived c.a. 100 billion. In the scope of the model large scale cycles defined by history and anthropology are shown to be uniformly spaced in time on a logarithmic scale, expressing and inherent periodicity. As we approach the present, this progression of cycles is now termo transition. This is a s...
Evnin, O E
1997-01-01
Inner and empirically consistent model of elementary particles, including two matter structural levels beyond the quark one is built. Excitements spectra, masses and interactions are analysed using the phenomenological notion of non-pertubative vacuum condensate. Essential low-energy predictions of developed concepts are classified. Effective gauge U(1)xU(1)xSU(2)-theory of quark-lepton excitements behavior based on the performed analysis of preon-subpreon phenomenology is consistently built. The ability of its expansion with fermions and scalar leptoquark coupling is also considered. Shown that the coupling constants family hierarchy is the same as family hierarchy of quark masses. Using the built theory cross-sections of d-quark-positron scattering processes with both charged and neutral currents are calculated. The obtained resonance peak is proposed to be a possible explanation of deviating from Standard Model predictions discovered in DESY in the beginning of 1997 year.
The era of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva has begun. While the LHC detectors measure fundamental scattering reactions with unprecedented experimental precision, it is clear that the interpretation of these high-quality data demands an equally high precision in the theoretical predictions. In order to connect the observed phenomena with the underlying theoretical models, one needs a precise understanding of the involved processes at the quantum level. Confronting the theoretical predictions for various processes in the Standard Model and beyond with the large amount of data which the LHC will have collected by September 2011, will allow to test the theories and help to refine the theoretical tools. Therefore RADCOR 2011 will be crucial for future developments concerning LHC physics. Topics covered at RADCOR 2011 include: * Phenomenology at high-energy colliders * QCD physics of hard scattering * Electroweak radiative corrections, and applications to Standard Model and beyond the Standard Model processes * New theoretical methods and tools * Event generators and simulation of signal and background processes * g-2 of muon, heavy quarks (including B physics), and physics at B-factories and in e+e- collisions at lower energies
Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology
Pati, Jogesh C.
2006-06-09
In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x SU(4){sup c} or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.
Theory and Phenomenology of the Elementary Goldstone Higgs
Gertov, Helene; Meroni, Aurora; Molinaro, Emiliano
2015-01-01
We show, via a careful analytical and numerical analysis, that a pseudo Goldstone nature of the Higgs is naturally embodied by an elementary realization that also serves as ultraviolet completion. Renormalizability married to perturbation theory allows to precisely determine the quantum corrections...
Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology
Pati, Jogesh C.
In the first part of this paper, we explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity — be it string/M-theory or a reincarnation — this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2)L × SU(2)R × SU(4)c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (i) observed neutrino oscillations, (ii) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (iii) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in μ → eγ, τ → μγ, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M-theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.
Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Boutain, Doris M; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S
Photovoice is a powerful research method that employs participant photography for advancing voice, knowledge, and transformative change among groups historically or currently marginalized. Paradoxically, this research method risks exploitation of participant voice because of weak methodology to method congruence. The purposes of this retrospective article are to revisit current interdisciplinary research using photovoice and to suggest how to advance photovoice by improving methodology-method congruence. Novel templates are provided for improving the photovoice process across phenomenological, grounded theory, and critical theory methodologies.
Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology
Pati, J C
2006-01-01
In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2)$_L \\times$ SU(2)$_R \\times$ SU(4)$^c$ or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (i) observed neutrino oscillations, (ii) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (iii) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in $\\mu \\to e\\gamma$, $\\tau \\to\\mu\\gamma$, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we ...
Space-Time, Phenomenology, and the Picture Theory of Language
Grelland, Hans Herlof
To estimate Minkowski's introduction of space-time in relativity, the case is made for the view that abstract language and mathematics carries meaning not only by its connections with observation but as pictures of facts. This view is contrasted to the more traditional intuitionism of Hume, Mach, and Husserl. Einstein's attempt at a conceptual reconstruction of space and time as well as Husserl's analysis of the loss of meaning in science through increasing abstraction is analysed. Wittgenstein's picture theory of language is used to explain how meaning is conveyed by abstract expressions, with the Minkowski space as a case.
Theory and Phenomenology of Space-Time Defects
Sabine Hossenfelder
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Whether or not space-time is fundamentally discrete is of central importance for the development of the theory of quantum gravity. If the fundamental description of spacetime is discrete, typically represented in terms of a graph or network, then the apparent smoothness of geometry on large scales should be imperfect—it should have defects. Here, we review a model for space-time defects and summarize the constraints on the prevalence of these defects that can be derived from observation.
González Fisac, Jesús
2006-01-01
The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion about the relationship between Foucault's analysis of discourse and the speech acts theory by opening a phenomenological view over both. We will focus on Foucault's last analysis of "free speech" or "parrhesy", which this author considers as "speech activity", in order to show that the very sense of the illocutionary force lies on the parrhesiastic activity. Such a force, we claim, is expressed in clasical terms as the rethorical virtua...
Phenomenological aspects of supergravity theories in de Sitter vacua
Knoops, Rob
2016-01-01
We introduce an $N=1$ supergravity model based on the gauged shift symmetry of a single chiral multiplet, which can be identified with the string dilaton or a compactification modulus. The model allows for a tunably small and positive value of the cosmological constant. The gravitino mass parameter and the dilaton Vacuum Expectation Value are separately tunable. In a second part we analyze the quantum consistency of these models. Recent work on anomalies in supergravity theories with Fayet-Iliopoulos terms was extended, such that their results can be interpreted from a field-theoretic point of view. We show that for certain values of the parameters the anomaly cancellation conditions are inconsistent with a TeV gravitino mass. In the third part the above model is used as a hidden sector for supersymmetry breaking. In its minimal version, the model leads to tachyonic scalar soft masses. This problem can however be circumvented by the introduction of an extra Pol\\'onyi-like hidden sector field, or by allowing f...
Jaspers' critique of essentialist theories of schizophrenia and the phenomenological response.
Mishara, Aaron L; Schwartz, Michael A
2013-01-01
This contribution reviews the fin de siècle and immediately following efforts (Berze, Gross, Jung, Stransky, Weygandt, and others) to find a fundamental psychological disturbance (psychologische Grundstörung) underlying the symptoms of dementia praecox, later renamed schizophrenia by Bleuler (1908, 1911). In his General Psychopathology (1913), Jaspers brings order into the field by bringing to psychopathology a scientific basis coupled with phenomenological rigor. He was critical of theories that proposed an essence of schizophrenia, which is merely asserted verbally. This imperative is reiterated by other members of the Heidelberg School (Gruhle, Mayer-Gross, and K. Schneider). Gruhle (1929) contended that the primary symptoms of schizophrenia, indicating an underlying but still unknown neurobiological disease process, are independent from one another. They cannot be brought under a single, current theoretical model. That is, schizophrenia cannot be explained in terms of a 'catchword', which is only thought but not empirically studied. Sobered but also inspired by Jaspers' rigor, phenomenological psychiatrists (Binswanger, Blankenburg, Conrad, Ey, and others) proposed more tempered models, which could be studied empirically or tested scientifically. This historical progression may be viewed as a dialectical process: First, bold, merely verbal assertions without method were made, then Jaspers followed with a sobering critique, and finally, the existential-phenomenological clinicians/researchers responded by producing fine-grained, rigorous phenomenological models, tempered by humility and self-critique, which led to hypotheses that could be tested in current clinical neuroscience.
A phenomenological study of photon production in low energy neutrino nucleon scattering
Jenkins, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldman, Terry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
Low energy photon production is an important background to many current and future precision neutrino experiments. We present a phenomenological study of t-channel radiative corrections to neutral current neutrino nucleus scattering. After introducing the relevant processes and phenomenological coupling constants, we will explore the derived energy and angular distributions as well as total cross-section predictions along with their estimated uncertainties. This is supplemented throughout with comments on possible experimental signatures and implications. We conclude with a general discussion of the analysis in the context of complimentary methodologies. This is based on a talk presented at the DPF 2009 meeting in Detroit MI.
Phenomenology of dark energy: general features of large-scale perturbations
Pèrenon, Louis; Piazza, Federico; Marinoni, Christian; Hui, Lam
2015-11-01
We present a systematic exploration of dark energy and modified gravity models containing a single scalar field non-minimally coupled to the metric. Even though the parameter space is large, by exploiting an effective field theory (EFT) formulation and by imposing simple physical constraints such as stability conditions and (sub-)luminal propagation of perturbations, we arrive at a number of generic predictions. (1) The linear growth rate of matter density fluctuations is generally suppressed compared to ΛCDM at intermediate redshifts (0.5 lesssim z lesssim 1), despite the introduction of an attractive long-range scalar force. This is due to the fact that, in self-accelerating models, the background gravitational coupling weakens at intermediate redshifts, over-compensating the effect of the attractive scalar force. (2) At higher redshifts, the opposite happens; we identify a period of super-growth when the linear growth rate is larger than that predicted by ΛCDM. (3) The gravitational slip parameter η—the ratio of the space part of the metric perturbation to the time part—is bounded from above. For Brans-Dicke-type theories η is at most unity. For more general theories, η can exceed unity at intermediate redshifts, but not more than about 1.5 if, at the same time, the linear growth rate is to be compatible with current observational constraints. We caution against phenomenological parametrization of data that do not correspond to predictions from viable physical theories. We advocate the EFT approach as a way to constrain new physics from future large-scale-structure data.
Chachamis, G
2015-01-01
We present some of the topics covered in a series of lectures under the same title that was given at the "Summer School on High Energy Physics at the LHC: New trends in HEP" in Natal, Brazil. In particular, after some general thoughts on phenomenology we give a pedagogical introduction to the BFKL formalism and we discuss recent BFKL phenomenological studies for LHC observables.
Soft gluon resummation of Drell-Yan rapidity distributions: theory and phenomenology
Bonvini, Marco; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2010-01-01
We examine critically the theoretical underpinnings and phenomenological implications of soft gluon (threshold) resummation of rapidity distributions at a hadron collider, taking Drell-Yan production at the Tevatron and the LHC as a reference test case. First, we show that in perturbative QCD soft gluon resummation is necessary whenever the partonic (rather the hadronic) center-of-mass energy is close enough to threshold, and we provide tools to assess when resummation is relevant for a given process. Then, we compare different prescriptions for handling the divergent nature of the series of resummed perturbative corrections, specifically the minimal and Borel prescriptions. We assess the intrinsic ambiguities of resummed results, both due to the asymptotic nature of their perturbative expansion, and to the treatment of subleading terms. Turning to phenomenology, we introduce a fast and accurate method for the implementation of resummation with the minimal and Borel prescriptions using an expansion on a basis...
Fifty years of Yang-Mills Theories: a phenomenological point of view
De Rújula, Alvaro
2005-01-01
On the occasion of the celebration of the first half-century of Yang--Mills theories, I am contributing a personal recollection of how the subject, in its early times, confronted physical reality, that is, its "phenomenology". There is nothing original in this work, except, perhaps, my own points of view. But I hope that the older practitioners of the field will find here grounds for nostalgia, or good reasons to disagree with me. Younger addicts may learn that history does not resemble at all what is reflected in current textbooks: it was orders of magnitude more fascinating.
Alarcón Jose Manuel
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We highlight some of the recent advances in the application of chiral effective field theory (chiral EFT with baryons to the πN scattering process. We recall some problems that cast doubt on the applicability of chiral EFT to πN and show how the relativistic formalism, once the Δ(1232-resonance is included as an explicit degree of freedom, solves these issues. Finally it is shown how this approach can be used to extract the σ-terms from phenomenological information.
Phenomenology of neutrino physics in the Kaluza-Klein theories of low scale gravity
Ioannisian, A N
2001-01-01
We discuss the phenomenological consequences of theories which describe sterile neutrinos in large extra dimensions. We show that the Kaluza-Klein tower of the singlet neutrinos, albeit tiny individual contribution in electroweak processes, act cumulatively, giving rise to non-universality of the weak interactions of the light neutrinos and to flavour-violating radiative processes. Owing to these non-decoupling effects of th Kaluza--Klein neutrinos, we derive strong constraints on the parameters of the theory that originates from the non-observation of flavour-violating and universality-breaking phenomena. In this theory we propose a four-neutrino model which can reconcile the existing data coming from underground experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations, together with the hint from the LSND experiment and a possible neutrino contribution to the hot dark matter of the Universe.
Testing Early Universe Theories Using Large Scale Structure: Moving Beyond Phenomenology
Shandera, Sarah
Current observational evidence favors inflation, a very early era of accelerated expansion, as the origin of the Large Scale Structure of the universe. Although compelling, this evidence comes mainly from the amplitude of primordial perturbations as a function of scale. More detailed and definitive information is contained in higher order statistics, collectively labelled `non- Gaussianity', which is of unparalleled importance to theorists who study inflation or its competitors. Analogously to collider physics studies, non-Gaussianity probes the interactions of the fields active in the very early universe and so will allow us to uncover the particle physics identity of the components that give rise to the very early pattern of density fluctuations. Primordial non-Gaussianity generates many non-trivial signals in Large Scale Structure, thanks largely to the non-linear evolution of the primordial perturbations. The distribution of objects in mass and redshift and their spatial clustering together contain information about the complete set of statistics of the primordial fluctuations. Predictions for those observables rely on numerical simulations of the dark matter evolution, which so far have been carried out almost entirely for a simple phenomenological model of primordial non-Gaussianity. However, it is now clear that interesting constraints or detection of non-Gaussianity are possible with next generation surveys: to use this data to its fullest extent we must understand clearly what those constraints will mean for fundamental theories of the origin of the perturbations. We propose to make a direct connection between theoretical ideas for the primordial fluctuations, including non-Gaussianity, and predictions from those theories for details of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe. Our goal is to find a prescription for setting up initial conditions for N-body simulations that match as closely as possible the predictions from a variety of particle physics
Phenomenology of CaKFe4As4 explained in the framework of four bands Eliashberg theory
Ummarino, G. A.
2016-10-01
Recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of CaKFe4As4 report the presence of four superconductive gaps on different sheets of Fermi surface. The interesting aspect of this superconductor is that it is stoichiometric and with a high critical temperature. I show that the phenomenology of this superconductor can be explained in the framework of four-band s ± -wave Eliashberg theory choosing antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations as pairing glue. In particular, various experimental data reported in literature: the energy gaps, the critical temperature, the temperature dependence of the upper critical field, the penetration depth and the thermopower can be reproduced by this model in a strong-coupling regime with a small number of free parameters.
A Phenomenological Cost Model for High Energy Particle Accelerators
Shiltsev, Vladimir
2014-01-01
Accelerator-based high-energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the colliders has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size, and cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. In this paper we derive a simple scaling model for the cost of large accelerators and colliding beam facilities based on costs of 17 big facilities which have been either built or carefully estimated. Although this approach cannot replace an actual cost estimate based on an engineering design, this parameterization is to indicate a somewhat realistic cost range for consideration of what future frontier accelerator facilities might be fiscally realizable.
Khattar, Randa
What do the new sciences of complex relationality offer education? This work draws on complexity theory, neurological understandings of biology and phenomenology, and attentiveness to study what the new sciences might offer education and the possibilities of a pedagogical understanding of embodied knowing. Complexity theory provides understandings of local-global relationality, self-organization, far-from-equilibrium conditions, and emergent dynamics that are important for describing pedagogical relationality. In itself, however, complexity theory is lacking an attention to issues of embodiment that respond directly to an ethical understanding of relationality. Phenomenology provides important views on the human experience of perception, for example, Merleau-Ponty's, whose research opens up possibilities for embodiment and attentiveness. At the level of pedagogical practice, I will pose, following biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela's autopoietic self-making understanding of life, that attentiveness perspectives, which have been largely absent from western pedagogical theory and practice, are crucial to promoting embodied knowing for education. Maturana and Varela's autopoietic perspective offers an embodied understanding of living---and therefore education---which opens up necessary attentive spaces to listen to one another in non judgmental awareness in the present moment of experience. I offer insights into a relationally complex conception of education drawing on this biological and autopoietically-grounded framework. These insights are framed in the context of five clusters of relations: (1) emergence, far-from-equilibrium, and local-global relationality; (2) autopoietic autonomy, structural determination and sensory-motor coupling; (3) triggering perturbations, structural plasticity, and autopoietic organization; (4) knowing as adequate action, domains of interaction, and blind spots; and (5) attentiveness and responsive relationality. Four
Andronic, Anton
2014-07-15
This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.
Blanchard, Yvette; Øberg, Gunn Kristin
2015-01-01
Physical therapy involving newborns and young infants is a specialized area of practice reserved for therapists who have advanced training and the competence to help newborns, young infants and their families meet their goals. Beginning at birth, infants apply a significant amount of effort to actively participate in and shape their world. Infants make their intentions and requests for support known through their behaviors during social and physical therapy encounters. The therapeutic encounter viewed from the infant's perspective has received limited attention in the physical therapy literature. The purpose of this article is to discuss concepts related to phenomenology and synactive theory that are relevant to physical therapy with newborns and young infants during the first few months of life after birth.
Theory of low energy collisions; Theorie des collisions a basse energie
Sparenberg, J.M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)
2007-07-01
The basic notions of low-energy quantum scattering theory are introduced (cross sections, phase shifts, resonances,... ), in particular for positively-charged particles, in view of nuclear physics applications. An introduction to the reaction-matrix (or R-matrix) method is then proposed, as a tool to both solve the Schroedinger equation describing collisions and fit experimental data phenomenologically. Most results are established without proof but with a particular emphasis on their intuitive understanding and their possible analogs in classical mechanics. Several choices are made consequently: (i) the text starts with a detailed reminder of classical scattering theory, (ii) the concepts are first introduced in ideal theoretical cases before going to the more complicated formalism allowing the description of realistic experimental situations, (iii) a single example is used throughout nearly the whole text, (iv) all concepts are established for the elastic scattering of spinless particles, with only a brief mention of their multichannel generalization at the end of the text. (author)
From the phenomenology to the mechanisms of consciousness: Integrated Information Theory 3.0.
Oizumi, Masafumi; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio
2014-05-01
This paper presents Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness 3.0, which incorporates several advances over previous formulations. IIT starts from phenomenological axioms: information says that each experience is specific--it is what it is by how it differs from alternative experiences; integration says that it is unified--irreducible to non-interdependent components; exclusion says that it has unique borders and a particular spatio-temporal grain. These axioms are formalized into postulates that prescribe how physical mechanisms, such as neurons or logic gates, must be configured to generate experience (phenomenology). The postulates are used to define intrinsic information as "differences that make a difference" within a system, and integrated information as information specified by a whole that cannot be reduced to that specified by its parts. By applying the postulates both at the level of individual mechanisms and at the level of systems of mechanisms, IIT arrives at an identity: an experience is a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS, a constellation of concepts in qualia space), and the set of elements that generates it constitutes a complex. According to IIT, a MICS specifies the quality of an experience and integrated information ΦMax its quantity. From the theory follow several results, including: a system of mechanisms may condense into a major complex and non-overlapping minor complexes; the concepts that specify the quality of an experience are always about the complex itself and relate only indirectly to the external environment; anatomical connectivity influences complexes and associated MICS; a complex can generate a MICS even if its elements are inactive; simple systems can be minimally conscious; complicated systems can be unconscious; there can be true "zombies"--unconscious feed-forward systems that are functionally equivalent to conscious complexes.
From the phenomenology to the mechanisms of consciousness: Integrated Information Theory 3.0.
Masafumi Oizumi
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents Integrated Information Theory (IIT of consciousness 3.0, which incorporates several advances over previous formulations. IIT starts from phenomenological axioms: information says that each experience is specific--it is what it is by how it differs from alternative experiences; integration says that it is unified--irreducible to non-interdependent components; exclusion says that it has unique borders and a particular spatio-temporal grain. These axioms are formalized into postulates that prescribe how physical mechanisms, such as neurons or logic gates, must be configured to generate experience (phenomenology. The postulates are used to define intrinsic information as "differences that make a difference" within a system, and integrated information as information specified by a whole that cannot be reduced to that specified by its parts. By applying the postulates both at the level of individual mechanisms and at the level of systems of mechanisms, IIT arrives at an identity: an experience is a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS, a constellation of concepts in qualia space, and the set of elements that generates it constitutes a complex. According to IIT, a MICS specifies the quality of an experience and integrated information ΦMax its quantity. From the theory follow several results, including: a system of mechanisms may condense into a major complex and non-overlapping minor complexes; the concepts that specify the quality of an experience are always about the complex itself and relate only indirectly to the external environment; anatomical connectivity influences complexes and associated MICS; a complex can generate a MICS even if its elements are inactive; simple systems can be minimally conscious; complicated systems can be unconscious; there can be true "zombies"--unconscious feed-forward systems that are functionally equivalent to conscious complexes.
From the Phenomenology to the Mechanisms of Consciousness: Integrated Information Theory 3.0
Tononi, Giulio
2014-01-01
This paper presents Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness 3.0, which incorporates several advances over previous formulations. IIT starts from phenomenological axioms: information says that each experience is specific – it is what it is by how it differs from alternative experiences; integration says that it is unified – irreducible to non-interdependent components; exclusion says that it has unique borders and a particular spatio-temporal grain. These axioms are formalized into postulates that prescribe how physical mechanisms, such as neurons or logic gates, must be configured to generate experience (phenomenology). The postulates are used to define intrinsic information as “differences that make a difference” within a system, and integrated information as information specified by a whole that cannot be reduced to that specified by its parts. By applying the postulates both at the level of individual mechanisms and at the level of systems of mechanisms, IIT arrives at an identity: an experience is a maximally irreducible conceptual structure (MICS, a constellation of concepts in qualia space), and the set of elements that generates it constitutes a complex. According to IIT, a MICS specifies the quality of an experience and integrated information ΦMax its quantity. From the theory follow several results, including: a system of mechanisms may condense into a major complex and non-overlapping minor complexes; the concepts that specify the quality of an experience are always about the complex itself and relate only indirectly to the external environment; anatomical connectivity influences complexes and associated MICS; a complex can generate a MICS even if its elements are inactive; simple systems can be minimally conscious; complicated systems can be unconscious; there can be true “zombies” – unconscious feed-forward systems that are functionally equivalent to conscious complexes. PMID:24811198
On a phenomenology of the accelerated expansion with a varying ghost dark energy
Khurshudyan, M Zh
2016-01-01
Subject of our study it is the accelerated expansion of the large scale universe, where a varying ghost dark energy can take the role of the dark energy. The model of the varying ghost dark energy considered in this work it is a phenomenological modification of the ghost dark energy. Recently, three other phenomenological models of the varying ghost dark energy have been suggested and the model considered in this work will complete the logical chain of considered modifications. The best fit of theoretical results to the luminosity distance, has been used to obtain preliminary constraints on the parameters of the models. This does help us to reduce amount of discussion. On the other hand, detailed comparison of theoretical results with observational data has been left as a subject of another discussion elsewhere. Moreover, a look to considered models via $Om$ and statefinder hierarchy analysis is presented and discussed for different forms of interaction between the varying ghost dark energy and cold dark matt...
Hernández-Pinto, R J
2014-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics is the most successful theory in particle physics. The understanding of all different signals at hadron colliders have been achieved due to the correct interpretation of the theory. In this paper we review some basic features of the theory of strong interactions and how it could be used in order to provide phenomenological distributions for the Large Hadron Collider. The main results presented in here can be found in Ref [1].
Rudraraju, Shiva; van der Ven, Anton; Garikipati, Krishna
2016-06-01
We present a phenomenological treatment of diffusion-driven martensitic phase transformations in multi-component crystalline solids that arise from non-convex free energies in mechanical and chemical variables. The treatment describes diffusional phase transformations that are accompanied by symmetry-breaking structural changes of the crystal unit cell and reveals the importance of a mechanochemical spinodal, defined as the region in strain-composition space, where the free-energy density function is non-convex. The approach is relevant to phase transformations wherein the structural order parameters can be expressed as linear combinations of strains relative to a high-symmetry reference crystal. The governing equations describing mechanochemical spinodal decomposition are variationally derived from a free-energy density function that accounts for interfacial energy via gradients of the rapidly varying strain and composition fields. A robust computational framework for treating the coupled, higher-order diffusion and nonlinear strain gradient elasticity problems is presented. Because the local strains in an inhomogeneous, transforming microstructure can be finite, the elasticity problem must account for geometric nonlinearity. An evaluation of available experimental phase diagrams and first-principles free energies suggests that mechanochemical spinodal decomposition should occur in metal hydrides such as ZrH2-2c. The rich physics that ensues is explored in several numerical examples in two and three dimensions, and the relevance of the mechanism is discussed in the context of important electrode materials for Li-ion batteries and high-temperature ceramics.
Tokuyama, Michio
2017-01-01
The renormalized simplified model is proposed to investigate indirectly how the static structure factor plays an important role in renormalizing a quadratic nonlinear term in the ideal mode-coupling memory function near the glass transition. The renormalized simplified recursion equation is then derived based on the time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory (TMCT) proposed recently by the present author. This phenomenological approach is successfully applied to check from a unified point of view how strong liquids are different from fragile liquids. The simulation results for those two types of liquids are analyzed consistently by the numerical solutions of the recursion equation. Then, the control parameter dependence of the renormalized nonlinear exponent in both types of liquids is fully investigated. Thus, it is shown that there exists a novel difference between the universal behavior in strong liquids and that in fragile liquids not only for their transport coefficients but also for their dynamics.
Liao, Y
2003-01-01
A framework was recently proposed for doing perturbation theory on non-commutative (NC) spacetime. It preserves the unitarity of the S matrix and differs from the naive, popular approach already at the lowest order in perturbation when time does not commute with space. In this work, we investigate its phenomenological implications at linear colliders, especially the TESLA at DESY, through the processes of e sup + e sup --> mu sup +mu sup - ,H sup + H sup - ,H sup 0 H sup 0. We find that some NC effects computed previously are now modified and that there are new processes which now exhibit NC effects. Indeed, the first two processes get corrected at tree level as opposed to the null result in the naive approach, while the third one coincides with the naive result only in the low energy limit. The impact of the earth's rotation is incorporated. The NC signals are generally significant when the NC scale is comparable to the collider energy. If this is not the case, the non-trivial azimuthal angle distribution an...
Smedbäck, Mikael
2011-01-01
The free energy of ABJM theory has previously been computed in the strong and weak coupling limits. In this note, we report on results for the computation of the first non-vanishing quantum correction to the free energy, from the field theory side. The correction can be expressed in terms of a thermal mass for the scalar fields. This mass vanishes to 1-loop order, but there is a non-vanishing result to 2-loop order. Hence, the leading correction to the free energy is non-analytic in the 't Hooft coupling constant lambda. The reason is that the infrared divergences necessitate a resummation of ring diagrams and a related reorganization of perturbation theory, in which already the leading correction receives contributions from all orders in lambda. These results suggest that the free energy interpolates smoothly between weak and strong coupling.
A phenomenological model for self-rippling energy of free graphene monolayers
Wu, Bingjie; Ru, C. Q.
2016-07-01
Several candidate phenomenological expressions are studied for self-rippling energy that drives ripple formation of free single-layer graphene sheets. One phenomenological expression is admitted, while all others are rejected because they cannot admit stable periodic ripple mode. The admitted phenomenological expression contains two terms: one quadratic term which acts like a compressive force and has a destabilizing effect, and another fourth-order term which acts like a nonlinear elastic foundation and has a stabilizing effect. The two associated coefficients depend on specific mechanism of self-rippling and can be determined based on observed wavelength and amplitude of ripple mode. Based on the admitted expression, the effect of an applied force on ripple formation is studied. The present model predicts that the rippling can be controlled or even suppressed with an applied tensile force or collapsed into narrow wrinkles (of deformed wavelengths down to around 2 nm) under an applied compressive force, and the estimated minimum tensile strain to suppress rippling is in remarkable agreement with some known data. Our results show that self-rippling energy dominates ripple formation of sufficiently long free graphene ribbons, although it cannot drive self-rippling of sufficiently short free graphene ribbons. Consequently, a critical length is estimated so that self-rippling occurs only when the length of free single-layer graphene ribbons is much longer than the critical length. The estimated critical length is reasonably consistent with the known fact that self-rippling cannot occur in shorter free graphene sheets (say, of length below 20 nm).
The end of the galactic cosmic-ray energy spectrum - a phenomenological view
Hörandel, J R; Timokhin, A V; Hoerandel, Joerg R.
2005-01-01
Two structures in the all-particle energy spectrum of cosmic rays, the knee at 4 PeV and the second knee around 400 PeV are proposed to be explained by a phenomenological model, the poly gonato model, connecting direct and indirect measurements. Within this approach the knee is caused by a successive cut-off of the flux for individual elements starting with protons at 4.5 PeV. The second knee is interpreted as the end of the stable nuclei of the periodic table. To check some key features of this model calculations of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and the propagation path length at energies from 10^14 to 10^19 eV have been performed within the framework of a combined approach based on the diffusion model of cosmic rays and a direct simulation of charged-particle trajectories in the Galaxy.
Paths to Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) theory
Masters, B. R.
2014-02-01
Theodor Förster (1910-1974) developed a phenomenological theory of nonradiative resonance energy transfer which proved to be transformative in the fields of chemistry, biochemistry, and biology. This paper explores the experimental and the theoretical antecedents of Förster's theory of resonance energy transfer (FRET). Early studies of sensitized fluorescence, fluorescence depolarization, and photosynthesis demonstrated the phenomena of long-range energy transfer. At the same time physicists developed theoretical models which contained common physical mechanisms and parameters: oscillating dipoles as models for the atoms or molecules, dipole-dipole coupling for the interaction, and a distance R0 that is optimal for resonance energy transfer. Early theories predicted R0 that was too large as compared to experiments. Finally, in 1946 Förster developed a classical theory and in 1948 he developed a quantum mechanical theory; both theories predicted an inverse sixth power dependence of the rate of energy transfer and a R0 that agreed with experiments. This paper attempts to determine why Förster succeeded when the other theoreticians failed to develop the correct theory. The putative roles of interdisciplinary education and collaborative research are discussed. Furthermore, I explore the role of science journals and their specific audiences in the popularization of FRET to a broad interdisciplinary community.
Research in Lattice Gauge Theory and in the Phenomenology of Neutrinos and Dark Matter
Meurice, Yannick L [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Reno, Mary Hall [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
2016-06-23
Research in theoretical elementary particle physics was performed by the PI Yannick Meurice and co-PI Mary Hall Reno. New techniques designed for precision calculations of strong interaction physics were developed using the tensor renormalization group method. Large-scale Monte Carlo simulations with dynamical quarks were performed for candidate models for Higgs compositeness. Ab-initio lattice gauge theory calculations of semileptonic decays of B-mesons observed in collider experiments and relevant to test the validity of the standard model were performed with the Fermilab/MILC collaboration. The phenomenology of strong interaction physics was applied to new predictions for physics processes in accelerator physics experiments and to cosmic ray production and interactions. A research focus has been on heavy quark production and their decays to neutrinos. The heavy quark contributions to atmospheric neutrino and muon fluxes have been evaluated, as have the neutrino fluxes from accelerator beams incident on heavy targets. Results are applicable to current and future particle physics experiments and to astrophysical neutrino detectors such as the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.
Carena, M S; Herfurth, F; Ames, F; Audi, G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Kuckein, M; Lunney, M D; Moore, R B; Oinonen, M; Rodríguez, D; Sauvan, E; Scheidenberger, C
2003-01-01
Precision electroweak data presently-favors a weakly-coupled Higgs sector as the mechanism responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. Low-energy supersymmetry provides a natural framework for weakly-coupled elementary scalars. In this review, we summarize the theoretical properties of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson and the Higgs sector of the minimal super-symmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). We then survey the phenomenology of the SM and MSSM Higgs bosons at the Tevatron, LHC and a future e**+e**- linear collider. We focus on the Higgs discovery potential of present and future colliders and stress the importance of precision measurements of Higgs boson properties. 459 Refs.31 The Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP is a facility for high- precision mass measurements of short-lived radioactive nuclei installed at ISOLDE/CERN in Geneva. More than 200 masses have been measured with relative uncertainties of 1 multiplied by 10**-**7 or even close to 1 multiplied by 10**-**8 in special c...
Developments in high energy theory
Sunil Mukhi; Probir Roy
2009-07-01
This non-technical review article is aimed at readers with some physics back-ground, including beginning research students. It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the Standard Model, and proposals – including the radical paradigm of String Theory – have been made to go beyond the Standard Model. The list of references provided here is not intended to properly credit all original work but rather to supply the reader with a few pointers to the literature, specifically highlighting work done by Indian authors.
Rutherfoord, John; Toussaint, Doug; Sarcevic, Ina
2005-03-03
The following pages describe the high energy physics program at the University of Arizona which was funded by DOE grant DE-FG03-95ER40906, for the period 1 February 1995 to 31 January 2004. In this report, emphasis was placed on more recent accomplishments. This grant was divided into two tasks, a theory task (Task A) and an experimental task (Task B but called Task C early in the grant period) with separate budgets. Faculty supported by this grant, for at least part of this period, include, for the theory task, Adrian Patrascioiu (now deceased), Ina Sarcevic, and Douglas Toussaint., and, for the experimental task, Elliott Cheu, Geoffrey Forden, Kenneth Johns, John Rutherfoord, Michael Shupe, and Erich Varnes. Grant monitors from the Germantown DOE office, overseeing our grant, changed over the years. Dr. Marvin Gettner covered the first years and then he retired from the DOE. Dr. Patrick Rapp worked with us for just a few years and then left for a position at the University of Puerto Rico. Dr. Kathleen Turner took his place and continues as our grant monitor. The next section of this report covers the activities of the theory task (Task A) and the last section the activities of the experimental task (Task B).
Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Pospíšil, Jiří; Haga, Yoshinori; Sakai, Hironori; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Yamamoto, Etsuji
2017-07-01
We have carried out an analysis of magnetic data in 69 uranium, 7 neptunium, and 4 plutonium ferromagnets with the spin fluctuation theory developed by Takahashi [Y. Takahashi, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 55, 3553 (1986), 10.1143/JPSJ.55.3553]. The basic and spin fluctuation parameters of the actinide ferromagnets are determined and the applicability of the spin fluctuation theory to actinide 5 f system has been discussed. Itinerant ferromagnets of the 3 d transition metals and their intermetallics follow a generalized Rhodes-Wohlfarth relation between peff/ps and TC/T0 , viz., peff/ps∝(TC/T0) -3 /2 . Here, ps, peff, TC, and T0 are the spontaneous and effective magnetic moments, the Curie temperature, and the width of spin fluctuation spectrum in energy space, respectively. The same relation is satisfied for TC/T0theory. The deviation from the theoretical relation may be due to several other effects not included in the spin fluctuation theory such as the crystalline electric field effect on the 5 f electrons from ligand atoms. The value of the spontaneous magnetic moment ps increases linearly as a function of TC/T0 in the uranium and neptunium ferromagnets below (TC/T0)kink=0.32 ±0.02 , where a kink structure appears in relation between the two quantities. ps increases more weakly above (TC/T0)kink. A possible interpretation with the TC/T0 dependence of ps is given.
Phenomenology of the 1/N$_f$ Expansion for Field Theories in Extra Dimensions
Kazakov, D I
2007-01-01
In this paper we review the properties of the 1/$N_f$ expansion in multidimensional theories. Contrary to the usual perturbative expansion it is renormalizable and contains only logarithmic divergencies. The price for it is the presence of ghost states which, however, in certain cases do not contribute to physical amplitudes. In this case the theory is unitary and one can calculate the cross-sections. As an example we consider the differential cross section of elastic $eq \\to eq$ scattering in $D=7,11,...$-dimensional world. We look also for the unification of the gauge couplings in multidimensional Standard Model and its SUSY extension which takes place at energies lower than in 4 dimensions.
Phenomenology of SU(5 low-energy realizations: The diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation
Andrea Di Iura
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We discuss different SU(5 low-energy realizations and illustrate their use with the diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation, which require new physics at the TeV scale. In particular, we study two scenarios for a 750 GeV resonance: in the first one the resonance belongs to the adjoint of SU(5, being either an SU(2L singlet or a triplet, while in the second case the signal is due to the CP-even and CP-odd states of a new SU(2L Higgs doublet belonging to a 45H or a 70H representations, giving rise to a two-Higgs doublet model at low energies. We study the fine-tuning needed for the desired members of the multiplets to be light enough, while having the rest at the GUT scale. In these scenarios, the production and decay into photons of the new resonance are mediated by the leptoquarks (LQ present in these large SU(5 representations. We analyze the phenomenology of such scenarios, focusing on the most relevant predictions that can help to disentangle the different models, like decays into gauge bosons, Standard Model (SM fermions and LQs pair production. In the case of the 45H (the Georgi–Jarlskog model, we also study the possibility to have Higgs flavor violation. We find that Bs mixing limits (in addition to τ→μγ always imply that Br(h→τμ,bs≲10−5.
Phenomenology of SU(5) low-energy realizations: the diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation
Di Iura, Andrea; Meloni, Davide
2016-01-01
We discuss different $\\rm SU(5)$ low-energy realizations and illustrate their use with the diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation, which require new physics at the TeV scale. In particular, we study two scenarios for a $750$ GeV resonance: in the first one the resonance belongs to the adjoint of $\\rm SU(5)$, being either an $\\rm SU(2)_L$ singlet or a triplet, while in the second case the signal is due to the CP-even and CP-odd states of a new $\\rm SU(2)_L$ Higgs doublet belonging to a ${\\bf 45}_H$ or a ${\\bf 70}_H$ representations, giving rise to a two-Higgs doublet model at low energies. We study the fine-tuning needed for the desired members of the multiplets to be light enough, while having the rest at the GUT scale. In these scenarios, the production and decay into photons of the new resonance are mediated by the leptoquarks (LQ) present in these large $\\rm SU(5)$ representations. We analyse the phenomenology of such scenarios, focusing on the most relevant predictions that can help to disentangle the...
Phenomenology of SU(5) low-energy realizations: The diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation
Di Iura, Andrea; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Meloni, Davide
2016-10-01
We discuss different SU(5) low-energy realizations and illustrate their use with the diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation, which require new physics at the TeV scale. In particular, we study two scenarios for a 750 GeV resonance: in the first one the resonance belongs to the adjoint of SU(5), being either an SU (2)L singlet or a triplet, while in the second case the signal is due to the CP-even and CP-odd states of a new SU (2)L Higgs doublet belonging to a 45H or a 70H representations, giving rise to a two-Higgs doublet model at low energies. We study the fine-tuning needed for the desired members of the multiplets to be light enough, while having the rest at the GUT scale. In these scenarios, the production and decay into photons of the new resonance are mediated by the leptoquarks (LQ) present in these large SU(5) representations. We analyze the phenomenology of such scenarios, focusing on the most relevant predictions that can help to disentangle the different models, like decays into gauge bosons, Standard Model (SM) fermions and LQs pair production. In the case of the 45H (the Georgi-Jarlskog model), we also study the possibility to have Higgs flavor violation. We find that Bs mixing limits (in addition to τ → μγ) always imply that Br (h → τμ , bs) ≲10-5.
Autonomic energy conversion. I. The input relation: phenomenological and mechanistic considerations.
Caplan, S R
1968-10-01
The differences between completely and incompletely coupled linear energy converters are discussed using suitable electrochemical cells as examples. The output relation for the canonically simplest class of self-regulated incompletely coupled linear energy converters has been shown to be identical to the Hill force-velocity characteristic for muscle. The corresponding input relation (the "inverse" Hill equation) is now derived by two independent methods. The first method is a direct transformation of the output relation through the phenomenological equations of the converter; Onsager symmetry has no influence on the result. The second method makes use of a model system, a hydroelectric device with a regulator mechanism which depends only on the operational limits of the converter (an electro-osmosis cell operated in reverse) and on the load. The inverse Hill equation is shown to be the simplest solution of the regulator equation. An interesting and testable series of relations between input and output parameters arises from the two forms of the Hill equation. For optimal regulation the input should not be greatly different in the two limiting stationary states (level flow and static head). The output power will then be nearly maximal over a considerable range of load resistance, peak output being obtained at close to peak efficiency.
Low energy gauge unification theory
Li Tian Jun
2002-01-01
Because of the problems arising from the fermion unification in the traditional Grand Unified Theory and the mass hierarchy between the 4-dimensional Planck scale and weak scale, we suggest the low energy gauge unification theory with low high-dimensional Planck scale. We discuss the non-supersymmetric SU(5) model on M sup 4 xS sup 1 /Z sub 2 xS sup 1 /Z sub 2 and the supersymmetric SU(5) model on M sup 4 xS sup 1 /(Z sub 2 xZ sub 2 ')xS sup 1 /(Z sub 2 xZ sub 2 ')xS sup 1 /(Z sub 2 xZ sub 2 '). The SU(5) gauge symmetry is broken by the orbifold projection for the zero modes, and the gauge unification is accelerated due to the SU(5) asymmetric light KK states. In our models, we forbid the proton decay, still keep the charge quantization, and automatically solve the fermion mass problem. We also comment on the anomaly cancellation and other possible scenarios for low energy gauge unification.
Kaonic atoms and in-medium K-N amplitudes II: Interplay between theory and phenomenology
Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
2013-02-01
A microscopic kaonic-atom optical potential VK-(1) is constructed, using the Ikeda-Hyodo-Weise NLO chiral K-N subthreshold scattering amplitudes constrained by the kaonic hydrogen SIDDHARTA measurement, and incorporating Pauli correlations within the Waas-Rho-Weise generalization of the Ericson-Ericson multiple-scattering approach. Good fits to kaonic atom data over the entire periodic table require additionally sizable K-NN-motivated absorptive and dispersive phenomenological terms, in agreement with our former analysis based on a post-SIDDHARTA in-medium chirally-inspired NLO separable model by Cieplý and Smejkal. Such terms are included by introducing a phenomenological potential VK-(2) and coupling it self-consistently to VK-(1). Properties of resulting kaonic atom potentials are discussed with special attention paid to the role of K--nuclear absorption and to the extraction of density-dependent amplitudes representing K- multi-nucleon processes.
Phenomenological theory giving the full statistics of the position of fluctuating pulled fronts
Brunet, E.; Derrida, B.; Mueller, A. H.; Munier, S.
2006-05-01
We propose a phenomenological description for the effect of a weak noise on the position of a front described by the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation or any other traveling-wave equation in the same class. Our scenario is based on four hypotheses on the relevant mechanism for the diffusion of the front. Our parameter-free analytical predictions for the velocity of the front, its diffusion constant and higher cumulants of its position agree with numerical simulations.
Forbes Dorothy
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research approach. This paper presents phenomenological investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Methods Social phenomenology was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203, including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social phenomenology strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Results Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' approaches within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social phenomenology analysis approaches, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical
McWilliam, Carol L; Kothari, Anita; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy; Leipert, Beverly
2009-05-14
As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT) invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research approach. This paper presents phenomenological investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Social phenomenology was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203), including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social phenomenology strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' approaches within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social phenomenology analysis approaches, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical construction, specifically, a participatory action KT (PAKT
McWilliam, Carol L; Kothari, Anita; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy; Leipert, Beverly
2009-01-01
Background As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT) invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research approach. This paper presents phenomenological investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Methods Social phenomenology was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203), including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social phenomenology strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Results Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' approaches within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social phenomenology analysis approaches, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical construction, specifically, a
Phenomenological aspects of mirage mediation
Loewen, Valeri
2009-07-15
We consider the possibility that string theory vacua with spontaneously broken supersymmetry and a small positive cosmological constant arise due to hidden sector matter interactions, known as F-uplifting/F-downlifting. We analyze this procedure in a model-independent way in the context of type IIB and heterotic string theory. Our investigation shows that the uplifting/downlifting sector has very important consequences for the resulting phenomenology. Not only does it adjust the vacuum energy, but it can also participate in the process of moduli stabilization. In addition, we find that this sector is the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking. It leads to a hybrid mediation scheme and its signature is a relaxed mirage pattern of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms. The low energy spectra exhibit distinct phenomenological properties and di er from conventional schemes considered so far. (orig.)
Modified Gravity Theories: Alternatives To The Missing Mass And Missing Energy Problems
Soussa, M E
2005-01-01
Modified theories of gravity are examined and shown to be alternative possibilities to the standard paradigms of dark matter and dark energy in explaining the currently observed cosmological phenomenology. Special consideration is given to the relativistic extension of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) in supplanting the need for dark matter. A specific modification of the Einstein-Hilbert action (whereby an inverse power of the Ricci scalar is added) is shown to serve as an alternative to dark energy.
Amedeo Giorgis Empirical Phenomenology.
Alexandersson, Claes
In August 1979, Amedeo Giorgi presented a workshop on "Phenomenological Theory and Method" at the University of Goteborg (Sweden). This report describes that workshop. First, the major concepts of phenomenology are introduced (Intentionality, Description, Reduction, and Essence), followed by a brief description of Husserl's philosophical…
Amedeo Giorgis Empirical Phenomenology.
Alexandersson, Claes
In August 1979, Amedeo Giorgi presented a workshop on "Phenomenological Theory and Method" at the University of Goteborg (Sweden). This report describes that workshop. First, the major concepts of phenomenology are introduced (Intentionality, Description, Reduction, and Essence), followed by a brief description of Husserl's philosophical…
Mugerauer, Robert
2010-07-02
This paper proposes an anatomy of the phenomena of life and of correlate qualitative modes of empirical research, theory, and professional practice concerned with health and well-being. I explicate the qualitative dynamic operative at every level of order, from the biological realm of cells and organisms, through distinctively human lifeworld experiences and practices, to communities of organisms in ecosystems and bio-cultural regions. This paper clarifies the unity of the dimensions of life and aligns these with demonstrated and emerging contributions of hermeneutical phenomenology and current complexity-autopoietic theory (including disciplinary and professional interpretations of empirical findings). The intent is begin to delineate a common framework upon which we could build-facilitating better understanding of the distinctive contributions of each specialization as well as the integration of diverse qualitative approaches with each other (and with quantitative complements).
Robert Mugerauer
2010-07-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an anatomy of the phenomena of life and of correlate qualitative modes of empirical research, theory, and professional practice concerned with health and well-being. I explicate the qualitative dynamic operative at every level of order, from the biological realm of cells and organisms, through distinctively human lifeworld experiences and practices, to communities of organisms in ecosystems and bio-cultural regions. This paper clarifies the unity of the dimensions of life and aligns these with demonstrated and emerging contributions of hermeneutical phenomenology and current complexity–autopoietic theory (including disciplinary and professional interpretations of empirical findings. The intent is begin to delineate a common framework upon which we could build—facilitating better understanding of the distinctive contributions of each specialization as well as the integration of diverse qualitative approaches with each other (and with quantitative complements.
Rudraraju, Shiva; Garikipati, Krishna
2015-01-01
We present a new phenomenological treatment of phase transformations in multi-component crystalline solids driven by free energy density functions that are non-convex in mechanical and chemical variables. We identify the mechano-chemical spinodal as the region in strain-composition space where the free energy density function is non-convex. Our treatment describes diffusional phase transformations that are accompanied by symmetry breaking structural changes of the crystal unit cell due to mechanical instabilities in the mechano-chemical spinodal. This approach is relevant to phase transformations wherein the structural order parameters can be expressed as linear combinations of strains relative to a high-symmetry reference crystal. Because the local strains in an inhomogeneous, transforming microstructure can be finite, the elasticity problem must account for geometric nonlinearity. Furthermore, for physical consistency and mathematical well-posedness, we regularize the free energy density functions by interf...
Lectures on superstring phenomenology
Quevedo, Fernando
1996-02-20
The phenomenological aspects of string theory are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is given to the status of 4D string model building, effective Lagrangians, model independent results, supersymmetry breaking and duality symmetries.
Loriliai Biernacki
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This article demonstrates remarkably similar methods for linking mind and body to address the “hard problem” in the work of 11th-century Indian philosopher Abhinavagupta with a currently prominent neuroscienctific theory, Tononi’s Integrated Information Theory 3.0. Both Abhinavagupta and Tononi and Christof Koch hinge their theories on the identity of phenomenal subjective experience with causality. Giulio Tononi’s Integrated Information Theory is remarkable precisely in its method for dealing with the mind-body problem; namely, Tononi’s mathematically oriented systems neurology proposes something we typically do not find in neuroscientific literature—that we start from a phenomenology of experience. Abhinavagupta’s sophisticated and, for his milieu, novel way of linking subjectivity and objectivity in the concepts of knowledge (jñāna and action (kriyā also offers a way of understanding how subjectivity can be linked to causality. This particular configuration is mostly absent in Western Cartesian models for understanding consciousness and in Indian philosophical speculations on consciousness. However, this, in any case, is precisely the move that Tononi makes when he proposes that information is both “causal and intrinsic.” Abhinavagupta’s similar linkage of subjectivity with causality can help us to think about Tononi’s neuroscientific mathematical model.
The orbifolder. A tool to study the low energy effective theory of heterotic orbifolds
Nilles, H.P. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut; Ramos-Sanchez, S. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Vaudrevange, P.K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics, Muenchen (Germany); Wingerter, A. [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie
2011-10-15
The orbifolder is a program developed in C{sup ++} that computes and analyzes the low-energy effective theory of heterotic orbifold compactifications. The program includes routines to compute the massless spectrum, to identify the allowed couplings in the superpotential, to automatically generate large sets of orbifold models, to identify phenomenologically interesting models (e.g. MSSM-like models) and to analyze their vacuum-configurations. (orig.)
Flood, Anne
2012-01-31
Phenomenology is a philosophic attitude and research approach. Its primary position is that the most basic human truths are accessible only through inner subjectivity, and that the person is integral to the environment. This paper discusses the theoretical perspectives related to phenomenology, and includes a discussion of the methods adopted in phenomenological research.
Paths to dark energy theory and observation
Valtonen, Mauri; Chernin, Arthur D; Byrd, Gene
2012-01-01
This work provides the current theory and observations behind the cosmological phenomenon of dark energy. The approach is comprehensivewith rigorous mathematical theory and relevant astronomical observations discussed in context.The book treats the background and history starting with the new-found importance of Einstein's cosmological constant (proposed long ago for the opposite purpose) in dark energy formulation, as well as the frontiers of dark energy.
Algebraic description of G-flux in F-theory: new techniques for F-theory phenomenology
Braun, A.P. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University (Austria); Collinucci, A. [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Physique Theorique et Mathematique Universite Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Valandro, R. [II Institute for Theoretical Physics, Hamburg University (Germany)
2012-07-15
We give a global algebraic description of the four-form flux in F-theory. We present how to compute its D3-tadpole and how to calculate the number of four-dimensional chiral states at the intersection of 7-branes directly in F-theory. We check that, in the weak coupling limit, we obtain the same results as using perturbative type IIB string theory. We develop these techniques in full generality. However, these can be readily applied to concrete models, as we show in an explicit example. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Present and future particle colliders are able to measure fundamental scattering reactions with unprecedent experimental precision. Interpretation of these high-quality data demands an equally high theoretical precison, which is acheived through radiative corrections in quantum field theory. The symposium will especially focus precision physics in the upcoming CERN LHC era.
An alternative treatment of phenomenological higher-order strain-gradient plasticity theory
Kuroda, Mitsutoshi; Tvergaard, Viggo
2010-01-01
strain is discussed, applying a dislocation theory-based consideration. Then, a differential equation for the equivalent plastic strain-gradient is introduced as an additional governing equation. Its weak form makes it possible to deduce and impose extra boundary conditions for the equivalent plastic...
Phenomenological Quantum Gravity
Kimberly, D; Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joao
2005-01-01
These notes summarize a set of lectures on phenomenological quantum gravity which one of us delivered and the other attended with great diligence. They cover an assortment of topics on the border between theoretical quantum gravity and observational anomalies. Specifically, we review non-linear relativity in its relation to loop quantum gravity and high energy cosmic rays. Although we follow a pedagogic approach we include an open section on unsolved problems, presented as exercises for the student. We also review varying constant models: the Brans-Dicke theory, the Bekenstein varying $\\alpha$ model, and several more radical ideas. We show how they make contact with strange high-redshift data, and perhaps other cosmological puzzles. We conclude with a few remaining observational puzzles which have failed to make contact with quantum gravity, but who knows... We would like to thank Mario Novello for organizing an excellent school in Mangaratiba, in direct competition with a very fine beach indeed.
Farzinnia, Arsham
2012-01-01
The present Thesis is dedicated to a formal and phenomenological investigation of extensions to two separate sectors of the Standard Model of particle physics (SM): the electroweak sector and the strong sector. The Thesis is divided into two main parts: Part I focuses on the Lee-Wick Standard Model (LW SM), which, by providing a solution to the Hierarchy problem, forms a natural extension of the electroweak sector, while Part II studies the coloron theory, arising from extending the strong sector gauge group. Providing a general introduction about the current state of the SM and the associated challenges in Chapter 1, we proceed in Chapter 2 to analyze the tension between naturalness and isospin violation in the LW SM. Chapter 3 discusses the global symmetries and the renormalizability of LW scalar QED. A first complete calculation of QCD corrections to the production of a massive color-octet vector boson (colorons) is reported in Chapter 4. Finally, we conclude the Thesis in Chapter 5 by summarizing the disc...
Spin half fermions with mass dimension one: Theory, phenomenology, and dark matter
Ahluwalia-Khalilova, D V
2004-01-01
We provide the first details on the unexpected theoretical discovery of a spin one half matter field with mass dimension one. It is based upon a complete set of dual-helicity eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator. Due to its unusual properties with respect to charge conjugation and parity it belongs to a non standard Wigner class. Consequently, the theory exhibits non-locality with (CPT)^2 = - I. Because the introduced fermionic field is endowed with mass dimension one, it can carry a quartic self interaction. Its dominant interaction with known forms of matter is via Higgs, and with gravity. This aspect leads us to contemplate the new fermion as a prime dark matter candidate. Taking this suggestion seriously we study a supernova-like explosion of a galactic-mass dark matter cloud to set limits on the mass of the new particle. Similarities and differences with the mirror matter proposal for dark matter are enumerated. In a critique of the theory we bare a hint on non-commutative aspects of spacetime...
Anatomy and phenomenology of flavor and CP violation in supersymmetric theories
Altmannshofer, Wolfgang
2010-07-20
The main subject of this PhD thesis is a comprehensive and systematic analysis of flavor and CP violating low energy processes in the framework of the MSSM, the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. Supersymmetric (SUSY) models are among the best motivated and most thoroughly analyzed New Physics (NP) models. The new degrees of freedom predicted by Supersymmetry are expected to have masses of the order of the TeV scale and the direct search for these particles is one of the major goals at the LHC. A complementary strategy to probe the MSSM is given by the analysis of low energy high-precision observables, that can be modified through virtual effects of the new degrees of freedom. Of particular importance in this respect are so-called Flavor Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) processes that, forbidden in the Standard Model at the tree level, are highly sensitive probes of the flavor structure of NP models. We first analyze model independently low energy processes that show high sensitivity to the new sources of flavor and CP violation contained in the MSSM. Next, we discuss in detail the rich flavor structure of the MSSM and the implied SUSY contributions to FCNC and CP violating observables both in the low and high tan {beta} regime. In fact, well measured low energy observables lead to remarkably strong constraints on the MSSM parameter space, which is often referred to as the SUSY flavor problem. We outline possibilities to control dangerously large SUSY effects in such observables and analyze the implied predictions for those low energy processes that are not measured with high precision, yet. We consider both the Minimal Flavor Violating MSSM and SUSY models based on abelian and non-abelian flavor symmetries that show representative flavor structures in the soft SUSY breaking terms. We identify the distinctive patterns of SUSY effects in the low energy observables, focussing in particular on CP violation in the b {yields} s{gamma} transition, the
Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry
Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.
1982-01-01
This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.
Phenomenological Theory of Boundary Friction in the Stick-Slip Mode
Metlov, I A Lyashenko A V Khomenko L S
2011-01-01
A deterministic theory describing the melting of an ultrathin lubricant film between two atomically smooth solid surfaces has been developed. The lubricant state is described by introducing a parameter of excess volume that arises owing to the solid structure chaotization at its melting. The thermodynamic and shear kinds of melting are described consistently. The dependences of the stationary friction force on the lubricant temperature and the shear velocity of rubbing surfaces that move with respect to each other with a constant velocity have been analyzed. In the framework of a simple tribological model, the stick-slip mode of friction, when the lubricant periodically melts and solidifies, has been described. The influence of velocity, temperature, and load on the stick-slip friction has been analyzed. A qualitative comparison between the results obtained and experimental data has been carried out.
Spencer, M B; Dupree, D; Hartmann, T
1997-01-01
A framework that emphasizes and integrates individuals' intersubjective experiences with Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (PVEST) is introduced and compared with self-organizational perspectives. Similarities, differences and advantages of each framework are described. In a demonstration of PVEST's utility, a subset of data from the 3rd year of a longitudinal study (14- to 16-year-old middle adolescent African-Americans) is used for examining an achievement variable: negative learning attitude. Explored separately by gender, a regression model that contained risk, stress, and a reactive coping variable for the prediction of negative learning attitudes was investigated. For boys, stress was an independent stressor across steps independent of the other variables entered; social support variable, perceived unpopularity with peers, that was a significant predictor of girls' negative learning attitude. Particularly for boys, the findings suggest critically important roles for teachers and peers in the negative learning attitude of midadolescent economically disadvantaged African-American students.
Csáki, C; Csaki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa
1995-01-01
There are few robust solutions to the doublet-triplet splitting problem in supersymmetric GUT theories. One of the more promising solutions is the Higgs as pseudo-Goldstone boson mechanism. In its minimal implementation, such a solution places an additional restriction on the parameter space of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A testable consequence of this constraint is an equation for \\tan \\beta. We present this restriction and study its solutions in order to constrain the allowed parameter space. Thus the assumptions on the GUT scale Higgs sector should yield testable predictions for weak scale physics. If the SUSY parameters are measured then it should be possible to check the predictions, yielding insight into GUT scale physics.
Phenomenology of dark energy: general features of large-scale perturbations
Perenon, Louis; Marinoni, Christian; Hui, Lam
2015-01-01
We present a systematic exploration of dark energy and modified gravity models containing a single scalar field non-minimally coupled to the metric. Even though the parameter space is large, by exploiting an effective field theory (EFT) formulation and by imposing simple physical constraints such as stability conditions and (sub-)luminal propagation of perturbations, we arrive at a number of generic predictions. (1) The linear growth rate of matter density fluctuations is generally suppressed compared to $\\Lambda$CDM at intermediate redshifts ($0.5 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 1$), despite the introduction of an attractive long-range scalar force. This is due to the fact that, in self-accelerating models, the background gravitational coupling weakens at intermediate redshifts, over-compensating the effect of the attractive scalar force. (2) At higher redshifts, the opposite happens; we identify a period of super-growth when the linear growth rate is larger than that predicted by $\\Lambda$CDM. (3) The gravitational sli...
Crespillo, M.L., E-mail: mcrespil@utk.edu [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Agulló-López, F., E-mail: fal@uam.es [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain)
2017-03-01
Highlights: • Extensive survey formation energies Frenkel pairs and electronic stopping thresholds. • Correlation: track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation. • Formation energies Frenkel pairs discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms. • Amorphous track formation mechanisms: defect accumulation models versus melting. • Advantages cumulative models to deal with new hot topics: nuclear-electronic synergy. - Abstract: An extensive survey for the formation energies of Frenkel pairs, as representative candidates for radiation-induced point defects, is presented and discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms (CM) of track formation in dielectric materials under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. These mechanisms rely on the generation and accumulation of point defects during irradiation followed by collapse of the lattice once a threshold defect concentration is reached. The physical basis of those approaches has been discussed by Fecht as a defect-assisted transition to an amorphous phase. Although a first quantitative analysis of the CM model was previously performed for LiNbO{sub 3} crystals, we have, here, adopted a broader phenomenological approach. It explores the correlation between track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation for a broad range of materials. It is concluded that the threshold stopping powers can be roughly scaled with the energies required to generate a critical Frenkel pair concentration in the order of a few percent of the total atomic content. Finally, a comparison with the predictions of the thermal spike model is discussed within the analytical Szenes approximation.
Integrating dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory with traditional bioenergetic models.
Nisbet, Roger M; Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Pecquerie, Laure
2012-03-15
Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory offers a systematic, though abstract, way to describe how an organism acquires and uses energy and essential elements for physiological processes, in addition to how physiological performance is influenced by environmental variables such as food density and temperature. A 'standard' DEB model describes the performance (growth, development, reproduction, respiration, etc.) of all life stages of an animal (embryo to adult), and predicts both intraspecific and interspecific variation in physiological rates. This approach contrasts with a long tradition of more phenomenological and parameter-rich bioenergetic models that are used to make predictions from species-specific rate measurements. These less abstract models are widely used in fisheries studies; they are more readily interpretable than DEB models, but lack the generality of DEB models. We review the interconnections between the two approaches and present formulae relating the state variables and fluxes in the standard DEB model to measured bioenergetic rate processes. We illustrate this synthesis for two large fishes: Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). For each, we have a parameter-sparse, full-life-cycle DEB model that requires adding only a few species-specific features to the standard model. Both models allow powerful integration of knowledge derived from data restricted to certain life stages, processes and environments.
High energy reactions and string theory
Peschanski, R
2002-01-01
String theory has long ago been initiated by the quest for a theoretical explanation of the observed high-energy ``Reggeization'' of strong interaction amplitudes. In terms of quantum field theory, it is the so-called ``soft'' regime, where the coupling constant is expected to be large and thus perturbative calculations inadequate. However, since then, no convincing derivation of the link between gauge field theory at strong coupling and string theory has come out. This 35-years-old puzzle is thus still unsolved. We discuss how modern tools like the AdS/CFT correspondence give a new insight on the problem by applying it to two-body elastic and inelastic scattering amplitudes. We obtain a geometrical interpretation of Reggeization and its relation with confinement in gauge theory.
The type IIB string axiverse and its low-energy phenomenology
Cicoli, Michele [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Goodsell, Mark D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-06-15
We study closed string axions in type IIB orientifold compactifications. We show that for natural values of the background fluxes the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario (LVS) gives rise to an axiverse characterised by the presence of a QCD axion plus many light axion-like particles whose masses are logarithmically hierarchical. We study the phenomenological features of the LVS axiverse, deriving the masses of the axions and their couplings to matter and gauge fields. We also determine when closed string axions can solve the strong CP problem, and analyse the first explicit examples of semi-realistic models with stable moduli and a QCD axion candidate which is not eaten by an anomalous Abelian gauge boson. We discuss the impact of the choice of inflationary scenario on the LVS axiverse, and summarise the astrophysical, cosmological and experimental constraints upon it. Moreover, we show how models can be constructed with additional light axion-like particles that could explain some intriguing astrophysical anomalies, and could be searched for in the next generation of axion helioscopes and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.
Theory of high-energy messengers
Dermer, Charles D
2016-01-01
Knowledge of the distant high-energy universe comes from photons, ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), high-energy neutrinos, and gravitational waves. The theory of high-energy messengers reviewed here focuses on the extragalactic background light at all wavelengths, cosmic rays and magnetic fields in intergalactic space, and neutrinos of extragalactic origin. Comparisons are drawn between the intensities of photons and UHECRs in intergalactic space, and the high-energy neutrinos recently detected with IceCube at about the Waxman-Bahcall flux. Source candidates for UHECRs and high-energy neutrinos are reviewed, focusing on star-forming and radio-loud active galaxies. HAWC and Advanced LIGO are just underway, with much anticipation.
Theory of high-energy messengers
Dermer, Charles D.
2016-05-01
Knowledge of the distant high-energy universe comes from photons, ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), high-energy neutrinos, and gravitational waves. The theory of high-energy messengers reviewed here focuses on the extragalactic background light at all wavelengths, cosmic rays and magnetic fields in intergalactic space, and neutrinos of extragalactic origin. Comparisons are drawn between the intensities of photons and UHECRs in intergalactic space, and the high-energy neutrinos recently detected with IceCube at about the Waxman-Bahcall flux. Source candidates for UHECRs and high-energy neutrinos are reviewed, focusing on star-forming and radio-loud active galaxies. HAWC and Advanced LIGO are just underway, with much anticipation.
Bosonic self-energy functional theory
Hügel, Dario; Werner, Philipp; Pollet, Lode; Strand, Hugo U. R.
2016-11-01
We derive the self-energy functional theory for bosonic lattice systems with broken U(1) symmetry by parametrizing the bosonic Baym-Kadanoff effective action in terms of one- and two-point self-energies. The formalism goes beyond other approximate methods such as the pseudoparticle variational cluster approximation, the cluster composite boson mapping, and the Bogoliubov+U theory. It simplifies to bosonic dynamical-mean-field theory when constraining to local fields, whereas when neglecting kinetic contributions of noncondensed bosons, it reduces to the static mean-field approximation. To benchmark the theory, we study the Bose-Hubbard model on the two- and three-dimensional cubic lattice, comparing with exact results from path integral quantum Monte Carlo. We also study the frustrated square lattice with next-nearest-neighbor hopping, which is beyond the reach of Monte Carlo simulations. A reference system comprising a single bosonic state, corresponding to three variational parameters, is sufficient to quantitatively describe phase boundaries and thermodynamical observables, while qualitatively capturing the spectral functions, as well as the enhancement of kinetic fluctuations in the frustrated case. On the basis of these findings, we propose self-energy functional theory as the omnibus framework for treating bosonic lattice models, in particular, in cases where path integral quantum Monte Carlo methods suffer from severe sign problems (e.g., in the presence of nontrivial gauge fields or frustration). Self-energy functional theory enables the construction of diagrammatically sound approximations that are quantitatively precise and controlled in the number of optimization parameters but nevertheless remain computable by modest means.
The Theory of High Energy Collision Processes - Final Report DOE/ER/40158-1
Wu, Tai, T.
2011-09-15
In 1984, DOE awarded Harvard University a new Grant DE-FG02-84ER40158 to continue their support of Tai Tsun Wu as Principal Investigator of research on the theory of high energy collision processes. This Grant was renewed and remained active continuously from June 1, 1984 through November 30, 2007. Topics of interest during the 23-year duration of this Grant include: the theory and phenomenology of collision and production processes at ever higher energies; helicity methods of QED and QCD; neutrino oscillations and masses; Yang-Mills gauge theory; Beamstrahlung; Fermi pseudopotentials; magnetic monopoles and dyons; cosmology; classical confinement; mass relations; Bose-Einstein condensation; and large-momentum-transfer scattering processes. This Final Report describes the research carried out on Grant DE-FG02-84ER40158 for the period June 1, 1984 through November 30, 2007. Two books resulted from this project and a total of 125 publications.
Asteroseismology: Theory and phenomenology
Brown, Timothy M.
1994-01-01
Seismic studies of the Sun have succeeded in mapping the variation of sound speed with depth in the Sun, and variation of angular velocity with both depth and latitude. Many stars besides the Sun may also be amenable to asteroseismic analysis. Stars of roughly solar type should of course behave in ways similar to the sun, and stars of this sort form a large fraction of the potential targets for asteroseismology. But several other types of stars (delta scuti stars, roAP stars, and the pulsating white dwarfs) also have the desired pulsation characteristics. Pulsations in some of these stars are, for various reasons, much easier to observe than in the Sun-like stars. Virtually all unambiguous observations of multi-mode pulsators relate to these other categories of stars. Since oscillation mode frequencies are arguably the most precise measurement relating to a star that we can make, a few tens of such frequencies may still be of great importance to our understanding of the stellar structure and evolution.
Crespillo, M. L.; Agulló-López, F.; Zucchiatti, A.
2017-03-01
An extensive survey for the formation energies of Frenkel pairs, as representative candidates for radiation-induced point defects, is presented and discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms (CM) of track formation in dielectric materials under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. These mechanisms rely on the generation and accumulation of point defects during irradiation followed by collapse of the lattice once a threshold defect concentration is reached. The physical basis of those approaches has been discussed by Fecht as a defect-assisted transition to an amorphous phase. Although a first quantitative analysis of the CM model was previously performed for LiNbO3 crystals, we have, here, adopted a broader phenomenological approach. It explores the correlation between track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation for a broad range of materials. It is concluded that the threshold stopping powers can be roughly scaled with the energies required to generate a critical Frenkel pair concentration in the order of a few percent of the total atomic content. Finally, a comparison with the predictions of the thermal spike model is discussed within the analytical Szenes approximation.
A novel limiting strain energy strength theory
LIU Guang-lian
2009-01-01
With applied dislocation theory,the effects of shear and normal stresses on the slide and climb motions at the same section of a crystal were analyzed.And,based on the synergetic effect of both normal and shear strain specific energies,the concept of the total equivalent strain specific energy (TESSE) at an oblique section and a new strength theory named as limiting strain energy strength theory (LSEST) were proposed.As for isotropic materials,the plastic yielding or brittle fracture of under uniaxial stress state would occur when the maximum TESSE reached the strain specific energy,also the expressions on the equivalent stresses and a function of failure of the LSEST under different principal stress states were obtained.Relationship formulas among the tensile,compressive and shear yield strengths for plastic metals were derived.These theoretical predictions,according to the LSEST,were consistent very well with experiment results of tensile,compressive and torsion tests of three plastic metals and other experiment results from open literatures.This novel LSEST might also help for strength calculation of other materials.
Thoughts on Phenomenology, Education, and Art.
Streb, Joseph H.
1984-01-01
The phenomenological method of Edmund Hesserl is discussed. The mode of being of the teacher is phenomoneologically analyzed, and the results of the analysis are used in conjunction with the results of various phenomenological analyses of aesthetics to construct a rudimentary phenomenological theory of art education. (Author/RM)
A phenomenological relationship between molecular geometry change and conformational energy change
Bodi, Andras; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Arnason, Ingvar
2010-08-01
A linear correlation is established between the change in the axial/equatorial conformational energy difference and the change in the molecular geometry transformation during conformational inversion in substituted six-membered ring systems, namely in the 1-substituted cyclohexane/silacyclohexane, cyclohexane/ N-substituted piperidine and 1-substituted silacyclohexane/ P-substituted phosphorinane compound families, and for the analogous gauche/anti conformational isomerism in 1-substituted propanes/1-silapropanes. The nuclear repulsion energy parameterizes the molecular geometry, and changes in the conformational energy between the related compound families are linearly correlated with the changes in the nuclear repulsion energy difference based on DFT (B3LYP, M06-2X), G3B3, and CBS-QB3 calculations. This correlation reproduces the sometimes remarkable contrast between the conformational behavior of analogous compounds, e.g., the lack of a general equatorial preference in silacyclohexanes.
Mansour, N A
2003-01-01
The results from the cubic polynomial (CP) formula of the square of the angular velocity and the nuclear moments of inertia are compared with those from the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model and the available experimental information on transition energies for yrast line in even-even nuclei. The evaluated model parameters lead to an excellent fit for all energy levels ( I approx 24). The calculated critical spin for backbending in the zeta - omega sup 2 plot is found to be in agreement with the experimental data. (author)
Time and Energy in Gravity Theory
Pestov, I B
2003-01-01
A new concept of internal time (viewed as a scalar temporal field) is introduced which allows one to solve the energy problem in General Relativity. The law of energy conservation means that the total energy density of the full system of interacting fields (including gravitational field) does not vary with time, thus being the first integral of the system. It is demonstrated that direct introduction of the temporal field permits to derive the general covariant four dimensional Maxwell equations for the electric and magnetic fields from the equations of electromagnetic fields considering in General Relativity. It means that the fundamental physical laws are in full correspondence with the essence of time. Theory of time presented here predicts the existence of matter outside the time.
Hoogland, J.K.
1996-10-18
In this thesis we looked at the computation of six-fermion processes at LEP2, e.g., the process e{sup -}e{sup +}{yields}e{sup -} anti {nu}{sub e}u anti d. A good numerical estimate of these processes is necessary to improve on the measurement of the W-mass. These processes contain Feynman-diagrams with propagating Z and W`s, which are massive and have a non-negligible width, i.e., they can decay into other particles. The effect of these widths in cross-sections can be taken into account, but one has to be very careful not to break the gauge invariance of the theory as this would lead in this case to huge errors in the numerical results. (orig./WL).
De la Macorra, A
1995-01-01
We consider the low energy phenomenology of superstrings. In particular we analyse supersymmetry breaking via gaugino condensate and we compare the phenomenology of the two different approaches to stabilize the dilaton field. We study the cosmological constant problem and we show that it is possible to have supersymmetry broken and zero cosmological constant. Finally, we discuss the possibility of having an inflationary potential. Requiring that the potential does not destabilize the dilaton field imposes an upper limit to the density fluctuations which can be consistent with the COBE data.
Aggerholm, Kenneth; Moltke Martiny, Kristian
. Through exceptional cases we can gain a deeper understanding of the ordinary. This was already a guiding thread in Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological investigations, but this paper will take the idea further by grounding the methodology in ‘hands on’ research in elite sport (football) and pathological cases...
Kawasaki, Zen
This paper presents a phenomenological idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.
The Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy
Gubitosi, Giulia; Vernizzi, Filippo
2012-01-01
We propose a universal description of dark energy and modified gravity that includes all single-field models. By extending a formalism previously applied to inflation, we consider the metric universally coupled to matter fields and we write in terms of it the most general unitary gauge action consistent with the residual unbroken symmetries of spatial diffeomorphisms. Our action is particularly suited for cosmological perturbation theory: the background evolution depends on only three operators. All other operators start at least at quadratic order in the perturbations and their effects can be studied independently and systematically. In particular, we focus on the properties of a few operators which appear in non-minimally coupled scalar-tensor gravity and galileon theories. In this context, we study the mixing between gravity and the scalar degree of freedom. We assess the quantum and classical stability, derive the speed of sound of fluctuations and the renormalization of the Newton constant. The scalar ca...
Theories of Dark Energy with Screening Mechanisms
Khoury, Justin
2010-01-01
Despite the overwhelming evidence for the existence of dark energy and dark matter, their underlying fundamental physics remains unknown. This review article explores the tantalizing possibility that the dark sector includes new light degrees of freedom that mediate long-range forces on cosmological scales. To ensure consistency with laboratory and solar system tests of gravity, some screening mechanism is necessary to "hide" these degrees of freedom locally. I will focus on two broad classes of screening theories, chameleons and symmetrons, which rely respectively on the scalar field acquiring a large mass or weak coupling in the presence of large ambient matter density.
Equation of State of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage
Greenfield, Michael
2015-06-01
Traditional damage theory deals with distributed microcracks rather than with individual cracks. This theory adds just one additional parameter to the set of classical thermodynamic parameters of deformable solids, like strain and temperature. Basically, the traditional damage theory reflects only one experimental observation: the elastic modules become smaller with growing damage. Contrary to the traditional damage theory, the Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the rate-dependent effects.
G. A. Ummarino
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The s-wave three-band Eliashberg theory can simultaneously reproduce the experimental critical temperatures and the gap values of the superconducting materials LaFeAsO0.9F0.1, Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 and SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 as exponent of the more important families of iron pnictides. In this model the dominant role is played by interband interactions and the order parameter undergoes a sign reversal between hole and electron bands (±-wave symmetry. The values of all the gaps (with the exact experimental critical temperature can be obtained by using high values of the electron-boson coupling constants and small typical boson energies (in agreement with experiments.
Dark energy in scalar-tensor theories
Moeller, J.
2007-12-15
We investigate several aspects of dynamical dark energy in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We provide a classification of scalar-tensor coupling functions admitting cosmological scaling solutions. In particular, we recover that Brans-Dicke theory with inverse power-law potential allows for a sequence of background dominated scaling regime and scalar field dominated, accelerated expansion. Furthermore, we compare minimally and non-minimally coupled models, with respect to the small redshift evolution of the dark energy equation of state. We discuss the possibility to discriminate between different models by a reconstruction of the equation-of-state parameter from available observational data. The non-minimal coupling characterizing scalar-tensor models can - in specific cases - alleviate fine tuning problems, which appear if (minimally coupled) quintessence is required to mimic a cosmological constant. Finally, we perform a phase-space analysis of a family of biscalar-tensor models characterized by a specific type of {sigma}-model metric, including two examples from recent literature. In particular, we generalize an axion-dilaton model of Sonner and Townsend, incorporating a perfect fluid background consisting of (dark) matter and radiation. (orig.)
Irene Pagano Dritto
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The study search the Rorschach point of view phenomenologycal. The phenomenology explore the psychopathological Erlebnis of subject. Psychic phenomena have the form and content. The phenomenological approach to Rorschach projective technique begins with the assessment of psychogram, which explores the subject’s cognitive, affective and adaptive processes and then the object of psychopathology. In psychogram that expresses an aspect of the way of life inkblots by the person defining the location, the determinant, the presence of particular phenomena, the content in relation to the answers of the Protocol. This approach establish structure, levels of psychic functioning of the subject and consent to make a differential diagnosis.
Generalized ghost dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory
Sheykhi, A; Yosefi, Y
2013-01-01
It was argued that the vacuum energy of the Veneziano ghost field of QCD, in a time-dependent background, can be written in the general form, $H + O(H^2)$, where $H$ is the Hubble parameter. Based on this, a phenomenological dark energy model whose energy density is of the form $\\rho=\\alpha H+\\beta H^{2}$ was recently proposed to explain the dark energy dominated universe. In this paper, we investigate this generalized ghost dark energy model in the setup of Brans-Dicke cosmology. We study the cosmological implications of this model. In particular, we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of this dark energy model. It is shown that the equation of state parameter of the new ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line ($w_D=-1$) provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably.
Schmoll, D; Haltenhof, H
2000-03-01
Recognizing the other with his/her psychic peculiarity is an important assumption for psychotherapy. But how is empathy possible? Answers are to be expected by phenomenological-philosophical approaches concerning intersubjectivity and infant research. They are described in a comprehensive way and related to each other in spite of their epistemological differences. As can be seen in the beginning of showing and reading maternal emotions (so-called "social referencing") an infant is able to show intersubjective behaviour from the age of nine months on. Research on the reflected image of the infant and the development of shame shows that consciousness of the ego is not built before the age of one and a half years. These empirically well established results contradict those phenomenological approaches claiming that the other cannot be experienced directly but via cognitive analogies of own emotions (Lipps, Husserl). They better fit an anthropology that states the human being as an innate dialogically structured one and therefore being capable of empathy. Therefore the base for a deeper understanding of the following results of psychotherapy-research is established: 1. Early infant's memories probably do not exist as isolated images but are embedded in interactional structures. 2. Strict therapeutical abstinence may be experienced as a denial of communication and may have a retraumatic effect. 3. Quality of therapeutical relationship is crucial for the success of psychotherapy.
An introduction to elementary particle phenomenology
Ratcliffe, Philip G
2014-01-01
This book deals with the development of particle physics, in particular through the exacting and all-important interplay between theory and experiment, an area that has now become known as phenomenology. Particle physics phenomenology provides the connection between the mathematical models created by theoretical physicists and the experimentalists who explore the building blocks of matter and the forces that operate between them. Assuming no more background knowledge than the basics of quantum mechanics, relativistic mechanics and nuclear physics, the author presents a solid and clear motivation for the developments witnessed by the particle physics community at both high and low energies over that last 50 or 60 years. In particular, the role of symmetries and their violation is central to many of the discussions. Including exercises and many references to original experimental and theoretical papers, as well as other useful sources, it will be essential reading for all students and researchers in ...
Quantum Gravity and Phenomenological Philosophy
Rosen, Steven M.
2008-06-01
The central thesis of this paper is that contemporary theoretical physics is grounded in philosophical presuppositions that make it difficult to effectively address the problems of subject-object interaction and discontinuity inherent to quantum gravity. The core objectivist assumption implicit in relativity theory and quantum mechanics is uncovered and we see that, in string theory, this assumption leads into contradiction. To address this challenge, a new philosophical foundation is proposed based on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Martin Heidegger. Then, through the application of qualitative topology and hypernumbers, phenomenological ideas about space, time, and dimension are brought into focus so as to provide specific solutions to the problems of force-field generation and unification. The phenomenological string theory that results speaks to the inconclusiveness of conventional string theory and resolves its core contradiction.
Extended class of phenomenological universalities
Molski, Marcin
2017-08-01
The phenomenological universalities (PU) are extended to include quantum oscillatory phenomena, coherence and supersymmetry. It will be proved that this approach generates minimum uncertainty coherent states of time-dependent oscillators, which in the dissociation (classical) limit reduce to the functions describing growth (regression) of the systems evolving over time. The PU formalism can be applied also to construct the coherent states of space-dependent oscillators, which in the dissociation limit produce cumulative distribution functions widely used in probability theory and statistics. A combination of the PU and supersymmetry provides a convenient tool for generating analytical solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation with the drift term related to the different forms of potential energy function. The results obtained reveal existence of a new class of macroscopic quantum (or quasi-quantum) phenomena, which may play a vital role in coherent formation of the specific growth patterns in complex systems.
Havik, G.; Elands, Birgit H.M.; Koppen, van C.S.A.
2015-01-01
Natural environments are the setting for spiritual experiences for people from all over the world. Interpretative phenomenological explorations of such experiences are scarce, even though the method suits the topic. We conducted field interviews with 18 Dutch visitors of a Dutch spiritual festival o
Climate and energy. My theories; Klima und Energie. Meine Theorien
Bahrami, B.
2007-07-01
The main cause of global warming is the increased intensity of solar radiation. So a drastic reduction of carbon dioxide by human actions will not finish global warming. The CO2 concentration should be reduced by gentechnological methods e.g. a forced photosynthesis. Energy plays a role not only on earth but in the whole universe, so the conversion of energy into matter and back is written depthly and clearly by the aid of relativity theory and gravitation effects. What mankind will ever pollute the univers is able to balance and correct it. (GL) [German] Sind wir Menschen wirklich schuld an einer sich anbahnenden Erderwaermung und Klimakatastrophe? Kann sie nur durch die Begrenzung der CO2-Emission wirksam bekaempft werden ? Gibt es effektivere Methoden? Was ist die forcierte Photosynthese? Was ist eine Bindung des CO2 ? Was sind rueckstandhaltige und rueckstandsfreie Energien? Durch dieses spannende Buch werden nicht nur diese Fragen ausfuehrlich beantwortet, sondern auch viele damit zusammenhaengende Probleme geloest. Lebensnahe Beispiele und ein einfacher Text machen die Thematik auch fuer das breite Publikum verstaendlich und zugaenglich. Im Rahmen einiger Theorien des Autors, der schon viele bahnbrechende Theorien entwickelt und mehrere Buecher veroeffentlicht hat, erfahren die Leser viele faszinierende Neuheiten. Kann in absehbarer Zeit unser gesamter Energiebedarf durch erneuerbare Energien gedeckt werden? Sind wir auch in Zukunft auf Atomenergie angewiesen? verfuegt die Energie ueber bisher ungeahnte, unvorstellbar grosse und vielfaeltige Faehigkeiten? Ist sie steuerbar? Welche Rolle spielt sie ueberhaupt? Wenn Sie bisher vergeblich nach Antworten auf solche und aehnliche Fragen gesucht haben, werden Sie in diesem Buch ebenfalls fuendig. Es werden nicht nur die neuesten Erkenntnisse der Wissenschaft wiedergegeben, sondern insbesondere innovative, schoepferische und kreative Akzente gesetzt und viel Neuland erschlossen.
Mukhopadhyay, A; Yost, S A
2013-01-01
We present a phenomenological study of the current status of the application of our approach of {\\it exact} amplitude-based resummation in quantum field theory to precision QCD calculations, by realistic MC event generator methods, as needed for precision LHC physics. We discuss recent results as they relate to the interplay of the attendant IR-Improved DGLAP-CS theory of one of us and the precision of exact NLO matrix-element matched parton shower MC's in the Herwig6.5 environment as determined by comparison to recent LHC experimental observations on single heavy gauge boson production and decay. The level of agreement between the new theory and the data continues to be a reason for optimism. In the spirit of completeness, we discuss as well other approaches to the same theoretical predictions that we make here from the standpoint of physical precision with an eye toward the (sub-)1% QCD \\otimes EW total theoretical precision regime for LHC physics.
Majhi, S.K., E-mail: tpskm@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata (India); Mukhopadhyay, A., E-mail: aditi_mukhopadhyay@baylor.edu [Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Ward, B.F.L., E-mail: bfl_ward@baylor.edu [Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Yost, S.A., E-mail: scott.yost@citadel.edu [The Citadel, Charleston, SC (United States)
2014-11-15
We present a phenomenological study of the current status of the application of our approach of exact amplitude-based resummation in quantum field theory to precision QCD calculations, by realistic MC event generator methods, as needed for precision LHC physics. We discuss recent results as they relate to the interplay of the attendant IR-improved DGLAP-CS theory of one of us and the precision of exact NLO matrix-element matched parton shower MC’s in the Herwig6.5 environment as determined by comparison to recent LHC experimental observations on single heavy gauge boson production and decay. The level of agreement between the new theory and the data continues to be a reason for optimism. In the spirit of completeness, we discuss as well other approaches to the same theoretical predictions that we make here from the standpoint of physical precision with an eye toward the (sub-)1% QCD⊗EW total theoretical precision regime for LHC physics. - Highlights: • Using LHC data, we show that IR-improved DGLAP-CS kernels with exact NLO Shower/ME matching improves MC precision. • We discuss other possible approaches in comparison with ours. • We propose experimental tests to discriminate between competing approaches.
Palatini Actions and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology
Olmo, Gonzalo J
2011-01-01
We show that a quadratic gravitational Lagrangian in the Palatini formulation is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, we show that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. Also, the resulting isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies are free from the big bang singularity. This singularity avoidance occurs non-perturbatively and shares some similitudes with the effective dynamics of loop quantum cosmology.
Kinetic energy decomposition scheme based on information theory.
Imamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Jun; Nakai, Hiromi
2013-12-15
We proposed a novel kinetic energy decomposition analysis based on information theory. Since the Hirshfeld partitioning for electron densities can be formulated in terms of Kullback-Leibler information deficiency in information theory, a similar partitioning for kinetic energy densities was newly proposed. The numerical assessments confirm that the current kinetic energy decomposition scheme provides reasonable chemical pictures for ionic and covalent molecules, and can also estimate atomic energies using a correction with viral ratios.
Phenomenological Prospects of Noncommutative QED
Álvarez-Gaumé, Luis; Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel A.
2004-08-01
We study the phenomenological potential of noncommutative QED as obtained from the Seiberg-Witten limit of string theories in the presence of an external B-field. We manage to define the theory free of tachyons by embedding it into {N}=4 noncommutative super Yang-Mills and breaking supersymmetry softly by adding masses to fermions and scalars. However, this requires a fine-tuning of the soft-breaking mass and the resulting theory has massive polarization for the photon.
Phenomenological Mechanochemical of Damage and Radial Cracking in Brittle Substances
Grinfeld, Michael
2015-06-01
Basic principles of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) have been formulated in Grinfeld and Wright (2002, 2004.) To some extent, it is a natural extension of the traditional damage theory, presented by Kachanov (1976.) Contrary to Kachanov's approach, the PMD theory includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the rate-dependent effects.
Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion
Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.
2016-01-01
The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and
Palatini actions and quantum gravity phenomenology
Olmo, Gonzalo J., E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia - CSIC, Facultad de Física, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain)
2011-10-01
We show that an invariant an universal length scale can be consistently introduced in a generally covariant theory through the gravitational sector using the Palatini approach. The resulting theory is able to capture different aspects of quantum gravity phenomenology in a single framework. In particular, it is found that in this theory field excitations propagating with different energy-densities perceive different background metrics, which is a fundamental characteristic of the DSR and Rainbow Gravity approaches. We illustrate these properties with a particular gravitational model and explicitly show how the soccer ball problem is avoided in this framework. The isotropic and anisotropic cosmologies of this model also avoid the big bang singularity by means of a big bounce.
Slice Energy and Conformal Frames in Theories of Gravitation
Cotsakis, S
2004-01-01
We examine and compare the behaviour of the scalar field slice energy in different classes of theories of gravity, in particular higher-order and scalar-tensor theories. We find a universal formula for the energy and compare the resulting conservation laws with those known in general relativity. This leads to a comparison between the inflaton, the dilaton and other forms of scalar fields present in these generalized theories. It also shows that all such conformally-related, generalized theories of gravitation allow for the energy on a slice to be invariably defined and its fundamental properties be insensitive to conformal transformations.
Extended inertial range phenomenology of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Matthaeus, William H.; Zhou, YE
1989-01-01
A phenomenological treatment of the inertial range of isotropic statistically steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented, extending the theory of Kraichnan (1965). The role of Alfven wave propagation is treated on equal footing with nonlinear convection, leading to a simple generalization of the relations between the times characteristic of wave propagation, convection, energy transfer, and decay of triple correlations. The theory leads to a closed-form steady inertial range spectral law that reduces to the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov laws in appropriate limits. The Kraichnan constant is found to be related in a simple way to the Kolmogorov constant; for typical values of the latter constant, the former has values in the range 1.22-1.87. Estimates of the time scale associated with spectral transfer of energy also emerge from the new approach, generalizing previously presented 'golden rules' for relating the spectral transfer time scale to the Alfven and eddy-turnover time scales.
Finite Unification: phenomenology
Heinemeyer, S; Ma, E; Mondragon, M; Zoupanos, G, E-mail: sven.heinemeyer@cern.ch, E-mail: ma@phyun8.ucr.edu, E-mail: myriarn@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: george.zoupanos@cern.ch
2010-11-01
We study the phenomenological implications of Finite Unified Theories (FUTs). In particular we look at the predictions for the lightest Higgs mass and the s-spectra of two all-loop finite models with SU(5) as gauge group. We also consider a two-loop finite model with gauge group SU(3){sup 3}, which is finite if and only if there are exactly three generations. In this latter model we concetrate here only on the predictions for the third generation of quark masses.
Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience
Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris
1976-01-01
This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…
Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience
Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris
1976-01-01
This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…
Catterall, Simon [Syracuse University; Hubisz, Jay [Syracuse University; Balachandran, Aiyalam [Syracuse University; Schechter, Joe [Syracuse University
2013-01-05
This final report describes the activities of the high energy theory group at Syracuse University for the period 1 January 2010 through April 30 2013. The research conducted by the group includes lattice gauge theory, non-commutative geometry, phenomenology and mathematical physics.
Phenomenology of loop quantum cosmology
Sakellariadou, Mairi
2010-01-01
After introducing the basic ingredients of Loop Quantum Cosmology, I will briefly discuss some of its phenomenological aspects. Those can give some useful insight about the full Loop Quantum Gravity theory and provide an answer to some long-standing questions in early universe cosmology.
Phenomenology and carnival production chain
Oliveira de Carvalho Santos, Paloma; Madeira, Ney; Joia, Danielle Cardoso; da Silva Assumpção, Fernando
2017-01-01
... of his “The Visible and the Invisible”, a group of teachers and artists enrolled on the theory and practice of the Rio de Janeiro Carnival propose a discussion on the reverberation of his Phenomenology on this field, trying to understand...
Teacher Reflection: A Phenomenological Study
Wilson, Rebecca E.
2013-01-01
This study is concerned with the reflective practices of middle school teachers. Based on Dewey's theory of reflective practice and Schon's types of reflection, this experience is one of student learning, relationships, curriculum planning, and lesson delivery. This is a qualitative study using the research method of phenomenology through…
The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?
Friston, Karl
2010-02-01
A free-energy principle has been proposed recently that accounts for action, perception and learning. This Review looks at some key brain theories in the biological (for example, neural Darwinism) and physical (for example, information theory and optimal control theory) sciences from the free-energy perspective. Crucially, one key theme runs through each of these theories - optimization. Furthermore, if we look closely at what is optimized, the same quantity keeps emerging, namely value (expected reward, expected utility) or its complement, surprise (prediction error, expected cost). This is the quantity that is optimized under the free-energy principle, which suggests that several global brain theories might be unified within a free-energy framework.
Analysis theory of random energy of train derailment in wind
无
2010-01-01
Based on the analysis theory of random energy of train derailment, an analysis theory of random energy of train derailment in wind is suggested. Two methods are proposed -the time domain method and the frequency domain method of analysis theory of random energy of train derailment in wind. The curves of σ pw -v under various wind speeds are obtained through the computation. The original curve of σ p -v is expanded, which turns the analysis theory of random energy of train derailment into the all-weather theory. Train derailment condition has been established under wind action. The first and second criterions of train derailment have been proposed in light of wind action. The analysis of train derailment cases at home or abroad is made, in- cluding the first analysis of Xinjiang train derailment case encountered 13-level of gale, which explained the inevitability of train derailment. The analysis theory of random energy of train derailment in wind shows its validity and accuracy. The input energy σ pw of the transverse vibration of train-track(bridge)-wind system is linked to train speed. With the establishment of the analysis theory of random energy of train derailment in wind, It is likely to initiate an all-weather speed limit map for a train or any high-speed train.
Pete Hay
2006-05-01
Full Text Available The question is posed: is a coherent theory of islandness – nissology – possible? Faultlines within constructions of islands and islandness are noted. Some of these axes of contestation have remained latent but have the potential to be sharply divisive. Three of the identified faultlines are examined – the nature of the island ‘edge’, the import for questions of island memory and identity of massive inward and outward movements of people, and the appropriation of island ‘realness’ by those for whom ‘island’ best functions as metaphor. A case is made for the excision of the latter from the purview of island studies. Despite apparent irreconcilability within island studies’ emerging faultlines, it is argued that place theory does constitute a theoretical framing that can work for island studies. Following a brief overview of the faultlines that also exist within place studies, it is noted that the difference-respecting and identity focused nature of phenomenology of place is particularly apposite for island studies, and the paper concludes with a consideration of what a phenomenology of islands might look like.
Quantum mechanical theory behind "dark energy"?
Colin Johnson, R
2007-01-01
"The mysterious increase in the acceleration of the universe, when intuition says it should be slowing down, is postulated to be caused by dark energy - "dark" because it is undetected. Now a group of scientists in the international collaboration Essence has suggested that a quantum mechanical interpretation of Einstein's proposed "cosmological constant" is the simplest explanation for dark energy. The group measured dark energy to within 10 percent." (1,5 page)
Energy flux positivity and unitarity in conformal field theories
Kulaxizi, M.; Parnachev, A.
2011-01-01
We show that in most conformal field theories the condition of the energy flux positivity, proposed by Hofman and Maldacena, is equivalent to the absence of ghosts. At finite temperature and large energy and momenta, the two-point functions of the stress energy tensor develop lightlike poles. The re
Individualized assessment and phenomenological psychology.
Fischer, C T
1979-04-01
Although there is growing openness to tailoring of assessment procedures and reports to the particular client, these efforts typically have been sporadic and incomplete. This article reviews a systematic approach to individualized assessment, one whose practices are referred to as collaborative, contextual, and interventional. Clinical examples of these practices are presented in terms of their grounding in phenomenological psychology. Prior to that, themes such as intentionality, situatedness, dialectics, structuralism, and hermeneutics are introduced briefly. Phenomenological psychology as such is not seen here as necessary for all individualized practices, but it is seen as a critical touchpoint for development of theory and further practices.
Shirokov, V. B.; Shakhovoy, R. A.; Razumnaya, A. G.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.
2015-07-01
A phenomenological thermodynamic theory of BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST-x) thin films epitaxially grown on (111)-oriented cubic substrates is developed using the Landau-Devonshire approach. The group-theoretical analysis of the low-symmetry phases was performed taking into account two order parameters: the polarization related to ionic shifts in polar zone-center F1u mode and the out-of-phase rotation of TiO6 octahedra corresponding to the R25 zone-boundary mode in the parent cubic phase P m 3 ¯ m . The eight-order thermodynamic potential for BST-x solid solutions was developed and analyzed. We constructed the "concentration-misfit strain" phase diagram for BST-x thin films at room temperature and found that polar rhombohedral R3m phase with the polarization normal to the substrate is stable for x > 0.72 and negative misfit strains, while ferroelectric monoclinic C2 and Cm phases with in-plane polarization are stable for much smaller x and positive or slightly negative misfit strains. We constructed the "temperature-misfit strain" phase diagrams for several concentrations (x = 1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, and 0.2). Systematic changes of the phase transition lines between the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases are discussed. The phase diagrams are useful for practical applications in thin-film engineering.
Amadei, A; Apol, MEF; DiNola, A; Berendsen, HJC
1996-01-01
A new theory is presented for calculating the Helmholtz free energy based on the potential energy distribution function. The usual expressions of free energy, internal energy and entropy involving the partition function are rephrased in terms of the potential energy distribution function, which must
Amadei, A; Apol, MEF; DiNola, A; Berendsen, HJC
1996-01-01
A new theory is presented for calculating the Helmholtz free energy based on the potential energy distribution function. The usual expressions of free energy, internal energy and entropy involving the partition function are rephrased in terms of the potential energy distribution function, which must
Low energy signatures of nonlocal field theories
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Saravani, Mehdi
2016-09-01
The response of inertial particle detectors coupled to a scalar field satisfying nonlocal dynamics described by nonanalytic functions of the d'Alembertian operator □ is studied. We show that spontaneous emission processes of a low energy particle detector are very sensitive to high-energy nonlocality scales. This allows us to suggest a nuclear physics experiment (˜MeV energy scales) that outperforms the sensitivity of LHC experiments by many orders of magnitude. This may have implications for the falsifiability of theoretical proposals of quantum gravity.
Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos
Fedynitch Anatoli
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.
The orbifolder: A tool to study the low-energy effective theory of heterotic orbifolds
Nilles, H. P.; Ramos-Sánchez, S.; Vaudrevange, P. K. S.; Wingerter, A.
2012-06-01
The orbifolder is a program developed in C++ that computes and analyzes the low-energy effective theory of heterotic orbifold compactifications. The program includes routines to compute the massless spectrum, to identify the allowed couplings in the superpotential, to automatically generate large sets of orbifold models, to identify phenomenologically interesting models (e.g. MSSM-like models) and to analyze their vacuum configurations. Program summaryProgram title: orbifolder Catalogue identifier: AELR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 145 572 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 930 517 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language:C++ Computer: Personal computer Operating system: Tested on Linux (Fedora 15, Ubuntu 11, SuSE 11) Word size: 32 bits or 64 bits Classification: 11.1 External routines: Boost (http://www.boost.org/), GSL (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/) Nature of problem: Calculating the low-energy spectrum of heterotic orbifold compactifications. Solution method: Quadratic equations on a lattice; representation theory; polynomial algebra. Running time: Less than a second per model.
Brier, Søren
2014-01-01
Open peer commentary on the article “Info-computational Constructivism and Cognition” by Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic. Upshot: The main problems with info-computationalism are: (1) Its basic concept of natural computing has neither been defined theoretically or implemented practically. (2. It cannot en...... cybernetics and Maturana and Varela’s theory of autopoiesis, which are both erroneously taken to support info-computationalism....
Pragmatic phenomenological types.
Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith
2015-12-01
We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework.
Perspectives on string phenomenology
Kane, Gordon; Kumar, Piyush
2015-01-01
The remarkable recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics and has paved the way for understanding the physics which may lie beyond it. String/M theory has emerged as a broad framework for describing a plethora of diverse physical systems, which includes condensed matter systems, gravitational systems as well as elementary particle physics interactions. If string/M theory is to be considered as a candidate theory of Nature, it must contain an effectively four-dimensional universe among its solutions that is indistinguishable from our own. In these solutions, the extra dimensions of string/M Theory are “compactified” on tiny scales which are often comparable to the Planck length. String phenomenology is the branch of string/M theory that studies such solutions, relates their properties to data, and aims to answer many of the outstanding questions of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. This book contains perspectives on stri...
Number theory meets high energy physics
Todorov, Ivan
2017-03-01
Feynman amplitudes in perturbative quantum field theory are being expressed in terms of an algebra of functions, extending the familiar logarithms, and associated numbers— periods. The study of these functions (including hyperlogarithms) and numbers (like the multiple zeta values), that dates back to Leibniz and Euler, has attracted anew the interest of algebraic geometers and number theorists during the last decades. The two originally independent developments are recently coming together in an unlikely collaboration between particle physics and what were regarded as the most abstruse branches of mathematics.
Theories of Low Energy Nuclear Transmutations
Srivastava, Y N; Swain, J
2012-01-01
Employing concrete examples from nuclear physics it is shown that low energy nuclear reactions can and have been induced by all of the four fundamental interactions (i) (stellar) gravitational, (ii) strong, (iii) electromagnetic and (iv) weak. Differences are highlighted through the great diversity in the rates and similarity through the nature of the nuclear reactions initiated by each.
Theory of random energy analysis for train derailment
向俊; 曾庆元; 娄平
2003-01-01
Three fundamental problems in the calculation of train derailment abroad and at home were pointed out and the solutions to these problems were presented. The theory of random energy analysis for train derailment was suggested. The main contents of this theory are as follows: geometric criterion of derailment; method of random energy analysis of transverse vibration of train track system; mechanism of derailment and energy increment criterion for derailment evaluation; calculation of the entire derailment course of train. This theory is used to calculate a case of freight train derailment, which corresponds to an actually occurring accident. Another derailment test, in which the train is judged not to be derailed, is calculated and the maximum vibration response is well correspond to the test results. And the effectiveness and practicability of the theory are proved by the two calculated cases.
Nucleon self-energy in the relativistic Brueckner theory
Waindzoch, T.; Fuchs, C.; Faessler, A. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)
1998-06-01
The self-energy of the nucleon in nuclear matter is calculated in the relativistic Brueckner theory. We solve the Thompson equation for the two nucleon scattering in the medium using different Bonn potentials. The self-energy has a rather strong momentum dependence while the equation of state compares well with previous calculations. (orig.)
Towards a multisensory phenomenology
Jensen, Martin Trandberg
This paper illustrates a multisensory phenomenology that extends hermeneutic phenomenologies in tourism through the embracing of non-representational approaches. The novel co-integration of audio, visual, impressionistic and netnographic accounts allows us to rethink the textual nature and symbolic...... meaning confining phenomenological research. Our analysis is centred on an under-researched European tourism phenomenon, interrailing. This sensuous account provides an original reading of phenomenology focused on how rhythms, sounds and temperatures construct interrail encounters. The analysis...
Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays
Sarkar Subir
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.
Aspects of High-Energy Laser Theory.
1981-10-31
8217 hlpfu dscir sitans with I). A"vizotts. K. Konipa aund S. Raibin. 3,06 PllYSICAl. REVIEWA.\\ VO.LMI" 24. NUMBlIR 4 ()CI1-BL1R 1 Theory of time...V’p cos(d6/2) sinh[ Ov’p cos(b/2)] Yab -P cos2(/ 2 ) 7’b cos[OVpsin(6/2)] +Vp sin (b/2) sin [Ov’ipsin(d6/2)3 y~b +p sin2(6/2 ) ’(4 where - M ’ I 12...46 bAJi/2 (3.5) and 4i is determined by cos6 =(8, -A 2 -4N IMoI 2)/p , (3.6a) sin =28abA/p . (3.6b) Equation (3.4) is the main result of this section
[Reflections on phenomenological research in nursing].
Schoppmann, S; Pohlmann, M
2000-12-01
This essay is concerned with the question which philosophical traditions underpin the phenomenological perspective in nursing research. The word phenomenology is often used synonymously on the level of the theory of science as well as on the level of research methods. Besides the similarity in the designation of phenomenology as a philosophical tradition and as a research method, there are to be found a number of terms in the nursing literature, such as hermeneutic, interpretive or interpretative phenomenology. Therefore it is hard to differentiate between the various accounts and to use them for a concrete inquiry in nursing. The differences and the resulting consequences for phenomenological research methods shall be described whereby the ideas of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger are taken into account.
Quasilocal Energy for Static Charged Black Holes in String Theory
WANG Shi-Liang; JING Ji-Liang; WANG Yong-Jiu
2001-01-01
The Brown-York quasilocal energies of some static charged dilaton black holes are calculated, and then the validity of Martinez's conjecture is explored in string theory. It is shown that the energy is positive and monotonically decreases to the ADM mass at spatial infinity, and the conjecture that the Brown-York quasilocal energy at the outer horizon of black hole reduces to twice of its irreducible mass is still applicable for the static charged black holes in string theory. The result is different from Bose-Naing's one.``
In Theory: Dark Energy as a Power Source
Nemiroff, Robert J.; Russell, David; Tangmatitham, Matipon
2017-01-01
In theory, it is possible to use the dark energy of the universe as a power source. In practice, the amount of energy that could be liberated in a local setting is many orders of magnitude too small to be useful or even detectable. Nevertheless, in the interests of education and amusement, simple machines that could, in theory, extract local power from the gravitationally repulsive cosmological constant are discussed. The gravitational neutral buoyancy distance -- the distance where local Newtonian gravity balances cosmological dark energy in a concordance cosmology -- is computed between two point objects of low mass.
Energy Flux Positivity and Unitarity in Conformal Field Theories
Kulaxizi, Manuela; Parnachev, Andrei
2011-01-01
We show that in most conformal field theories the condition of the energy flux positivity, proposed by Hofman and Maldacena, is equivalent to the absence of ghosts. At finite temperature and large energy and momenta, the two-point functions of the stress energy tensor develop lightlike poles. The residues of the poles can be computed, as long as the only spin-two conserved current, which appears in the stress energy tensor operator-product expansion and acquires a nonvanishing expectation value at finite temperature, is the stress energy tensor. The condition for the residues to stay positive and the theory to remain ghost-free is equivalent to the condition of positivity of energy flux.
Energy flux positivity and unitarity in conformal field theories.
Kulaxizi, Manuela; Parnachev, Andrei
2011-01-07
We show that in most conformal field theories the condition of the energy flux positivity, proposed by Hofman and Maldacena, is equivalent to the absence of ghosts. At finite temperature and large energy and momenta, the two-point functions of the stress energy tensor develop lightlike poles. The residues of the poles can be computed, as long as the only spin-two conserved current, which appears in the stress energy tensor operator-product expansion and acquires a nonvanishing expectation value at finite temperature, is the stress energy tensor. The condition for the residues to stay positive and the theory to remain ghost-free is equivalent to the condition of positivity of energy flux.
Slice Energy in Higher Order Gravity Theories and Conformal Transformations
Cotsakis, S
2004-01-01
We show that there is a generic transport of energy between the scalar field generated by the conformal transformation of higher order gravity theories and the matter component. We give precise relations of this exchange and show that, unless we are in a stationary spacetime, slice energy is not generically conserved. These results translate into statements about the relative behaviour of ordinary matter, dark matter and dark energy in the context of higher order gravity.
XIONG Wen-Yuan; HU Zhao-Hui; WANG Xin-Wen; ZHOU Li-Juan; XIA Li-Xin; MA Wei-Xing
2008-01-01
Based on analysis of scattering matrix S, and its properties such as analyticity, unitarity, Lorentz invariance, and crossing symmetry relation, the Regge theory was proposed to describe hadron-hadron scattering at high energies before the advent of QCD, and correspondingly a Reggeon concept was born as a mediator of strongly interaction. This theory serves as a successful approach and has explained a great number of experimental data successfully, which proves that the Regge theory can be regarded as a basic theory of hadron interaction at high energies and its validity in many applications. However, as new experimental data come out, we have some difficulties in explaining the data. The new experimental total cross section violates the predictions of Regge theory, which shows that Regge formalism is limited in its applications to high energy data. To understand new experimental measurements, a new exchange theory was consequently born and its mediator is called Pomeron, which has vacuum quantum numbers. The new theory named as Pomeron exchange theory which reproduces the new experimental data of diffractive processes successfully. There are two exchange mediators: Reggeon and Pomeron. Reggeon exchange theory can only produce data at the relatively lower energy region, while Pomeron exchange theory fits the data only at higher-energy region, separately. In order to explain the data in the whole energy region, we propose a Reggeon-Pomeron model to describe high-energy hadron-hadron scattering and other diffractive processes. Although the Reggeon-Pomeron model is successful in describing high-energy hadron-hadron interaction in the whole energy region, it is a phenomenological model After the advent of QCD, people try to reveal the mystery of the phenomenological theory from QCD since hadron-hadron processes is a strong interaction, which is believed to be described by QCD. According to this point of view, we study the QCD nature of Reggeon and Pomeron. We claim
Cravey, Kristopher J.
Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.
The phenomenological mechanochemistry of damage and radial cracking
Grinfeld, Michael
2017-01-01
Traditional damage theory deals with distributed microcracks rather than with individual cracks. In its simplest form, this theory adds just one additional parameter to the set of classical thermodynamic parameters of deformable solids like strain and temperature. Basically, the traditional damage theory reflects only one experimental observation: The elastic moduli become smaller with growing damage. Contrary to the traditional damage theory, the Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) uses an energetic approach; it includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations, it includes the equation describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. With the minimum amount of physically transparent assumptions, it allows the reproduction of radial cracking patterns that are often observed in experiments and nature. In this paper, we review some earlier results and present the novel ones with emphasis on the electro- or magnetostatics ponderomotive forces.
杨宝富; 张瑞臣
2014-01-01
胡塞尔在发生现象学中将主体之主体性追溯到被动构造的层次，联想即属于被动构造的一个基本方面，而联想正是在感觉材料凸显的基础上展开的。本文通过对凸显进行现象学描述，展现一种关于凸显的现象学，借以阐明胡塞尔发生现象学之主体性理论的一个基础问题。%In his genetic phenomenology,Edmund Husserl traces the subjectivity of a subject back to the level of passive constitution,to which the association belongs. According to Husserl,the association happens on the ground of the prominence of sensual data. Here we try a phenomenological description of prominence so as to clarify a fundamental problem in genetic-phenomenological theory of subjectivity.
Phenomenological three center model
Poenaru, D N; Gherghescu, R A; Nagame, Y; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V
2001-01-01
Experimental results on ternary fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf suggest the existence of a short-lived quasi-molecular state. We present a three-center phenomenological model able to explain such a state by producing a new minimum in the deformation energy at a separation distance very close to the touching point. The shape parametrization chosen by us allows to describe the essential geometry of the systems in terms of one independent coordinate, namely, the distance between the heavy fragment centers. The shell correction (also treated phenomenologically) only produces quantitative effects; qualitatively it is not essential for the new minimum. Half-lives of some quasi-molecular states which could be formed in sup 1 sup 0 B accompanied fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 6 Cm, sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 sup , sup 2 sup 5 sup 6 Fm, sup 2 sup 5 sup 6 sup , sup 2 sup 6 sup 0 No, and sup 2 sup 6 sup 2 Rf are roughly estimated. (authors)
Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications
Xing, Jing Tang
2015-01-01
This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...
High Energy Physics: Report of research accomplishments and future goals, FY 1983
Barish, B C
1983-12-31
Continuing research in high energy physics carried out by the group from the California Institute of Technology. The program includes research in theory, phenomenology, and experimental high energy physics. The experimental program includes experiments at SLAC, FERMILAB, and DESY.
High Energy Physics: Report of research accomplishments and furture goals, FY1983
Barish, B C
1981-05-08
Continuing research in high energy physics carried out by the group from the California Institute of Technology. The program includes research in theory, phenomenology, and experimental high energy physics. The experimental program includes experiments at SLAC and FERMILAB.
The myth of phenomenological overflow.
Brown, Richard
2012-06-01
In this paper I examine the dispute between Hakwan Lau, Ned Block, and David Rosenthal over the extent to which empirical results can help us decide between first-order and higher-order theories of consciousness. What emerges from this is an overall argument to the best explanation against the first-order view of consciousness and the dispelling of the mythological notion of phenomenological overflow that comes with it. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
To be objective in Experimental Phenomenology: a Psychophysics application.
Burro, Roberto
2016-01-01
Several scientific psychologists consider the approach for the study of perceptive problems of the Experimental Phenomenology is problematic, namely that the phenomenological demonstrations are subjectively based and they do not produce quantifiable results. The aim of this study is to show that Experimental Phenomenology can lead to conclusions objective and quantifiable and propose a procedure allowing to obtain objective measuring using the Rasch mathematical model able to describe the experimental data gathered in Experimental Phenomenology procedures. In order to demonstrate this, a Psychophysics simulated study is proposed. It is possible to carry out a fundamental measurement starting from Experimental Phenomenology by way of the Theory of Conjoint Measurement.
Positive Energy Conditions in 4D Conformal Field Theory
Farnsworth, Kara; Prilepina, Valentina
2015-01-01
We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality $\\langle T^{00} \\rangle \\ge -C/L^4$, where $L$ is the size of the smearing region, and $C$ is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the "conformal collider" constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. We speculate that there may be theories that violate the Hofman-Maldacena bounds, but satisfy our bounds. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarka...
Bolokhov, A A; Sherman, S G
1998-01-01
We develop the phenomenological amplitude of the $\\pi N \\to \\pi \\pi N$ reaction describing the exchanges of $\\Delta$ and $N_{*}$ along with the OPE mechanism. The contribution of the latter contains 4 independent low energy parameters (up to $O(k^{4})$ order). The terms of the polynomial background are added to stand for far resonances and for contact terms originating from the off-mass-shell interactions. These terms are introduced with the account of isotopic, crossing, $ C $, $ P $ and $ T $ symmetries of strong interactions. The data consisting of total cross sections in the energy region $ 0.300 \\le P_{Lab} \\le 500 $~MeV/c and 1D distributions from the bubble-chamber experiments for three reaction channels were undergoing fittings to determine free parameters of the amplitude. The best solutions are characterized by $ found to be more important than OPE. The obtained solutions reveal the need in more precise data and/or in polarization measurements because of large correlations of isobar parameters with ...
Energy flow in non-equilibrium conformal field theory
Bernard, Denis; Doyon, Benjamin
2012-09-01
We study the energy current and its fluctuations in quantum gapless 1d systems far from equilibrium modeled by conformal field theory, where two separated halves are prepared at distinct temperatures and glued together at a point contact. We prove that these systems converge towards steady states, and give a general description of such non-equilibrium steady states in terms of quantum field theory data. We compute the large deviation function, also called the full counting statistics, of energy transfer through the contact. These are universal and satisfy fluctuation relations. We provide a simple representation of these quantum fluctuations in terms of classical Poisson processes whose intensities are proportional to Boltzmann weights.
The low-energy effective theory of QCD at small quark masses in a finite volume
Lehner, Christoph
2010-01-15
At low energies the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) can be described effectively in terms of the lightest particles of the theory, the pions. This approximation is valid for temperatures well below the mass difference of the pions to the next heavier particles. We study the low-energy effective theory at very small quark masses in a finite volume V. The corresponding perturbative expansion in 1/{radical}(V) is called {epsilon} expansion. At each order of this expansion a finite number of low-energy constants completely determine the effective theory. These low-energy constants are of great phenomenological importance. In the leading order of the {epsilon} expansion, called {epsilon} regime, the theory becomes zero-dimensional and is therefore described by random matrix theory (RMT). The dimensionless quantities of RMT are mapped to dimensionful quantities of the low-energy effective theory using the leading-order lowenergy constants {sigma} and F. In this way {sigma} and F can be obtained from lattice QCD simulations in the '' regime by a fit to RMT predictions. For typical volumes of state-of-the-art lattice QCD simulations, finite-volume corrections to the RMT prediction cannot be neglected. These corrections can be calculated in higher orders of the {epsilon} expansion. We calculate the finite-volume corrections to {sigma} and F at next-to-next-to-leading order in the {epsilon} expansion. We also discuss non-universal modifications of the theory due to the finite volume. These results are then applied to lattice QCD simulations, and we extract {sigma} and F from eigenvalue correlation functions of the Dirac operator. As a side result, we provide a proof of equivalence between the parametrization of the partially quenched low-energy effective theory without singlet particle and that of the super-Riemannian manifold used earlier in the literature. Furthermore, we calculate a special version of the massless sunset diagram at finite volume without
Aspects Of Grand Unified And String Phenomenology
Walker, J W
2005-01-01
Explored in this report is the essential interconnectedness of Grand Unified and String Theoretic Phenomenology. In order to extract a modeled connection to low-energy physics from the context of superstring theory, it is presently necessary to input some preferred region of parameter space in which to search. This need may be well filled by a parallel study of Grand Unification, which is by contrast in immediate proximity to a wealth of experimental data. The favored GUT so isolated may then reasonably transfer this phenomenological correlation to a string embedding, receiving back by way of trade a greater sense of primary motivation, and potentially enhanced predictability for parameters taken as input in a particle physics context. The Flipped SU(5) GUT will be our preferred framework in which to operate and first receives an extended study in a non-string derived setting. Of particularly timely interest are predictions for super-particle mass ranges and the interrelated question of proton decay lifetime....
Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory
Schiller, Frank [The Open University, Faculty of Maths, Computing and Technology, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)
2009-04-15
The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)
Positive energy conditions in 4D conformal field theory
Farnsworth, Kara; Luty, Markus A.; Prilepina, Valentina
2016-10-01
We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality ≥ - C/L 4, where L is the size of the smearing region, and C is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the "conformal collider" constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarkably simple functions of momenta, and may be of interest in their own right.
A molecularly based theory for electron transfer reorganization energy
Zhuang, Bilin; Wang, Zhen-Gang, E-mail: zgw@cheme.caltech.edu [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
2015-12-14
Using field-theoretic techniques, we develop a molecularly based dipolar self-consistent-field theory (DSCFT) for charge solvation in pure solvents under equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions and apply it to the reorganization energy of electron transfer reactions. The DSCFT uses a set of molecular parameters, such as the solvent molecule’s permanent dipole moment and polarizability, thus avoiding approximations that are inherent in treating the solvent as a linear dielectric medium. A simple, analytical expression for the free energy is obtained in terms of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium electrostatic potential profiles and electric susceptibilities, which are obtained by solving a set of self-consistent equations. With no adjustable parameters, the DSCFT predicts activation energies and reorganization energies in good agreement with previous experiments and calculations for the electron transfer between metallic ions. Because the DSCFT is able to describe the properties of the solvent in the immediate vicinity of the charges, it is unnecessary to distinguish between the inner-sphere and outer-sphere solvent molecules in the calculation of the reorganization energy as in previous work. Furthermore, examining the nonequilibrium free energy surfaces of electron transfer, we find that the nonequilibrium free energy is well approximated by a double parabola for self-exchange reactions, but the curvature of the nonequilibrium free energy surface depends on the charges of the electron-transferring species, contrary to the prediction by the linear dielectric theory.
Low energy effective Lagrangians in open superstring theory
Medina, Ricardo [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas
2008-07-01
The low energy effective Lagrangian describes the interactions of the massless modes of String Theory. Present work is being done to obtain all alpha'{sup 3} terms (bosonic and fermionic) by means of the known 5-point amplitudes and SUSY.
Excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter theory and applications
Singh, Jai
1994-01-01
Applying a unified quantum approach, contributors offer fresh insights into the theoretical developments in the excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter This comprehensive volume examines Frenkel and Wannier excitonic processes; rates of excitonic processes; theory of laser sputter and polymer ablation; and polarons, excitonic polarons and self-trapping
High-Energy Scattering in Non-Commutative Field Theory
Kumar, J; Kumar, Jason; Rajaraman, Arvind
2005-01-01
We analyze high energy scattering for non-commutative field theories using the dual gravity description. We find that the Froissart-Martin bound still holds, but that cross-sections stretch in the non-commutative directions in a way dependent on the infrared cutoff. This puzzling behavior suggests new aspects of UV/IR mixing.
Energy in class of scalar-tensor theories of gravity
Barraco, D.; Hamity, V. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Antigua and Barbuda)); Calvo, A.; Seco, J. (Departamento de Fisica General de la Atmosfera, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain))
1994-01-01
We investigate the equality of inertial and gravitational mass in a wide class of scalar tensor theories. We derive a general expression for the active mass (gravitational mass) and the inertial mass related by a term which can be seen as the energy of the scalar field. (Author) 13 refs.
Whitmarsh, Tom
2013-07-01
There is a great overlap between the way of seeing the world in clinical homeopathy and in the technical philosophical system known as phenomenology. A knowledge of phenomenologic principles reveals Hahnemann to have been an unwitting phenomenologist. The ideas of phenomenology as applied to medicine show that homeopathy is the ideal medical system to fulfill the goals of coming ever closer to true patient concerns and experience of illness.
Causa, F., E-mail: federica.causa@enea.it; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Claps, G.; Gabellieri, L.
2015-11-01
An empirical model is presented to study the operational characteristics of GEM detectors in the X-ray range and, in particular, its energy discrimination potential. Physical processes are modelled from a macroscopic point of view, to provide a simple but effective simulation tool. Experimental data from monochromatic and combined, two-line fluorescence sources, are used to validate the model and provide realistic estimates of the empirical parameters used in the description. The model is instrumental in understanding the role of threshold, gain and operational conditions to achieve energy-discriminating response. Appropriate choices of gas mixtures, threshold and gain will permit to best utilise this new functionality of the GEM to improve the efficiency of image detectors in applications ranging from in-situ imaging in harsh environments, such as tokamaks, to composite materials analysis and medical imaging of tissues.
Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory
Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.
2017-01-01
tools in order to deal with uncertainties and to provide reliable operating conditions. On a broader scale, an energy hub includes diverse energy sources for supplying both electrical load and heating/cooling demands with stochastic behaviors. Therefore, this paper utilizes the Information Decision Gap...... Theory (IGDT) to tackle this uncertainty as an efficient robust optimization tool with low complexity to ensure the optimal operation of the system according to the priorities of the decision maker entity. The proposed optimization framework is also implemented on a benchmark energy hub which includes...
To the theory of homogeneous nucleation: Cluster energy
Al'Tman, I. S.; Agranovskii, I. E.; Choi, M.; Zagainov, V. A.
2008-12-01
An attempt is made to critically analyze the modern state of the theory of homogeneous nucleation as concerns its ability to describe experiments with high accuracy. An analysis of the experimental data led us to conclude that the dependence of the nucleation rate on supersaturation and temperature T was not described by the theory, which underestimates the critical cluster size compared with the Gibbs-Thomson equation. The possibility of applying density functional theory (one of the latest achievements in the theory of homogeneous nucleation) was questioned. Within this theory, the Gibbs-Thomson equation remains valid even outside the classic capillary approximation. It is suggested that, to bring theory in consistency with experiment, certain fundamental propositions of the theory of nucleation should be revised. The inclusion of an additional contribution to the Gibbs energy of a cluster caused by the size dependence of the specific heat capacity of the cluster decreases the critical cluster size compared with the value calculated by the Gibbs-Thomson equation. The calculated dependence of nucleation rate on supersaturation was in agreement with the experimental results.
A Positive Energy Theorem for $P(X, \\phi)$ Theories
Elder, Benjamin; Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J
2014-01-01
We descibe a positive energy theorem for Einstein gravity coupled to scalar fields with first-derivative interactions, so-called $P(X, \\phi)$ theories. We offer two independent derivations of this result. The first method introduces an auxiliary field to map the theory to a lagrangian describing two canonical scalar fields, where one can apply a positive energy result of Boucher and Townsend. The second method works directly at the $P(X, \\phi)$ level and uses spinorial arguments introduced by Witten. The latter approach follows that of arXiv:1310.1663, but the end result is less restrictive. We point to the technical step where our derivation deviates from theirs. One of the more interesting implications of our analysis is to show it is possible to have positive energy in cases where dispersion relations following from locality and S-Matrix analyticity are violated.
Generalized energy conditions in Extended Theories of Gravity
Capozziello, Salvatore; Mimoso, José P
2014-01-01
Theories of physics can be considered viable if the initial value problem and the energy conditions are formulated self-consistently. The former allow a uniquely determined dynamical evolution of the system, and the latter guarantee that causality is preserved and that "plausible" physical sources have been considered. In this work, we consider the further degrees of freedom related to curvature invariants and scalar fields in Extended Theories of Gravity (ETG). These new degrees of freedom can be recast as effective perfect fluids that carry different meanings with respect to the standard matter fluids generally adopted as sources of the field equations. It is thus somewhat misleading to apply the standard general relativistic energy conditions to this effective energy-momentum, as the latter contains the matter content and a geometrical quantity, which arises from the ETG considered. Here, we explore this subtlety, extending on previous work, in particular, to cases with the contracted Bianchi identities wi...
From Husserl to van Manen. A review of different phenomenological approaches.
Dowling, Maura
2007-01-01
This paper traces the development of phenomenology as a philosophy originating from the writings of Husserl to its use in phenomenological research and theory development in nursing. The key issues of phenomenological reduction and bracketing are also discussed as they play a pivotal role in the how phenomenological research studies are approached. What has become to be known as "new" phenomenology is also explored and the key differences between it and "traditional" phenomenology are discussed. van Manen's phenomenology is also considered in light of its contemporary popularity among nurse researchers.
Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions
Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.
2006-10-01
In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.
Esakova, Nataliya
2012-01-01
Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply.
Esakova, Nataliya
2012-07-01
Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply. (orig.)
Naturalizing phenomenology - A philosophical imperative.
Harney, Maurita
2015-12-01
is a conception developed by Merleau-Ponty, especially in his later ontology of nature, and one that is shared by American pragmatist philosopher of science, C.S. Peirce (1839-1914). For both philosophers, meaning must be understood in terms of an ontology which is relational rather than atomistic, and dynamic or processual rather than static and substance-based. For Merleau-Ponty this is an experientially-derived ontology; for Peirce it is a more conceptually-based one. In this paper, I explore this connection between these two philosophers in two stages. The first is by reference to Peirce's theory of signs or semiotics. More specifically, I look at the application of this theory to the study of biological processes as developed in Peirce-inspired biosemiotics. In the light of this, I suggest that Merleau-Ponty's account of intentional relations in nature might be articulated as semiotic relations, and can serve as a philosophical basis for a non-reductive biological science. I then turn to questions relating to the ontology of nature. I explore Merleau-Ponty's experientially-based "ontology of flesh" and Peirce's distinctive form of naturalism to show affinities at this ontological level. These affinities consist in commitments to a reality that includes possibility, meaning, temporality, and final causation - that is, an ontology which is far more inclusive than that of conventional positivistic science. Peirce's broader scientific metaphysics enables us to extend Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological naturalism beyond the biological to the physical sciences. Whilst Merleau-Ponty's ontology of nature provides the experiential basis necessary for a critique of scientism, Peirce establishes the relevance of that ontology for a re-conceived empirical science. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dark Energy From Fifth Dimensional Brans-Dicke Theory
Bahrehbakhsh, Amir F; Vakili, Hajar
2013-01-01
Following the approach of the induced-matter theory, we investigate the cosmological implications of a five-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory, and propose to explain the acceleration of the universe. After inducing in a four-dimensional hypersurface, we classify the energy-momentum tensor into two parts in a way that, one part represents all kind of the matter (the baryonic and dark) and the other one contains every extra terms emerging from the scale factor of the fifth dimension and the scalar field, which we consider as the energy-momentum tensor of dark energy. We also separate the energy-momentum conservation equation into two conservation equations, one for matter and the other for dark energy. We perform this procedure for different cases, without interacting term and with two particular (suitable) interacting terms between the two parts. By assuming the parameter of the state equation for dark energy to be constant, the equations of the model admit the power-law solutions. Though, the non-interacting cas...
Energy Continuity in Degenerate Density Functional Perturbation Theory
Palenik, Mark C
2016-01-01
Fractional occupation numbers can produce open-shell degeneracy in density functional theory. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory by requiring that a differentiable map connects the initial and perturbed states. The degenerate state connects to a single perturbed state which extremizes, but does not necessarily minimize or maximize, the energy with respect to occupation numbers. Using a system of three electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential, we relate the counterintuitive sign of first-order occupation numbers to eigenvalues of the electron-electron interaction Hessian.
Yang-Mills Theories at High-Energy Accelerators
Sterman, George
2016-01-01
I'll begin with a brief review of the triumph of Yang-Mills theory at particle accelerators, a development that began some years after their historic paper. This story reached a culmination, or at least local extremum, with the discovery at the Large Hadron Collider of a Higgs-like scalar boson in 2012. The talk then proceeds to a slightly more technical level, discussing how we derive predictions from the gauge field theories of the Standard Model and its extensions for use at high energy accelerators.
Effective Field Theory for Low-Energy np Systems
Park, T S
1998-01-01
The properties of low-energy neutron-proton systems are studied in an effective field theory where only nucleons figure as relevant degrees of freedom. With a finite momentum cut-off regularization scheme, we show that the large scattering lengths of the np systems do not spoil the convergence of the effective field theory, which turns out to be extremely successful in reproducing, with little cut-off dependence, the deuteron properties, the np 1S0 scattering amplitude and most significantly, the M1 transition amplitude entering into the radiative np capture process.
The promise of 'sporting bodies' in phenomenological thinking
Ravn, Susanne; Høffding, Simon
2017-01-01
For decades, qualitative researchers have used phenomenological thinking to advance reflections on particular kinds of lifeworlds. As emphasised by Allen-Collinson phenomenology offers a continuing promise of ‘bringing the body back in’ to theories on sport and physical activity. Turning to philo...... dancers and expert musicians, we indicate how qualitative researchers across the board, through the factual variation, can contribute to phenomenological thinking and thereby also strengthen their own theoretical foundation.......For decades, qualitative researchers have used phenomenological thinking to advance reflections on particular kinds of lifeworlds. As emphasised by Allen-Collinson phenomenology offers a continuing promise of ‘bringing the body back in’ to theories on sport and physical activity. Turning...... to philosophy, traditionally, phenomenologists have not paid much attention to qualitative research. Nevertheless, phenomenology does contain a strong emphasis on using ‘data’ or experiences from daily life and on drawing on data from medical pathology. In other words while qualitative researchers employ...
The Phenomenology of Research: The Construction of Meaning in Composition Research.
Davis, Kevin
1995-01-01
Describes the philosophical phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and argues that his insights can greatly inform contemporary composition theory. Discusses how phenomenology affects both design and analysis in composition research. (HB)
The Phenomenology of Research: The Construction of Meaning in Composition Research.
Davis, Kevin
1995-01-01
Describes the philosophical phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and argues that his insights can greatly inform contemporary composition theory. Discusses how phenomenology affects both design and analysis in composition research. (HB)
Hanich, Julian; Ferencz-Flatz, Christian
2016-01-01
In this article Christian Ferencz-Flatz and I try to give an answer to the question what film phenomenology actually is. We proceed in three steps. First, we provide a survey of five different research practices within current film phenomenological writing: We call them excavation, explanation, exem
Phenomenological Hints from a Class of String Motivated Model Constructions
Hans Peter Nilles
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We use string theory constructions towards the generalisation of the supersymmetric standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. Properties of the models depend crucially on the location of fields in extradimensional compact space. This allows us to extract some generic lessons for the phenomenological properties of the low energy effective action. Within this scheme we present a compelling model based on local grand unification and mirage mediation of supersymmetry breakdown. We analyse the properties of the specific model towards its possible tests at the LHC and the complementarity to direct dark matter searches.
Quintessence interacting dark energy from induced matter theory of gravity
Reyes, L M
2009-01-01
In the context of the induced matter theory of gravity, we investigate the possibility of deriving a 4D quintessential scenario where an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is allowed, and the dark energy component is modeled by a minimally coupled scalar field. Regarding the Ponce de Leon metric, we found that it is possible to obtain such scenario on which the energy densities of dark matter and dark energy, are both depending of the fifth extra coordinate. We obtain that the 4D induced scalar potential for the quintessence scalar field, has the same algebraic form to the one found by Zimdahl and Pavon in the context of usual 4D cosmology.
Extended Theories of Gravity with Generalized Energy Conditions
Mimoso, José P; Capozziello, Salvatore
2014-01-01
We address the problem of the energy conditions in modified gravity taking into account the additional degrees of freedom related to scalar fields and curvature invariants. The latter are usually interpreted as generalized {\\it geometrical fluids} that differ in meaning with respect to the matter fluids generally considered as sources of the field equations. In extended gravity theories the curvature terms are encapsulated in a tensor $H^{ab}$ and a coupling $g(\\Psi^i)$ that can be recast as effective Einstein field equations, with corrections to the energy-momentum tensor of matter. The formal validity of standard energy inequalities does not assure basic requirements such as the attractive nature of gravity, so we argue that the energy conditions have to be considered in a wider sense.
Significance of Negative Energy States in Quantum Field Theory $(1) $
Chen Sow Hsin
2002-01-01
We suppose that there are both particles with negative energies described by $\\QTR{cal}{L}_{W}$ and particles with positive energies described by $\\QTR{cal}{L}_{F},$ $\\QTR{cal}{L=L}_{F\\text{}}+\\QTR{cal}{L}_{W},$ $\\QTR{cal}{L}_{F\\text{}}$ is equivalent to Lagragian density of the conventional QED, $\\QTR{cal}{L}_{W}$ and $\\QTR{cal}{L}_{F\\text{}}$ are symmetric, independent of each other before quantization and dependent on each other after quantization. From this we define transfomation operators and quantize free fields by the transformation operators replacing the creation and annihilation operators in the conventional QED. That the energy of the vacuum state is equal to zero is naturally obtained. Thus we can easily determine the cosmological constant according to data of astronomical observation, and it is possible to correct nonperturbational methods which depend on the energy of the ground state in quantum field theory.
Is the Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy Effective?
Linder, Eric V; Watson, Scott
2015-01-01
The effective field theory of cosmic acceleration systematizes possible contributions to the action, accounting for both dark energy and modifications of gravity. Rather than making model dependent assumptions, it includes all terms, subject to the required symmetries, with four (seven) functions of time for the coefficients. These correspond respectively to the Horndeski and general beyond Horndeski class of theories. We address the question of whether this general systematization is actually effective, i.e. useful in revealing the nature of cosmic acceleration when compared with cosmological data. The answer is no and yes: {\\it there is no simple time dependence of the free functions} -- assumed forms in the literature are poor fits, but one can derive some general characteristics in early and late time limits. For example, we prove that the gravitational slip must restore to general relativity in the de Sitter limit of Horndeski theories, and why it doesn't more generally. We also clarify the relation betw...
Low energy Lorentz violation from polymer quantum field theory
Husain, Viqar
2015-01-01
We analyze the response of an inertial two-level Unruh-DeWitt particle detector coupled to a polymer quantized scalar field in four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, within first-order perturbation theory. Above a critical rapidity $\\beta_c \\approx 1.3675$, independent of the polymer mass scale $M_\\star$, two drastic changes occur: (i) the detector's excitation rate becomes nonvanishing; (ii) the excitation and de-excitation rates are of order $M_\\star$, for arbitrarily small detector energy gap. We argue that qualitatively similar results hold for any Lorentz violating theory in which field modes with spatial momentum $k$ have excitation energy of the form $|k|\\ f(|k|/M_\\star)$ where the function $f$ dips below unity.
Descriptions of carbon isotopes within the energy density functional theory
Ismail, Atef [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt); Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Tammam, M. [Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt)
2014-10-24
Within the energy density functional (EDF) theory, the structure properties of Carbon isotopes are systematically studied. The shell model calculations are done for both even-A and odd-A nuclei, to study the structure of rich-neutron Carbon isotopes. The EDF theory indicates the single-neutron halo structures in {sup 15}C, {sup 17}C and {sup 19}C, and the two-neutron halo structures in {sup 16}C and {sup 22}C nuclei. It is also found that close to the neutron drip-line, there exist amazing increase in the neutron radii and decrease on the binding energies BE, which are tightly related with the blocking effect and correspondingly the blocking effect plays a significant role in the shell model configurations.
Applying portfolio theory to the electricity sector. Energy versus power
Delarue, Erik; D' haeseleer, William; De Jonghe, Cedric; Belmans, Ronnie [Leuven University, Leuven (Belgium)
2011-01-15
Portfolio theory has found its way in numerous applications for optimizing the electricity generation mix of a particular region. Existing models, however, consider typically a single time period and correspondingly do not properly account for actual dispatch constraints and energy sources with a non-dispatchable, variable output. This paper presents a portfolio theory model that explicitly distinguishes between installed capacity (power), electricity generation (energy) and actual instantaneous power delivery. This way, the variability of wind power and ramp limits of conventional power plants are correctly included in the investment optimization. The model is written as a quadratically constrained programming problem and illustrated in a case study. The results show that the introduction of wind power can be motivated to lower the risk on generation cost, albeit to smaller levels than typically reported in the literature. This wind power deployment further requires the need for sufficiently rampable technologies, to deal with its fluctuating output. (author)
Automatic energy calibration of germanium detectors using fuzzy set theory
Stezowski, O; Prevost, A; Smith, A G; Wall, R
2002-01-01
With the advent of multi-detector arrays, many tasks that are usually performed by physicists, such as energy calibration, become very time consuming. There is therefore a need to develop more and more complex algorithms able to mimic human expertise. Fuzzy logic proposes a theoretical framework to build algorithms that are close to the human way of thinking. In this paper we apply fuzzy set theory in order to develop an automatic procedure for energy calibration. The algorithm, based on fuzzy concepts, has been tested on data taken with the EUROBALL IV gamma-ray array.
Inflation and dark energy from the Brans-Dicke theory
Artymowski, Michał [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian UniversityŁojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsawul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)
2015-06-17
We consider the Brans-Dicke theory motivated by the f(R)=R+αR{sup n}−βR{sup 2−n} model to obtain a stable minimum of the Einstein frame scalar potential of the Brans-Dicke field. As a result we have obtained an inflationary scalar potential with non-zero value of residual vacuum energy, which may be a source of dark energy. In addition we discuss the probability of quantum tunnelling from the minimum of the potential. Our results can be easily consistent with PLANCK or BICEP2 data for appropriate choices of the value of n and ω.
Approximate theory the electromagnetic energy of solenoid in special relativity
Prastyaningrum, I.; Kartikaningsih, S.
2017-01-01
Solenoid is a device that is often used in electronic devices. A solenoid is electrified will cause a magnetic field. In our analysis, we just focus on the electromagnetic energy for solenoid form. We purpose to analyze by the theoretical approach in special relativity. Our approach is begun on the Biot Savart law and Lorentz force. Special theory relativity can be derived from the Biot Savart law, and for the energy can be derived from Lorentz for, by first determining the momentum equation. We choose the solenoid form with the goal of the future can be used to improve the efficiency of the electrical motor.
Liouville field theory and log-correlated Random Energy Models
Cao, Xiangyu; Rosso, Alberto; Santachiara, Raoul
2016-01-01
An exact mapping is established between the $c\\geq25$ Liouville field theory (LFT) and the Gibbs measure statistics of a thermal particle in a 2D Gaussian Free Field plus a logarithmic confining potential. The probability distribution of the position of the minimum of the energy landscape is obtained exactly by combining the conformal bootstrap and one-step replica symmetry breaking methods. Operator product expansions in LFT allow to unveil novel universal behaviours of the log-correlated Random Energy class. High precision numerical tests are given.
Opportunities for discovery: Theory and computation in Basic Energy Sciences
Harmon, Bruce; Kirby, Kate; McCurdy, C. William
2005-01-11
New scientific frontiers, recent advances in theory, and rapid increases in computational capabilities have created compelling opportunities for theory and computation to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). The prospects for success in the experimental programs of BES will be enhanced by pursuing these opportunities. This report makes the case for an expanded research program in theory and computation in BES. The Subcommittee on Theory and Computation of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee was charged with identifying current and emerging challenges and opportunities for theoretical research within the scientific mission of BES, paying particular attention to how computing will be employed to enable that research. A primary purpose of the Subcommittee was to identify those investments that are necessary to ensure that theoretical research will have maximum impact in the areas of importance to BES, and to assure that BES researchers will be able to exploit the entire spectrum of computational tools, including leadership class computing facilities. The Subcommittee s Findings and Recommendations are presented in Section VII of this report.
Is the effective field theory of dark energy effective?
Linder, Eric V.; Sengör, Gizem; Watson, Scott
2016-05-01
The effective field theory of cosmic acceleration systematizes possible contributions to the action, accounting for both dark energy and modifications of gravity. Rather than making model dependent assumptions, it includes all terms, subject to the required symmetries, with four (seven) functions of time for the coefficients. These correspond respectively to the Horndeski and general beyond Horndeski class of theories. We address the question of whether this general systematization is actually effective, i.e. useful in revealing the nature of cosmic acceleration when compared with cosmological data. The answer is no and yes: there is no simple time dependence of the free functions—assumed forms in the literature are poor fits, but one can derive some general characteristics in early and late time limits. For example, we prove that the gravitational slip must restore to general relativity in the de Sitter limit of Horndeski theories, and why it doesn't more generally. We also clarify the relation between the tensor and scalar sectors, and its important relation to observations; in a real sense the expansion history H(z) or dark energy equation of state w(z) is 1/5 or less of the functional information! In addition we discuss the de Sitter, Horndeski, and decoupling limits of the theory utilizing Goldstone techniques.
The accuracy of QCD perturbation theory at high energies
Dalla Brida, Mattia; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer
2016-01-01
We discuss the determination of the strong coupling $\\alpha_\\mathrm{\\overline{MS}}^{}(m_\\mathrm{Z})$ or equivalently the QCD $\\Lambda$-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in $\\alpha_s(\\mu)$ in some scheme, $s$, and at some energy scale $\\mu$. The higher the scale $\\mu$ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the $\\Lambda$-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to $\\alpha_s = 0.1$ and below. We find that perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the $\\Lambda$-parameter, while data around $\\alpha_s \\approx 0.2$ is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.
Vector theory of gravity: solution of dark energy problem
Svidzinsky, Anatoly A
2015-01-01
We propose an alternative classical theory of gravity which assumes that background geometry of the Universe is fixed four dimensional Euclidean space and gravity is a vector field $A_{k}$ in this space which breaks the Euclidean symmetry. Direction of $A_{k}$ gives the time coordinate, while perpendicular directions are spatial coordinates. Vector gravitational field is coupled to matter universally and minimally through the equivalent metric $f_{ik}$ which is a functional of $A_{k}$. We show that such assumptions yield a unique theory of gravity, it is free of black holes and to the best of our knowledge it passes all available tests. For cosmology our theory predicts the same evolution of the Universe as general relativity with cosmological constant and zero spatial curvature. However, the present theory provides explanation of the dark energy as energy of gravitational field induced by the Universe expansion and yields, with no free parameters, the value of $\\Omega _{\\Lambda }=2/3\\approx 0.67$ which agree...
Scattering Theory Calculations of Casimir Energies at High Curvature
Graham, Noah; Emig, Thorsten; Forrow, Aden; Jaffe, Robert; Kardar, Mehran; Maghrebi, Mohammad; Rahi, Jamal; Shpunt, Alex
2013-03-01
Scattering theory provides a powerful tool for capturing the response of an object to electromagnetic charge and field fluctuations. Techniques based on scattering theory have made possible a wide range of new calculations of Casimir energies. In this approach, the Casimir interaction energy for a collection of objects can be expressed in terms of the scattering T-matrices for each object individually, combined with universal translation matrices describing the objects' relative positions and orientations. These translation matrices are derived from an expansion of the free Green's function in an appropriate coordinate system, independent of the details of the objects themselves. This method proves particularly valuable for geometries involving high curvature, such as edges and tips. I will describe this approach in general terms and then give results from several problems to which it has been applied successfully. I will also discuss new developments in scattering theory that have been motivated by these problems. I would like to request that this abstract be part of a session on Casimir physics. Supported by the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
BOOK REVIEW Dark Energy: Theory and Observations Dark Energy: Theory and Observations
Faraoni, Valerio
2011-02-01
The 1998 discovery of what seems an acceleration of the cosmic expansion was made using type Ia supernovae and was later confirmed by other cosmological observations. It has made a huge impact on cosmology, prompting theoreticians to explain the observations and introducing the concept of dark energy into modern physics. A vast literature on dark energy and its alternatives has appeared since then, and this is the first comprehensive book devoted to the subject. This book is addressed to an advanced audience comprising graduate students and researchers in cosmology. Although it contains forty four fully solved problems and the first three chapters are rather introductory, they do not constitute a self-consistent course in cosmology and this book assumes graduate level knowledge of cosmology and general relativity. The fourth chapter focuses on observations, while the rest of this book addresses various classes of models proposed, including the cosmological constant, quintessence, k-essence, phantom energy, coupled dark energy, etc. The title of this book should not induce the reader into believing that only dark energy models are addressed—the authors devote two chapters to discussing conceptually very different approaches alternative to dark energy, including ƒ(R) and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, braneworld and void models, and the backreaction of inhomogeneities on the cosmic dynamics. Two chapters contain a general discussion of non-linear cosmological perturbations and statistical methods widely applicable in cosmology. The final chapter outlines future perspectives and the most likely lines of observational research on dark energy in the future. Overall, this book is carefully drafted, well presented, and does a good job of organizing the information available in the vast literature. The reader is pointed to the essential references and guided in a balanced way through the various proposals aimied at explaining the cosmological observations. Not all classes of
Austern, Matthew Harold [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1994-05-01
In this dissertation, I discuss the phenomenology of new massive neutral gauge bosons, or Z' bosons, concentrating on experimental tests by which the properties of a Z' boson could be determined. In Chapter I, I briefly review the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and discuss the motivation for extending it. I review some of the extensions to the Standard Model that predict the existence of Z' bosons, and present a general, model-independent parameterization of the Z's properties, as well as a simpler parameterization that applies to the most important class of models. In Chapter II, I discuss present-day limits on the existence of Z' bosons, both from direct searches, and from indirect higher-order tests. In Chapter III, I discuss the production and discovery of a Z' at a future hadron collider, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Discovery of a Z' at the LHC may be possible if its mass is less than 5 TeV. I also discuss the experimental tests of its properties that could be performed at such a collider, emphasizing the measurement of leptonic asymmetries. Finally, the Chapter IV, I discuss the experimental tests that could be performed at an e^{+} e^{-} collider with √s = M_{Z'}. I include several higher-order effects, such as initial-state radiation and beamstrahlung, whose inclusion is necesary for a realistic description of the experimental environment at a very high energy e^{+} e^{-} collider. The combination of leptonic and hadronic experiments permits the measurement of all of the parameters.
Austern, M.H.
1994-05-01
In this dissertation, I discuss the phenomenology of new massive neutral gauge bosons, or Z{prime} bosons, concentrating on experimental tests by which the properties of a Z{prime} boson could be determined. In Chapter I, I briefly review the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and discuss the motivation for extending it. I review some of the extensions to the Standard Model that predict the existence of Z{prime} bosons, and present a general, model-independent parameterization of the Z{prime}s properties, as well as a simpler parameterization that applies to the most important class of models. In Chapter II, I discuss present-day limits on the existence of Z{prime} bosons, both from direct searches, and from indirect higher-order tests. In Chapter III, I discuss the production and discovery of a Z{prime} at a future hadron collider, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Discovery of a Z{prime} at the LHC may be possible if its mass is less than 5 TeV. I also discuss the experimental tests of its properties that could be performed at such a collider, emphasizing the measurement of leptonic asymmetries. Finally, the Chapter IV, I discuss the experimental tests that could be performed at an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider with {radical}s = M{sub Z{prime}}. I include several higher-order effects, such as initial-state radiation and beamstrahlung, whose inclusion is necesary for a realistic description of the experimental environment at a very high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider. The combination of leptonic and hadronic experiments permits the measurement of all of the parameters.
Sethna, J.P.; Krumhansl, J.A.
1994-08-01
We have identified tweed precursors to martensitic phase transformations as a spin glass phase due to composition variations, and used simulations and exact replica theory predictions to predict diffraction peaks and model phase diagrams, and provide real space data for comparison to transmission electron micrograph images. We have used symmetry principles to derive the crack growth laws for mixed-mode brittle fracture, explaining the results for two-dimensional fracture and deriving the growth laws in three dimensions. We have used recent advances in dynamical critical phenomena to study hysteresis in disordered systems, explaining the return-point-memory effect, predicting distributions for Barkhausen noise, and elucidating the transition from athermal to burst behavior in martensites. From a nonlinear lattice-dynamical model of a first-order transition using simulations, finite-size scaling, and transfer matrix methods, it is shown that heterophase transformation precursors cannot occur in a pure homogeneous system, thus emphasizing the role of disorder in real materials. Full integration of nonlinear Landau-Ginzburg continuum theory with experimental neutron-scattering data and first-principles calculations has been carried out to compute semi-quantitative values of the energy and thickness of twin boundaries in InTl and FePd martensites.
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology, operational challenges and theoretical predictions
Gilles, Abelin R
2013-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the highest-energy particle collider ever constructed and is considered "one of the great engineering milestones of mankind." It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) from 1998 to 2008, with the aim of allowing physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics and high-energy physics, and particularly prove or disprove the existence of the theorized Higgs boson and of the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories. In this book, the authors study the phenomenology, operational challenges and theoretical predictions of LHC. Topics discussed include neutral and charged black hole remnants at the LHC; the modified statistics approach for the thermodynamical model of multiparticle production; and astroparticle physics and cosmology in the LHC era.
Lileev, A. S.
2017-01-01
Amethod for simulating the hysteretic properties and the process of magnetization reversal of uniaxial highly anisotropic ferromagnets is developed with allowance for the presence of magnetostatic interaction between microvolumes of the material. It is based on the phenomenological approach to an elementary act of the process of magnetization reversal of these materials. Computer simulation is used to explain and illustrate the phenomenon of "thermal magnetization," the formation of "channels of reversal magnetization," the interrelation between the degree of crystal texture and the spin reorientation transfer, the coarsening of the domain structure in rapidly hardened powders, and the behavior of permanent magnets in a magnetic system in contact with a magnetically soft material.
Mass renormalization and binding energies in quantum field theory
Lv, Q. Z.; Stefanovich, E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.
2017-10-01
We compare the predictions of two methods of determining the amount of binding energy between two distinguishable fermions that interact with each other through force-intermediating bosons. Both measures try to quantify this binding energy by the downward shift of the fully interacting two-fermion ground state energy relative to the sum of the corresponding two single-particle ground state energies. The first method computes this energy difference directly from the standard quantum field theoretical Hamiltonian. The second method uses the mass renormalized form of this Hamiltonian. In order to have a concrete example for this comparison, we employ a simple Yukawa-like model system in one spatial dimension. We find that both approaches lead to identical predictions in the second and fourth order perturbation of the coupling constant, and they remain remarkably close even in the strong coupling domain where perturbation theory diverges. This illustrates that there are field theoretical systems for which rather accurate binding energies can be obtained even without the mass renormalization procedure.
Medicine and the individual: is phenomenology the answer?
Gergel, Tania L
2012-10-01
The issue of how to incorporate the individual's first-hand experience of illness into broader medical understanding is a major question in medical theory and practice. In a philosophical context, phenomenology, with its emphasis on the subject's perception of phenomena as the basis for knowledge and its questioning of naturalism, seems an obvious candidate for addressing these issues. This is a review of current phenomenological approaches to medicine, looking at what has motivated this philosophical approach, the main problems it faces and suggesting how it might become a useful philosophical tool within medicine, with its own individual, but interrelated, contribution to make to current medical debates. After the general background, there is a brief summary of phenomenological ideas and their current usage in a medical context. Next is a critique of four key claims within current phenomenological medical works, concerning both the role phenomenology plays and the supposedly clear divide between phenomenology and other approaches. There are significant problems within these claims, largely because they overlook the complexity of the questions they consider. Finally, there is some more in-depth examination of phenomenology itself and the true complexity of phenomenological debate concerning subjectivity. The aim is to show that it will be both more productive and truer to phenomenology itself, if we use phenomenology as a philosophical method for explicating and gaining deeper understanding of complex and fundamental problems, which are central to medicine, rather than as providing simple, but flawed solutions.
Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations
G Rajasekaran
2000-07-01
The phenomenology of solar, atmospheric, supernova and laboratory neutrino oscillations is described. Analytical formulae for matter effects are reviewed. The results from oscillations are confronted with neutrinoless double beta decay.
A formal derivation of the local energy transfer (LET) theory of homogeneous turbulence
McComb, W. D.; Yoffe, S. R.
2017-09-01
A statistical closure of the Navier-Stokes hierarchy which leads to equations for the two-point, two-time covariance of the velocity field for stationary, homogeneous isotropic turbulence is presented. It is a generalisation of the self-consistent field method due to Edwards (1964) for the stationary, single-time velocity covariance. The probability distribution functional P≤ft[\\mathbf{u},t\\right] is obtained, in the form of a series, from the Liouville equation by means of a perturbation expansion about a Gaussian distribution, which is chosen to give the exact two-point, two-time covariance. The triple moment is calculated in terms of an ensemble-averaged infinitesimal velocity-field propagator, and shown to yield the Edwards result as a special case. The use of a Gaussian zero-order distribution has been found to justify the introduction of a fluctuation-response relation, which is in accord with modern dynamical theories. In a sense this work completes the analogy drawn by Edwards between turbulence and Brownian motion. Originally Edwards had shown that the noise input was determined by the correlation of the velocity field with the externally applied stirring forces but was unable to determine the system response. Now we find that the system response is determined by the correlation of the velocity field with internal quasi-entropic forces. This analysis is valid to all orders of perturbation theory, and allows the recovery of the local energy transfer (LET) theory, which had previously been derived by more heuristical methods. The LET theory is known to be in good agreement with experimental results. It is also unique among two-point statistical closures in displaying an acceptable (i.e. non-Markovian) relationship between the transfer spectrum and the system response, in accordance with experimental results. As a result of the latter property, it is compatible with the Kolmogorov (K41) spectral phenomenology. In memory of Professor Sir Sam Edwards F
A Cosmic-box Casimir Theory of Dark Energy
Wreszinski, W F
2006-01-01
It has been recently remarked by Hollands and Wald that the holistic (local) aspects of quantum field theory fully explain the fact that the cosmological constant does not have the absurdly large value which is commonly assumed. There remains the quite different problem of why the cosmological constant leads to an absurdly SMALL dark energy density when applying the field-theoretic Casimir effect to the Universe as a whole. In this paper we propose a LOCAL theory of the Casimir effect, following work of B.S.Kay and a recent paper with L.Manzoni, as well as the "cosmic-box" idea of E.Harrison. Baryons and neutrinos do not explain the numbers, but axions would.
Relaxation of vacuum energy in q-theory
Klinkhamer, F R; Volovik, G E
2016-01-01
The $q$-theory formalism aims to describe the thermodynamics and dynamics of the deep quantum vacuum. The thermodynamics leads to an exact cancellation of the quantum-field zero-point-energies in equilibrium, which partly solves the main cosmological constant problem. But, with reversible dynamics, the spatially-flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe asymptotically approaches the Minkowski vacuum only if the Big Bang already started out in an initial equilibrium state. Here, we extend $q$-theory by introducing dissipation from irreversible processes. Neglecting the possible instability of a de-Sitter vacuum, we obtain different scenarios with either a de-Sitter asymptote or collapse to a final singularity. The Minkowski asymptote still requires fine-tuning of the initial conditions.
SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA
Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning (David) Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz
2005-09-30
The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.
Dixit, V. K.; Porwal, S.; Singh, S. D.; Sharma, T. K.; Ghosh, Sandip; Oak, S. M.
2014-02-01
Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy of bulk and quantum well (QW) structures is studied by using a new phenomenological model for including the effect of localized states. In general an anomalous S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy is observed for many materials which is usually associated with the localization of excitons in band-tail states that are formed due to potential fluctuations. Under such conditions, the conventional models of Varshni, Viña and Passler fail to replicate the S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy and provide inconsistent and unrealistic values of the fitting parameters. The proposed formalism persuasively reproduces the S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy and provides an accurate determination of the exciton localization energy in bulk and QW structures along with the appropriate values of material parameters. An example of a strained InAs0.38P0.62/InP QW is presented by performing detailed temperature and excitation intensity dependent PL measurements and subsequent in-depth analysis using the proposed model. Versatility of the new formalism is tested on a few other semiconductor materials, e.g. GaN, nanotextured GaN, AlGaN and InGaN, which are known to have a significant contribution from the localized states. A quantitative evaluation of the fractional contribution of the localized states is essential for understanding the temperature dependence of the PL peak energy of bulk and QW well structures having a large contribution of the band-tail states.
The phenomenology of maverick dark matter
Krusberg, Zosia Anna Celina
Astrophysical observations from galactic to cosmological scales point to a substantial non-baryonic component to the universe's total matter density. Although very little is presently known about the physical properties of dark matter, its existence offers some of the most compelling evidence for physics beyond the standard model (BSM). In the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) scenario, the dark matter consists of particles that possess weak-scale interactions with the particles of the standard model, offering a compelling theoretical framework that allows us to understand the relic abundance of dark matter as a natural consequence of the thermal history of the early universe. From the perspective of particle physics phenomenology, the WIMP scenario is appealing for two additional reasons. First, many theories of BSM physics contain attractive WIMP candidates. Second, the weak-scale interactions between WIMPs and standard model particles imply the possibility of detecting scatterings between relic WIMPs and detector nuclei in direct detection experiments, products of WIMP annihilations at locations throughout the galaxy in indirect detection programs, and WIMP production signals at high-energy particle colliders. In this work, we use an effective field theory approach to study model-independent dark matter phenomenology in direct detection and collider experiments. The maverick dark matter scenario is defined by an effective field theory in which the WIMP is the only new particle within the energy range accessible to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Although certain assumptions are necessary to keep the problem tractable, we describe our WIMP candidate generically by specifying only its spin and dominant interaction form with standard model particles. Constraints are placed on the masses and coupling constants of the maverick WIMPs using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) relic density measurement and direct detection exclusion data from both
"Phenomenology" and qualitative research methods.
Nakayama, Y
1994-01-01
Phenomenology is generally based on phenomenological tradition from Husserl to Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. As philosophical stances provide the assumptions in research methods, different philosophical stances produce different methods. However, the term "phenomenology" is used in various ways without the definition being given, such as phenomenological approach, phenomenological method, phenomenological research, etc. The term "phenomenology" is sometimes used as a paradigm and it is sometimes even viewed as synonymous with qualitative methods. As a result, the term "phenomenology" leads to conceptual confusions in qualitative research methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine the term "phenomenology" and explore philosophical assumptions, and discuss the relationship between philosophical stance and phenomenology as a qualitative research method in nursing.
Ecker, Jill
2016-07-27
In this doctoral thesis, various aspects of string model building and phenomenology are investigated within the framework of Type IIA string theory on the T{sup 6}/(Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 6} x ΩR) orbifold with discrete torsion. The aim is the reproduction of supersymmetric versions of well-known particle physics models using intersecting rigid D6-branes wrapped on fractional three-cycles. The models analyzed include the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model as well as supersymmetric Pati-Salam models, left-right symmetric models and SU(5) models. Systematic computer scans test numerous combinations of intersecting D6-branes in order to detect those that give rise to the correct chiral particle content of the considered models. For each type of the afore mentioned models, concrete examples will be found which satisfy the constraints on the particle spectrum and fulfill all consistency conditions. Finally, the thesis focuses on phenomenological aspects of the particle physics models found, including the detection of massless U(1) combinations, discrete Z{sub n}-symmetries and cubic couplings such as the Yukawa couplings.
Folk Phenomenology and the Offering of Teaching
Rocha, Samuel D.
2016-01-01
This article will move in five parts. It begins with some priming notes on the relationship between philosophy of education and curriculum theory. Then it rehearses a collage of selected passages from a recent book, "Folk Phenomenology: Education, Study, and the Human Person" (Rocha, 2015a). Then the author works in a more speculative…
Subjectivity and intersubjectivity between semiotics and phenomenology
Francesco Marsciani
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A semiotic theory of subjectivity cannot prescind from a radical consideration of the intersubjective dimension, which, from the phenomenological perspective, represents the constitutive instance of the meaning of the world. The theory of signification has yet to come to terms with this fundamental option: the theory of enunciation, for example, is still tied to the alternative between an egological perception of the production of meaning and a truly intersubjective conception. A radically intersubjective understanding of the constitution of meaning must, in the theory of enunciation, include an authentic theory of alterity in which the production of communicative intentions can be described based on a more fundamental transcendental intentionality.
Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy: a Dynamical Analysis
Frusciante, Noemi; Silvestri, Alessandra
2013-01-01
The effective field theory (EFT) of dark energy relies on three functions of time to describe the background dynamics. The viability of these functions is investigated here by means of a thorough dynamical analysis. While the system is underdetermined, and one can always find a set of functions reproducing any expansion history, we are able to determine general compatibility conditions for these functions by requiring a viable background cosmology. In particular, we identify a set of variables that allows us to transform the non-autonomous system of equations into an infinite-dimensional one characterized by a significant recursive structure. We then analyze several autonomous sub-systems, obtained truncating the original one at increasingly higher dimension, that correspond to increasingly general models of dark energy and modified gravity. Furthermore, we exploit the recursive nature of the system to draw some general conclusions on the different cosmologies that can be recovered within the EFT formalism an...
Finite Casimir Energies in Renormalizable Quantum Field Theory
Milton, K A
2004-01-01
Quantum vacuum energy has been known to have observable consequences since 1948 when Casimir calculated the force of attraction between parallel uncharged plates, a phenomenon confirmed experimentally with ever increasing precision. Casimir himself suggested that a similar attractive self-stress existed for a conducting spherical shell, but Boyer obtained a repulsive stress. Other geometries and higher dimensions have been considered over the years. Local effects, and divergences associated with surfaces and edges have been investigated by several authors. Quite recently, Graham et al. have re-examined such calculations, using conventional techniques of perturbative quantum field theory to remove divergences, and have suggested that previous self-stress results may be suspect. Here we show that most of the examples considered in their work are misleading; in particular, it is well-known that in two dimensions a circular boundary has a divergence in the Casimir energy for massless fields, while for general dim...
Calculating Casimir Energies in Renormalizable Quantum Field Theory
Milton, K A
2003-01-01
Quantum vacuum energy has been known to have observable consequences since 1948 when Casimir calculated the force of attraction between parallel uncharged plates, a phenomenon confirmed experimentally with ever increasing precision. Casimir himself suggested that a similar attractive self-stress existed for a conducting spherical shell, but Boyer obtained a repulsive stress. Other geometries and higher dimensions have been considered over the years. Local effects, and divergences associated with surfaces and edges have been considered by several authors. Quite recently, Graham et al. have re-examined such calculations, using conventional techniques of perturbative quantum field theory to remove divergences, and have suggested that previous self-stress results may be suspect. Here we show that the examples considered in their work are misleading; in particular, it is well-known that in two dimensions a circular boundary has a divergence in the Casimir energy for massless fields, while for general dimension $D$...
Variational total energies from {Phi} - and {Psi}- derivable theories
Almbladh, C.O.; Von Barth, U.; Van Leeuwen, R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)
1998-12-31
Starting from many-body perturbation theory we have constructed a new variational expression for the total energy of many-electron systems. This expression is a functional of two independent variables, the one-electron Green function and the screened Coulomb interaction. The new functional as well as a much older variational expression by Luttinger and Ward (LW) are tested on the interacting electron gas. Both functionals yield extraordinary accurate total energies although the new functional requires a much cruder input and is therefore easier to apply to more realistic systems. When the self-consistent Green`s function of the GWA is used in the evaluations, both expressions give identical results close to those of elaborate Monte-Carlo calculations. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd) 14 refs.,2 fig., email addresses: coa/teorfys.lu.se; barth/teorfys.lu.se; rvl/teorfys.lu.se
Quay, John
2016-01-01
Phenomenology has been with us for many years, and yet grasping phenomenology remains a difficult task. Heidegger, too, experienced this difficulty and devoted much of his teaching to the challenge of working phenomenologically. This article draws on aspects of Heidegger's commentary in progressing the teaching and learning of phenomenology,…
Dark energy or modified gravity? An effective field theory approach
Bloomfield, Jolyon; Flanagan, Éanna É. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Park, Minjoon [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Watson, Scott, E-mail: jkb84@cornell.edu, E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu, E-mail: minjoonp@physics.umass.edu, E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)
2013-08-01
We take an Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach to unifying existing proposals for the origin of cosmic acceleration and its connection to cosmological observations. Building on earlier work where EFT methods were used with observations to constrain the background evolution, we extend this program to the level of the EFT of the cosmological perturbations — following the example from the EFT of Inflation. Within this framework, we construct the general theory around an assumed background which will typically be chosen to mimic ΛCDM, and identify the parameters of interest for constraining dark energy and modified gravity models with observations. We discuss the similarities to the EFT of Inflation, but we also identify a number of subtleties including the relationship between the scalar perturbations and the Goldstone boson of the spontaneously broken time translations. We present formulae that relate the parameters of the fundamental Lagrangian to the speed of sound, anisotropic shear stress, effective Newtonian constant, and Caldwell's varpi parameter, emphasizing the connection to observations. It is anticipated that this framework will be of use in constraining individual models, as well as for placing model-independent constraints on dark energy and modified gravity model building.
Curvature and Frontier Orbital Energies in Density Functional Theory.
Stein, Tamar; Autschbach, Jochen; Govind, Niranjan; Kronik, Leeor; Baer, Roi
2012-12-20
Perdew et al. discovered two different properties of exact Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT): (i) The exact total energy versus particle number is a series of linear segments between integer electron points. (ii) Across an integer number of electrons, the exchange-correlation potential "jumps" by a constant, known as the derivative discontinuity (DD). Here we show analytically that in both the original and the generalized Kohn-Sham formulation of DFT the two properties are two sides of the same coin. The absence of a DD dictates deviation from piecewise linearity, but the latter, appearing as curvature, can be used to correct for the former, thereby restoring the physical meaning of orbital energies. A simple correction scheme for any semilocal and hybrid functional, even Hartree-Fock theory, is shown to be effective on a set of small molecules, suggesting a practical correction for the infamous DFT gap problem. We show that optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functionals can inherently minimize both DD and curvature, thus requiring no correction, and that this can be used as a sound theoretical basis for novel tuning strategies.
Energy return on investment: Theory and application to biophysical economics
Murphy, David J.
This dissertation is comprised of an introduction and five manuscripts split into two main sections: theory and application. Manuscripts one and four have been published, manuscript three has been accepted for publication, and manuscripts two and five are currently in review for publication. The theory sections contains the first two manuscripts. The first manuscript is a review of the literature on Energy Return on Investment (EROI) analysis. I cover five areas in this manuscript, including: (1) EROI and corn ethanol, (2) EROI for most major fuels, (3) alternative EROI applications, (4) EROI and the economy, and (5) the minimum EROI for society. The second manuscript provides a methodological framework for performing EROI analysis. I cover the following areas in this manuscript: (1) boundaries of analysis, (2) energy quality corrections, (3) energy intensity values, and lastly (4) alternative EROI statistics. The applications section contains manuscripts three through five. The third manuscript provides a biophysical model of economic growth indicating that the feedback mechanisms between oil supply and oil price have created a growth paradox: maintaining business as usual economic growth will require the production of new sources of oil, yet the only sources of oil remaining require high oil prices, thus hampering economic growth. The fourth manuscript is a study on the geographic variability of corn ethanol production. The main conclusions of this study were: (1) the statistical error associated with calculating the EROI of corn ethanol was enough to cast doubt as to whether corn ethanol yields net energy, and (2) failure to account for the geographic variation in corn yields and fertilizer inputs artificially inflated previous estimates of the EROI or corn ethanol. In the fifth manuscript I measure the impact of the Urban Heat Island within the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico, on the electricity demand within the city. I calculated that the UHI
Phenomenological model for light-projectile breakup
Kalbach, C.
2017-01-01
Background: Projectile breakup can make a large contribution to reactions induced by projectiles with mass numbers 2, 3, and 4, yet there is no global model for it and no clear agreement on the details of the reaction mechanism. Purpose: This project aims to develop a phenomenological model for light-projectile breakup that can guide the development of detailed theories and provide a useful tool for applied calculations. Method: An extensive database of double-differential cross sections for the breakup of deuterons, 3He ions, and α particles was assembled from the literature and analyzed in a consistent way. Results: Global systematics for the centroid energies, peak widths, and angular distributions of the breakup peaks have been extracted from the data. The dominant mechanism appears to be absorptive breakup, where the unobserved projectile fragment fuses with the target nucleus during the initial interaction. The global target-mass-number and incident-energy dependencies of the absorptive breakup cross section have also been determined, along with channel-specific normalization constants. Conclusions: Results from the model generally agree with the original data after subtraction of a reasonable underlying continuum. Absorptive breakup can account for as much as 50%-60% of the total reaction cross section.
Statistical rate theory and kinetic energy-resolved ion chemistry: theory and applications.
Armentrout, P B; Ervin, Kent M; Rodgers, M T
2008-10-16
Ion chemistry, first discovered 100 years ago, has profitably been coupled with statistical rate theories, developed about 80 years ago and refined since. In this overview, the application of statistical rate theory to the analysis of kinetic-energy-dependent collision-induced dissociation (CID) reactions is reviewed. This procedure accounts for and quantifies the kinetic shifts that are observed as systems increase in size. The statistical approach developed allows straightforward extension to systems undergoing competitive or sequential dissociations. Such methods can also be applied to the reverse of the CID process, association reactions, as well as to quantitative analysis of ligand exchange processes. Examples of each of these types of reactions are provided and the literature surveyed for successful applications of this statistical approach to provide quantitative thermochemical information. Such applications include metal-ligand complexes, metal clusters, proton-bound complexes, organic intermediates, biological systems, saturated organometallic complexes, and hydrated and solvated species.
Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review
Ellis, J.
1978-08-01
Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)
Heidegger’s phenomenology of the invisible
Andrzej SERAFIN
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Martin Heidegger has retrospectively characterized his philosophy as “phenomenology of the invisible”. This paradoxical formula suggests that the aim of his thinking was to examine the origin of the phenomena. Furthermore, Heidegger has also stated that his philosophy is ultimately motivated by a theological interest, namely the question of God’s absence. Following the guiding thread of those remarks, this essay analyzes the essential traits of Heidegger’s thought by interpreting them as an attempt to develop a phenomenology of the invisible. Heidegger’s attitude towards physics and metaphysics, his theory of truth, his reading of Aristotle, his concept of Dasein, his understanding of nothingness are all situated within the problematic context of the relation between the invisible and the revealed. Heidegger’s thought is thereby posited at the point of intersection of phenomenology, ontology, and theology.
Zhou, YE
1993-01-01
Measured raw transfer interactions from which local energy transfer is argued to result are summed in a way that directly indicates the scale disparity (s) of contributions to the net energy flux across the spectrum. It is found that the dependence upon s closely follows the s exp -4/3 form predicted by classical arguments. As a result, it is concluded that direct numerical simulation measurements lend support to the classical Kolmogorov phenomenology of local interactions and local transfer in an inertial range.
Phenomenology and connectionism.
Yoshimi, Jeff
2011-01-01
I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the "open dynamics" of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a "supervenience function" linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1) the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2) the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development.
Phenomenology and Connectionism
Jeffrey K Yoshimi
2011-11-01
Full Text Available I show how the dynamics of consciousness can be formally derived from the open dynamics of neural activity, and develop a mathematical framework for neuro-phenomenological investigation. I describe the space of possible brain states, the space of possible conscious states, and a supervenience function linking them. I show how this framework can be used to associate phenomenological structures with neuro-computational structures, and vice-versa. I pay special attention to the relationship between (1 the relatively fast dynamics of consciousness and neural activity, and (2 the slower dynamics of knowledge update and brain development.
Elastic scattering phenomenology
Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)
2017-04-15
We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)
Exact two-component relativistic energy band theory and application
Zhao, Rundong; Zhang, Yong; Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian, E-mail: liuwj@pku.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2016-01-28
An exact two-component (X2C) relativistic density functional theory in terms of atom-centered basis functions is proposed for relativistic calculations of band structures and structural properties of periodic systems containing heavy elements. Due to finite radial extensions of the local basis functions, the periodic calculation is very much the same as a molecular calculation, except only for an Ewald summation for the Coulomb potential of fluctuating periodic monopoles. For comparison, the nonrelativistic and spin-free X2C counterparts are also implemented in parallel. As a first and pilot application, the band gaps, lattice constants, cohesive energies, and bulk moduli of AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) are calculated to compare with other theoretical results.
Exact two-component relativistic energy band theory and application.
Zhao, Rundong; Zhang, Yong; Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian
2016-01-28
An exact two-component (X2C) relativistic density functional theory in terms of atom-centered basis functions is proposed for relativistic calculations of band structures and structural properties of periodic systems containing heavy elements. Due to finite radial extensions of the local basis functions, the periodic calculation is very much the same as a molecular calculation, except only for an Ewald summation for the Coulomb potential of fluctuating periodic monopoles. For comparison, the nonrelativistic and spin-free X2C counterparts are also implemented in parallel. As a first and pilot application, the band gaps, lattice constants, cohesive energies, and bulk moduli of AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) are calculated to compare with other theoretical results.
Energy in Theory of Gravity and Essence of Time
Pestov, I B
2005-01-01
In the framework of the field theory it is shown that a time (viewed as a scalar temporal field) is an internal property of the physical system, which defines its causal structure and evolution. A new concept of internal time allows to solve the energy problem in General Relativity and predicts the existence of matter outside the time. It is demonstrated that introduction of the temporal field permits to derive the physical laws of the electromagnetic field(the general covariant four dimensional Maxwell equations for the electric and magnetic fields) from the geometrical equations of this field. It means that the fundamental physical laws are in full correspondence with the essence of time. On this ground, from the geometrical laws of the gravitational field the physical evolution equations of this field are derived. Two characteristic solutions of these equations are obtained (including the Schwarzschild solution).
Nuclear energy density functional inspired by an effective field theory
Papakonstantinou, Panagiota; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho
2016-01-01
Inspired by an effective field theory (EFT) for Fermi systems, we write the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) as an expansion in powers of the Fermi momentum $k_F$, or the cubic root of the density $\\rho^{1/3}$. With the help of pseudodata from microscopic calculations we fit the coefficients of the functional within a wide range of densities relevant for nuclei and neutron stars. The functional already at low order can reproduce known or adopted values of nuclear matter near saturation, a range of existing microscopic results on asymmetric matter, and a neutron-star mass-radius relation consistent with observations. Our approach leads to a transparent expansion of Skyrme-type EDFs and opens up many possibilities for future explorations in nuclei and homogeneous matter.
Electroweak and Strong Interactions Phenomenology, Concepts, Models
Scheck, Florian
2012-01-01
Electroweak and Strong Interaction: Phenomenology, Concepts, Models, begins with relativistic quantum mechanics and some quantum field theory which lay the foundation for the rest of the text. The phenomenology and the physics of the fundamental interactions are emphasized through a detailed discussion of the empirical fundamentals of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. The principles of local gauge theories are described both in a heuristic and a geometric framework. The minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions is developed in detail and characteristic applications are worked out. Possible signals of physics beyond that model, notably in the physics of neutrinos are also discussed. Among the applications scattering on nucleons and on nuclei provide salient examples. Numerous exercises with solutions make the text suitable for advanced courses or individual study. This completely updated revised new edition contains an enlarged chapter on quantum chromodynamics an...
Topologically stratified energy minimizers in a product Abelian field theory
Xiaosen Han
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We study a recently developed product Abelian gauge field theory by Tong and Wong hosting magnetic impurities. We first obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a unique solution realizing such impurities in the form of multiple vortices. We next reformulate the theory into an extended model that allows the coexistence of vortices and anti-vortices. The two Abelian gauge fields in the model induce two species of magnetic vortex-lines resulting from Ns vortices and Ps anti-vortices (s=1,2 realized as the zeros and poles of two complex-valued Higgs fields, respectively. An existence theorem is established for the governing equations over a compact Riemann surface S which states that a solution with prescribed N1, N2 vortices and P1,P2 anti-vortices of two designated species exists if and only if the inequalities |N1+N2−(P1+P2|<|S|π,|N1+2N2−(P1+2P2|<|S|π, hold simultaneously, which give bounds for the ‘differences’ of the vortex and anti-vortex numbers in terms of the total surface area of S. The minimum energy of these solutions is shown to assume the explicit value E=4π(N1+N2+P1+P2, given in terms of several topological invariants, measuring the total tension of the vortex-lines.
Light Higgs bosons in phenomenological NMSSM
Mahmoudi, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Clermont Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Rathsman, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). High-Energy Physics; Lund Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical High Energy Physics; Staal, O. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zeune, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goettingen Univ. (Germany). II. Physikalisches Inst.
2010-12-15
We consider scenarios in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric model (NMSSM) where the CP-odd and charged Higgs bosons are very light. As we demonstrate, these can be obtained as simple deformations of existing phenomenological MSSM benchmarks scenarios with parameters defined at the weak scale. This offers a direct and meaningful comparison to the MSSM case. Applying a wide set of up-to-date constraints from both high-energy collider and flavour physics, the Higgs boson masses and couplings are studied in viable parts of parameter space. The LHC phenomenology of the light Higgs scenario for neutral and charged Higgs boson searches is discussed. (orig.)
Husserl, phenomenology and nursing.
Paley, J
1997-07-01
Discussions of phenomenological research in nursing consistently appeal to either Husserl or Heidegger in justifying the technical and conceptual resources they deploy. This paper focuses on Husserl, and examines the relationship between his phenomenology and the accounts of it that are to be found in the nursing literature. Three central ideas are given particular attention: the phenomenological reduction, phenomena, and essence. It is argued that nurse researchers largely misunderstand these concepts and that, as a result, their version of Husserl's philosophy bears little resemblance to the original. A further consequence is that the project of identifying the 'essential structure' of a phenomenon, typically adopted by the nurse researchers who cite Husserl as an authority, comes close to being unintelligible. It is suggested that, while the methods used in 'phenomenological' nursing research may still have some legitimacy, they cannot achieve what they are alleged to achieve, and they should be detached from the framework of Husserlian ideas and terminology which is supposed to justify them.
Katri Huitu
2003-02-01
In this paper I will discuss the phenomenology of radion of the Randall–Sundrum type models. I will consider the radion couplings and its production and decay, in the same time taking into account the mixing of radion with Higgs.
The Phenomenology of Democracy
Shaw, Robert
2009-01-01
Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…
Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution
... may be both confusing and disorienting to academic and clinical practitioners who ... questions of students of phenomenology often are the most appropriate ... Meaning attribution is the psychological study of the ... a best-seller with my publisher. But, except for ..... perhaps listening to music, having a chat, and things are ...
The Phenomenology of Democracy
Shaw, Robert
2009-01-01
Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…
Phenomenology from lattice QCD
Lellouch, L P
2003-01-01
After a short presentation of lattice QCD and some of its current practical limitations, I review recent progress in applications to phenomenology. Emphasis is placed on heavy-quark masses and on hadronic weak matrix elements relevant for constraining the CKM unitarity triangle. The main numerical results are highlighted in boxes.
Theory and Applications of Ignition with Variable Activation Energy
G.C.Wake; X.D.Chen; 等
1992-01-01
The determination of critical conditions for thermal ingition of combustible materials has been traditionally studied by the use of one overall reaction with bounded parameter values for the activation energy and other chemical constants.Significant errors can occur in the values of the threshold parameters for ignition when there are two(or more)simultaneous reactions present with distinct values of the chemical ocnstantsRecent work with simultaneous parallel reactions showed the thresholds for ignition could be lowered in this case.In this paper,motivated by experimental results for forest litter and cola,it is shown that for sequential reactions (different values of parameters in different temperature ranges)that the threshold conditions are changed(safer for lower ambient temperatures and less safe for higher ambient temperatures).The mathematical analysis is summarised and a detailed analysis is given for the forest litter and crushed coal applications,The experimental results show that variable activation energy dose occur and that this extension of the classical Frank-Kamenetskii theory is needed.Here the analysis is confined to the slab geometry only but the ideas developed can easily be extended to more general systems,including those involving mass transport,consumption and phase changes.
Inference with minimal Gibbs free energy in information field theory.
Ensslin, Torsten A; Weig, Cornelius
2010-11-01
Non-linear and non-gaussian signal inference problems are difficult to tackle. Renormalization techniques permit us to construct good estimators for the posterior signal mean within information field theory (IFT), but the approximations and assumptions made are not very obvious. Here we introduce the simple concept of minimal Gibbs free energy to IFT, and show that previous renormalization results emerge naturally. They can be understood as being the gaussian approximation to the full posterior probability, which has maximal cross information with it. We derive optimized estimators for three applications, to illustrate the usage of the framework: (i) reconstruction of a log-normal signal from poissonian data with background counts and point spread function, as it is needed for gamma ray astronomy and for cosmography using photometric galaxy redshifts, (ii) inference of a gaussian signal with unknown spectrum, and (iii) inference of a poissonian log-normal signal with unknown spectrum, the combination of (i) and (ii). Finally we explain how gaussian knowledge states constructed by the minimal Gibbs free energy principle at different temperatures can be combined into a more accurate surrogate of the non-gaussian posterior.
Why natural science needs phenomenological philosophy.
Rosen, Steven M
2015-12-01
Through an exploration of theoretical physics, this paper suggests the need for regrounding natural science in phenomenological philosophy. To begin, the philosophical roots of the prevailing scientific paradigm are traced to the thinking of Plato, Descartes, and Newton. The crisis in modern science is then investigated, tracking developments in physics, science's premier discipline. Einsteinian special relativity is interpreted as a response to the threat of discontinuity implied by the Michelson-Morley experiment, a challenge to classical objectivism that Einstein sought to counteract. We see that Einstein's efforts to banish discontinuity ultimately fall into the "black hole" predicted in his general theory of relativity. The unavoidable discontinuity that haunts Einstein's theory is also central to quantum mechanics. Here too the attempt has been made to manage discontinuity, only to have this strategy thwarted in the end by the intractable problem of quantum gravity. The irrepressible discontinuity manifested in the phenomena of modern physics proves to be linked to a merging of subject and object that flies in the face of Cartesian philosophy. To accommodate these radically non-classical phenomena, a new philosophical foundation is called for: phenomenology. Phenomenological philosophy is elaborated through Merleau-Ponty's concept of depth and is then brought into focus for use in theoretical physics via qualitative work with topology and hypercomplex numbers. In the final part of this paper, a detailed summary is offered of the specific application of topological phenomenology to quantum gravity that was systematically articulated in The Self-Evolving Cosmos (Rosen, 2008a).
Cyberbullying Victimization among College Students: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
Rivituso, Jack
2014-01-01
This interpretive phenomenological analysis explored the lived experiences and the psychological impact of victimization from cyberbullying among college students. Two theories, Bandura's Theory of Triadic Reciprocal Determinism and the General Strain Theory, guided the primary research questions used for this exploration. Each of these…
Cyberbullying Victimization among College Students: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
Rivituso, Jack
2014-01-01
This interpretive phenomenological analysis explored the lived experiences and the psychological impact of victimization from cyberbullying among college students. Two theories, Bandura's Theory of Triadic Reciprocal Determinism and the General Strain Theory, guided the primary research questions used for this exploration. Each of these…
Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions
Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.
1983-01-01
Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.
Phenomenological modeling of Geometric Metasurfaces
Ye, Weimin; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Fan, Dianyuan; Zhang, Shuang
2015-01-01
Metasurfaces, with their superior capability in manipulating the optical wavefront at the subwavelength scale and low manufacturing complexity, have shown great potential for planar photonics and novel optical devices. However, vector field simulation of metasurfaces is so far limited to periodic-structured metasurfaces containing a small number of meta-atoms in the unit cell by using full-wave numerical methods. Here, we propose a general phenomenological method to analytically model metasurfaces made up of arbitrarily distributed meta-atoms based on the assumption that the meta-atoms possess localized resonances with Lorentz-Drude forms, whose exact form can be retrieved from the full wave simulation of a single element. Applied to phase modulated geometric metasurfaces, our analytical results show good agreement with full-wave numerical simulations. The proposed theory provides an efficient method to model and design optical devices based on metasurfaces.
Phenomenology of Holographic Quenches
da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre
2015-10-01
We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.
Quantum supergravity, supergravity anomalies and string phenomenology
Gaillard, Mary K
2016-01-01
I discuss the role of quantum effects in the phenomenology of effective supergravity theories from compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. An accurate incorporation of these effects requires a regularization procedure that respects local supersymmetry and BRST invariance and that retains information associated with the cut-off scale, which has physical meaning in an effective theory. I briefly outline the Pauli-Villars regularization procedure, describe some applications, and comment on what remains to be done to fully define the effective quantum field theory.
Quantum supergravity, supergravity anomalies and string phenomenology
Gaillard, Mary K.
2016-11-01
I discuss the role of quantum effects in the phenomenology of effective supergravity theories from compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. An accurate incorporation of these effects requires a regularization procedure that respects local supersymmetry and BRST invariance and that retains information associated with the cut-off scale, which has physical meaning in an effective theory. I briefly outline the Pauli-Villars regularization procedure, describe some applications, and comment on what remains to be done to fully define the effective quantum field theory.
Quantum supergravity, supergravity anomalies and string phenomenology
Mary K. Gaillard
2016-11-01
Full Text Available I discuss the role of quantum effects in the phenomenology of effective supergravity theories from compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. An accurate incorporation of these effects requires a regularization procedure that respects local supersymmetry and BRST invariance and that retains information associated with the cut-off scale, which has physical meaning in an effective theory. I briefly outline the Pauli–Villars regularization procedure, describe some applications, and comment on what remains to be done to fully define the effective quantum field theory.
The Phenomenology of Flipped SU(5)
Abel, S. A.
1990-01-01
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. In this thesis, I examine the phenomenology of the supersymmetric flipped SU(5) model. Such a model has been derived as a low energy approximation to heterotic string theory, probably with a 'no-scale' supersymmetry breaking mechanism. It is found that a large region of the flipped SU(5) parameter space predicts a satisfactory breaking down to the standard model on renormalization down to low energies. In particular it contains a number of phenomenological advantages over other GUT schemes, such as a natural Higg's doublet-triplet mass splitting, and a neutrino see-saw mechanism. Analysis of the neutrino sector shows that this model may allow rapid decays of the heavy neutrinos into lighter electron-neutrinos. This is due to new flavour changing couplings in the superpotential, which are included in the neutrino mass matrix. Such fast decays may be able to evade certain cosmological bounds, based on the standard inflationary scenarios and the observation of the 3K background radiation. Thus it is possible that neutrinos could form a substantial proportion of the dark matter in the Universe. Rare processes may be significantly enhanced in the flipped SU(5) scenario, due to new couplings whose off diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements need not be small. In particular, the gaugino-fermion-sfermion coupling may give important new flavour changing diagrams, since, after supersymmetry is broken, the fermions and sfermions are no longer simultaneously diagonalizable. This leads to the possibility of decays such as Z to bs and muto egamma being detected in the near future. In addition to this there are significant new contributions to the electric dipole moment of the neutron which may be as high as the present day limit of | d_ n| < 10^{-25}ecm. Support for this model may come from neutralino contributions to the number of 'neutrino species' measured in Z decays. Finally, the anomalous magnetic moment of the
Topologically Stratified Energy Minimizers in a Product Abelian Field Theory
Han, Xiaosen
2015-01-01
The recently developed product Abelian gauge field theory by Tong and Wong hosting magnetic impurities is reformulated into an extended model that allows the coexistence of vortices and anti-vortices. The two Abelian gauge fields in the model induce two species of magnetic vortex-lines resulting from $N_s$ vortices and $P_s$ anti-vortices ($s=1,2$) realized as the zeros and poles of two complex-valued Higgs fields, respectively. An existence theorem is established for the governing equations over a compact Riemann surface $S$ which states that a solution with prescribed $N_1, N_2$ vortices and $P_1,P_2$ anti-vortices of two designated species exists if and only if the inequalities \\[ \\left|N_1+N_2-(P_1+P_2)\\right|<\\frac{|S|}{\\pi},\\quad \\left|N_1+2N_2-(P_1+2P_2)\\right|<\\frac{|S|}{\\pi}, \\] hold simultaneously, which give bounds for the `differences' of the vortex and anti-vortex numbers in terms of the total surface area of $S$. The minimum energy of these solutions is shown to assume the explicit value \\...
Resonant Diphoton Phenomenology Simplified
Panico, Giuliano; Wulzer, Andrea
2016-01-01
A framework is proposed to describe resonant diphoton phenomenology at hadron colliders in full generality. It can be employed for a comprehensive model-independent interpretation of the experimental data. Within the general framework, few benchmark scenarios are defined as representative of the various phenomenological options and/or of motivated new physics scenarios. Their usage is illustrated by performing a characterization of the 750 GeV excess, based on a recast of available experimental results. We also perform an assessment of which properties of the resonance could be inferred, after discovery, by a careful experimental study of the diphoton distributions. These include the spin J of the new particle and its dominant production mode. Partial information on its CP-parity can also be obtained, but only for J >= 2. The complete determination of the resonance CP properties requires studying the pattern of the initial state radiation that accompanies the resonance production.
Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy: A cultural theory approach
West, J., E-mail: jodie.west@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bailey, I., E-mail: ian.bailey@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Winter, M., E-mail: d.m.winter@exeter.ac.u [Centre for Rural Policy Research, Department of Politics, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)
2010-10-15
Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of studies have tended to be quantitative and to view 'the public' and 'public opinion' as homogeneous wholes. This study uses a cultural theory framework and focus groups conducted in the South West UK to develop deeper understandings of how individuals' worldviews can inform opinions and behaviour in relation to RE. These findings are used to explore ways in which government policies on RE might be tailored to engender greater public support and participation. Issues discussed include the provision of economic incentives, information on climate change and RE, linking renewables to overall energy behaviour, and landscape aesthetics.
Effective Theory of Dark Energy at Redshift Survey Scales
Gleyzes, Jérôme; Mancarella, Michele; Vernizzi, Filippo
2016-01-01
We explore the phenomenological consequences of general late-time modifications of gravity in the quasi-static approximation, in the case where cold dark matter is non-minimally coupled to the gravitational sector. Assuming spectroscopic and photometric surveys with configuration parameters similar to those of the Euclid mission, we derive constraints on our effective description from three observables: the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space, tomographic weak-lensing shear power spectrum and the correlation spectrum between the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and the galaxy distribution. In particular, with $\\Lambda$CDM as fiducial model and a specific choice for the time dependence of our effective functions, we perform a Fisher matrix analysis and find that the unmarginalized $68\\%$ CL errors on the parameters describing the modifications of gravity are of order $\\sigma\\sim10^{-2}$--$10^{-3}$. We also consider two other fiducial models. A nonminimal coupling of CDM enhances the effects of modified gravit...
Model building and phenomenology in supersymmetry
Kim Jong Soo
2008-09-15
Supersymmetry (SUSY) stabilizes the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and the scale of grand unified theories (GUT) or the Planck scale. The simplest supersymmetric extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) solves several phenomenological problems, e. g. the gauge couplings unify and the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is a dark matter candidate. In this thesis, Jarlskog invariants, squark pair production at the LHC and massive neutrinos are discussed in the framework of the MSSM and its extensions. (orig.)
Multivariate Moran process with Lotka-Volterra phenomenology.
Noble, Andrew E; Hastings, Alan; Fagan, William F
2011-11-25
For a population with any given number of types, we construct a new multivariate Moran process with frequency-dependent selection and establish, analytically, a correspondence to equilibrium Lotka-Volterra phenomenology. This correspondence, on the one hand, allows us to infer the phenomenology of our Moran process based on much simpler Lokta-Volterra phenomenology and, on the other, allows us to study Lotka-Volterra dynamics within the finite populations of a Moran process. Applications to community ecology, population genetics, and evolutionary game theory are discussed.
Dreaming Consciousness: A Contribution from Phenomenology
Nicola Zippel
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The central aim of this paper is to offer a historical reconstruction of phenomenological studies on dreaming and to put forward a draft for a phenomenological theory of the dream state. Prominent phenomenologists have offered an extremely valuable interpretation of the dream as an intentional process, stressing its relevance in understanding the complexity of the mental life of subject, the continuous interplay between reality and unreality, and the possibility of building parallel spheres of experience influencing the development of personal identity. Taking into consideration the main characteristics of dream experience emphasized by these scholars, in the final part of the paper I propose to elaborate a new phenomenology of dreaming, which should be able to offer a theoretical description of dream states. My sketched proposal is based on Eugen Fink’s notion of the dream as “presentification”. By combining the past and the present of phenomenological investigation, I aim at suggesting a philosophical framework to explain the intentional features of dreaming as Erlebnis.
A new method for finding vacua in string phenomenology
Gray, James [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris and APC, Universite de Paris 7, 98 bis, Bd. Arago 75014, Paris (France); He, Yang-Hui [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)]|[Merton College, Oxford, OX1 4JD and Mathematical Institute, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lukas, Andre [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)
2007-05-15
One of the central problems of string-phenomenology is to find stable vacua in the four dimensional effective theories which result from compactification. We present an algorithmic method to find all of the vacua of any given string-phenomenological system in a huge class. In particular, this paper reviews and then extends hep-th/0606122 to include various nonperturbative effects. These include gaugino condensation and instantonic contributions to the superpotential. (authors)
A New Method for Finding Vacua in String Phenomenology
Gray, J; Ilderton, A; Lukas, A; Gray, James; He, Yang-Hui; Ilderton, Anton; Lukas, Andre
2007-01-01
One of the central problems of string-phenomenology is to find stable vacua in the four dimensional effective theories which result from compactification. We present an algorithmic method to find all of the vacua of any given string-phenomenological system in a huge class. In particular, this paper reviews and then extends hep-th/0606122 to include various non-perturbative effects. These include gaugino condensation and instantonic contributions to the superpotential.
Georgii Chuzhyk
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We offer an evolutionary and alternative solution to the problem of the Universe. The theory involves the formation of the Universe by means of all the sequences of energies and energy of consciousness with gradual structural wrapping by energy shells recording and accumulating them; formation of the core dispatch centers performing energetic and informational communication with a single rhythm among all space objects that form civilizations. We outline a way of human consciousness formation. The theory explains how the first objectively appeared sparks of human consciousness energy were evolving, accumulating and being recorded, formed the Earth’s noosphere in its core dispatch center. The consciousness energy structure has not yet been discovered and that inhibits the science, which is wary of those who define it as a stream of multi-super large reflection objectively reflecting the highest degree of manifestation of civilization collective creativity, named by John Wheeler as a substance of the information — “It from Bit.” Core dispatching centers of all cosmic objects consciousness energies such as the Earth are combined into the Universe core dispatcher center of which called the Cosmic Consciousness. Many hundreds of billions of years the Cosmic Consciousness absorbed and only recorded the sequences, experience of which ended strictly following the laws of nature, formed a unique quality — for each new sequence by its energetic and informational signal it can highlight, express from its archive the evolution of similar Roadmap, which had been already passed by a similar sequence. The Cosmic Consciousness indirectly provides the most important thing in the Universe — not interfering, it retains all its evolutionary integrity and harmony. All of them constantly and continuously follow and check it through bioinformational communication, without deviation move toward their goal. Life of the Earth civilization is also moving
Phenomenology of the Sterile Neutrinos
Tabrizi, Zahra
2016-01-01
In this thesis we investigate several topics in neutrino physics, with an em- phasis on the phenomenology of the sterile neutrinos. We study the existence of a light sterile neutrino within the so called 3+1 scenario using the data of the medium baseline reactor experiments. We will also probe the parameters of the Large Extra Dimension model with the high energy atmospheric data of the IceCube experiment, and will find an equivalence between the Kaluza Klein modes and the sterile neutrinos. We will study the secret interaction of the ster- ile neutrinos which is proposed to solve the tension between cosmology and the sterile neutrino hypothesis. In addition to these, we will show that a minimal 2-Higgs-Doublet-Model extended with a U(1) or Z_2 symmetry cannot explain the smallness of the neutrino masses.
Using Metaphor Theory to Examine Conceptions of Energy in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics
Lancor, Rachael
2014-01-01
Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies depending on context. In this paper, the discourse used to explain the role of energy in systems from biology, chemistry, and physics is examined from the perspective of metaphor theory. Six substance metaphors for energy are identified in…
NEW PRINCIPLES OF WORK AND ENERGY AS WELL AS POWER AND ENERGY RATE FOR CONTINUUM FIELD THEORIES
戴天民
2001-01-01
New principles of work and energy as well as power and energy rate with cross terms for polar and nonlocal polar continuum field theories were presented and from them all corresponding equations of motion and boundary conditions as well as complete equations of energy and energy rate with the help of generalized Piola' s theorems were naturally derived in all and without any additional requirement. Finally, some new balance laws of energy and energy rate for generalized continuum mechanics were established. The new principles of work and energy as well as power and energy rate with cross terms presented in this paper are believed to be new and they have corrected the incompleteness of all existing corresponding principles and laws without cross terms in literatures of generalized continuum field theories.
Factors influencing the acceptability of energy policies : A test of VBN theory
Steg, L; Dreijerink, L; Abrahamse, W
2005-01-01
This paper examines factors influencing the acceptability of energy policies aimed to reduce the emission of CO2 by households. More specifically, it is Studied to what extent the value-belief-norm theory of environmentalism (VBN theory; Stern, [(2000). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally si
Theory of gravity admitting arbitrary choice of the energy density level
Cherkas, S L
2016-01-01
We suggest a five-vectors theory of gravity admitting arbitrary choice of the energy density level. This theory is formulated as the constraint theory of the second kind, where the concrete values of Lagrange multipliers are evaluated. Cosmological implications of the model could be that the residual vacuum fluctuations dominate over all the universe evolution that resembles the Milne's universe.
Contemporary Phenomenology at Its Best
Dan Zahavi; Andrei Simionescu-Panait
2014-01-01
This time around, we have the chance of getting to know Prof. Dan Zahavi of the University of Copenhagen, one of phenomenology's top researchers, whose thought expresses a particular voice in the philosophy of mind and interdisciplinary cognitive research. Today, we shall explore topics regarding phenomenology in our present scientific context, Edmund Husserl's takes on phenomenology, the influence of the history of philosophy on shaping contemporary cognitive research and the links and possi...
Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology
Wojcicki, S.
1978-11-01
Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references
Hartimo, Mirja
2010-01-01
During Edmund Husserl,s lifetime, modern logic and mathematics rapidly developed toward their current outlook and Husserl,s writings can be fruitfully compared and contrasted with both 19th century figures (Boole, Schroder, Weierstrass) as well as the 20th century characters (Heyting, Zermelo, Godel). Besides the more historical studies, the internal ones on Husserl alone and the external ones attempting to clarify his role in the more general context of the developing mathematics and logic, Husserl,s phenomenology offers also a systematically rich but little researched area of investigation.
Scanning the phenomenological MSSM
Wuerzinger, Jonas
2017-01-01
A framework to perform scans in the 19-dimensional phenomenological MSSM is developed and used to re-evaluate the ATLAS experiments' sensitivity to R-parity-conserving supersymmetry with LHC Run 2 data ($\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV), using results from 14 separate ATLAS searches. We perform a $\\tilde{t}_1$ dedicated scan, only considering models with $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<1$ TeV, while allowing both a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$) and a sneutrino ($\\tilde{\
Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density
Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.
2005-11-07
The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.
A method of phenomenological interviewing.
Bevan, Mark T
2014-01-01
In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews.
Phenomenology of Bilinear Broken R-parity
Restrepo, D A
2001-01-01
The straightforward supersymmetrization of the Standard Model (SM) results in a phenomenologically inconsistent theory in which Baryon number ($B$) and Lepton number ($L$) are violated by dimension 4 operators, inducing fast proton decay. Proton stability allows only for separate $L$ or $B$ violation and, if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles, $L$ violating terms must be present. In this thesis I will study a Supersymmetric Standard Model (SSM) realization with $B$ conservation and minimal $L$ violation. In this framework $L$ is mildly violated only by super-renormalizable terms, allowing for small neutrino Majorana masses. This model is more predictive than the Baryon-Parity SSM. The induced dimension 4 $L$ violating couplings are not arbitrary, and automatically satisfy all experimental constraints. After introducing the theoretical framework for supersymmetric models without Lepton number, I will discuss the phenomenology of the (unstable) lightest neutralino and of the lightest stop. I will show tha...
Phenomenology and Neuroaesthetics
Elio Franzini
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Phenomenology is not the simple description of a fact, but rather the description of an intentional immanent moment, and it presents itself as a science of essences, and not of matter of facts. The Leib, the lived body of the phenomenological tradition, is not a generic corporeal reality, but rather an intentional subject, a transcendental reference point, on the base of which the connections between physical body and psychic body should be grasped. So, the reduction of empathy to mirror neurons amounts to an “objectivisation”, with the consequent absolutisation of a process that is a function of the Leib as intentional subject, not as a physical reality. The main task of the philosophical research, bracketed by the new “neuro” researches, thus emphasizing their theoretical limits as soon as they depart from experimental enquiries, is then to understand the conditions of possibility of cognitive procedures, that is to say, in other words, the genesis of consciousness, that in aesthetics becomes “the genesis of aesthetic consciousness”. Interdisciplinarity is already an ancient and out of fashion word, now it is the time of “dialogue”, being aware however that the “logoi” not always require synthesis, and that the unity of the corporeal reality implies, as Husserl emphasizes, very different descriptive behaviours.
Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy. A cultural theory approach
West, J.; Bailey, I. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Winter, M. [Centre for Rural Policy Research, Department of Politics, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)
2010-10-15
Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of studies have tended to be quantitative and to view 'the public' and 'public opinion' as homogeneous wholes. This study uses a cultural theory framework and focus groups conducted in the South West UK to develop deeper understandings of how individuals' worldviews can inform opinions and behaviour in relation to RE. These findings are used to explore ways in which government policies on RE might be tailored to engender greater public support and participation. Issues discussed include the provision of economic incentives, information on climate change and RE, linking renewables to overall energy behaviour, and landscape aesthetics. (author)
Liu, Jun; Xu, Hui; Liu, Yaping; Xu, Yang
With the increasing pressure in energy conservation and emissions reduction, the new energy revolution in China is imminent. The implementation of electric energy substitution and cleaner alternatives is an important way to resolve the contradiction among economic growth, energy saving and emission reduction. This article demonstrates that China is in the second stage which energy consumption and GDP is increasing together with the reducing of energy consumption intensity based on the theory of decoupling. At the same time, new energy revolution needs to be realized through the increasing of the carbon productivity and the proportion of new energy.
The promise of sporting bodies in phenomenological thinking
Ravn, Susanne; Høffding, Simon
2016-01-01
phenomenology to empirically investigate the domain of sport and exercise, phenomenologists employ empirical data to substantiate their claims concerning foundational conditions of our being-in-the-world. In this article, we suggest a way to enhance the collaboration between the two fields by pointing out......For decades, qualitative researchers have used phenomenological thinking to advance reflections on particular kinds of lifeworlds. As emphasised by Allen-Collinson phenomenology offers a continuing promise of ‘bringing the body back in’ to theories on sport and physical activity. Turning...... and giving examples of the resource of ‘the factual variation.’ Coined by Shaun Gallagher and developed from the Husserlian eidetic variation, the factual variation uses exceptional cases, normally from pathology, to shed new light on foundational phenomenological concepts. Drawing on our research of sports...
Negative Emotional Energy: A Theory of the “Dark-Side” of Interaction Ritual Chains
David Boyns
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Randall Collins’ theory of interaction ritual chains is widely cited, but has been subject to little theoretical elaboration. One reason for the modest expansion of the theory is the underdevelopment of the concept of emotional energy. This paper examines emotional energy, related particularly to the dynamics of negative experiences. It asks whether or not negative emotions produce emotional energies that are qualitatively distinct from their positive counterparts. The analysis begins by tracing the development of Interaction Ritual Theory, and summarizes its core propositions. Next, it moves to a conceptualization of a “valenced” emotional energy and describes both “positive” and “negative” dimensions. Six propositions outline the central dynamics of negative emotional energy. The role of groups in the formation of positive and negative emotional energy are considered, as well as how these energies are significant sources of sociological motivation.
Low-energy effective action in N = 2 supersymmetric field theories
Bukhbinder, E I; Bukhbinder, I L; Ivanov, E A; Kuzenko, S M
2001-01-01
Review of new approach to finding effective action in N = 2 and N = 4 supersymmetric theory is given. The approach is based on the formulation of these theories in terms of unconstrained superfields in harmonic superspace. Construction of superfield model of N = 2 supersymmetric field theory (hypermultiplet, N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory) is discussed. N = 2 background field method is considered. Perturbative holomorphic effective potential in N = 2 models and non-holomorphic effective potential in N = 4 Yang-Mills field theory, defining exact low-energy effective action in this theory, are studied. Possible applications of low-energy effective action in supersymmetric theories and some open problems are discussed. Comparison of given approach with others is performed
The XXth International Workshop High Energy Physics and Quantum Field Theory
The Workshop continues a series of workshops started by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in 1985 and conceived with the purpose of presenting topics of current interest and providing a stimulating environment for scientific discussion on new developments in theoretical and experimental high energy physics and physical programs for future colliders. Traditionally the list of workshop attendees includes a great number of active young scientists and students from Russia and other countries. This year Workshop is organized jointly by the SINP MSU and the Southern Federal University (SFedU) and will take place in the holiday hotel "Luchezarniy" (Effulgent) situated on the Black Sea shore in a picturesque natural park in the suburb of the largest Russian resort city Sochi - the host city of the XXII Olympic Winter Games to be held in 2014. The main topics to be covered are: Experimental results from the LHC. Tevatron summary: the status of the Standard Model and the boundaries on BSM physics. Future physics at Linear Colliders and super B-factories. Extensions of the Standard Model and their phenomenological consequences at the LHC and Linear Colliders: SUSY extensions of the Standard Model; particle interactions in space-time with extra dimensions; strings, quantum groups and new ideas from modern algebra and geometry. Higher order corrections and resummations for collider phenomenology. Automatic calculations of Feynman diagrams and Monte Carlo simulations. LHC/LC and astroparticle/cosmology connections. Modern nuclear physics and relativistic nucleous-nucleous collisions.
Dark Energy from Violation of Energy Conservation.
Josset, Thibaut; Perez, Alejandro; Sudarsky, Daniel
2017-01-13
In this Letter, we consider the possibility of reconciling metric theories of gravitation with a violation of the conservation of energy-momentum. Under some circumstances, this can be achieved in the context of unimodular gravity, and it leads to the emergence of an effective cosmological constant in Einstein's equation. We specifically investigate two potential sources of energy nonconservation-nonunitary modifications of quantum mechanics and phenomenological models motivated by quantum gravity theories with spacetime discreteness at the Planck scale-and show that such locally negligible phenomena can nevertheless become relevant at the cosmological scale.
Dark Energy from Violation of Energy Conservation
Josset, Thibaut; Perez, Alejandro; Sudarsky, Daniel
2017-01-01
In this Letter, we consider the possibility of reconciling metric theories of gravitation with a violation of the conservation of energy-momentum. Under some circumstances, this can be achieved in the context of unimodular gravity, and it leads to the emergence of an effective cosmological constant in Einstein's equation. We specifically investigate two potential sources of energy nonconservation—nonunitary modifications of quantum mechanics and phenomenological models motivated by quantum gravity theories with spacetime discreteness at the Planck scale—and show that such locally negligible phenomena can nevertheless become relevant at the cosmological scale.
Energy and Momentum Localization: An Important Problem in the Theory of Gravitation
Korunur, M; Salti, M; Aydogdu, O
2005-01-01
Using the Einstein, Bergmann-Thomson and Landau-Lifshitz's energy and momentum complexes and theirs teleparallel gravity versions, we compute the energy and momentum of the universe in inhomogeneous cosmological models and show that energy-momentum complexes give same results in both of gravitation theories in inhomogeneous spacetime.
On the Origins of the Planck Zero Point Energy in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory
Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N
2015-01-01
It is argued that the zero point energy in quantum field theory is a reflection of the particle anti-particle content of the theory. This essential physical content is somewhat disguised in electromagnetic theory wherein the photon is its own anti-particle. To illustrate this point, we consider the case of a charged Boson theory $(\\pi^+,\\pi^-)$ wherein the particle and anti-particle can be distinguished by the charge $\\pm e$. Starting from the zero point energy, we derive the Boson pair production rate per unit time per unit volume from the vacuum in a uniform external electric field. The result is further generalized for arbitrary spin $s$.
Renormalisation of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar field theory using the Wilson flow
Capponi, Francesco; Ehret, Susanne; Pellegrini, Roberto; Rago, Antonio
2015-01-01
A non-perturbative renormalisation prescription for the energy-momentum tensor, based on space-time symmetries along the Wilson flow, has been proposed recently in the context of 4-dimensional gauge theories. We extend this construction to the case of a scalar field theory, and investigate its numerical feasibility by studying Ward identities in 3-dimensional scalar field theory. After introducing the Wilson flow for the scalar field theory we discuss its renormalisation properties and the determination of the renormalisation constants for the energy-momentum tensor.
Exploring the Phenomenology of Suicide
Pompili, Maurizio
2010-01-01
Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…
Phenomenology Depends on Human Nature
Reber, Rolf
2006-01-01
This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. Kendler contrasted objective phenomena going on in the mind with phenomenological convictions. He concluded, on the basis of a thoughtful analysis, that scientific psychology cannot validate moral principles, which have to be agreed upon by…
Belov, Pavel
2013-06-15
A combination is presented of the inclusive neutral current e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross section data collected by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations during the last months of the HERA II operation period with proton beam energies E{sub p} of 460 and 575 GeV. The kinematic range of the cross section data covers low absolute four-momentum transfers squared, 1.5 GeV{sup 2} {<=} Q{sup 2} {<=} 110 GeV{sup 2}, small values of Bjorken-x, 2.8.10{sup -5} {<=} x {<=} 1.5.10{sup -2}, and high inelasticity y {<=} 0.85. The combination algorithm is based on the method of least squares and takes into account correlations of the systematic uncertainties. The combined data are used in the QCD fits to extract the parton distribution functions. The phenomenological low-x dipole models are tested and parameters of the models are obtained. A good description of the data by the dipole model taking into account the evolution of the gluon distribution is observed. The longitudinal structure function F{sub L} is extracted from the combination of the currently used H1 and ZEUS reduced proton beam energy data with previously published H1 nominal proton beam energy data of 920 GeV. A precision of the obtained values of F{sub L} is improved at medium Q{sup 2} compared to the published results of the H1 collaboration.
Review of the Fusion Theory and Computing Program. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)
Antonsen, Thomas M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Berry, Lee A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Michael R. [Swarthmore College, PA (United States); Dahlburg, Jill P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Davidson, Ronald C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenwald, Martin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hegna, Chris C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); McCurdy, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Newman, David E. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Pellegrini, Claudio [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Phillips, Cynthia K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Post, Douglass E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rosenbluth, Marshall N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Sheffield, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Simonen, Thomas C. [Munising, MI (United States); Van Dam, James [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
2001-08-01
At the November 14-15, 2000, meeting of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, a Panel was set up to address questions about the Theory and Computing program, posed in a charge from the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (see Appendix A). This area was of theory and computing/simulations had been considered in the FESAC Knoxville meeting of 1999 and in the deliberations of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) in 2000. A National Research Council committee provided a detailed review of the scientific quality of the fusion energy sciences program, including theory and computing, in 2000.
Lattice field theory applications in high energy physics
Gottlieb, Steven
2016-10-01
Lattice gauge theory was formulated by Kenneth Wilson in 1974. In the ensuing decades, improvements in actions, algorithms, and computers have enabled tremendous progress in QCD, to the point where lattice calculations can yield sub-percent level precision for some quantities. Beyond QCD, lattice methods are being used to explore possible beyond the standard model (BSM) theories of dynamical symmetry breaking and supersymmetry. We survey progress in extracting information about the parameters of the standard model by confronting lattice calculations with experimental results and searching for evidence of BSM effects.
Lattice field theory applications in high energy physics
Gottlieb, Steven
2016-01-01
Lattice gauge theory was formulated by Kenneth Wilson in 1974. In the ensuing decades, improvements in actions, algorithms, and computers have enabled tremendous progress in QCD, to the point where lattice calculations can yield sub-percent level precision for some quantities. Beyond QCD, lattice methods are being used to explore possible beyond the standard model (BSM) theories of dynamical symmetry breaking and supersymmetry. We survey progress in extracting information about the parameters of the standard model by confronting lattice calculations with experimental results and searching for evidence of BSM effects.
Probing high energy levels of lanthanide ions - experiment and theory
Peijzel, P.S.
2004-01-01
This thesis describes vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy of lanthanide ions. High-resolution emission and excitation spectra were recorded to investigate the VUV energy levels of lanthanide ions in fluoride and phosphate host lattices. A parameterized model for the calculation of the energy-level
Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime
2013-01-01
The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now.
Solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology
Srubabati Goswami
2004-02-01
This article summarises the status of the solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology at the end of 2002 in the light of the SNO and KamLAND results. We first present the allowed areas obtained from global solar analysis and demonstrate the preference of the solar data towards the large-mixing-angle (LMA) MSW solution. A clear confirmation in favour of the LMA solution comes from the KamLAND reactor neutrino data. the KamLAND spectral data in conjunction with the global solar data further narrows down the allowed LMA region and splits it into two allowed zones - a low $ m^{2}$ region (low-LMA) and high $ m^{2}$ region (high-LMA). We demonstrate through a projected analysis that with an exposure of 3 kton-year (kTy) KamLAND can remove this ambiguity.
Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM
AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M
2010-01-01
We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.
Management practice: phenomenological approach
Myriam Siqueira da Cunha
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This work has the aim of understanding the lived experiences by managers in relation to organizational changes in an enterprise in the food area, located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The role of managers has been constantly evaluated and their capacity of continuous learning and also the ability of transforming the learning in good organizational results is reacquired every instant. In this work, my intention is to show, using an interpretative analysis, real and practical situations, from lived experiences. The methodological way followed was the hermeneutic phenomenological approach, trying to give a global and a contextual treatment to the theme. The results achieved offer subsides for a new look over the management practice and point out the importance of the study of what is lived, as an inspiration source for the strategic decisions in the enterprises.
牛志信
2012-01-01
While the contemporary Chinese literary theory has made some achievements by mostly absorbing the results of Western literary theory, it also exposes its drawbacks emphasizing on ＂external research＂ and devia- ting from the literary facts of their own. However, ＂facing the literary facts of their own＂, the literary theory re- search can pose valuable questions, not leading itself to be a vassal of other disciplines. ＂Facing the literary facts of their own＂, Ingarden＇s phenomenological literary theory and the ancient Chinese literary theory provide rich re- sources for us to rethink and construct the contemporary Chinese literary theory. In short, the comparison and dis- crimination of the two theories have an important theoretical value.%中国当代文学理论研究多吸收西方文学理论的成果,取得了一定成就的同时,也暴露出其研究重视＂外部研究＂,偏离文学事实本身的弊端,文学理论研究只有＂面向文学事实本身＂,才能提出真正有价值的问题,才能不致成为别的学科的附庸。英伽登的现象学文论和中国古代文论直面文学本身,为我们反思和建设中国当代文学理论提供了丰富的资源,对两者＂面向文学事实本身＂的方式进行比较辨析,具有重要的理论价值。
An Energy Model for Viewing Embodied Human Capital Theory
Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.
2007-01-01
Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…
An Energy Model for Viewing Embodied Human Capital Theory
Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.
2007-01-01
Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…
Random Matrix Theory Approach to Indonesia Energy Portfolio Analysis
Mahardhika, Alifian; Purqon, Acep
2017-07-01
In a few years, Indonesia experienced difficulties in maintaining energy security, the problem is the decline in oil production from 1.6 million barrels per day to 861 thousand barrels per day in 2012. However, there is a difference condition in 2015 until the third week in 2016, world oil prices actually fell at the lowest price level since last 12 years. The decline in oil prices due to oversupply of oil by oil-producing countries of the world due to the instability of the world economy. Wave of layoffs in Indonesia is a response to the decline in oil prices, this led to the energy and mines portfolios Indonesia feared would not be more advantageous than the portfolio in other countries. In this research, portfolio analysis will be done on energy and mining in Indonesia by using stock price data of energy and mines in the period 26 November 2010 until April 1, 2016. It was found that the results have a wide effect of the market potential is high in the determination of the return on the portfolio energy and mines. Later, it was found that there are eight of the thirty stocks in the energy and mining portfolio of Indonesia which have a high probability of return relative to the average return of stocks in a portfolio of energy and mines.
Low-Energy Signatures of Nonlocal Field Theories
Belenchia, Alessio; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Saravani, Mehdi
2016-01-01
The response of inertial particle detectors coupled to a scalar field satisfying nonlocal dynamics described by non-analytic functions of the d'Alembertian operator $\\Box$ is studied. We show that spontaneous emission processes of a low energy particle detector are very sensitive to high-energy non-locality scales. This allows us to suggest a nuclear physics experiment ($\\sim$ MeV energy scales) that outperforms the sensitivity of LHC experiments by many orders of magnitude. This may have implications for the falsifiability of theoretical proposals of quantum gravity.
Towards a Non-Supersymmetric String Phenomenology
Abel, Steven; Mavroudi, Eirini
2015-01-01
Over the past three decades, considerable effort has been devoted to studying the rich and diverse phenomenologies of heterotic strings exhibiting spacetime supersymmetry. Unfortunately, during this same period, there has been relatively little work studying the phenomenologies associated with their non-supersymmetric counterparts. The primary reason for this relative lack of attention is the fact that strings without spacetime supersymmetry are generally unstable, exhibiting large one-loop dilaton tadpoles. In this paper, we demonstrate that this hurdle can be overcome in a class of tachyon-free four-dimensional string models realized through coordinate-dependent compactifications. Moreover, as we shall see, it is possible to construct models in this class whose low-lying states resemble the Standard Model (or even potential unified extensions thereof) --- all without any light superpartners, and indeed without supersymmetry at any energy scale. The existence of such models thus opens the door to general stu...
Calculation of Dissociation Energies Using Many-Body Perturbation Theory
1981-08-01
formyl radical , HCO, carbon monoxide, CO, and the SCF energy for the hydrogen atom. Table 2 also contains the zero- point vibrational energy for each... formyl radical [ 19]. To compare the theoretical predictions with these heat of reaction data, we must estimate the effect of the rotational and...obtained by considering the elimination of the hydrogen molecule from the methoxy radical , giving the formyl radical and H2 as products. The pertinent
A new method of constructing energy momentum tensor of non-minimally coupled theories
Mukherjee, Pradip; Roy, Amit Singha
2016-01-01
A new method of constructing conserved energy momentum tensor of non minimally coupled theories is developed from first principles. This method is based on Noether procedure in the locally inertial system.
Quantum Field Theory of Interacting Dark Matter/Dark Energy: Dark Monodromies
D'Amico, Guido; Hamill, Teresa; Kaloper, Nemanja
2016-01-01
We discuss how to formulate a quantum field theory of dark energy interacting with dark matter. We show that the proposals based on the assumption that dark matter is made up of heavy particles with masses which are very sensitive to the value of dark energy are strongly constrained. Quintessence-generated long range forces and radiative stability of the quintessence potential require that such dark matter and dark energy are completely decoupled. However, if dark energy and a fraction of dar...
Topologically stratified energy minimizers in a product Abelian field theory
Han, Xiaosen; Yang, Yisong
2015-09-01
We study a recently developed product Abelian gauge field theory by Tong and Wong hosting magnetic impurities. We first obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a unique solution realizing such impurities in the form of multiple vortices. We next reformulate the theory into an extended model that allows the coexistence of vortices and anti-vortices. The two Abelian gauge fields in the model induce two species of magnetic vortex-lines resulting from Ns vortices and Ps anti-vortices (s = 1, 2) realized as the zeros and poles of two complex-valued Higgs fields, respectively. An existence theorem is established for the governing equations over a compact Riemann surface S which states that a solution with prescribed N1, N2 vortices and P1, P2 anti-vortices of two designated species exists if and only if the inequalities
Energy of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Windmill (theory, streamlined airflow
L. I. Grechikhin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A windmill theory as an open power system is resolved in the paper. The paper presents a mechanism of a frontal resistance and a thrust load of the operating windmill which is based on occurrence of an active environmental component and formulates the conditions under which any minimum resistance and maximum thrust load are realized. An algorithm and software for calculation of windmill streamlining pattern are developed in the paper. The calculation results are given the paper.
K-theory and phase transitions at high energies
T. V. Obikhod
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The duality between E8xE8 heteritic string on manifold K3xT2 and Type IIA string compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold induces a correspondence between vector bundles on K3xT2 and Calabi-Yau manifolds. Vector bundles over compact base space K3xT2 form the set of isomorphism classes, which is a semi-ring under the operation of Whitney sum and tensor product. The construction of semi-ring V ect X of isomorphism classes of complex vector bundles over X leads to the ring KX = K(V ect X, called Grothendieck group. As K3 has no isometries and no non-trivial one-cycles, so vector bundle winding modes arise from the T2 compactification. Since we have focused on supergravity in d = 11, there exist solutions in d = 10 for which space-time is Minkowski space and extra dimensions are K3xT2. The complete set of soliton solutions of supergravity theory is characterized by RR charges, identified by K-theory. Toric presentation of Calabi-Yau through Batyrev's toric approximation enables us to connect transitions between Calabi-Yau manifolds, classified by enhanced symmetry group, with K-theory classification.
Percebois, J.
1999-11-01
This paper proposes a brief overview of the contributions of the micro- and macro-economic theory to the answer of the following four main questions: 1 - how will change the world energy demand with respect to the economic activity and what will be the determining factors of this demand, globally and per energy source? What are the respective roles of energy prices and technological innovations? How will change the petroleum price and what will be the share of economical and political weight in this change? 2 - how passing on this price to the end-user taking into consideration the national preferences? Is there an optimum price when the energy producing, transporting and distributing company is a monopoly? 3 - what is the optimal structure of a network industry? 4 - how to integrate the local and global externalities characteristic of the energy sector in the economical calculus? (J.S.)
A field theoretic approach to the energy momentum tensor for theories coupled with gravity
Mukherjee, Pradip; Saha, Anirban; Roy, Amit Singha
2016-01-01
We provide a field-theoretic algorithm of obtaining energy momentum tensor (EMT) for gravitationally coupled theories. The method is based on an auxiliary field theory and equally applicable to both minimal and non-minimal coupling. The algorithm illuminates the connection between the EMT, obtained by functional variation of the metric, and local balance of energy and momentum. Our method is of cardinal value for the proper identification of the EMT in context of non-minimally coupled gravity...
ZANG Shaoxian; JIANG Yan; WEI Rongqiang
2003-01-01
Based on energy minimizing approach of bound theory, the influence of the distribution of constituent minerals on rheological property of rocks is discussed. Energy minimizing approach independent of the bound theory is advanced after the constraint condition is improved. The strength of four multiphase rocks is calculated with the new empirical rheological law. Results indicate that the new law has a reasonable physical explanation and fits the experimental data very well.
Perturbation theory of solid-liquid interfacial free energies of bcc metals.
Warshavsky, Vadim B; Song, Xueyu
2012-09-01
A perturbation theory is used to calculate bcc solid-liquid interfacial free energies of metallic systems with embedded-atom model potentials. As a reference system for bcc crystals we used a single-occupancy cell, hard-sphere bcc system. Good agreements between the perturbation theory results and the corresponding results from simulations are found. The strategy to extract hard-sphere bcc solid-liquid interfacial free energies may have broader applications for other crystal lattices.
Vortex free energies in SO(3) and SU(2) lattice gauge theory
De Forcrand, Philippe; Forcrand, Philippe de; Jahn, Oliver
2003-01-01
Lattice gauge theories with gauge groups SO(3) and SU(2) are compared. The free energy of electric twist, an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition which does not rely on centre-symmetry breaking, is measured in both theories. The results are used to calibrate the scale in SO(3).
A practice-theory approach of homeowners’ energy retrofits in four European areas
Bartiaux, Franise Bartiaux; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Fonseca, Paula
2014-01-01
This article examines whether and how energy retrofitting of owner-occupied dwellings can be understood within the framework of social practice theories. Practice theories help to shift the focus towards more collective approaches and practices, rather than towards individuals. In addressing this...
Research program in elementary-particle theory, 1983. Progress report
Sudarshan, E C.G.; Ne& #x27; eman, Y
1983-08-01
Progress is reviewed on the following topics: physics of ultra high energies and cosmology; phenomenology of particle physics; quantum field theory, supersymmetry and models of particles; and geometric formulations and algebraic models. Recent DOE reports resulting from the contract are listed. (WHK)
Investigating student conceptions of energy through the lens of metaphor theory
Lancor, Rachael Anderman
Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies greatly from discipline to discipline. In this thesis, I examine the discourse used to discuss energy in science courses from the perspective of metaphor theory, and explore how these metaphors both highlight and obscure various aspects of energy. A set of five characteristics of energy are presented that correspond to metaphors commonly found in science classroom discourse. Five substance metaphors for energy were identified: energy as a substance that can be accounted for, energy as a substance that can change forms, energy as a substance that can flow, energy as a substance that can be carried, energy as a substance that can be lost, and energy as a substance that can be added, produced or stored. Additionally, one final metaphor depicts energy as a process or interaction. Working under this framework, undergraduate students in introductory college biology, chemistry, and physics courses were asked to write analogies that reflect their understanding of the role of energy in the context of ecosystems, chemical reactions, mechanical systems, and electrical circuits. These student-generated analogies were analyzed qualitatively to gain insight into how students conceptualize energy. The results of this empirical study confirm that students use the metaphors identified above to explain the role of energy in these various scientific contexts. A second empirical study is also presented in which students taking an interdisciplinary, issues-based general science course at the undergraduate level were asked to explain the role of energy in five contexts that frequently appear the media: radioactivity, transportation, generating electricity, natural disasters, and the big bang theory for the origin of the universe. Their explanations were analyzed through the lens of metaphor theory, and showed evidence of the same metaphors seen in traditional disciplinary topics
Hadi Mirab; Reza Fathi; Vahid Jahangiri; Mir Mohammad Ettefagh; Reza Hassannejad
2015-01-01
One of the new methods for powering low-power electronic devices at sea is a wave energy harvesting system. In this method, piezoelectric material is employed to convert the mechanical energy of sea waves into electrical energy. The advantage of this method is based on avoiding a battery charging system. Studies have been done on energy harvesting from sea waves, however, considering energy harvesting with random JONSWAP wave theory, then determining the optimum values of energy harvested is new. This paper does that by implementing the JONSWAP wave model, calculating produced power, and realistically showing that output power is decreased in comparison with the more simple Airy wave model. In addition, parameters of the energy harvester system are optimized using a simulated annealing algorithm, yielding increased produced power.
Conformational disorder in energy transfer: beyond Förster theory.
Nelson, Tammie; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Roitberg, Adrian E; Tretiak, Sergei
2013-06-21
Energy transfer in donor-acceptor chromophore pairs, where the absorption of each species is well separated while donor emission and acceptor absorption overlap, can be understood through a Förster resonance energy transfer model. The picture is more complex for organic conjugated polymers, where the total absorption spectrum can be described as a sum of the individual contributions from each subunit (chromophore), whose absorption is not well separated. Although excitations in these systems tend to be well localized, traditional donors and acceptors cannot be defined and energy transfer can occur through various pathways where each subunit (chromophore) is capable of playing either role. In addition, fast torsional motions between individual monomers can break conjugation and lead to reordering of excited state energy levels. Fast torsional fluctuations occur on the same timescale as electronic transitions leading to multiple trivial unavoided crossings between excited states during dynamics. We use the non-adiabatic excited state molecular dynamics (NA-ESMD) approach to simulate energy transfer between two poly-phenylene vinylene (PPV) oligomers composed of 3-rings and 4-rings, respectively, separated by varying distances. The change in the spatial localization of the transient electronic transition density, initially localized on the donors, is used to determine the transfer rate. Our analysis shows that evolution of the intramolecular transition density can be decomposed into contributions from multiple transfer pathways. Here we present a detailed analysis of ensemble dynamics as well as a few representative trajectories which demonstrate the intertwined role of electronic and conformational processes. Our study reveals the complex nature of energy transfer in organic conjugated polymer systems and emphasizes the caution that must be taken in performing such an analysis when a single simple unidirectional pathway is unlikely.
Improving on calculation of martensitic phenomenological theory
无
2003-01-01
Exemplified by the martensitic transformation from DO3 to 18R in Cu-14.2Al-4.3Ni alloy and according to the principle that invariant-habit-plane can be obtained by self-accommodation between variants with twin relationships, and on the basis of displacement vector, volume fractions of two variants with twin relationships in martensitic transformation, habit-plane indexes, and orientation relationships between martensite and austenite after phase transformation can be calculated. Because no additional rotation matrixes are needed to be considered and mirror symmetric operations are used, the calculation process is simple and the results are accurate.
Phenomenological theory of collective decision-making
Zafeiris, Anna; Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás
2016-01-01
An essential task of groups is to provide efficient solutions for the complex problems they face. Indeed, considerable efforts have been devoted to the question of collective decision-making related to problems involving a single dominant feature. Here we introduce a quantitative formalism for finding the optimal distribution of the group members' competences in the more typical case when the underlying problem is complex, i.e., multidimensional. Thus, we consider teams that are aiming at obtaining the best possible answer to a problem having a number of independent sub-problems. Our approach is based on a generic scheme for the process of evaluating the proposed solutions (i.e., negotiation). We demonstrate that the best performing groups have at least one specialist for each sub-problem -- but a far less intuitive result is that finding the optimal solution by the interacting group members requires that the specialists also have some insight into the sub-problems beyond their unique field(s). We present emp...
Energy Momentum Tensor and Marginal Deformations in Open String Field Theory
Sen, A
2004-01-01
Marginal boundary deformations in a two dimensional conformal field theory correspond to a family of classical solutions of the equations of motion of open string field theory. In this paper we develop a systematic method for relating the parameter labelling the marginal boundary deformation in the conformal field theory to the parameter labelling the classical solution in open string field theory. This is done by first constructing the energy-momentum tensor associated with the classical solution in open string field theory using Noether method, and then comparing this to the answer obtained in the conformal field theory by analysing the boundary state. We also use this method to demonstrate that in open string field theory the tachyon lump solution on a circle of radius larger than one has vanishing pressure along the circle direction, as is expected for a codimension one D-brane.
Phenomenology and psychopatology in third generation therapies
Francisco Martín Murcia
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Reconsideration of psychopathology arises from a phenomenological perspective focused on the case of third-generation therapies. Basic principles and bases of the therapeutic actions of functional analytic psychotherapy are described. A way of understanding the psychopathology that encompasses both a transverse diagnosis related to dysfunctional avoidance of psychological events as a theory of pathological formation of Self is presented. Both functional formats of psychopathological explanation would account for multiple clinical diagnoses commonly used. Finally we conclude about the differences and conceptual difficulties between different generations of cognitive-behavioral therapies.
Hermann Weyl's Phenomenological Contribution to Quantum Physics
Mastrobisi, Giorgio J.
On examining carefully Weyl's writings one realizes that the great mathematician from Göttingen in his researches follows the programmatic scheme of the binomial of "wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis" (scientific Knowledge) and "philosophische Besinnung" (philosophical Reflection). In 1954 in a retrospective writing he affirmed: «The formulation of Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Laws of Gravitation, valid in this context and corroborated by experimental proofs turning to experience, constitute a method which combines "Wesenanalyse" with "mathematische Konstruktion" of convincing and excellent exemplarity». This conviction has conducted him to a close collaboration with A. Einstein (documented by punctual correspondence) for the decisive formulation of the "General Theory of Relativity", but also of the Theory of unified Field of Gravitation and Electromagnetism and therefore the following formulation of some fundamental principles of Quantum Physics. So Weyl's theoretical formation was marked by the devotion toward a mathematical formalization ("mathematische Konstruktion") of physical phenomena, reporting each of them to the causal structure of the "mathematical thinking" and geometry, contemporarely to a strong inclination toward the phenomenological "Analysis of essence". He brings really a notable quantity of considerations in that 1954 essay by the point of view of the decisive role that the "pure Phenomenology" of Edmund Husserl developed in the determination of his scientific activity.
Nursing researchers' modifications of Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology.
Singsuriya, Pagorn
2015-12-01
Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology has proved to be very helpful in guiding nursing researchers' qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Modifying Ricoeur's philosophy, a number of nursing researchers have developed their own interpretive methods and shared them, along with their experience, with research community. Major contributors who published papers directly presenting their modifications of Ricoeur's theory include Rene Geanellos (2000), Lena Wiklund, Lisbet Lindholm and Unni Å. Lindström (2002), Anders Lindseth and Astrid Norberg (2004) and Pia Sander Dreyer and Birthe D Pedersen (2009). The aim of this article was to delineate differences among these methods. Descriptive presentation of each method side by side makes clear the differences among them. In addition, Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory is portrayed and compared with the modifications. It is believed that differences that are found can stimulate further thoughts on how to apply Ricoeur's theory in qualitative research in nursing.
Formation energies of rutile metal dioxides using density functional theory
Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan
2009-01-01
We apply standard density functional theory at the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level to study the stability of rutile metal oxides. It is well known that standard GGA exchange and correlation in some cases is not sufficient to address reduction and oxidation reactions. Especially...... and due to a more accurate description of exchange for this particular GGA functional compared to PBE. Furthermore, we would expect the self-interaction problem to be largest for the most localized d orbitals; that means the late 3d metals and since Co, Fe, Ni, and Cu do not form rutile oxides...
A Similarity Theory of the Tropospheric Turbulence Energy Spectrum.
Gifford, F. A.
1988-04-01
A three-range model is proposed for the energy spectrum of tropospheric turbulence in which the range-I spectrum is governed by the cascade of eddy enstrophy, that of range-II by the cascade of eddy kinetic energy, and that of range-III by viscous dissipation. Values of the spectral densities in ranges-I and -II, as well as wavenumbers of transition from range-I to -II to -III, are determined in terms of the integrated values of the energy spectrum, V2¯, and the dissipation spectrum, , of range-II. The resulting spectra for ranges-I and -II are shown to agree well with the recent GASP data on atmospheric spectra covering wave-lengths of from less than 3 km to 10000 km. A property of this model is that /V2¯ = f, the Coriolis parameter. This is shown to give very close agreement with the observed latitude variation of the GASP-Spectrum in range-II, to correctly indicate that this variation is much greater in range-I, and to explain why the atmosphere's eddy viscosity, K, is more variable over the globe than the energy-dissipation rate, . The observed seasonal variation of spectra is explained by the hemispheric variation of due to the seasonal change in the pole-equator temperature gradient.
Debating Nuclear Energy: Theories of Risk and Purposes of Communication.
Mirel, Barbara
1994-01-01
Applies theoretical principles of risk perception and communication (from various psychological, social, political, and cultural dynamics) to a sample risk communication on nuclear energy to determine realistic expectations for persuasive risk communications. Stresses that rhetorical researchers need to explore and test the extent to which written…
Debating Nuclear Energy: Theories of Risk and Purposes of Communication.
Mirel, Barbara
1994-01-01
Applies theoretical principles of risk perception and communication (from various psychological, social, political, and cultural dynamics) to a sample risk communication on nuclear energy to determine realistic expectations for persuasive risk communications. Stresses that rhetorical researchers need to explore and test the extent to which written…
Energy sharing in smart grids : a game theory approach
Alskaif, T.A.
2016-01-01
The need for energy conservation, grid reliability, and improved operational efficiencies have led to the changes from conventional electricity grids which have “blind” and manual operations, along with the electromechanical components, to interconnected and flexible “smart grids” that ensure a
Bilevel programming problems theory, algorithms and applications to energy networks
Dempe, Stephan; Pérez-Valdés, Gerardo A; Kalashnykova, Nataliya; Kalashnikova, Nataliya
2015-01-01
This book describes recent theoretical findings relevant to bilevel programming in general, and in mixed-integer bilevel programming in particular. It describes recent applications in energy problems, such as the stochastic bilevel optimization approaches used in the natural gas industry. New algorithms for solving linear and mixed-integer bilevel programming problems are presented and explained.
Khoury, Justin
2013-01-01
Chameleons are light scalar fields with remarkable properties. Through the interplay of self-interactions and coupling to matter, chameleon particles have a mass that depends on the ambient matter density. The manifestation of the fifth force mediated by chameleons therefore depends sensitively on their environment, which makes for a rich phenomenology. In this article, we review two recent results on chameleon phenomenology. The first result a pair of no-go theorems limiting the cosmological impact of chameleons and their generalizations: i) the range of the chameleon force at cosmological density today can be at most ~Mpc; ii) the conformal factor relating Einstein- and Jordan-frame scale factors is essentially constant over the last Hubble time. These theorems imply that chameleons have negligible effect on the linear growth of structure, and cannot account for the observed cosmic acceleration except as some form of dark energy. The second result pertains to the quantum stability of chameleon theories. We ...
Phenomenology of neutrinophilic Higgs GUT
Haba, Naoyuki; Kaneta, Kunio; Shimizu, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan) and Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2012-07-27
Among three typical energy scales, a neutrino mass scale (m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.1eV), a GUT scale (M{sub GUT}{approx}10{sup 16}GeV), and a TeV-scale (M{sub NP}{approx}1TeV), there is a fascinating relation of M{sub NP} Asymptotically-Equal-To {radical}(m{sub {nu}} Dot-Operator M{sub GUT}) The TeV-scale, M{sub NP}, is a new physics scale beyond the standard model which is regarded as 'supersymmetry' (SUSY) in this letter. We investigate phenomenology of SUSY SU(5) GUT with neutrinophilic Higgs, which realizes the above relation dynamically as well as the suitable magnitude of Dirac mass, m{sub {nu}}, through a tiny vacuum expectation value of neutrinophilic Higgs. As a remarkable feature of this model, accurate gauge coupling unification can be achieved as keeping with a proton stability. We also evaluate flavor changing processes in quark/lepton sectors.
Han, Jongil; Arya, S. Pal; Shaohua, Shen; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Proctor, Fred H. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Algorithms are developed to extract atmospheric boundary layer profiles for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and energy dissipation rate (EDR), with data from a meteorological tower as input. The profiles are based on similarity theory and scalings for the atmospheric boundary layer. The calculated profiles of EDR and TKE are required to match the observed values at 5 and 40 m. The algorithms are coded for operational use and yield plausible profiles over the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer.
Pringuey, Dominique
2011-10-01
A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus).
Jenkins-Tate, Marnishia Laverne
This dissertation addresses the need for a body of human communication theory that can be useful toward advancing personal and social transformation. Of the humanistic genre, it suggests that there is a need to promote humanism, healing, and personal transformation in the non-clinical settings of everyday living. Three questions guide the effort. First, it asks: what kind of human communication theory might describe some of the underlying dynamics of human interaction, while also suggesting ways to improve the quality of interactions of any related philosophical theory be grounded by some scientific discipline? Then finally, it asks: how might these proposed concepts be captured in a manner that can be useful to human beings in everyday human interaction? Extending the work of modern physics to the realm of human communication, the theory integrates conceptual aspects of quantum theory, relativity theory, communication accommodation theory, and various nonverbal communication theory. Then, it proposes the philosophical framework for a new body of theory which it calls the energy-exchange theory of human communication. Treating human beings as living forms of matter, it suggests that ``energy'' is the life-force that sustains all human beings, and that ``consciousness'' is that qualitative level of development at which energy manifests itself in the human experience. It proposes that human beings have the capacity to exchange energy and influence consciousness during the human communication process, and that these interactions can advance humanism, healing, and transformation-which it proposes are the higher states and levels of human consciousness. Thus, this research effort sought to know and to describe a phenomenon that is the interactive human being; and to suggest useful ways that this volitional being can know and transform itself through human interaction. With verisimilitude as a driving factor in describing human beings as communicators, the research is
Tschudi, Hans Rudolf
2010-03-11
A decomposition of the Helmholtz free energy of a phase containing a sparse ensemble of heterophase clusters is derived based on classical statistical mechanics and on the general physical characteristics of such systems. It is not assumed that the phase is an ideal gas. The building blocks of this decomposition are the Helmholtz free energies of the constituents (phase and stationary heterophase clusters) and, for every cluster species, a volume V(k)(cm), which is of the magnitude of the thermal fluctuation volume of the center of mass of the stationary cluster containing k monomers. A definition of V(k)(cm) is given in terms of the configuration integrals of the clusters. V(k)(cm) is evaluated for k > 1, with the result that V(k)(cm) is proportional to k(-1/2) and is a function of temperature, the specific volume, and the isothermal compressibility of the phase in the cluster. A thermodynamically consistent expression for the work to form a stationary cluster, which reads as Delta g(k)/(k(B)T) = -ak + (3/2)bk(2/3) + 3ck(1/3) + d, is derived. The coefficients a, b, c, and d depend on the thermodynamic properties of the homogeneous phases, on the surface tension, and on one additional phenomenological material function of temperature and pressure. The description is general and covers a wide class of materials. It is shown that the heterogeneous system represents the thermodynamic equilibrium and not the pure phase without clusters. The resulting expression for the equilibrium particle number, which is different from the one used in classical nucleation theory, is by a standard procedure input for the calculation of the stationary Becker-Döring nucleation rate and entails a correction factor for the classical nucleation rate. Comparison with experiments is provided for nucleation onset measurements of argon and for measurements of the homogeneous nucleation rate of water. Measurements and theory can be brought to match within the limits of experimental precision
A Phenomenological Research Design Illustrated
Thomas Groenewald
2004-03-01
Full Text Available This article distills the core principles of a phenomenological research design and, by means of a specific study, illustrates the phenomenological methodology. After a brief overview of the developments of phenomenology, the research paradigm of the specific study follows. Thereafter the location of the data, the data-gathering the data-storage methods are explained. Unstructured in-depth phenomenological interviews supplemented by memoing, essays by participants, a focus group discussion and field notes were used. The data explicitation, by means of a simplified version of Hycner's (1999 process, is further explained. The article finally contains commentary about the validity and truthfulness measures, as well as a synopsis of the findings of the study.
Yang-Mills theory as bimetrical gravity: Polarization effects and finite-energy gluon clusters
Pavlovsky, Oleg V
2002-01-01
In this report a gravity representation of Yang-Mills theory is given. Using this approach, one obtains new information on solutions of classical YM theory. Singular solutions (black-hole-like solutions) of the YM equations are discussed in connection with bimetrical gravity. The behaviour of these solutions in a theory with a 'cosmological' Lambda-part is also investigated. A physical interpretation of such solutions is given. Using an effective field theory approach we try to show that quantum fluctuations and vacuum polarization effects lead to the generation of finite-energy objects in QCD.
Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss
McParland, Brian J
2014-01-01
Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. Each year, about one-third of the worl...
Inflation in Einstein-Cartan theory with energy-momentum tensor with spin
Fennelly, A. J.; Bradas, James C.; Smalley, Larry L.
1988-01-01
Generalized, or power-law, inflation is shown to necessarily exist for a simple, anisotropic (Bianchi Type I) cosmology in the Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory with the Ray-Smalley (RS) improved energy-momentum tensor with spin. Formal solution of the EC field equations with the fluid equations of motion explicitly shows inflation caused by the RS spin angular kinetic energy density.
Dark energy from holographic theories with hyperscaling violation
Cadoni, Mariano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari,Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari,Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Ciulu, Matteo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari,Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)
2014-05-20
We show that analytical continuation maps scalar solitonic solutions of Einstein-scalar gravity, interpolating between an hyperscaling violating and an Anti de Sitter (AdS) region, in flat FLRW cosmological solutions sourced by a scalar field. We generate in this way exact FLRW solutions that can be used to model cosmological evolution driven by dark energy (a quintessence field) and usual matter. In absence of matter, the flow from the hyperscaling violating regime to the conformal AdS fixed point in holographic models corresponds to cosmological evolution from power-law expansion at early cosmic times to a de Sitter (dS) stable fixed point at late times. In presence of matter, we have a scaling regime at early times, followed by an intermediate regime in which dark energy tracks matter. At late times the solution exits the scaling regime with a sharp transition to a dS spacetime. The phase transition between hyperscaling violation and conformal fixed point observed in holographic gravity has a cosmological counterpart in the transition between a scaling era and a dS era dominated by the energy of the vacuum.
Zhang, Yanchuan; Stecher, Thomas; Cvitaš, Marko T; Althorpe, Stuart C
2014-11-20
Quantum transition-state theory (QTST) and free-energy instanton theory (FEIT) are two closely related methods for estimating the quantum rate coefficient from the free-energy at the reaction barrier. In calculations on one-dimensional models, FEIT typically gives closer agreement than QTST with the exact quantum results at all temperatures below the crossover to deep tunneling, suggesting that FEIT is a better approximation than QTST in this regime. Here we show that this simple trend does not hold for systems of greater dimensionality. We report tests on several collinear and three-dimensional reactions, in which QTST outperforms FEIT over a range of temperatures below crossover, which can extend down to half the crossover temperature (below which FEIT outperforms QTST). This suggests that QTST-based methods such as ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) may often give closer agreement with the exact quantum results than FEIT.
Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models
Garbès Putzel, G.; Schick, M.
2011-07-01
We construct a simple phenomenological theory of phase separation in ternary mixtures of cholesterol and saturated and unsaturated lipids. Such separation is relevant to the formation of 'rafts' in the plasma membrane. We also show how simple cross-linking of proteins which prefer one form of lipid to the other can trigger raft-formation, the first step in a signaling pathway.
Phenomenological Behavior-Exchange Models of Marital Success.
Gottman, John; And Others
The objective of two studies was to devise an assessment procedure for the evaluation of therapy with distressed marriages. An extension of behavior exchange theory was proposed to include phenomenological ratings by the couple of the intent of messages sent and the impact of messages received. Convergent criteria were used to select 14…
The Relationship between EFL Reading and Existential-Phenomenology
Tercanlioglu, Leyla; Akarsu, Oktay
2012-01-01
This study reviews an overall theoretical framework of two major phenomena: reading and existential-phenomenology. Nine different predominant theories in reading education, their attributes, effective reading techniques and educational studies of learners' experiences towards effective reading will be examined with some basic issues to grasp the…
Phenomenology of the minimal $SO(10)$ SUSY model
Stuart Raby
2004-02-01
In this talk I define what I call the minimal $SO(10)$ SUSY model. I then discuss the phenomenological consequences of this theory, vis-a-vis gauge and Yukawa coupling unification, Higgs and super-particle masses, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, the decay $B_{s}→ ^{+}^{-}$ and dark matter.
Low Energy Continuum and Lattice Effective Field Theories
Elhatisari, Serdar
In this thesis we investigate several constraints and their impacts on the short-range potentials in the low-energy limits of quantum mechanics.We also present lattice Monte Carlo calculations using the adiabatic projection method. In the first part we consider the constraints of causality and unitarity for the low-energy interactions of particles. We generalize Wigner's causality bound to the case of non-vanishing partial-wave mixing. Specifically we analyze the system of the low-energy interactions between protons and neutrons. We derive a general theorem that non-vanishing partial-wave mixing cannot be reproduced with zero-range interactions without violating causality or unitarity. We also analyze low-energy scattering for systems with arbitrary short-range interactions plus an attractive 1/ralpha tail for alpha ≥ 2. In particular, we focus on the case of alpha = 6 and we derive the constraints of causality and unitarity also for these systems and find that the van derWaals length scale dominates over parameters characterizing the short-distance physics of the interaction. This separation of scales suggests a separate universality class for physics characterizing interactions with an attractive 1{r6 tail. We argue that a similar universality class exists for any attractive potential 1/ralpha for alpha ≥ 2. In the second part of the thesis we present lattice Monte Carlo calculations of fermion-dimer scattering in the limit of zero-range interactions using the adiabatic projection method. The adiabatic projection method uses a set of initial cluster states and Euclidean time projection to give a systematically improvable description of the low-lying scattering cluster states in a finite volume. We use Luscher's finite-volume relations to determine the s-wave, p-wave, and d-wave phase shifts. For comparison, we also compute exact lattice results using Lanczos iteration and continuum results using the Skorniakov-Ter-Martirosian equation. For our Monte Carlo
Energy of one-dimensional diatomic elastic granular gas: Theory and molecular dynamics Simulation
Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Widayani,; Waris, Abdul
2011-01-01
One-dimensional ideal diatomic gas is simulated through possible types of motion of a molecule. Energy of each type of its motion is calculated from theory and numerical method. Calculation of kinetic energy of an atom in translational-vibrational motion is not analytically simple, but it can be solved by numerical method of molecular dynamic simulation. This paper justifies that kinetic energy of a diatomic molecule can be determined by two different approaches. The first is the sum of kinetic energy of each atom and second is the sum of kinetic energy of translational motion and vibrational motion.
Low-Energy Effective Theories of Quantum Link and Quantum Spin Models
Schlittgen, B
2001-01-01
Quantum spin and quantum link models provide an unconventional regularization of field theory in which classical fields arise via dimensional reduction of discrete variables. This D-theory regularization leads to the same continuum theories as the conventional approach. We show this by deriving the low-energy effective Lagrangians of D-theory models using coherent state path integral techniques. We illustrate our method for the $(2+1)$-d Heisenberg quantum spin model which is the D-theory regularization of the 2-d O(3) model. Similarly, we prove that in the continuum limit a $(2+1)$-d quantum spin model with $SU(N)_L\\times SU(N)_R\\times U(1)_{L=R}$ symmetry is equivalent to the 2-d principal chiral model. Finally, we show that $(4+1)$-d SU(N) quantum link models reduce to ordinary 4-d Yang-Mills theory.
Effective string theory description of the interface free energy
Billo, M; Ferro, L; Hasenbusch, M; Panero, M
2007-01-01
We compare the predictions of the Nambu-Goto effective string model with a set of high precision Monte Carlo results for interfaces with periodic boundary conditions in the 3D Ising model. We compute the free energy in the covariant gauge exactly, up to the inclusion of the Liouville mode. The perturbative expansion of this result agrees both with the result evaluated several years ago by Dietz and Filk in the physical gauge and with a recent calculation with the Polchinski-Strominger action. We also derive the effective string spectrum which, because of the different boundary conditions, is very different from the well known one of Arvis. Taking into proper account the effective string corrections and exploiting some technical improvements in the simulations we obtain precise estimate of the amplitude ratios T_c/\\sqrt{sigma}, m_{0++}/\\sqrt{\\sigma} and sigma xi_{2nd}^2. We also discuss the behaviour of the effective string free energy in the dimensional reduction limit (i.e., near the deconfinement transition...
Low Energy Continuum and Lattice Effective Field Theories
Elhatisari, Serdar
2014-01-01
In the first part of the thesis we consider the constraints of causality and unitarity for particles interacting via strictly finite-range interactions. We generalize Wigner's causality bound to the case of non-vanishing partial-wave mixing. Specifically we analyze the system of the low-energy interactions between protons and neutrons. We also analyze low-energy scattering for systems with arbitrary short-range interactions plus an attractive $1/r^{\\alpha}$ tail for $\\alpha\\geq2$. In particular, we focus on the case of $\\alpha=6$ and we derive the constraints of causality and unitarity also for these systems and find that the van der Waals length scale dominates over parameters characterizing the short-distance physics of the interaction. This separation of scales suggests a separate universality class for physics characterizing interactions with an attractive $1/r^{6}$ tail. We argue that a similar universality class exists for any attractive potential $1/r^{\\alpha}$ for $\\alpha\\geq2$. In the second part of ...
Ionization and maximum energy of nuclei in shock acceleration theory
Morlino, Giovanni
2011-01-01
We study the acceleration of heavy nuclei at SNR shocks when the process of ionization is taken into account. Heavy atoms ($Z_N >$ few) in the interstellar medium which start the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) are never fully ionized at the moment of injection. The ionization occurs during the acceleration process, when atoms already move relativistically. For typical environment around SNRs the photo-ionization due to the background galactic radiation dominates over Coulomb collisions. The main consequence of ionization is the reduction of the maximum energy which ions can achieve with respect to the standard result of the DSA. In fact the photo-ionization has a timescale comparable to the beginning of the Sedov-Taylor phase, hence the maximum energy is no more proportional to the nuclear charge, as predicted by standard DSA, but rather to the effective ions' charge during the acceleration process, which is smaller than the total nuclear charge $Z_N$. This result can have a direct consequence in the pred...
Superstring theories as low-energy limit of supergroup gauge theories
Popov, Alexander D
2016-01-01
We consider Yang-Mills theory with $N=2$ super translation group in $d=10$ auxiliary dimensions as the structure group. The gauge theory is defined on a direct product manifold $\\Sigma_2\\times H^2$, where $\\Sigma_2$ is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold and $H^2$ is the open disc in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ with the boundary $S^1=\\partial H^2$. We show that in the adiabatic limit, when the metric on $H^2$ is scaled down, the Yang-Mills action supplemented by the $d=5$ Chern-Simons term becomes the Green-Schwarz superstring action. More concretely, the Yang-Mills action in the infrared limit flows to the kinetic part of the superstring action and the $d=5$ Chern-Simons action, defined on a 5-manifold with the boundary $\\Sigma_2\\times H^2$, flows to the Wess-Zumino part of the superstring action. The same kind of duality between gauge fields and strings is established for type IIB superstring on AdS$_5\\times S^5$ background and a supergroup gauge theory with PSU(2,2$|$4) as the structure group.
Rodríguez, Juan I; Ayers, Paul W; Götz, Andreas W; Castillo-Alvarado, F L
2009-07-14
A new approach for computing the atom-in-molecule [quantum theory of atoms in molecule (QTAIM)] energies in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory is presented and tested by computing QTAIM energies for a set of representative molecules. In the new approach, the contribution for the correlation-kinetic energy (T(c)) is computed using the density-functional theory virial relation. Based on our calculations, it is shown that the conventional approach where atomic energies are computed using only the noninteracting part of the kinetic energy might be in error by hundreds of kJ/mol.
A general theory of evolution based on energy efficiency: its implications for diseases.
Yun, Anthony J; Lee, Patrick Y; Doux, John D; Conley, Buford R
2006-01-01
We propose a general theory of evolution based on energy efficiency. Life represents an emergent property of energy. The earth receives energy from cosmic sources such as the sun. Biologic life can be characterized by the conversion of available energy into complex systems. Direct energy converters such as photosynthetic microorganisms and plants transform light energy into high-energy phosphate bonds that fuel biochemical work. Indirect converters such as herbivores and carnivores predominantly feed off the food chain supplied by these direct converters. Improving energy efficiency confers competitive advantage in the contest among organisms for energy. We introduce a term, return on energy (ROE), as a measure of energy efficiency. We define ROE as a ratio of the amount of energy acquired by a system to the amount of energy consumed to generate that gain. Life-death cycling represents a tactic to sample the environment for innovations that allow increases in ROE to develop over generations rather than an individual lifespan. However, the variation-selection strategem of Darwinian evolution may define a particular tactic rather than an overarching biological paradigm. A theory of evolution based on competition for energy and driven by improvements in ROE both encompasses prior notions of evolution and portends post-Darwinian mechanisms. Such processes may involve the exchange of non-genetic traits that improve ROE, as exemplified by cognitive adaptations or memes. Under these circumstances, indefinite persistence may become favored over life-death cycling, as increases in ROE may then occur more efficiently within a single lifespan rather than over multiple generations. The key to this transition may involve novel methods to address the promotion of health and cognitive plasticity. We describe the implications of this theory for human diseases.
Resonance energy transfer: The unified theory via vector spherical harmonics.
Grinter, Roger; Jones, Garth A
2016-08-21
In this work, we derive the well-established expression for the quantum amplitude associated with the resonance energy transfer (RET) process between a pair of molecules that are beyond wavefunction overlap. The novelty of this work is that the field of the mediating photon is described in terms of a spherical wave rather than a plane wave. The angular components of the field are constructed in terms of vector spherical harmonics while Hankel functions are used to define the radial component. This approach alleviates the problem of having to select physically correct solution from non-physical solutions, which seems to be inherent in plane wave derivations. The spherical coordinate system allows one to easily decompose the photon's fields into longitudinal and transverse components and offers a natural way to analyse near-, intermediate-, and far-zone RET within the context of the relative orientation of the transition dipole moments for the two molecules.
A unified theory for the energy cost of legged locomotion.
Pontzer, Herman
2016-02-01
Small animals are remarkably efficient climbers but comparatively poor runners, a well-established phenomenon in locomotor energetics that drives size-related differences in locomotor ecology yet remains poorly understood. Here, I derive the energy cost of legged locomotion from two complementary components of muscle metabolism, Activation-Relaxation and Cross-bridge cycling. A mathematical model incorporating these costs explains observed patterns of locomotor cost both within and between species, across a broad range of animals (insects to ungulates), for a wide range of substrate slopes including level running and vertical climbing. This ARC model unifies work- and force-based models for locomotor cost and integrates whole-organism locomotor cost with cellular muscle physiology, creating a predictive framework for investigating evolutionary and ecological pressures shaping limb design and ranging behaviour.
A universal equation for calculating the energy gradient function in the energy gradient theory
Dou, Hua-Shu
2016-01-01
The relationship for the energy variation, work done, and energy dissipation in unit volumetric fluid of incompressible flow is derived. A universal equation for calculating the energy gradient function is presented for situations where both pressure driven flow and shear driven flow are present simultaneously.
Elastic α-{sup 12}C scattering at low energies in cluster effective field theory
Ando, Shung-Ichi [Sunmoon University, School of Mechanical and ICT Convergence Engineering, Asan, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The elastic α-{sup 12}C scattering at low energies is studied employing an effective field theory in which the α and {sup 12}C states are treated as elementary-like fields. We discuss scales of the theory in the stellar energy region where the {sup 12}C(α, γ){sup 16}O process occurs, and then obtain an expression of the elastic scattering amplitudes in terms of effective-range parameters. Using experimental data of the phase shifts for l=0,1, 2 channels at low energies, for which the resonance regions are avoided, we fix values of the parameters and find that the phase shifts at the low energies are well reproduced by using three effective-range parameters for each channel. Furthermore, we discuss problems and uncertainties of the present approach when the amplitudes are extrapolated to the stellar energy region. (orig.)
Four-point correlation function of stress-energy tensors in N=4 superconformal theories
Korchemsky, G P
2015-01-01
We derive the explicit expression for the four-point correlation function of stress-energy tensors in four-dimensional N=4 superconformal theory. We show that it has a remarkably simple and suggestive form allowing us to predict a large class of four-point correlation functions involving the stress-energy tensor and other conserved currents. We then apply the obtained results on the correlation functions to computing the energy-energy correlations, which measure the flow of energy in the final states created from the vacuum by a source. We demonstrate that they are given by a universal function independent of the choice of the source. Our analysis relies only on N=4 superconformal symmetry and does not use the dynamics of the theory.
Elastic $\\alpha$-$^{12}$C scattering at low energies in cluster effective field theory
Ando, Shung-Ichi
2016-01-01
The elastic $\\alpha$-$^{12}$C scattering at low energies is studied employing an effective field theory in which the $\\alpha$ and $^{12}$C states are treated as elementary like fields. We discuss scales of the theory at stellar energy region that the ${}^{12}$C($\\alpha$, $\\gamma$)$^{16}$O process occurs, and then obtain an expression of the elastic scattering amplitudes in terms of effective range parameters. Using experimental data of the phase shifts for $l=0,1,2$ channels at low energies, for which the resonance regions are avoided, we fix values of the parameters and find that the phase shifts at the low energies are well reproduced by using three effective range parameters for each channel. Furthermore, we discuss problems and uncertainties of the present approach when the amplitudes are extrapolated to the stellar energy region.
Phenomenological Quantum Gravity
Hossenfelder, Sabine
2009-01-01
If the history of science has taught us anything, it's that persistence and creativity makes the once impossible possible. It has long been thought experimental tests of quantum gravity are impossible. But during the last decade, several different approaches have been proposed that allow us to test, if not the fundamental theory of quantum gravity itself, so at least characteristic features this theory can have. For the first time we can probe experimentally domains in which quantum physics and gravity cohabit, in spite of our failure so far to make a convincing marriage of them on a theoretical level.
Determination of the QCD Λ Parameter and the Accuracy of Perturbation Theory at High Energies.
Dalla Brida, Mattia; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer
2016-10-28
We discuss the determination of the strong coupling α_{MS[over ¯]}(m_{Z}) or, equivalently, the QCD Λ parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in α_{s}(μ) in some scheme s and at some energy scale μ. The higher the scale μ, the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme that allows us to nonperturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to α_{s}=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a 3% error in the Λ parameter, while data around α_{s}≈0.2 are clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.
String and string-inspired phenomenology
López, J L
1994-01-01
In these lectures I review the progress made over the last few years in the subject of string and string-inspired phenomenology. I take a practical approach, thereby concentrating more on explicit examples rather than on formal developments. Topics covered include: introduction to string theory the free-fermionic formulation and its general features, generic conformal field theory properties, SU(5)\\times U(1) GUT and string model-building, supersymmetry breaking, the bottom-up approach to string-inspired models, radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, the determination of the allowed parameter space of supergravity models and the experimental constraints on this class of models, and prospects for direct and indirect tests of string-inspired models. (Lectures delivered at the XXII ITEP International Winter School of Physics, Moscow, Russia, February 22 -- March 2, 1994)
Warped Phenomenology of Higher-Derivative Gravity
Rizzo, T.
2004-12-06
We examine the phenomenological implications at colliders for the existence of higher-derivative gravity terms as extensions to the Randall-Sundrum model. Such terms are expected to arise on rather general grounds, e.g., from string theory. In 5-d, if we demand that the theory be unitary and ghost free, these new contributions to the bulk action are uniquely of the Gauss-Bonnet form. We demonstrate that the usual expectations for the production cross section and detailed properties of graviton Kaluza-Klein resonances and TeV-scale black holes can be substantially altered by existence of these additional contributions. It is shown that measurements at future colliders will be highly sensitive to the presence of such terms.
Frusciante, Noemi; Papadomanolakis, Georgios; Silvestri, Alessandra
2016-07-01
We present a generalization of the effective field theory (EFT) formalism for dark energy and modified gravity models to include operators with higher order spatial derivatives. This allows the extension of the EFT framework to a wider class of gravity theories such as Hořava gravity. We present the corresponding extended action, both in the EFT and the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism, and proceed to work out a convenient mapping between the two, providing a self contained and general procedure to translate a given model of gravity into the EFT language at the basis of the Einstein-Boltzmann solver EFTCAMB. Putting this mapping at work, we illustrate, for several interesting models of dark energy and modified gravity, how to express them in the ADM notation and then map them into the EFT formalism. We also provide for the first time, the full mapping of GLPV models into the EFT framework. We next perform a thorough analysis of the physical stability of the generalized EFT action, in absence of matter components. We work out viability conditions that correspond to the absence of ghosts and modes that propagate with a negative speed of sound in the scalar and tensor sector, as well as the absence of tachyonic modes in the scalar sector. Finally, we extend and generalize the phenomenological basis in terms of α-functions introduced to parametrize Horndeski models, to cover all theories with higher order spatial derivatives included in our extended action. We elaborate on the impact of the additional functions on physical quantities, such as the kinetic term and the speeds of propagation for scalar and tensor modes.
Vacuum energy as a c-function for theories with dynamically generated masses
Aguilar, A.C., E-mail: arlene.aguilar@ufabc.edu.b [Federal University of ABC, CCNH, Rua Santa Adelia 166, 09210-170, Santo Andre (Brazil); Doff, A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana - UTFPR, COMAT, Via do Conhecimento Km 01, 85503-390, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Natale, A.A. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, Bloco II, 01140-070, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2011-01-24
We argue that in asymptotically free non-Abelian gauge theories possessing the phenomenon of dynamical mass generation the {beta} function is negative up to a value of the coupling constant that corresponds to a non-trivial fixed point, in agreement with recent AdS/QCD analysis. This fixed point happens at the minimum of the vacuum energy ({Omega}), which, as a characteristic of theories with dynamical mass generation, has the properties of a c-function.
Classical Electron Model with Negative Energy Density in Einstein-Cartan Theory of Gravitation
Ray, S; Ray, Saibal; Bhadra, Sumana
2002-01-01
Experimental result regarding the maximum limit of the radius of the electron \\sim 10^{-16} cm and a few of the theoretical works suggest that the gravitational mass which is a priori a positive quantity in Newtonian mechanics may become negative in general theory of relativity. It is argued that such a negative gravitational mass and hence negative energy density also can be obtained with a better physical interpretation in the framework of Einstein-Cartan theory.
Analysis of a micro piezoelectric vibration energy harvester by nonlocal elasticity theory
Hao Chen
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A theoretical model of a micro piezoelectric energy harvester is proposed based on the nonlocal elasticity theory, which is operated in the flexural mode for scavenging ambient vibration energy. A nonlocal scale is defined as the product of internal characteristic length and a constant related to the material. The dependences of performance of the harvester upon the nonlocal scale and the scale ratio of the nonlocal scale to the external characteristic parameter are investigated in detail. Numerical results show that output power of the harvester decreases, and resonance frequency reduces gradually at first then increases rapidly when nonlocal scale increases. The results of nonlocal elasticity theory are compared with that of classic beam theory. All the results are helpful for material and structure design of the micro piezoelectric energy harvester.
Stress-energy-momentum tensors in Lagrangian field theory; 1, superpotentials
Giachetta, G
1995-01-01
Differential conservation laws in Lagrangian field theory are usually related to symmetries of a Lagrangian density and are obtained if the Lie derivative of a Lagrangian density by a certain class of vector fields on a fiber bundle vanishes. However, only two field models meet this property in fact. In gauge theory of exact internal symmetries, the Lie derivative by vertical vector fields corresponding to gauge transformations is equal to zero. The corresponding N\\"oether current is reduced to a superpotential that provides invariance of the N\\"oether conservation law under gauge transformations. In the gravitation theory, we meet the phenomenon of "hidden energy". Only the superpotential part of energy-momentum of gravity and matter is observed when the general covariant transformations are exact. Other parts of energy-momentum display themselves if the invariance under general covariance transformations is broken, e.g., by a background world metric. In this case, the Lie derivatives of Lagrangian densities...
Upper Energy Limit of Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory in Neutral Pion Photoproduction
Fernandez-Ramirez, C
2013-01-01
We assess the energy limit up to which Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory can be accurately applied to the process of neutral pion photoproduction from the proton by analyzing the latest data from the A2 and CB-TAPS collaborations at Mainz. We find that, within the current experimental status, the theory works up to $\\sim$170 MeV. Above this energy the data call for further improvement in the theory such as the explicit inclusion of the $\\Delta$(1232). We also find that data and multipoles can be well described up to $\\sim$185 MeV with Taylor expansions in the partial waves up to first order in pion energy.
Total Energy of Charged Black Holes in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory
Murat Korunur
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We focus on the energy content (including matter and fields of the Møller energy-momentum complex in the framework of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA theory using teleparallel gravity. We perform the required calculations for some specific charged black hole models, and we find that total energy distributions associated with asymptotically flat black holes are proportional to the gravitational mass. On the other hand, we see that the energy of the asymptotically nonflat black holes diverge in a limiting case.
Phenomenological signatures of additional scalar bosons at the LHC
Buddenbrock, Stefan von; Kar, Deepak; Mellado, Bruce; Reed, Robert G.; Ruan, Xifeng [University of the Witwatersrand, School of Physics, Johannesburg, Wits (South Africa); Chakrabarty, Nabarun; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Regional Centre for Accelerator-Based Particle Physics, Jhunsi, Allahabad (India); Cornell, Alan S.; Kumar, Mukesh [University of the Witwatersrand, National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannesburg, Wits (South Africa); Mandal, Tanumoy [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden)
2016-10-15
We investigate the search prospects for new scalars beyond the standard model at the large hadron collider (LHC). In these studies two real scalars S and χ have been introduced in a two Higgs-doublet model (2HDM), where S is a portal to dark matter (DM) through its interaction with χ, a DM candidate and a possible source of missing transverse energy (E{sub T}{sup miss}). Previous studies focussed on a heavy scalar H decay mode H → hχχ, which was studied using an effective theory in order to explain a distortion in the Higgs boson (h) transverse momentum spectrum (von Buddenbrock et al. in arXiv:1506.00612 [hep-ph], 2015). In this work, the effective decay is understood more deeply by including a mediator S, and the focus is changed to H → hS, SS with S → χχ. Phenomenological signatures of all the new scalars in the proposed 2HDM are discussed in the energy regime of the LHC, and their mass bounds have been set accordingly. Additionally, we have performed several analyses with final states including leptons and E{sub T}{sup miss}, with H → 4W, t(t)H → 6 W and A → ZH channels, in order to understand the impact these scalars have on current searches. (orig.)
An interface energy density-based theory considering the coherent interface effect in nanomaterials
Yao, Yin; Chen, Shaohua; Fang, Daining
2017-02-01
To characterize the coherent interface effect conveniently and feasibly in nanomaterials, a continuum theory is proposed that is based on the concept of the interface free energy density, which is a dominant factor affecting the mechanical properties of the coherent interface in materials of all scales. The effect of the residual strain caused by self-relaxation and the lattice misfit of nanomaterials, as well as that due to the interface deformation induced by an external load on the interface free energy density is considered. In contrast to the existing theories, the stress discontinuity at the interface is characterized by the interface free energy density through an interface-induced traction. As a result, the interface elastic constant introduced in previous theories, which is not easy to determine precisely, is avoided in the present theory. Only the surface energy density of the bulk materials forming the interface, the relaxation parameter induced by surface relaxation, and the mismatch parameter for forming a coherent interface between the two surfaces are involved. All the related parameters are far easier to determine than the interface elastic constants. The effective bulk and shear moduli of a nanoparticle-reinforced nanocomposite are predicted using the proposed theory. Closed-form solutions are achieved, demonstrating the feasibility and convenience of the proposed model for predicting the interface effect in nanomaterials.
Effective Gravitational Wave Stress-energy Tensor in Alternative Theories of Gravity
Stein, Leo C; Hughes, Scott A
2010-01-01
The inspiral of binary systems in vacuum is controlled by the rate of change of the system's energy, angular momentum and Carter constant. In alternative theories, such a change is induced by the effective stress-energy carried away by gravitational radiation and any other propagating degrees of freedom. We employ perturbation theory and the short-wavelength approximation to compute this stress-energy tensor in a wide class of alternative theories. We find that this tensor is generally a modification of that first computed by Isaacson, where the corrections can dominate over the general relativistic term. In a wide class of theories, however, these corrections identically vanish at asymptotically flat, future, null infinity, reducing the stress-energy tensor to Isaacson's. We exemplify this phenomenon by first considering dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity, which corrects the action via a scalar field and the contraction of the Riemann tensor and its dual. We then consider a wide class of theories with d...
Ullmann, R Thomas; Ullmann, G Matthias
2011-01-27
We present a generalized free energy perturbation theory that is inspired by Monte Carlo techniques and based on a microstate description of a transformation between two states of a physical system. It is shown that the present free energy perturbation theory stated by the Zwanzig equation follows as a special case of our theory. Our method uses a stochastic mapping of the end states that associates a given microstate from one ensemble with a microstate from the adjacent ensemble according to a probability distribution. In contrast, previous free energy perturbation methods use a static, deterministic mapping that associates fixed pairs of microstates from the two ensembles. The advantages of our approach are that end states of differing configuration space volume can be treated easily also in the case of discrete configuration spaces and that the method does not require the potentially cumbersome search for an optimal deterministic mapping. The application of our theory is illustrated by some example problems. We discuss practical applications for which our findings could be relevant and point out perspectives for further development of the free energy perturbation theory.
Phenomenology of Sarks and Dileptons
Chaudhry, Jyoti
We have studied three extensions of the standard model; the sark model, the vector quark model and the 331 model. The sark model has a gauge group SU(2) _{X}otimes SU(3)_{C} otimes SU(2)_{S}otimes U(1) _{Q}, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The vector-quark model contains an extra vector-like quark doublet. Finally, the 331 model has a gauge group SU(3)_{C}otimes SU(3)_{L}otimes U(1)_{X } where SU(3)otimes U(1)_ {X} contains the standard electroweak group SU(2)_{L}otimes U(1) _{Y}. This model contains three extended fermion families with the third family treated differently and additional vector gauge bosons. In the sark model, the number of quark-lepton families is constrained to three by the asymptotic freedom for the SU(2)_{X} group. Further, quantization of the electric charge is achieved by the anomaly cancellation conditions. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed including electron-positron annihilation, Z^{0 } decay, flavor-changing neutral currents, baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment. Next, we have studied the CP violation parameter Re(epsilon^'/epsilon) in the vector-quark model and also in the 331 model. For a given value of m_{t}, the vector quark model tends to reduce Re(epsilon ^'/epsilon) whereas the 331 model tends to increase it. If m_{t } is discovered around 150 GeV and the lower experimental value for Re(epsilon^ '/epsilon) (0.74+/- 0.60times 10^{-3}, Fermilab) is confirmed, the standard model is acceptable. But, if its higher value (2.3+/- 0.65times 10 ^{-3}, CERN) persists, a dynamics like the 331 model seems to be favored. Lastly, we have looked for the signatures of the dileptons in e^-p and e ^-e^+ colliders. At HERA, with the center-of-mass energy 314 GeV, a dilepton mass above 150 GeV is inaccessible but at LEPII-LHC, with a 1790 Ge
Phenomenology of non-universal gaugino masses and implications for the Higgs boson decay
K Huitu; J Laamanen; P N Pandita; Sourov Roy
2007-11-01
Grand unified theories (GUTs) can lead to non-universal gaugino masses at the unification scale. We study the implications of such non-universal gaugino masses for the composition of the lightest neutralino in supersymmetric (SUSY) theories based on (5) gauge group. We also consider the phenomenological implications of non-universal gaugino masses for the phenomenology of Higgs bosons in the context of large hadron collider.
The changing face of phenomenological research: traditional and American phenomenology in nursing.
Caelli, K
2000-05-01
In recent years, phenomenological researchers in nursing have become concerned about the differences between traditional European phenomenology and the way phenomenology is frequently conducted in nursing. Indeed, Crotty asserts that much of the phenomenology conducted by nurses cannot be phenomenology because it does not espouse the constructionist epistemological position regarded by Husserl as essential to phenomenology. This article explores the differences between traditional European and American phenomenology and argues that the latter approach extends the phenomenological project in valuable and meaningful ways that are particularly appropriate for the health sciences.
Using Metaphor Theory to Examine Conceptions of Energy in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics
Lancor, Rachael
2014-06-01
Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies depending on context. In this paper, the discourse used to explain the role of energy in systems from biology, chemistry, and physics is examined from the perspective of metaphor theory. Six substance metaphors for energy are identified in pedagogical discourse (i.e., textbooks and the science education literature): energy as a substance that can be accounted for, can flow, can be carried, can change forms, can be lost, and can be an ingredient, a product or stored in some way. Each of these conceptual metaphors highlight and obscure various characteristics of energy, and provide a set of frameworks that each afford a different understanding of the energy concept.
String theories with deformed energy momentum relations, and a possible non-tachyonic bosonic string
Magueijo, J; Magueijo, Joao; Smolin, Lee
2004-01-01
We consider a prescription for introducing deformed dispersion relations in the bosonic string action. We find that in a subset of such theories it remains true that the embedding coordinates propagate linearly on the worldsheet. While both the string modes and the center of mass propagate with deformed dispersion relations, the speed of light remains energy independent. We consider the canonical quantization of these strings, and find that it is possible to choose theories so that ghost modes still decouple, as usual. However the Virasoro algebra now exhibits an energy dependent central charge. We also find that there are examples where the tachyon is eliminated from the spectrum of the free bosonic string.
Anomalous energy exchange in the gBL and quasilinear theories
Mynick, H. E.
1992-05-01
The rate of turbulence-induced energy exchange Ẇ0 between species is computed in the framework of the quasilinear and generalized Balescu-Lenard (gBL) transport theories, and the relationship between these two similar theories is thereby elucidated. For both theories, general formal expressions for Ẇ0 are developed and then applied to the trapped electron mode for illustration. The general expressions for Ẇ0 in the two theories are formally closely related, but can yield predictions of very different magnitude in concrete applications. The fact that quasilinear theory is not valid for saturated steady-state turbulence gives rise to certain peculiarities in its predictions for this normal experimental situation, such as permitting energy to flow from the cooler to the hotter species, even in the limit of thermal equilibrium, where real-space gradients vanish. The gBL theory may be viewed as a modification of quasilinear theory to be valid for steady-state turbulence, keeping extra terms due to the self-consistent back reaction of particles on the fluctuations, which are just such as to eliminate these peculiarities.
The Phenomenology of Decision Making
Urban Kordeš
2009-12-01
Full Text Available It is becoming apparent in modern cognitive science that the lack of knowledge about human experiential landscape implies the loss of a very important element, perhaps the very essence. Consequently, a rather new area of research has emerged recently: an attempt at a systematic observation and study of experience. This is the so-called phenomenologically inspired research (or just phenomenological research.Part of this article aims to present this new area of research – it describes the common fundaments of the field and some of its characteristic methodological derivates, relating them to the possibility of studying decision making from the first-person point-of-view, i.e. decision making as an experiential phenomenon (and not as a neurological or behavioural process. The article also presents some of the findings phenomenological studies have led to and some theoretical reflexions encouraged by these insights.
Phenomenology of muon-induced neutron yield
Malgin, A. S.
2017-07-01
The cosmogenic neutron yield Yn characterizes the ability of matter to produce neutrons under the effect of cosmic ray muons with spectrum and average energy corresponding to an observation depth. The yield is the basic characteristic of cosmogenic neutrons. The neutron production rate and neutron flux both are derivatives of the yield. The constancy of the exponents α and β in the known dependencies of the yield on energy Yn∝Eμα and the atomic weight Yn∝Aβ allows one to combine these dependencies in a single formula and to connect the yield with muon energy loss in matter. As a result, the phenomenological formulas for the yields of muon-induced charged pions and neutrons can be obtained. These expressions both are associated with nuclear loss of the ultrarelativistic muons, which provides the main contribution to the total neutron yield. The total yield can be described by a universal formula, which is the best fit of the experimental data.
Mathematical modeling of the human energy metabolism based on the Selfish Brain Theory.
Chung, Matthias; Göbel, Britta
2012-01-01
Deregulations in the human energy metabolism may cause diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The origins of these pathologies are fairly unknown. The key role of the brain is the regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism. The Selfish Brain Theory identifies the priority of brain energy supply in the competition for available energy resources within the organism. Here, we review mathematical models of the human energy metabolism supporting central aspects of the Selfish Brain Theory. First, we present a dynamical system modeling the whole body energy metabolism. This model takes into account the two central control mechanisms of the brain, i.e., allocation and appetite. Moreover, we present mathematical models of regulatory subsystems. We examine a neuronal model which specifies potential elements of the brain to sense and regulate cerebral energy content. We investigate a model of the HPA system regulating the allocation of energy within the organism. Finally, we present a robust modeling approach of appetite regulation. All models account for a systemic understanding of the human energy metabolism and thus do shed light onto defects causing metabolic diseases.
Quantum field theory of interacting dark matter and dark energy: Dark monodromies
D'Amico, Guido; Hamill, Teresa; Kaloper, Nemanja
2016-11-01
We discuss how to formulate a quantum field theory of dark energy interacting with dark matter. We show that the proposals based on the assumption that dark matter is made up of heavy particles with masses which are very sensitive to the value of dark energy are strongly constrained. Quintessence-generated long-range forces and radiative stability of the quintessence potential require that such dark matter and dark energy are completely decoupled. However, if dark energy and a fraction of dark matter are very light axions, they can have significant mixings which are radiatively stable and perfectly consistent with quantum field theory. Such models can naturally occur in multi-axion realizations of monodromies. The mixings yield interesting signatures which are observable and are within current cosmological limits but could be constrained further by future observations.
Quantum Field Theory of Interacting Dark Matter/Dark Energy: Dark Monodromies
D'Amico, Guido; Kaloper, Nemanja
2016-01-01
We discuss how to formulate a quantum field theory of dark energy interacting with dark matter. We show that the proposals based on the assumption that dark matter is made up of heavy particles with masses which are very sensitive to the value of dark energy are strongly constrained. Quintessence-generated long range forces and radiative stability of the quintessence potential require that such dark matter and dark energy are completely decoupled. However, if dark energy and a fraction of dark matter are very light axions, they can have significant mixings which are radiatively stable and perfectly consistent with quantum field theory. Such models can naturally occur in multi-axion realizations of monodromies. The mixings yield interesting signatures which are observable and are within current cosmological limits but could be constrained further by future observations.
Determination of low-energy constants of Wilson chiral perturbation theory
Herdoiza, Gregorio [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst fuer Kernphysik, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Contoblanco (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Univ. Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Michael, Chris [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Ottnad, Konstantin; Urbach, Carsten [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen und Kernphysik; Univ. Bonn (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration
2013-03-15
By matching Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD determinations of pseudoscalar meson masses to Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory we determine the low-energy constants W{sub 6}{sup '}, W{sub 8}{sup '} and their linear combination c{sub 2}. We explore the dependence of these low-energy constants on the choice of the lattice action and on the number of dynamical flavours.
Gustavo A. Aucar
2002-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract: A theory for the calculation of self-energy corrections to the nuclear magnetic parameters is given in this paper. It is based on the S-matrix formulation of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED. Explicit expressions for the various terms of the S-matrix are given. The interpretation of the self-energy, one- and two-vertex terms and some perspective for possible future developments are discussed.
Weiya Zhang; Yongli Li; Xiaoyong Chang; Nan Wang
2014-01-01
An investigation on qualitative dynamics in a voltage-current dual-loop controlled flywheel energy storage system (FESS) operating in discharge mode is presented in this paper, providing novel insights into the effect of two-timescale characteristics on the safety and stability of energy transmission of FESS. Based on singular perturbation theory, a two-timescale approach is proposed to separate the FESS into the fast and slow subsystems. Stability analysis of the transient fixed points confi...
Brau, J.E.
1992-12-31
The experimental high energy physics group at the University of Oregon broadened its effort during the past year. The SLD effort extends from maintaining and operating the SLD luminosity monitor which was built at Oregon, to significant responsibility in physics analysis, such as event selection and background analysis for the left-right asymmetry measurement. The OPAL work focussed on the luminosity monitor upgrade to a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Building on the work done at Oregon for SLD, the tungsten for this upgrade was machined by the Oregon shops and shipped to CERN for assembly. The Oregon GEM effort now concentrates on tracking, specifically silicon tracking. Oregon also has developed a silicon strip preradiator prototype, and tested it in a Brookhaven beam.
Whitenack, Daniel L; Wasserman, Adam
2012-04-28
Aspects of density functional resonance theory (DFRT) [D. L. Whitenack and A. Wasserman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 163002 (2011)], a recently developed complex-scaled version of ground-state density functional theory (DFT), are studied in detail. The asymptotic behavior of the complex density function is related to the complex resonance energy and system's threshold energy, and the function's local oscillatory behavior is connected with preferential directions of electron decay. Practical considerations for implementation of the theory are addressed including sensitivity to the complex-scaling parameter, θ. In Kohn-Sham DFRT, it is shown that almost all θ-dependence in the calculated energies and lifetimes can be extinguished via use of a proper basis set or fine grid. The highest occupied Kohn-Sham orbital energy and lifetime are related to physical affinity and width, and the threshold energy of the Kohn-Sham system is shown to be equal to the threshold energy of the interacting system shifted by a well-defined functional. Finally, various complex-scaling conditions are derived which relate the functionals of ground-state DFT to those of DFRT via proper scaling factors and a non-Hermitian coupling-constant system.
UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM
Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona
2013-07-29
The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.
Physics on Smallest Scales - An Introduction to Minimal Length Phenomenology
Sprenger, Martin; Bleicher, Marcus
2012-01-01
Many modern theories which try to unite gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: i) the existence of additional space dimensions; ii) the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide coverage in publications over the last ten years (especially due to the prediction of micro black hole production at the LHC), the phenomenology of models with a minimal length is still less investigated. In a summer study project for bachelor students in 2010 we have explored some phenomenological implications of the potential existence of a minimal length. In this paper we review the idea and formalism of a quantum gravity induced minimal length in the generalised uncertainty principle framework as well as in the coherent state approach to non-commutative geometry. These approaches are effective models which can make model-independent predictions for experiments a...
Energy of the Universe in Bianchi-type I Models in Moller's Tetrad Theory of Gravity
Aydogdu, O; Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa
2005-01-01
In this paper, using the energy definition in Moller's tetrad theory of gravity we calculate the total energy of the universe in Bianchi-type I cosmological models which includes both the matter and gravitational fields. The total energy is found to be zero and this result agrees with a previous works of Banerjee-Sen who investigated this problem using the general relativity version of the Einstein energy-momentum complex and Xulu who investigated same problem using the general relativity versions of the Landau-lifshitz, Papapetrou and Weinberg's energy-momentum complexes. The result that total energy of the universe in Bianchi-type I universes is zero supports the viewpoint of Tryon.
Digital finger: beyond phenomenological figures of touch
Mika Elo
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Mika Elo is a postdoctoral researcher and lecturer in visual culture at Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture (Aalto-ARTS, Helsinki. His research interests include theory of photographic media, philosophical media theory, and artistic research. He is participating in discussions in these areas in the capacity of curator, visual artist and researcher. He has published articles in Finnish, German, and English among others on Benjamin, Nancy, artistic research and photography theory. His doctoral thesis Valokuvan medium [The Medium of Photography] was published in Finnish in 2005 (Tutkijaliitto, Helsinki. In 2009–2011 he worked in the Figures of Touch research project (figuresoftouch.com, and since 2011 he is the director of Media Aesthetics research group at Aalto-ARTS, Department of Media.Author Biography The article reflects on digitality and interface design in terms of the multiple senses of touch. Touching is presented as a “pathic” sense of being exposed, which implies that touching exceeds the tactile and even the phenomenal world. A particular focus is set on Aristotle's and Husserl's ways of thematizing the sense of touch. In this way, two extremes of the phenomenological thinking of touching are articulated: touching as an indistinct and heterogeneous constituent of sensitivity and touching as the guarantor of immediacy of the sense experience. Referring to Derrida's critical notes concerning haptocentrism, the article attempts to problematize the hand and the finger as phenomenological figures of touch and as holds of haptic realism. The article concludes that insofar as digital interface design aims at haptic realism it conceives of the sense of touch in terms of narcissistic feedback and thus tends to conceal the pathic moment of touching.
Final Report String Phenomenology 2011: The Tenth Annual Meeting on String Phenomenology
Shiu, Gary; Everett, Lisa
2011-08-26
The Tenth Annual International String Phenomenology Conference was held at the University of Wisconsin, Madison on August 22-26, 2011. The Conference was organized by Profs. Gary Shiu and Lisa Everett, with the help of two postdoctoral fellows Heng-Yu Chen and Jiajun Xu. The scientific subjects of the talks and discussions were chosen to be widely interdisciplinary, reflecting the scope and maturity of the field. The conference brought together researchers of diverse subfields in physics and mathematics to present and discuss recent developments in connecting observable particle physics and cosmology with the domain of fundamental theory. This report summarizes the outcome of this conference.
The Spectral Quark Model and Light Cone Phenomenology
Ruiz-Arriola, E; Broniowsk, Wojciech
2003-01-01
Chiral quark models offer a practical and simple tool to describe covariantly both low and high energy phenomenology in combination with QCD evolution. This can be done in full harmony with chiral symmetry and electromagnetic gauge invariance. We review the recently proposed spectral quark model where all these constraints are implemented.
High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY16
Pierce, Aaron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-09-08
This award provided partial support for the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics to host the 5-day workshop "Emergent themes in String Theory" this winter, March 15 - 19, 2016. on the University of Michigan campus. In addition, this award provided limited support for the Young High Energy Theorist (YHET) visitor program at the University of Michigan.
Theory and modeling of radiation effects in materials for fusion energy systems
Heinisch, H.L.
1996-04-01
The U.S./Japan Workshop on Theory and Modeling of Radiation Effects in Materials for Fusion Energy Systems, under Phase III of the DOE/Monbusho collaboration, convened on July 17-18, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A brief summary of the workshop is followed by the workshop program.
Block diagrams and the cancellation of divergences in energy-level perturbation theory
Michels, M.A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.
1979-01-01
The effective Hamiltonian for the degenerate energy-eigenvalue problem in adiabatic perturbation theory is cast in a form that permits an expansion in Feynman diagrams. By means of a block representation a resummation of these diagrams is carried out such that in the adiabatic limit no divergencies
A note on sphere free energy of $p$-form gauge theory and Hodge duality
Raj, Himanshu
2016-01-01
We consider a free $p$-form gauge theory on a $d$-dimensional sphere of radius $R$ and calculate its free energy. We perform the calculation for generic values of $p$ and obtain the free energy as a function of $d, p$ and $R$. The result contains a $\\log R$ term with coefficient proportional to $\\left(2p+2-d \\right)$, which is consistent with lack of conformal invariance for $p$ form theories in dimensions other than $2p+2$. We also compare the result for $p$-form and $(d-p-2)$-form theory which are classically Hodge dual to each other in $d$ dimensions and find that they agree for odd values of $d$. Instead, for even $d$, we find that the results disagree by an amount that is consistent with the reported values in the literature.
Parkhill, Karen [School of Psychology, Tower Building, Cardiff University, Cardiff, (United Kingdom)
2007-09-15
Although best described as a meta theory addressing the endurance of capitalism, regulation theory can successfully be used to explore not only the economic dimensions, but also the political, socio-cultural and environmental dimensions of particular developmental strategies. Thus, it offers a framework for embedding abstract debates about social attitudes to new technologies within debates about real regulation - the economic, social and cultural relationships operating through particular places. This paper uses regulation theory and qualitative, interview-based data to analyse Scotland's drive for onshore wind energy. This approach teases out how responses to wind farms are bound up with wider debates about how rural spaces are, and should be, regulated; the tensions within and between national political objectives, local political objectives and local communities' dissatisfaction; and the connections between local actors and more formal dimensions of renewable energy policy. (Author)
McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Booth, George H. [Theory and Simulation of Condensed Matter, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Cohen, Aron J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Cole, Jacqueline M., E-mail: jmc61@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
2015-05-21
The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation functionals with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these functionals are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT functionals, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other functionals considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.
McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H.; Cohen, Aron J.; Cole, Jacqueline M.
2015-05-01
The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation functionals with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these functionals are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT functionals, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other functionals considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.
Phenomenological approaches in psychology and health sciences
Davidsen, A.
2013-01-01
A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents dif...
Phenomenological Implications of an S4 x SU(5) SUSY GUT of Flavour
Dimou, Maria; Luhn, Christoph
2015-01-01
We discuss the low energy phenomenological implications of an SU(5) Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory (SUSY GUT) whose flavour structure is controlled by the family symmetry S4 x U(1), which provides a good description of all quark and lepton masses, mixings as well as CP violation. Although the model closely mimics Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) as shown in arXiv:1511.07886, here we focus on the differences. We first present numerical estimates of the low energy mass insertion parameters, including canonical normalisation and renormalisation group running, for well-defined ranges of SUSY parameters and compare the naive model expectations to the numerical scans and the experimental bounds. Our results are then used to estimate the predictions for Electric Dipole Moments (EDMs), Lepton Flavour Violation (LFV), B and K meson mixing as well as rare B decays. The largest observable deviations from MFV come from the LFV process mu --> e gamma and the EDMs.
Phenomenology of high colour fermions
Lust, D.; Streng, K.H.; Papantonopoulos, E.; Zoupanos, G.
1986-04-28
We present the phenomenological consequences of a dynamical scenario for electroweak symmetry breaking and generation of fermion masses, involving the presence of fermions which transform under high colour representations. Particular emphasis is given to the predictions for rare processes and to the possible signals in present and future machines. (orig.).
Phenomenology and hermeneutics - poles apart?
Keller, Kurt Dauer; Feilberg, Casper
is marked by a similar dichotomy, whereas hermeneutical phenomenologists argue for the necessity of preunderstanding and theorethical perspectives (van Manen), Husserlian phenomenologists insist on the importance of the epoché together with reduction. The existential phenomenology of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty...
Phenomenology beyond the standard model
Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab
2005-03-01
An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.
Phenomenological study of polarized leptoproduction
Chiappetta, P.; Girardi, G.
1989-07-27
In this note we make a phenomenological study of the recent EMC data on polarized structure function g/sub 1//sup p/(x). Using general principles like Regge behaviour and positivity we derive simple parametrizations for quark and gluon polarized distribution function and obtain a consistent description of experimental data. (orig.).
Minh, David D L
2012-09-14
A rigorous formalism for estimating noncovalent binding free energies and thermodynamic expectations from calculations in which receptor configurations are sampled independently from the ligand is derived. Due to this separation, receptor configurations only need to be sampled once, facilitating the use of binding free energy calculations in virtual screening. Demonstrative calculations on a host-guest system yield good agreement with previous free energy calculations and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements. Implicit ligand theory provides guidance on how to improve existing molecular docking algorithms and insight into the concepts of induced fit and conformational selection in noncovalent macromolecular recognition.
Scalar Field Model of Dark Energy In the Double Complex Symmetric Gravitational Theory
SHAO Ying; GUI Yuan-Xing; WANG Wei
2006-01-01
The scalar field model of dark energy is established in the double complex symmetric gravitational theory. The universe we live in is taken as the real part of double complex space M4C(J). The two cases of scalar field (ordinary and phantom scalar field) are discussed in a unified way. Not only can the double Friedmann equations be obtained, but also the equation of state for dark energy, potential V(φ) and scalar field φ can be expressed. Hence, a new method is proposed to study dark energy and the evolution of the universe.
The Energy-Momentum Tensor(s) in Classical Gauge Theories
Blaschke, Daniel N; Reboud, Meril; Schweda, Manfred
2016-01-01
We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy-momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space-time. For the canonical energy-momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy-momentum tensor. The relationship with the Einstein-Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.
Quantization of light energy directly from classical electromagnetic theory in vacuum
She Wei-Long
2005-01-01
It is currently believed that light quantum or the quantization of light energy is beyond classical physics, and the picture of wave-particle duality, which was criticized by Einstein but has attracted a number of experimental researches, is necessary for the description of light. It is shown in this paper, however, that the quantization of light energy in vacuum, which is the same as that in quantum electrodynamics, can be derived directly from the classical electromagnetic theory through the consideration of statistics based on classical physics. Therefore, the quantization of energy is an intrinsic property of light as a classical electromagnetic wave and has no need of being related to particles.
The energy of the vacuum related to the theory of energy absorption
Danilov, A. P.
2016-07-01
The primary objective in this article is to investigate a new source of renewable energy, the existence of the vacuum in five environments, and the possibility of absorption of the explosion. The study has also addressed the development of new principles in the motor industry, protection against explosions, new principles of mineral processing and new types of explosives. Also, this study may offer some insight into new approaches in solving problems in thermodynamics, the development of gravity waves, the basis of renewable energy source, and the mechanism of the emergence of gravitational waves.
Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions
Hewett, J.L.; /SLAC
2006-11-07
If the structure of spacetime is different than that readily observed, gravitational physics, particle physics and cosmology are all immediately affected. The physics of extra dimensions offers new insights and solutions to fundamental questions arising in these fields. Novel ideas and frameworks are continuously born and evolved. They make use of string theoretical features and tools and they may reveal if and how the 11-dimensional string theory is relevant to our four-dimensional world. We have outlined some of the experimental observations in particle and gravitational physics as well as astrophysical and cosmological considerations that can constrain or confirm these scenarios. These developing ideas and the wide interdisciplinary experimental program that is charted out to investigate them mark a renewed effort to describe the dynamics behind spacetime. We look forward to the discovery of a higher dimensional spacetime.
Sener, Melih [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Strumpfer, Johan [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hsin, Jen [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Chandler, Danielle [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Scheuring, Simon [Institut National de la Sante Et Recherche Medicale, Paris (France); Hunter, C. Neil [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Schulten, Klaus [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2011-02-22
Förster's theory of resonant energy transfer underlies a fundamental process in nature, namely the harvesting of sunlight by photosynthetic life forms. The theoretical framework developed by Förster and others describes how electronic excitation migrates in the photosynthetic apparatus of plants, algae, and bacteria from light absorbing pigments to reaction centers where light energy is utilized for the eventual conversion into chemical energy. The demand for highest possible efficiency of light harvesting appears to have shaped the evolution of photosynthetic species from bacteria to plants which, despite a great variation in architecture, display common structural themes founded on the quantum physics of energy transfer as described first by Förster. Herein, Förster’s theory of excitation transfer is summarized, including recent extensions, and the relevance of the theory to photosynthetic systems as evolved in purple bacteria, cyanobacteria, and plants is demonstrated. Förster's energy transfer formula, as used widely today in many fields of science, is also derived.
AP Theory III: Cone-like Graded SUSY, Dynamic Dark Energy and the YM Millenium Problem
Winkelnkemper, H E
2010-01-01
Artin Presentation Theory, (AP Theory), is a new, direct infusion, via pure braid theory, of discrete group theory, (i.e., symmetry in its purest form), into the theory of {\\it smooth} 4-manifolds, (i.e.,$(3+1)$-Quantum Gravity in its purest topological form), thus exhibiting the most basic, rigorous, universal, model-free intrinsic {\\it gauge-gravity} duality in a non-infinitesimal, cone-like graded, as holographic as possible, model-independent, non-perturbative, background-independent, parameter-free manner. {\\it In AP Theory even smooth topology change becomes gauge-theoretic, setting the stage for a rigorous smooth topological $(3+1)$-QFT of Dynamic Dark Energy.} In this theory, the rigid $\\infty$ of the dimension of classical Hilbert space is substituted by the dynamic $\\infty$ of the $\\infty$ generation at each stage of a cone-like graded subgroup of topology-changing transitions/interactions. As a corollary, the Cosmological Constant problem and the YM Millenium Mass Gap problem, two of the most perpl...
Energy Dependent Divisible Load Theory for Wireless Sensor Network Workload Allocation
Haiyan Shi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN, consisting of a large number of microsensors with wireless communication abilities, has become an indispensable tool for use in monitoring and surveillance applications. Despite its advantages in deployment flexibility and fault tolerance, the WSN is vulnerable to failures due to the depletion of limited onboard battery energy. A major portion of energy consumption is caused by the transmission of sensed results to the master processor. The amount of energy used, in fact, is related to both the duration of sensing and data transmission. Hence, in order to extend the operation lifespan of the WSN, a proper allocation of sensing workload among the sensors is necessary. An assignment scheme is here formulated on the basis of the divisible load theory, namely, the energy dependent divisible load theory (EDDLT for sensing workload allocations. In particular, the amount of residual energies onboard sensors are considered while deciding the workload assigned to each sensor. Sensors with smaller amount of residual energy are assigned lighter workloads, thus, allowing for a reduced energy consumption and the sensor lifespan is extended. Simulation studies are conducted and results have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed workload allocation method.
Susann M. Laverty
2003-01-01
Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology have become increasingly popular as research methodologies, yet confusion still exists about the unique aspects of these two methodologies. This article provides a discussion of the essential similarities and differences between hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology from historical and methodological perspectives. Consideration is given to the philosophical bases, assumptions, focus of research and research outcomes that differentiate these ap...
Baryon chiral perturbation theory extended beyond the low-energy region
Epelbaum, E; Meißner, Ulf-G; Yao, De-Liang
2015-01-01
We consider an extension of the one-nucleon sector of baryon chiral perturbation theory beyond the low-energy region. The applicability of this approach for higher energies is restricted to small scattering angles, i.e. the kinematical region, where the quark structure of hadrons cannot be resolved. The main idea is to re-arrange the low-energy effective Lagrangian according to a new power counting and to exploit the freedom of the choice of the renormalization condition for loop diagrams. We generalize the extended on-mass-shell scheme for the one-nucleon sector of baryon chiral perturbation theory by choosing a sliding scale, that is we expand the physical amplitudes around kinematical points beyond the threshold. This requires the introduction of complex-valued renormalized coupling constants which can be either extracted from experimental data, or calculated using the renormalization group evolution of coupling constants fixed in threshold region.
Fundamental concepts of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology
Debajit Gogoi
2017-01-01
For a better understanding of what psychiatry is all about, the importance and stronghold of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology in psychiatry has never been overstated. Biological psychiatry has accumulated enough evidences of mental illnesses until now but that does not mean that phenomenology and psychopathology would lose its shine. Rather psychopathology and phenomenology will afoot stronger as it is the philosophy of psychiatry.
Phenomenology of a left-right-symmetric model inspired by the trinification model
Hetzel, Jamil
2015-01-01
The trinification model is an interesting extension of the Standard Model based on the gauge group $SU(3)_C\\times SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$. It naturally explains parity violation as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the observed fermion masses and mixings can be reproduced using only a few parameters. We study the low-energy phenomenology of the trinification model in order to compare its predictions to experiment. To this end, we construct a low-energy effective field theory, thereby reducing the number of particles and free parameters that need to be studied. We constrain the model parameters using limits from new-particle searches as well as precision measurements. The scalar sector of the model allows for various phenomenological scenarios, such as the presence of a light fermiophobic scalar in addition to a Standard-Model-like Higgs, or a degenerate (twin) Higgs state at 126 GeV. We show how a measurement of the Higgs couplings can be used to distinguish such scenarios from the Standard Model....
Phenomenology of a left-right-symmetric model inspired by the trinification model
Hetzel, Jamil
2015-02-04
The trinification model is an interesting extension of the Standard Model based on the gauge group SU(3){sub C} x SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R}. It naturally explains parity violation as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the observed fermion masses and mixings can be reproduced using only a few parameters. We study the low-energy phenomenology of the trinification model in order to compare its predictions to experiment. To this end, we construct a low-energy effective field theory, thereby reducing the number of particles and free parameters that need to be studied. We constrain the model parameters using limits from new-particle searches as well as precision measurements. The scalar sector of the model allows for various phenomenological scenarios, such as the presence of a light fermiophobic scalar in addition to a Standard-Model-like Higgs, or a degenerate (twin) Higgs state at 126 GeV. We show how a measurement of the Higgs couplings can be used to distinguish such scenarios from the Standard Model. We find that the trinification model predicts that several new scalar particles have masses in the O(100 GeV) range. Moreover, large regions of the parameter space lead to measurable deviations from Standard-Model predictions of the Higgs couplings. Hence the trinification model awaits crucial tests at the Large Hadron Collider in the coming years.
Excitation and ionization energies of substituted anilines calculated with density functional theory
Yuji Takahata
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Valence electron singlet excitation energies (VEExE, valence electron ionization energies (VEIE, core electron binding energies (CEBE, and non-resonant X-ray emission energies of substituted anilines and related molecules were calculated using density functional theory (DFT. The energy calculations were done with TZP basis set of Slater Type Orbitals. PW86x-PW91c, turned out to be the best XC functional among eight functionals tested for time dependent DFT (TDDFT calculation of the singlet excitation energies of the substituted anilines. Using the XC functional, average absolute deviation (AAD from experiment was 0.223 eV for eighteen cases with maximum absolute deviation of 0.932 eV. The valence electron ionization energies of the substituted benzenes were calculated by ΔSCF method with PW86x-PW91c. AAD from experiment was 0.21 eV. The CEBEs were calculated with the previously established method, named as scheme 2003. ΔCEBE(SMS,, sum of mono substituted (SMS CEBE shift, and mutual interference effect (MIE were defined and their values were calculated. Magnitude of MIE provides the degree of mutual interference between two substituents in a phenyl ring. Average absolute value of MIE was ca. 0.1 eV for the three isomers of phenetidine. Using the calculated valence electron ionization energies and the core electron binding energies of one of the phenetidines, some X-ray emission energies were calculated.
Magnetized Anisotropic Dark Energy Models in Barber’s Second Self-Creation Theory
D. D. Pawar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with Bianchi type IX cosmological model with magnetized anisotropic dark energy by using Barber’s self-creation theory. The energy momentum tensor consists of anisotropic fluid with EoS parameter ω and a uniform magnetic field of energy density ρB. In order to obtain the exact solution we have assumed that dark energy components and the components of magnetic field interact minimally and obey the law of conservation of energy momentum tensors. We have also used the special law of variation for the mean generalized Hubble parameter and power law relation between scalar field and scale factor. Some physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed.
High-energy zero-norm states and symmetries of string theory.
Chan, Chuan-Tsung; Ho, Pei-Ming; Lee, Jen-Chi; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Yang, Yi
2006-05-05
High-energy limit of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized spectrum of the 26D open bosonic string, together with the assumption of a smooth behavior of string theory in this limit, are used to derive infinitely many linear relations among the leading high-energy, fixed-angle behavior of four-point functions of different string states. As a result, ratios among all high-energy scattering amplitudes of four arbitrary string states can be calculated algebraically and the leading order amplitudes can be expressed in terms of that of four tachyons as conjectured by Gross in 1988. A dual calculation can also be performed and equivalent results are obtained by taking the high-energy limit of Virasoro constraints. Finally, we compute all high-energy scattering amplitudes of three tachyons and one massive state at the leading order by saddle-point approximation to verify our results.