WorldWideScience

Sample records for energie constante application

  1. Energy, stability and cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deser, S.

    1982-01-01

    The definition of energy and its use in studying stability in general relativity are extended to the case when there is a nonvanishing cosmological constant Λ. Existence of energy is first demonstrated for any model (with arbitrary Λ). It is defined with respect to sets of solutions tending asymptotically to any background space possessing timelike Killing symmetry, and is both conserved and of flux integral form. When Λ O, small excitations about De Sitter space are stable inside the event horizon. Outside excitations can contribute negatively due to the Killing vector's flip at the horizon. This is a universal phenomenon associated with the possibility of Hawking radiation. Apart from this effect, the Λ>O theory appears to be stable, also at the semi-classical level. (author)

  2. Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Miao; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ωhde are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ2min=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain -0.07<ΩΛ0<0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ωhde0<0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model.

  3. Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Li, Miao, E-mail: asiahu@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: mli@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: linan@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: zhangzhh@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ω{sub hde} are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ{sup 2}{sub min}=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain −0.07<Ω{sub Λ0}<0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ω{sub hde0}<0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model.

  4. Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ω hde are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ 2 min =426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain −0.07<Ω Λ0 <0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ω hde0 <0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model

  5. Temperature dependence of grain boundary free energy and elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foiles, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the suggestion that the temperature dependence of the grain boundary free energy can be estimated from the temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The temperature-dependent elastic constants and free energy of a symmetric Σ79 tilt boundary are computed for an embedded atom method model of Ni. The grain boundary free energy scales with the product of the shear modulus times the lattice constant for temperatures up to about 0.75 the melting temperature.

  6. Cosmological constant versus free energy for heterotic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, E.; Osorio, M.A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed analysis is made of the modular-invariant formulation of the free energy of heterotic strings. Several instances are pointed out in which a duality formula can be obtained, and its physical implications are discussed. The interplay between the free energy of a given heterotic string and the cosmological constant of the toroidal compactification of another heterotic string is emphasized. (orig.)

  7. Dark Energy and the Cosmological Constant: A Brief Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The recently observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe is a topic of intense interest. The favoured causes are the "cosmological constant" or "dark energy". The former, which appears in the Einstein equations as the term [lambda]g[subscript [mu]v], provides an extremely simple, well-defined mechanism for the acceleration. However,…

  8. Exacerbating the Cosmological Constant Problem with Interacting Dark Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M C David

    2017-01-06

    Future cosmological surveys will probe the expansion history of the Universe and constrain phenomenological models of dark energy. Such models do not address the fine-tuning problem of the vacuum energy, i.e., the cosmological constant problem (CCP), but can make it spectacularly worse. We show that this is the case for "interacting dark energy" models in which the masses of the dark matter states depend on the dark energy sector. If realized in nature, these models have far-reaching implications for proposed solutions to the CCP that require the number of vacua to exceed the fine-tuning of the vacuum energy density. We show that current estimates of the number of flux vacua in string theory, N_{vac}∼O(10^{272 000}), are far too small to realize certain simple models of interacting dark energy and solve the cosmological constant problem anthropically. These models admit distinctive observational signatures that can be targeted by future gamma-ray observatories, hence making it possible to observationally rule out the anthropic solution to the cosmological constant problem in theories with a finite number of vacua.

  9. Analytical continuation in coupling constant method; application to the calculation of resonance energies and widths for organic molecules: Glycine, alanine and valine and dimer of formic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papp, P.; Matejčík, Š.; Mach, P.; Urban, J.; Paidarová, Ivana; Horáček, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 418, JUN 2013 (2013), s. 8-13 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/12/0665 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : analytic continuation * resonances * vertical attachment energy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2013

  10. Dose rate constant and energy spectrum of interstitial brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2001-01-01

    In the past two years, several new manufacturers have begun to market low-energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds containing 125 I and 103 Pd. Parallel to this development, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented a modification to the air-kerma strength (S K ) standard for 125 I seeds and has also established an S K standard for 103 Pd seeds. These events have generated a considerable number of investigations on the determination of the dose rate constants (Λ) of interstitial brachytherapy seeds. The aim of this work is to study the general properties underlying the determination of Λ and to develop a simple method for a quick and accurate estimation of Λ. As the dose rate constant of clinical seeds is defined at a fixed reference point, we postulated that Λ may be calculated by treating the seed as an effective point source when the seed's source strength is specified in S K and its source characteristics are specified by the photon energy spectrum measured in air at the reference point. Using a semi-analytic approach, an analytic expression for Λ was derived for point sources with known photon energy spectra. This approach enabled a systematic study of Λ as a function of energy. Using the measured energy spectra, the calculated Λ for 125 I model 6711 and 6702 seeds and for 192 Ir seed agreed with the AAPM recommended values within ±1%. For the 103 Pd model 200 seed, the agreement was 5% with a recently measured value (within the ±7% experimental uncertainty) and was within 1% with the Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic expression for Λ proposed here can be evaluated using a programmable calculator or a simple spreadsheet and it provides an efficient method for checking the measured dose rate constant for any interstitial brachytherapy seed once the energy spectrum of the seed is known

  11. Deflation of the cosmological constant associated with inflation and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the fine-tuning problem of the cosmological constant, we propose a simple model with the vacuum energy non-minimally coupled to the inflaton field. In this model, the vacuum energy decays to the inflaton during pre-inflation and inflation eras, so that the cosmological constant effectively deflates from the Planck mass scale to a much smaller one after inflation and plays the role of dark energy in the late-time of the universe. We show that our deflationary scenario is applicable to arbitrary slow-roll inflation models. We also take two specific inflation potentials to illustrate our results.

  12. Improved dielectric constant and breakdown strength of γ-phase dominant super toughened polyvinylidene fluoride/TiO2 nanocomposite film: an excellent material for energy storage applications and piezoelectric throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehebub Alam, Md; Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Sarkar, Debabrata; Sen, Shrabanee; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded γ-phase containing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite (PNC) film turns to an excellent material for energy storage application due to an increased dielectric constant (32 at 1 kHz), enhanced electric breakdown strength (400 MV m-1). It also exhibits a high energy density of 4 J cm-3 which is 25 times higher than that of virgin PVDF. 98% of the electroactive γ-phase has been acheived by the incorporation of TiO2 NPs and the resulting PNC behaves like a super-toughened material due to a dramatic improvement (more than 80%) in the tensile strength. Owing to their electroactive nature and extraordinary mechanical properties, PNC films have a strong ability to fabricate the piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) that have recently been an area of focus regarding mechanical energy harvesting. The feasibility of piezoelectric voltage generation from PNGs is demostrated under the rotating fan that also promises further utility such as rotational speed (RPM) determination.

  13. Testing the cosmological constant as a candidate for dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratochvil, Jan; Linde, Andrei; Linder, Eric V.; Shmakova, Marina

    2004-01-01

    It may be difficult to single out the best model of dark energy on the basis of the existing and planned cosmological observations, because many different models can lead to similar observational consequences. However, each particular model can be studied and either found consistent with observations or ruled out. In this paper, we concentrate on the possibility to test and rule out the simplest and by far the most popular of the models of dark energy, the theory described by general relativity with positive vacuum energy (the cosmological constant). We evaluate the conditions under which this model could be ruled out by the future observations made by the Supernova/Acceleration Probe SNAP (both for supernovae and weak lensing) and by the Planck Surveyor cosmic microwave background satellite

  14. Holographic Bound in Quantum Field Energy Density and Cosmological Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Castorina, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The cosmological constant problem is reanalyzed by imposing the limitation of the number of degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) due to entropy bounds directly in the calculation of the energy density of a field theory. It is shown that if a quantum field theory has to be consistent with gravity and holography, i.e. with an upper limit of storing information in a given area, the ultraviolet momentum cut-off is not the Planck mass, M_p, as naively expected, but M_p/N_U^(1/4) where N_U is the number of ...

  15. Determination of Peukert's Constant Using Impedance Spectroscopy: Application to Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edmund Martin; Kim, Sangtae

    2016-12-15

    Peukert's equation is widely used to model the rate dependence of battery capacity, and has recently attracted attention for application to supercapacitors. Here we present a newly developed method to readily determine Peukert's constant using impedance spectroscopy. Impedance spectroscopy is ideal for this purpose as it has the capability of probing electrical performance of a device over a wide range of time-scales within a single measurement. We demonstrate that the new method yields consistent results with conventional galvanostatic measurements through applying it to commercially available supercapacitors. Additionally, the novel method is much simpler and more precise, making it an attractive alternative for the determination of Peukert's constant.

  16. A Novel Constant-Pressure Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As intermittent renewable energy is receiving increasing attention, the combination of intermittent renewable energy with large-scale energy storage technology is considered as an important technological approach for the wider application of wind power and solar energy. Pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage system (PHCA is one of the energy storage systems that not only integrates the advantages but also overcomes the disadvantages of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems and pumped hydro energy storage systems to solve the problem of energy storage in China’s arid regions. Aiming at the variable working conditions of PHCA system technology, this study proposes a new constant-pressure PHCA. The most significant characteristics of this system were that the water pump and hydroturbine work under stable conditions and this improves the working efficiency of the equipment without incurring an energy loss. In addition, the constant-pressure PHCA system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis, in expectation of exploring an attractive solution for the large-scale storage of existing intermittent renewable energy.

  17. Observational constraints on holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin [Institute of Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Setare, M.R., E-mail: lvjianbo819@163.com, E-mail: msaridak@phys.uoa.gr, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: lxxu@dlut.edu.cn [Department of Science of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    We use observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SN), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and observational Hubble data (OHD), and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, to constrain the cosmological scenario of holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant. We consider both flat and non-flat background geometry, and we present the corresponding constraints and contour-plots of the model parameters. We conclude that the scenario is compatible with observations. In 1σ we find Ω{sub Λ0} = 0.72{sup +0.03}{sub −0.03}, Ω{sub k0} = −0.0013{sup +0.0130}{sub −0.0040}, c = 0.80{sup +0.19}{sub −0.14} and Δ{sub G}≡G'/G = −0.0025{sup +0.0080}{sub −0.0050}, while for the present value of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter we obtain w{sub 0} = −1.04{sup +0.15}{sub −0.20}.

  18. Research on the Robustness of the Constant Speed Control of Hydraulic Energy Storage Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengguang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage plays a major role in solving the fluctuation and intermittence problem of wind and the effective use of wind power. The application of the hydraulic accumulator is the most efficient and convenient way to store wind energy in hydraulic wind turbines. A hydraulic energy storage generation system (HESGS can transform hydraulic energy stored in the hydraulic accumulator into stable and constant electrical energy by controlling the variable motor, regardless of wind changes. The aim of the present study is to design a constant speed control method for the variable motor in the HESGS and investigate the influence of the controller’s main parameters on the resistance of the HESGS to external load power disturbances. Mathematical equations of all components in this system are introduced and an entire system simulation model is built. A double closed-loop control method of the variable motor is presented within this paper, which keeps the motor speed constant for the fixed frequency of electrical power generated by the HESGS. Ultimately, a series of simulations with different proportional gains and integral gains under the environment of changeless load power step are conducted. At the same time, comparison analyses of the experiment and simulation under variable load power step are performed. The results verify the correctness and the usability of the simulation model, and also indicate that the proposed control method is robust to the disturbances of changing load power.

  19. Sensitivity of molecular vibrational dynamics to energy exchange rate constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, G D; Coletti, C; Kurnosov, A K; Napartovich, A P

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of molecular vibrational population dynamics, governing the CO laser operated in fundamental and overtone transitions, to vibration-to-vibration rate constants is investigated. With this aim, three rate constant sets have been used, differing in their completeness (i.e. accounting for single-quantum exchange only, or for multi-quantum exchange with a limited number of rate constants obtained by semiclassical calculations, and, finally, with an exhaustive set of rate constants including asymmetric exchange processes, as well) and in the employed interaction potential. The most complete set among these three is introduced in this paper. An existing earlier kinetic model was updated to include the latter new data. Comparison of data produced by kinetic modelling with the above mentioned sets of rate constants shows that the vibrational distribution function, and, in particular, the CO overtone laser characteristics, are very sensitive to the choice of the model. The most complete model predicts slower evolution of the vibrational distribution, in qualitative agreement with experiments

  20. Determination of low-energy constants of Wilson chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdoiza, Gregorio; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Contoblanco; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid; Jansen, Karl; Univ. Cyprus, Nicosia; Michael, Chris; Ottnad, Konstantin; Urbach, Carsten; Univ. Bonn

    2013-03-01

    By matching Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD determinations of pseudoscalar meson masses to Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory we determine the low-energy constants W 6 ' , W 8 ' and their linear combination c 2 . We explore the dependence of these low-energy constants on the choice of the lattice action and on the number of dynamical flavours.

  1. Energy and Economic Losses Due to Constant Power Outages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the economic implication of electricity self-generation in Nigeria. In this regard, energy and exergetic utilization efficiencies of 19 representative generators and gas turbines from Afam power station were assessed based on real data obtained through survey of companies, oral interview, individuals and ...

  2. Magneto-optical measurement of anisotropy energy constant(s) for amorphous rare earth, transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uber, R.E.; Mansuripur, M.

    1988-01-01

    Optical investigation of magneto-optical films is complementary to conventional torque and VSM magnetometry. In the authors' laboratory, they are now measuring anisotropy energy constants of RE-TM thin films at temperatures from ambient to 150 0 C. An in-plane magnetic field (up to 16.5 KOe) is applied to a saturated sample with perpendicular magnetization. The movement away from the perpendicular direction is monitored using the polar Kerr effect. At the HeNe wavelength, the Kerr effect is principally due to the top 500 angstroms of the transition metal subnetwork in the films

  3. Continuous energy Monte Carlo method based homogenization multi-group constants calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mancang; Wang Kan; Yao Dong

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of the standard two-step reactor physics calculation relies on the accuracy of multi-group constants from the assembly-level homogenization process. In contrast to the traditional deterministic methods, generating the homogenization cross sections via Monte Carlo method overcomes the difficulties in geometry and treats energy in continuum, thus provides more accuracy parameters. Besides, the same code and data bank can be used for a wide range of applications, resulting in the versatility using Monte Carlo codes for homogenization. As the first stage to realize Monte Carlo based lattice homogenization, the track length scheme is used as the foundation of cross section generation, which is straight forward. The scattering matrix and Legendre components, however, require special techniques. The Scattering Event method was proposed to solve the problem. There are no continuous energy counterparts in the Monte Carlo calculation for neutron diffusion coefficients. P 1 cross sections were used to calculate the diffusion coefficients for diffusion reactor simulator codes. B N theory is applied to take the leakage effect into account when the infinite lattice of identical symmetric motives is assumed. The MCMC code was developed and the code was applied in four assembly configurations to assess the accuracy and the applicability. At core-level, A PWR prototype core is examined. The results show that the Monte Carlo based multi-group constants behave well in average. The method could be applied to complicated configuration nuclear reactor core to gain higher accuracy. (authors)

  4. A New Application for Radioimmunoassay: Measurement of Thermodynamic Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstadt, Carol N.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which an equilibrium radioimmunoassay (RIA) is used to estimate thermodynamic parameters such as equilibrium constants. The experiment is simple and inexpensive, and it introduces a technique that is important in the clinical chemistry and research laboratory. Background information, procedures, and results are…

  5. Effect of the dielectric constant of mesoscopic particle on the exciton binding energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Zuyou; Gu Shiwei

    1991-09-01

    For materials with big exciton reduced mass and big dielectric constant, such as TiO 2 , the variation of dielectric constant with the radius of an ultrafine particle (UFP) is important for determining the exciton binding energy. For the first time a phenomenological formula of the dielectric constant of a UFP with its radius in mesoscopic range is put forward in order to explain the optical properties of TiO 2 UFP. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. A Simple Method to Calculate the Temperature Dependence of the Gibbs Energy and Chemical Equilibrium Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy and important quantities such as Henry's law constants, activity coefficients, and chemical equilibrium constants is usually calculated by using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Although, this is a well-known approach and traditionally covered as part of any physical chemistry course, the required…

  7. On the Dielectric Constant for Acetanilide: Experimental Measurements and Effect on Energy Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careri, G.; Compatangelo, E.; Christiansen, P. L.; Halding, J.; Skovgaard, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the dielectric constant for crystalline acetanilide powder for temperatures ranging from - 140°C to 20°C and for different hydration levels are presented. A Davydov-soliton computer model predicts dramatic changes in the energy transport and storage for typically increased values of the dielectric constant.

  8. JENDL reactor constant and its application. The 40th anniversary of Japan nuclear data committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukeran, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    The status of reactor constants about 27 years ago is briefly reviewed from the criticality predictions and nuclear data processing codes. In the second section, status of current users of JENDL-3.3 and/or JENDL-3.2 is consulted with the 2003 Fall Meeting of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. In the third section, the reliabilities of JENDL-3.3 and -3.2 are reviewed mainly from the application to light water reactor (LWR) mockup experiments; MISTRAL and BASALA made on EOLE critical facility of Cadarache Laboratory in France, since an extensive evaluation for nuclear data applicability to LWR have been scarcely performed in relative to for FBR. The results of international benchmark cores and criticality safety analyses are briefly reviewed. In the concluding remarks, overall applicability is shown as a summary with respect to all reactor parameters obtained in the LWR mockup experiment and some remarks are noted. (author)

  9. Determination of low-energy constants of Wilson chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdoiza, Gregorio [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst fuer Kernphysik, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Contoblanco (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Univ. Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Michael, Chris [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Ottnad, Konstantin; Urbach, Carsten [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen und Kernphysik; Univ. Bonn (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    By matching Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD determinations of pseudoscalar meson masses to Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory we determine the low-energy constants W{sub 6}{sup '}, W{sub 8}{sup '} and their linear combination c{sub 2}. We explore the dependence of these low-energy constants on the choice of the lattice action and on the number of dynamical flavours.

  10. High temperature elastic constant measurements: application to plutonium; Mesure des constantes elastiques a haute temperature application au plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-03-01

    We present an apparatus with which we have measured the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio of several compounds from the resonance frequency of cylinders in the temperature range 0 deg. C-700 deg. C. We especially studied the elastic constants of plutonium and measured for the first time to our knowledge the Young's modulus of Pu{sub {delta}} and Pu{sub {epsilon}}. E{sub {delta}} 360 deg. C = 1.6 10{sup 11} dy/cm{sup 2}; E{sub {epsilon}} 490 deg. C = 1.1 10{sup 11} dy/cm{sup 2}, {sigma}{sub {epsilon}} = 0.25 {+-} 0.03 Using our results, we have calculated the compressibility, the Debye temperature, the Grueneisen constant and the electronic specific heat of Pu{sub {epsilon}}. (author) [French] Nous decrivons un appareil qui permet de mesurer les constantes elastiques (module de Young et module de Poisson) jusqu'a 700 deg. C a partir des frequences de resonance de barreaux cylindriques. Nous avons plus specialement etudie le plutonium et determine pour la premiere fois a notre connaissance le module de Young des phases {delta} et {epsilon}: E{sub {delta}} 360 deg. C = 1.6 10{sup 11} dy/cm{sup 2}; E{sub {epsilon}} 490 deg. C = 1.1 10{sup 11} dy/cm{sup 2}, {sigma}{sub {epsilon}} = 0.25 {+-} 0.03 Nos mesures nous ont permis de calculer la compressibilite, la temperature de Debye, la constante de Gruneisen et la chaleur specifique electronique de Pu{sub {epsilon}}. (auteur)

  11. Energy applications of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.R.; Dale, S.J.; Wolf, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress in developing high-temperature superconductors has enhanced the economic viability of energy applications such as power systems, motors, material processing and handling, refrigeration, transportation, and power electronics. This paper discusses the technical and economic issues associated with these applications

  12. Optimal Constant DC Link Voltage Operation of aWave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Leijon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a simple and reliable damping strategy for wave powerfarm operation of small-scale point-absorber converters. The strategy is based on passiverectification onto a constant DC-link, making it very suitable for grid integration of the farm.A complete model of the system has been developed in Matlab Simulink, and uses real sitedata as input. The optimal constant DC-voltage is evaluated as a function of the significantwave height and energy period of the waves. The total energy output of the WEC is derivedfor one year of experimental site data. The energy output is compared for two cases, onewhere the optimal DC-voltage is determined and held constant at half-hour basis throughoutthe year, and one where a selected value of the DC-voltage is kept constant throughout theyear regardless of sea state.

  13. Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant in Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, Mubasher, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.pk [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, 46000 (Pakistan)

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant in a flat background in the context of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. We extract the exact differential equation determining the evolution of the dark energy density parameter, which includes G variation term. Also we discuss a cosmological implication of our work by evaluating the dark energy equation of state for low redshifts containing varying G corrections.

  14. Bound state potential energy surface construction: ab initio zero-point energies and vibrationally averaged rotational constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettens, Ryan P A

    2003-01-15

    Collins' method of interpolating a potential energy surface (PES) from quantum chemical calculations for reactive systems (Jordan, M. J. T.; Thompson, K. C.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1995, 102, 5647. Thompson, K. C.; Jordan, M. J. T.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 108, 8302. Bettens, R. P. A.; Collins, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 111, 816) has been applied to a bound state problem. The interpolation method has been combined for the first time with quantum diffusion Monte Carlo calculations to obtain an accurate ground state zero-point energy, the vibrationally average rotational constants, and the vibrationally averaged internal coordinates. In particular, the system studied was fluoromethane using a composite method approximating the QCISD(T)/6-311++G(2df,2p) level of theory. The approach adopted in this work (a) is fully automated, (b) is fully ab initio, (c) includes all nine nuclear degrees of freedom, (d) requires no assumption of the functional form of the PES, (e) possesses the full symmetry of the system, (f) does not involve fitting any parameters of any kind, and (g) is generally applicable to any system amenable to quantum chemical calculations and Collins' interpolation method. The calculated zero-point energy agrees to within 0.2% of its current best estimate. A0 and B0 are within 0.9 and 0.3%, respectively, of experiment.

  15. Cosmological constant problem and renormalized vacuum energy density in curved background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801, Ibaraki (Japan); Matsui, Hiroki, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: matshiro@post.kek.jp [The Graduate University of Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Tsukuba 305-0801, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    The current vacuum energy density observed as dark energy ρ{sub dark}≅ 2.5×10{sup −47} GeV{sup 4} is unacceptably small compared with any other scales. Therefore, we encounter serious fine-tuning problem and theoretical difficulty to derive the dark energy. However, the theoretically attractive scenario has been proposed and discussed in literature: in terms of the renormalization-group (RG) running of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy density can be expressed as ρ{sub vacuum}≅ m {sup 2} H {sup 2} where m is the mass of the scalar field and rather dynamical in curved spacetime. However, there has been no rigorous proof to derive this expression and there are some criticisms about the physical interpretation of the RG running cosmological constant. In the present paper, we revisit the RG running effects of the cosmological constant and investigate the renormalized vacuum energy density in curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the vacuum energy density described by ρ{sub vacuum}≅ m {sup 2} H {sup 2} appears as quantum effects of the curved background rather than the running effects of cosmological constant. Comparing to cosmological observational data, we obtain an upper bound on the mass of the scalar fields to be smaller than the Planck mass, m ∼< M {sub Pl}.

  16. A note on the local cosmological constant and the dark energy coincidence problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajmar, M

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that the dark energy coincidence problem could be interpreted as a possible link between the cosmological constant and a massive graviton. We show that by using this link and models for the graviton mass, a dark energy density can be obtained that is indeed very close to measurements by WMAP. As a consequence of the models, the cosmological constant was found to depend on the density of matter. A brief outline of the cosmological consequences such as the effect on the black hole solution is given. (comments, replies and notes)

  17. Free energy correlation of rate constants for electron transfer between organic systems in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, D

    1975-07-15

    Recent experimental data concerning the rate constants for electron transfer reactions of organic systems in aqueous solutions and their equilibrium constants is examined for possible correlation. The data is correlated quite well by the Marcus theory, if a reorganization parameter, lambda, of 18 kcal/mole is used. Assuming that the only contribution to lambda is the free energy of rearrangement of the water molecules, an effective radius of 5 A for the reacting entities is estimated. For the zero free energy change reaction, i.e., electron exchange between a radical ion and its parent molecule, a rate constant of about 5 X 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ is predicted. (auth)

  18. NVU dynamics. I. Geodesic motion on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Toxværd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole

    2011-01-01

    that ensures potential-energy and step-length conservation; center-of-mass drift is also eliminated. Analytical arguments confirmed by simulations demonstrate that the modified NVU algorithm is absolutely stable. Finally, we present simulations showing that the NVU algorithm and the standard leap-frog NVE......An algorithm is derived for computer simulation of geodesics on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface of a system of N classical particles. First, a basic time-reversible geodesic algorithm is derived by discretizing the geodesic stationarity condition and implementing the constant......-potential-energy constraint via standard Lagrangian multipliers. The basic NVU algorithm is tested by single-precision computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones liquid. Excellent numerical stability is obtained if the force cutoff is smoothed and the two initial configurations have identical potential energy within machine...

  19. Correlation Functions of the Energy Momentum Tensor on Spaces of Constant Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Osborn, H

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of one and two point functions of the energy momentum tensor on homogeneous spaces of constant curvature is undertaken. The possibility of proving a c-theorem in this framework is discussed, in particular in relation to the coefficients c,a, which appear in the energy momentum tensor trace on general curved backgrounds in four dimensions. Ward identities relating the correlation functions are derived and explicit expressions are obtained for free scalar, spinor field theories in general dimensions and also free vector fields in dimension four. A natural geometric formalism which is independent of any choice of coordinates is used and the role of conformal symmetries on such constant curvature spaces is analysed. The results are shown to be constrained by the operator product expansion. For negative curvature the spectral representation, involving unitary positive energy representations of $O(d-1,2)$, for two point functions of vector currents is derived in detail and extended to the energy momentu...

  20. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  1. Thermal energy storage system using phase change materials: Constant heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Meenakshi R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of phase change materials (PCM to store the heat in the form of latent heat is increased, because large quantity of thermal energy is stored in smaller volumes. In the present experimental investigation paraffin and stearic acid are employed as PCMs in thermal energy storage (TES system to store the heat as sensible and latent heat also. A constant heat source is used to supply heat transfer fluid (HTF at constant temperature to the TES system. In the TES system PCMs are stored in the form of spherical capsules of 38 mm diameter made of high density poly ethylene (HDPE. The results of the investigation are related to the charging time and recovery of stored energy from the TES system.

  2. Linear free energy relationships between aqueous phase hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants and free energy of activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John

    2011-04-15

    The hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites on organic compounds and initiates complex radical chain reactions in aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Computer based kinetic modeling requires a reaction pathway generator and predictions of associated reaction rate constants. Previously, we reported a reaction pathway generator that can enumerate the most important elementary reactions for aliphatic compounds. For the reaction rate constant predictor, we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) between aqueous phase literature-reported HO(•) reaction rate constants and theoretically calculated free energies of activation for H-atom abstraction from a C-H bond and HO(•) addition to alkenes. The theoretical method uses ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, Gaussian 1-3, for gas phase reactions and a solvation method, COSMO-RS theory, to estimate the impact of water. Theoretically calculated free energies of activation are found to be within approximately ±3 kcal/mol of experimental values. Considering errors that arise from quantum mechanical calculations and experiments, this should be within the acceptable errors. The established LFERs are used to predict the HO(•) reaction rate constants within a factor of 5 from the experimental values. This approach may be applied to other reaction mechanisms to establish a library of rate constant predictions for kinetic modeling of AOPs.

  3. Hydrogen energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okken, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    For the Energy and Material consumption Scenarios (EMS), by which emission reduction of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases can be calculated, calculations are executed by means of the MARKAL model (MARket ALlocation, a process-oriented dynamic linear programming model to minimize the costs of the energy system) for the Netherlands energy economy in the period 2000-2040, using a variable CO 2 emission limit. The results of these calculations are published in a separate report (ECN-C--92-066). The use of hydrogen can play an important part in the above-mentioned period. An overview of several options to produce or use hydrogen is given and added to the MARKAL model. In this report techno-economical data and estimates were compiled for several H 2 -application options, which subsequently also are added to the MARKAL model. After a brief chapter on hydrogen and the impact on the reduction of CO 2 emission attention is paid to stationary and mobile applications. The stationary options concern the mixing of natural gas with 10% hydrogen, a 100% substitution of natural gas by hydrogen, the use of a direct steam generator (combustion of hydrogen by means of pure oxygen, followed by steam injection to produce steam), and the use of fuel cells. The mobile options concern the use of hydrogen in the transportation sector. In brief, attention is paid to a hydrogen passenger car with an Otto engine, and a hydrogen passenger car with a fuel cell, a hybrid (metal)-hydride car, a hydrogen truck, a truck with a methanol fuel cell, a hydrogen bus, an inland canal boat with a hydrogen fuel cell, and finally a hydrogen airplane. 2 figs., 15 tabs., 1 app., 26 refs

  4. Condensation energy of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio vacuum and the MIT bag constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.; Bhalerao, R.S.; Bhaduri, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the energy densities of the vacuum in the Wigner and the Goldstone modes of the Nambu- Jona-Lasinio Hamiltonian are calculated. The difference of these two quantities is analogous to the condensation energy of a BCS superconductor, and is used here to estimate the temperature dependence of the MIT bag constant. The formalism of da Providencia et al is generalized to finite temperatures, yielding the same gap equation as the finite- temperature field theory. The thermodynamics of the vacuum in the two phases is studied

  5. Efficient quantum-classical method for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: application to ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Mikhail V; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-05-14

    Efficient method is proposed for computing thermal rate constant of recombination reaction that proceeds according to the energy transfer mechanism, when an energized molecule is formed from reactants first, and is stabilized later by collision with quencher. The mixed quantum-classical theory for the collisional energy transfer and the ro-vibrational energy flow [M. Ivanov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144107 (2011)] is employed to treat the dynamics of molecule + quencher collision. Efficiency is achieved by sampling simultaneously (i) the thermal collision energy, (ii) the impact parameter, and (iii) the incident direction of quencher, as well as (iv) the rotational state of energized molecule. This approach is applied to calculate third-order rate constant of the recombination reaction that forms the (16)O(18)O(16)O isotopomer of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented.

  6. Atomic transition energies and the variation of the fine-structure constant α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borschevsky, Anastasia; Eliav, Ephraim; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kaldor, Uzi

    2006-01-01

    Relativistic energy shifts of atomic excitation energies, showing the dependence of these energies on the value of the fine-structure constant α, are needed to extract past changes in α from spectra of distant quasars. These shifts are calculated by the Fock-space coupled cluster method and its extrapolated intermediate Hamiltonian extension, which allow high-accuracy treatment of electron correlation. The accuracy of the method is tested by comparing 33 transition energies in heavy atoms (obtained with the laboratory α) with experiment; the average error is 258 cm -1 , and the largest error is 711 cm -1 . This may be compared with an average error of 432 cm -1 and a maximum error of 2150 cm -1 in the work of Dzuba et al., who reported most of the available energy shift calculations. The enhanced accuracy is due to more extensive inclusion of electron correlation. To obtain the energy shifts, we repeated the calculations with different values of α (within 0.1% of the current value). Our shifts differ by up to 30% from the values given by Dzuba et al., with an average difference of 9%. Based on the better quality of the present-day excitation energies, we believe the energy shifts reported here are more accurate than earlier work

  7. The low-energy constants of the extended linear sigma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divotgey, Florian; Giacosa, Francesco; Kovacs, Peter; Rischke, Dirk H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The low-energy dynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is fully determined by the interactions of the (pseudo-) Nambu-Goldstone bosons of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, i.e., for two quark flavors, the pions. Pion dynamics is described by the low-energy effective theory of QCD, chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), which is based on the nonlinear realization of chiral symmetry. An alternative description is provided by the Linear Sigma Model, where chiral symmetry is linearly realized. An extended version of this model, the so-called extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM) was recently developed which incorporates all J{sup P}=0{sup ±}, 1{sup ±} anti qq mesons up to 2 GeV in mass. A fit of the coupling constants of this model to experimentally measured masses and decay widths has a surprisingly good quality. In this talk, it is demonstrated that the low-energy limit of the eLSM, obtained by integrating out all fields which are heavier than the pions, assumes the same form as ChPT. Moreover, the low-energy constants (LECs) of the eLSM agree with those of ChPT.

  8. Correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor on spaces of constant curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, H.; Shore, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of one- and two-point functions of the energy-momentum tensor on homogeneous spaces of constant curvature is undertaken. The possibility of proving a c-theorem in this framework is discussed, in particular in relation to the coefficients c,a, which appear in the energy-momentum tensor trace on general curved backgrounds in four dimensions. Ward identities relating the correlation functions are derived and explicit expressions are obtained for free scalar, spinor field theories in general dimensions and also free vector fields in dimension four. A natural geometric formalism which is independent of any choice of coordinates is used and the role of conformal symmetries on such constant curvature spaces is analysed. The results are shown to be constrained by the operator product expansion. For negative curvature the spectral representation, involving unitary positive energy representations of O(d-1,2), for two-point functions of vector currents is derived in detail and extended to the energy-momentum tensor by analogy. It is demonstrated that, at non-coincident points, the two-point functions are not related to a in any direct fashion and there is no straightforward demonstration obtainable in this framework of irreversibility under renormalisation group flow of any function of the couplings for four-dimensional field theories which reduces to a at fixed points

  9. Microsolvation of methylmercury: structures, energies, bonding and NMR constants ((199)Hg, (13)C and (17)O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Edison; Maldonado, Alejandro F; Aucar, Gustavo A; David, Jorge; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2016-01-21

    Hartree-Fock (HF) and second order perturbation theory (MP2) calculations within the scalar and full relativistic frames were carried out in order to determine the equilibrium geometries and interaction energies between cationic methylmercury (CH3Hg(+)) and up to three water molecules. A total of nine structures were obtained. Bonding properties were analyzed using the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). The analyses of the topology of electron densities reveal that all structures exhibit a partially covalent HgO interaction between methylmercury and one water molecule. Consideration of additional water molecules suggests that they solvate the (CH3HgOH2)(+) unit. Nuclear magnetic shielding constants σ((199)Hg), σ((13)C) and σ((17)O), as well as indirect spin-spin coupling constants J((199)Hg-(13)C), J((199)Hg-(17)O) and J((13)C-(17)O), were calculated for each one of the geometries. Thermodynamic stability and the values of NMR constants correlate with the ability of the system to directly coordinate oxygen atoms of water molecules to the mercury atom in methylmercury and with the formation of hydrogen bonds among solvating water molecules. Relativistic effects account for 11% on σ((13)C) and 14% on σ((17)O), which is due to the presence of Hg (heavy atom on light atom, HALA effect), while the relativistic effects on σ((199)Hg) are close to 50% (heavy atom on heavy atom itself, HAHA effect). J-coupling constants are highly influenced by relativity when mercury is involved as in J((199)Hg-(13)C) and J((199)Hg-(17)O). On the other hand, our results show that the values of NMR constants for carbon and oxygen, atoms which are connected through mercury (C-HgO), are highly correlated and are greatly influenced by the presence of water molecules. Water molecules introduce additional electronic effects to the relativistic effects due to the mercury atom.

  10. Equivalent Electromagnetic Constants for Microwave Application to Composite Materials for the Multi-Scale Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Fujisaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To connect different scale models in the multi-scale problem of microwave use, equivalent material constants were researched numerically by a three-dimensional electromagnetic field, taking into account eddy current and displacement current. A volume averaged method and a standing wave method were used to introduce the equivalent material constants; water particles and aluminum particles are used as composite materials. Consumed electrical power is used for the evaluation. Water particles have the same equivalent material constants for both methods; the same electrical power is obtained for both the precise model (micro-model and the homogeneous model (macro-model. However, aluminum particles have dissimilar equivalent material constants for both methods; different electric power is obtained for both models. The varying electromagnetic phenomena are derived from the expression of eddy current. For small electrical conductivity such as water, the macro-current which flows in the macro-model and the micro-current which flows in the micro-model express the same electromagnetic phenomena. However, for large electrical conductivity such as aluminum, the macro-current and micro-current express different electromagnetic phenomena. The eddy current which is observed in the micro-model is not expressed by the macro-model. Therefore, the equivalent material constant derived from the volume averaged method and the standing wave method is applicable to water with a small electrical conductivity, although not applicable to aluminum with a large electrical conductivity.

  11. Uncertainties in constraining low-energy constants from {sup 3}H β decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, P.; Carbone, A.; Hebeler, K. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Menendez, J. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Schwenk, A. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss the uncertainties in constraining low-energy constants of chiral effective field theory from {sup 3}H β decay. The half-life is very precisely known, so that the Gamow-Teller matrix element has been used to fit the coupling c{sub D} of the axial-vector current to a short-range two-nucleon pair. Because the same coupling also describes the leading one-pion-exchange three-nucleon force, this in principle provides a very constraining fit, uncorrelated with the {sup 3}H binding energy fit used to constrain another low-energy coupling in three-nucleon forces. However, so far such {sup 3}H half-life fits have only been performed at a fixed cutoff value. We show that the cutoff dependence due to the regulators in the axial-vector two-body current can significantly affect the Gamow-Teller matrix elements and consequently also the extracted values for the c{sub D} coupling constant. The degree of the cutoff dependence is correlated with the softness of the employed NN interaction. As a result, present three-nucleon forces based on a fit to {sup 3}H β decay underestimate the uncertainty in c{sub D}. We explore a range of c{sub D} values that is compatible within cutoff variation with the experimental {sup 3}H half-life and estimate the resulting uncertainties for many-body systems by performing calculations of symmetric nuclear matter. (orig.)

  12. Constant scattering length fits to low energy K-p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conboy, J.E.

    1985-10-01

    The paper concerns the data on low energy K - p interactions analysed using the constant scattering length (C.S.L.) approximation. The scattering lengths are found to differ significantly from those required to fit data from previous K -1 p experiments, and these differences are discussed. The data indicate an Tspin=1 P- wave interaction, from the production angle distributions of the K-bar 0 n, Σ +- π -+ and Λπ 0 channels. However the authors have been unable to fit both the P-wave and K 0 sub(L)p data with the simple C.S.L. model. (U.K.)

  13. Low-energy experiments that measure fundamental constants and test basic symmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Cold Antihydrogen: Are We There? Cold antihydrogen offers the possibility to precisely compare the structure of antihydrogen and hydrogen atoms, using the well developed tools of laser spectroscopy with antihydrogen atoms cold enough to be trapped in the minimum of a magnetic field gradient. Progress made at CERN's new Antiproton Decelerator will be discussed, along with goals and aspirations, such as measuring the anti-Rydberg constant. ATRAP has observed and studied the interaction of low energy antiprotons and positrons for more than a year, and ATHENA hopes to soon make antiprotons and positrons to interact as well.

  14. The effect of interacting dark energy on local measurements of the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odderskov, Io; Baldi, Marco; Amendola, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In the current state of cosmology, where cosmological parameters are being measured to percent accuracy, it is essential to understand all sources of error to high precision. In this paper we present the results of a study of the local variations in the Hubble constant measured at the distance scale of the Coma Cluster, and test the validity of correcting for the peculiar velocities predicted by gravitational instability theory. The study is based on N-body simulations, and includes models featuring a coupling between dark energy and dark matter, as well as two ΛCDM simulations with different values of σ 8 . It is found that the variance in the local flows is significantly larger in the coupled models, which increases the uncertainty in the local measurements of the Hubble constant in these scenarios. By comparing the results from the different simulations, it is found that most of the effect is caused by the higher value of σ 8 in the coupled cosmologies, though this cannot account for all of the additional variance. Given the discrepancy between different estimates of the Hubble constant in the universe today, cosmological models causing a greater cosmic variance is something that we should be aware of.

  15. The effect of interacting dark energy on local measurements of the Hubble constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odderskov, Io [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, Aarhus C (Denmark); Baldi, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Amendola, Luca, E-mail: isho07@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marco.baldi5@unibo.it, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    In the current state of cosmology, where cosmological parameters are being measured to percent accuracy, it is essential to understand all sources of error to high precision. In this paper we present the results of a study of the local variations in the Hubble constant measured at the distance scale of the Coma Cluster, and test the validity of correcting for the peculiar velocities predicted by gravitational instability theory. The study is based on N-body simulations, and includes models featuring a coupling between dark energy and dark matter, as well as two ΛCDM simulations with different values of σ{sub 8}. It is found that the variance in the local flows is significantly larger in the coupled models, which increases the uncertainty in the local measurements of the Hubble constant in these scenarios. By comparing the results from the different simulations, it is found that most of the effect is caused by the higher value of σ{sub 8} in the coupled cosmologies, though this cannot account for all of the additional variance. Given the discrepancy between different estimates of the Hubble constant in the universe today, cosmological models causing a greater cosmic variance is something that we should be aware of.

  16. Application of dielectric constant measurement in microwave sludge disintegration and wastewater purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Petra Veszelovszki; Lemmer, Balázs; Keszthelyi-Szabó, Gábor; Hodúr, Cecilia; Beszédes, Sándor

    2018-05-01

    It has been numerously verified that microwave radiation could be advantageous as a pre-treatment for enhanced disintegration of sludge. Very few data related to the dielectric parameters of wastewater of different origins are available; therefore, the objective of our work was to measure the dielectric constant of municipal and meat industrial wastewater during a continuous flow operating microwave process. Determination of the dielectric constant and its change during wastewater and sludge processing make it possible to decide on the applicability of dielectric measurements for detecting the organic matter removal efficiency of wastewater purification process or disintegration degree of sludge. With the measurement of dielectric constant as a function of temperature, total solids (TS) content and microwave specific process parameters regression models were developed. Our results verified that in the case of municipal wastewater sludge, the TS content has a significant effect on the dielectric constant and disintegration degree (DD), as does the temperature. The dielectric constant has a decreasing tendency with increasing temperature for wastewater sludge of low TS content, but an adverse effect was found for samples with high TS and organic matter contents. DD of meat processing wastewater sludge was influenced significantly by the volumetric flow rate and power level, as process parameters of continuously flow microwave pre-treatments. It can be concluded that the disintegration process of food industry sludge can be detected by dielectric constant measurements. From technical purposes the applicability of dielectric measurements was tested in the purification process of municipal wastewater, as well. Determination of dielectric behaviour was a sensitive method to detect the purification degree of municipal wastewater.

  17. Energy conservation applications of microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, James Y.

    1979-07-01

    A survey of the application of microprocessors for industrial and commercial energy conservation has been made. Microprocessor applications for HVAC, chiller control, and automotive equipment are discussed. A case study of successful replacement of a conventional cooling plant control is recounted. The rapid advancement of microelectronic technology will affect efficient energy control, more sophisticated control methodology, and more investment in controls.

  18. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  19. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  20. A Unified Kinetics and Equilibrium Experiment: Rate Law, Activation Energy, and Equilibrium Constant for the Dissociation of Ferroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) is the basis of a suite of four experiments spanning 5 weeks. Students determine the rate law, activation energy, and equilibrium constant for the dissociation of the complex ion in acid solution and base dissociation constant for phenanthroline. The focus on one chemical system simplifies a daunting set of…

  1. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  2. Constant Growth Rate Can Be Supported by Decreasing Energy Flux and Increasing Aerobic Glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such roles in yeast batch cultures by quantifying O2 consumption, CO2 production, amino acids, mRNAs, proteins, posttranslational modifications, and stress sensitivity in the course of nine doublings at constant rate. During this course, the cells support a constant biomass-production rate with decreasing rates of respiration and ATP production but also decrease their stress resistance. As the respiration rate decreases, so do the levels of enzymes catalyzing rate-determining reactions of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle (providing NADH for respiration and of mitochondrial folate-mediated NADPH production (required for oxidative defense. The findings demonstrate that exponential growth can represent not a single metabolic/physiological state but a continuum of changing states and that aerobic glycolysis can reduce the energy demands associated with respiratory metabolism and stress survival.

  3. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gansäuer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol−1 and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG‡ and ΔGR are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically.

  4. The neutron physics constants bank of the I.V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudkevich, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the structure and contents of a neutron physics constants bank consisting of libraries, service programs and data preparation codes for reactor calculations. Use of the bank makes the constants fully accessible to users. (author)

  5. Determination of human albumin in serum and urine samples by constant-energy synchronous fluorescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Bagheri, Habibollah; Afkhami, Abbas

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method using constant-energy synchronous fluorescence technique is proposed for the determination of human albumin without separation. In this method, no reagent was used for enhancement of the fluorescence signal of albumin in the solution. Effects of some parameters, such as energy difference between excitation and emission monochromators (ΔE), emission and excitation slit widths and scan rate of wavelength were studied and the optimum conditions were established. For this purpose factorial design and response surface method were employed for optimization of the effective parameters on the fluorescence signal. The results showed that the scan rate of the wavelength has no significant effect on the analytical signal. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0.1-220.0 µg mL(-1) of albumin with a detection limit of 7.0 × 10(-3)  µg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) for six replicate measurements of albumin were calculated as 2.2%, 1.7% and 1.3% for 0.5, 10.0 and 100.0 µg mL(-1) albumin, respectively. Furthermore the proposed method has been employed for the determination of albumin in human serum and urine samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. NASA energy technology applications program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-05

    The NASA Energy Technology Applications Program is reviewed. This program covers the following points: 1. wind generation of electricity; 2. photovoltaic solar cells; 3. satellite power systems; 4. direct solar heating and cooling; 5. solar thermal power plants; 6. energy storage; 7. advanced ground propulsion; 8. stationary on-site power supply; 9. advanced coal extraction; 10. magnetic heat pump; 11. aeronautics.

  7. Measurement of the distribution of anisotropy constants in magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, A. A.; Marquina, C.; O'Grady, K.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we have applied theoretical calculations to new experimental measurements of the effect of the anisotropy distribution in magnetite nanoparticles, which in turn controls hysteresis heating for hyperthermia applications. Good agreement between theory and experiment is reported where the theoretical calculation is based upon the detailed measurement of the particle elongation generally observed in the nanoparticles. The elongation has been measured from studies via transmission electron microscopy. We find that particle elongation is responsible for the anisotropy dispersion, which can be obtained by analysis and fitting to a measurement of the temperature decay of remanence. A median value of the anisotropy constant of 1.5  ×  105 erg/cc was obtained. A very wide distribution of anisotropy constants is present with a Gaussian standard deviation of 1.5  ×  105 erg/cc. From our measurements, deviations in the value of the saturation magnetisation from particle to particle are most likely the main factor giving rise to this large distribution, with 33% arising from the error in the measured elongation. The lower limit to the anisotropy constant of the nanoparticles is determined by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the material, 1.1  ×  105 erg/cc for magnetite, which was studied in this work.

  8. ACADEMIC TRAINING: Low Energy Experiments that Measure Fundamental Constants and Test Basic Symmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    17, 18, 19 , 21 June LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Low Energy Experiments that Measure Fundamental Constants and Test Basic Symmetries by G. GABRIELSE / Professor of Physics and Chair of the Harvard Physics Department, Spokesperson for the ATRAP Collaboration Lecture 1: Particle Traps: the World's Tiniest Accelerators A single elementary particle, or a single ion, can be confined in a tiny accelerator called a particle trap. A single electron was held this way for more than ten months, and antiprotons for months. Mass spectroscopy of exquisite precision is possible with such systems. CERN's TRAP Collaboration thereby compared the charge-to-mass ratios of the antiproton and proton to a precision of 90 parts per trillion, by far the most stringent CPT test done with a baryon system. The important ratio of the masses of the electron and proton have been similarly measured, as have a variety of ions masses, and the neutron mass is most accurately known from such measurements. An i...

  9. Solar energy: Technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that in 1970 the total energy consumed in the U.S. was equal to the energy of sunlight received by only 0.15% of the land area of the continental U.S. The utilization of solar energy might, therefore, provide an approach for solving the energy crisis produced by the consumption of irreplaceable fossil fuels at a steadily increasing rate. Questions regarding the availability of solar energy are discussed along with the design of solar energy collectors and various approaches for heating houses and buildings by utilizing solar radiation. Other subjects considered are related to the heating of water partly or entirely with solar energy, the design of air conditioning systems based on the use of solar energy, electric power generation by a solar thermal and a photovoltaic approach, solar total energy systems, industrial and agricultural applications of solar energy, solar stills, the utilization of ocean thermal power, power systems based on the use of wind, and solar-energy power systems making use of geosynchronous power plants.

  10. Geothermal energy applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.; Tang, N.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper updates geothermal energy applications in China. To total energy consumption for electricity is 20.38 MWe, and for direct use is 41,222 TJ/yr, even though the beneficial heat was estimated to be 7,198 TJ/yr. The attached tables are the basic geothermal information mainly the years 1985-1989. Some of the tables are additions to the report or preceeding years

  11. Seasonal and pulsatile dynamics of thyrotropin and leptin in mares maintained under a constant energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, P R; Messer, N T; Cogswell, A M; Johnson, P J; Keisler, D H; Ganjam, V K

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if seasonal and/or pulsatile variations occur in plasma concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH) and leptin in mares while maintaining a constant energy balance. Blood samples were collected every 20 min during a 24h period in winter and again in summer from six Quarter Horse type mares. Plasma concentrations of TSH, leptin, and T(4) were determined by radioimmunoassay. No differences were observed in body weight between winter (388.1+/-12.5 kg) and summer (406.2+/-12.5 kg; P=0.11). Plasma concentrations of TSH were greater in the summer (2.80+/-0.07 ng/ml) when compared to winter (0.97+/-0.07 ng/ml; P<0.001). Pulse frequency of TSH was not different between winter (6.17+/-0.78 pulses/24h) and summer (5.33+/-0.78 pulses/24h; P=0.49). Mean TSH pulse amplitude, pulse area, and area under the curve were all greater in summer compared to winter (3.11+/-0.10 ng/ml versus 1.20+/-0.10 ng/ml, 24.86+/-0.10 ng/ml min versus 13.46+/-1.90 ng/ml min, 3936+/-72.93 ng/ml versus 1284+/-72.93 ng/ml, respectively; P<0.01). Mean concentrations of leptin were greater in summer (2.48+/-0.17 ng/ml) compared to winter (0.65+/-0.17 ng/ml; P<0.001). Pulsatile secretion patterns of leptin were not observed in any horses during experimentation. Mean concentrations of T(4) were greater in winter (20.3+/-0.4 ng/ml) compared to summer (18.2+/-0.4 ng/ml; P<0.001). These seasonal differences between winter and summer provide evidence of possible seasonal regulation of TSH and leptin.

  12. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  13. Application of Peleg's equation to describe creep responses of potatoes under constant and variable storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, W K; Jindal, V K

    2017-06-01

    The application of Peleg's equation to characterize creep behavior of potatoes during storage was investigated. Potatoes were stored at 25, 15, 5C, and variable (fluctuating) temperature for 16 or 26 weeks. The Peleg equation adequately described the creep response of potatoes during storage at all storage conditions (R 2  = .97to .99). Peleg constant k 1 exhibited a significant (p creep responses during storage or processing will be potentially helpful to better understand the phenomenon. The model parameters from such model could be used to relate rheological properties of raw and cooked potatoes. Moreover, the model parameters could be used to establish relationship between instrumental and sensory attributes which will help in the prediction of sensory attributes from instrumental data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The effect of solvent relaxation time constants on free energy gap law for ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Valentina A; Malykhin, Roman E; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2018-05-16

    To elucidate the regularities inherent in the kinetics of ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation in donor-acceptor dyads in solutions, the simulations of the kinetics have been performed within the stochastic multichannel point-transition model. Increasing the solvent relaxation time scales has been shown to strongly vary the dependence of the charge recombination rate constant on the free energy gap. In slow relaxing solvents the non-equilibrium charge recombination occurring in parallel with solvent relaxation is very effective so that the charge recombination terminates at the non-equilibrium stage. This results in a crucial difference between the free energy gap laws for the ultrafast charge recombination and the thermal charge transfer. For the thermal reactions the well-known Marcus bell-shaped dependence of the rate constant on the free energy gap is realized while for the ultrafast charge recombination only a descending branch is predicted in the whole area of the free energy gap exceeding 0.2 eV. From the available experimental data on the population kinetics of the second and first excited states for a series of Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads in toluene and tetrahydrofuran solutions, an effective rate constant of the charge recombination into the first excited state has been calculated. The obtained rate constant being very high is nearly invariable in the area of the charge recombination free energy gap from 0.2 to 0.6 eV that supports the theoretical prediction.

  15. Resonant converter topologies for constant-current power supplies and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borage, Mangesh

    2013-01-01

    Power electronics, in general, and power supplies, in particular, is an important field of accelerator technology due to its widespread use, for instance in dc, ramp or pulse magnet power supplies, high voltage power supplies for electrostatic accelerators and RF amplifies, power supplies for vacuum pumps, vacuum gauges, beam diagnostic devices etc. It has been possible to meet stringent performance requirements with the continuing advancement in the field of power electronics. Resonant converters have been an active area of research in power electronics field due to variety of topologies, diverse, peculiar and useful characteristics. While the majority of the previous work on resonant converters has been directed towards developing methods of analysis and control techniques for the mentioned applications, very little has been done to explore their suitability for application as a constant-current power supply, which is either inherently required or can be advantageously applied in power supplies for various accelerator subsystems and other industrial applications such as electric arc welding, laser diode drivers, magnet illumination systems, battery charging, electrochemical processes etc.

  16. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source

  17. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  18. Industrial Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the potential use of nuclear energy for industrial systems and/or processes which have a strong demand for process heat/steam and power, and on the mapping of nuclear power reactors proposed for various industrial applications. It describes the technical concepts for combined nuclear-industrial complexes that are being pursued in various Member States, and presents the concepts that were developed in the past to be applied in connection with some major industries. It also provides an analysis of the energy demand in various industries and outlines the potential that nuclear energy may have in major industrial applications such as process steam for oil recovery and refineries, hydrogen generation, and steel and aluminium production. The audience for this publication includes academia, industry, and government agencies.

  19. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  20. Bioprocessing research for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Gaden, E.L. Jr.; Humphrey, A.E.; Carta, G.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    The new biotechnology that is emerging could have a major impact on many of the industries important to our country, especially those associated with energy production and conservation. Advances in bioprocessing systems will provide important alternatives for the future utilization of various energy resources and for the control of environmental hazards that can result from energy generation. Although research in the fundamental biological sciences has helped set the scene for a ''new biotechnology,'' the major impediment to rapid commercialization for energy applications is the lack of a firm understanding of the necessary engineering concepts. Engineering research is now the essential ''bridge'' that will allow the development of a wide range of energy-related bioprocessing systems. A workshop entitled ''Bioprocessing Research for Energy Applications'' was held to address this technological area, to define the engineering research needs, and to identify those opportunities which would encourage rapid implementation of advanced bioprocessing concepts.

  1. Reduction Potentials and Acidity Constants of Mn Superoxide Dismutase Calculated by QM/MM Free-Energy Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heimdal, J.; Kaukonen, M.; Srnec, Martin; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Ryde, U.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 17 (2011), s. 3337-3347 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acidity constants * enzymes * free-energy * perturbation * molecular modelling * reduction potentials Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.412, year: 2011

  2. ICT applications enhancing energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Matani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computers, laptops and mobile devices – information technology (IT accounts for 2% of human greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, as evidenced in a study by Global Action Plan, a UK based environmental organization. This figure can be reduced if the green segment, or Green IT, continues to grow. Energy can also be saved through cloud computing, namely the principle of outsourcing the programs and functions of one’s own computer to service providers over the internet. This also means sharing storage capacity with others. This paper highlights the impact of information technology applications towards enhancing energy efficiency of the systems.

  3. Seismic Applications of Energy Dampers

    OpenAIRE

    Shambhu Sinha

    2004-01-01

    Damping devices based on the operating principle of high velocity fluid flow through orifices have found numerous applications in the shock and vibration isolation of aerospace and defence systems. The study aims to investigate the feasibility of using energy dissipating fluid viscous dampers in structures to protect against seismic loads and to prove analytically and  experimentally that fluid viscous dampers can improve the seismic capacity of a structure by reducing damage and displacement...

  4. Review for the military application of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to understand the broad technology of nuclear energy, we have explored how our present knowledge of nuclear energy has been developed, and how some of this knowledge is applied. Techniques learned from nuclear physics are used the build fearsome weapons of mass destruction, whose proliferation is a constant threat to our future. To develop military applications of nuclear technology systematically, high level human resources and creative brains should be sufficiently trained and secured

  5. One hundred years of the cosmological constant: from "superfluous stunt" to dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2018-05-01

    We present a centennial review of the history of the term known as the cosmological constant. First introduced to the general theory of relativity by Einstein in 1917 in order to describe a universe that was assumed to be static, the term fell from favour in the wake of the discovery of the expanding universe, only to make a dramatic return in recent times. We consider historical and philosophical aspects of the cosmological constant over four main epochs; (i) the use of the term in static cosmologies (both Newtonian and relativistic): (ii) the marginalization of the term following the discovery of cosmic expansion: (iii) the use of the term to address specific cosmic puzzles such as the timespan of expansion, the formation of galaxies and the redshifts of the quasars: (iv) the re-emergence of the term in today's Λ-CDM cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant was never truly banished from theoretical models of the universe, but was marginalized by astronomers for reasons of convenience. We also find that the return of the term to the forefront of modern cosmology did not occur as an abrupt paradigm shift due to one particular set of observations, but as the result of a number of empirical advances such as the measurement of present cosmic expansion using the Hubble Space Telescope, the measurement of past expansion using type SN Ia supernovae as standard candles, and the measurement of perturbations in the cosmic microwave background by balloon and satellite. We give a brief overview of contemporary interpretations of the physics underlying the cosmic constant and conclude with a synopsis of the famous cosmological constant problem.

  6. One hundred years of the cosmological constant: from "superfluous stunt" to dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2018-03-01

    We present a centennial review of the history of the term known as the cosmological constant. First introduced to the general theory of relativity by Einstein in 1917 in order to describe a universe that was assumed to be static, the term fell from favour in the wake of the discovery of the expanding universe, only to make a dramatic return in recent times. We consider historical and philosophical aspects of the cosmological constant over four main epochs; (i) the use of the term in static cosmologies (both Newtonian and relativistic): (ii) the marginalization of the term following the discovery of cosmic expansion: (iii) the use of the term to address specific cosmic puzzles such as the timespan of expansion, the formation of galaxies and the redshifts of the quasars: (iv) the re-emergence of the term in today's Λ-CDM cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant was never truly banished from theoretical models of the universe, but was marginalized by astronomers for reasons of convenience. We also find that the return of the term to the forefront of modern cosmology did not occur as an abrupt paradigm shift due to one particular set of observations, but as the result of a number of empirical advances such as the measurement of present cosmic expansion using the Hubble Space Telescope, the measurement of past expansion using type SN Ia supernovae as standard candles, and the measurement of perturbations in the cosmic microwave background by balloon and satellite. We give a brief overview of contemporary interpretations of the physics underlying the cosmic constant and conclude with a synopsis of the famous cosmological constant problem.

  7. Dark Energy, QCD Axion, and Trans-Planckian-Inflaton Decay Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihn E. Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoscalars appear frequently in particle spectra. They can be light if they appear as pseudo-Goldstone bosons from some spontaneously broken global symmetries with the decay constant f. Since any global symmetry is broken at least by quantum gravitational effects, all pseudoscalars are massive. The mass scale of a pseudoscalar is determined by the spontaneous symmetry breaking scale f of the corresponding global symmetry and the explicit breaking terms in the effective potential. The explicit breaking terms can arise from anomaly terms with some non-Abelian gauge groups among which the best-known example is the potential of the QCD axion. Even if there is no breaking terms from gauge anomalies, there can be explicit breaking terms in the potential in which case the leading term suppressed by f determines the pseudoscalar mass scale. If the breaking term is extremely small and the decay constant is trans-Planckian, the corresponding pseudoscalar can be a candidate for a quintessential axion. In the other extreme that the breaking scales are large, still the pseudo-Goldstone boson mass scales are in general smaller than the decay constants. In such a case, still the potential of the pseudo-Goldstone boson at the grand unification scale is sufficiently flat near the top of the potential that it can be a good candidate for an inflationary model. We review these ideas in the bosonic collective motion framework.

  8. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  9. Calibration of the k- ɛ model constants for use in CFD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Nina; Guillias, Serge; Malki-Epshtein, Liora

    2011-11-01

    The k- ɛ turbulence model is a popular choice in CFD modelling due to its robust nature and the fact that it has been well validated. However it has been noted in previous research that the k- ɛ model has problems predicting flow separation as well as unconfined and transient flows. The model contains five empirical model constants whose values were found through data fitting for a wide range of flows (Launder 1972) but ad-hoc adjustments are often made to these values depending on the situation being modeled. Here we use the example of flow within a regular street canyon to perform a Bayesian calibration of the model constants against wind tunnel data. This allows us to assess the sensitivity of the CFD model to changes in these constants, find the most suitable values for the constants as well as quantifying the uncertainty related to the constants and the CFD model as a whole.

  10. A Virtual Mixture Approach to the Study of Multistate Equilibrium: Application to Constant pH Simulation in Explicit Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium of multiple states is a fundamental phenomenon in biology systems and has been the focus of many experimental and computational studies. This work presents a simulation method to directly study the equilibrium of multiple states. This method constructs a virtual mixture of multiple states (VMMS) to sample the conformational space of all chemical states simultaneously. The VMMS system consists of multiple subsystems, one for each state. The subsystem contains a solute and a solvent environment. The solute molecules in all subsystems share the same conformation but have their own solvent environments. Transition between states is implicated by the change of their molar fractions. Simulation of a VMMS system allows efficient calculation of relative free energies of all states, which in turn determine their equilibrium molar fractions. For systems with a large number of state transition sites, an implicit site approximation is introduced to minimize the cost of simulation. A direct application of the VMMS method is for constant pH simulation to study protonation equilibrium. Applying the VMMS method to a heptapeptide of 3 ionizable residues, we calculated the pKas of those residues both with all explicit states and with implicit sites and obtained consistent results. For mouse epidermal growth factor of 9 ionizable groups, our VMMS simulations with implicit sites produced pKas of all 9 ionizable groups and the results agree qualitatively with NMR measurement. This example demonstrates the VMMS method can be applied to systems of a large number of ionizable groups and the computational cost scales linearly with the number of ionizable groups. For one of the most challenging systems in constant pH calculation, SNase Δ+PHS/V66K, our VMMS simulation shows that it is the state-dependent water penetration that causes the large deviation in lysine66’s pKa. PMID:26506245

  11. A Virtual Mixture Approach to the Study of Multistate Equilibrium: Application to Constant pH Simulation in Explicit Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongwu Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium of multiple states is a fundamental phenomenon in biology systems and has been the focus of many experimental and computational studies. This work presents a simulation method to directly study the equilibrium of multiple states. This method constructs a virtual mixture of multiple states (VMMS to sample the conformational space of all chemical states simultaneously. The VMMS system consists of multiple subsystems, one for each state. The subsystem contains a solute and a solvent environment. The solute molecules in all subsystems share the same conformation but have their own solvent environments. Transition between states is implicated by the change of their molar fractions. Simulation of a VMMS system allows efficient calculation of relative free energies of all states, which in turn determine their equilibrium molar fractions. For systems with a large number of state transition sites, an implicit site approximation is introduced to minimize the cost of simulation. A direct application of the VMMS method is for constant pH simulation to study protonation equilibrium. Applying the VMMS method to a heptapeptide of 3 ionizable residues, we calculated the pKas of those residues both with all explicit states and with implicit sites and obtained consistent results. For mouse epidermal growth factor of 9 ionizable groups, our VMMS simulations with implicit sites produced pKas of all 9 ionizable groups and the results agree qualitatively with NMR measurement. This example demonstrates the VMMS method can be applied to systems of a large number of ionizable groups and the computational cost scales linearly with the number of ionizable groups. For one of the most challenging systems in constant pH calculation, SNase Δ+PHS/V66K, our VMMS simulation shows that it is the state-dependent water penetration that causes the large deviation in lysine66's pKa.

  12. A Virtual Mixture Approach to the Study of Multistate Equilibrium: Application to Constant pH Simulation in Explicit Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R

    2015-10-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium of multiple states is a fundamental phenomenon in biology systems and has been the focus of many experimental and computational studies. This work presents a simulation method to directly study the equilibrium of multiple states. This method constructs a virtual mixture of multiple states (VMMS) to sample the conformational space of all chemical states simultaneously. The VMMS system consists of multiple subsystems, one for each state. The subsystem contains a solute and a solvent environment. The solute molecules in all subsystems share the same conformation but have their own solvent environments. Transition between states is implicated by the change of their molar fractions. Simulation of a VMMS system allows efficient calculation of relative free energies of all states, which in turn determine their equilibrium molar fractions. For systems with a large number of state transition sites, an implicit site approximation is introduced to minimize the cost of simulation. A direct application of the VMMS method is for constant pH simulation to study protonation equilibrium. Applying the VMMS method to a heptapeptide of 3 ionizable residues, we calculated the pKas of those residues both with all explicit states and with implicit sites and obtained consistent results. For mouse epidermal growth factor of 9 ionizable groups, our VMMS simulations with implicit sites produced pKas of all 9 ionizable groups and the results agree qualitatively with NMR measurement. This example demonstrates the VMMS method can be applied to systems of a large number of ionizable groups and the computational cost scales linearly with the number of ionizable groups. For one of the most challenging systems in constant pH calculation, SNase Δ+PHS/V66K, our VMMS simulation shows that it is the state-dependent water penetration that causes the large deviation in lysine66's pKa.

  13. Derivation of the cut-off length from the quantum quadratic enhancement of a mass in vacuum energy constant Lambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Sato, Hikaru

    2018-04-01

    Ultraviolet self-interaction energies in field theory sometimes contain meaningful physical quantities. The self-energies in such as classical electrodynamics are usually subtracted from the rest mass. For the consistent treatment of energies as sources of curvature in the Einstein field equations, this study includes these subtracted self-energies into vacuum energy expressed by the constant Lambda (used in such as Lambda-CDM). In this study, the self-energies in electrodynamics and macroscopic classical Einstein field equations are examined, using the formalisms with the ultraviolet cut-off scheme. One of the cut-off formalisms is the field theory in terms of the step-function-type basis functions, developed by the present authors. The other is a continuum theory of a fundamental particle with the same cut-off length. Based on the effectiveness of the continuum theory with the cut-off length shown in the examination, the dominant self-energy is the quadratic term of the Higgs field at a quantum level (classical self-energies are reduced to logarithmic forms by quantum corrections). The cut-off length is then determined to reproduce today's tiny value of Lambda for vacuum energy. Additionally, a field with nonperiodic vanishing boundary conditions is treated, showing that the field has no zero-point energy.

  14. Excitation energy of a helium 3 quasiparticle in the bulk mixture at constant pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    A 3 He quasiparticle excitation energy in bulk mixture at zero pressure and 6% solution is calculated to O(x) using the bulk effective interaction of Yim and Massey. The present 3 He quasiparticle excitation energy is in agreement with the experimental result of Hilton, Scherm and Stirling. (author)

  15. Photon spectrometry for the determination of the dose-rate constant of low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhe Jay; Nath, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    Accurate determination of dose-rate constant (Λ) for interstitial brachytherapy sources emitting low-energy photons (<50 keV) has remained a challenge in radiation dosimetry because of the lack of a suitable absolute dosimeter for accurate measurement of the dose rates near these sources. Indeed, a consensus value of Λ taken as the arithmetic mean of the dose-rate constants determined by different research groups and dosimetry techniques has to be used at present for each source model in order to minimize the uncertainties associated with individual determinations of Λ. Because the dosimetric properties of a source are fundamentally determined by the characteristics of the photons emitted by the source, a new technique based on photon spectrometry was developed in this work for the determination of dose-rate constant. The photon spectrometry technique utilized a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer to measure source-specific photon characteristics emitted by the low-energy sources and determine their dose-rate constants based on the measured photon-energy spectra and known dose-deposition properties of mono-energetic photons in water. This technique eliminates many of the difficulties arising from detector size, the energy dependence of detector sensitivity, and the use of non-water-equivalent solid phantoms in absolute dose rate measurements. It also circumvents the uncertainties that might be associated with the source modeling in Monte Carlo simulation techniques. It was shown that the estimated overall uncertainty of the photon spectrometry technique was less than 4%, which is significantly smaller than the reported 8-10% uncertainty associated with the current thermo-luminescent dosimetry technique. In addition, the photon spectrometry technique was found to be stable and quick in Λ determination after initial setup and calibration. A dose-rate constant can be determined in less than two hours for each source. These features make it ideal to determine

  16. Surfactant media for constant-current coulometry. Application for the determination of antioxidants in pharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel, E-mail: Ziyatdinovag@mail.ru [Analytical Chemistry Department, A.M. Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Ziganshina, Endzhe; Budnikov, Herman [Analytical Chemistry Department, A.M. Butlerov Institute of Chemistry, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyevskaya, 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applicability of surfactants in constant-current coulometry is shown for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactions of antioxidants with electrogenerated titrants in surfactant media are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water insoluble antioxidants can be determined in water media with addition of surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulometric determination of antioxidants in pharmaceutical dosage forms using surfactants media is developed. - Abstract: Effect of surfactant presence on electrochemical generation of titrants has been evaluated and discussed for the first time. Cationic (1-dodecylpyridinium and cetylpyridinium bromide), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and nonionic (Triton X100 and Brij{sup Registered-Sign} 35) surfactants as well as nonionic high molecular weight polymer (PEG 4000) do not react with the electrogenerated bromine, iodine and hexacyanoferrate(III) ions. The electrogenerated chlorine chemically interact with Triton X100 and Brij{sup Registered-Sign} 35. The allowable range of surfactants concentrations providing 100% current yield has been found. Chain-breaking low molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid, rutin, {alpha}-tocopherol and retinol) were determined by reaction with the electrogenerated titrants in surfactant media. Nonionic and cationic surfactants can be used for the determination of antioxidants by reaction with the electrogenerated halogens. On contrary, cationic surfactants gives significantly overstated results of antioxidants determination with electrogenerated hexacyanoferrate(III) ions. The use of surfactants in coulometry of {alpha}-tocopherol and retinol provides their solubilization and allows to perform titration in water media. Simple, express and reliable coulometric approach for determination of {alpha}-tocopherol, rutin and ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals using surfactant media has been developed. The relative standard deviation of the

  17. Localized fluidity modes and the topology of the constant-potential-energy hypersurfaces of Lennard-Jones matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotterill, Rodney M J; Madsen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sections of configuration space for Lennard-Jones matter were obtained by probing all the normal-mode energy profiles, following diagonalization of the dynamical matrix for a 240-particle system. For the crystal and sufficiently cold glass, these are single welled, whereas increasing numbers...... of double wells occur as the glass is warmed toward the fluid. This indicates that there might be a fundamental difference between the topologies of the constant-potential-energy hypersurfaces of crystalline and noncrystalline Lennard-Jones matter....

  18. The D(+) + H2 reaction: differential and integral cross sections at low energy and rate constants at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lezana, Tomás; Scribano, Yohann; Honvault, Pascal

    2014-08-21

    The D(+) + H2 reaction is investigated by means of a time independent quantum mechanical (TIQM) and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods. Differential cross sections and product rotational distributions obtained with these two theoretical approaches for collision energies between 1 meV and 0.1 eV are compared to analyze the dynamics of the process. The agreement observed between the TIQM differential cross sections and the SQM predictions as the energy increases revealed the role played by the complex-forming mechanism. The importance of a good description of the asymptotic regions is also investigated by calculating rate constants for the title reaction at low temperature.

  19. Simple analytical approximation for rotationally inelastic rate constants based on the energy corrected sudden scaling law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the energy corrected sudden (ECS) scaling law of De Pristo et al. when conbined with the power law assumption for the basis rates k/sub l/→0proportional[l(l+1)]/sup -g/ can accurately fit a wide body of rotational energy transfer data. We develop a simple and accurate approximation to this fitting law, and in addition mathematically show the connection between it and our earlier proposed energy based law which also has been successful in describing both theoretical and experimental data on rotationally inelastic collisions

  20. Porous Materials with Ultralow Optical Constants for Integrated Optical Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuen-Li; Hsieh, Chung-I; Cheng, Chao-Chia; Chang, Chia-Pin; Hsu, Wen-Hau; Wang, Way-Seen; Liu, Po-Tsun

    2005-07-01

    Ultralow dielectric constant (polymers. We demonstrate two structures, ridge waveguides and large-angle Y-branch power splitters, composed of PPSZ and SU8 films to illustrate the use of low dielectric constant (K) cladding materials. The simulation results indicate that the PPSZ films provide better confinement of light. Experimentally, a large-angle Y-branch power splitter with PPSZ cladding can be used to guide waves with the large branching angle of 33.58°.

  1. Rationally designed polyimides for high-energy density capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Baldwin, Aaron F; Wang, Chenchen; Offenbach, Ido; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Ramprasad, Rampi; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2014-07-09

    Development of new dielectric materials is of great importance for a wide range of applications for modern electronics and electrical power systems. The state-of-the-art polymer dielectric is a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film having a maximal energy density of 5 J/cm(3) and a high breakdown field of 700 MV/m, but with a limited dielectric constant (∼2.2) and a reduced breakdown strength above 85 °C. Great effort has been put into exploring other materials to fulfill the demand of continuous miniaturization and improved functionality. In this work, a series of polyimides were investigated as potential polymer materials for this application. Polyimide with high dielectric constants of up to 7.8 that exhibits low dissipation factors (dielectric constant and band gap. Correlations of experimental and theoretical results through judicious variations of polyimide structures allowed for a clear demonstration of the relationship between chemical functionalities and dielectric properties.

  2. Converting Constant Volume, Multizone Air Handling Systems to Energy Efficient Variable Air Volume Multizone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    TO OTHER ZONE DAMPERS N.O. TEMPERATURE SENSOR CHILLED WATER ZONE 1 STAT SUPPLY FAN COLD DECK COIL TO OTHER ZONE DAMPERS ZONE 1 DAMPER ACTUATOR HOT... water pump usage were considered. Figure 25. Condensing Boiler Combustion Efficiencies 3. Chilled water system losses : Similarly, electrical energy...required to meet cooling demands at the chilled water coil BTU meter is dependent on network losses and chiller energy efficiency ratios. Using

  3. Einstein-Cartan Gravity with Torsion Field Serving as an Origin for the Cosmological Constant or Dark Energy Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.

    2016-09-01

    We analyse the Einstein-Cartan gravity in its standard form { R }=R+{{ K }}2, where { R } {and} R are the Ricci scalar curvatures in the Einstein-Cartan and Einstein gravity, respectively, and {{ K }}2 is the quadratic contribution of torsion in terms of the contorsion tensor { K }. We treat torsion as an external (or background) field and show that its contribution to the Einstein equations can be interpreted in terms of the torsion energy-momentum tensor, local conservation of which in a curved spacetime with an arbitrary metric or an arbitrary gravitational field demands a proportionality of the torsion energy-momentum tensor to a metric tensor, a covariant derivative of which vanishes owing to the metricity condition. This allows us to claim that torsion can serve as an origin for the vacuum energy density, given by the cosmological constant or dark energy density in the universe. This is a model-independent result that may explain the small value of the cosmological constant, which is a long-standing problem in cosmology. We show that the obtained result is valid also in the Poincaré gauge gravitational theory of Kibble, where the Einstein-Hilbert action can be represented in the same form: { R }=R+{{ K }}2.

  4. A reverse Monte Carlo method for deriving optical constants of solids from reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, B.; Sun, Y.; Ding, Z. J.; Mao, S. F.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jin, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tanuma, S.

    2013-01-01

    A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is developed to obtain the energy loss function (ELF) and optical constants from a measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum by an iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation procedure. The method combines the simulated annealing method, i.e., a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters, surface and bulk excitation weighting factors, and band gap energy, with a conventional MC simulation of electron interaction with solids, which acts as a single step of MCMC sampling in this RMC method. To examine the reliability of this method, we have verified that the output data of the dielectric function are essentially independent of the initial values of the trial parameters, which is a basic property of a MCMC method. The optical constants derived for SiO 2 in the energy loss range of 8-90 eV are in good agreement with other available data, and relevant bulk ELFs are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. Our results show that the dielectric function can be obtained by the RMC method even with a wide range of initial trial parameters. The RMC method is thus a general and effective method for determining the optical properties of solids from REELS measurements.

  5. Description of an identification method of thermocouple time constant based on application of recursive numerical filtering to temperature fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.; Le Guillou, G.; Parcy, JP.

    1981-04-01

    Usual spectral methods, based on temperature fluctuation analysis, aiming at thermocouple time constant identification are using an equipment too much sophisticated for on-line application. It is shown that numerical filtering is optimal for this application, the equipment is simpler than for spectral methods and less samples of signals are needed for the same accuracy. The method is described and a parametric study was performed using a temperature noise simulator [fr

  6. Discretization of space and time: mass-energy relation, accelerating expansion of the Universe, Hubble constant

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the gravitational potential energy that at large distance coincides with the Newtonian. In very precise circumstances it coincides with the relativistic mass-energy relation: this shows that the Universe is a black hole in which all bodies are subjected to an acceleration toward the border of the Universe itself. Since the Universe is a black hole with a fixed radius, we can obtain the density of the Unive...

  7. Converting Constant Volume, Multizone Air Handling Systems to Energy Efficient Variable Air Volume Multizone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Wallace 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...28  8.2.2  Zone Heating or Cooling Load Imbalance ...Ft. Bragg ........ 24  Table 12. Reduction in Life Cycle Energy Costs for Incremental Retrofits ................................. 25  Table 13. Simple

  8. Low-energy electron impact cross-sections and rate constants of

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anand Bharadvaja

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... nitrogen-containing compounds in fuels [13,14] etc. The. NH2 radical also known ... tron scattering from molecules and ions [37,38]. In the R-matrix ..... of photon energy, plasma dispersion effects become neg- ligible. Equation ...

  9. energy and economic losses due to constant power outages in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... equate supply of energy restricts socio-economic ac- tivities, limits economic .... to the overall U.S economy in 1970. Since then as reported [5], the .... GHGs include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and ...

  10. Application of an Artificial Neural Network to the Prediction of OH Radical Reaction Rate Constants for Evaluating Global Warming Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Thomas C

    2016-03-03

    Rate constants for reactions of chemical compounds with hydroxyl radical are a key quantity used in evaluating the global warming potential of a substance. Experimental determination of these rate constants is essential, but it can also be difficult and time-consuming to produce. High-level quantum chemistry predictions of the rate constant can suffer from the same issues. Therefore, it is valuable to devise estimation schemes that can give reasonable results on a variety of chemical compounds. In this article, the construction and training of an artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction of rate constants at 298 K for reactions of hydroxyl radical with a diverse set of molecules is described. Input to the ANN consists of counts of the chemical bonds and bends present in the target molecule. The ANN is trained using 792 (•)OH reaction rate constants taken from the NIST Chemical Kinetics Database. The mean unsigned percent error (MUPE) for the training set is 12%, and the MUPE of the testing set is 51%. It is shown that the present methodology yields rate constants of reasonable accuracy for a diverse set of inputs. The results are compared to high-quality literature values and to another estimation scheme. This ANN methodology is expected to be of use in a wide range of applications for which (•)OH reaction rate constants are required. The model uses only information that can be gathered from a 2D representation of the molecule, making the present approach particularly appealing, especially for screening applications.

  11. Exact mean-energy expansion of Ginibre's gas for coupling constants Γ =2 ×(oddinteger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, R.; Téllez, G.

    2017-12-01

    Using the approach of a Vandermonde determinant to the power Γ =Q2/kBT expansion on monomial functions, a way to find the excess energy Uexc of the two-dimensional one-component plasma (2DOCP) on hard and soft disks (or a Dyson gas) for odd values of Γ /2 is provided. At Γ =2 , the present study not only corroborates the result for the particle-particle energy contribution of the Dyson gas found by Shakirov [Shakirov, Phys. Lett. A 375, 984 (2011), 10.1016/j.physleta.2011.01.004] by using an alternative approach, but also provides the exact N -finite expansion of the excess energy of the 2DOCP on the hard disk. The excess energy is fitted to the ansatz of the form Uexc=K1N +K2√{N }+K3+K4/N +O (1 /N2) to study the finite-size correction, with Ki coefficients and N the number of particles. In particular, the bulk term of the excess energy is in agreement with the well known result of Jancovici for the hard disk in the thermodynamic limit [Jancovici, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 386 (1981), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.46.386]. Finally, an expression is found for the pair correlation function which still keeps a link with the random matrix theory via the kernel in the Ginibre ensemble [Ginibre, J. Math. Phys. 6, 440 (1965), 10.1063/1.1704292] for odd values of Γ /2 . A comparison between the analytical two-body density function and histograms obtained with Monte Carlo simulations for small systems and Γ =2 ,6 ,10 ,... shows that the approach described in this paper may be used to study analytically the crossover behavior from systems in the fluid phase to small crystals.

  12. Application of the variational method for calculation of neutron spectra and group constants - Master thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    1979-01-01

    One-dimensional variational method for cylindrical configuration was applied for calculating group constants, together with effects of elastic slowing down, anisotropic elastic scattering, inelastic scattering, heterogeneous resonance absorption with the aim to include the presence of a number of different isotopes and effects of neutron leakage from the reactor core. Neutron flux shape P 3 and adjoint function are proposed in order to enable calculation of smaller size reactors and inclusion of heterogeneity effects by cell calculations. Microscopic multigroup constants were prepared based on the UKNDL data library. Analytical-numerical approach was applied for solving the equations of the P 3 approximation to obtain neutron flux moments and adjoint functions

  13. Low-Velocity Impact Wear Behavior of Ball-to-Flat Contact Under Constant Kinetic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang; Cai, Zhen-bing; Chen, Zhi-qiang; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Min-hao

    2017-11-01

    The impact tests were conducted on metallic materials with different bulk hardness and Young's moduli. Analysis of the dynamics response during the tribological process showed that the tested materials had similar energy absorption, where the peak contact force increased as the tests continued. Moreover, wear volume decreased with the increase in Young's modulus of metals, except for Cr with a relatively low hardness. Wear rate was gradually reduced to a steady stage with increasing cycles, which was attributed to the decrease in contact stress and work-hardening effect. The main wear mechanism of impact was characterized by delamination, and the specific surface degradation mechanisms were depending on the mechanical properties of materials. The absorbed energy was used to the propagation of micro-cracks in the subsurface instead of plastic deformation, when resistance of friction wear and plastic behavior was improved. Hence, both the hardness and Young's modulus played important roles in the impact wear of metallic materials.

  14. Converting Constant Volume, Multizone Air Handling Systems to Energy Efficient Variable Air Volume Multizone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Figure 30). Similar market shifts are a risk to the return on investment of energy conservation projects. In order to mitigate risk due to market ...strategies, including resource conservation , use, site criteria, and indoor environmental quality. • Set greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goals for...reduction/ conservation technologies such as this run some risk of reducing occupant comfort therefore this was monitored and measured. Metric

  15. Effect of constant digestible protein intake and varying digestible energy levels on energy and protein utilization in Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, M.N.; Bleeker, S.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    In literature, the variability in the estimated optimal digestible protein to digestible energy ratio (DP/DE) is high. The present study aimed to estimate the optimal DP/DE ratio in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using different criteria (performance, energy and nitrogen balances parameters).

  16. Effect of temperature on a free energy and equilibrium constants during dry flue gas desulphurisation chemical reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Miloš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available During dry flue gas desulphurisation (FGD dry particles of reagents are inserted (injected in the stream of flue gas, where they bond SO2. As reagents, the most often are used compounds of calcium (CaCO3, CaO or Ca(OH2. Knowledge of free energy and equilibrium constants of chemical reactions during dry FGD is necessary for understanding of influence of flue gas temperature to course of these chemical reactions as well as to SO2 bonding from flue gases.

  17. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D.; Nguyen, Duy-Anh P.; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  18. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D. [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Duy-Anh P. [Department of Natural Science, Thu Dau Mot University, 6, Tran Van On Street, Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong Province (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van-Hung [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: levanhoang@tdt.edu.vn [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-08-15

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  19. Gas distribution systems. A constant in the energy transition; Gasnetze. Eine Konstante im Energiewandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, Ralph [ONTRAS - VNG Gastransport GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    In the course of the energy transition the gas network infrastructure and the supply of renewable gases provide a valuable potential to be exploited. However the given the regulatory framework are blocking the necessary reorientation and thus hinder the achievement of politically set climate protection targets. [German] Im Zuge der Energiewende bieten die Gasnetzinfrastruktur und die Einspeisung regenerativer Gase ein wertvolles Potenzial, das es zu nutzen gilt. Die gegebenen regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen blockieren jedoch die dafuer noetige Umorientierung und behindern damit die Erreichung der politisch gesetzten Klimaschutzziele.

  20. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: constraining the evolution of Newton's constant using the growth rate of structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesseris, Savvas; Blake, Chris; Davis, Tamara; Parkinson, David

    2011-01-01

    We constrain the evolution of Newton's constant using the growth rate of large-scale structure measured by the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey in the redshift range 0.1 m (assuming General Relativity), and use this to construct a diagnostic to detect the presence of an evolving Newton's constant. Secondly we directly measure the evolution of Newton's constant, G eff , that appears in Modified Gravity theories, without assuming General Relativity to be true. The novelty of these approaches are that, contrary to other methods, they do not require knowledge of the expansion history of the Universe, H(z), making them model independent tests. Our constraints for the second derivative of Newton's constant at the present day, assuming it is slowly evolving as suggested by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints, using the WiggleZ data is G double-dot eff (t 0 ) = −1.19 ± 0.95·10 −20 h 2 yr −2 , where h is defined via H 0 = 100 h km s −1 Mpc −1 , while using both the WiggleZ and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxy (SDSS LRG) data is G double-dot eff (t 0 ) = −3.6 ± 6.8·10 −21 h 2 yr −2 , both being consistent with General Relativity. Finally, our constraint for the rms mass fluctuation σ 8 using the WiggleZ data is σ 8 = 0.75 ± 0.08, while using both the WiggleZ and the SDSS LRG data σ 8 = 0.77 ± 0.07, both in good agreement with the latest measurements from the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation

  1. Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire arrays with a large lattice constant for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, we use the transfer matrix method to calculate the optical absorptance of vertically-aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays. For fixed filling ratio, significant optical absorption enhancement occurs when the lattice constant is increased from 100 nm to 600 nm. The enhancement arises from an increase in field concentration within the nanowire as well as excitation of guided resonance modes. We quantify the absorption enhancement in terms of ultimate efficiency. Results show that an optimized SiNW array with lattice constant of 600 nm and wire diameter of 540 nm has a 72.4% higher ultimate efficiency than a Si thin film of equal thickness. The enhancement effect can be maintained over a large range of incidence angles.

  2. Periodic solutions of differential equations with a general piecewise constant argument and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shou Chiu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of the periodic solutions of a quasilinear differential equation with piecewise constant argument of generalized type. By using some fixed point theorems and some new analysis technique, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions of these systems. A new Gronwall type lemma is proved. Some examples concerning biological models as Lasota-Wazewska, Nicholson's blowflies and logistic models are treated.

  3. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  4. New holographic dark energy model with constant bulk viscosity in modified f(R,T) gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Milan; Singh, C. P.

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study new holographic dark energy (HDE) model in modified f(R,T) gravity theory within the framework of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with bulk viscous matter content. It is thought that the negative pressure caused by the bulk viscosity can play the role of dark energy component, and drive the accelerating expansion of the universe. This is the motive of this paper to observe such phenomena with bulk viscosity. In the specific model f(R,T)=R+λ T, where R is the Ricci scalar, T the trace of the energy-momentum tensor and λ is a constant, we find the solution for non-viscous and viscous new HDE models. We analyze new HDE model with constant bulk viscosity, ζ =ζ 0= const. to explain the present accelerated expansion of the universe. We classify all possible scenarios (deceleration, acceleration and their transition) with possible positive and negative ranges of λ over the constraint on ζ 0 to analyze the evolution of the universe. We obtain the solutions of scale factor and deceleration parameter, and discuss the evolution of the universe. We observe the future finite-time singularities of type I and III at a finite time under certain constraints on λ . We also investigate the statefinder and Om diagnostics of the viscous new HDE model to discriminate with other existing dark energy models. In late time the viscous new HDE model approaches to Λ CDM model. We also discuss the thermodynamics and entropy of the model and find that it satisfies the second law of thermodynamics.

  5. Tailoring the optical constants in single-crystal silicon with embedded silver nanostructures for advanced silicon photonics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Perveen; Huang, Mengbing; Spratt, William; Kadakia, Nirag; Amir, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic effects associated with metal nanostructures are expected to hold the key to tailoring light emission/propagation and harvesting solar energy in materials including single crystal silicon which remains the backbone in the microelectronics and photovoltaics industries but unfortunately, lacks many functionalities needed for construction of advanced photonic and optoelectronics devices. Currently, silicon plasmonic structures are practically possible only in the configuration with metal nanoparticles or thin film arrays on a silicon surface. This does not enable one to exploit the full potential of plasmonics for optical engineering in silicon, because the plasmonic effects are dominant over a length of ∼50 nm, and the active device region typically lies below the surface much beyond this range. Here, we report on a novel method for the formation of silver nanoparticles embedded within a silicon crystal through metal gettering from a silver thin film deposited at the surface to nanocavities within the Si created by hydrogen ion implantation. The refractive index of the Ag-nanostructured layer is found to be 3–10% lower or higher than that of silicon for wavelengths below or beyond ∼815–900 nm, respectively. Around this wavelength range, the optical extinction values increase by a factor of 10–100 as opposed to the pure silicon case. Increasing the amount of gettered silver leads to an increased extinction as well as a redshift in wavelength position for the resonance. This resonance is attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of the resultant silver nanoparticles in silicon. Additionally, we show that the profiles for optical constants in silicon can be tailored by varying the position and number of nanocavity layers. Such silicon crystals with embedded metal nanostructures would offer novel functional base structures for applications in silicon photonics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and plasmonics

  6. S3 HMBC: Spin-State-Selective HMBC for accurate measurement of homonuclear coupling constants. Application to strychnine yielding thirteen hitherto unreported JHH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, Louise; Benie, Andrew J.; Hoeck, Casper

    2016-01-01

    A novel method, Spin-State-Selective (S3) HMBC, for accurate measurement of homonuclear coupling constants is introduced. As characteristic for S3 techniques, S3 HMBC yields independent subspectra corresponding to particular passive spin states and thus allows determination of coupling constants ...... are demonstrated by an application to strychnine where thirteen JHH coupling constants not previously reported could be measured....

  7. Nanoscale applications for information and energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Korkin, Anatoli

    2012-01-01

    This book presents nanotechnology fundamentals and applications in the key research areas of information technology and solar energy: plasmonics, photovoltaics, transparent conducting electrodes, silicon electroplating, and resistive switching.

  8. Applications of nuclear energy in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts and international frames of generation IV nuclear reactors. A review of use of nuclear energy for non electric applications especially in areas such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, district heating and other industrial applications. (Author)

  9. Systems with a constant heat flux with applications to radiative heat transport across nanoscale gaps and layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.

    2018-06-01

    We extend the statistical analysis of equilibrium systems to systems with a constant heat flux. This extension leads to natural generalizations of Maxwell-Boltzmann's and Planck's equilibrium energy distributions to energy distributions of systems with a net heat flux. This development provides a long needed foundation for addressing problems of nanoscale heat transport by a systematic method based on a few fundamental principles. As an example, we consider the computation of the radiative heat flux between narrowly spaced half-spaces maintained at different temperatures.

  10. Bloch–Siegert shift in application to the astrophysical determination of the fundamental constants variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyev, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the Bloch–Siegert shift for the different values of magnetic field's strengths defined at astrophysical conditions, i.e. when the stars with the strong surface magnetic fields are taken as a powerful pumping source of radiation. It is found that the additional shift of resonant frequency should be taken into account in the search for the time variation of the fundamental constants. The main conclusion is that the influence of the electromagnetic field should be considered carefully in each special case of the corresponding frequency determination

  11. Pre-stressed rubber material constant estimation for resilient wheel application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, Petr; Pešek, Luděk; Bula, Vítězslav; Cibulka, Jan; Boháč, T.; Tašek, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 113, November (2017), s. 76-83 ISSN 0965-9978 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : identification * rubber * viscous-elastic constant * pre-press * dynamic loading Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Applied mechanics Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016 https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0965997816301922/1-s2.0-S0965997816301922-main. pdf ?_tid=f45f931e-b303-11e7-bccc-00000aab0f01&acdnat=1508221702_e80a18f480ff855769f5eeb99d492c24

  12. Developmental Times of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at Constant Temperatures and Applications in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Qiang; Li, Xue-Bo; Shao, Ru-Yue; Lyu, Zhou; Li, Hong-Wei; Li, Gen-Ping; Xu, Lyu-Zi; Wan, Li-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The characteristic life stages of infesting blowflies (Calliphoridae) such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) are powerful evidence for estimating the death time of a corpse, but an established reference of developmental times for local blowfly species is required. We determined the developmental rates of C. megacephala from southwest China at seven constant temperatures (16-34°C). Isomegalen and isomorphen diagrams were constructed based on the larval length and time for each developmental event (first ecdysis, second ecdysis, wandering, pupariation, and eclosion), at each temperature. A thermal summation model was constructed by estimating the developmental threshold temperature D0 and the thermal summation constant K. The thermal summation model indicated that, for complete development from egg hatching to eclosion, D0 = 9.07 ± 0.54°C and K = 3991.07 ± 187.26 h °C. This reference can increase the accuracy of estimations of postmortem intervals in China by predicting the growth of C. megacephala. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Rate Constants and Activation Energies for Gas-Phase Reactions of Three Cyclic Volatile Methyl Siloxanes with the Hydroxyl Radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safron, Andreas; Strandell, Michael; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Macleod, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH) is the major pathway for removal of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) from air. We present new measurements of second-order rate constants for reactions of the cVMS octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D 4 ), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D 5 ), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D 6 ) with OH determined at temperatures between 313 and 353 K. Our measurements were made using the method of relative rates with cyclohexane as a reference substance and were conducted in a 140-mL gas-phase reaction chamber with online mass spectrometry analysis. When extrapolated to 298 K, our measured reaction rate constants of D 4 and D 5 with the OH radical are 1.9 × 10 -12 (95% confidence interval (CI): (1.7-2.2) × 10 -12 ) and 2.6 × 10 -12 (CI: (2.3-2.9) × 10 -12 ) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , respectively, which are 1.9× and 1.7× faster than previous measurements. Our measured rate constant for D 6 is 2.8 × 10 -12 (CI: (2.5-3.2) × 10 -12 ) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and to our knowledge there are no comparable laboratory measurements in the literature. Reaction rates for D 5 were 33% higher than for D 4 (CI: 30-37%), whereas the rates for D 6 were only 8% higher than for D 5 (CI: 5-10%). The activation energies of the reactions of D 4 , D 5 , and D 6 with OH were not statistically different and had a value of 4300 ± 2800 J/mol.

  14. Rate Constants and Activation Energies for Gas‐Phase Reactions of Three Cyclic Volatile Methyl Siloxanes with the Hydroxyl Radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safron, Andreas; Strandell, Michael; Kierkegaard, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH) is the major pathway for removal of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) from air. We present new measurements of second‐order rate constants for reactions of the cVMS octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) with OH determined at temperatures between 313 and 353 K. Our measurements were made using the method of relative rates with cyclohexane as a reference substance and were conducted in a 140‐mL gas‐phase reaction chamber with online mass spectrometry analysis. When extrapolated to 298 K, our measured reaction rate constants of D4 and D5 with the OH radical are 1.9 × 10−12 (95% confidence interval (CI): (1.7–2.2) × 10−12) and 2.6 × 10−12 (CI: (2.3–2.9) × 10−12) cm3 molecule−1 s−1, respectively, which are 1.9× and 1.7× faster than previous measurements. Our measured rate constant for D6 is 2.8 × 10−12 (CI: (2.5–3.2) × 10−12) cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and to our knowledge there are no comparable laboratory measurements in the literature. Reaction rates for D5 were 33% higher than for D4 (CI: 30–37%), whereas the rates for D6 were only 8% higher than for D5 (CI: 5–10%). The activation energies of the reactions of D4, D5, and D6 with OH were not statistically different and had a value of 4300 ± 2800 J/mol. PMID:27708500

  15. Solid-state fast voltage compensator for pulsed power applications requiring constant AC power consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Magallanes, Francisco Cabaleiro; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel topological solution for pulsed power converters based on capacitor-discharge topologies, integrating a Fast Voltage Compensator which allows an operation at constant power consumption from the utility grid. This solution has been retained as a possible candidate for the CLIC project under study at CERN, which requires more than a thousand synchronously-operated klystron modulators producing a total pulsed power of almost 40 GW. The proposed Fast Voltage Compensator is integrated in the modulator such that it only has to treat the capacitor charger current and a fraction of the charging voltage, meaning that its dimensioning power and cost are minimized. This topology can be used to improve the AC power quality of any pulsed converters based on capacitor-discharge concept. A prototype has been built and exploited to validate the operating principle and demonstrate the benefits of the proposed solution.

  16. Economical scale of nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is supported by two wheels of radiation and energy applications. When comparing both, they have some different sides, such as numbers of employees and researchers, numbers and scales of works, effect on society, affecting effects and regions of industrial actions, problems on safety, viewpoint on nuclear proliferation protection and safety guarantee, energy security, relationship to environmental problem, efforts on wastes disposal, and so on. Here described on economical scale of radiation application in fields of industry, agriculture, and medicine and medical treatment, and on economical scale of energy application in nuclear power generation and its instruments and apparatus. (G.K.)

  17. Energy dependence of the reaction rate constants of Ar+, Ar++ and N2+ ions with Cl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, P.; Holubcik, L.; Morva, I.; Lindinger, W.

    2002-01-01

    Dry etching processes using low temperature plasmas in Cl 2 and in Cl 2 -noble gas or nitrogen mixtures are common in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, but their chemical mechanisms are often poorly understood. Results are given for the reaction rate constant measurements of Ar + , Ar ++ , N 2 + ions with chlorine as a function of mean relative kinetic energy. The experiments were performed by using the innsbruck flow drift tube (IFDT) apparatus. Measurements were done at various E/N values, where E is the electric field strength and N the buffer gas density in the drift section. The mean relative kinetic energy KE CM between the ions and the neutral chlorine Cl 2 was calculated using the Wanniers formula. It was found that The N 2 + , Ar + and Ar ++ positive ions react with chlorine Cl 2 very fast and the corresponding reaction rate coefficients depend on the mean relative kinetic energy. For the reaction of Ar - with Cl 2 , its reaction coefficient depends also on the buffer gas. It can imply the enhancement of Cl 2 + ions during etching of Si in the Ar/Cl 2 mixtures. (nevyjel)

  18. Dark energy and equivalence principle constraints from astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.J.A.P.; Pinho, A.M.M.; Alves, R.F.C.; Pino, M.; Rocha, C.I.S.A.; Wietersheim, M. von

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant α, are becoming an increasingly powerful probe of new physics. Here we discuss how these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, ζ, to the electromagnetic sector) the α variation. Specifically, current data tightly constrains a combination of ζ and the present dark energy equation of state w 0 . Moreover, in these models the new degree of freedom inevitably couples to nucleons (through the α dependence of their masses) and leads to violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle. We obtain indirect bounds on the Eötvös parameter η that are typically stronger than the current direct ones. We discuss the model-dependence of our results and briefly comment on how the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will enable significantly tighter constraints

  19. Dark energy and equivalence principle constraints from astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P.; Pinho, A.M.M.; Alves, R.F.C. [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Pino, M. [Institut Domènech i Montaner, C/Maspujols 21-23, 43206 Reus (Spain); Rocha, C.I.S.A. [Externato Ribadouro, Rua de Santa Catarina 1346, 4000-447 Porto (Portugal); Wietersheim, M. von, E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt, E-mail: Ana.Pinho@astro.up.pt, E-mail: up201106579@fc.up.pt, E-mail: mpc_97@yahoo.com, E-mail: cisar97@hotmail.com, E-mail: maxivonw@gmail.com [Institut Manuel Sales i Ferré, Avinguda de les Escoles 6, 43550 Ulldecona (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant α, are becoming an increasingly powerful probe of new physics. Here we discuss how these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, ζ, to the electromagnetic sector) the α variation. Specifically, current data tightly constrains a combination of ζ and the present dark energy equation of state w{sub 0}. Moreover, in these models the new degree of freedom inevitably couples to nucleons (through the α dependence of their masses) and leads to violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle. We obtain indirect bounds on the Eötvös parameter η that are typically stronger than the current direct ones. We discuss the model-dependence of our results and briefly comment on how the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will enable significantly tighter constraints.

  20. Comparison of escalating, constant, and reduction energy output in ESWL for renal stones: multi-arm prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Danny M; Mabrouki, Mohamed S; Farhat, Karim H; Seida, Mohamed A; Arafa, Mostafa A; Talic, Riyadh F

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to find out the optimized energy delivery strategy in Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL) that yield to the best stone-free rate (SFR). In this clinical trial, 150 consecutive patients were randomized into three groups: (a) Dose escalation, 1500 SW at 18 kV, followed by 1500 SW at 20 kV then 1500 SW at 22 kV. (b) Constant dose, 4500 SW at 20 kV. All patients undergo plain X-ray film of the urinary tract at day 1, 14, and 90 to assess stone-free rate (SFR) which was defined as no stones or painless fragments less than 4 mm. (c) Dose reduction, 1500 SW at 22 kV, followed by 1500 SW at 20 kV and then 1500 SW at 18 kV. The three treatment groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, stone size and distribution of the kidneys, and the need for Double J stent use. On day 90, the SFR achieved was 82, 90, and 84 % in the escalating, constant, and reduction energy groups, respectively. However, this rate was not statistically significant (x 2  = 1.38, p level = 0.28). At a slow rate of 60 shocks, there was no difference in stone-free rate between different voltages at 1, 14, and 90 days. Our randomized clinical trial showed no statistically significant difference in SFR between the three groups while using the slow SWL rate. Our trial is the first randomized trial comparing the three strategies. As such, a dose adjustment strategy while delivering SWL in slow rate was not recommended.

  1. Energy matrices evaluation and exergoeconomic analysis of series connected N partially covered (glass to glass PV module) concentrated-photovoltaic thermal collector: At constant flow rate mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Rohit; Tiwari, G.N.; Dwivedi, V.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fluid, other than water has been chosen for achieving higher outlet temperature. • Mass flow rate and number of collector have been optimized. • Three PVT systems have been compared for evaluating annual energy and exergy. • Life cycle cost analysis has been evaluated to obtain exergetic cost. • Proposed PVT systems have been compared on the basis of energy matrices. - Abstract: In present analysis, a comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the annual performances of three systems or cases at constant flow rate, namely: case (i): partially covered (25% PV module) N concentrated photovoltaic thermal collectors connected in series, case (ii): fully covered (100% PV module) N concentrated photovoltaic thermal collectors in series and case (iii): N (0% PV module) convectional compound parabolic concentrator collector connected in series. Comparison for three cases has also been carried out by considering fluid namely: ethylene glycol for higher outlet temperature and better thermal performance which can be applicable for heating and steaming or small industry purpose. The embodied energy, energy matrices, uniform annual cost, exergetic cost and carbon credits are also evaluated for same systems. The energy payback time is found to be 5.58 years and energy production factor is to be 0.17 on energy basis for case (iii) which is maximum. The exergetic cost has computed as 17.85 Rs/kW h for 30 years of life time of the system. It is observed that N conventional compound parabolic concentrator collector [case (iii)] is most suitable for steam cooking or space heating but not self-sustainable to run the dc power motor due to unavailability of electrical power.

  2. Possible Lead Free Nanocomposite Dielectrics for High Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kurpati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand to improve the energy density of dielectric capacitors for satisfying the next generation material systems. One effective approach is to embed high dielectric constant inclusions such as lead zirconia titanate in polymer matrix. However, with the increasing concerns on environmental safety and biocompatibility, the need to expel lead (Pb from modern electronics has been receiving more attention. Using high aspect ratio dielectric inclusions such as nanowires could lead to further enhancement of energy density. Therefore, the present brief review work focuses on the feasibility of development of a lead-free nanowire reinforced polymer matrix capacitor for energy storage application. It is expected that Lead-free sodium Niobate nanowires (NaNbO3 and Boron nitride will be a future candidate to be synthesized using simple hydrothermal method, followed by mixing them with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF/ divinyl tetramethyl disiloxanebis (benzocyclobutene matrix using a solution-casting method for Nanocomposites fabrication. The energy density of NaNbO3 and BN based composites are also be compared with that of lead-containing (PbTiO3/PVDF Nano composites to show the feasibility of replacing lead-containing materials from high-energy density dielectric capacitors. Further, this paper explores the feasibility of these materials for space applications because of high energy storage capacity, more flexibility and high operating temperatures. This paper is very much useful researchers who would like to work on polymer nanocomposites for high energy storage applications.

  3. Cellulose-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Yao, Chunhua; Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant natural polymer on earth, providing a sustainable green resource that is renewable, degradable, biocompatible, and cost effective. Recently, nanocellulose-based mesoporous structures, flexible thin films, fibers, and networks are increasingly developed and used in photovoltaic devices, energy storage systems, mechanical energy harvesters, and catalysts components, showing tremendous materials science value and application potential in many energy-related fields. In this Review, the most recent advancements of processing, integration, and application of cellulose nanomaterials in the areas of solar energy harvesting, energy storage, and mechanical energy harvesting are reviewed. For solar energy harvesting, promising applications of cellulose-based nanostructures for both solar cells and photoelectrochemical electrodes development are reviewed, and their morphology-related merits are discussed. For energy storage, the discussion is primarily focused on the applications of cellulose-based nanomaterials in lithium-ion batteries, including electrodes (e.g., active materials, binders, and structural support), electrolytes, and separators. Applications of cellulose nanomaterials in supercapacitors are also reviewed briefly. For mechanical energy harvesting, the most recent technology evolution in cellulose-based triboelectric nanogenerators is reviewed, from fundamental property tuning to practical implementations. At last, the future research potential and opportunities of cellulose nanomaterials as a new energy material are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Biomedical applications of radionuclide generators with equal decay constants for parent and daughter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to an article by Spencer and Hosain (Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isotopes; 27:57 (1976)) on the theoretical aspects of radionuclide generator systems in which the parent and daughter nuclides have equal decay constants in which it was suggested that 'it would be possible to use an appropriate chemical compound of a parent and introduce it in a biological system to study the behaviour of the daughter element'. It is here pointed out that this suggestion assumes that in any biological system the daughter radionuclide produced by the decay of the parent nuclide in vivo will readily enter the general 'metabolic' pool of the daughter element. However studies are cited which have shown that virtually all the daughter radionuclide in many such systems remain within the skeleton and thus it is asserted that the assumption that a daughter radionuclide produced by the decay of a parent nuclide in vivo provides a true tracer for the behaviour of the daughter element is not generally valid, and considerable caution would have to be used in the interpretation of results obtained by this type of study. In a reply, the original authors say that the point made is germane but that the concept was well known to them and hence the use of the expression 'an appropriate chemical compound of a parent...' in their original paper. (U.K.)

  5. Application of the constant rate of pressure change method to improve jet pump performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, X P; Yang, X L

    2012-01-01

    This paper adopts a new method named the constant rate of pressure change (CRPC) to improve the jet pump performance. The main contribution of this method is that the diffuser generates uniform pressure gradient. The performance of the jet pump with new diffusers designed by the CRPC method, obtained by CFD methods, was compared with that of the jet pump with traditional conical diffusers. It is found that the CRPC diffuser produces a linear pressure increase indeed. The higher friction loss and the separation decrease the CRPC diffuser efficiency and then lower the pump efficiency. The pump with shorter throats has higher efficiency at small flow ratio while its efficiency is lower than the original pump at lager flow ratio and the peak efficiency of the pumps with the throat length of 5-6 Dt is higher than that of the pumps with other throat length. When the throat length is less than 4 Dt, the CRPC diffuser efficiency is higher than the conical diffuser. The CRPC method could also be used to design the nozzle and other situations needing the pressure change gradually.

  6. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy and remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  8. Electrospinning for advanced energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaliere, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning for Advanced Energy and Environmental Applications delivers a state-of-the-art overview of the use of electrospun fibers in energy conversion and storage, as well as in environmental sensing and remediation. Featuring contributions from leading experts in electrospinning and its specific applications, this book: Introduces the electrospinning technique and its origins, outlining achievable one-dimensional (1D) nanoscaled materials and their various applications Discusses the use of electrospun materials in energy devices, including low- and high-temperature fuel cells, hydrogen storage, dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors Explores environmental applications of electrospun fibers, such as the use of electrospinning-issued materials in membranes for water and air purification, as well as in sensors and biosensors for pollution control Beneficial to both academic and industrial audiences, Electrospinning for Advanced Energy and Environmental Applications present...

  9. Higgs compositeness in Sp(2N) gauge theories - Determining the low-energy constants with lattice calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ed; Ki Hong, Deog; Lee, Jong-Wan; David Lin, C.-J.; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio; Vadacchino, Davide

    2018-03-01

    As a first step towards a quantitative understanding of the SU(4)/Sp(4) composite Higgs model through lattice calculations, we discuss the low energy effective field theory resulting from the SU(4) → Sp(4) global symmetry breaking pattern. We then consider an Sp(4) gauge theory with two Dirac fermion flavours in the fundamental representation on a lattice, which provides a concrete example of the microscopic realisation of the SU(4)/Sp(4) composite Higgs model. For this system, we outline a programme of numerical simulations aiming at the determination of the low-energy constants of the effective field theory and we test the method on the quenched theory. We also report early results from dynamical simulations, focussing on the phase structure of the lattice theory and a calculation of the lowest-lying meson spectrum at coarse lattice spacing. Combined contributions of B. Lucini (e-mail: b.lucini@swansea.ac.uk) and J.-W. Lee (e-mail: wlee823@pusan.ac.kr).

  10. On globally static and stationary cosmologies with or without a cosmological constant and the dark energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchert, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of spatially averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies in classical general relativity, effective Einstein equations govern the regional and the global dynamics of averaged scalar variables of cosmological models. A particular solution may be characterized by a cosmic equation of state. In this paper, it is pointed out that a globally static averaged dust model is conceivable without employing a compensating cosmological constant. Much in the spirit of Einstein's original model we discuss consequences for the global, but also for the regional properties of this cosmology. We then consider the wider class of globally stationary cosmologies that are conceivable in the presented framework. All these models are based on exact solutions of the averaged Einstein equations and provide examples of cosmologies in an out-of-equilibrium state, which we characterize by an information-theoretical measure. It is shown that such cosmologies preserve high-magnitude kinematical fluctuations and so tend to maintain their global properties. The same is true for a Λ-driven cosmos in such a state despite exponential expansion. We outline relations to inflationary scenarios and put the dark energy problem into perspective. Here, it is argued, on the grounds of the discussed cosmologies, that a classical explanation of dark energy through backreaction effects is theoretically conceivable, if the matter-dominated universe emerged from a non-perturbative state in the vicinity of the stationary solution. We also discuss a number of caveats that furnish strong counter arguments in the framework of structure formation in a perturbed Friedmannian model

  11. Relativistic coupled-cluster-theory analysis of energies, hyperfine-structure constants, and dipole polarizabilities of Cd+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Bin; Yu, Yan-Mei; Sahoo, B. K.

    2018-02-01

    Roles of electron correlation effects in the determination of attachment energies, magnetic-dipole hyperfine-structure constants, and electric-dipole (E 1 ) matrix elements of the low-lying states in the singly charged cadmium ion (Cd+) have been analyzed. We employ the singles and doubles approximated relativistic coupled-cluster (RCC) method to calculate these properties. Intermediate results from the Dirac-Hartree-Fock approximation,the second-order many-body perturbation theory, and considering only the linear terms of the RCC method are given to demonstrate propagation of electron correlation effects in this ion. Contributions from important RCC terms are also given to highlight the importance of various correlation effects in the evaluation of these properties. At the end, we also determine E 1 polarizabilities (αE 1) of the ground and 5 p 2P1 /2 ;3 /2 states of Cd+ in the ab initio approach. We estimate them again by replacing some of the E 1 matrix elements and energies from the measurements to reduce their uncertainties so that they can be used in the high-precision experiments of this ion.

  12. Solar applications analysis for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, T.

    1980-01-01

    The role of energy storage as it relates to solar energy systems is considered. Storage technologies to support solar energy applications, the status of storage technologies, requirements and specifications for storage technologies, and the adequacy of the current storage research and development program to meet these requirements are among the factors discussed. Emphasis is placed on identification of where the greatest potential exists for energy storage in support of those solar energy systems which could have a significant impact on the U.S. energy mix.

  13. Analytic solution of vector model kinetic equations with constant kernel and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyshev, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    For the first time exact solutions the heif-space boundary value problems for model kinetic equations is obtained. Here x > 0, μ is an element of (-∞, 0) union (0, +∞), Σ = diag {σ 1 , σ 2 }, C = [c ij ] - 2 x 2-matrix, Ψ (x, μ) is vector-column with elements ψ 1 and ψ 2 . Exact solution of the diffusion slip flow of the binary gas mixture as a application for the model Boltzmann equation with collision operator in the McCormack's form is found. 18 refs

  14. Nuclear energy applications - ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, K.

    1980-01-01

    Following an Austrian referendum in 1978 which showed a small majority against operation of nuclear power stations, the economic penalties involved by this decision are qualitatively discussed, with emphasis on reduced standards of living. Religious considerations are examined and the difficulty of obtaining informed public opinion is stressed. Alternative sources of energy, including nuclear fusion, are briefly referred to. (G.M.E.)

  15. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  16. Study of formation constant of molybdophosphate and it's application in the product of xenotime sand, tooth and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samin; Lahagu, F.; Basuki, K. T.; Ernawati, F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation constant of molybdophosphate complex and it's application in the product of xenotime sand, tooth and bone have been studied by spectrophotometric method. The molybdophosphate complex were formed from reaction between phosphate and molybdate on several of pH in the strong acid condition (pH = 0.45 - 0.71) and several of phosphate mole fraction (0.01 - 0.08). The several of complex formation reactions were determined by matrix disintegration technique. Molybdophosphate complex were founded three forms i.e. (P 2 Mo 18 O 62 ) 6- or 9 MPA, (PMo 11 O 39 ) 7- or 11 MPA and (PMo 12 O 40 ) 3- or 12 MPA. The formation constant of (PMo 12 O 40 ) 3- complex was found β = 10 46.95 ± 10 3.7 , while for (P 2 Mo 18 O 62 ) 6- and (PMo 11 O 39 ) 7- were not detected. The application in samples were found the concentration of P in product of xenotime sand : 5.37±0.08 μg/ml, in canine-tooth: 10.40 - 19.49 % in cutting-tooth : 11.08 - 18.05 % and in bone 10.94 - 14.29 %. (author)

  17. Renewable-energy applications in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper illustrates the main activities carried out concerning development and application of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt. Main attention is devoted to biogas technology, solar and wind energy technologies. The main constraints for implementation of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt and the activities carried out for its release are highlighted. The coordination between the Islamic and other developing countries is highly needed, to achieve marked progress in implementation of renewable energy and sustainable development. Establishment of a network for renewable energy among the Islamic countries can play an active role in these aspects. (author)

  18. Solar energy sciences and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Enteria, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.This book will introduce the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advanc

  19. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  20. Analytic Scalings of the Constant-Neutralization Beam Envelope Equation, with Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarrick, J F

    2007-01-01

    Neutralized transport of relativistic electron beams can achieved in various circumstances. In one form, the beam is transported through a plasma, either pre-formed or beam generated, where the plasma electrons are ejected due to the space charge influence of the beam. The beam can be fully neutralized this way if the plasma is sufficiently dense. Typically, the transport physics of concern in this case are the various macro- and micro-instabilities that can develop due to interactions of the beam with the plasma; charge and current neutralization are certainly important but tend to be just one set of concerns among many. The study of beam/plasma interactions has been active for many years [e.g. 1]. In a different scenario, the beam impinges on a plasma with a sharp boundary (as maintained on the timescale of a beam pulse) and, via space charge, extracts ions from the plasma; extraction energies can be hundreds of kilovolts in the case of tightly focused, high current beams. In this case, the ions have a lower density than the beam and are not accompanied by a plasma electron population; the main transport issue is charge neutralization. Such a sharply bounded plasma can occur via ionization of surface impurities from a solid target; the transport of the beam through this thin layer is typically not of interest relative to the transport upstream of the surface and the beam/target interactions beyond the surface. Since the partial neutralization of the beam changes its focusing characteristics on the target, and since the high extraction energy means the ion column is moving rapidly into the beam and introducing strong time variation, this 'backstreaming ion' phenomenon has been an area of active study in the transport of the high-intensity electron beams used in radiographic accelerators (see [2] for an example of such machines). However, much of the work has been experimental [3] and numerical [4]. The conceptual understanding provided by pencil-and-paper analysis

  1. Electrospun nanofibers for energy and environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong (eds.) [Donghua Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials; Donghua Univ., Shanghai (China). Nanomaterials Research Center

    2014-10-01

    This book offers a comprehensive review of the latest advances in developing functional electrospun nanofibers for energy and environmental applications, which include fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, solar cells, supercapacitors, energy storage materials, sensors, filtration materials, protective clothing, catalysis, structurally-colored fibers, oil spill cleanup, self-cleaning materials, adsorbents, and electromagnetic shielding.

  2. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  3. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  4. Cosmological Hubble constant and nuclear Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbuniev, Amelia; Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang and the evolution of the dense and highly excited nuclear matter formed by relativistic nuclear collisions are investigated and compared. Values of the Hubble constants for cosmological and nuclear processes are obtained. For nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies the nuclear Hubble constant is obtained in the frame of different models involving the hydrodynamic flow of the nuclear matter. Significant difference in the values of the two Hubble constant - cosmological and nuclear - is observed

  5. EVALUTION OF MONOLAYER MOISTURE CAPACITY AND THE ENERGY CONSTANT OF SOME POEDERED SPICES BY USING BET AND GAB MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Nurlela2

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available BET equation (IUPAC standard and GAB equation (European Project Group on physical properties of food recommendation standard for monolayer capacity value evaluations were used for testing the moisture adsorption experimental data of powdered white and black papper, cloves, nutmeg and cinnamon. The BET equation fits only up to aw = 0.44, while the GAB isotherm fits and covers a much wider range (0.06energy constant value of BET that were higher than the GAB vakue was observed only for black pepper sample.

  6. Nanoscale Advances in Catalysis and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yimin; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-05-12

    In this perspective, we present an overview of nanoscience applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and energy conservation technologies. We discuss how novel physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be applied and engineered to meet the advanced material requirements in the new generation of chemical and energy conversion devices. We highlight some of the latest advances in these nanotechnologies and provide an outlook at the major challenges for further developments.

  7. Financing renewable energy for Village Power application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santibanez-Yeneza, G.

    1997-12-01

    When one talks of rural development, no doubt, the issue of rural energy is not far behind. As a significant component of any development strategy, rural energy is seen as the engine for growth that can bring about economic upliftment in the countryside. Many approaches to rural energy development have been tried. These approaches differ from country to country. But regardless of structure and approach, the goal remain essentially the same: to provide rural communities access to reliable energy services at affordable prices. In recent years, as global concern for the environment has increased, many governments have turned to renewable energy as a more environment friendly alternative to rural electrification. Technological advances in renewable energy application has helped to encourage this use. System reliability has improved, development costs have, to some extent been brought down and varied application approaches have been tried and tested in many areas. Indeed, there is huge potential for the development of renewable energy in the rural areas of most developing countries. At the rural level, renewable energy resources are almost always abundantly available: woodwaste, agricultural residues, animal waste, small-scale hydro, wind, solar and even sometimes geothermal resources. Since smaller scale systems are usually expected in these areas, renewable energy technologies can very well serve as decentralized energy systems for rural application. And not only for rural applications, new expansion planning paradigms have likewise led to the emergence of decentralized energy systems not only as supply options but also as corrective measures for maintaining end of line voltage levels. On the other hand, where renewable energy resource can provide significant blocks of power, they can be relied upon to provide indigenous power to the grids.

  8. Neutron applications in materials for energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kearley, Gordon J

    2015-01-01

    Neutron Applications in Materials for Energy collects results and conclusions of recent neutron-based investigations of materials that are important in the development of sustainable energy. Chapters are authored by leading scientists with hands-on experience in the field, providing overviews, recent highlights, and case-studies to illustrate the applicability of one or more neutron-based techniques of analysis. The theme follows energy production, storage, and use, but each chapter, or section, can also be read independently, with basic theory and instrumentation for neutron scattering being

  9. Calculations with spectroscopic accuracy for energies, transition rates, hyperfine interaction constants, and Landé gJ-factors in nitrogen-like Kr XXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Li, S.; Jönsson, P.; Fu, N.; Dang, W.; Guo, X. L.; Chen, C. Y.; Yan, J.; Chen, Z. B.; Si, R.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive self-consistent multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations and second-order many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are performed for the lowest 272 states belonging to the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, 2p5, 2s22p23l, and 2s2p33l (l=s, p, d) configurations of N-like Kr XXX. Complete and consistent data sets of level energies, wavelengths, line strengths, oscillator strengths, lifetimes, AJ, BJ hyperfine interaction constants, Landé gJ-factors, and electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic quadrupole (M2) transition rates among all these levels are given. The present MCDF and MBPT results are compared with each other and with other available experimental and theoretical results. The mean relative difference between our two sets of level energies is only about 0.003% for these 272 levels. The accuracy of the present calculations are high enough to facilitate identification of many observed spectral lines. These accurate data can be served as benchmark for other calculations and can be useful for fusion plasma research and astrophysical applications.

  10. Digital Generation of Noise-Signals with Arbitrary Constant or Time-Varying Spectra (A noise generation software package and its application)

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Artificial creation of arbitrary noise signals is used in accelerator physics to reproduce a measured perturbation spectrum for simulations but also to generate real-time shaped noise spectra for controlled emittance blow-up giving tailored properties to the final bunch shape. It is demonstrated here how one can produce numerically what is, for all practical purposes, an unlimited quantity of non-periodic noise data having any predefined spectral density. This spectral density may be constant or varying with time. The noise output never repeats and has excellent statistical properties, important for very long-term applications. It is difficult to obtain such flexibility and spectral cleanliness using analogue techniques. This algorithm was applied both in computer simulations of bunch behaviour in the presence of RF noise in the PS, SPS and LHC and also to generate real-time noise, tracking the synchrotron frequency change during the energy ramp of the SPS and producing controlled longitudinal emittance blow-...

  11. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  12. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  13. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  15. Electrospinning of Nanofibers for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guiru; Sun, Liqun; Xie, Haiming; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    With global concerns about the shortage of fossil fuels and environmental issues, the development of efficient and clean energy storage devices has been drastically accelerated. Nanofibers are used widely for energy storage devices due to their high surface areas and porosities. Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient fabrication method for nanofibers. In this review, we mainly focus on the application of electrospun nanofibers on energy storage, such as lithium batteries, fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells and supercapacitors. The structure and properties of nanofibers are also summarized systematically. The special morphology of nanofibers prepared by electrospinning is significant to the functional materials for energy storage. PMID:28335256

  16. Electrospinning of Nanofibers for Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiru Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With global concerns about the shortage of fossil fuels and environmental issues, the development of efficient and clean energy storage devices has been drastically accelerated. Nanofibers are used widely for energy storage devices due to their high surface areas and porosities. Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient fabrication method for nanofibers. In this review, we mainly focus on the application of electrospun nanofibers on energy storage, such as lithium batteries, fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells and supercapacitors. The structure and properties of nanofibers are also summarized systematically. The special morphology of nanofibers prepared by electrospinning is significant to the functional materials for energy storage.

  17. Application of low enthalpy geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancher, B.; Giannone, G.

    2007-01-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the superficial layers of the Earth's crust; it can be exploited in several ways, depending on its temperature. Many systems have been developed to use this clean and renewable energy resource. This paper deals with a particular application of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Latisana (district of Udine NE, Italy). The Latisana's indoor stadium is equipped with geothermal plant that uses low temperature water (29-30 0 ) to provide heating. Economic analysis shows that the cost of its plant is comparable to the cost powered by other kinds of renewable energy resources

  18. Characterizing Energy per Job in Cloud Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thao Nguyen Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a major research focus in sustainable development and is becoming even more critical in information technology (IT with the introduction of new technologies, such as cloud computing and big data, that attract more business users and generate more data to be processed. While many proposals have been presented to optimize power consumption at a system level, the increasing heterogeneity of current workloads requires a finer analysis in the application level to enable adaptive behaviors and in order to reduce the global energy usage. In this work, we focus on batch applications running on virtual machines in the context of data centers. We analyze the application characteristics, model their energy consumption and quantify the energy per job. The analysis focuses on evaluating the efficiency of applications in terms of performance and energy consumed per job, in particular when shared resources are used and the hosts on which the virtual machines are running are heterogeneous in terms of energy profiles, with the aim of identifying the best combinations in the use of resources.

  19. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  20. Are fundamental constants really constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Reasons for suspecting that fundamental constants might change with time are reviewed. Possible consequences of such variations are examined. The present status of experimental tests of these ideas is discussed

  1. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  2. Metal chalcogenide nanostructures for renewable energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq

    2014-01-01

    This first ever reference book that focuses on metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures for renewable energy applications encapsulates the state-of-the-art in multidisciplinary research on the metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures (nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires,  nanobelts, nanoflowers, nanoribbons and more).  The properties and synthesis of a class of nanomaterials is essential to renewable energy manufacturing and this book focuses on the synthesis of metal chalcogendie nanostructures, their growth mechanism, optical, electrical, and other important prop

  3. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPIELMAN, RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999

  4. New Recursive Representations for the Favard Constants with Application to Multiple Singular Integrals and Summation of Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana Georgieva Gocheva-Ilieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are obtained integral form and recurrence representations for some Fourier series and connected with them Favard constants. The method is based on preliminary integration of Fourier series which permits to establish general recursion formulas for Favard constants. This gives the opportunity for effective summation of infinite series and calculation of some classes of multiple singular integrals by the Favard constants.

  5. Applications of SSNTD's in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-09-01

    Different applications of the emulsion technique in high energy physics are given. Investigations of heavy ion and proton-nucleus reactions with the conventional emulsion technique are presented together with a short interpretation of recent results. Methods of using nuclear emulsion with embedded targets will be discussed. Emulsion stacks in hybrid systems with electronic tagging suggest a new and interesting application of the emulsion technique. (Auth.)

  6. Vibration Energy Harvesting Potential for Turbomachinery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian STOICESCU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vibration energy harvesting process represents one of the research directions for increasing power efficiency of electric systems, increasing instrumentation nodes autonomy in hard to reach locations and decreasing total system mass by eliminating cables and higher-power adapters. Research based on the possibility of converting vibration energy into useful electric energy is used to evaluate the potential of its use on turbomachinery applications. Aspects such as the structure and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, harvesting networks, their setup and optimization, are considered. Finally, performance test results are shown using piezoelectric systems on a turbine engine.

  7. Potential energy curves and spectroscopic constants for the X1μ+ and A1μ+ states of the BeH+ Molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornellas, F.R.

    1982-02-01

    Using a 1322-term configuration interaction wavefunction potential energy curves are computed for the ground (X 1 μ + ) and first excited (A 1 μ + ) states of the BeH + molecule. Spectroscopic constants are obtained by means of a Dunham analysis. (Author) [pt

  8. Application of accelerated evaluation method of alteration temperature and constant dose rate irradiation on bipolar linear regulator LM317

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wei; Wu Xue; Wang Xin; Zhang Jinxin; Zhang Xiaofu; Zheng Qiwen; Ma Wuying; Lu Wu; Guo Qi; He Chengfa

    2014-01-01

    With different irradiation methods including high dose rate irradiation, low dose rate irradiation, alteration temperature and constant dose rate irradiation, and US military standard constant high temperature and constant dose rate irradiation, the ionizing radiation responses of bipolar linear regulator LM317 from three different companies were investigated under the operating and zero biases. The results show that compared with constant high temperature and constant dose rate irradiation method, the alteration temperature and constant dose rate irradiation method can not only very rapidly and accurately evaluate the dose rate effect of three bipolar linear regulators, but also well simulate the damage of low dose rate irradiation. Experiment results make the alteration temperature and constant dose rate irradiation method successfully apply to bipolar linear regulator. (authors)

  9. Calculation of the nuclear vertex constant for the virtual decay 6LI→α + d in the three- body model and its astrophysical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, L.D.; Igamov, S.B.; Nishonov, MM; Yarmukhamedov, R; Kamimura, M.

    2003-01-01

    The d(α, γ) 6 Li reaction is one of the sources of 6 Li production in the Big-Bang nuclear synthesis. At present extremely large uncertainties exist on this prediction mainly due to the absence of reliable directly measured cross section (or astrophysical S-factor, S(E)) at astrophysical relevant energies E, including E=0. As far theoretical calculation of the S(E) that have rather large spread. On the other hand, the d(α, γ) 6 Li reaction is predominantly of peripheral character at extremely low energies. Therefore the calculated S(E) at extremely low energies is mainly determined by the nuclear vertex constant (NVC) (or respective asymptotic normalization constant (ANC)) for the virtual decay 6 Li→α + d. Taking into account this circumstance we develop a method of calculation of the NVC for the virtual decay 6 Li→α + d for the subsequent application of the calculated one to the direct radiative capture d(α, γ) 6 Li cross - section (or astrophysical S-factor) calculation at extremely low energies E, including E=0. The developed method is based on the three-body Faddeev approach which is applied for the α-d scattering by using different forms of the NN- and αN-potentials. As a result the values of NVC and respective ANC for 6 Li→α + d virtual decay are obtained using two forms both for NN- and for αN-potential. They are the separable potentials with Yamaguchi type form factor and Paris potential with PEST 16 form factor for the NN- potential and Yamaguchi type form factor and Sack-Biedenharn-Breit potential for the αN- potential. A noticeable sensitivity to used forms of the NN- and αN- potential occurs both for the calculated NVC (or ANC) and astrophysical S- factor S(E) of the direct radiative capture d(α, γ) 6 Li reaction at extremely low energies E (≤100 keV), including the value E=0. The calculated S(E) have been obtained using the information about the NVC values. The obtained values of NVC and S(E) are compared with those of obtained

  10. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  11. Nuclear energy I, Non-energetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigue G, J.; Navarrete T, M.; Cabrera M, L.; Arandia, P.A.; Arriola S, H.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear energy is defined as the energy produced or absorbed in the nuclear reactions, therefore, these are divided in endothermic and exothermic. The exothermic nuclear reactions present more interest from the point of view of its applications and they can show in four main forms: radioactivity (from 0 to 4 MeV/reaction; light nucleus fusion ( ∼ 20 MeV/reaction), heavy nucleus fusion (∼ 200 MeV/reaction) and nucleons annihilation ( ∼ 2000 MeV/reaction). Nowadays only the fission has reached the stage of profitable energetic application, finding the other three forms in research and development. The non-energetic applications of the nuclear energy are characterized by they do not require of prior conversion to another form of energy and they are made through the use of radioisotopes as well as through the use of endothermic reaction caused in particle accelerators. In this work are presented some of the non-energetic applications with its theoretical and experimental basis as well as its benefits of each one. (Author)

  12. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  13. Silicon carbide as platform for energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syväjärvi, Mikael; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Sun, Jianwu

    and solar cells, and further pursue concepts in materials for thermoelectrics, biofuel cells and supercapacitor research proposals. In fact, there are a number of energy applications which can be based on the SiC materials.- Fluorescent SiC for white LED in general lighting - Cubic SiC for a highly...

  14. Quintessence and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, M.; Wetterich, C.

    2003-01-01

    Quintessence -- the energy density of a slowly evolving scalar field -- may constitute a dynamical form of the homogeneous dark energy in the universe. We review the basic idea in the light of the cosmological constant problem. Cosmological observations or a time variation of fundamental 'constants' can distinguish quintessence from a cosmological constant

  15. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  16. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  17. Competition of a spring force constant and a phonon energy renormalization in electrochemically doped semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáč, Martin; Farhat, H.; Kavan, Ladislav; Kong, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2008), s. 3532-3537 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC203/07/J067; GA AV ČR IAA400400804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : spring force constant * electrochemistry * carbon nanotube Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 10.371, year: 2008

  18. Flywheel Energy Storage for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hedlund

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of flywheel energy storage technology was made, with a special focus on the progress in automotive applications. We found that there are at least 26 university research groups and 27 companies contributing to flywheel technology development. Flywheels are seen to excel in high-power applications, placing them closer in functionality to supercapacitors than to batteries. Examples of flywheels optimized for vehicular applications were found with a specific power of 5.5 kW/kg and a specific energy of 3.5 Wh/kg. Another flywheel system had 3.15 kW/kg and 6.4 Wh/kg, which can be compared to a state-of-the-art supercapacitor vehicular system with 1.7 kW/kg and 2.3 Wh/kg, respectively. Flywheel energy storage is reaching maturity, with 500 flywheel power buffer systems being deployed for London buses (resulting in fuel savings of over 20%, 400 flywheels in operation for grid frequency regulation and many hundreds more installed for uninterruptible power supply (UPS applications. The industry estimates the mass-production cost of a specific consumer-car flywheel system to be 2000 USD. For regular cars, this system has been shown to save 35% fuel in the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP drive cycle.

  19. Potency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 80% of conventional energy is used to fulfill general public's needs andindustries. The depletion of oil and gas reserves and rapid growth in conventional energyconsumption have continuously forced us to discover renewable energy sources, like solar, wind,biomass, and hydropower, to support economic development in the future. Solar energy travels at aspeed of 186,000 miles per second. Only a small part of the radiant energy that the sun emits intospace ever reaches the Earth, but that is more than enough to supply all our energy demand.Indonesia is a tropical country and located in the equator line, so it has an abundant potential ofsolar energy. Most of Indonesian area get enough intensity of solar radiation with the average dailyradiation around 4 kWh/m2. Basically, the solar systems use solar collectors and concentrators forcollecting, storing, and using solar radiation to be applied for the benefit of domestics, commercials,and industrials. Common applications for solar thermal energy used in industry are the SWHs, solardryers, space heating, cooling systems and water desalination.

  20. Utilization of superconductivity in energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, J.T.; Mikkonen, R.; Lahtinen, M.; Paasi, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    The technical potential of high temperature superconductors has been demonstrated in energy power applications. The magnetisation coils of the constructed 1.5 kW synchronous motor are made of bismuth-based material, the efficiency of the motor being 82 %. The same material is utilised in a 5 kJ magnetic energy storage in order to compensate for a short-term loss of power. Fast activation time and high efficiency are the benefits compared to traditional UPS systems. The operation temperature of 20-30 K enables the usage of mechanical cooling which is one major advantage compared to conventional liquid helium cooled systems. (orig.)

  1. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  2. Application of the pM'-pCH diagrams in the determination of hydrolysis constants of the lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, H.; Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A.

    2001-01-01

    The pM ' -pC H diagrams allowed to determine the saturation and non-saturation zones of Lu(OH) 3 in solid phase and those were applied for determining the hydrolysis and lutetium solubility constants, using the radioactive isotope Lu-177. The first constant of hydrolysis was also determined by the potentiometric method in absence of solid phase. (Author)

  3. Accelerator applications in energy and security

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2015-01-01

    As accelerator science and technology progressed over the past several decades, the accelerators themselves have undergone major improvements in multiple performance factors: beam energy, beam power, and beam brightness. As a consequence, accelerators have found applications in a wide range of fields in our life and in our society. The current volume is dedicated to applications in energy and security, two of the most important and urgent topics in today's world. This volume makes an effort to provide a review as complete and up to date as possible of this broad and challenging subject. It contains overviews on each of the two topics and a series of articles for in-depth discussions including heavy ion accelerator driven inertial fusion, linear accelerator-based ADS systems, circular accelerator-based ADS systems, accelerator-reactor interface, accelerators for fusion material testing, cargo inspection, proton radiography, compact neutron generators and detectors. It also has a review article on accelerator ...

  4. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  5. Nano materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Kannan, A.M.; Kothurkar, N.; Khalil, Y.; Kuravi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nano materials enabled technologies have been seamlessly integrated into applications such as aviation and space, chemical industry, optics, solar hydrogen, fuel cell, batteries, sensors, power generation, aeronautic industry, building/construction industry, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, thermoelectric devices, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic industry. Clean energy and environmental applications often demand the development of novel nano materials that can provide shortest reaction pathways for the enhancement of reaction kinetics. Understanding the physicochemical, structural, microstructural, surface, and interface properties of nano materials is vital for achieving the required efficiency, cycle life, and sustain ability in various technological applications. Nano materials with specific size and shape such as nano tubes, nano fibers/nano wires, nano cones, nano composites, nano rods, nano islands, nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nano shells to provide unique properties can be synthesized by tuning the process conditions.

  6. Partons and their applications at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drell, Sidney D.; Yan, Tung-Mow

    2000-01-01

    We discuss Feynman's parton model for deep inelastic weak or electromagnetic processes as an application of the impulse approximation to elementary particle interactions. The special features and conditions permitting this application are elaborated upon in some detail including the dependence of the parton model and the impulse treatment on an appropriate choice of coordinate frames and the role of the very soft or wee partons. Application of the parton model is made to the calculation of the cross section for massive lepton pair production in very high energy hadron-hadron collisions and compared with experiment. The conjectured role of light cone singularities in describing this and the other deep inelastic amplitudes is also discussed. (c) 2000 Academic Press, Inc

  7. Multi-bunch energy distribution due to higher order modes in a travelling-wave constant gradient structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Higo, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Takeda, S.; Oide, K.; Takata, K.

    1993-01-01

    In order to accept the beam from an injector linac to a damping ring of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a multi-bunch energy distribution must be within ±0.3% of the beam energy. Most of the multi-bunch energy distribution linear by depends on a bunch number and this linear term can be corrected by the energy conpesention cavities. So non-linear term was calculated. It was found that the non-linear term is within ±0.3%. (author)

  8. Efficient Energy use in Different Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lars

    2007-05-15

    There is a steadily growing awareness for environmental issues caused by the increased energy use, mainly in the industrial world. The use of fossil fuels has reached the point where it can not be looked at as an endless source. The resources are decreasing at a pace where alternative energy sources will be a necessity for this and future generations. Global warming, due to increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, has become one of the most important issues on the political agenda at all levels. A widespread opinion is that energy conservation technologies are needed and a shift towards renewable energy sources is required to attain a sustainable development of our society and a progress in the developing countries. This thesis is focusing on two different energy conservation technologies in different applications. The open absorption system, a modification of an absorption heat pump is a promising technique in moist air processes, recovering the latent heat in the air and decreasing the total heat demand. The technology has been tested in two full scale pilot plants at a sawmill operating four timber dryers and another unit installed at an indoor swimming pool. The technique has had positive outcomes in both operational and energy conservation respects. It has been shown that the energy demand was decreased considerably in both applications. The investment cost has proved to be relatively high, but optimization of operational parameters shows a potential to decrease the initial investment and make the technology more competitive. Pressurized entrained-flow high temperature black liquor gasification (PEHT-BLG), developed by Chemrec AB, is another novel technique presented in this thesis. Black liquor is an important by-product in the papermaking process. Chemicals and energy is recovered in the conventional recovery boiler where superheated steam is produced to generate electricity and process heat. The cooking chemicals are recovered from the

  9. The application of the constants of motion to nonlinear stationary waves in complex plasmas: a unified fluid dynamic viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. F.; Dubinin, E.; Sauer, K.; Doyle, T. B.

    2004-08-01

    Perturbation reductive procedures, as used to analyse various weakly nonlinear plasma waves (solitons and periodic waves), normally lead to the dynamical system being described by KdV, Burgers' or a nonlinear Schrödinger-type equation, with properties that can be deduced from an array of mathematical techniques. Here we develop a fully nonlinear theory of one-dimensional stationary plasma waves, which elucidates the common nature of various diverse wave phenomena. This is accomplished by adopting an essentially fluid dynamic viewpoint. In this unified treatment the constants of the motion (for mass, momentum and energy) lead naturally to the construction of the wave structure equations. It is shown, for example, that electrostatic, Hall magnetohydrodynamic and ion cyclotron acoustic nonlinear waves all obey first-order differential equations of the same generic type for the longitudinal flow field of the wave. The equilibrium points, which define the soliton amplitude, are given by the compressive and/or rarefactive roots of a total plasma ‘energy’ or ‘momentum’ function characterizing the wave type. This energy function, which is an algebraic combination of the Bernoulli momentum and energy functions for the longitudinal flow field, is the fluid dynamic counterpart of the pseudo-potentials, which are characteristic of system structure equations formulated in other than fluid variables. Another general feature of the structure equation is the phenomenon of choked flow, which occurs when the flow speed becomes sonic. It is this trans-sonic property that limits the soliton amplitudes and defines the critical collective Mach numbers of the waves. These features are also obtained in multi-component plasmas where, for example, in a bi-ion plasma, momentum exchanges between protons and heavier ions are mediated by the Maxwell magnetic stresses. With a suitable generalization of the concept of a sonic point in a bi-ion system and the corresponding choked flow

  10. Computational materials design for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2013-03-01

    General adoption of sustainable energy technologies depends on the discovery and development of new high-performance materials. For instance, waste heat recovery and electricity generation via the solar thermal route require bulk thermoelectrics with a high figure of merit (ZT) and thermal stability at high-temperatures. Energy recovery applications (e.g., regenerative braking) call for the development of rapidly chargeable systems for electrical energy storage, such as electrochemical supercapacitors. Similarly, use of hydrogen as vehicular fuel depends on the ability to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract it at ambient temperatures at sufficiently rapid rates. We will discuss how first-principles computational methods based on quantum mechanics and statistical physics can drive the understanding, improvement and prediction of new energy materials. We will cover prediction and experimental verification of new earth-abundant thermoelectrics, transition metal oxides for electrochemical supercapacitors, and kinetics of mass transport in complex metal hydrides. Research has been supported by the US Department of Energy under grant Nos. DE-SC0001342, DE-SC0001054, DE-FG02-07ER46433, and DE-FC36-08GO18136.

  11. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TEC Energy Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-388] Application To Export Electric Energy; TEC Energy Inc.... SUMMARY: TEC Energy Inc. (TEC) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United... received an application from TEC for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada...

  12. 76 FR 69712 - Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-315-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy.... SUMMARY: BP Energy Company (BP Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from... BP Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five...

  13. 77 FR 31341 - Application To Export Electric Energy; DC Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-327-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; DC Energy.... SUMMARY: DC Energy, LLC (DC Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from..., the Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order No. EA-327 authorizing DC Energy to transmit electric...

  14. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  15. Prediction of Gibbs energies of formation and stability constants of some secondary uranium minerals containing the uranyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genderen, A.C.G. van; Weijden, C.H. van der

    1984-01-01

    For a group of minerals containing a common anion there exists a linear relationship between two parameters called ΔO and ΔF.ΔO is defined as the difference between the Gibbs energy of formation of a solid oxide and the Gibbs energy of formation of its aqueous cation, while ΔF is defined as the Gibbs energy of reaction of the formation of a mineral from the constituting oxide(s) and the acid. Using the Gibbs energies of formation of a number of known minerals the corresponding ΔO's and ΔF's were calculated and with the resulting regression equation it is possible to predict values for the Gibbs energies of formation of other minerals containing the same anion. This was done for 29 minerals containing the uranyl-ion together with phosphate, vanadate, arsenate or carbonate. (orig.)

  16. Application of quantitative structure-activity relationship to the determination of binding constant based on fluorescence quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Yingying [Department of Applied Chemistry, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Liu Huitao, E-mail: liuht-ytu@163.co [Department of Applied Chemistry, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Luan Feng; Gao Yuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was used to predict and explain binding constant (log K) determined by fluorescence quenching. This method allowed us to predict binding constants of a variety of compounds with human serum albumin (HSA) based on their structures alone. Stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and nonlinear radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) were performed to build the models. The statistical parameters provided by the MLR model (R{sup 2}=0.8521, RMS=0.2678) indicated satisfactory stability and predictive ability while the RBFNN predictive ability is somewhat superior (R{sup 2}=0.9245, RMS=0.1736). The proposed models were used to predict the binding constants of two bioactive components in traditional Chinese medicines (isoimperatorin and chrysophanol) whose experimental results were obtained in our laboratory and the predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental results. This QSAR approach can contribute to a better understanding of structural factors of the compounds responsible for drug-protein interactions, and can be useful in predicting the binding constants of other compounds. - Research Highlights: QSAR models for binding constants of some compounds to HSA were developed. The models provide a simple and straightforward way to predict binding constant. QSAR can give some insight into structural features related to binding behavior.

  17. Graphene hybridization for energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2018-05-08

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its unique two-dimensional structure, high electronic mobility, exceptional thermal conductivity, excellent optical transmittance, good mechanical strength, and ultrahigh surface area. To meet the ever increasing demand for portable electronic products, electric vehicles, smart grids, and renewable energy integrations, hybridizing graphene with various functions and components has been demonstrated to be a versatile and powerful strategy to significantly enhance the performance of various energy storage systems such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and beyond, because such hybridization can result in synergistic effects that combine the best merits of involved components and confer new functions and properties, thereby improving the charge/discharge efficiencies and capabilities, energy/power densities, and cycle life of these energy storage systems. This review will focus on diverse graphene hybridization principles and strategies for energy storage applications, and the proposed outline is as follows. First, graphene and its fundamental properties, followed by graphene hybrids and related hybridization motivation, are introduced. Second, the developed hybridization formulas of using graphene for lithium-ion batteries are systematically categorized from the viewpoint of material structure design, bulk electrode construction, and material/electrode collaborative engineering; the latest representative progress on anodes and cathodes of lithium-ion batteries will be reviewed following such classifications. Third, similar hybridization formulas for graphene-based supercapacitor electrodes will be summarized and discussed as well. Fourth, the recently emerging hybridization formulas for other graphene-based energy storage devices will be briefed in combination with typical examples. Finally, future prospects and directions on the exploration of graphene hybridization toward the design and construction of

  18. Applications of energy loss contrast STIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench, G.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F.; Cholewa, M.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) with energy loss contrast is a quantitative imaging technique. A focussed MeV ion microbeam is scanned over the sample and measured energy losses of residual ions at each beam location are used to provide the contrast in the image. The technique is highly efficient as almost every ion carries useful information from which quantitative data can be obtained. The high efficiency of data collection at present necessitates the use of small beam currents. Therefore small apertures can be used and fine spatial resolution can be achieved. High efficiency also makes it possible to collect large data sets for high definition imaging with a small radiation dose. Owing to the simple relationship between energy loss and areal density, STIM with energy loss contrast can provide a quantitative image that can be used to obtain areal density information on the sample. These areal density maps can be used not only to provide a high resolution image of the sample but also to normalise Particle Induced Xray Emission (PIXE) data. The small radiation dose required to form these areal density maps also allows one to use STIM with energy loss contrast to quantitatively monitor ion beam induced specimen changes caused by higher doses and dose rates used in other microanalytical techniques. STIM with energy loss contrast also provides the possibility of stereo imaging and ion microtomography. STIM has also been used in conjunction with channeling to explore transmission channeling in thin crystals. This paper will discuss these applications of STIM with energy loss contrast and look at further developments from them

  19. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradai S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.

  20. Defect Chemistry of Oxides for Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweke, Danielle; Mordehovitz, Yuval; Halabi, Mahdi; Shelly, Lee; Hayun, Shmuel

    2018-05-31

    Oxides are widely used for energy applications, as solid electrolytes in various solid oxide fuel cell devices or as catalysts (often associated with noble metal particles) for numerous reactions involving oxidation or reduction. Defects are the major factors governing the efficiency of a given oxide for the above applications. In this paper, the common defects in oxide systems and external factors influencing the defect concentration and distribution are presented, with special emphasis on ceria (CeO 2 ) based materials. It is shown that the behavior of a variety of oxide systems with respect to properties relevant for energy applications (conductivity and catalytic activity) can be rationalized by general considerations about the type and concentration of defects in the specific system. A new method based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), recently reported by the authors for mapping space charge defects and measuring space charge potentials, is shown to be of potential importance for understanding conductivity mechanisms in oxides. The influence of defects on gas-surface reactions is exemplified on the interaction of CO 2 and H 2 O with ceria, by correlating between the defect distribution in the material and its adsorption capacity or splitting efficiency. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Energy-momentum tensor in theories with scalar fields and two coupling constants. I. Non-Abelian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, S.D.; Misra, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize our earlier discussion of renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar QED to that in non-Abelian gauge theories involving scalar fields. We show the need for adding an improvement term to the conventional energy-momentum tensor. We consider two possible forms for the improvement term: (i) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite function of bare parameters of the theory (so that the energy-momentum tensor can be derived from an action that is a finite function of bare quantities); (ii) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite quantity, i.e., a finite function of renormalized parameters. We establish a negative result; viz., neither form leads to a finite energy-momentum tensor to O(e 2 λ/sup n/)

  2. Application of Constant Rate of Supply model (CRS) in dating of Guanabara Bay sediments using 210Pb measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braganca, Maura Julia Camara da Silva

    1992-09-01

    A geochronological study of the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) based on 210P b dating technique to determine sedimentation rates and using the Constant Rate of Supply model (CRS) is presented in this work. Sediment samples were collected from river-head of Estrela, Sao Joao de Meriti, Guapimirim, Guaxindiba e Imbuacu. A low energy gamma spectrometry ( 210P b, samples taken from the Estrela and Sao Joao de Meriti rivers. Radiochemical method was applied to determine the amount of 210P b in samples collected near Guapimirim, Guaxindiba and Imbuacu Rivers. Atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame technique was used to determine the amount of copper in all these samples. Experimental data shown the following variation in the concentration levels of copper and 210P b: (i) copper; from 2.5 μg/g to 37.1 μg/g (Imbuacu River); from 3.6 to 228.1 μg/g (Estrela River); from 11.6 to 73.4 μg/g (Guapimirim River); from 12.0 to 52.9 μg/g (Guaxindiba River) and from 90.8 to to 237.7 μg/g (Sao Joao de Meriti River), (ti) 210P b; from 2.0 Bq/kg to 27.0 Bq/kg (Imbuacu River); from 25.2 to 136.6 Bq/kg (Estrela River); from 40.0 to 90.0 Bq/kg (Sao Joao de Meriti River); from 7.0 to 70.0 Bq/kg (Guapimirim River); from 10.0 to 48.0 Bq/kg (Guaxindiba River). The sedimentation rates ranged from 0.30 cm/y in the Imbuacu River for a depth below of 35 cm to 1.3 cm/y for 0-30 cm depth in Guaxindiba River. It was concluded that the experimental data found in this work are consistent with those published in the scientific literature and that they can be predicted by the CRS model. (author)

  3. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in disordered magnetic media localization parameter, energy transport velocity and diffusion constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pinheiro, F A; Martínez, A S

    2001-01-01

    We review some of our recent results concerning the single and multiple electromagnetic scattering by magnetic spherical particles. For a single electromagnetic scattering we show that the magnetic contribution alters, when compared to nonmagnetic scattering, the behavior of the cross sections and mean cosine of the scattering angle (cos omega). For ferromagnetic particles, resonances may occur even in the small-particle limit when the particle radius is much smaller than the wavelength. The resonances increase the cross sections while (cos omega) is diminished , and even may become negative. Several quantities such the Ioffe-Regel parameter for localization are calculated for the multiple scattering regime. We show that magnetic scattering favors the observation of localization of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions. Further, this is also verified for dynamical experiments, where we show that the diffusion constant can be very small. Since the magnetic permeability of the scatterers can vary significan...

  4. Thermal energy storage for smart grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Khateeb, Siddique; Aljehani, Ahmed; Pintar, Mike

    2018-01-01

    Energy consumption for commercial building cooling accounts for 15% of all commercial building's electricity usage [1]. Electric utility companies charge their customers time of use consumption charges (/kWh) and additionally demand usage charges (/kW) to limit peak energy consumption and offset their high operating costs. Thus, there is an economic incentive to reduce both the electricity consumption charges and demand charges by developing new energy efficient technologies. Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using a phase change material (PCM) is one such technology that can reduce demand charges and shift the demand from on-peak to off-peak rates. Ice and chilled water have been used in thermal storage systems for many decades, but they have certain limitations, which include a phase change temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and relatively low thermal conductivity in comparison to other materials, which limit their applications as a storage medium. To overcome these limitations, a novel phase change composite (PCC) TES material was developed that has much higher thermal conductivity that significantly improves the charge / discharge rate and a customizable phase change temperature to allow for better integration with HVAC systems. Compared to ice storage, the PCC TES system is capable of very high heat transfer rate and has lower system and operational costs. Economic analysis was performed to compare the PCC TES system with ice system and favorable economics was proven. A 4.5 kWh PCC TES prototype system was also designed for testing and validation purpose.

  5. JAERI FEL applications in nuclear energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2005-01-01

    The JAERI FEL has first discovered the new FEL lasing of 255fs ultra fast pulse, 6-9% high efficiency, 1GW high peak power, a few kilowatts average power, and wide tunability of medium and far infrared wavelength regions at the same time. Using the new lasing and energy-recovery linac technology, we could extend a more powerful and more efficient free-electron laser (FEL) than 10kW and 25%, respectively, for nuclear energy industries, and others. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, we need the efficient and powerful FEL driven by the JAERI compact, stand alone and zero boil-off super-conducting RF linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the FEL will cover the application of non-thermal peeling, cutting, and drilling to prevent cold-worked stress-corrosion cracking failures in nuclear energy and other heavy industries. (author)

  6. Centrifugal Spinning and Its Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors are important electrochemical energy storage systems. LIBs have high specific energy density, long cycle life, good thermal stability, low self-discharge, and no memory effect. However, the low abundance of Li in the Earth's crust and the rising cost of LIBs urge the attempts to develop alternative energy storage systems. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have become an attractive alternative to LIBs due to the high abundance and low cost of Na. Although the specific capacity and energy density of SIBs are not as high as LIBs, SIBs can still be promising power sources for certain applications such as large-scale, stationary grids. Supercapacitors are another important class of energy storage devices. Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are one important type of supercapacitors and they exhibit high power density, long cycle life, excellent rate capability and environmental friendliness. The potential applications of supercapacitors include memory protection in electronic circuitry, consumer portable electronic devices, and electrical hybrid vehicles. The electrochemical performance of SIBs and EDLCs is largely dependent on the electrode materials. Therefore, development of superior electrodes is the key to achieve highperformance alternative energy storage systems. Recently, one-dimensional nano-/micro-fiber based electrodes have become promising candidates in energy storage because they possess a variety of desirable properties including large specific surface area, well-guided ionic/electronic transport, and good electrode-electrolyte contact, which contribute to enhanced electrochemical performance. Currently, most nano-/micro-fiber based electrodes are prepared via electrospinning method. However, the low production rate of this approach hinders its practical application in the production of fibrous electrodes. Thus, it is significantly important to employ a rapid, low-cost and scalable nano

  7. Application of nanotechnologies in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelucci, R.; Corticelli, F.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G.M.; Malferraxi, L.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Odorici, F.; Rizzoli, R.; Summonte, C.

    2003-01-01

    In the past, the progressive reduction of electronics integration scale has allowed high energy physics experiments to build particle detectors with a high number of sensitive channels and high spatial granularity, down to the micron scale. Nowadays, the increasing effort towards nanoelectronics and progresses in various fields of nanotechnologies, suggests that the time for nanodetectors is not far to come. As an example of possible application of nanotechnologies in HEP, we present results on fabrication of nanochannel matrices in anodic porous alumina as a template for preparing an array of carbon nanotubes, which we believe can be a promising building block in developing particle detectors with high spatial resolution

  8. High energy ion microbeams and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhru, H.; Nickles, E.; Haberl, A.; Morris, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years there has been rapid growth for the development of equipment for forming a focussed beam (0.5 - 2μm) with high energy ions. The State University of New York at Albany ion scanning microprobe has been used for several applications especially in the fields of materials and biological studies. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis have been performed on microelectronic circuits with a spatial resolution of approximately 2 μm. Studies on films of superconductors (YBa CuO) will be presented. Applications of microbeams for the biological studies and analytical techniques will be presented. Current and future role of microbeams and their limitations will be discussed. (author)

  9. The effect of dielectric constant on binding energy and impurity self-polarization in a GaAs-Ga1- x Al x As spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mese, A. I.; Cicek, E.; Erdogan, I.; Akankan, O.; Akbas, H.

    2017-03-01

    The ground state, 1s, and the excited state, 2p, energies of a hydrogenic impurity in a GaAs-Ga1- x Al x As spherical quantum dot, are computed as a function of the donor positions. We study how the impurity self-polarization depends on the location of the impurity and the dielectric constant. The excited state anomalous impurity self-polarization in the quantum dot is found to be present in the absence of any external influence and strongly depends on the impurity position and the radius of the dot. Therefore, the excited state anomalous impurity self-polarization can give information about the impurity position in the system. Also, the variation of E_{b1s} and E_{b2p} with the dielectric constant can be utilized as a tool for finding out the correct dielectric constant of the dot material by measuring the 1s or 2p state binding energy for a fixed dot radius and a fixed impurity position.

  10. Meson-baryon coupling constants from a chiral-invariant SU(3) Lagrangian and application to NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoks, V.G.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present a chiral-invariant meson-baryon Lagrangian which describes the interactions of the baryon octet with the lowest-mass meson nonets. The nonlinear realization of the chiral symmetry generates pair-meson interaction vertices. The corresponding pair-meson coupling constants can all be expressed in terms of the meson-nucleon-nucleon pseudovector, scalar, and vector coupling constants, and their corresponding F/(F+D) ratios, and for which empirical estimates are given. We show that it is possible to construct an NN potential of reasonable quality satisfying these theoretical and empirical constraints. (orig.)

  11. The Yamabe constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Murchadha, N.

    1991-01-01

    The set of riemannian three-metrics with positive Yamabe constant defines the space of independent data for the gravitational field. The boundary of this set is investigated, and it is shown that metrics close to the boundary satisfy the positive-energy theorem. (Author) 18 refs

  12. 76 FR 69713 - Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-314-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy.... SUMMARY: BP Energy Company (BP Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from... electric energy from the United States to Mexico as a power marketer for a five-year term using existing...

  13. 75 FR 51025 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Vitol Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... adversely impact on the reliability of the U.S. electric power supply system. Copies of this application... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-370] Application to Export Electric Energy; Vitol Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application...

  14. 76 FR 50476 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-382] Application To Export Electric Energy; Glacial Energy... Application. SUMMARY: Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc. (Glacial) has applied for authority to transmit electric... for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico for five years as a power...

  15. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Sempra Energy Trading LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-191-D] Application To Export Electric Energy; Sempra Energy... application. SUMMARY: Sempra Energy Trading LLC (SET) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric... transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada for a two- year term as a power marketer using...

  16. 76 FR 3882 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Intercom Energy, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-289-B] Application To Export Electric Energy; Intercom... application. SUMMARY: Intercom Energy, Inc. (Intercom) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric... of Energy (DOE) issued Order No. EA-289, which authorized Intercom to transmit electric energy from...

  17. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A., E-mail: glaucia.oliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br, E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.br, E-mail: vsberga@ipen.br, E-mail: rafaeli.medeiros.moraes@gmail.com, E-mail: maisepastore@hotmail.com, E-mail: fla.kimiyamoto@gmail.com, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  18. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  19. Low energy accelerators for research and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Charged particle accelerators are instruments for producing a variety of radiations under controlled conditions for basic and applied research as well as applications. They have helped enormously to study the matter, atoms, nuclei, sub-nuclear particles and their constituents, forces involved in the related phenomena etc. No other man-made instrument has been so effective in such studies as the accelerator. The large accelerator constructed so far is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) housed in a tunnel of 27 km circumference, while a small accelerator can fit inside a room. Small accelerators accelerate charged particles such as electrons, protons, deuterons, alphas and, in general ions to low energy, generally, below several MeV. These particle beams are used for studies in nuclear astrophysics, atomic physics, material science, surface physics, bio sciences etc. They are used for ion beam analysis such as RBS, PIXE, NRA, AMS, CPAA etc. More importantly, the ion beams have important industrial applications like ion implantation, surface modification, isotope production etc. while electron beams are used for material processing, material modification, sterilization, food preservation, non destructive testing etc. In this talk, role of low energy accelerators in research and industry as well as medicine will be discussed. (author)

  20. 75 FR 45607 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-281-B] Application To Export Electric Energy; Manitoba Hydro AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Manitoba Hydro (Manitoba) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the...

  1. Quantification of photoinduced bending of dynamic molecular crystals: from macroscopic strain to kinetic constants and activation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhik, Stanislav; Sidelnikov, Anatoly; Zakharov, Boris; Naumov, Panče; Boldyreva, Elena

    2018-02-28

    Photomechanically reconfigurable elastic single crystals are the key elements for contactless, timely controllable and spatially resolved transduction of light into work from the nanoscale to the macroscale. The deformation in such single-crystal actuators is observed and usually attributed to anisotropy in their structure induced by the external stimulus. Yet, the actual intrinsic and external factors that affect the mechanical response remain poorly understood, and the lack of rigorous models stands as the main impediment towards benchmarking of these materials against each other and with much better developed soft actuators based on polymers, liquid crystals and elastomers. Here, experimental approaches for precise measurement of macroscopic strain in a single crystal bent by means of a solid-state transformation induced by light are developed and used to extract the related temperature-dependent kinetic parameters. The experimental results are compared against an overarching mathematical model based on the combined consideration of light transport, chemical transformation and elastic deformation that does not require fitting of any empirical information. It is demonstrated that for a thermally reversible photoreactive bending crystal, the kinetic constants of the forward (photochemical) reaction and the reverse (thermal) reaction, as well as their temperature dependence, can be extracted with high accuracy. The improved kinematic model of crystal bending takes into account the feedback effect, which is often neglected but becomes increasingly important at the late stages of the photochemical reaction in a single crystal. The results provide the most rigorous and exact mathematical description of photoinduced bending of a single crystal to date.

  2. Energy dependence of jet-structures and determination of the strong coupling constant αsub(s) in e+e- annihilation with the CELLO detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopp, G.

    1985-07-01

    We considered multihadronic events and we studied the energy dependence of the jet-structure of those events. We confirmed the existence of 3-jet and 4-jet events in high energy data as predicted by QCD. In parallel we checked the energy dependence of different jet-measures which is predicted by the fragmentation models. We determined the strong coupling constant αsub(s) using different methods and we found a strong model dependence of the αsub(s) determination in second order QCD. The study of the particle density between the jet-axes resulted in a light preference for the LUND-String model as compared to models with independent jet-fragmentation. (orig.) [de

  3. ENERGY AUDIT ANALYSIS BY BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfa Firdaus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy audit is one of the first tasks to be performed in the accomplishment of an effective energy cost control program. To obtain the best information for a successful energy audit, the auditor must make some measurements during the audit visit. One of the tools that primarily used in audit visit is the portable Power Quality Analyzers (PQA for measuring single to three-phase lines with a high degree of precision and accuracy. It is utilized for monitoring and recording power supply anomalies. For most survey applications, changing currents makes it mandatory for data to be compiled over a period of time with enormous amount of electricity data. Hence, this paper proposed a Business Intelligence approach that can facilitate the auditor to quickly analyze the PQA data. There are five Key Performance Indicators (KPI to be displayed for analyze in form of dashboard. The method that uses to construct the dashboard is classification and association rules with the help of orange dataminer tools. Classification method is utilized to display the data distributions by frequency on a bar chart. Once we got the frequent sets, they allow us to extract association rules among the item sets, where we make some statement about how likely are two sets of items to co-occur or to conditionally occur. The result of this paper is a dashboard of five scorecards, namely unbalanced voltage, unbalanced currents, voltage harmonic, currents harmonic, and power factor. 

  4. Nucleus-nucleus interaction constants at energies of 0.1-1.0 GeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.E.; P'yanov, I.I.; Stepnov, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method for calculating nucleus-nuclear reactions being a further development of the cascade model is proposed. The nucleus-nucleus interaction is represented as a superposition of a series of synchronous cascades initiated by nucleous and α-clusters getting into the nuclei overlapping region. Determination of an interaction partner and calculation of an elementary nucleon and α-cluster collision act are carried out using the same method as for calculation of the nucleon-nuclear cascade. Inelastic channels are not considered. The cross section values of cascade particle interaction, as well as of free particle interaction are given from the published literature. The experiment for verification of the calculation method is carried out. An emulsion chamber of the 0.3 l volume has been exposed at the 35 km height in the vicinity of the 64 deg nothern latitude during 8.5 hr. 223 disintegrations of nuclear emulsion by cosmic radiation nuclei at the 0.1-1.0 GeV/nucleon energy and the >2 charge are investigated. 147 interactions on photoemulsion light nuclei are singled out from these disintegrations. The average multiplicity of all the charged pions is 0.22+-0.05 for light and 0.44+-0.09 for heavy photoemulsion nuclei. The calculation is carried out for nitrogen nuclei interaction at the 0.35 GeV/nucleon energy. Parametric analysis of the calculation method has shown that the clusterization coefficients and the nuclear parameter effect secondary particle multiplicity (SPM) and weakly influence on their energy and angular distributions. The nuclear parameter change from 1.1 to 1.6 F decreases average SPM in different energy ranges down to 25-40%. The comparison of the calculation data with the experimental one obtained in the given paper and other ones, shows satisfactory agreement both for differential and average characteristics of secondary charged particles

  5. Industrial applications of low energy accelerator technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Won; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jun Yeon; Lee, Jae Sang; Yeo, Sun Mog; Lee, Ji Ah

    2008-05-01

    Industrial application researches utilizing a beam extracting unit and an accelerator with an energy less than 3 MeV have been conducted. Although a number of industrial application areas exist, a few research items had been selected for this project, which include the gemstone coloration and the surface modifications of metals/polymers. In the case of gemstone coloration, the green/yellow colored diamond by a proton beam irradiation and blue color emitting sapphire utilizing Co ion implantation are being evaluated as the high potential for commercialization. And, the band gap structures as a result of impurities' doping was calculated with density functional theory (DFT) and it was found to be well consistent with experimental results. The surface modification of stainless juice extracting gears have been successful and patented, resulting in a technology transfer to the company. The reduction in the detachment of the metallic elements during juice extracting as a results of ion beam surface modification is expected to be broadly applicable to the other relevant industrial materials and parts. In the case of gemstone coloration, it is estimated to be one of the highest commercially valuable items because of its extremely low processing expense. The research results have been successful and is worth while transferring the technologies to the industrial sectors. During the second phase research, 6 SCI papers have been published and 9 patents have been submitted and 3 patents have been registered. 1 technology has been transferred to the company for industrialization and 1 technology is pending for a transference

  6. Applications of CCTO supercapacitor in energy storage and electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Pandey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of colossal dielectric constant in CCTO supercapacitor in 2000, development of its practical application to energy storage has been of great interest. In spite of intensive efforts, there has been thus far, no report of proven application. The object of this research is to understand the reason for this lack of success and to find ways to overcome this limitation. Reported herein is the synthesis of our research in ceramic processing of this material and its characterization, particularly with the objective of identifying potential applications. Experimental results have shown that CCTO's permittivity and loss tangent, the two most essential dielectric parameters of fundamental importance for the efficiency of a capacitor device, are intrinsically coupled. They increase or decrease in tandem. Therefore, efforts to simultaneously retain the high permittivity while minimizing the loss tangent of CCTO might not succeed unless an entirely non-typical approach is taken for processing this material. Based on the experimental results and their analysis, it has been identified that it is possible to produce CCTO bulk ceramics with conventional processes having properties that can be exploited for fabricating an efficient energy storage device (EDS. We have additionally identified that CCTO can be used for the development of efficient solid state capacitors of Class II type comparable to the widely used barium titanate (BT capacitors. Based on high temperature studies of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient it is found that CCTO is a wide bandgap n-type semiconductor material which could be used for high temperature electronics. The temperature dependence of the linear thermal expansion of CCTO shows the presence of possible phase changes at 220 and 770 °C the origin of which remains unexplained.

  7. Applications of CCTO supercapacitor in energy storage and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R. K.; Stapleton, W. A.; Tate, J.; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Sutanto, I.; Sprissler, S.; Lin, S.

    2013-06-01

    Since the discovery of colossal dielectric constant in CCTO supercapacitor in 2000, development of its practical application to energy storage has been of great interest. In spite of intensive efforts, there has been thus far, no report of proven application. The object of this research is to understand the reason for this lack of success and to find ways to overcome this limitation. Reported herein is the synthesis of our research in ceramic processing of this material and its characterization, particularly with the objective of identifying potential applications. Experimental results have shown that CCTO's permittivity and loss tangent, the two most essential dielectric parameters of fundamental importance for the efficiency of a capacitor device, are intrinsically coupled. They increase or decrease in tandem. Therefore, efforts to simultaneously retain the high permittivity while minimizing the loss tangent of CCTO might not succeed unless an entirely non-typical approach is taken for processing this material. Based on the experimental results and their analysis, it has been identified that it is possible to produce CCTO bulk ceramics with conventional processes having properties that can be exploited for fabricating an efficient energy storage device (EDS). We have additionally identified that CCTO can be used for the development of efficient solid state capacitors of Class II type comparable to the widely used barium titanate (BT) capacitors. Based on high temperature studies of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient it is found that CCTO is a wide bandgap n-type semiconductor material which could be used for high temperature electronics. The temperature dependence of the linear thermal expansion of CCTO shows the presence of possible phase changes at 220 and 770 °C the origin of which remains unexplained.

  8. Beta Function Quintessence Cosmological Parameters and Fundamental Constants I: Power and Inverse Power Law Dark Energy Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rodger I.

    2018-04-01

    This investigation explores using the beta function formalism to calculate analytic solutions for the observable parameters in rolling scalar field cosmologies. The beta function in this case is the derivative of the scalar ϕ with respect to the natural log of the scale factor a, β (φ )=d φ /d ln (a). Once the beta function is specified, modulo a boundary condition, the evolution of the scalar ϕ as a function of the scale factor is completely determined. A rolling scalar field cosmology is defined by its action which can contain a range of physically motivated dark energy potentials. The beta function is chosen so that the associated "beta potential" is an accurate, but not exact, representation of the appropriate dark energy model potential. The basic concept is that the action with the beta potential is so similar to the action with the model potential that solutions using the beta action are accurate representations of solutions using the model action. The beta function provides an extra equation to calculate analytic functions of the cosmologies parameters as a function of the scale factor that are that are not calculable using only the model action. As an example this investigation uses a quintessence cosmology to demonstrate the method for power and inverse power law dark energy potentials. An interesting result of the investigation is that the Hubble parameter H is almost completely insensitive to the power of the potentials and that ΛCDM is part of the family of quintessence cosmology power law potentials with a power of zero.

  9. Conservation of fusion reaction optimum yield in focused discharges with variable voltage and energy but constant geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, L.; Bortolotti, A.; Brzosko, J.; DeChiara, P.; Kilic, H.; Mezzetti, F.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.; Wang, J.

    1992-01-01

    The D-D fusion reaction yield per pulse, Y n , of focused discharges is monitored by changing the capacitor bank voltage Vo by a factor 2 without any change of construction parameters and of the filling gas pressure of two plasma focus machines PF1 (C1 congruent 50 microfarad, L1 congruent 20 nanohenry) and PF2 (C2 = 1.2Cl, L2 = 2L1). The interval Δ = 1 ± (ΔW)/W of the capacitor bank energy values W on which the scaling Y n ∼ W 2 applies is greater for PF2, where the corresponding variation ΔI2 of the peak electrode current I2 is smaller (in agreement with Lw/C2 > L1/C1) than for PF1. Suitable figure of merit (in terms of ΔI, ΔW, L, C, etc.) are used for determining the relative importance of (i), the induced variations of the pinch fine structure and of (ii), the variations of the insulator surface at the PF breech, with bearing on the initial stage of the current sheath formation. Schlieren and magnetic probe data monitor the current sheath structure and propagation speed. The D + ion emission from the pinch is monitored in the energy interval 50 keV to 25 MeV for clarifying the links between the pinch fine structure and the set of leading macroscopic parameters of the PF discharges

  10. Surface displacements and energy release rates for constant stress drop slip zones in joined elastic quarter spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael J.; Wen, Shengmin; Keer, Leon M.

    2000-08-01

    A three-dimensional quasi-static model of faulting in an elastic half-space with a horizontal change of material properties (i.e., joined elastic quarter spaces) is considered. A boundary element method is used with a stress drop slip zone approach so that the fault surface relative displacements as well as the free surface displacements are approximated in elements over their respective domains. Stress intensity factors and free surface displacements are calculated for a variety of cases to show the phenomenological behavior of faulting in such a medium. These calculations showed that the behavior could be distinguished from a uniform half-space. Slip in a stiffer material increases, while slip in a softer material decreases the energy release rate and the free surface displacements. Also, the 1989 Kalapana earthquake was located on the basis of a series of forward searches using this method and leveling data. The located depth is 8 km, which is the closer to the seismically inferred depth than that determined from other models. Finally, the energy release rate, which can be used as a fracture criterion for fracture at this depth, is calculated to be 11.1×106 J m-2.

  11. Theory and application of deterministic multidimensional pointwise energy lattice physics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerkle, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    The theory and application of deterministic, multidimensional, pointwise energy lattice physics methods are discussed. These methods may be used to solve the neutron transport equation in multidimensional geometries using near-continuous energy detail to calculate equivalent few-group diffusion theory constants that rigorously account for spatial and spectral self-shielding effects. A dual energy resolution slowing down algorithm is described which reduces the computer memory and disk storage requirements for the slowing down calculation. Results are presented for a 2D BWR pin cell depletion benchmark problem

  12. Theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional continuous energy lattice physics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerkle, M.L.; Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Ott, M.W.; Winwood, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional, continuous energy lattice physics code are discussed. RAZOR solves the continuous energy neutron transport equation in one- and two-dimensional geometries, and calculates equivalent few-group diffusion theory constants that rigorously account for spatial and spectral self-shielding effects. A dual energy resolution slowing down algorithm is used to reduce computer memory and disk storage requirements for the slowing down calculation. Results are presented for a 2D BWR pin cell depletion benchmark problem

  13. The edition of a personal computer program for determining lattice constants and its application in materials for storage of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongzhong; Bai Chaomao; Lang Dingmu; Zhang Youshou

    1998-01-01

    The equations for finding lattice constants of the 7 crystal systems were completely deduced using the M.U.Cohen least square method. From the deduction process it is obvious that the equation forms had nothing to do with the extrapolation functions so any of them can be used. (But in practice, cos 2 θ and cos 2 θ(1/sinθ + 1/θ) were generally performed.) After a personal computer program was finished using above mathematic model, the lattice constants of materials for storage of hydrogen ZrCo and LaNi 5-x M x (M = Mn, Al) were determined. The results showed that the program is very good for finding lattice parameters and can be used in the 7 crystal systems. The results also showed to the LaNi 5 alloy its lattice constants increase when the elements (such as Mn, Al, etc.) whose atomic radii are larger than that of Ni are substituted for Ni and when the content of the same substitutional element Al goes up. This phenomenon is in accordance with the theory

  14. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resourcestudies. Comparison results from complex...... terrain in Spain and flat terrain in Denmark are found to be acceptable for both sites. Also land cover type information can be retrieved from satellite observations. Land cover type maps have to be combined withroughness data from field observation or literature values. Land cover type maps constitute...... an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEMand land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface...

  15. Standard Gibbs energies of formation and equilibrium constants from ab-initio calculations: Covalent dimerization of NO2 and synthesis of NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Neha; Ritschel, Thomas; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Knecht, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ΔG and K eq for NO 2 dimerization and NH 3 synthesis calculated via ab-initio methods. • Vis-á-vis experiments, W1 and CCSD(T) are accurate and G3B3 also does quite well. • CBS-APNO most accurate for NH 3 reaction but shows limitations in modeling NO 2 . • Temperature dependence of ΔG and K eq is calculated for the NH 3 reaction. • Good agreement of calculated K eq with experiments and the van’t Hoff approximation. -- Abstract: Standard quantum chemical methods are used for accurate calculation of thermochemical properties such as enthalpies of formation, entropies and Gibbs energies of formation. Equilibrium reactions are widely investigated and experimental measurements often lead to a range of reaction Gibbs energies and equilibrium constants. It is useful to calculate these equilibrium properties from quantum chemical methods in order to address the experimental differences. Furthermore, most standard calculation methods differ in accuracy and feasibility of the system size. Hence, a systematic comparison of equilibrium properties calculated with different numerical algorithms would provide a useful reference. We select two well-known gas phase equilibrium reactions with small molecules: covalent dimer formation of NO 2 (2NO 2 ⇌ N 2 O 4 ) and the synthesis of NH 3 (N 2 + 3 H 2 ⇌ 2NH 3 ). We test four quantum chemical methods denoted by G3B3, CBS-APNO, W1 and CCSD(T) with aug-cc-pVXZ basis sets (X = 2, 3, and 4), to obtain thermochemical data for NO 2 , N 2 O 4 , and NH 3 . The calculated standard formation Gibbs energies Δ f G° are used to calculate standard reaction Gibbs energies Δ r G° and standard equilibrium constants K eq for the two reactions. Standard formation enthalpies Δ f H° are calculated in a more reliable way using high-level methods such as W1 and CCSD(T). Standard entropies S° for the molecules are calculated well within the range of experiments for all methods, however, the values of standard formation

  16. Enabling Energy-Efficient Advertising for Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prochkova, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Advertisements are the main source of revenue for many free mobile applications, however, they increase the energy consumption of the mobile device. In particu- lar, the radio communication used for the advertisement data transfer is energy hungry, so advertisement sponsored applications (free) consume more energy than paid applications.In this thesis, we analyse the effect that advertisements have on the mobile device performance, especially, the energy consumption of transferring and displa...

  17. 77 FR 50486 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TexMex Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-294-B] Application To Export Electric Energy; TexMex Energy.... SUMMARY: TexMex Energy, LLC (TexMex) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from...Mex to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico as a power marketer for a five-year...

  18. 75 FR 76962 - Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-306-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA... of Energy (DOE) issued Order No. EA-306, which authorized MAG E.S. to transmit electric energy from...

  19. Application of nuclear energy in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Thuan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive isotopes were introduced to medical treatment in Vietnam very early by M. Curie in 1923. A research reactor has been in operation since 1963 serving up to now an effective base for radioisotope production and nuclear analysis. After reunification of the country, the nuclear technique applications are developing faster and getting widespread. The twenty-year period from 1976 to 1995 was relatively limited by activity of R and D institutions. Nowadays, their interaction with companies demonstrates a dynamic commercialization of nuclear techniques in Vietnam. Investment from government as well as from the private sector has been increased significantly for the last ten years to nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The radiographic NDT is getting a familiar technique to industry, particularly, in construction of strategy-important industrial and civil projects. NCS are upgraded in different factories, such as mining, ore processing and cement industries. Tracer techniques have shown benefit in oil offshore exploring and in sedimentation management of rivers and harbours. Isotope techniques are playing a competitive role for environmental monitoring and underground water management in the country. Radiation processing is transferred to a commercial scale emphasizing on sterilization of medical products and food preservation. There are still some problems such as public acceptance of radioactive techniques or a lack of both infrastructure and manpower to meet the national demands. However, the government of Vietnam has recently approved the national strategy for peaceful uses of atomic energy, which not only highlights the development of isotope and radiation applications in near future, but also clearly emphasizes the need of nuclear electrical generation by 2017-2020 for the national energy security

  20. Optical constants, dispersion energy parameters and dielectric properties of ultra-smooth nanocrystalline BiVO4 thin films prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S.; Das, N. S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    BiVO4 thin films have been prepared through radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering of a pre-fabricated BiVO4 target on ITO coated glass (ITO-glass) substrate and bare glass substrates. BiVO4 target material was prepared through solid-state reaction method by heating Bi2O3 and V2O5 mixture at 800 °C for 8 h. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, LCR meter, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. BiVO4 thin films deposited on the ITO-glass substrate are much smoother compared to the thin films prepared on bare glass substrate. The rms surface roughness calculated from the AFM images comes out to be 0.74 nm and 4.2 nm for the films deposited on the ITO-glass substrate and bare glass substrate for the deposition time 150 min respectively. Optical constants and energy dispersion parameters of these extra-smooth BiVO4 thin films have been investigated in detail. Dielectric properties of the BiVO4 thin films on ITO-glass substrate were also investigated. The frequency dependence of dielectric constant of the BiVO4 thin films has been measured in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 2 MHz. It was found that the dielectric constant increased from 145 to 343 at 20 Hz as the film thickness increased from 90 nm to 145 nm (deposition time increased from 60 min to 150 min). It shows higher dielectric constant compared to the literature value of BiVO4.

  1. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and energy distribution function of neutron gas in constant power reactor under coupling of neutrons and medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamics and the energy distribution function of the neutron gas in a constant power reactor are considered, taking into account the burn-up of fuel. To separate the secular motion of neutrons owing to fuel burn-up and the microscopic fluctuations of neutrons around this motion, a long time of the order of several months is divided into m equal intervals, and the respective states corresponding to m small time intervals are treated as quasi-stationary states. The local energy distribution function of the neutron gas in the quasi-stationary state is given by a generalized Boltzmann distribution specified by the respective generalized activity coefficient for each subsystem. The effects of fuel burn-up on the respective distribution functions for successive small time intervals are taken into account through various quantities relating to reactor physics, depending upon the fuel burn-up, by successive approximation. (author)

  2. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... impact on the reliability of the U.S. electric power supply system. Copies of this application will be... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket Nos. EA-363 and EA-364] Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability...

  3. 77 FR 31342 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Emera Energy Services Subsidiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ...] Application To Export Electric Energy; Emera Energy Services Subsidiaries AGENCY: Office of Electricity... EA-325, authorizing the Emera Subsidiaries to transmit electric energy from the United States to... date listed above. Comments on the Emera applications to export electric energy to Canada should be...

  4. The time-walk of analog constant fraction discriminators using very fast scintillator detectors with linear and non-linear energy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regis, J.-M., E-mail: regis@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Rudigier, M.; Jolie, J.; Blazhev, A.; Fransen, C.; Pascovici, G.; Warr, N. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-08-21

    The electronic {gamma}-{gamma} fast timing technique allows for direct nuclear lifetime determination down to the few picoseconds region by measuring the time difference between two coincident {gamma}-ray transitions. Using high resolution ultra-fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors in combination with the recently developed mirror symmetric centroid difference method, nuclear lifetimes are measured with a time resolving power of around 5 ps. The essence of the method is to calibrate the energy dependent position (centroid) of the prompt response function of the setup which is obtained for simultaneously occurring events. This time-walk of the prompt response function induced by the analog constant fraction discriminator has been determined by systematic measurements using different photomultiplier tubes and timing adjustments of the constant fraction discriminator. We propose a universal calibration function which describes the time-walk or the combined {gamma}-{gamma} time-walk characteristics, respectively, for either a linear or a non-linear amplitude versus energy dependency of the scintillator detector output pulses.

  5. The order of three lowest-energy states of the six-electron harmonium at small force constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasburger, Krzysztof [Department of Physical and Quantum Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-06-21

    The order of low-energy states of six-electron harmonium is uncertain in the case of strong correlation, which is not a desired situation for the model system being considered for future testing of approximate methods of quantum chemistry. The computational study of these states has been carried out at the frequency parameter ω = 0.01, using the variational method with the basis of symmetry-projected, explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) lobe functions. It has revealed that the six-electron harmonium at this confinement strength is an octahedral Wigner molecule, whose order of states is different than in the strong confinement regime and does not agree with the earlier predictions. The results obtained for ω = 0.5 and 10 are consistent with the findings based on the Hund’s rules for the s{sup 2}p{sup 4} electron configuration. Substantial part of the computations has been carried out on the graphical processing units and the efficiency of these devices in calculation of the integrals over ECG functions has been compared with traditional processors.

  6. Some dispersive X-ray fluorescence applications in energies with radioisotopic excitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelfang, P.; Vazquez, C.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work is based on the use of interelemental correction coefficients which are calculated through fundamental parameters. To this purpose, it is necessary to know about the physical constants for each element including the absorption coefficient values and fluorescence yield, the incidence radiation energy, geometric and instrumental parameters. Besides, a special application of the program for the determination of a Nd-La mixed crystal formula is included. (Author) [es

  7. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Christiansen, M.

    2006-11-15

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting wind fields are valuable in offshore wind energy planning as a supplement to on site measurements, which are costly and sparse, and model wind fields, which are not fully validated. Two applications of SAR measurements in offshore wind energy planning are addressed here: the study of wind farm wake effects and the potential of using SAR winds in offshore wind resource assessment. Firstly, wind wakes behind two large offshore wind farms in Denmark Horns Rev and Nysted are identified. A region of reduced wind speed is found downstream of both wind farms from the SAR wind fields. The wake extent and magnitude depends on the wind speed, the atmospheric stability, and the fraction of turbines operating. Wind farm wake effects are detected up to 20 km downwind of the last turbine. This distance is longer than predicted by state-of-the art wake models. Wake losses are typically 10-20% near the wind farms. Secondly, the potential of using SAR wind maps in offshore wind resource assessment is investigated. The resource assessment is made through Weibull fitting to frequency observations of wind speed and requires at least 100 satellite observations per year for a given site of interest. Predictions of the energy density are very sensitive to the wind speed and the highest possible accuracy on SAR wind retrievals is therefore sought. A 1.1 m s{sup -1} deviation on the mean wind speed is found through comparison with mast measurements at Horns Rev. The accuracy on mean wind speeds and energy densities found from satellite measurements varies with different empirical model functions. Additional uncertainties are introduced by the infrequent satellite sampling at fixed times of the day. The accuracy on satellite based wind resource

  8. Outlook and application analysis of energy storage in power system with high renewable energy penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junshu; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    To realize low-emission and low-carbon energy production and consumption, large-scale development and utilization of renewable energy has been put into practice in China. And it has been recognized that power system of future high renewable energy shares can operate more reliably with the participation of energy storage. Considering the significant role of storage playing in the future power system, this paper focuses on the application of energy storage with high renewable energy penetration. Firstly, two application modes are given, including demand side application mode and centralized renewable energy farm application mode. Afterwards, a high renewable energy penetration scenario of northwest region in China is designed, and its production simulation with application of energy storage in 2050 has been calculated and analysed. Finally, a development path and outlook of energy storage is given.

  9. Perspective: Dynamic Shadowing Growth and its Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping eZhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The unique features of dynamic shadowing growth (DSG in structural and compositional design of nanomaterials are discussed. Their recent applications in energy storage, fuel cell, and solar energy conversion have been reviewed briefly. Future directions for applying DSG nanostructures in renewable energy applications are presented.

  10. Robust Bayesian linear regression with application to an analysis of the CODATA values for the Planck constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wübbeler, Gerd; Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens

    2018-02-01

    Weighted least-squares estimation is commonly applied in metrology to fit models to measurements that are accompanied with quoted uncertainties. The weights are chosen in dependence on the quoted uncertainties. However, when data and model are inconsistent in view of the quoted uncertainties, this procedure does not yield adequate results. When it can be assumed that all uncertainties ought to be rescaled by a common factor, weighted least-squares estimation may still be used, provided that a simple correction of the uncertainty obtained for the estimated model is applied. We show that these uncertainties and credible intervals are robust, as they do not rely on the assumption of a Gaussian distribution of the data. Hence, common software for weighted least-squares estimation may still safely be employed in such a case, followed by a simple modification of the uncertainties obtained by that software. We also provide means of checking the assumptions of such an approach. The Bayesian regression procedure is applied to analyze the CODATA values for the Planck constant published over the past decades in terms of three different models: a constant model, a straight line model and a spline model. Our results indicate that the CODATA values may not have yet stabilized.

  11. Research on the Orientation and Application of Distributed Energy Storage in Energy Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Zhou, Pengcheng; Li, Ran; Zhou, Jingjing; Chen, Tao; Li, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Energy storage is indispensable resources to achieve a high proportion of new energy power consumption in electric power system. As an important support to energy Internet, energy storage system can achieve a variety of energy integration operation to ensure maximum energy efficiency. In this paper, firstly, the SWOT analysis method is used to express the internal and external advantages and disadvantages of distributed energy storage participating in the energy Internet. Secondly, the function orientation of distributed energy storage in energy Internet is studied, based on which the application modes of distributed energy storage in virtual power plant, community energy storage and auxiliary services are deeply studied. Finally, this paper puts forward the development strategy of distributed energy storage which is suitable for the development of China’s energy Internet, and summarizes and prospects the application of distributed energy storage system.

  12. PLZT Film Capacitors for Power Electronics and Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Beihai; Hu, Zhongqiang; Koritala, Rachel E.; Lee, Tae H.; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Ceramic film capacitors with high dielectric constant and high breakdown strength hold special promise for applications demanding high power density. By means of chemical solution deposition, we deposited ≈2-μm-thick films of lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) on LaNiO3-buffered Ni (LNO/Ni) foils and platinized silicon (PtSi) substrates. The dielectric properties and energy storage performance of the resulting samples were determined under a high level of applied electric field. X-ray diffraction stress analysis revealed that PLZT on LNO/Ni bears a compressive stress of ≈370 MPa while PLZT on PtSi endures a tensile stress of ≈250 MPa. Compressive stress was found to lead to heightened polarization, improved tunability, increased irreversible domain wall motion, and enhanced breakdown strength for PLZT deposited on the LNO/Ni as compared with the PtSi substrate. We observed a tunability of ≈55 and ≈40 % at room temperature under 100 kV/cm applied field, remanent polarization of ≈23.5 and ≈7.4 µC/cm^2, coercive electric field of ≈25.6 and ≈21.1 kV/cm, and dielectric breakdown strength of ≈2.6 and ≈1.5 MV/cm for PLZT deposited on LNO/Ni foils and PtSi substrates, respectively. A high recoverable energy density of ≈85 J/cm^3 and energy conversion efficiency of ≈65 % were measured on the PLZT film grown on LNO/Ni.

  13. Is the sun constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, J.B.; Dearborn, D.S.P.

    1979-01-01

    Small fluctuations in the solar constant can occur on timescales much shorter than the Kelvin time. Changes in the ability of convection to transmit energy through the superadiabatic and transition regions of the convection zone cause structure adjustments which can occur on a time scale of days. The bulk of the convection zone reacts to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium (though not thermal equilibrium) and causes a luminosity change. While small radius variations will occur, most of the change will be seen in temperature

  14. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxides for Energy Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-11-24

    As the world strives to adapt to the increasing demand for electrical power, sustainable energy sources are attracting significant interest. Around 60% of energy utilized in the world is wasted as heat. Different industrial processes, home heating, and exhausts in cars, all generate a huge amount of unused waste heat. With such a huge potential, there is also significant interest in discovering inexpensive technologies for power generation from waste heat. As a result, thermoelectric materials have become important for many renewable energy research programs. While significant advancements have been done in improving the thermoelectric properties of the conventional heavy-element based materials (such as Bi2Te3 and PbTe), high-temperature applications of thermoelectrics are still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe, since the traditional thermoelectric materials degrade and oxidize at high temperature. Therefore, oxide thermoelectrics emerge as a promising class of materials since they can operate athigher temperatures and in harsher environments compared to non-oxide thermoelectrics. Furthermore, oxides are abundant and friendly to the environment. Among oxides, crystalline SrTiO3 and ZnO are promising thermoelectric materials. The main objective of this work is therefore to pursue focused investigations of SrTiO3 and ZnO thin films and superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), with the goal of optimizing their thermoelectric properties by following different strategies. First, the effect of laser fluence on the thermoelectric properties of La doped epitaxial SrTiO3 films is discussed. Films grown at higher laser fluences exhibit better thermoelectric performance. Second, the role of crystal orientation in determining the thermoelectric properties of epitaxial Al doped ZnO (AZO) films is explained. Vertically aligned (c-axis) AZO films have superior thermoelectric properties compared to other films with different crystal orientations. Third

  15. Renormalization group summation, spectrality constraints, and coupling constant analyticity for phenomenological applications of two-point correlators in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic structure in the strong coupling constant that emerges for some observables in QCD after duality averaging of renormalization-group-improved amplitudes is discussed, and the validity of the infrared renormalon hypothesis for the determination of this structure is critically reexamined. A consistent description of peculiar features of perturbation theory series related to hypothetical infrared renormalons and corresponding power corrections is considered. It is shown that perturbation theory series for the spectral moments of two-point correlators of hadronic currents in QCD can explicitly be summed in all orders using the definition of the moments that avoids integration through the infrared region in momentum space. Such a definition of the moments relies on the analytic properties of two-point correlators in the momentum variable that allows for shifting the integration contour into the complex plane of the momentum. For definiteness, an explicit case of gluonic current correlators is discussed in detail

  16. Application of membrane LaF3 electrode in the determination of stability constants of Uranyl Fluoride complex in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzakky; Iswani GS; Mintolo

    1996-01-01

    A membrane electrode LaF 3 has been applied in the determination of uranyl fluoride complex stability constant in solution. The determination is based on the detection of free F ion in solution as a result of hydrolysis reaction (process) of uranyl ions into the uranyl hydroxide form at low pH. The experiment results showed that there was no effect of ammonium carbonate 2 M titran, flow rate on the electrode response. The F release is optimum at pH 1. The free F ion in solution is calculated from the standard curve at pH 1, after the fluoride concentration at the same pH has been corrected. Using the plot of average number of ligand binding (n) versus minus log of free ligand (-log F) the value of β1 = 4.4, β2 = 7.48, β3=9.73, and β4 = 11.67

  17. Numerical solution of fully developed heat transfer problem with constant wall temperature and application to isosceles triangle and parabolic ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabulut, Halit; Ipci, Duygu; Cinar, Can

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical method has been developed for fully developed flows with constant wall temperature. • The governing equations were transformed to boundary fitted coordinates. • The Nusselt number of parabolic duct has been investigated. • Validation of the numerical method has been made by comparing published data. - Abstract: In motor-vehicles the use of more compact radiators have several advantages such as; improving the aerodynamic form of cars, reducing the weight and volume of the cars, reducing the material consumption and environmental pollutions, and enabling faster increase of the engine coolant temperature after starting to run and thereby improving the thermal efficiency. For the design of efficient and compact radiators, the robust determination of the heat transfer coefficient becomes imperative. In this study the external heat transfer coefficient of the radiator has been investigated for hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed flows in channels with constant wall temperature. In such situation the numerical treatment of the problem results in a trivial solution. To find a non-trivial solution the problem is treated either as an eigenvalue problem or as a thermally developing flow problem. In this study a numerical solution procedure has been developed and the heat transfer coefficients of the fully developed flow in triangular and parabolic air channels were investigated. The governing equations were transformed to boundary fitted coordinates and numerically solved. The non-trivial solution was obtained by means of guessing the temperature of any grid point within the solution domain. The correction of the guessed temperature was performed via smoothing the temperature profile on a line passing through the mentioned grid point. Results were compared with literature data and found to be consistent.

  18. 78 FR 14779 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-339-A] Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy... its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e... transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term using...

  19. 77 FR 20805 - Application to Export Electric Energy; PPL EnergyPlus, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-210-C] Application to Export Electric Energy; PPL Energy... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA... to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a two-year term...

  20. 78 FR 14778 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-338-A] Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy... its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e... transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico as a power marketer for a five-year term using...

  1. 76 FR 30325 - Application to Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Export Electric Energy; E-T Global Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e) of the... an application from E-T Global for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  2. 77 FR 50487 - Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy Services LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-328-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; RBC Energy... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA... to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term...

  3. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-375] Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy... electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act. DATES... franchised service area. The electric energy that Rainbow proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus...

  4. 77 FR 15091 - Application To Export Electric Energy; DTE Energy Trading, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-211-C] Application To Export Electric Energy; DTE Energy... transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power... transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a two-year term using...

  5. 77 FR 20374 - Application To Export Electric Energy; WSPP Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-98-M] Application To Export Electric Energy; WSPP Inc... members to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada, pursuant to section 202(e) of the... transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada. DATES: Comments, protests, or motions to...

  6. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN WASTE TREATMENT- A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review is an exposure on the various ways that solar energy can be harnessed for numerous waste treatment processes. Almost all forms of waste treatment require energy which is scarcely available considering the global energy crisis. The objective of this study is to enumerate the solar energy applications in waste ...

  7. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  8. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  9. High Energy Density Dielectrics for Pulsed Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Richard L; Bray, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    This report was developed under a SBIR contract. Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) capacitors exhibit several promising characteristics for high energy density capacitor applications in extreme environments...

  10. Solar energy application, economics, and public perception

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the rise in energy demand, and issues of energy security, more countries are being forced to reexamine their energy policies and consider more renewable sources of energy. Solar power is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies, due in a large part to the recent technological advances in the field and the significant decrease in cost. This book describes these advances and examines the current state of solar power from a variety of angles. The various sections of the book cover the following topics: an overview of hybrid solar energy s

  11. Standard Glbbs Energy of Formation of the Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution. Rate Constants for the Reaction C102- -t O3 S 03- -t CIO,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaning, U. K.; Sehested, Knud; Holcman, J.

    1985-01-01

    The rate constants of the following reactions were determined by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow experiments: C102- + O3 + C102 + 03-(k f= (4 f 1) X lo6 dm3 mol-' s-', k, = (1.8 f 0.2) X lo5 dm3 mol-' s-]); C102 + OH - C103- + H+ (k = (4.0 * 0.4) X lo9 dm3 mol-' s-l); C102 + 0- - C103- (k = (2.......7 * 0.4) X lo9 dm3 mol-' s-l); and O3 + C102 - C103 + O2 (k = (1.05 f 0.10) X lo3 dm3 mol-l s-'), where kf is the forward rate of reaction and k, is the reverse rate of reaction. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of OH in aqueous solution A&O,,(OH) and the corresponding standard oxidation potential...

  12. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, P.; Bay Hasager, C.

    2004-11-01

    An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resource studies. Comparison results from complex terrain in Spain and flat terrain in Denmark are found to be acceptable for both sites. Also land cover type information can be retrieved from satellite observations. Land cover type maps have to be combined with roughness data from field observation or literature values. Land cover type maps constitute an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEM and land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface wind data from several types of satellite observations. The RWT software allows an optimal calculation of SAR wind resource statistics. A tab-file with SAR-based observed wind climate (OWC) data can be obtained for 10 m above sea level and used in WASP. RWT uses a footprint averaging technique to obtain data as similar as possible to mast observations. Maximum-likelihood fitting is used to calculate the Weibull A and k parameters from the constrained data set. Satellite SAR wind maps cover the coastal zone from 3 km and offshore with very detailed information of 400 m by 400 m grid resolution. Spatial trends in mean wind, energy density, Weibull A and k and uncertainty values are provided for the area of interest. Satellite scatterometer wind observations have a spatial resolution of 25 km by 25 km. These data typically represent a site further offshore, and the tab-file statistics should be used in WASP combined with topography and roughness information to assess the coastal wind power potential. Scatterometer wind data are observed {approx} twice per day, whereas SAR only

  13. Potency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Noer Abyor; Ariyanti, Dessy

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 80% of conventional energy is used to fulfill general public's needs andindustries. The depletion of oil and gas reserves and rapid growth in conventional energyconsumption have continuously forced us to discover renewable energy sources, like solar, wind,biomass, and hydropower, to support economic development in the future. Solar energy travels at aspeed of 186,000 miles per second. Only a small part of the radiant energy that the sun emits intospace ever reaches the Earth, but t...

  14. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  15. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Capobianco-Uriarte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28. The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  16. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  17. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... reliability of the U.S. electric power supply system. Copies of this application will be made available, upon... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-376] Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe...

  18. Determination of the strong coupling constant from transverse energy-energy correlations in multi-jet events in pp collisions at 13 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Manuel; Llorente, Javier

    This analysis presents measurements of transverse energy-energy correlations (TEEC) and its associated asymmetry (ATEEC) in multi-jet events in bins of the scalar sum of the two leading jets transverse momenta. The data are unfolded to the particle level and compared to Monte Carlo generators like PYTHIA8, HERWIG++ and SHERPA. A comparison with NLOJET++ predictions is also performed. The value of the strong coupling constant is extracted and the running is tested up to scales beyond 1 TeV.

  19. Identifying The Most Applicable Renewable Energy Systems Of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Mousavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available These years because of energy crisis all of country try to find a new way to reduce energy consumptions and obtain maximum use of renewable energy. Iran also is not an exception of this progress. Renewable energy is energy that is provided by renewable sources such as the sun or wind. In general renewable energies are not adaptable to every single community. Because of location and special climate conditions of Iran most applicable renewable energy systems in Iran are solar and wind energy. Main purpose of this paper is to review and identify most applicable renewable energy systems of Iran and also review on traditional and current methods that utilized to obtain maximum use of these renewable energies.

  20. Manual to application of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    The National Government of Colombia assigned to INEA (Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Alternative Energies), the paper of promotion, diffusion and utilization of sources of energy not - conventional, the one which includes the wind energy. These studies were accomplished mainly in winding zones as the Department La Guajira, area of the Eastern Plains and some sites of mountain chains of the Andes. Internationally, renewable energies utilization is widely used and is included as an important factor in the energetic strategic planning in some countries, where this renewable energy becomes more than 20% to total energy supply. An introduction to the wind energy in some aspects as: the wind resource, global traffic standards of the wind, calculation of the potential of the wind and methods for the calculation of speed measure of the wind are presented. The methodologies for the evaluation of the wind as an energy source, the wind energy technologies, the equipment to wind energy utilization and the implementation of small systems of energy conversion of wind are described

  1. A systematic evaluation of the dose-rate constant determined by photon spectrometry for 21 different models of low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe Jay; Nath, Ravinder

    2010-10-21

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic comparison of the dose-rate constant (Λ) determined by the photon spectrometry technique (PST) with the consensus value ((CON)Λ) recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) for 21 low-energy photon-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. A total of 63 interstitial brachytherapy sources (21 different models with 3 sources per model) containing either (125)I (14 models), (103)Pd (6 models) or (131)Cs (1 model) were included in this study. A PST described by Chen and Nath (2007 Med. Phys. 34 1412-30) was used to determine the dose-rate constant ((PST)Λ) for each source model. Source-dependent variations in (PST)Λ were analyzed systematically against the spectral characteristics of the emitted photons and the consensus values recommended by the AAPM brachytherapy subcommittee. The values of (PST)Λ for the encapsulated sources of (103)Pd, (125)I and (131)Cs varied from 0.661 to 0.678 cGyh(-1) U(-1), 0.959 to 1.024 cGyh(-1)U(-1) and 1.066 to 1.073 cGyh(-1)U(-1), respectively. The relative variation in (PST)Λ among the six (103)Pd source models, caused by variations in photon attenuation and in spatial distributions of radioactivity among the source models, was less than 3%. Greater variations in (PST)Λ were observed among the 14 (125)I source models; the maximum relative difference was over 6%. These variations were caused primarily by the presence of silver in some (125)I source models and, to a lesser degree, by the variations in photon attenuation and in spatial distribution of radioactivity among the source models. The presence of silver generates additional fluorescent x-rays with lower photon energies which caused the (PST)Λ value to vary from 0.959 to 1.019 cGyh(-1)U(-1) depending on the amount of silver used by a given source model. For those (125)I sources that contain no silver, their (PST)Λ was less variable and had values within 1% of 1.024 cGyh(-1)U(-1). For the 16

  2. Wireless energy transmission to supplement energy harvesters in sensor network applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Stuart G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for coupling wireless energy transmission with traditional energy harvesting techniques in order to power sensor nodes for structural health monitoring applications. The goal of this study is to develop a system that can be permanently embedded within civil structures without the need for on-board power sources. Wireless energy transmission is included to supplement energy harvesting techniques that rely on ambient or environmental, energy sources. This approach combines several transducer types that harvest ambient energy with wireless transmission sources, providing a robust solution that does not rely on a single energy source. Experimental results from laboratory and field experiments are presented to address duty cycle limitations of conventional energy harvesting techniques, and the advantages gained by incorporating a wireless energy transmission subsystem. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  3. Production in constant evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant now has 25 years of operation behind it: a quarter century adding value and demonstrating the reasons why it is one of the most important energy producing facilities in the Spanish power market. Particularly noteworthy is the enterprising spirit of the plant, which has strived to continuously improve with the large number of modernization projects that it has undertaken over the past 25 years. The plant has constantly evolved thanks to the amount of investments made to improve safety and reliability and the perseverance to stay technologically up to date. Efficiency, training and teamwork have been key to the success of the plant over these 25 years of constant change and progress. (Author)

  4. Monte Carlo investigations on surface elastic energy of spin-crossover solids: Direct access to image pressure and the Eshelby constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2013-10-01

    We present theoretical investigations on surface elastic energy in spin-crossover (SC) solids studied in the frame of a microscopic elastic model, coupling spin, and lattice deformations. Although surface energy plays a crucial role in driving the SC transition, specific quantitative investigations on its effect have been neglected in most of the recent theoretical works based on atomistic descriptions of the SC transitions, resolved by Monte Carlo or by molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we perform a quantitative study of the surface energy resulting from an inserted high-spin (HS) domain in a low-spin (LS) lattice. This situation may be produced experimentally in SC solids, at low temperature, through a photoexcitation by a single pulse laser shot. We demonstrate that the surface energy depends on the ratio between the local molecular volume misfit (between the LS and HS sites) δυ and the lattice volume V, such as Esurf˜δυ2/V for the HS atom at the center of lattice, while it is Esurf˜δυ2/L (L is the length of the lattice) in the case of the HS atom located on the edge of the lattice. We then derived the image pressure (negative in the case of embedded dilatation centers) through the work of the free surface atoms and evaluated the Eshelby constant, which was found equal to γ˜1.90, in very good agreement with the available data of literature. Energetic configuration diagrams in the homogeneous (HS and LS) and heterogeneous (coexistence of HS and LS) are calculated, from which estimations of the macroscopic bulk modulus were deduced.

  5. Graphene energy storage and conversion applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-01-01

    Series PrefacePrefaceAuthorsGraphene Overview; Xufeng Zhou, Wei Wang, and Zhaoping LiuSynthesis of Graphene; Wei Wang, Hailiang Cao, Xufeng Zhou, and Zhaoping LiuApplications of Graphene in Lithium Ion Batteries; Xufeng Zhou and Zhaoping LiuApplications of Graphene in New-Concept Batteries; Xufeng Zhou and Zhaoping LiuApplications of Graphene in Supercapacitors; Chao Zheng, Xufeng Zhou, Hailiang Cao, and Zhaoping LiuApplications of Graphene in Solar Cells; Fuqiang Huang, Dongyun Wan, Hui Bi, and Tianquan LinApplications of Graphene in Fuel Cells; Xuejun Zhou, Jinli Qiao, and Yuyu LiuIndex.

  6. Model-independent determination of dissociation energies: method and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Manuel; Hansen, Klavs; Herlert, Alexander; Schweikhard, Lutz

    2003-01-01

    A number of methods are available for the purpose of extracting dissociation energies of polyatomic particles. Many of these techniques relate the rate of disintegration at a known excitation energy to the value of the dissociation energy. However, such a determination is susceptible to systematic uncertainties, mainly due to the unknown thermal properties of the particles and the potential existence of 'dark' channels, such as radiative cooling. These problems can be avoided with a recently developed procedure, which applies energy-dependent reactions of the decay products as an uncalibrated thermometer. Thus, it allows a direct measurement of dissociation energies, without any assumption on properties of the system or on details of the disintegration process. The experiments have been performed in a Penning trap, where both rate constants and branching ratios have been measured. The dissociation energies determined with different versions of the method yield identical values, within a small uncertainty

  7. Problems of application of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, A.F.; Morozkina, M.V.

    1993-01-01

    Technical solutions of using the energy both sea waves and lake ones are analyzed. Mathematical description of wave processes and phenomena as well as techniques of selection and conversion of the wave energy are given. Wave energy electromechanical converters are considered. Great attention is paid to linear generators of electromechanical converters eddy currents in massive sections of these generators and features of their calculation. Techniques for optimization of the linear generator parameters are shown. 60 refs

  8. Renewable Energy Applications for Existing Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S. J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces technical opportunities, means, and methods for incorporating renewable energy (RE) technologies into building designs and operations. It provides an overview of RE resources and available technologies used successfully to offset building electrical and thermal energy loads. Methods for applying these technologies in buildings and the role of building energy efficiency in successful RE projects are addressed along with tips for implementing successful RE projects.

  9. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, M. V.; Sadeghi, H.; Ghasabian, M.; Mazandarani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Industrial demand for neutrons constrains careful energy measurements. Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α -particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with specific energy is obtained by counting the number of α -particles in the corresponding location on the charged particle detector. Monte Carlo simulation and COMSOL Multiphysics5.2 are used to account for one-to-one collision of neutrons with α -particles.

  10. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. (BEMI) has applied to renew its authority... President of Legal Services and General Counsel, Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc., 480 de la Cite Blvd...

  11. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP (BEM LP) has applied for authority to transmit electric... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities...

  12. 77 FR 23238 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Citigroup Energy Canada ULC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-326-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; Citigroup... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA... electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term. The current...

  13. 75 FR 12737 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Integrys Energy Services, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-301-A] Application To Export Electric Energy; Integrys... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the.... 824a(e)). On May 24, 2005, DOE issued Order No. EA-301 authorizing Integrys Energy to transmit electric...

  14. Resonance Energy Transfer Molecular Imaging Application in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong1,2;TANG Gang-hua1,3

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonance energy transfer molecular imaging (RETI can markedly improve signal intensity and tissue penetrating capacity of optical imaging, and have huge potential application in the deep-tissue optical imaging in vivo. Resonance energy transfer (RET is an energy transition from the donor to an acceptor that is in close proximity, including non-radiative resonance energy transfer and radiative resonance energy transfer. RETI is an optical imaging technology that is based on RET. RETI mainly contains fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging (FRETI, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (BRETI, chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (CRETI, and radiative resonance energy transfer imaging (RRETI. RETI is the hot field of molecular imaging research and has been widely used in the fields of biology and medicine. This review mainly focuses on RETI principle and application in biomedicine.

  15. The cost - effective solar energy applications in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines several cost-effective solar energy application in Canada, and estimates the GHG emission reduction potential for each. The applications include: (1) passive solar building design; (2) solar water heating applications; (3) solar photovoltaics for remote power; and (4) solar assisted space heating and cooling in industrial buildings. Each technology is briefly profiled in terms of functionality, cost characteristics, energy production characteristics and potential emission reduction benefits. Real-life examples of each application are also included. Finally, the paper concludes on the potential role of solar energy in the reduction of Canadian GHG emissions. (author)

  16. Advanced nanomaterials and their applications in renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingbo Louise

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Nanomaterials and Their Applications in Renewable Energy presents timely topics related to nanomaterials' feasible synthesis and characterization, and their application in the energy fields. In addition, the book provides insights and scientific discoveries in toxicity study, with information that is easily understood by a wide audience. Advanced energy materials are important in designing materials that have greater physical, electronic, and optical properties. This book emphasizes the fundamental physics and chemistry underlying the techniques used to develop solar and fuel cell

  17. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  18. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Roshan

    2018-02-07

    . Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with ...

  19. Improving energy efficiency in handheld biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, David C.; Gale, John W.; Schultz, Robert C.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Ives, Robert W.

    2012-06-01

    With improved smartphone and tablet technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible to implement powerful biometric recognition algorithms on portable devices. Typical iris recognition algorithms, such as Ridge Energy Direction (RED), utilize two-dimensional convolution in their implementation. This paper explores the energy consumption implications of 12 different methods of implementing two-dimensional convolution on a portable device. Typically, convolution is implemented using floating point operations. If a given algorithm implemented integer convolution vice floating point convolution, it could drastically reduce the energy consumed by the processor. The 12 methods compared include 4 major categories: Integer C, Integer Java, Floating Point C, and Floating Point Java. Each major category is further divided into 3 implementations: variable size looped convolution, static size looped convolution, and unrolled looped convolution. All testing was performed using the HTC Thunderbolt with energy measured directly using a Tektronix TDS5104B Digital Phosphor oscilloscope. Results indicate that energy savings as high as 75% are possible by using Integer C versus Floating Point C. Considering the relative proportion of processing time that convolution is responsible for in a typical algorithm, the savings in energy would likely result in significantly greater time between battery charges.

  20. Universe of constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  1. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  2. Multifunctional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures—including graphene, fullerenes, etc.—have found applications in a number of areas synergistically with a number of other materials. These multifunctional carbon nanostructures have recently attracted tremendous interest for energy storage applications due to their large aspect ratios, specific surface areas, and electrical conductivity. This succinct review aims to report on the recent advances in energy storage applications involving these multifunctional carbon nanostructures. The advanced design and testing of multifunctional carbon nanostructures for energy storage applications—specifically, electrochemical capacitors, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells—are emphasized with comprehensive examples.

  3. Constant physics and characteristics of fundamental constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrach, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present some evidence which supports a surprising physical interpretation of the fundamental constants. First, we relate two of them through the renormalization group. This leaves as many fundamental constants as base units. Second, we introduce and a dimensional system of units without fundamental constants. Third, and most important, we find, while interpreting the units of the a dimensional system, that is all cases accessible to experimentation the fundamental constants indicate either discretization at small values or boundedness at large values of the corresponding physical quantity. (Author) 12 refs

  4. Heterogeneous catalysis at nanoscale for energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Franklin (Feng); Kamat, Prashant V

    2015-01-01

    This book presents both the fundamentals concepts and latest achievements of a field that is growing in importance since it represents a possible solution for global energy problems.  It focuses on an atomic-level understanding of heterogeneous catalysis involved in important energy conversion processes. It presents a concise picture for the entire area of heterogeneous catalysis with vision at the atomic- and nano- scales, from synthesis, ex-situ and in-situ characterization, catalytic activity and selectivity, to mechanistic understanding based on experimental exploration and theoretical si

  5. Geothermal energy in Yugoslavia, potentials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreli, F.; Paradjanin, Lj.; Stankovic, Srb.

    2002-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of Geothermal energy (GTE) in Serbia, and argues that while GTE is both a viable and environmentally friendly energy source, as demonstrated elsewhere in the world, there is also a multitude of opportunities in this region, and the local knowledge and capabilities required for implementing the GTE plants. First, a general introduction to GTE in is given. The basis of GTE is the thermal energy accumulated in fluids and rocks masses in the Earth's Crust. The main GTE advantage compared to the traditional energy sources like thermo-electric plants is the absence of environmental deterioration, however GTE also has advantages compared to other NARES, as the GT sources are permanently available and independent of weather conditions. Worldwide energy potential of GTE is huge, as the reduction of Earth Crust temperature for just 0.1 deg. C would give enough Energy to produce Electrical Energy, at the present dissipation level, for the next 15,000 years. An overview of the regions in Yugoslavia which have a high GTE potential is given. There are two distinct regions with higher GTE values in Serbia: the first is a part of the South Panonian basin including Vojvodina, with Macva and Yu-part along Danube and Morava rivers. This is a sedimental part of the Tercier's Panonic Sea 'Parathetis', with partial depression and Backa subsupression, and is well investigated due to oil and gas holeboring. The second region includes Central and Southern part of Serbia, south from the Panonia basin, with pretercier's and tercier's magmatic volcanic intrusions, which produce a very high and stable thermal flux. This Region is rich in GT-warm water springs with stable yields, and includes 217 locations with 970 natural springs with temperature above 20 deg. C. These compare very favorably with international locations where GTE is exploited. GTE can be used for Electric Energy production using corresponding heat pump systems, for house heating and warm water

  6. A calorimetric measurement of the strong coupling constant in electron-positron annihilation at a center-of-mass energy of 91.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirena, S.G.

    1994-04-01

    In this work, a measurement of the strong coupling constant α s in e + e - annihilation at a center-of-mass energy of 91.6 GeV is presented. The measurement was performed with the SLD at the Stanford Linear Collider facility located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. The procedure used consisted of measuring the rate of hard gluon radiation from the primary quarks in a sample of 9,878 hadronic events. After defining the asymptotic manifestation of partons as 'jets', various phenomenological models were used to correct for the hadronization process. A value for the QCD scale parameter Λ bar MS , defined in the bar MS renormalization convention with 5 active quark flavors, was then obtained by a direct fit to O(α s 2 ) calculations. The value of α s obtained was α s (M z0 ) = 0.122 ± 0.004 -0.007 +0.008 where the uncertainties are experimental (combined statistical and systematic) and theoretical (systematic) respectively. Equivalently, Λ bar MS = 0.28 -0.10 +0.16 GeV where the experimental and theoretical uncertainties have been combined

  7. The mechanical first law of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant and its application to the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Miho; Tomimatsu, Akira; Saida, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical first law (MFL) of black hole spacetimes is a geometrical relation which relates variations of the mass parameter and horizon area. While it is well known that the MFL of an asymptotic flat black hole is equivalent to its thermodynamical first law, however we do not know the detail of the MFL of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant which possess a black hole and cosmological event horizons. This paper aims to formulate an MFL of the two-horizon spacetimes. For this purpose, we try to include the effects of two horizons in the MFL. To do so, we make use of the Iyer-Wald formalism and extend it to regard the mass parameter and the cosmological constant as two independent variables which make it possible to treat the two horizons on the same footing. Our extended Iyer-Wald formalism preserves the existence of the conserved Noether current and its associated Noether charge, and gives an abstract form of the MFL of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant. Then, as a representative application of this formalism, we derive the MFL of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) spacetime. Our MFL of the SdS spacetime relates the variations of three quantities: the mass parameter, the total area of the two horizons and the volume enclosed by the two horizons. If our MFL is regarded as a thermodynamical first law of the SdS spacetime, it offers a thermodynamically consistent description of the SdS black hole evaporation process: the mass decreases while the volume and the entropy increase. In our suggestion, a generalized second law is not needed to ensure the second law of SdS thermodynamics for its evaporation process.

  8. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting windfields are valuable in offshore wind energy plan...

  9. Climate information for the application of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Gil, S.

    1997-01-01

    In view of population growth, industrialization and urbanization which provoked increasing energy demand there has been an increasing interest in developing new technologies that use various renewable energy sources and have less environmental impact, such as solar, wind, tidal and biomass. Solar energy is one of the energy resources with a wide geographical distribution. Nowadays, its contribution to the world's energy supply is very small, but it is considered an important long term option which will satisfy, together with conventional energy sources, the future energy needs of the world. The main objective of this work is to report the actual uses of the principal types of solar energy systems, based on their climatic, technological and economical context. This is to improve the dissemination of information on the application of climate knowledge and data, especially by national meteorological services, with the purpose to improve the planning, design and operation of solar energy systems, as well as facilitate their more widespread use

  10. A Wind Forecasting System for Energy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jennifer; Lynch, Peter; Sweeney, Conor

    2010-05-01

    Accurate forecasting of available energy is crucial for the efficient management and use of wind power in the national power grid. With energy output critically dependent upon wind strength there is a need to reduce the errors associated wind forecasting. The objective of this research is to get the best possible wind forecasts for the wind energy industry. To achieve this goal, three methods are being applied. First, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model called WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) is being used to predict wind values over Ireland. Currently, a gird resolution of 10km is used and higher model resolutions are being evaluated to establish whether they are economically viable given the forecast skill improvement they produce. Second, the WRF model is being used in conjunction with ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ensemble forecasts to produce a probabilistic weather forecasting product. Due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, a single, deterministic weather forecast can only have limited skill. The ECMWF ensemble methods produce an ensemble of 51 global forecasts, twice a day, by perturbing initial conditions of a 'control' forecast which is the best estimate of the initial state of the atmosphere. This method provides an indication of the reliability of the forecast and a quantitative basis for probabilistic forecasting. The limitation of ensemble forecasting lies in the fact that the perturbed model runs behave differently under different weather patterns and each model run is equally likely to be closest to the observed weather situation. Models have biases, and involve assumptions about physical processes and forcing factors such as underlying topography. Third, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is being applied to the output from the ensemble forecasts in order to statistically post-process the results and achieve a better wind forecasting system. BMA is a promising technique that will offer calibrated

  11. Current Status of Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon

    2009-05-01

    IAEA Technical Meeting(I3-TM-37394) on 'Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy' has been successfully held from March 3 to 6 in 2009 at KAERI/INTEC. The 24 experts from 12 countries participated in this meeting and provided 17 presentations and their opinions and comments in desalination, hydrogen production, and heat application sessions. All of the participants from 12 countries agreed that nuclear power should be the potential carbon-free energy source to replace crude oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the fields of non-electric applications such as desalination, hydrogen production, district heating, and industrial processes applications

  12. High temperature applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The meeting was organized to review industry/user needs designs, status of technology and the associated economics for high temperature applications. It was attended by approximately 100 participants from nine countries. The participants presented 17 papers. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  14. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  15. Recent Niobium Developments for High Strength Steel Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansto, Steven G.

    Niobium-containing high strength steel materials have been developed for oil and gas pipelines, offshore platforms, nuclear plants, boilers and alternative energy applications. Recent research and the commercialization of alternative energy applications such as windtower structural supports and power transmission gear components provide enhanced performance. Through the application of these Nb-bearing steels in demanding energy-related applications, the designer and end user experience improved toughness at low temperature, excellent fatigue resistance and fracture toughness and excellent weldability. These enhancements provide structural engineers the opportunity to further improve the structural design and performance. For example, through the adoption of these Nb-containing structural materials, several design-manufacturing companies are initiating new windtower designs operating at higher energy efficiency, lower cost, and improved overall material design performance.

  16. Artificial intelligence - applications in high energy and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U. E-mail: mueller@whep.uni-wuppertal.de

    2003-04-21

    In the parallel sessions at ACAT2002 different artificial intelligence applications in high energy and nuclear physics were presented. I will briefly summarize these presentations. Further details can be found in the relevant section of these proceedings.

  17. Interview in Radio Educacion on the applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar G, M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective that presides over this interview, is to show before the public the diverse applications that can have the nuclear energy, apart from the warlike aspect and the electric power generation. (Author)

  18. High dielectric constant and energy density induced by the tunable TiO2 interfacial buffer layer in PVDF nanocomposite contained with core-shell structured TiO2@BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Penghao; Jia, Zhuye; Shen, Zhonghui; Wang, Peng; Liu, Xiaoru

    2018-05-01

    To realize application in high-capacity capacitors and portable electric devices, large energy density is eagerly desired for polymer-based nanocomposite. The core-shell structured nanofillers with inorganic buffer layer are recently supposed to be promising in improving the dielectric property of polymer nanocomposite. In this work, core-shell structured TO@BT nanoparticles with crystalline TiO2 buffer layer coated on BaTiO3 nanoparticle were fabricated via solution method and heat treatment. The thickness of the TO buffer layer can be tailored by modulating the additive amount of the titanate coupling agent in preparation process, and the apparent dielectric properties of nanocomposite are much related to the thickness of the TO layer. The relatively thin TO layer prefer to generate high polarization to increase dielectric constant while the relatively thick TO layer would rather to homogenize field to maintain breakdown strength. Simulation of electric field distribution in the interfacial region reveals the improving effect of the TO buffer layer on the dielectric properties of nanocomposite which accords with the experimental results well. The optimized nanoparticle TO@BT-2 with a mean thickness of 3-5 nm buffer layer of TO is effective in increasing both the ε and Eb in the PVDF composite film. The maximal discharged energy density of 8.78 J/cm3 with high energy efficiency above 0.6 is obtained in TO@BT-2/PVDF nanocomposite with 2.5 vol% loading close to the breakdown strength of 380 kV/mm. The present study demonstrates the approach to optimize the structure of core-shell nanoparticles by modulating buffer layer and provides a new way to further enlarge energy density in polymer nanocomposite.

  19. Medical applications of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte, Valentin E.

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine School Foundation, in Mendoza (Argentina) was created in 1986 by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and is supported by the Government of the Mendoza Province, the CNEA, and the National University of Cuyo. The main activities of the school are medical diagnosis using nuclear techniques and the training of physicians and technicians in nuclear medicine. Teletherapy and brachytherapy are also performed. The use of the PET is described in some detail

  20. Determination of the strong coupling constant α{sub s} from transverse energy-energy correlations in multijet events at √(s) = 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-12-15

    Measurements of transverse energy-energy correlations and their associated asymmetries in multi-jet events using the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. The data used correspond to √(s) = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions with an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb{sup -1}. The results are presented in bins of the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of the two leading jets, unfolded to the particle level and compared to the predictions from Monte Carlo simulations. A comparison with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD is also performed, showing excellent agreement within the uncertainties. From this comparison, the value of the strong coupling constant is extracted for different energy regimes, thus testing the running of α{sub s}(μ) predicted in QCD up to scales over 1 TeV. A global fit to the transverse energy-energy correlation distributions yields α{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1162 ± 0.0011 (exp.){sup +0.0084}{sub -0.0070} (theo.), while a global fit to the asymmetry distributions yields a value of α{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1196 ± 0.0013 (exp.){sup +0.0075}{sub -0.0045} (theo.). (orig.)

  1. Determination of the strong coupling constant αs from transverse energy-energy correlations in multijet events at √(s) = 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaboud, M.; Abbott, B.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of transverse energy-energy correlations and their associated asymmetries in multi-jet events using the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. The data used correspond to √(s) = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions with an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb -1 . The results are presented in bins of the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of the two leading jets, unfolded to the particle level and compared to the predictions from Monte Carlo simulations. A comparison with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD is also performed, showing excellent agreement within the uncertainties. From this comparison, the value of the strong coupling constant is extracted for different energy regimes, thus testing the running of α s (μ) predicted in QCD up to scales over 1 TeV. A global fit to the transverse energy-energy correlation distributions yields α s (m Z ) = 0.1162 ± 0.0011 (exp.) +0.0084 -0.0070 (theo.), while a global fit to the asymmetry distributions yields a value of α s (m Z ) = 0.1196 ± 0.0013 (exp.) +0.0075 -0.0045 (theo.). (orig.)

  2. World-wide termination of nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirin, W.

    1991-01-01

    It is easy to require the widely discussed termination of nuclear energy application, but it is hardly possible to realise it, unless one is prepared to accept enormous economic and ecological problems. The article investigates, whether the other energy carriers or energy saving methods, respectively, would be in a position to replace the nuclear energy. Thereby the aspects of securing the supply and its economy are of considerable importance. The author describes furthermore the effects of terminating nuclear energy on the growing world population and the economy of trading countries. Ecological problems that may also be aggravated are dealt with, too. (orig.) [de

  3. Renewable energy systems advanced conversion technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion techniques are key in power electronics and even more so in renewable energy source systems, which require a large number of converters. Renewable Energy Systems: Advanced Conversion Technologies and Applications describes advanced conversion technologies and provides design examples of converters and inverters for renewable energy systems-including wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Learn Cutting-Edge Techniques for Converters and Inverters Setting the scene, the book begins with a review of the basics of astronomy and Earth physics. It then systematically introduc

  4. High energy heavy ions: techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Pioneering work at the Bevalac has given significant insight into the field of relativistic heavy ions, both in the development of techniques for acceleration and delivery of these beams as well as in many novel areas of applications. This paper will outline our experiences at the Bevalac; ion sources, low velocity acceleration, matching to the synchrotron booster, and beam delivery. Applications discussed will include the observation of new effects in central nuclear collisions, production of beams of exotic short-lived (down to 1 μsec) isotopes through peripheral nuclear collisions, atomic physics with hydrogen-like uranium ions, effects of heavy ''cosmic rays'' on satellite equipment, and an ongoing cancer radiotherapy program with heavy ions. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    The Annual report 1974 of the Association EURATOM-ITAL describes the results obtained in 1974 in the following sections: Radiation effects; Genetic studies; Soil-plants studies; Methodology; Practical applications, services, courses. The radiation effects studies are concerned with: primary radiation effects, mutation breeding, preservation of food by means of radiation, radiation genetics of insect pests. In the soil-plant studies, the following topics are dealt with: uptake of specific elements by plants, behavior of specific elements in the soil and water environment, heavy metals in plants and soils. The methodology part of the programme is concerned with: methodology related to dosimetric, other physical and instrumental studies; methodology related to studies on biological material; methodology related to soil-studies. Practical applications, services, courses include: mutation breeding of economically important crops, food preservation by irradiation, services to other institutions mainly in the Netherlands, courses, newsletters. The report also lists publications issued and not yet issued

  6. Prospects and applicability of wave energy for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavidas, George; Venugopal, Vengatesan

    2018-03-01

    Renewable energy offers significant opportunities for electricity diversification. South Africa belongs to the group of developing nations and encompasses a lot of potential for renewable energy developments. Currently, the majority of its electricity production originates from fossil fuels; however, incorporation of clean coal technologies will aid in reaching the assigned targets. This study offers a long-term wave power quantification analysis with a numerical wave model. The investigation includes long-term resource assessment in the region, variability, seasonal and monthly wave energy content. Locations with high-energy content but low variability pose an opportunity that can contribute in the alleviation of energy poverty. Application of wave converters depends on the combination of complex terms. The study presents resource levels and the joint distributions, which indicate suitability for converter selection. Depending on the region of interest, these characteristics change. Thus, this resource assessment adds knowledge on wave power and optimal consideration for wave energy applicability.

  7. Dynamical Origin of Highly Efficient Energy Dissipation in Soft Magnetic Nanoparticles for Magnetic Hyperthermia Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Kwan; Sim, Jaegun; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2018-05-01

    We explore robust magnetization-dynamic behaviors in soft magnetic nanoparticles in single-domain states and find their related high-efficiency energy-dissipation mechanism using finite-element micromagnetic simulations. We also make analytical derivations that provide deeper physical insights into the magnetization dynamics associated with Gilbert damping parameters under applications of time-varying rotating magnetic fields of different strengths and frequencies and static magnetic fields. Furthermore, we find that the mass-specific energy-dissipation rate at resonance in the steady-state regime changes remarkably with the strength of rotating fields and static fields for given damping constants. The associated magnetization dynamics are well interpreted with the help of the numerical calculation of analytically derived explicit forms. The high-efficiency energy-loss power can be obtained using soft magnetic nanoparticles in the single-domain state by tuning the frequency of rotating fields to the resonance frequency; what is more, it is controllable via the rotating and static field strengths for a given intrinsic damping constant. We provide a better and more efficient means of achieving specific loss power that can be implemented in magnetic hyperthermia applications.

  8. Solar energy applications in transportation facilities : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the literature and other sources to determine the types of application that have been made of solar energy in the transportation field. The use of solar energy for powering automatic traffic counters, v...

  9. Potential energy savings by using direct current for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    improvement in the power converter units. However, for residential applications, the efficiency is not always improved. A grid connected residential microgrid, with renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS) and local loads, is presented in this work. The microgrid has been modelled...

  10. Applications of neural networks in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.; Hoftun, J.S.; Nesic, D.; Sornborger, A.; Johnson, C.R.; Zeller, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    Neural network techniques provide promising solutions to pattern recognition problems in high energy physics. We discuss several applications of back propagation networks, and in particular describe the operation of an electron algorithm based on calorimeter energies. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Survey of EPA facilities for solar thermal energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. V.; Overly, P. T.; Bell, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was done to assess the feasibility of applying solar thermal energy systems to EPA facilities. A survey was conducted to determine those EPA facilities where solar energy could best be used. These systems were optimized for each specific application and the system/facility combinations were ranked on the basis of greatest cost effectiveness.

  12. Improving weather forecasts for wind energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Merlinde; MacGill, Iain

    2010-08-01

    Weather forecasts play an important role in the energy industry particularly because of the impact of temperature on electrical demand. Power system operation requires that this variable and somewhat unpredictable demand be precisely met at all times and locations from available generation. As wind generation makes up a growing component of electricity supply around the world, it has become increasingly important to be able to provide useful forecasting for this highly variable and uncertain energy resource. Of particular interest are forecasts of weather events that rapidly change wind energy production from one or more wind farms. In this paper we describe work underway to improve the wind forecasts currently available from standard Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) through a bias correction methodology. Our study has used the Australian Bureau of Meteorology MesoLAPS 5 km limited domain model over the Victoria/Tasmania region, providing forecasts for the Woolnorth wind farm, situated in Tasmania, Australia. The accuracy of these forecasts has been investigated, concentrating on the key wind speed ranges 5 - 15 ms-1 and around 25 ms-1. A bias correction methodology was applied to the NWP hourly forecasts to help account for systematic issues such as the NWP grid point not being at the exact location of the wind farm. An additional correction was applied for timing issues by using meteorological data from the wind farm. Results to date show a reduction in spread of forecast error for hour ahead forecasts by as much as half using this double correction methodology - a combination of both bias correction and timing correction.

  13. Improving weather forecasts for wind energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Merlinde; MacGill, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Weather forecasts play an important role in the energy industry particularly because of the impact of temperature on electrical demand. Power system operation requires that this variable and somewhat unpredictable demand be precisely met at all times and locations from available generation. As wind generation makes up a growing component of electricity supply around the world, it has become increasingly important to be able to provide useful forecasting for this highly variable and uncertain energy resource. Of particular interest are forecasts of weather events that rapidly change wind energy production from one or more wind farms. In this paper we describe work underway to improve the wind forecasts currently available from standard Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) through a bias correction methodology. Our study has used the Australian Bureau of Meteorology MesoLAPS 5 km limited domain model over the Victoria/Tasmania region, providing forecasts for the Woolnorth wind farm, situated in Tasmania, Australia. The accuracy of these forecasts has been investigated, concentrating on the key wind speed ranges 5 - 15 ms -1 and around 25 ms -1 . A bias correction methodology was applied to the NWP hourly forecasts to help account for systematic issues such as the NWP grid point not being at the exact location of the wind farm. An additional correction was applied for timing issues by using meteorological data from the wind farm. Results to date show a reduction in spread of forecast error for hour ahead forecasts by as much as half using this double correction methodology - a combination of both bias correction and timing correction.

  14. Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

  15. Reaction kinetics aspect of U3O8 kernel with gas H2 on the characteristics of activation energy, reaction rate constant and O/U ratio of UO2 kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damunir

    2007-01-01

    The reaction kinetics aspect of U 3 O 8 kernel with gas H 2 on the characteristics of activation energy, reaction rate constant and O/U ratio of UO 2 kernel had been studied. U 3 O 8 kernel was reacted with gas H 2 in a reduction furnace at varied reaction time and temperature. The reaction temperature was varied at 600, 700, 750 and 850 °C with a pressure of 50 mmHg for 3 hours in gas N 2 atmosphere. The reation time was varied at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours at a temperature of 750 °C using similar conditions. The reaction product was UO 2 kernel. The reaction kinetic aspect between U 3 O 8 and gas H 2 comprised the minimum activation energy (ΔE), the reaction rate constant and the O/U ratio of UO 2 kernel. The minimum activation energy was determined from a straight line slope of equation ln [{D b . R o {(1 - (1 - X b ) ⅓ } / (b.t.Cg)] = -3.9406 x 10 3 / T + 4.044. By multiplying with the straight line slope -3.9406 x 10 3 , the ideal gas constant (R) 1.985 cal/mol and the molarity difference of reaction coefficient 2, a minimum activation energy of 15.644 kcal/mol was obtained. The reaction rate constant was determined from first-order chemical reaction control and Arrhenius equation. The O/U ratio of UO 2 kernel was obtained using gravimetric method. The analysis result of reaction rate constant with chemical reaction control equation yielded reaction rate constants of 0.745 - 1.671 s -1 and the Arrhenius equation at temperatures of 650 - 850 °C yielded reaction rate constants of 0.637 - 2.914 s -1 . The O/U ratios of UO 2 kernel at the respective reaction rate constants were 2.013 - 2.014 and the O/U ratios at reaction time 1 - 4 hours were 2.04 - 2.011. The experiment results indicated that the minimum activation energy influenced the rate constant of first-order reaction and the O/U ratio of UO 2 kernel. The optimum condition was obtained at reaction rate constant of 1.43 s -1 , O/U ratio of UO 2 kernel of 2.01 at temperature of 750 °C and reaction time of 3

  16. Magnetic energy storage devices for small scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers basic principles of magnetic energy storage, structure requirements and limitations, configurations of inductors, attributes of high-T c superconducting materials including thermal instabilities, a relative comparison with the state-of-the-art high energy density power sources, and refrigeration requirements. Based on these fundamental considerations, the design parameters of a micro superconducting magnetic energy unit for Air Force applications is presented and discussed

  17. Wind energy conversion systems with electric transmission to the water pumping with field control to constant flow; Sistema de conversao de energia eolica com transmissao eletrica para bombeamento de agua com controle de campo a fluxo constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Juraci Carlos de Castro

    1989-07-01

    The stead-state analysis of a Wind Energy Conversion Systems, consisting on a Windmill, Synchronous Generator, transmission Line and Induction Motor driving a Centrifugal Pump is developed. The performance of the system operating at variable Speed with a flux control is examined using mathematical and digital simulation. The control scheme is proposed and tested in laboratory and a tested in laboratory and a test centre to be compared with simulation results. (author)

  18. Direct solar energy and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdani, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Solar energy, which was a utopian dream forty years ago, is today already on the market, particularly for specialized uses and in remote areas. Even solar cells are now on the eve of becoming economically competitive. After a brief account of solar-cell theory, this paper gives the essential details of Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing Technologies, Single Crystal Technology, Fabrication of Wafers, Fabrication of Solar Cell, Photovoltaic Module, Multi Crystalline Silicon, Amorphous Silicon Cell. Semi-conductor based Thin-Film Technology (other than silicon), Copper-Indium Di selenide (IS), Gallium Arsenide, Multi-Junction Devices, as well as Technologies for Improving Conversion Efficiencies, Criteria for high-efficiency Cells and Module Fabrication. It concludes with a section on Direct Utilisation of solar energy, in which a brief description is presented on Solar Thermal Devices, Solar Water Heaters, Calculating hot-water requirements, Solar Stills, Solar Drying, Concentrator Collectors and, finally Measurement of the Solar Resource. At the end, there is a useful Appendix on World-Wide Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Capacity Expansion Profile. (author)

  19. Advanced DC/AC inverters applications in renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2013-01-01

    DC/AC inversion technology is of vital importance for industrial applications, including electrical vehicles and renewable energy systems, which require a large number of inverters. In recent years, inversion technology has developed rapidly, with new topologies improving the power factor and increasing power efficiency. Proposing many novel approaches, Advanced DC/AC Inverters: Applications in Renewable Energy describes advanced DC/AC inverters that can be used for renewable energy systems. The book introduces more than 100 topologies of advanced inverters originally developed by the authors,

  20. Full-dimensional analytical potential energy surface describing the gas-phase Cl + C2H6 reaction and kinetics study of rate constants and kinetic isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Cipriano; Espinosa-Garcia, Joaquin

    2018-02-07

    Within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation a full-dimensional analytical potential energy surface, PES-2017, was developed for the gas-phase hydrogen abstraction reaction between the chlorine atom and ethane, which is a nine body system. This surface presents a valence-bond/molecular mechanics functional form dependent on 60 parameters and is fitted to high-level ab initio calculations. This reaction presents little exothermicity, -2.30 kcal mol -1 , with a low height barrier, 2.44 kcal mol -1 , and intermediate complexes in the entrance and exit channels. We found that the energetic description was strongly dependent on the ab initio level used and it presented a very flat topology in the entrance channel, which represents a theoretical challenge in the fitting process. In general, PES-2017 reproduces the ab initio information used as input, which is merely a test of self-consistency. As a first test of the quality of the PES-2017, a theoretical kinetics study was performed in the temperature range 200-1400 K using two approaches, i.e. the variational transition-state theory and quasi-classical trajectory calculations, with spin-orbit effects. The rate constants show reasonable agreement with experiments in the whole temperature range, with the largest differences at the lowest temperatures, and this behaviour agrees with previous theoretical studies, thus indicating the inherent difficulties in the theoretical simulation of the kinetics of the title reaction. Different sources of error were analysed, such as the limitations of the PES and theoretical methods, recrossing effects, and the tunnelling effect, which is negligible in this reaction, and the manner in which the spin-orbit effects were included in this non-relativistic study. We found that the variation of spin-orbit coupling along the reaction path, and the influence of the reactivity of the excited Cl( 2 P 1/2 ) state, have relative importance, but do not explain the whole discrepancy. Finally, the

  1. The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, T T; Chin, M P W; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Ortega, P G; Mairani, A; Sala, P R; Smirnov, G; Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is used extensively at CERN for all beam-machine interactions, radioprotection calculations and facility design of forthcoming projects. Such needs require the code to be consistently reliable over the entire energy range (from MeV to TeV) for all projectiles (full suite of elementary particles and heavy ions). Outside CERN, among various applications worldwide, FLUKA serves as a core tool for the HIT and CNAO hadron-therapy facilities in Europe. Therefore, medical applications further impose stringent requirements in terms of reliability and predictive power, which demands constant refinement of sophisticated nuclear models and continuous code improvement. Some of the latest developments implemented in FLUKA are presented in this paper, with particular emphasis on issues and concerns pertaining to CERN and medical applications.

  2. Database applications in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    High Energy physicists were using computers to process and store their data early in the history of computing. They addressed problems of memory management, job control, job generation, data standards, file conventions, multiple simultaneous usage, tape file handling and data management earlier than, or at the same time as, the manufacturers of computing equipment. The HEP community have their own suites of programs for these functions, and are now turning their attention to the possibility of replacing some of the functional components of their 'homebrew' systems with more widely used software and/or hardware. High on the 'shopping list' for replacement is data management. ECFA Working Group 11 has been working on this problem. This paper reviews the characteristics of existing HEP systems and existing database systems and discusses the way forward. (orig.)

  3. Energy related applications of elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1989-01-01

    Study of muon catalysis of nuclear fusion and phenomena commonly referred to as cold fusion has been central to our effort. Muon catalyzed fusion research concentrated primarily on the identification of energy efficient production of muons, and the understanding and control of the density dependence of auto-poisoning (sticking) of the catalyst. We have also developed the in-flight fusion description of the tμ-d reaction, and work in progress shows promise in explaining the fusion cycle anomalies and smallness of sticking as a consequence of the dominant role of such reactions. Our cold fusion work involved the exploration of numerous environments for cold fusion reactions in materials used in the heavy water electrolysis, with emphasis on reactions consistent with the conventional knowledge of nuclear physics reactions. We then considered the possibility that a previously unobserved ultra-heavy particle X - is a catalyst of dd fusion, explaining the low intensity neutrons observed by Jones et. al. 29 refs

  4. Energy-saving drying and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovbasyuk, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Superheated steam is efficiently applied as a coolant for the intensification of drying, which is an important component of many up-to-date technologies. However, traditional drying is extremely energy consuming, and many drying apparatus are environmentally unfriendly. Thus, it is important to implement the proposed drying technique using superheated steam under pressure significantly higher than the atmospheric one with subsequent steam transfer for use in a turbine for electric power generation as a compensation of energy costs for drying. This paper includes a brief thermodynamic analysis of such a technique, its environmental advantages, and possible benefits of the use of wet wastes and obtaining high-quality fuels from wet raw materials. A scheme is developed for the turbine protection from impurities that can occur in the steam at drying. Potential advantage of the technique are also the absence of heating surfaces that are in contact with wet media, the absence of the emissions to the atmosphere, and the use of low potential heat for desalination and the purification of water. The new drying technique can play an extremely important part in the implementation in the field of thermal destruction of anthropogenic wastes. In spite of the promotion of waste sorting to obtain valuable secondary raw materials, the main problem of big cities is nonutilizable waste, which makes not less than 85% of the starting quantity of waste. This can only be totally solved by combustion, which even more relates to the sewage sludge utilization. The wastes can be safely and efficiently combusted only provided that they are free of moisture. Combustion temperature optimization makes possible full destruction of dioxins and their toxic analogues.

  5. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted.

  6. An overview of solar energy applications in buildings in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamanolis, Nikos

    2016-09-01

    This work classifies and describes the main fields of solar energy exploitation in buildings in Greece, a country with high solar energy capacities. The study focuses on systems and technologies that apply to residential and commercial buildings following the prevailing design and construction practices (conventional buildings) and investigates the effects of the architectural and constructional characteristics of these buildings on the respective applications. In addition, it examines relevant applications in other building categories and in buildings with increased ecological sensitivity in their design and construction (green buildings). Through its findings, the study seeks to improve the efficiency and broaden the scope of solar energy applications in buildings in Greece to the benefit of their energy and environmental performance.

  7. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  8. Analysis and evaluation of the applicability of green energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z. J.; Song, Y. K.

    2017-11-01

    With the seriousness of environmental issues and the shortage of resources, the applicability of green energy technology has been paid more and more attention by scholars in different fields. However, the current researches are often single in perspective and simple in method. According to the Theory of Applicable Technology, this paper analyzes and defines the green energy technology and its applicability from the all-around perspectives of symbiosis of economy, society, environment and science & technology etc., and correspondingly constructs the evaluation index system. The paper further applies the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation to the evaluation of its applicability, discusses in depth the evaluation models and methods, and explains in detail with an example. The author holds that the applicability of green energy technology involves many aspects of economy, society, environment and science & technology and can be evaluated comprehensively by an index system composed of a number of independent indexes. The evaluation is multi-object, multi-factor, multi-level and fuzzy comprehensive, which is undoubtedly correct, effective and feasible by the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation. It is of vital theoretical and practical significance to understand and evaluate comprehensively the applicability of green energy technology for the rational development and utilization of green energy technology and for the better promotion of sustainable development of human and nature.

  9. Application of atomic energy in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The Association EURATOM-ITAL gives, in its annual report 1973, a detailed description of the work carried out during 1973, under the following headings: -radiation effects: primary radiation effects, mutation breeding, preservation of food by means of radiation, radiation genetics of insect pests; genetic studies: related studies on plant material; soil-plant studies: uptake of specific elements by plants, behaviour of specific elements in the soil and water environment, heavy metals in plants and soils; methodology: related to dosimetric, other physical and instrumental studies, related to studies on biological material, related to soil-studies; practical applications, services, courses: mutation breeding of economically important crops, food preservation by irradiation, services to other institutions, mainly in the Netherlands, courses, newsletters; publications in press, internal reports 1973, external reports 1973

  10. Application of solar energy in water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, G.

    1987-01-01

    The application of photocatalysed oxidation in water reuse technology is described. Results with a sequencing batch reactor showed that 4 hours contact of the raw sewage with 0.5 mg dye sorbed g/sup -1/ fly ash in sunlight, under experimental conditions, significantly reduced the organic and bacteriological load and rendered it fit for use in irrigation or for discharge. The effect of variables such as contact time or amount of dye sorbed on COD, MBAS and MPN counts were investigated and the results interpreted in terms of enhanced photoactivity and biodegradation in the sorbed state. The process appears to be well suited to commercial exploitation as it is safe, quick and economical.

  11. High-Performance Energy Applications and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Barton [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Paradyn project has a history of developing algorithms, techniques, and software that push the cutting edge of tool technology for high-end computing systems. Under this funding, we are working on a three-year agenda to make substantial new advances in support of new and emerging Petascale systems. The overall goal for this work is to address the steady increase in complexity of these petascale systems. Our work covers two key areas: (1) The analysis, instrumentation and control of binary programs. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the Dyninst API tool kits. (2) Infrastructure for building tools and applications at extreme scale. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the MRNet scalability framework. Note that work done under this funding is closely related to work done under a contemporaneous grant, “Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing”, SC0003922/FG02-10ER25940, UW PRJ27NU.

  12. Synthesis, morphological, electromechanical characterization of (CaMgFex)Fe1-xTi3O12-δ/PDMS nanocomposite thin films for energy storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Ashis; Sharma, Priyaranjan; Sahoo, Narayan

    2018-03-01

    At the present time, flexible and stretchable electronics has intended to use the new cutting-edge technologies for advanced electronic application. Currently, Polymers are being employed for such applications but they are not effective due to their low dielectric constant. To enhance the dielectric properties of polymer for energy storage application, it is necessary to add ceramic material of high dielectric constant to synthesize a polymer-ceramic composite. Therefore, a novel attempt has been made to enhance the dielectric properties of the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer by adding (CaMgFex)Fe1-xTi3O12-δ(0ceramic powder. The newly developed CMFTO2/PDMS composite based thin film shows a higher dielectric constant (ε‧) value (~350), extremely low tangent loss (tanδ) ( 90%), which can make it a potential material for advanced flexible electronic devices, energy storage and biomedical applications.

  13. Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-06-01

    Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)

  14. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Kazuo; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The conventional approach for energy saving in a process system is to maximize heat recovery without changing any process conditions by using pinch technology. “Self-heat recuperation technology” was developed to achieve further energy saving in the process system by eliminating the necessity for any external heat input, such as firing or imported steam. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry introduces the concept of self-heat recuperation and the application of such technology to a wide range of processes from heavy chemical complexes to other processes such as drying and gas separation processes, which require heating and cooling during operation.   Conventional energy saving items in a utility system are applied and implemented based on a single site approach, however, when looking at heavy chemical complexes, it was apparent that the low-grade heat discharged as waste from a refinery could also be used in an adjacent petrochemical plant. There could therefore be a large energy savin...

  15. Structure model of energy efficiency indicators and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Li-Ming; Chen, Bai-Sheng; Bor, Yun-Chang; Wu, Yin-Chin

    2007-01-01

    For the purposes of energy conservation and environmental protection, the government of Taiwan has instigated long-term policies to continuously encourage and assist industry in improving the efficiency of energy utilization. While multiple actions have led to practical energy saving to a limited extent, no strong evidence of improvement in energy efficiency was observed from the energy efficiency indicators (EEI) system, according to the annual national energy statistics and survey. A structural analysis of EEI is needed in order to understand the role that energy efficiency plays in the EEI system. This work uses the Taylor series expansion to develop a structure model for EEI at the level of the process sector of industry. The model is developed on the premise that the design parameters of the process are used in comparison with the operational parameters for energy differences. The utilization index of production capability and the variation index of energy utilization are formulated in the model to describe the differences between EEIs. Both qualitative and quantitative methods for the analysis of energy efficiency and energy savings are derived from the model. Through structural analysis, the model showed that, while the performance of EEI is proportional to the process utilization index of production capability, it is possible that energy may develop in a direction opposite to that of EEI. This helps to explain, at least in part, the inconsistency between EEI and energy savings. An energy-intensive steel plant in Taiwan was selected to show the application of the model. The energy utilization efficiency of the plant was evaluated and the amount of energy that had been saved or over-used in the production process was estimated. Some insights gained from the model outcomes are helpful to further enhance energy efficiency in the plant

  16. Aramid Nanofiber Composites for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Siu on

    Lithium ion batteries and non-aqueous redox flow batteries represent two of the most important energy storage technologies to efficient electric vehicles and power grid, which are essential to decreasing U.S. dependence on fossil fuels and sustainable economic growth. Many of the developmental roadblocks for these batteries are related to the separator, an electrically insulating layer between the cathode and anode. Lithium dendrite growth has limited the performance and threatened the safety of lithium ion batteries by piercing the separator and causing internal shorts. In non-aqueous redox flow batteries, active material crossover through microporous separators and the general lack of a suitable ion conducting membrane has led to low operating efficiencies and rapid capacity fade. Developing new separators for these batteries involve the combination of different and sometimes seemingly contradictory properties, such as high ionic conductivity, mechanical stability, thermal stability, chemical stability, and selective permeability. In this dissertation, I present work on composites made from Kevlar-drived aramid nanofibers (ANF) through rational design and fabrication techniques. For lithium ion batteries, a dendrite suppressing layer-by-layer composite of ANF and polyethylene oxide is present with goals of high ionic conductivity, improved safety and thermal stability. For non-aqueous redox flow batteries, a nanoporous ANF separator with surface polyelectrolyte modification is used to achieve high coulombic efficiencies and cycle life in practical flow cells. Finally, manufacturability of ANF based separators is addressed through a prototype machine for continuous ANF separator production and a novel separator coated on anode assembly. In combination, these studies serve as a foundation for addressing the challenges in separator engineering for lithium ion batteries and redox flow batteries.

  17. Comparison of the rate constants for energy transfer in the light-harvesting protein, C-phycocyanin, calculated from Foerster`s theory and experimentally measured by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debreczeny, Martin Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    We have measured and assigned rate constants for energy transfer between chromophores in the light-harvesting protein C-phycocyanin (PC), in the monomeric and trimeric aggregation states, isolated from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. In order to compare the measured rate constants with those predicted by Fdrster`s theory of inductive resonance in the weak coupling limit, we have experimentally resolved several properties of the three chromophore types ({beta}{sub 155} {alpha}{sub 84}, {beta}{sub 84}) found in PC monomers, including absorption and fluorescence spectra, extinction coefficients, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the {beta}{sub 155} chromophore, was, useful in effecting the resolution of the chromophore properties and in assigning the experimentally observed rate constants for energy transfer to specific pathways.

  18. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  19. Thermodynamic performance assessment of wind energy systems: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redha, Adel Mohammed; Dincer, Ibrahim; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. The thermodynamic characteristics of wind through energy and exergy analyses are considered and both energetic and exergetic efficiencies are studied. Wind speed is affected by air temperature and pressure and has a subsequent effect on wind turbine performance based on wind reference temperature and Bernoulli's equation. VESTAS V52 wind turbine is selected for (Sharjah/UAE). Energy and exergy efficiency equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. The results show that there are noticeable differences between energy and exergy efficiencies and that exergetic efficiency reflects the right/actual performance. Finally, exergy analysis has been proven to be the right tool used in design, simulation, and performance evaluation of all renewable energy systems. -- Highlights: → In this research the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. → Energy and exergy equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. → Thermodynamic characteristics of wind turbine systems through energetic and exergetic efficiencies are evaluated from January till March 2010. → Exergy efficiency describes the system irreversibility and the minimum irreversibility exists when the wind speed reaches 11 m/s. → The power production during March was about 17% higher than the month of February and 66% higher than January.

  20. Rare-earth magnet applications in energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable progress in the field of development and variety of new applications of rare-earth and rare-earth transition metal magnets. High energy content Nd-Fe-B magnet system which competes with superconducting magnets is very promising for the use in energy conversion machines, levitation systems, magnetic resonance investigation and other magnetic applications. Energy conversion machines such as motors and generators are of interest in this context. Motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy using permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials as its components. Electric generator converts mechanical energy into electricity using permanent magnets and ferromagnetic material. In both cases symmetry and symmetry breaking play an important role. Symmetry exists above curie temperature, as temperature is lowered symmetry is broken due to spontaneous magnetisation. Author and coworkers developed some new and highest efficiency, permanent magnet based, electronically controlled, dynamically synchronised pulsed dc linear and rotational motors which are briefly described here. Based on such experience and considering field interactions inside material under dynamical conditions and special geometrical situations, order-disorder processes, symmetry breaking and energy transfer on the basis of manifold aspects as a cooperative many body interaction, thermal fluctuations, zero-point energy, dissipation of energy, entropy exchange are discussed in context of conversion of environmental heat into electricity as suggested by Tripathi earlier. (orig.)

  1. Complex Hollow Nanostructures: Synthesis and Energy-Related Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Hu, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-04-01

    Hollow nanostructures offer promising potential for advanced energy storage and conversion applications. In the past decade, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the design and synthesis of hollow nanostructures with high complexity by manipulating their geometric morphology, chemical composition, and building block and interior architecture to boost their electrochemical performance, fulfilling the increasing global demand for renewable and sustainable energy sources. In this Review, we present a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and energy-related applications of complex hollow nanostructures. After a brief classification, the design and synthesis of complex hollow nanostructures are described in detail, which include hierarchical hollow spheres, hierarchical tubular structures, hollow polyhedra, and multi-shelled hollow structures, as well as their hybrids with nanocarbon materials. Thereafter, we discuss their niche applications as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and hybrid supercapacitors, sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries, and electrocatalysts for oxygen- and hydrogen-involving energy conversion reactions. The potential superiorities of complex hollow nanostructures for these applications are particularly highlighted. Finally, we conclude this Review with urgent challenges and further research directions of complex hollow nanostructures for energy-related applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. EXTENDING NUCLEAR ENERGY TO NON-ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Boardman; M. McKellar; D. Ingersoll; Z. Houghton; , R. Bromm; C. Desportes

    2014-09-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these non-traditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers.

  3. Extending nuclear energy to non-electrical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, D.; Houghton, Z. [NuScale Power, LLC, Corvallis, Oregon (United States); Bromm, R. [Fluor Corp., Greenville, SC (United States); Desportes, C. [Aquatech International, Canonsburg, PA (United States); McKellar, M.; Boardman, R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these nontraditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers. (author)

  4. Applications of energy harvesting for ultralow power technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Barz, C.; Chiver, O.

    2015-06-01

    Ultra-low-power (ULP) technology is enabling a wide range of new applications that harvest ambient energy in very small amounts and need little or no maintenance - self-sustaining devices that are capable of perpetual or nearly perpetual operation. These new systems, which are now appearing in industrial and consumer electronics, also promise great changes in medicine and health. Until recently, the idea of micro-scale energy harvesting, and collecting miniscule amounts of ambient energy to power electronic systems, was still limited to research proposals and laboratory experiments.Today an increasing number of systems are appearing that take advantage of light, vibrations and other forms of previously wasted environmental energy for applications where providing line power or maintaining batteries is inconvenient. In the industrial world, where sensors gather information from remote equipment and hazardous processes; in consumer electronics, where mobility and convenience are served; and in medical systems, with unique requirements for prosthetics and non-invasive monitoring, energy harvesting is rapidly expanding into new applications.This paper serves as a survey for applications of energy harvesting for ultra low power technology based on various technical papers available in the public domain.

  5. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Metal complexes, Schiff base ligand, Formation constant, DFT calculation ... best values for the formation constants of the proposed equilibrium model by .... to its positive charge distribution and the ligand deformation geometry.

  6. Measurement of transverse energy-energy correlations in multi-jet events in pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector and determination of the strong coupling constant αs (mZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. 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E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. 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G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-11-01

    High transverse momentum jets produced in pp collisions at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV are used to measure the transverse energy-energy correlation function and its associated azimuthal asymmetry. The data were recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in the year 2011 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 158 pb-1. The selection criteria demand the average transverse momentum of the two leading jets in an event to be larger than 250 GeV. The data at detector level are well described by Monte Carlo event generators. They are unfolded to the particle level and compared with theoretical calculations at next-to-leading-order accuracy. The agreement between data and theory is good and provides a precision test of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics at large momentum transfers. From this comparison, the strong coupling constant given at the Z boson mass is determined to be αs (mZ) = 0.1173 ± 0.0010 (exp.)-0.0026+0.0065 (theo.).

  7. Measurement of transverse energy-energy correlations in multi-jet events in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV using the ATLAS detector and determination of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}}(m_Z)$

    CERN Document Server

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Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; L{ö}sel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-09-24

    High transverse momentum jets produced in pp collisions at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV are used to measure the transverse energy--energy correlation function and its associated azimuthal asymmetry. The data were recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in the year 2011 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 158 $\\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$. The selection criteria demand the average transverse momentum of the two leading jets in an event to be larger than 250 GeV. The data at detector level are well described by Monte Carlo event generators. They are unfolded to the particle level and compared with theoretical calculations at next-to-leading-order accuracy. The agreement between data and theory is good and provides a precision test of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics at large momentum transfers. From this comparison, the strong coupling constant given at the $Z$ boson mass is determined to be $\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}}(m_Z) = 0.1173 \\pm 0.0010 \\mbox{ (exp.) }^{+0.0065}_{-0.0026} \\mbox{ (theo.)}$.

  8. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. (DEMI) has applied to renew its authority to transmit..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  9. Synthesis of graphene nanomaterials and their application in electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoping

    The need to store and use energy on diverse scales in a modern technological society necessitates the design of large and small energy systems, among which electrical energy storage systems such as batteries and capacitors have attracted much interest in the past several decades. Supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors, or electrochemical capacitors, with fast power delivery and long cycle life are complementing or even replacing batteries in many applications. The rapid development of miniaturized electronic devices has led to a growing need for rechargeable micro-power sources with high performance. Among different sources, electrochemical micro-capacitors or micro-supercapacitors provide higher power density than their counterparts and are gaining increased interest from the research and engineering communities. Rechargeable Li ion batteries with high energy and power density, long cycling life, high charge-discharge rate (1C - 3C) and safe operation are in high demand as power sources and power backup for hybrid electric vehicles and other applications. In the present work, graphene-based graphene materials have been designed and synthesized for electrochemical energy storage applications, e.g., conventional supercapacitors (macro-supercapacitors), microsupercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. Factors influencing the formation and structure of graphitic petals grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on oxidized silicon substrates were investigated through process variation and materials analysis. Insights gained into the growth mechanism of these graphitic petals suggest a simple scribing method can be used to control both the location and formation of petals on flat Si substrates. Transitional metal oxides and conducting polymers have been coated on the graphitic petal-based electrodes by facile chemical methods for multifunctional energy storage applications. Detailed electrochemical characterization (e.g., cyclic voltammetry and

  10. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  11. The Application of Quantum Energy Saver on Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce diesel fuel consumption, this paper conducts the research in view of a new type of quantum energy saving device, and then produce the sample and applied on automobile engine, Detect fuel use of an automobile by automobile fuel saving technology as-sessment methods from the department of transportation. Compare the changes of fuel use be-fore and after installation of quantum energy saving device on the same car, and give the feed-back of energy saving capability. The result shows, after installed quantum energy saver, both fuel consumption and the smoke of tail gas has decreased. The analysis and application of this paper carry out the conclusion that the quantum energy saver can play an important role in en-ergy saving and emission reduction, and provide a reference for other related research.

  12. Study of PECVD films containing flourine and carbon and diamond like carbon films for ultra low dielectric constant interlayer dielectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Nandini Ganapathy

    Lowering the capacitance of Back-end-of-line (BEOL) structures by decreasing the dielectric permittivity of the interlayer dielectric material in integrated circuits (ICs) lowers device delay times, power consumption and parasitic capacitance. a:C-F films that are thermally stable at 400°C were deposited using tetrafluorocarbon and disilane (5% by volume in Helium) as precursors. The bulk dielectric constant (k) of the film was optimized from 2.0 / 2.2 to 1.8 / 1.91 as-deposited and after heat treatment. Films, with highly promising k-values but discarded for failing to meet shrinkage rate requirements were salvaged by utilizing a novel extended heat treatment scheme. Film properties including chemical bond structure, F/C ratio, refractive index, surface planarity, contact angle, dielectric constant, flatband voltage shift, breakdown field potential and optical energy gap were evaluated by varying process pressure, power, substrate temperature and flow rate ratio (FRR) of processing gases. Both XPS and FTIR results confirmed that the stoichiometry of the ultra-low k (ULK) film is close to that of CF2 with no oxygen. C-V characteristics indicated the presence of negative charges that are either interface trapped charges or bulk charges. Average breakdown field strength was in the range of 2-8 MV/cm while optical energy gap varied between 2.2 eV and 3.4 eV. Irradiation or plasma damage significantly impacts the ability to integrate the film in VSLI circuits. The film was evaluated after exposure to oxygen plasma and HMDS vapors and no change in the FTIR spectra or refractive index was observed. Film is resistant to attack by developers CD 26 and KOH. While the film dissolves in UVN-30 negative resist, it is impermeable to PGDMA. A 12% increase in dielectric constant and a decrease in contact angle from 65° to 47° was observed post e-beam exposure. The modified Gaseous Electronics Conference (mGEC) reference cell was used to deposit DLC films using CH4 and Argon as

  13. Electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroth, D.P.; Podnieks, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Past work during the Apollo Program and current efforts to determine extraterrestrial mining technology requirements have led to the exploration of various methods applicable to lunar or planetary resource mining and processing. The use of electromagnetic energy sources is explored and demonstrated using laboratory methods to establish a proof of concept for application to lunar mining, construction, and resource extraction. Experimental results of using laser, microwave, and solar energy to fragment or melt terrestrial basal under atmospheric and vacuum conditions are presented. Successful thermal stress fragmentation of dense igneous rock was demonstrated by all three electromagnetic energy sources. The results show that a vacuum environment has no adverse effects on fragmentation by induced thermal stresses. The vacuum environment has a positive effect for rock disintegration by melting, cutting, or penetration applications due to release of volatiles that assist in melt ejection. Consolidation and melting of basaltic fines are also demonstrated by these methods

  14. Applications of plasma core reactors to terrestrial energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantham, T.S.; Biancardi, F.R.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma core reactors offer several new options for future energy needs in addition to space power and propulsion applications. Power extraction from plasma core reactors with gaseous nuclear fuel allows operation at temperatures higher than conventional reactors. Highly efficient thermodynamic cycles and applications employing direct coupling of radiant energy are possible. Conceptual configurations of plasma core reactors for terrestrail applications are described. Closed-cycle gas turbines, MHD systems, photo- and thermo-chemical hydrogen production processes, and laser systems using plasma core reactors as prime energy sources are considered. Cycle efficiencies in the range of 50 to 65 percent are calculated for closed-cycle gas turbine and MHD electrical generators. Reactor advantages include continuous fuel reprocessing which limits inventory of radioactive by-products and thorium-U-233 breeder configurations with about 5-year doubling times

  15. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  16. Application of the geothermal energy in the industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovska-Vasilevska, Sanja

    2001-01-01

    In the worldwide practice, the geothermal energy application, as an alternative energy resource, can be of great importance. This is especially case in the countries where exceptional natural geothermal potential exists. Despite using geothermal energy for both greenhouses heating and balneology, the one can be successfully implemented in the heat requiring industrial processes. This kind of use always provides greater annual heat loading factor, since the industrial processes are not seasonal (or not the greater part of them). The quality of the geothermal resources that are available in Europe, dictates the use within the low-temperature range technological processes. However, these processes are significantly engaged in different groups of processing industries. But, beside this fact the industrial application of geothermal energy is at the beginning in the Europe. (Original)

  17. Direct application of geothermal energy in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin

    1995-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy for balneology purposes has a history of many centuries. There is also a more than 30 years tradition for heating greenhouses. So called energy crisis of 70-ties and 80-ties provoked geology investigations in order to find possible energy sources, and development of systems for application of low-temperature geothermal water. Tere are a list of projects with direct application of geothermal energy for heating greenhouses, drying agricultural products. heating of public buildings and industrial projects, swimming pools , sanitary warm water preparation, industrial uses, etc. The essential energetic characteristics of different projects are presented in the paper. For the main projects a technical description of characteristics of the heating systems is given, and good technical solutions are underlined. Also the mistakes presented in some projects are listed. (Original)

  18. Supercritical fluid technology for energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anikeev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources - including renewable materials - using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine...

  19. Robust Control of Aeronautical Electrical Generators for Energy Management Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Canciello; Alberto Cavallo; Beniamino Guida

    2017-01-01

    A new strategy for the control of aeronautical electrical generators via sliding manifold selection is proposed, with an associated innovative intelligent energy management strategy used for efficient power transfer between two sources providing energy to aeronautical loads, having different functionalities and priorities. Electric generators used for aeronautical application involve several machines, including a main generator and an exciter. Standard regulators (PI or PID-like) are normally...

  20. Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Han, Shuang; Wang, Chao; Li, Jianping; Xu, Guobao

    2015-01-01

    With the growth of the global economy and population, the demand for energy is increasing sharply. The development of environmentally a benign and reliable energy supply is very important and urgent. Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs), which have a horn-shaped tip at the top of single-walled nanotube, have emerged as exceptionally promising nanomaterials due to their unique physical and chemical properties since 1999. The high purity and thermal stability, combined with microporosity and mesoporosity, high surface area, internal pore accessibility, and multiform functionalization make SWCNHs promising candidates in many applications, such as environment restoration, gas storage, catalyst support or catalyst, electrochemical biosensors, drug carrier systems, magnetic resonance analysis and so on. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of SWCNHs in energy applications, including energy conversion and storage. The commonly adopted method to access SWCNHs, their structural modifications, and their basic properties are included, and the emphasis is on their application in different devices such as fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries, Li-S batteries, hydrogen storage, biofuel cells and so forth. Finally, a perspective on SWCNHs’ application in energy is presented. PMID:28347092

  1. Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of the global economy and population, the demand for energy is increasing sharply. The development of environmentally a benign and reliable energy supply is very important and urgent. Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs, which have a horn-shaped tip at the top of single-walled nanotube, have emerged as exceptionally promising nanomaterials due to their unique physical and chemical properties since 1999. The high purity and thermal stability, combined with microporosity and mesoporosity, high surface area, internal pore accessibility, and multiform functionalization make SWCNHs promising candidates in many applications, such as environment restoration, gas storage, catalyst support or catalyst, electrochemical biosensors, drug carrier systems, magnetic resonance analysis and so on. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of SWCNHs in energy applications, including energy conversion and storage. The commonly adopted method to access SWCNHs, their structural modifications, and their basic properties are included, and the emphasis is on their application in different devices such as fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries, Li-S batteries, hydrogen storage, biofuel cells and so forth. Finally, a perspective on SWCNHs’ application in energy is presented.

  2. Application of nanomaterials in solar thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirgaran, Seyed Reza; Khalaji Assadi, Morteza; Viswanatha Sharma, Korada

    2018-06-01

    Solar thermal conversion technology harvests the sun's energy, rather than fossil fuels, to generate low-cost, low/zero-emission energy in the form of heating, cooling or electrical form for residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The advent of nanofluids and nanocomposites or phase change materials, is a new field of study which is adapted to enhance the efficiency of solar collectors. The concepts of thermal energy storage technologies are investigated and the role of nanomaterials in energy conversion is discussed. This review revealed that although the exploitation of nanomaterials will boost the performance of solar collectors almost in all cases, this would be accompanied by certain challenges such as production cost, instability, agglomeration and erosion. Earlier studies have dealt with the enhancement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity; however, less attention has been given to the facing challenges. Moreover, no exact criteria can be found for the selection of appropriate nanomaterials and their properties for a specific application. In most research studies, the nanoparticles' material and properties have not been selected based on estimated values so that all the aspects of desired application could be considered simultaneously. The wide spread use of nanomaterials can lead to cost effective solutions as well. Therefore, it seems there should be a sense of techno-economic optimization in exploiting nanomaterials for solar thermal energy storage applications. The optimization should cover the key parameters, particularly nanoparticle type, size, loading and shape which depends on the sort of application and also dispersion technology.

  3. Application of nanomaterials in solar thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirgaran, Seyed Reza; Khalaji Assadi, Morteza; Viswanatha Sharma, Korada

    2017-12-01

    Solar thermal conversion technology harvests the sun's energy, rather than fossil fuels, to generate low-cost, low/zero-emission energy in the form of heating, cooling or electrical form for residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The advent of nanofluids and nanocomposites or phase change materials, is a new field of study which is adapted to enhance the efficiency of solar collectors. The concepts of thermal energy storage technologies are investigated and the role of nanomaterials in energy conversion is discussed. This review revealed that although the exploitation of nanomaterials will boost the performance of solar collectors almost in all cases, this would be accompanied by certain challenges such as production cost, instability, agglomeration and erosion. Earlier studies have dealt with the enhancement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity; however, less attention has been given to the facing challenges. Moreover, no exact criteria can be found for the selection of appropriate nanomaterials and their properties for a specific application. In most research studies, the nanoparticles' material and properties have not been selected based on estimated values so that all the aspects of desired application could be considered simultaneously. The wide spread use of nanomaterials can lead to cost effective solutions as well. Therefore, it seems there should be a sense of techno-economic optimization in exploiting nanomaterials for solar thermal energy storage applications. The optimization should cover the key parameters, particularly nanoparticle type, size, loading and shape which depends on the sort of application and also dispersion technology.

  4. Energy Efficient FPGA based Hardware Accelerators for Financial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenn Toft, Jakob; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) based accelerators are very suitable to implement application-specific processors using uncommon operations or number systems. In this work, we design FPGA-based accelerators for two financial computations with different characteristics and we compare...... the accelerator performance and energy consumption to a software execution of the application. The experimental results show that significant speed-up and energy savings, can be obtained for large data sets by using the accelerator at expenses of a longer development time....

  5. A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, Mohammed M.; Khudhair, Amar M.; Razack, Siddique Ali K.; Al-Hallaj, Said

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density, with a smaller temperature difference between storing and releasing heat. This paper reviews previous work on latent heat storage and provides an insight to recent efforts to develop new classes of phase change materials (PCMs) for use in energy storage. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: PCM materials, encapsulation and applications. There are large numbers of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area. Hydrated salts have larger energy storage density and higher thermal conductivity but experience supercooling and phase segregation, and hence, their application requires the use of some nucleating and thickening agents. The main advantages of PCM encapsulation are providing large heat transfer area, reduction of the PCMs reactivity towards the outside environment and controlling the changes in volume of the storage materials as phase change occurs. The different applications in which the phase change method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regards to the material and the methods used to contain them are also discussed

  6. The measurement of thermal neutron constants of the soil; application to the calibration of neutron moisture gauges and to the pedological study of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couchat, P.; Marcesse, J.; Carre, C.; Le Ho, J.

    1975-01-01

    The neutronic method for measuring the water content of soils is more and more used by agronomists, hydrogeologists and pedologists. On the other hand the studies on the phenomena of slowing down and diffusion process have shown a narrow relation between the thermal absorption (Σ(a)) and diffusion (Σ(d)) constants and the thermal flux developed in the soil around a fast neutron source like Am-Be. Two original applications of the direct measurement of Σ(a) and Σ(d) are then presented. The method described consists in the measurement, in a cube of graphite with Am-Be source in the middle, on one side of the perturbation of the thermal flux, obtained by the introduction of 300g of soil, and on the other side of the transmitted thermal flux measured through the same sample of soil, on a side of the cube. After calibrating the device, these two parameters give Σ(a) and Σ(d) which are easily introduced in the calibration equation of neutron moisture gauge. Also these two values are useful for the pedologists because Σ(d) is connected to clay content in the soil and Σ(a) is connected to the type of clay by the way of rare earth contents [fr

  7. Determination of Paris' law constants and crack length evolution via Extended and Unscented Kalman filter: An application to aircraft fuselage panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Binaud, Nicolas; Gogu, Christian; Bes, Christian; Fu, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Prediction of fatigue crack length in aircraft fuselage panels is one of the key issues for aircraft structural safety since it helps prevent catastrophic failures. Accurate estimation of crack length propagation is also meaningful for helping develop aircraft maintenance strategies. Paris' law is often used to capture the dynamics of fatigue crack propagation in metallic material. However, uncertainties are often present in the crack growth model, measured crack size and pressure differential in each flight and need to be accounted for accurate prediction. The aim of this paper is to estimate the two unknown Paris' law constants m and C as well as the crack length evolution by taking into account these uncertainties. Due to the nonlinear nature of the Paris' law, we propose here an on-line estimation algorithm based on two widespread nonlinear filtering techniques, Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The numerical experiments indicate that both EKF and UKF estimated the crack length well and accurately identified the unknown parameters. Although UKF is theoretical superior to EKF, in this Paris' law application EKF is comparable in accuracy to UKF and requires less computational expense.

  8. A superconductor electromechanical oscillator and its potential application in energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Osvaldo F

    2004-01-01

    We discuss theoretically the properties of an electromechanical oscillating system whose operation is based upon the cyclic conservative conversion between gravitational potential, kinetic and magnetic energies. The system consists of a superconducting coil subjected to a constant external force and to magnetic fields. The coil oscillates and has induced in it a rectified electrical current whose magnitude may reach hundreds of amperes. The design differs from that of most conventional superconductor machines since the motion is linear (and practically unnoticeable depending on frequency) rather than rotatory and it does not involve high speeds. Furthermore, there is no need for an external electrical power source to start up the system. We also show that the losses for such a system can be made extremely small for certain operational conditions, so that by reaching and keeping resonance the system's main application should be in the generation and storage of electromagnetic energy. (rapid communication)

  9. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  10. Market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the market potential for the non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long (2020-2050) terms. The main non-electric applications are defined here as district heating, desalination (of sea, brackish and waste water), industrial heat supply, ship propulsion and the energy supply for spacecraft. This report is principally devoted to these applications, although a less detailed assessment of some innovative applications (e.g. hydrogen production and coal gasification) is also provided. While the technical details of these applications are covered briefly, emphasis is placed on the economic and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of the nuclear option into the market for non-electric energy services. The report is intentionally targeted towards expected demands. It is for this reason that its sections are structured by demand categories and not according to possible reactor types. At the same time, the orientation on the demand side can result in overlaps at the supply side, because the same nuclear reactor can often serve more than one type of demand. Such cases are noted as appropriate. Each section characterizes a specific non-electric application in terms of its market size, its prospects for nuclear technologies and the economic competitiveness of the technologies

  11. Development of Data Acquisition System for Wind Energy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    西本,澄

    1992-01-01

    A Data acquisiton system developed for wind energy applications will be described in this paper. This system is composed of an anemometer with two blades downwind and a computer which processes wind data. Wind energy calculated from an average wind speed is inaccurate, since wind power increases with the cube of wind velocity. To decide the design and the site for a wind turbine system, it is very important to consider wind data on a long term basis, that is the total wind energy and distribu...

  12. Dissecting the Gravitational lens B1608+656 : II. Precision Measurements of the Hubble Constant, Spatial Curvature, and the Dark Energy Equation of State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyu, S. H.; Marshall, P. J.; Auger, M. W.; Hilbert, S.; Blandford, R. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.

    2010-01-01

    Strong gravitational lens systems with measured time delays between the multiple images provide a method for measuring the "time-delay distance" to the lens, and thus the Hubble constant. We present a Bayesian analysis of the strong gravitational lens system B1608+656, incorporating (1) new, deep

  13. Energy harvesting from low frequency applications using piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Z. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to eliminate the replacement of the batteries of electronic devices that are difficult or impractical to service once deployed, harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations or impacts using piezoelectric materials has been researched over the last several decades. However, a majority of these applications have very low input frequencies. This presents a challenge for the researchers to optimize the energy output of piezoelectric energy harvesters, due to the relatively high elastic moduli of piezoelectric materials used to date. This paper reviews the current state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for low frequency (0–100 Hz) applications and the methods that have been developed to improve the power outputs of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various key aspects that contribute to the overall performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester are discussed, including geometries of the piezoelectric element, types of piezoelectric material used, techniques employed to match the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric element to input frequency of the host structure, and electronic circuits specifically designed for energy harvesters

  14. Nano crystals-Related Synthesis, Assembly, and Energy Applications 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, B.; Yu, W.W.; Seo, J.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.Z.

    2012-01-01

    During the past decades, nano crystals have attracted broad attention due to their unique shape- and size-dependent physical and chemical properties that differ drastically from their bulk counterparts. Hitherto, much effort has been dedicated to achieving rational controlling over the morphology, assembly, and related energy applications of the nano materials. Therefore, the ability to manipulate the morphology, size, and size distribution of inorganic nano materials is still an important goal in modern materials physics and chemistry. Especially, the world's demand for energy supply is causing a dramatic escalation of social and political unrest. Likewise, the environmental impact of the global climate change due to the combustion of fossil fuel is becoming increasingly alarming. These problems compel us to search for effective routes to build devices that can supply sustainable energy, with not only high efficiency but also environmental friendship. One of ways to relieve the energy crisis is to exploit devices based on renewable energy sources, such as solar energy and water power. Aiming at this exploration, the primary stage requires the design of appropriate strategies for the synthesis of high-quality nano crystals with respect to size uniformity and superior electrochemical performances. As a consequence, we organize the current special issue for Journal of Nano materials to provide the authors with a platform and readers with the latest achievements of nano crystals-related synthesis, assembly, and energy applications.

  15. AECL programs for new applications for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1982-05-01

    This document reports the activities of the New Applications Steering Committee (NASC) of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. The NASC is intended to develop future RβD programs, and more specifically to promote certain existing ideas that have not yet become part of established programs, stimulate new idaas, identify needs and opportunities for RβD, evaluate proposals for RβD programs, initiate action on new ideas, and provide feedback to a staff who may be expected to generate ideas. Major areas and technologies that have been studied by the NASC and are covered in this report include oil substitution by nuclear heat and by electricity, energy storage and the role of hydrogen, nuclear energy in liquid fuel production, assessment of Canadian energy resources, and computer modelling of energy systems

  16. Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Jing Tang

    2015-01-01

    This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...

  17. Some advances in medical applications of low energy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valković, V.; Moschini, G.

    1991-05-01

    Medical applications of low energy accelerators include: the use of nuclear analytical methods and procedures for laboratory studies and routine measurements; material productions and modifications to meet special requirements; radioisotope productions and their applications in radiopharmaceuticals as well as in positron emission tomography; and radiotherapy with ions, based on improved understanding of the interaction of charged particles with living tissue. Some of the recent advances in these fields are critically summarized. The plan for an improved charged particle facility in a hospital environment dedicated to applications in biology and medicine is presented.

  18. Advances in constant-velocity Moessbauer instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, A.; Martinez, N.; Zelis, P. Mendoza; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sanchez, F. H.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype of a programmable constant-velocity scaler is presented. This instrument allows the acquisition of partial Moessbauer spectra in selected energy regions using standard drivers and transducers. It can be fully operated by a remote application, thus data acquisition can be automated. The instrument consists of a programmable counter and a constant-velocity reference. The reference waveform generator is amplitude modulated with 13-bit resolution, and is programmable in a wide range of frequencies and waveforms in order to optimize the performance of the transducer. The counter is compatible with most standard SCA, and is configured as a rate-meter that provides counts per selectable time slice at the programmed velocity. As a demonstration of the instrument applications, a partial Moessbauer spectrum of a natural iron foil was taken. Only positive energies were studied in 512 channels, accumulating 20 s per channel. A line width of 0.20 mm/s was achieved, performing with an efficiency of 80%.

  19. Evolution of the solar constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The ultimate source of the energy utilized by life on Earth is the Sun, and the behavior of the Sun determines to a large extent the conditions under which life originated and continues to thrive. What can be said about the history of the Sun. Has the solar constant, the rate at which energy is received by the Earth from the Sun per unit area per unit time, been constant at its present level since Archean times. Three mechanisms by which it has been suggested that the solar energy output can vary with time are discussed, characterized by long (approx. 10 9 years), intermediate (approx. 10 8 years), and short (approx. years to decades) time scales

  20. SOLAR ENERGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN NIGERIA: Short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... make to our lives and economy, most especially during this time of erratic power supply by the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA). Some of the applications of solar energy in Nigeria are in Village electrification, residential / commercial building, water pumping and purification, agricultural utilization, heating sources, ...

  1. Valorization of jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Valorization of Jatropha fruit biomass for

    energy applications

    Ahmad Marasabessy

    Thesis Abstract

    Our research objectives were to develop sustainable technologies of Jatropha oil extraction and Jatropha

  2. Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Abreu, S.L.; Pereira, E.B.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m 2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m 2 /day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ► Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ► Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ► Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ► The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

  3. Multistage switched inductor boost converter for renewable energy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroti, Pandav Kiran; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper Multistage Switched Inductor Boost Converter (Multistage SIBC) is uttered for renewable energy applications. The projected converter is derived from an amalgamation of the conventional step-up converter and inductor stack. The number of inductor and duty ratio decides the overall...

  4. Electromagnetic Lead Screw for Potential Wave Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type electromagnetic lead screw (EMLS) intended for wave energy application. Similar to the mechanical lead screw, this electromagnetic version can transfer slow linear motion to high-rotational motion, offering gearing effects. Compared with the existing pure magnetic...

  5. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang

    2003-01-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  6. Bilevel programming problems theory, algorithms and applications to energy networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dempe, Stephan; Pérez-Valdés, Gerardo A; Kalashnykova, Nataliya; Kalashnikova, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent theoretical findings relevant to bilevel programming in general, and in mixed-integer bilevel programming in particular. It describes recent applications in energy problems, such as the stochastic bilevel optimization approaches used in the natural gas industry. New algorithms for solving linear and mixed-integer bilevel programming problems are presented and explained.

  7. Low-energy positron beams - origins, developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beling, C.D.; Charlton, M.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last 15 years there have been rapid advances in the technology associated with low-energy positron beams. The origins of these advances, and some of the major developments, are discussed. Some applications from the diverse fields of surface physics, atomic scattering and positronium studies are highlighted. (author)

  8. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiyong, Zhang; Zhifang, Chai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  9. Small wind power systems: market, applications, architectures and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roboam, X.

    2005-01-01

    Context and stakes of small wind power systems are described in this paper by situating both supply and demand as well as the main application fields. Technical issues are then concerned in terms of system structure, energy management and network connection. (author)

  10. Hybrid Electric Energy Storages: Their Specific Features and Application (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel', O. S.; Tarasenko, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a review of various aspects related to development and practical use of hybrid electric energy storages (i.e., those uniting different energy storage technologies and devices in an integrated system) in transport and conventional and renewable power engineering applications. Such devices, which were initially developed for transport power installations, are increasingly being used by other consumers characterized by pronounced nonuniformities of their load schedule. A range of tasks solved using such energy storages is considered. It is shown that, owing to the advent of new types of energy storages and the extended spectrum of their performance characteristics, new possibilities for combining different types of energy storages and for developing hybrid systems have become available. This, in turn, opens up the possibility of making energy storages with better mass and dimension characteristics and achieving essentially lower operational costs. The possibility to secure more comfortable (base) operating modes of primary sources of energy (heat engines and renewable energy source based power installations) and to achieve a higher capacity utilization factor are unquestionable merits of hybrid energy storages. Development of optimal process circuit solutions, as well as energy conversion and control devices facilitating the fullest utilization of the properties of each individual energy storage included in the hybrid system, is among the important lines of research carried out in this field in Russia and abroad. Our review of existing developments has shown that there are no universal technical solutions in this field (the specific features of a consumer have an essential effect on the process circuit solutions and on the composition of a hybrid energy storage), a circumstance that dictates the need to extend the scope of investigations in this promising field.

  11. Energy Device Applications of Synthesized 1D Polymer Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long-Biao; Xu, Wei; Hao, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    1D polymer nanomaterials as emerging materials, such as nanowires, nanotubes, and nanopillars, have attracted extensive attention in academia and industry. The distinctive, various, and tunable structures in the nanoscale of 1D polymer nanomaterials present nanointerfaces, high surface-to-volume ratio, and large surface area, which can improve the performance of energy devices. In this review, representative fabrication techniques of 1D polymer nanomaterials are summarized, including electrospinning, template-assisted, template-free, and inductively coupled plasma methods. The recent advancements of 1D polymer nanomaterials in energy device applications are demonstrated. Lastly, existing challenges and prospects of 1D polymer nanomaterials for energy device applications are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Development of multi-functional nano-paint for energy harvesting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bir B. Bohara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The multi-functionality of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate/paint (PMN-PT/paint nanocomposite films for energy harvesting via piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects is described. PMN-PT/paint films have been fabricated by a conventional paint-brushing technique to provide a low-cost, low-temperature and low–energy route to create multi-functional films. The properties investigated included dielectric constants, ε' and ε'', as a function of temperature, frequency and composition. From these parameters, it is indicated that the dielectric constants and AC conductivity (σAC increase with an increase of filler content and temperature, implying an improvement of the functionality of the films. The results revealed that σAC obeyed the relation σAC = Aωs, and exponent s, was found to decrease by increasing the temperature. The correlated barrier hopping was the dominant conduction mechanism in the nanocomposite films. The efforts were made to investigate the performance of nanocomposite films to mechanical vibrations and thermal variations. A cantilever system was designed and examined to assess its performance as energy harvesters. The highest output voltage and power for a PMN-PT/paint based harvester with a broad frequency response operating in the -31-piezoelectric mode were 65 mV and 1 nW, respectively. Voltage and power were shown to be enhanced by application of thermal variations. Thus, films could be utilized for combined energy harvesting via piezoelectric and pyroelectric characteristics. Keywords: Dielectric, Pyroelectricity, Piezoelectricity, Nanocomposites, PMN-PT, Energy harvesting

  13. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in WSN by Considering SHM Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Naresh Babu, Merugu; Raju, Kota Solomon, Dr; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar, Dr; Jain, Vaibhav

    2017-08-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network is composed of a significant number of autonomous nodes deployed in an extensive or remote area. In WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited transmission range, processing speed and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are also limited. In WSN all nodes are not directly connected. The primary objective for all kind of WSN is to enhance and optimize the network lifetime i.e. to minimize the energy consumption in the WSN. There are lots of applications of WSN out of which this research paper focuses upon the Structural Health Monitoring application in which 50 Meter bridge has been taken as a test application for the simulation purpose.

  14. Thin film separators with ion transport properties for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyuan

    2017-09-01

    Recent years, along with the increasing need of energy, energy storage also becomes a challenging problem which we need to deal with. The batterieshave a good developing prospect among energy storage system in storing energy such as wind, solar and geothermal energy. One hurdle between the lab-scale experiment and industry-scale application of the advanced batteries is the urgent need for limiting charging capacity degradation and improving cycling stability, known as the shuttle effect in lithium-sulfur batteries or electroosmotic drag coefficient in fuel-cell batteries. The microporous separator between the cathode and anode could be molecular engineered to possessesion selective permeation properties, which can greatly improves the energy efficiency and extends application range of the battery. The present review offers the fundamental fabrication methods of separator film with different material. The review also contains the chemical or physical structure of different materials which are used in making separator film. A table offers the reader a summary of properties such as ionic conductivity, ionic exchange capacity and current density etc.

  15. Application of rank annihilation factor analysis to the spectrophotometric determination of the formation constant of complex of a new synthesized tripodal ligand with Co2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Golbedaghi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The complex formation between a new synthesized tripodal ligand (L22py and the cation Co2+ in water was studied spectrophotometrically using rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA. According to molar ratio data the stoichiometry of complexation between the ligand and the cation Co2+ was 1:1. Formation constant of this complex was derived using RAFA on spectrophotometric data. In this process the contribution of ligand is removed from the absorbance data matrix when the complex stability constant acts as an optimizing object and simply combined with the pure spectrum of ligand, the rank of original data matrix can be reduced by one by annihilating the information of the ligand from the original data matrix. The effect of ethanol, dimethylformamide (DMF and acetonitrile (AN was investigated on the formation constant of the Co2+ complex. Complex formation constant in water was estimated as log Kf = 5.09 ± 0.02. In mixtures of solvents of water and DMF and water and AN, the formation constant of the complex was increased because of lowering donor number of the solvent and in mixture of water and ethanol, the complex formation constant was decreased because of lowering of dielectric constant of the solvent.

  16. Energy materials. Advances in characterization, modelling and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Eldrup, M.; Hansen, N.; Juul Jensen, D.; Nielsen, E.M.; Nielsen, S.F.; Soerensen, B.F.; Pedersen, A.S.; Vegge, T.; West, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Energy-related topics in the modern world and energy research programmes cover the range from basic research to applications and structural length scales from micro to macro. Materials research and development is a central part of the energy area as break-throughs in many technologies depend on a successful development and validation of new or advanced materials. The Symposium is organized by the Materials Research Department at Risoe DTU - National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy. The Department concentrates on energy problems combining basic and applied materials research with special focus on the key topics: wind, fusion, superconductors and hydrogen. The symposium is based on these key topics and focus on characterization of materials for energy applying neutron, X-ray and electron diffraction. Of special interest is research carried out at large facilities such as reactors and synchrotrons, supplemented by other experimental techniques and modelling on different length scales that underpins experiments. The Proceedings contain 15 key note presentations and 30 contributed presentations, covering the abovementioned key topics relevant for the energy materials. The contributions clearly show the importance of materials research when developing sustainable energy technologies and also that many challenges remain to be approached. (BA)

  17. Theory and applications of the dual energy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, K.S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Three important principles in the dual energy technique applied to radiography are studied in this dissertation: the decomposition method, x-ray scatter consideration, and the selection of an optimal energy pair. First, two new methods namely, iso-transmission lines and sub-region direct approximation methods, are proposed for dual energy decomposition calculation. These two methods are compared with two other conventional techniques, i.e. nonlinear equations and direct approximation. The accuracy, efficiency, and smoothness are used as indices for comparison. The authors conclude that the two new proposed methods, iso-transmission lines and sub-region, are superior than the nonlinear equations and direct approximation methods. In this dissertation, a method to perform scatter correction based on the knowledge of scatter primary ratio is presented. First, the relation between scatter primary ratio and attenuation coefficient is determined by a Monte Carlo simulation. The selection of an optimal energy pair for a dual energy system is described in this dissertation. The selection is based on the calculation of an optimum factor which takes into consideration of the noise in the high and low energy images, the radiation dose to the patient, as well as the error produced during the dual energy decomposition process. The calculation of this optimum factor is obtained using monoenergetic radiation sources on various sizes of water phantom. In addition to these three aspects, this dissertation also addresses some clinical applications of the dual energy techniques and shows some of the results

  18. Individual eigenvalue distributions of crossover chiral random matrices and low-energy constants of SU(2) × U(1) lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Nishigaki, Shinsuke M.

    2018-02-01

    We compute individual distributions of low-lying eigenvalues of a chiral random matrix ensemble interpolating symplectic and unitary symmetry classes by the Nyström-type method of evaluating the Fredholm Pfaffian and resolvents of the quaternion kernel. The one-parameter family of these distributions is shown to fit excellently the Dirac spectra of SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a constant U(1) background or dynamically fluctuating U(1) gauge field, which weakly breaks the pseudoreality of the unperturbed SU(2) Dirac operator. The observed linear dependence of the crossover parameter with the strength of the U(1) perturbations leads to precise determination of the pseudo-scalar decay constant, as well as the chiral condensate in the effective chiral Lagrangian of the AI class.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of hybrid; Acrylamide zirconium (IV) arsenate a cation exchanger, effect of dielectric constant on distribution coefficient of metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabi, Syed A. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)], E-mail: sanabi@rediffmail.com; Shalla, Aabid H. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)

    2009-04-30

    A new hybrid inorganic-organic cation exchanger acrylamide zirconium (IV) arsenate has been synthesized, characterized and its analytical application explored. The effect of experimental parameters such as mixing ratio of reagents, temperature, and pH on the properties of material has been studied. FTIR, TGA, X-ray, UV-vis spectrophotometry, SEM and elemental analysis were used to determine the physiochemical properties of this hybrid ion exchanger. The material behaves as a monofunctional acid with ion-exchange capacity of 1.65 meq/g for Na{sup +} ions. The chemical stability data reveals that the exchanger is quite stable in mineral acids, bases and fairly stable in organic solvents, while as thermal analysis shows that the material retain 84% of its ion-exchange capacity up to 600 deg. C. Adsorption behavior of metal ions in solvents with increasing dielectric constant has also been explored. The sorption studies reveal that the material is selective for Pb{sup 2+} ions. The analytical utility of the material has been explored by achieving some binary separations of metal ions on its column. Pb{sup 2+} has been selectively removed from synthetic mixtures containing Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}. In order to demonstrate practical utility of the material quantitative separation of the Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} in brass sample has been achieved on its columns.

  20. A Fast Hartley Transform based novel optical OFDM system for VLC indoor application with constant envelope PAPR reduction technique using frequency modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2017-10-01

    In this research literature we present a unique optical OFDM system for Visible Light Communication (VLC) intended for indoor application which uses a non conventional transform-Fast Hartley Transform and an effective method to reduce the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM signal based on frequency modulation leading to a constant envelope (CE) signal. The proposed system is analyzed by a complete mathematical model and verified by the concurrent simulations results. The use of the non conventional transform makes the system computationally more desirable as it does not require the Hermitian symmetry constraint to yield real signals. The frequency modulation of the baseband signal converge random peaks into a CE signal. This leads to alleviation of the non linearity effects of the LED used in the link for electrical to optical conversion. The PAPR is reduced to 2 dB by this technique in this work. The impact of the modulation index on the performance of the system is also investigated. An optimum modulation depth of 30% gives better results. The additional phase discontinuity incurring on the demodulated signal at the receiver is also significantly reduced. A comparison of the improvement in phase discontinuity of the proposed technique of combating the PAPR with the previously known phase modulation technique is also presented in this work. Based on the channel metrics we evaluate the system performance and report an improvement of 1.2 dB at the FEC threshold. The proposed system is simple in design and computationally efficient and this can be incorporated into the present VLC system without much alteration thereby making it a cost effective solution.

  1. I. Activation energies for the gas phase reactions of hydrogen atom with carbon monoxide and with ethylene. II. Rate constants for the reactions of benzyl cation with triethylphosphine and with triethylarsine in 1,2-dichloroethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Two H-atom reactions H + CO + H 2 → HCO + H 2 and H + C 2 H 4 → C 2 H 5 * were separately studied from room temperature to about 100 0 C, and the activation energies for these two reactions were determined in this temperature range. For H + C 2 H 4 system, a small activation energy of 0.2 kcal/mole was obtained in the present narrow temperature range. The low activation energy indicates that the pre-exponential factor has a predominant contribution to the rate constant of this reaction and has about the same magnitude as that of the rate constant. For H + CO system, a fairly large activation energy of more than 7 kcal/mole was speculated in the potential energy surfaces of the system. The activation energy obtained in the present work, however, has a low value of about 2 kcal/mole. This low value reveals the low level of crossing of this reaction in the potential energy surface and thus indicates considerable complexity involved in the surface. Carbonium ions can be formed from chosen solutes in pulse-irradiated 1,2-dichloroethane (RCl) solutions. Upon irradiation, the electrons generated from the ionization of the solvent become localized on chloride ions as a result of their reaction with the neutral solvent molecules. The solvent counterion, RCl + , on the other hand, is free to exchange charge with the solute molecule. By choosing appropriate solutes, carbonium ion can be formed through a dissociative ionization process in the exchange. The benzyl cation was formed from its precursor compound dibenzylmercury and its reactions with two nucleophiles, triethylphosphine and triethylarsine, were separately studied. The formation and decay of benzyl cation were observed at 363 nm, the position of the maximum of its absorption band, and the second-order rate constants for the two reactions were determined at room temperature

  2. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  3. U.S. DOE Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, Patti [Etc Group, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center helped promote, assist, and transform the market for combined heat and power (CHP), including waste heat to power and district energy with CHP, in the intermountain states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. We accomplished these objectives through a combination of the following methods, which proved in concert to be a technically and economically effective strategy: o Identifying and facilitating high-impact CHP projects o Helping industrial, commercial, institutional, federal, and other large energy users in evaluating the economic and technical viability of potential CHP systems o Disseminating essential information about CHP including benefits, technologies, applications, project development, project financing, electric and gas utility incentives, and state policies o Coordinating and collaborating on CHP advancement with regional stakeholders including electric utilities, gas utilities, state energy offices, municipal development and planning personnel, trade associations, industry groups, non-profits, energy users, and others Outcomes of the project included increased understanding of and deployment of efficient and well-designed CHP systems in the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Increased CHP deployment helps the United States to enhance energy efficiency, strengthen the competitiveness of American industries, promote economic growth, foster a robust and resilient energy infrastructure, reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, and increase the use of market-ready advanced technologies. Specific outcomes included direct assistance to energy-intensive industrial facilities and other businesses, workshops and CHP tours, communication materials, and state policy education, all contributing to implementation of CHP systems in the intermountain region.

  4. Market Potential for Non-electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, T.; Kononov, S.; Kupitz, J.; McDonald, A.; Rogner, H.H.; Nisan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents results of a recent IAEA study to assess the market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long term (2020-2050). The applications covered are district heating, desalination, industrial heat supply, ship propulsion, energy supply for spacecraft, and, to a lesser extent, 'innovative' applications such as hydrogen production, coal gasification, etc. While technical details are covered only briefly, emphasis is placed on economics and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of nuclear options in the markets for non-electric energy services. The study makes a distinction between the market size (demand for a given service) and the market potential for nuclear penetration (which may be smaller because of technical or non-technical constraints). Near-term nuclear prospects are assessed on the basis of on-going projects in the final stages of design or under construction. For the long term, use has been made of a qualitative scale ranging from 0 to 2 for five critical areas: market structure, demand pressure, technical basis, economic competitiveness, and public acceptance. The paper presents the resulting evaluation of long-term prospects for nuclear energy entering into non-electric markets. (authors)

  5. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  6. High-Energy Electron Beam Application to Air Pollutants Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D.; Manaila, E.; Craciun, G.; Calinescu, I.

    2009-01-01

    The advantage of electron beam (EB) process in pollutants removal is connected to its high efficiency to transfer high amount of energy directly into the matter under treatment. Disadvantage which is mostly related to high investment cost of accelerator may be effectively overcome in future as the result of use accelerator new developments. The potential use of medium to high-energy high power EB accelerators for air pollutants removal is demonstrated in [1]. The lower electrical efficiencies of accelerators with higher energies are partially compensated by the lower electron energy losses in the beam windows. In addition, accelerators with higher electron energies can provide higher beam powers with lower beam currents [1]. The total EB energy losses (backscattering, windows and in the intervening air space) are substantially lower with higher EB incident energy. The useful EB energy is under 50% for 0.5 MeV and about 95% above 3 MeV. In view of these arguments we decided to study the application of high energy EB for air pollutants removal. Two electron beam accelerators are available for our studies: electron linear accelerators ALIN-10 and ALID-7, built in the Electron Accelerator Laboratory, INFLPR, Bucharest, Romania. Both accelerators are of traveling-wave type, operating at a wavelength of 10 cm. They utilize tunable S-band magnetrons, EEV M 5125 type, delivering 2 MW of power in 4 μ pulses. The accelerating structure is a disk-loaded tube operating in the 2 mode. The optimum values of the EB peak current IEB and EB energy EEB to produce maximum output power PEB for a fixed pulse duration EB and repetition frequency fEB are as follows: for ALIN-10: EEB = 6.23 MeV; IEB =75 mA; PEB 164 W (fEB = 100 Hz, EB = 3.5 s) and for ALID-7: EEB 5.5 MeV; IEB = 130 mA; PEB = 670 W (fEB = 250 Hz, EB = 3.75 s). This paper presents a special designed installation, named SDI-1, and several representative results obtained by high energy EB application to SO 2 , NOx and VOCs

  7. Renewable energy technology from underpinning physics to engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infield, D G

    2008-01-01

    The UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) in it's submission to the DTI's 2006 Energy Review reminded us that the 'UK has abundant wind, wave and tidal resources available; its mild climate lends itself to bio-energy production, and solar radiation levels are sufficient to sustain a viable solar industry'. These technologies are at different stages of development but they all draw on basic and applied Science and Engineering. The paper will briefly review the renewable energy technologies and their potential for contributing to a sustainable energy supply. Three research topics will be highlighted that bridge the gap between the physics underpinning the energy conversion, and the engineering aspects of development and deployment; all three are highly relevant to the Government's programme on micro-generation. Two are these are taken from field of thin film photovoltaics (PV), one related to novel device development and the other to a measurement technique for assessing the manufacturing quality of PV modules and their performance. The third topic concerns the development of small building integrated wind turbines and examines the complex flow associated with such applications. The paper will conclude by listing key research challenges that are central to the search for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy generation

  8. Application of monitoring and targeting to energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotel, D G; Hale, D K

    1989-01-01

    This general guide has been prepared to show how monitoring and targeting can control energy use and improve the efficiency with which energy is used in different sectors of the national economy. It is based on the results of work carried out, under the Energy Efficiency Office Monitoring and Targeting Programme, on the development of practical energy management systems for use in manufacturing industry, commerce and the public sector. The principles of monitoring and targeting are described together with the steps which have to be taken to set up monitoring and targeting as an integral part of an existing management organization. Procedures are given for monitoring energy use, defining standards and targets, reporting results and reviewing progress. These procedures which have been developed and tested in working environments are illustrated with examples of their practical application. Finally, an account is given of the improvements of performance in the use of energy and the other benefits which can be gained through energy monitoring and targeting.

  9. Development of thermal energy storage materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A; Sharma, Atul; Shukla, Manjari; Chen, C R

    2015-01-01

    The phase change materials (PCMs) have been utilized widely for solar thermal energy storage (TES) devices. The quality of these materials to remain at a particular temperature during solid-liquid, liquid-solid phase transition can also be utilized for many biomedical applications as well and has been explored in recent past already. This study reports some novel PCMs developed by them, along with some existing PCMs, to be used for such biomedical applications. Interestingly, it was observed that the heating/cooling properties of these PCMs enhance the quality of a variety of biomedical applications with many advantages (non-electric, no risk of electric shock, easy to handle, easy to recharge thermally, long life, cheap and easily available, reusable) over existing applications. Results of the present study are quite interesting and exciting, opening a plethora of opportunities for more work on the subject, which require overlapping expertise of material scientists, biochemists and medical experts for broader social benefits.

  10. Energy efficiency. A constant challenge to science and practice. Proceedings. 2. ed.; Energieeffizienz. Eine stete Herausforderung an Wissenschaft und Praxis. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ulrich (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    Within the meeting ''Energy efficiency'' of the Research Center for Energy Economics (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) from 12th to 13th May, 2011, at the Munich Residenz (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were presented: (1) Innovation and research for an enhanced energy efficiency - New accents in the energy research politics of the Federal Government (Knut Kuebler); (2) Revolution of efficiency in the monastery St. Ottilien (Wolfgang Mauch); (3) From the maser plan to the local plan of energy utilization (Tobias Schmid); (4) The life cycle approach as a driver for innovative energy contracting (Alfred Gayer); (5) Energy efficiency networks (Anna Gruber); (6) Grid expansion for an enhanced utilization of renewable energies (Martin Fuchs); (7) Storage requirement in the electrical grid; (8) Scenarios for the development of the electromobility in Munich (Stephan Brunnert); (9) Li ion batteries for electrified automobiles - Demands and status (Peter Lamp); (10) Marketing of wind power (Serafin von Roon); (11) Demand side management in non-residential buildings (Johannes Jungwirth); (12) Energy future 2050 (Ulrich Wagner); (13) Decentral and renewable power generation (Ulli Arndt); (14) Electromobility - is that the future? (Markus Lienkamp); (14) Electric power - Reason or solution of the climate problem? (Harald Lesch).

  11. Energy efficiency. A constant challenge to science and practice. Proceedings. 2. ed.; Energieeffizienz. Eine stete Herausforderung an Wissenschaft und Praxis. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ulrich [ed.

    2011-07-01

    Within the meeting ''Energy efficiency'' of the Research Center for Energy Economics (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) from 12th to 13th May, 2011, at the Munich Residenz (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were presented: (1) Innovation and research for an enhanced energy efficiency - New accents in the energy research politics of the Federal Government (Knut Kuebler); (2) Revolution of efficiency in the monastery St. Ottilien (Wolfgang Mauch); (3) From the maser plan to the local plan of energy utilization (Tobias Schmid); (4) The life cycle approach as a driver for innovative energy contracting (Alfred Gayer); (5) Energy efficiency networks (Anna Gruber); (6) Grid expansion for an enhanced utilization of renewable energies (Martin Fuchs); (7) Storage requirement in the electrical grid; (8) Scenarios for the development of the electromobility in Munich (Stephan Brunnert); (9) Li ion batteries for electrified automobiles - Demands and status (Peter Lamp); (10) Marketing of wind power (Serafin von Roon); (11) Demand side management in non-residential buildings (Johannes Jungwirth); (12) Energy future 2050 (Ulrich Wagner); (13) Decentral and renewable power generation (Ulli Arndt); (14) Electromobility - is that the future? (Markus Lienkamp); (14) Electric power - Reason or solution of the climate problem? (Harald Lesch).

  12. Single component, reversible ionic liquids for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittoria Blasucci; Ryan Hart; Veronica Llopis Mestre; Dominique Julia Hahne; Melissa Burlager; Hillary Huttenhower; Beng Joo Reginald Thio; Pamela Pollet; Charles L. Liotta; Charles A. Eckert [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

    2010-06-15

    Single component, reversible ionic liquids have excellent potential as novel solvents for a variety of energy applications. Our energy industry is faced with many new challenges including increased energy consumption, depleting oil reserves, and increased environmental awareness. We report the use of reversible ionic liquids to solve two energy challenges: extraction of hydrocarbons from contaminated crude oil and carbon capture from power plant flue gas streams. Our reversible solvents are derived from silylated amine molecular liquids which react with carbon dioxide reversibly to form ionic liquids. Here we compare the properties of various silylated amine precursors and their corresponding ionic liquids. We show how the property changes are advantageous in the two aforementioned energy applications. In the case of hydrocarbon purification, we take advantage of the polarity switch between precursor and ionic liquid to enable separations. In carbon capture, our solvents act as dual physical and chemical capture agents for carbon dioxide. Finally, we show the potential economics of scale-up for both processes. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Photon upconversion towards applications in energy conversion and bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi-C.; Ding, Yuchen C.; Sagar, Dodderi M.; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-12-01

    The field of plasmonics can play an important role in developing novel devices for application in energy and healthcare. In this review article, we consider the progress made in design and fabrication of upconverting nanoparticles and metal nanostructures for precisely manipulating light photons, with a wavelength of several hundred nanometers, at nanometer length scales, and describe how to tailor their interactions with molecules and surfaces so that two or more lower energy photons can be used to generate a single higher energy photon in a process called photon upconversion. This review begins by introducing the current state-of-the-art in upconverting nanoparticle synthesis and achievements in color tuning and upconversion enhancement. Through understanding and tailoring physical processes, color tuning and strong upconversion enhancement have been demonstrated by coupling with surface plasmon polariton waves, especially for low intensity or diffuse infrared radiation. Since more than 30% of incident sunlight is not utilized in most photovoltaic cells, this photon upconversion is one of the promising approaches to break the so-called Shockley-Queisser thermodynamic limit for a single junction solar cell. Furthermore, since the low energy photons typically cover the biological window of optical transparency, this approach can also be particularly beneficial for novel biosensing and bioimaging techniques. Taken together, the recent research boosts the applications of photon upconversion using designed metal nanostructures and nanoparticles for green energy, bioimaging, and therapy.

  14. Innovative thermal energy harvesting for future autonomous applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfray, Stephane

    2013-12-01

    As communicating autonomous systems market is booming, the role of energy harvesting will be a key enabler. As example, heat is one of the most abundant energy sources that can be converted into electricity in order to power circuits. Harvesting systems that use wasted heat open new ways to power autonomous sensors when the energy consumption is low, or to create systems of power generators when the conversion efficiency is high. The combination of different technologies (low power μ-processors, μ-batteries, radio, sensors...) with new energy harvesters compatible with large varieties of use-cases with allow to address this booming market. Thanks to the conjunction of ultra-low power electronic development, 3D technologies & Systems in Package approaches, the integration of autonomous sensors and electronics with ambient energy harvesting will be achievable. The applications are very wide, from environment and industrial sensors to medical portable applications, and the Internet of things may also represent in the future a several billions units market.

  15. Innovative thermal energy harvesting for future autonomous applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfray, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    As communicating autonomous systems market is booming, the role of energy harvesting will be a key enabler. As example, heat is one of the most abundant energy sources that can be converted into electricity in order to power circuits. Harvesting systems that use wasted heat open new ways to power autonomous sensors when the energy consumption is low, or to create systems of power generators when the conversion efficiency is high. The combination of different technologies (low power μ-processors, μ-batteries, radio, sensors...) with new energy harvesters compatible with large varieties of use-cases with allow to address this booming market. Thanks to the conjunction of ultra-low power electronic development, 3D technologies and Systems in Package approaches, the integration of autonomous sensors and electronics with ambient energy harvesting will be achievable. The applications are very wide, from environment and industrial sensors to medical portable applications, and the Internet of things may also represent in the future a several billions units market

  16. The application of contrast explanation to energy policy research: UK nuclear energy policy 2002–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances the application of the methodology, contrast explanation, to energy policy research. Research in energy policy is complex and often involves inter-disciplinary work, which traditional economic methodologies fail to capture. Consequently, the more encompassing methodology of contrast explanation is assessed and its use in other social science disciplines explored in brief. It is then applied to an energy policy research topic—in this case, nuclear energy policy research in the UK. Contrast explanation facilitates research into policy and decision-making processes in energy studies and offers an alternative to the traditional economic methods used in energy research. Further, contrast explanation is extended by the addition of contested and uncontested hypotheses analyses. This research focuses on the methods employed to deliver the new nuclear programme of the UK government. In order to achieve a sustainable nuclear energy policy three issues are of major importance: (1) law, policy and development; (2) public administration; and (3) project management. Further, the research identifies that policy in the area remains to be resolved, in particular at an institutional and legal level. However, contrary to the literature, in some areas, the research identifies a change of course as the UK concentrates on delivering a long-term policy for the nuclear energy sector and the overall energy sector. - Highlights: ► Energy policy research is interdisciplinary and needs additional methodological approaches. ► New method of contrast explanation advanced for energy policy research. ► This methodology is based on dialectical learning which examines conflict between sources of data. ► Research example used here is of UK nuclear energy policy. ► Major issues in UK nuclear energy policy are planning law, public administration, and project management

  17. Adaptive control of energy storage systems for power smoothing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) are desired and widely applied for power smoothing especially in systems with renewable generation and pulsed loads. High-pass-filter (HPF) is commonly applied in those applications in which the HPF extracts the high frequency fluctuating power and uses...... that as the power reference for ESS. The cut-off frequency, as the critical parameter, actually decides the power/energy compensated by ESS. Practically the state-of-charge (SoC) of the ESS has to be limited for safety and life-cycle considerations. In this paper an adaptive cut-off frequency design is proposed...

  18. Applications of a shadow camera system for energy meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Pascal; Wilbert, Stefan; Prahl, Christoph; Garsche, Dominik; Schüler, David; Haase, Thomas; Ramirez, Lourdes; Zarzalejo, Luis; Meyer, Angela; Blanc, Philippe; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Downward-facing shadow cameras might play a major role in future energy meteorology. Shadow cameras directly image shadows on the ground from an elevated position. They are used to validate other systems (e.g. all-sky imager based nowcasting systems, cloud speed sensors or satellite forecasts) and can potentially provide short term forecasts for solar power plants. Such forecasts are needed for electricity grids with high penetrations of renewable energy and can help to optimize plant operations. In this publication, two key applications of shadow cameras are briefly presented.

  19. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  20. Development and application of high energy imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    1999-01-01

    High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is a new technology. The idea of positron imaging can be traced back to early 1950's. HEPI imaging is formed by positron emitter radionuclide produced by cyclotron, such as 15 O, 13 N, 11 C and 18 F, which are most abundant elements in human body. Clinical applications of HEPI have been witnessed rapidly in recent years. HEPI imaging can be obtained by both PET and SPECT, namely high energy collimation imaging, Mdecular Coincidence Detection (MCD) and positron emission tomography

  1. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-01-01

    This project's mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS)

  2. 75 FR 33610 - Application To Export Electric Energy; H.Q. Energy Services (U.S.) Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-182-C] Application To Export Electric Energy; H.Q. Energy... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA... transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer using existing international...

  3. Thermal energy storage using phase change materials fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Amy S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the use of solid‐liquid phase change materials to store significant amounts of energy in the latent heat of fusion. The proper selection of materials for different applications is covered in detail, as is the use of high conductivity additives to enhance thermal diffusivity. Dr. Fleischer explores how applications of PCMS have expanded over the past 10 years to include the development of high efficiency building materials to reduce heating and cooling needs, smart material design for clothing, portable electronic systems thermal management, solar thermal power plant design and many others. Additional future research directions and challenges are also discussed.

  4. Analysis of hybrid energy systems for application in southern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Paul, Samuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The option of using hybrid energy for electricity in remote areas of Ghana is examined. • The cost of electricity produced by the hybrid system is found to be $0.281/kW h. • The levelized cost of electricity increase by 9% when the PV price is increased from $3000/kW to $7500/kW. - Abstract: Due to advances in renewable energy technologies and increase in oil price, hybrid renewable energy systems are becoming increasingly attractive for power generation applications in remote areas. This paper presents an economic analysis of the feasibility of utilizing a hybrid energy system consisting of solar, wind and diesel generators for application in remote areas of southern Ghana using levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and net present cost of the system. The annual daily average solar global radiation at the selected site is 5.4 kW h/m 2 /day and the annual mean wind speed is 5.11 m/s. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software was employed to carry out the present study. Both wind data and the actual load data have been used in the simulation model. It was found that a PV array of 80 kW, a 100 kW wind turbine, two generators with combined capacity of 100 kW, a 60 kW converter/inverter and a 60 Surrette 4KS25P battery produced a mix of 791.1 MW h of electricity annually. The cost of electricity for this hybrid system is found to be $0.281/kW h. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of changes in wind speed, solar global radiation and diesel price on the optimal energy was investigated and the impact of solar PV price on the LCOE for a selected hybrid energy system was also presented

  5. Application of energy conservation technologies in Indian industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    The quadrupling of oil prices in 1973 signaled the beginning of a crises period for the oil importing countries. It hampered the economic growth of developed and developing countries alike. The pace of industrialization slowed down, recession set in and the oil importing developing nations found their balance of payment situation steadily going worse. The second increase of oil prices in 1979 further compounded the problems. It did seem that the problem of economic growth and increasing debt burden was intractable as far as developing nations were concerned. Behind this turmoil were the faint stirrings of alternative actions that sought to wean the world from its oil and fossil fuel dominated economies. These alternatives ranged from harnessing renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind and biomass to implementing end-use energy efficiency strategies. A major lesson of the oil crunch era was that energy efficiency is tangible resource by itself that competes economically with contemporary energy supply options. In addition to this, four major national priorities, viz, economic competitiveness, utilization of scare capital for development, environmental quality and energy security through oil dependence provided an urgent rationale for saving energy. While conservation consciousness has already taken roots in Pakistan industry, it needs to be nurtured and gains need to be consolidated. The need of the hour is to take stock of the situation elsewhere, particularly in similar geographical and socio-economic situations, and plan for an energy efficient tomorrow. This article attempts to delineate the notable developments that have taken place in the application of energy conservation technologies in the Indian industries. These efforts have had a salutary effect on the Indian value added sector which was saddled with old plant and machinery designed in the era of cheap energy. (author)

  6. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... reliability of the U.S. electric power supply system. Copies of this application will be made available, upon... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act. DATES... purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United...

  7. Electrochemically enhanced reduction of hexavalent chromium in contaminated clay: Kinetics, energy consumption, and application of pulse current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian Ran; Pamukcu, Sibel; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    the dependency of reaction rate on energy consumption. A modified electrophoresis cell with platinum wires as working electrodes was used to run experiments. Results showed that the reduction rate of Cr(VI) was significantly increased by application of current with the pseudo-first-order rate constant kpse from......,Fe)(OH)3] precipitates. XRD analysis suggested that the [(Cr,Fe)(OH)3] formed at the clay surface and grew into the pore fluid. SEM-EDX results indicated that the overall Fe(III):Cr(III) ratio of the precipitates was approximately 1.26:1. Application of pulse current decreased the non-productive energy......Electrochemically enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) in clay medium is a technique based on inputting extra energy into the clay to drive the favorable redox reaction. In this study, the reducing reagent Fe(II) was transported into Cr(VI) spiked kaolinite clay by direct current to investigate...

  8. Application of Bacterial Laccases for Sustainable Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lörcher, Samuel; Koschorreck, Katja; Shipovskov, Stepan

    for a number of special applications, such as disposable implantable power suppliers for medical sensor-transmitters and drug delivery/activator systems and self-powered enzyme-based biosensors; and they do offer practical advantages of using abundant organic raw materials for clean and sustainable energy...... in vivo glucose monitoring in diabetes patients). However, the most attractive are oxygen-reducing enzymes such as blue-copper-containing laccases coupled to electrodes, which provide the 4e- bioelectroreduction of O2 to H2O (1.23 V vs. NHE) at potentials approaching the thermodynamic ones. Exploitation...... of laccase-based biocathodes in the biofuel cells and in the hybrid biobattery-type or photovoltaic power sources could essentially broaden their application, enabling extraction of energy from the sea water/water dissolved oxygen. Here we demonstrate up to 0.8 mW cm-2 extracted power densities and 1.5 month...

  9. Conducting polymer nanostructures: template synthesis and applications in energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lijia; Qiu, Hao; Dou, Chunmeng; Li, Yun; Pu, Lin; Xu, Jianbin; Shi, Yi

    2010-07-02

    Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  10. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Pan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  11. Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2016-07-02

    Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  12. Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Abuhimd, Hatem; Wahyudi, Wandi; Li, Mengliu; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrocatalytic Metal-Organic Frameworks for Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Courtney A; Marinescu, Smaranda C

    2017-11-23

    With the global energy demand expected to increase drastically over the next several decades, the development of a sustainable energy system to meet this increase is paramount. Renewable energy sources can be coupled with electrochemical conversion processes to store energy in chemical bonds. To promote these difficult transformations, electrocatalysts that operate at high conversion rates and efficiency are required. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as a promising class of materials; however, the insulating nature of MOFs has limited their application as electrocatalysts. The recent development of conductive MOFs has led to several electrocatalytic MOFs that display activity comparable to that of the best-performing heterogeneous catalysts. Although many electrocatalytic MOFs exhibit low activity and stability, the few successful examples highlight the possibility of MOF electrocatalysts as replacements for noble-metal-based catalysts in commercial energy-converting devices. We review herein the use of pristine MOFs as electrocatalysts to facilitate important energy-related reactions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Guest Editorial Electric Machines in Renewable Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliprantis, Dionysios; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed; Muljadi, Eduard; Brown, Ian; Chiba, Akira; Dorrell, David; Erlich, Istvan; Kerszenbaum, Isidor Izzy; Levi, Emil; Mayor, Kevin; Mohammed, Osama; Papathanassiou, Stavros; Popescu, Mircea; Qiao, Wei; Wu, Dezheng

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this special issue is to collect and disseminate publications that highlight recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of renewable energy resources. The use of these resources for production of electricity is increasing rapidly worldwide. As of 2015, a majority of countries have set renewable electricity targets in the 10%-40% range to be achieved by 2020-2030, with a few notable exceptions aiming for 100% generation by renewables. We are experiencing a truly unprecedented transition away from fossil fuels, driven by environmental, energy security, and socio-economic factors.Electric machines can be found in a wide range of renewable energy applications, such as wind turbines, hydropower and hydrokinetic systems, flywheel energy storage devices, and low-power energy harvesting systems. Hence, the design of reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and controllable electric machines is crucial in enabling even higher penetrations of renewable energy systems in the smart grid of the future. In addition, power electronic converter design and control is critical, as they provide essential controllability, flexibility, grid interface, and integration functions.

  15. Nuclear safeguards applications of energy-dispersive absorption edge densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Hsue, S.T.; Langner, D.G.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The principles and techniques of absorption edge densitometry in the energy-dispersive mode are summarized as they apply to the nondestructive assay of special nuclear materials. Five existing field instruments, designed for special nuclear materials accounting measurements, are described. Results of the testing of these instruments as well as recent laboratory results are used to define the capabilities of the technique for special nuclear materials accounting. Possibilities for future applications are reviewed. 14 figures

  16. Energy storage applications of activated carbons: supercapacitors and hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Solís, Marta; Mokaya, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Porous carbons have several advantageous properties with respect to their use in energy applications that require constrained space such as in electrode materials for supercapacitors and as solid state hydrogen stores. The attractive properties of porous carbons include, ready abundance, chemical and thermal stability, ease of processability and low framework density. Activated carbons, which are perhaps the most explored class of porous carbons, have been traditionally employed as catalyst s...

  17. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Lijia; Qiu, Hao; Dou, Chunmeng; Li, Yun; Pu, Lin; Xu, Jianbin; Shi, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template met...

  18. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  19. Workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report consists of the abstracts for the papers given at the conference. Applications of neural networks in the environmental, energy and biomedical fields are discussed. Some of the topics covered are: predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation; hazardous waste characterization; nondestructive TRU (transuranic) waste assay; risk analysis; load forecasting for electric utilities; design of a wind power storage and generation system; nuclear fuel management; etc.

  20. Workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report consists of the abstracts for the papers given at the conference. Applications of neural networks in the environmental, energy and biomedical fields are discussed. Some of the topics covered are: predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation; hazardous waste characterization; nondestructive TRU (transuranic) waste assay; risk analysis; load forecasting for electric utilities; design of a wind power storage and generation system; nuclear fuel management; etc

  1. Cosmological constants and variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D

    2005-01-01

    We review properties of theories for the variation of the gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that is consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints. We also discuss some of the consequences of varying 'constants' for oscillating universes and show by means of exact solutions that they appear to evolve monotonically in time even though the scale factor of the universe oscillates

  2. Research on high energy density plasmas and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Recently, technologies on lasers, accelerators, and pulse power machines have been significantly advanced and input power density covers the intensity range from 10 10 W/cm 2 to higher than 10 20 W/cm 2 . As the results, high pressure gas and solid targets can be heated up to very high temperature to create hot dense plasmas which have never appeared on the earth. The high energy density plasmas opened up new research fields such as inertial confinement fusion, high brightness X-ray radiation sources, interiors of galactic nucleus,supernova, stars and planets, ultra high pressure condensed matter physics, plasma particle accelerator, X-ray laser, and so on. Furthermore, since these fields are intimately connected with various industrial sciences and technologies, the high energy density plasma is now studied in industries, government institutions, and so on. This special issue of the Journal of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research reviews the high energy density plasma science for the comprehensive understanding of such new fields. In May, 1998, the review committee for investigating the present status and the future prospects of high energy density plasma science was established in the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research. We held three committee meetings to discuss present status and critical issues of research items related to high energy density plasmas. This special issue summarizes the understandings of the committee. This special issue consists of four chapters: They are Chapter 1: Physics important in the high energy density plasmas, Chapter 2: Technologies related to the plasma generation; drivers such as lasers, pulse power machines, particle beams and fabrication of various targets, Chapter 3: Plasma diagnostics important in high energy density plasma experiments, Chapter 4: A variety of applications of high energy density plasmas; X-ray radiation, particle acceleration, inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics

  3. Plasma Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Nanocomposite Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C. Kong; Alex W. Kawczak

    2008-09-01

    The nanocomposite energy applications for plasma reactor produced nanoparticles are reviewed. Nanoparticles are commonly defined as particles less than 100 nm in diameter. Due to this small size, nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio. This increases the surface energy compared to the bulk material. The high surface-to-volume ratio and size effects (quantum effects) give nanoparticles distinctive chemical, electronic, optical, magnetic and mechanical properties from those of the bulk material. Nanoparticles synthesis can be grouped into 3 broad approaches. The first one is wet phase synthesis (sol-gel processing), the second is mechanical attrition, and the third is gas-phase synthesis (aerosol). The properties of the final product may differ significantly depending on the fabrication route. Currently, there are no economical large-scale production processes for nanoparticles. This hinders the widespread applications of nanomaterials in products. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is engaging in research and development of advanced modular hybrid plasma reactors for low cost production of nanoparticles that is predicted to accelerate application research and enable the formation of technology innovation alliances that will result in the commercial production of nanocomposites for alternative energy production devices such as fuel cells, photovoltaics and electrochemical double layer capacitors.

  4. Social attitude towards wind energy applications in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    During the last 3 yr (1999-2002) a significant increase in the utilization of the existing wind power has taken place in Greece, after a long period (1993-1998) of inactivity. Unfortunately, the largest part of new scheduled installations is concentrated in a few geographical regions, in an attempt to take advantage of the existing electrical network capabilities and the acceptable infrastructure situation. This significant concentration of very large size wind turbines, rapidly installed in a few geographical areas, led to serious reactions from the local population, which in some cases even led to the complete cancellation of the wind power projects. In this context, an extensive study is conducted, concerning the public attitude towards wind energy applications, in several island and mainland Greek territories possessing high wind potential and investment interest. The results obtained significantly reveal acceptance of the existing wind parks, being, however, rather against new installations. More specifically, in the Greek islands the public attitude is clearly supportive, while in the Greek mainland the public attitude is either divided or definitely against wind power applications. The most troublesome outcome of this survey is the existence of a specific minority that is strongly against wind energy applications, disregarding any financial benefits. Among the primary conclusions drawn, one may underline the necessity of additional public information regarding the wind energy sector

  5. Spectroscopic constants and the potential energy curve of the iodine weakly bound 0+g state correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) dissociation limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, M E; Baturo, V V; Lukashov, S S; Poretsky, S A; Pravilov, A M

    2013-01-01

    The stepwise three-step three-colour aser excitation scheme and rotational as well as rovibrational energy transfer processes in the 0 + g state induced by collisions with He and Ar atoms are used for determination of rovibronic level energies of the weakly bound 0 + g state correlating with the I( 2 P 1/2 ) + I( 2 P 1/2 ) dissociation limit. Dunham coefficients of the state, Y i0 (i = 0–3), Y i1 (i = 0–3) and Y 02 for the v 0 g + = 0–16 and J 0 g + ≈ 14–135 ranges as well as the dissociation energy of the state, D e , and equilibrium I–I distance of the state, R e , are determined. The potential energy curve of the state constructed using these constants is also reported. (paper)

  6. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  7. Nano crystals-Related Synthesis, Assembly, and Energy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Q.; Hu, M.Z.; Yu, B.Z.; William, W.; Seo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental material properties have been dramatically altered in the nano scale regime because of quantum confinement effect. The unique size-tunable functionalities of nano materials make them involved in an extensive variety of energy applications, such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells. These applications have been demonstrated to cut energy consumption. In response to the ever-growing energy demands as well as the concerns of global warming, researchers are actively placing their enormous emphasis on the exploration of energy savings. During this exploration, the primary stage requires the design of appropriate strategies for the synthesis of high-quality nano crystals in terms of size uniformity and superior optical/electronic properties. Especially, there is a need to seek green-chemistry approaches for the synthesis of environmentally benign and user-friendly nano crystals. Another recent area of focus is the use of individual nano crystals as building blocks for self-assembly, providing new opportunities to improve the nano crystal performance

  8. Stability constants of scandium complexes, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisako; Itoh, Naomi; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    The stability constants of scandium complexes with some carboxylate ligands were determined potentiometrically at 25.0 and 40.0 0 C and at an ionic strength of 0.10 with potassium nitrate as supporting electrolyte. The constants of the scandium complexes were appreciably greater than those of the corresponding lanthanoid complexes, as expected. The changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for the formation of the scandium complexes were calculated from the stability constants at two temperatures. (author)

  9. Dose rate constants for new dose quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Daverda, G.; Leitner, A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual changes and new quantities made is necessary to reassess dose rate quantities. Calculations of the dose rate constant were done for air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and directional dose equivalent. The number of radionuclides is more than 200. The threshold energy is selected as 20 keV for the dose equivalent constants. The dose rate constant for the photon equivalent dose as used mainly in German speaking countries as a temporary quantity is also included. (Author)

  10. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping properties of elastomers in engineering applications. Part 2: Elastomer characteristics at constant temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P. K.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Cziglenyi, L.

    1974-01-01

    Dynamic properties of a commerical polybutadiene compound were determined at a constant temperature of 32 C by a forced-vibration resonant mass type of apparatus. The constant thermal state of the elastomer was ensured by keeping the ambient temperature constant and by limiting the power dissipation in the specimen. Experiments were performed with both compression and shear specimens at several preloads (nominal strain varying from 0 to 5 percent), and the results are reported in terms of a complex stiffness as a function of frequency. Very weak frequency dependence is observed and a simple power law type of correlation is shown to represent the data well. Variations in the complex stiffness as a function of preload are also found to be small for both compression and shear specimens.

  11. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-365] Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane... application. SUMMARY: Centre Lane Trading Limited (CLT) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy...)). On April 20, 2010, DOE received an application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy...

  12. Testing simulation and structural models with applications to energy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hendrik

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation deals with energy demand and consists of two parts. Part one proposes a unified econometric framework for modeling energy demand and examples illustrate the benefits of the technique by estimating the elasticity of substitution between energy and capital. Part two assesses the energy conservation policy of Daylight Saving Time and empirically tests the performance of electricity simulation. In particular, the chapter "Imposing Monotonicity and Curvature on Flexible Functional Forms" proposes an estimator for inference using structural models derived from economic theory. This is motivated by the fact that in many areas of economic analysis theory restricts the shape as well as other characteristics of functions used to represent economic constructs. Specific contributions are (a) to increase the computational speed and tractability of imposing regularity conditions, (b) to provide regularity preserving point estimates, (c) to avoid biases existent in previous applications, and (d) to illustrate the benefits of our approach via numerical simulation results. The chapter "Can We Close the Gap between the Empirical Model and Economic Theory" discusses the more fundamental question of whether the imposition of a particular theory to a dataset is justified. I propose a hypothesis test to examine whether the estimated empirical model is consistent with the assumed economic theory. Although the proposed methodology could be applied to a wide set of economic models, this is particularly relevant for estimating policy parameters that affect energy markets. This is demonstrated by estimating the Slutsky matrix and the elasticity of substitution between energy and capital, which are crucial parameters used in computable general equilibrium models analyzing energy demand and the impacts of environmental regulations. Using the Berndt and Wood dataset, I find that capital and energy are complements and that the data are significantly consistent with duality

  13. Industrial application of PV/T solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, S.A.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems consist of PV modules and heat extraction units mounted together. These systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than plain photovoltaics. Industries show high demand of energy for both heat and electricity and the hybrid PV/T systems could be used in order to meet this requirement. In this paper the application aspects in the industry of PV/T systems with water heat extraction is presented. The systems are analyzed with TRNSYS program for three locations Nicosia, Athens and Madison that are located at different latitudes. The system comprises 300 m 2 of hybrid PV/T collectors producing both electricity and thermal energy and a 10 m 3 water storage tank. The work includes the study of an industrial process heat system operated at two load supply temperatures of 60 deg. C and 80 deg. C. The results show that the electrical production of the system, employing polycrystalline solar cells, is more than the amorphous ones but the solar thermal contribution is slightly lower. A non-hybrid PV system produces about 25% more electrical energy but the present system covers also, depending on the location, a large percentage of the thermal energy requirement of the industry considered. The economic viability of the systems is proven, as positive life cycle savings are obtained in the case of hybrid systems and the savings are increased for higher load temperature applications. Additionally, although amorphous silicon panels are much less efficient than the polycrystalline ones, better economic figures are obtained due to their lower initial cost, i.e., they have better cost/benefit ratio

  14. Modelling climate change policies : an application of ENERGY2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, G.; Bhargava, A.; Backus, G.

    2005-01-01

    Researches and policy-makers are increasingly analyzing the economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol at national, regional and global levels. The analyses are generally based on numerical models integrating energy, environment and the economy. Most models range from partial equilibrium types to complex multi-sector general equilibrium models, and typically represent the energy sector at an aggregate level, which limits their ability to reflect details of different sectors. In Canada, a model called ENERGY2020 has been widely used by the federal and provincial governments to analyze the sectoral and provincial impacts of implementing the Kyoto Protocol. ENERGY2020 uses stocks and flows simulation that captures the physical aspects of the processes utilizing energy, as well as the qualitative choice theory which captures human behavioural aspects. The model also has a database containing 20 years of time-series on all economic, environmental and energy variables, enabling the model to derive most parameters endogenously through econometric estimations. It has the capacity to analyze consumer and business responses over a wide range of policy initiatives such as energy environment taxes, regulatory standards for buildings, equipment and motor vehicles, grants, rebates and subsidy initiatives, consumer awareness initiatives, technology improvements, moratoriums and mandated cut-backs. It is also capable of producing long-term energy market forecasts as well as analyzing the impacts of policies in the markets. It was concluded that the model's application will serve as a useful analytical tool for a range of issues, and may be useful to developing countries and economies in transition. 6 refs., 5 figs

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, Tim [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kammen, Dan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonell, Vince [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Samuelsen, Scott [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Beyene, Asfaw [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Ganji, Ahmad [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC) was formed in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission to provide education, outreach, and technical support to promote clean energy -- combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, and waste energy recovery (WHP) -- development in the Pacific Region. The region includes California, Nevada, Hawaii, and the Pacific territories. The PCEAC was operated as one of nine regional clean energy application centers, originally established in 2003/2004 as Regional Application Centers for combined heat and power (CHP). Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, these centers received an expanded charter to also promote district energy and waste energy recovery, where economically and environmentally advantageous. The centers are working in a coordinated fashion to provide objective information on clean energy system technical and economic performance, direct technical assistance for clean energy projects and additional outreach activities to end users, policy, utility, and industry stakeholders. A key goal of the CEACs is to assist the U.S. in achieving the DOE goal to ramp up the implementation of CHP to account for 20% of U.S. generating capacity by 2030, which is estimated at a requirement for an additional 241 GW of installed clean technologies. Additional goals include meeting the Obama Administration goal of 40 GW of new CHP by 2020, key statewide goals such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in each state, California’s greenhouse gas emission reduction goals under AB32, and Governor Brown’s “Clean Energy Jobs Plan” goal of 6.5 GW of additional CHP over the next twenty years. The primary partners in the PCEAC are the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Energy and Resources Group (ERG) at UC Berkeley, the Advanced Power and Energy Program (APEP) at UC Irvine, and the Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC

  16. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  17. Development of solar energy for efficient PV application systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Aziz

    2006-01-01

    It is essential to increase research, development, awareness for the application of solar energy as an important source of life. The cost of PV systems has decreased due to the improvement in techniques of manufacturing and performance. In reality, photovoltaic is one technology that allows the production of electricity with only two components: technological, which is the PV module and environmental, which is the sun. The knowledge of the components market represents a critical parameters in establishing sustainable industrial applications on different activity sectors. This paper illustrates the advantages of using photovoltaic in rural area and their economic and environmental impact. In regions where petroleum or other fossil fuels are not available, and where these remote area are not connected to the electrical grid, there is a strong and increasing demand for the technologies related to photovoltaic application systems. Water extracting and pumping, telecommunication and lighting, irrigation systems, electrical driven cars and trucks represent some of these important applications. The paper also develops critical skills for the most useful PV application in Egypt and provide to the industry a development forecast for the new technology. Then an initiation contacts and cooperation on PV application between industries specially in North Africa Middle East in order to improve the reliability and to get cheaper systems.(Author)

  18. Applications of maximally concentrating optics for solar energy collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1985-11-01

    A new family of optical concentrators based on a general nonimaging design principle for maximizing the geometric concentration, C, for radiation within a given acceptance half angle ±θα has been developed. The maximum limit exceeds by factors of 2 to 10 that attainable by systems using focusing optics. The wide acceptance angles permitted using these techniques have several unique advantages for solar concentrators including the elimination of the diurnal tracking requirement at intermediate concentrations (up to ˜10x), collection of circumsolar and some diffuse radiation, and relaxed tolerances. Because of these advantages, these types of concentrators have applications in solar energy wherever concentration is desired, e.g. for a wide variety of both thermal and photovoltaic uses. The basic principles of nonimaging optical design are reviewed. Selected configurations for thermal collector applications are discussed and the use of nonimaging elements as secondary concentrators is illustrated in the context of higher concentration applications.

  19. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN HOUSES HEATING SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Mingaleva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is widely used around the world for electricity generation and heating systems in municipal services. But its use is complicated in the number of territories with uneven receipts of solar radiation on the earth’s surface and large number of cloudy days during a year. A hypothesis on the possibility of application of individual solar collectors for heating of houses in the number of cities of Russia has been tested. The existing designs of solar collectors and checking the possibility of their application in northern territories of Russia are investigated. The analysis was carried out taking into account features of relief and other climatic conditions of the Perm and Sverdlovsk regions. As the result of research, the basic recommended conditions for application of solar batteries in houses of the northern Russian cities have been resumed.

  20. U.S. DOE Southeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzarella, Isaac [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Mago, Pedro [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kalland, Stephen [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-12-31

    Between 2010 and 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Southeast Clean Energy Application Center (SE-CEAC), co-located at the North Carolina Solar Center at NC State University (NCSU) and at Mississippi State University. The SE-CEAC was one of eight regional CEACs established to promote and assist in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), district energy (DE) and waste heat to power (WHP) throughout the U.S. CHP locates power generation at the point of demand and makes productive use of the residual thermal energy for process and space heating in factories and businesses, thus lowering the cost of meeting electricity and heat requirements and increasing energy efficiency. The overall goal of the SE-CEAC was to support end-user implementation and overall market transformation for CHP and related clean energy technologies. Five objectives were targeted to achieve the goal: 1. Market Analysis and Information Dissemination 2. Outreach and Education for Potential CHP End-users 3. Policy Support for State and Regional Stakeholders 4. Technical Assistance to Support CHP Deployment 5. Collaboration with DOE and other CEACs Throughout the project, the CEACs provided key services of education and outreach, technical assistance and market analysis in support of project objectives. These services were very effective at achieving key objectives of assisting prospective CHP end-users and informing policy makers, utilities and others about the benefits of CHP. There is a marked increase in the awareness of CHP technologies and applications as an energy resource among end-users, policymakers, utility regulators, electric utilities and natural gas utilities in the Southeast region as a result. At the end of 2013, a number of best-practice policies for CHP were applied or under consideration in various Southeast states. The SE-CEAC met its targets for providing technical assistance with over 50 analyses delivered for 412 MW of potential end