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  1. Determination of the inorganic components in the Brazilian medicinal plants from 'in natura' and capsule forms, using X-ray fluorescence techniques (WD and ED systems). Quantitative inorganic profile definition; Determinacao de componentes inorganicos em plantas medicinais, comercializadas em formas de po (capsulas) e 'in natura', utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de comprimento de onda (WDXRF) e por dispersao de energia (EDXRF). Definicao de perfis inorganicos quantitativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio Marques

    2004-07-01

    The Na, Mg, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr concentrations in the Stryphnodendron barbatiman (Barbatimao), Malva officinalis (Malva), Salvia officinalis (Salvia), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophylius (Chapeu de couro), Paulina cupana (Guarana), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba), Calendula officinalis (Calendula), Solidago microglossa (Arnica), Arnica montana (Arnica) and Schinus molle (Aroeira) species were concentrations. The specimens were sampled 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) and capsule (powder) forms from different commercial labels. The elemental determination was outlined by wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) and energy dispersive (EDXRF) X-ray fluorescence techniques using, respectively, linear regression and fundamental parameter methods. The repeatability and accuracy of the methods were evaluated using the certified reference material NIST 1547 - 'Peach Leaves'. Statistical treatments, such as Chauvenet and Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score tests, were applied. A quantitative inorganic profile was obtained for each specie from 'in natura' and capsule forms. Different inorganic compositions were observed in the different parts (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) of the Schinus molle (Aroeira), Arnica montana (Arnica), Calendula officinalis (Calendula) and Echinodorus macrophylius (Chapeu de couro) species. (author)

  2. Determination of the inorganic components in the Brazilian medicinal plants from 'in natura' and capsule forms, using X-ray fluorescence techniques (WD and ED systems). Quantitative inorganic profile definition; Determinacao de componentes inorganicos em plantas medicinais, comercializadas em formas de po (capsulas) e 'in natura', utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de comprimento de onda (WDXRF) e por dispersao de energia (EDXRF). Definicao de perfis inorganicos quantitativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio Marques

    2004-07-01

    The Na, Mg, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr concentrations in the Stryphnodendron barbatiman (Barbatimao), Malva officinalis (Malva), Salvia officinalis (Salvia), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophylius (Chapeu de couro), Paulina cupana (Guarana), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba), Calendula officinalis (Calendula), Solidago microglossa (Arnica), Arnica montana (Arnica) and Schinus molle (Aroeira) species were concentrations. The specimens were sampled 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) and capsule (powder) forms from different commercial labels. The elemental determination was outlined by wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) and energy dispersive (EDXRF) X-ray fluorescence techniques using, respectively, linear regression and fundamental parameter methods. The repeatability and accuracy of the methods were evaluated using the certified reference material NIST 1547 - 'Peach Leaves'. Statistical treatments, such as Chauvenet and Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score tests, were applied. A quantitative inorganic profile was obtained for each specie from 'in natura' and capsule forms. Different inorganic compositions were observed in the different parts (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) of the Schinus molle (Aroeira), Arnica montana (Arnica), Calendula officinalis (Calendula) and Echinodorus macrophylius (Chapeu de couro) species. (author)

  3. Study of damages caused by drill fluids in sandstone samples using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF); Estudo dos danos causados por fluido de perfuracao em amostras de arenito utilizando a fluorescencia de raios X dispersiva em energia (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Joao Luiz B.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos; Leite, Jaques C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Queiroz Neto, Joao C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2002-07-01

    The performance of an X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) system was evaluated for the determination of solids invasion profile. The EDXRF was used to identify the elements, that are present in the rock core after the damage tests. Results are presented of an experimental study of formation permeability damage caused by invasion of the inert and extraneous solids simulated by CaCO{sub 3} particles. Laboratory damage tests were performed using two types of sandstones core. Vila Velha, low permeability (15 mD) and Rio Bonito, high permeability (800 mD). The damage tests were performed with utilization of SIRF-P, which simulates the conditions find in-situ (petroleum well). (author)

  4. Characterization of chemical elements in soil submitted to different systems use and management by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); Caracterizacao dos niveis de elementos quimicos em solo, submetido a diferentes sistemasde uso e manejo, utilizando espectrometria de fluorescencia de raios-X por energia dispersiva (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wastowski, Arci Dirceu; Rosa, Genesio Mario da; Cherubin, Mauricio Roberto; Rigon, Joao Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz, E-mail: wastowski@smail.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Frederico Westphalen, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte do Rio Grande do Sul

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical elements levels in soil, submitted to different management systems and use by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry - EDXRF. The systems were T1 - agroforestry (SAF), T2 - native field (CN), T3 - native forest (NM), T4 - tillage forest (PF); T5 - conventional tillage system (SPC) and T6 - system tillage (NT). Samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm, dried and ground for analysis in EDX-720. The soil showed no difference in the average concentrations of chemical elements analyzed in the profiles, but the systems presented different concentrations of metal elements, and T3 had the highest K, Ca and Zn at 0-10 cm and higher contents of K, Ca, Cu, Zn and Mn in the layer of 10-20 cm. (author)

  5. Caracterização dos níveis de elementos químicos em solo, submetido a diferentes sistemas de uso e manejo, utilizando espectrometria de fluorescência de raios-x por energia dispersiva (EDXRF Characterization of chemical elements in soil submitted to different systems use and management by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arci Dirceu Wastowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical elements levels in soil, submitted to different management systems and use by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry - EDXRF. The systems were T1 - agro forestry (SAF, T2 - Native Field (CN, T3 - Native Forest (NM, T4 - Tillage Forest (PF; T5 - conventional tillage system (SPC and T6 - System tillage (NT. Samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm, dried and ground for analysis in EDX-720. The soil showed no difference in the average concentrations of chemical elements analyzed in the profiles, but the systems presented different concentrations of metal elements, and T3 had the highest K, Ca and Zn at 0-10 cm and higher contents of K, Ca, Cu, Zn and Mn in the layer of 10-20 cm.

  6. Application of a portable equipment EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) in the monitoring of the restoration work of murals paints in the Church of Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP); Aplicacao de um equipamento portatil de EDXRF (fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia) no acompanhamento dos trabalhos de restauro de pinturas murais na igreja da Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio, E-mail: appoloni@uel.b, E-mail: parreira@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil); Rizzo, Marcia [MRizzo Restauracoes - Laboratorio de Conservacao e Restauracao de Bens Culturais Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the application of the portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) of the Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina in the analysis in situ of pigments in wall paintings, as well as in monitoring restoration processes

  7. Análise arqueométrica de cerâmica Tupiguarani da região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, usando fluorescência de raios X por dispersão de energia (EDXRF Archaeometric analysis of Tupiguarani pottery from the central region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Akemy Tomiyoshi Bona

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methodology (EDXRF was used to determine Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, Zn in pottery sherds from seven archaeological sites in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The potteries' chemical fingerprints from Ijuí River, Ibicuí Mirim River, Vacacaí Mirim River and Jacuí River were identified. Interactions between sites from the Jacuí River, Vacacaí Mirim River and Ibicui Mirim River could have occurred because some samples from these sites are overlapping in a principal component analysis (PCA graphic. The pottery provenance could be the same.

  8. Analysing the Repellents Using EDXRF Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Mi Mi; Khin Yi; Sein Htoon

    2004-05-01

    Determination of elemental contents in neem oil was evaluated using EDXRF.The comparsion on elemental concentrations of mosquito repellents cream, lotion and neem oil had been made. Where the neem oil was applied to the exposed body, it was found that the neem oil gives the protection action from the bites of mosquitoes

  9. Study of inks on paper engravings using portable EDXRF spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, J.L.; Roldan, C.; Juanes, D.; Carballo, J.; Pereira, J.; Ardid, M.; Lluch, J.L.; Vives, R.

    2004-01-01

    The prints are fragile and delicate art objects that need for its examination a suitable technique for 'in situ', non-destructive and rapid analyses. The energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry with portable instrumentation offers these analytical properties. In this work we present the EDXRF analyses of eight engravings elaborated with different techniques (etching and heliogravure) from the 17th to 20th centuries. The characterization of the paper is directly done from its EDXRF spectra, whereas the inks are characterized by the ink plus paper analysis after subtracting the background from the paper spectrum. Inorganic components of the paper engravings and inks have been identified from the EDXRF spectra and the results are discussed. Also, we present EDXRF analyses for the identification of inorganic components from six samples of modern inks

  10. EDXRF analysis of Marajoara pubic covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, C.; Anjos, M.J.; Bueno, M.I.M.S.; Lima, T.A.; Lopes, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    This work evaluated the elemental composition of decorated pottery pubic covers (tangas) from the Marajoara culture of Marajo Island (at the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil) using EDXRF technique. The XRF system used in this work consists in a Si(Li) detector from ORTEC, with resolution of 180 eV, at 5.9 keV, and a mini X-ray tube with Mo anode. The elements identified in the samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to evaluated the provenance of the samples

  11. A low-cost EDXRF analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahdeman, J.E.; Watson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with an EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) system, the Spectrace (sup TM) 4020 (Tractor X-ray). The Spectra analysis software is both powerful and flexible enough to handle a wide variety of applications. The instrument was designed to be economical by integrating the major system components into a single unit. This practical approach to hardware has cut the cost per unit. The software structure of the Spectra 4020 is presented in a flow chart. The article also contains a diagram of the hardware configuration of the instrument

  12. Multielemental analysis of geological materials using EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Zahily Herrero; Santos Júnior, José A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Rojas, Lino A. Valcárcel, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: josineide.santos@ufpe.br, E-mail: linomarvic@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan R. Estevez, E-mail: jestevez@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Havana (Cuba); França, Elvis Joacir de, E-mail: ejfranca@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-EN/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In northeastern Brazil, there are few studies about the metal pollution of surface soils and for the first time it will be studied heavy metals contamination in soils with different cover land. The State of Pernambuco is representative of the Brazilian Northeast region in relation to the variability of climatic conditions, soil types, cover and land use. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Pernambuco, Brazil. The analysis of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were performed using Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The 316 locations studied were specifically selected taking into account the different land use of soil. Analytical curves were obtained by means of the analysis of certified reference materials, for quantify the metals. The regression coefficients of the analytical curves were higher than 0.99. The quality of the analytical procedure was demonstrated at a 95% confidence level. The analysis of diverse geological samples from Pernambuco indicated higher concentrations of Ni and Zn in sugarcane, with maximum values of 41 mg kg{sup -1} and 118 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively and agricultural areas (41 mg kg{sup -1} and 127 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). The trace element Sr was mainly enriched in urban soils with values of 400 mg kg{sup -1}. According to the results, the EDXRF method was successfully implemented, providing some chemical tracers for the quality assessment of tropical soils and sediments. (author)

  13. Multielemental analysis of geological materials using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Zahily Herrero; Santos Júnior, José A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Rojas, Lino A. Valcárcel; França, Elvis Joacir de

    2017-01-01

    In northeastern Brazil, there are few studies about the metal pollution of surface soils and for the first time it will be studied heavy metals contamination in soils with different cover land. The State of Pernambuco is representative of the Brazilian Northeast region in relation to the variability of climatic conditions, soil types, cover and land use. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Pernambuco, Brazil. The analysis of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were performed using Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The 316 locations studied were specifically selected taking into account the different land use of soil. Analytical curves were obtained by means of the analysis of certified reference materials, for quantify the metals. The regression coefficients of the analytical curves were higher than 0.99. The quality of the analytical procedure was demonstrated at a 95% confidence level. The analysis of diverse geological samples from Pernambuco indicated higher concentrations of Ni and Zn in sugarcane, with maximum values of 41 mg kg -1 and 118 mg kg -1 , respectively and agricultural areas (41 mg kg -1 and 127 mg kg -1 , respectively). The trace element Sr was mainly enriched in urban soils with values of 400 mg kg -1 . According to the results, the EDXRF method was successfully implemented, providing some chemical tracers for the quality assessment of tropical soils and sediments. (author)

  14. EDXRF study of Tupiguarani archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Aragao, P.H.A.; Santos, A.O. dos; Silva, L.M. da; Barbieri, P.F.; Espinoza Quinones, F.R.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do

    2000-01-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The pottery fragments were accidentally discovered in the Santa Dalmacia farm in 1990, sited near Cambe city at the north of Parana Brazilian State. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The measurements were carried out at CENA. The experimental set up consisted of 238 Pu, 55 Fe and 109 Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm 2 , with a Be window ) and a multichannel analyzer. For detection of the elements within the ceramic paste, the fragments were irradiated at the center of the lateral section. While several superficial areas with remaining plastic decoration were also chosen and irradiated at the convex and concave sides of each fragment. X-ray spectra were analyzed at UEL using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content, and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. Other qualitative and quantitative results were obtained for each kind of ceramic fragment groups. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal

  15. EDXRF analysis of sculptures on polychrome wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Valter de Souza; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Freitas, Renato P.

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, the analysis of sacred sculptures, belonging to museums, churches and private collectors has gained an increasing interest. This kind of analysis can be extremely valuable to conservation and restoration treatments; it can also supply important information that makes possible to identify an artist, to date a sculpture and to identify forgeries. By means of techniques such as XRF, PIXE or XRD, is possible to identify the composition of materials employed in the manufacturing of the pieces, pigments used in the polychromy and also the presence of ancient or modern retouchings. However, the fact that every artwork is a unique piece emphasizes the necessity of working with non-destructive techniques. This work reports the analysis of two sacred images on polychrome wood - portraying Our Lady (XIX century) and Saint Anthony (XVIII century) - using EDXRF. The analyses were performed with a portable system, consisting of Amptek 123-SDD detector and Mini-X X-Ray tube, with W anode, operating at 30 kV and 40 μA. The analysis of the sculpture of Our Lady revealed the use of the following pigments: lead white, lithopone, vermilion, red ochre, umber and Prussian blue. The analysis of Saint Anthony revealed: lead white, vermilion, brown ochre, bone black and Prussian blue. In both sculptures the use of gold foils for gilding was proved by the presence of Au in the spectra. These results were used to assist the restoration procedures of the sculptures. (author)

  16. EDXRF analysis of Marajoara pubic covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Lima, Tania Andrade [Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: talima@montreal.com.br

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluated the elemental composition of decorated pottery pubic covers (tangas) from the Marajoara culture of Marajo Island (located at the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil). The tangas were used by Marajoara girls probably as part of puberty rites and were anatomically adjustable to the body, containing holes on its corners for string attachment. The samples included two tangas and four fragments from the National Museum collection. One fragment (sample 22245) presented a different design pattern that seemed to indicate a different provenance. EDXRF was performed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), using a Si(Li) detector from ORTEC with resolution of 180 eV at 5.9 keV and a mini x-ray tube with Mo anode. The angle of the incident x-ray beam was 16 deg and the detector was placed at 90 deg to the sample surface. The elements identified in the samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the provenance of the samples. (author)

  17. EDXRF analysis of sculptures on polychrome wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Valter de Souza; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, Renato P., E-mail: renato.freitas@ifrj.edu.br, E-mail: valter.felix@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Paracambi, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In the last years, the analysis of sacred sculptures, belonging to museums, churches and private collectors has gained an increasing interest. This kind of analysis can be extremely valuable to conservation and restoration treatments; it can also supply important information that makes possible to identify an artist, to date a sculpture and to identify forgeries. By means of techniques such as XRF, PIXE or XRD, is possible to identify the composition of materials employed in the manufacturing of the pieces, pigments used in the polychromy and also the presence of ancient or modern retouchings. However, the fact that every artwork is a unique piece emphasizes the necessity of working with non-destructive techniques. This work reports the analysis of two sacred images on polychrome wood - portraying Our Lady (XIX century) and Saint Anthony (XVIII century) - using EDXRF. The analyses were performed with a portable system, consisting of Amptek 123-SDD detector and Mini-X X-Ray tube, with W anode, operating at 30 kV and 40 μA. The analysis of the sculpture of Our Lady revealed the use of the following pigments: lead white, lithopone, vermilion, red ochre, umber and Prussian blue. The analysis of Saint Anthony revealed: lead white, vermilion, brown ochre, bone black and Prussian blue. In both sculptures the use of gold foils for gilding was proved by the presence of Au in the spectra. These results were used to assist the restoration procedures of the sculptures. (author)

  18. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Ellen Cristina Alves de; Aquino, Reginaldo R.; Scapin, Marcos A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet

  19. Evaluation of essential minerals in pumpkin seeds by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaro, Flavia Araujo; Zacari, Cristiane Z.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Aquino, Reginaldo R.

    2013-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds, marketed in the Municipal Market of Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed using the Energy Dispersive of X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF) seeking to evaluate the content of the main essential minerals present in these seeds, and their contribution to human nutrition

  20. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, E.; Araujo, M.F.; Silva, R.J.C.; Senna-Martinez, J.C.; Ines Vaz, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: → EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. → Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. → Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. → Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  1. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF; Avaliacao de minerais essenciais em feijao carioquinha por EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Ellen Cristina Alves de; Aquino, Reginaldo R. [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Scapin, Marcos A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet.

  2. Evaluation of essential minerals in pumpkin seeds by EDXRF; Avaliacao de minerais essenciais em sementes de abobora moranga por EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaro, Flavia Araujo; Zacari, Cristiane Z. [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Scapin, Marcos A.; Aquino, Reginaldo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP(Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Pumpkin seeds, marketed in the Municipal Market of Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed using the Energy Dispersive of X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF) seeking to evaluate the content of the main essential minerals present in these seeds, and their contribution to human nutrition.

  3. Mis on Roheline Energia? / Kadi Laid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laid, Kadi, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Tuule- ja vee-energia kasutamisest Rohelise Energia osalussüsteemiga liitunud kuues Hiiumaa ettevõttes ning Kärdla linnavalitsuses. Kommenteerivad Toomas Jõõts, Ari Hannula ja Ants Vahtras. Lisa: Rohelise energia ostjad Hiiumaal praegu

  4. Projeto de pesquisa Energia Nuclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Barbosa Fiori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Esse  projeto tem como intuito mostrar como pode se útil a utilização da energia nuclear para o abastecimento elétrico de uma escola. Mostrando que a energia nuclear é sim uma fonte viável de produção de energia “[...] meio quilo de urânio, do tamanho da ponta do meu dedo se você conseguir liberar toda a energia equivale a 5.000 barris de petróleo”.

  5. [Raman and EDXRF Study on Overglaze Decorations of Jingdezhen Ceramics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Zhang, Mao-lin; Wu, Jun-ming; Li, Qi-jiang; Cao, Jian-wen; Li, Qing-hui; Zhao, Hong-xia

    2015-05-01

    Overglaze decoration porcelain is an important category of ancient Chinese ceramics, which has significant artistic value and scientific value. Nondestructive analysis methods such as Raman spectroscopy and EDXRF were used to analyze the overglaze decorations on the Jingdezhen ceramic samples of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty. The recipe and color mechanism of the overglaze pigments were discussed according to the chemical composition and phase composition analysis. The study found that dark red overglaze decorations of ancient Honglvcai, Wucai and famille rose in Jingdezhen are colored by hematite, yellow color is lead tin yellow, carmine decoration is colored by gold less than 0. 1 % in concentration, and green decorations are colored by bivalent copper ion. The result also indicates that the effective combination of Raman spectroscopy and EDXRF can play an important role in the deep research on ceramic artifacts, especially for the overglaze decoration pigments which are interveined each other.

  6. Development of EDXRF methods for the characterization of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Godbole, S.V.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) is a well established analytical technique for the determination of major and minor constituents of archaeological, geological, biological, environmental and industrial samples. The main advantages of this technique are its simultaneous multi-element capability, ease of sample preparation, low cost and large sample throughput with required precision. While Wavelength Dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques (WDXRF) are being used regularly for determining the content of U and Pu in nuclear fuel materials, EDXRF technique has not been exploited to its full potential in the nuclear industry. This technique can be gainfully employed for the routine determination of major elements like U, Th and Pu in their mixed oxides and carbides

  7. EDXRF analysis of some samples of cigarette paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigue, J.; Martinez, T.; Avila-Perez, P.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of tobacco on human health have been widely investigated and documented. However, there are not too many specific reports on the potential risk associated to the presence of metals in the paper employed for cigarettes fabrication. Even more, there is a lack of national and international norms in this respect. Otherwise, in the literature INAA appears as the unique method for wrapping paper analysis. Therefore, without a nuclear reactor available at the National University of Mexico (UNAM), EDXRF was selected with the aim to explore the possibility to apply this method, instead of INAA, to the analysis of wrapping paper assuming this task, at the beginning, as a supplement to a previous research which was recently presented (2005). The analytical work was developed on the wrapping paper of eight of the most known marks of cigarettes in Mexico, in two non-destructive stages: a first survey, by the classical technique of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), used a 1.11 GBq radiation source of 238 Pu and a SiLi detector. In the absence of standard reference materials for cigarette's paper, the SRM-1832 and 1833 were required for calibration; a fiberglass air filter was used as a secondary standard. The second stage was performed in a spectrometer TX-2000, anode of Mo, quantification software EDXRF32 (fundamental parameters). This paper presents a comparison of the obtained values with those found in the literature. The results show that the EDXRF method, in the Mo tube version, has the adequate precision and detection limits for the analysis of wrapping paper. (author)

  8. EDXRF Analysis of pigments of the Joaquin Sorolla Artistic Paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Jose L.; Roldan Clodoaldo, David; Mario Alvarez, Juanes

    1999-01-01

    The study of the pictorial work of Joaquin Sorolla has not been carried out from the point of view of the scientific analysis. Analytical techniques give us objective information about materials and process used in artistic works of art. In this sense, the Archaeometry Unit of the Institute of Material Science of the Valencia University (ICMUV), has carried out the first analysis of pigments of the paintings of Sorolla by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence(EDXRF)

  9. Chemical characterization of terrestrial gastropods of Brazilian mangroves by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mélo, Julyanne T.B.; Pereira Neto, Alberto; França, Elvis J. de; Silva, Bruno F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    In environmental studies, the application of multielement analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence by Energy Dispersion - EDXRF is interesting due to the rapidity in the analysis and preservation of the sample. In the work, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and Zn were quantified in gastropods of the species Littoraria anguliferae Melampus coffea of mangroves located in tourist regions of Itamaracá, Pernambuco, and Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by EDXRF at a pressure lower than 30 Pa, detection time of 840 seconds in a Shimadzu EDX-720 model spectrometer. To guarantee the quality of the analytical procedure, reference materials SRM 2976 - Musseltissue and SRM 1547 - Peachleaves were analyzed. In both locations, the mass fractions of Mg and P were similar for L. anguliferae. For Zn, the average mass fraction of more than 3,000 mg kg -1 of the Barra de Guaratiba animals was considerably higher than that obtained in the Itamaracá mangrove. The M. coffea species also presented a considerably higher accumulation of Zn (approximately 4500 mg kg -1 ) when compared to the mass fraction obtained in the Pernambuco mangrove. For Sr, there was a higher concentration in the Itamaracá mangrove (400mg kg -1 for L. anguliferae 180 mg kg -1 for M. coffea) compared to that obtained in Barra de Guaratiba. The analytical technique of EDXRF was successfully employed for the evaluation of both molluscan species as biomonitoring of the environmental quality of mangroves

  10. Eesti Energia unustas Toomas Lumani andmed / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia jurist Heili Raudkivi palus rahandusministeeriumilt infot, mis tähtajaks on rahandusminister nimetanud Eesti Energia nõukogu liikmeks Toomas Lumani. Eesti Energia pressiesindaja selgitus

  11. Uusiutuva energia sijoituskohteena

    OpenAIRE

    Silvennoinen, Kiti; Vihonen, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Globaalit tavoitteet ilmastonmuutoksen hillitsemiseksi ovat johtaneet energiamarkkinoiden muutokseen. Perinteisten kivihiilen ja öljyn rinnalle on kehitetty erilaisia uusiutuvia energia-muotoja, joiden tuottaminen aiheuttaa vähemmän ympäristölle haitallisia päästöjä. Kansainväliset sopimukset ja säädökset tukevat energiantuotannon siirtymistä uusituvilla energialähteillä tuotettuun energiaan. Suomi on osaltaan sitoutunut näihin kansainvälisiin sopimuksiin ja lisäksi asettanut itselleen tavoit...

  12. Determination of antimony in antimony oxide by EDXRF and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, M.; Swain, K.K.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed to use 124 Sb - 9 Be neutron source for starting Proto Type Fast Breeder Reactor, IGCAR, Kalpakkam. 124 Sb (γ-ray energy = 1.69 MeV; t 1/2 = 60 d) is obtained by irradiating antimony oxide and as per specification, antimony content in the oxide should be ≥ 83.0 % i.e antimony should be in the form of trioxide. Although gravimetry is the most precise and accurate method for % level analysis, it is tedious and time consuming. In this work, the study reported the determination of antimony by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and validation of the result by neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. Antimony oxide encapsulated in stainless steel tube (internal diameter = 0.5 mm) was received from BHAVINI, Kalpakkam. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement indicated that the sample was antimony trioxide. For EDXRF analysis, calibration standards were prepared by mixing spectroscopic grade antimony trioxide with microcrystalline cellulose (2.5 to 20 mg g -1 of antimony) and pellets were made by using hydraulic press. Sample pellets were also prepared by mixing with microcrystalline cellulose. EDXRF measurement was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M spectrometer with a Rhodium X-ray source. Characteristic K α X-ray of Sb (26.35 keV) was used for quantification. A typical XRF spectrum of the sample is shown after XRF analysis, sample and standard pellets were sealed in clean polyethylene bags and were irradiated in AHWR critical facility reactor, BARC for 4 h. Gamma ray measurement of irradiated samples were carried out using HPGe detector and 564.2 keV gamma ray of 122 Sb was used for quantification

  13. Water analysis in Londrina, PR, using a portable EDXRF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiades, Fabio L.; Silva, Wislley D.; Parreira, Paulo S.; Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) for analysis of environmental samples has gained expressive attention in the last years. With the objective of identification and quantification of heavy metals in water, EDXRF methodology with portable equipment was employed. The work consisted on the use of a portable EDXRF system constituted by a X-ray tube to excite the samples, a Si-Pin detector, a holder for the excitation-detection system and samples positioning, with the standard data acquisition electronics to register the spectra. The samples were filtered in ester cellulose membranes for suspended particulate matter retention. After this, Ammonium Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (APDC) precipitation methodology was applied for sample preconcentration with posterior filtering in membranes. So, the dissolved and non dissolved metal fractions were determined separately. The detection limits were, in mg L -1 : 0.006 (Fe), 0.015 (Co), 0.004 (Cu), 0.002 (Zn), 0.004 (Se) and 0.005 (Pb), with 5% deviations for 95% of confidence. Considering all the sampling locations, it was possible to quantify the following range of concentrations, in mg L -1 : Ca (0.043 - 0.021), Ti (0.137 - 0.014), Mn (0.052 - 0.008), Fe (1.66 - 0.035), Ni (0.012 - 0.010), Cu (0.010 - 0.007), Zn (0.070 - 0.007) and Pb (0.85 - 1.01). The results presented relative deviation from 5% to 22%, within 95% of confidence level, which is considered very satisfactory when using portable equipment. In 4 h of field work it was possible to filter 14 membranes and measure around 16 samples. (author)

  14. Assessment of elemental contamination in road dust using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saradhi, I.V.; Sandeep, P.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Road dust samples were collected in different locations of heavy traffic, medium traffic, express way and industrial areas of Mumbai. The concentrations of various elements (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) in road dust samples were analyzed using EDXRF. The average elemental profile of road dust in Mumbai was comparable with studies carried out in other countries with slight variations. The estimated geo accumulation indices and enrichment factors indicated moderate elemental contamination and enrichment of anthropogenic elements in road dust samples. Factor analysis of elemental data resolved four sources namely crustal, tyre wear, vehicular/industrial emissions and break wear. (author)

  15. Study on blue and white porcelain by EDXRF method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jianmin; Yu, P.K.N.; Li, M.T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The EDXRF method was used to find the concentration of component elements in blue and white porcelain. It was found that some elements in colorant were diffused towards glaze layer when the porcelain had been fired at high temperature. Through the half-value thickness calculation, the contribution of some elements from the porcelain's body to the measured intensity was also confirmed. The experiment also indicated that the contents of various elements in the glaze layer of non-decorated portions were definite in spite of the measuring sites, while those of some elements in decorated portions were dependent on positions

  16. Determination of incident angle in radioisotope-excited EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, A.; Pazsit, A. (Lajos Kossuth Univ., Debrecen (Hungary). Isotope Lab.)

    Three different methods were used for the determination of the effective incident angle related to EDXRF when radioisotope annular sources are involved: weighted averaging, Compton peak method and minimization of the difference between the certificated and measured concentrations of six international standard samples. By measuring the Compton peak energies of various analytical reagent grade elements and compounds, it was found that the incoherent peak energy depends on the mean atomic number of the matrix, so the effective incident angle is also matrix dependent. (Author).

  17. Determination of incident angle in radioisotope-excited EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A.; Pazsit, A.

    1993-01-01

    Three different methods were used for the determination of the effective incident angle related to EDXRF when radioisotope annular sources are involved: weighted averaging, Compton peak method and minimization of the difference between the certificated and measured concentrations of six international standard samples. By measuring the Compton peak energies of various analytical reagent grade elements and compounds, it was found that the incoherent peak energy depends on the mean atomic number of the matrix, so the effective incident angle is also matrix dependent. (Author)

  18. Eesti Energia esindused = Eesti Energia branches / Andres Labi, Janno Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Labi, Andres, 1977-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Energia klienditeeninduse kontorite sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi ja Liisa Põime (Ruumilabor). Visuaalne identiteet: Tank.Teenuste disain: Urmas Pastarus. ESLi aastapreemiate žürii esimehe Kaido Kivi ning žürii liikme Raivo Puusepa arvamused

  19. Applications of non-cryogenic portable EDXRF systems in archaeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.; Castellano, A.; Dabrowski, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the most relevant developments in the realisation of portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) equipments are discussed. In particular, the latest advances in non-cryogenic (Peltier cooled) X-ray detectors and miniaturised X-ray generators are shown. The energy resolution of the new detection systems is adequate to resolve the characteristic X-ray emission lines of contiguous elements. This small size and low power make the system ideal for portable instrumentation and have stimulated the development of small- and low-power X-ray generators which can be used for the excitation of fluorescence radiation in a broad energy range (5-40 keV). Finally, the use of EDXRF related to archaeometric research (pigments in ancient paintings and major elements in the metal alloys) is emphasised. Recent results obtained with new HgI 2 and silicon PIN detector systems combined with miniaturised highly stable air-cooled X-ray generators are described. (orig.)

  20. Portable EDXRF investigation of the patinas on the Riace Bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccolieri, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.buccolieri@unisalento.it [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Buccolieri, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.buccolieri@unisalento.it [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Donati, Paola, E-mail: paola.donati@beniculturali.it [Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro, via di San Michele n. 23, 00153 Roma (Italy); Marabelli, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.marabelli@libero.it [Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro, via di San Michele n. 23, 00153 Roma (Italy); Castellano, Alfredo, E-mail: alfredo.castellano@unisalento.it [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    This paper summarizes the experimental results concerning the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis of patinas on two Riace Bronzes, kept in the National Archaeological Museum of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, Southern Italy). The two large Greek sculptures, famous nude bearded warriors both dated in the fifth century BC, are without a doubt, two masterpieces of inestimable historic and artistic value. EDXRF survey had the aim to determinate the chemical composition of the surface of these two bronze statues and to discriminate their different patinas. In particular, the concentration of sulphur, chlorine, tin, manganese, iron, copper, zinc and lead was determined by using a portable apparatus. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out in order to identify possible correlations and/or differences of elemental composition among the patinas of these two statues. The information obtained made it possible to improve knowledge about the patinas of the Riace Bronzes, and this may help further studies and subsequent methods of restoration and/or of preservation of the two celebrated Greek sculptures.

  1. Compositional characterization of sintered (U,Th)O2 pellets by EDXRF using fused bead specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjay Kumar, S.; Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Fused bead specimens were used for analyzing sintered (U,Th)O 2 pellets by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The bead specimens of calibration mixtures U 3 O 8 and ThO 2 were made by fusing them in Lithium Tetraborate/Metaborate fusion mixtures using a fusion bead machine. The EDXRF spectra of these beads were used for making calibration plot for U% determination in (U+Th) amounts. Using these calibration plots and EDXRF spectra of bead of sintered (U,Th)O 2 pellets, U% in these pellets was successfully determined. (author)

  2. EDXRF as an analytical tool in art. Case studies from pigment identification and treatment assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.

    2004-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was employed for the identification of pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, and the assessment of the efficiency of a treatment with barium hydroxide applied to stone. Elements present in the colored areas of the figurines, as well as the treated stone was identified by EDXRF. These data together with complementary information obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) led to the identification of several precious pigments. As far as the treatment efficiency is concerned, EDXRF analysis revealed that barium is unevenly distributed on the treated surface and reaches a maximum depth of 2.5 mm. (author)

  3. Qualitative soil mineral analysis by EDXRF, XRD and AAS probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Virendra; Agrawal, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil minerals study is vital in terms of investigating the major soil forming compounds and to find out the fate of minor and trace elements, essential for the soil–plant interaction purpose. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been a popular technique to search out the phases for different types of samples. For the soil samples, however, employing XRD is not so straightforward due to many practical problems. In the current approach, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to have an idea of the minerals present, in qualitative manner, in the soil under study. PCA was used on the elemental concentrations data of 17 elements, determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. XRD analysis of soil samples has been done also to identify the minerals of major elements. Some prior treatments, like removal of silica by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) slurry and grinding with alcohol, were given to samples to overcome the peak overlapping problems and to attain fine particle size which is important to minimize micro-absorption corrections, to give reproducible peak intensities and to minimize preferred orientation. A 2θ step of 0.05°/min and a longer dwell time than normal were used to reduce interferences from background noise and to increase the counting statistics. Finally, the sequential extraction procedure for metal speciation study has been applied on soil samples. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to find the concentrations of metal fractions bound to various forms. Applying all the three probes, the minerals in the soils can be studied and identified, successfully. - Highlights: ► Qualitative soil minerals analysis by EDXRF, AAS and XRD methods. ► There is a requirement of other means and methods due to inadequacy of XRD. ► Principal component analysis (PCA) provides an idea of minerals present in soil. ► Trace elements complexes can be determined by AAS probe. ► EDXRF, AAS and XRD, in combination, enable

  4. EDXRF and TXRF determination of gallium in gallium-uranium matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, N.L.; Sanjay Kumar, S.; Dhara, Sangita; Aggarwal, S.K.; Venugopal, V.

    2009-01-01

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) methods for determination of Gallium in Gallium-Uranium matrix have been developed. For EDXRF determinations, 200 μL of standards/samples mixed with internal standard copper were dispersed on 30 mm diameter absorbent sheet so that it behaves like a thin film of the sample. The Gallium amounts in samples were determined from their EDXRF spectra using a calibration plot. For TXRF determinations, samples were taken on flat polished quartz sample supports and Gallium was determined in conventional way. For EDXRF and TXRF determinations, the average precision and accuracy obtained for Ga determinations was better than 3% (1σ). (author)

  5. Determination of Ga in aqueous uranium solution by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Purohit, P.J.; Goyal, Neelam; Seshagiri, T.K.; Godbole, S.V.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    A method has been developed using EDXRF technique for the determination of gallium in aqueous solution using a set of solution standards in the concentration range 20-5000 μg/ml. When this method was applied to U containing solutions, the estimated values were found to be lower due to matrix effects. Hence the method was modified in order to determine gallium in the presence of uranium using lower tube current and another set of standards with U concentration at 100 mg/ml. The method was applicable for the estimation of Ga from 50 μg/ml to 5mg/ml (i.e.0.05-5% Ga in U). Three synthetic samples were analysed by the present methods in order to evaluate the method for its reliability and reproducibility. (author)

  6. Determination of gold coating thickness measurement by using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaian; Masliana Muslimin; Fadlullah Jili Fursani

    2005-01-01

    The paper relates a study on the development of an analysis procedure for measuring the gold coating thickness using EDXRF technique. Gold coating thickness was measured by relating the counts under the Au L? peak its thickness value. In order to get a reasonably accurate result, a calibration graph was plotted using five gold-coated reference standards of different thickness. The calibration graph shows a straight line for thin coating measurement until 0.9 μm. Beyond this the relationship was not linear and this may be resulted from the self-absorption effect. Quantitative analysis was also performed on two different samples of gold coated jewelry and a phone connector. Result from the phone connector analysis seems to agree with the manufacturer gold coating value. From the analysis of gold-coated jewelry it had been able to differentiate the two articles as gold wash and gold electroplated. (Author)

  7. Finding Similarities in Ancient Ceramics by EDXRF and Multivariate Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civici, N.; Stamati, F.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied 39 samples of fragments from ceramic roof tiles with different stamps(Diamalas and Heraion), dated between 330 to 170 BC and found at the archaeological site of Dimales, some 30 km from the Adriatic coast. The data from these samples were compared with those obtained from 7 samples of similar objects and period with the stamp H eraion , found at the archaeological site of APOLLONIA. The samples were analyzed by energy-dispersive X -ray fluorescence(EDXRF), using of the x-ray lines of the elements to the intensity of the Compton peak. The results have been treated with diverse multivariate methods. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis and factor analysis permitted the identification of two main clusters. The first cluster is composed from the ''Heraion'' samples discovered in Apollonia, while the second comprises all the samples discovered in Dimale independent of their stamp. (authors)

  8. EDXRF study of Tupi-Guarani archaeological ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoloni, C. R.; Espinoza Quiñones, F. R.; Aragão, P. H. A.; dos Santos, A. O.; da Silva, L. M.; Barbieri, P. F.; do Nascimento Filho, V. F.; Coimbra, M. M.

    2001-06-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get qualitative information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The experimental set-up consisted of 238Pu, 55Fe and 109Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm 2, with a Be window) and a multichannel analyzer. X-ray spectra were analyzed using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal representation method points that the same materials were employed in the pottery production, and the pigments in the plastic decoration were obtained from different inorganic materials.

  9. EDXRF study of Tupi-Guarani archaeological ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, C.R. E-mail: appoloni@uel.br; Espinoza Quinones, F.R.; Aragao, P.H.A.; Santos, A.O. dos; Silva, L.M. da; Barbieri, P.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Coimbra, M.M

    2001-06-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get qualitative information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The experimental set-up consisted of 238Pu, 55Fe and 109Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm{sup 2}, with a Be window) and a multichannel analyzer. X-ray spectra were analyzed using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal representation method points that the same materials were employed in the pottery production, and the pigments in the plastic decoration were obtained from different inorganic materials.

  10. EDXRF study of Tupi-Guarani archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Espinoza Quinones, F.R.; Aragao, P.H.A.; Santos, A.O. dos; Silva, L.M. da; Barbieri, P.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Coimbra, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get qualitative information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The experimental set-up consisted of 238Pu, 55Fe and 109Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm 2 , with a Be window) and a multichannel analyzer. X-ray spectra were analyzed using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal representation method points that the same materials were employed in the pottery production, and the pigments in the plastic decoration were obtained from different inorganic materials

  11. Micro-EDXRF surface analyses of a bronze spear head: Lead content in metal and corrosion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, E.; Valerio, P.; Araujo, M.F.; Senna-Martinez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    A bronze spear head from Central Portugal dated to Late Bronze Age has been analyzed by non-destructive micro-EDXRF in the metal surface and corrosion layers. The artifact had previously been analyzed using a conventional EDXRF spectrometer having a larger incident beam. The quantification of the micro-EDXRF analyses showed that lead content in corrosion layers can reach values up to four times higher than the content determined in the metal surface. Results obtained with the higher energy incident beam from the EDXRF equipment, although referring mainly to the corrosion layers, seem to suffer some influence from the surface composition of the metallic alloy

  12. The suitability of EDXRF for compositional classification of archaeological pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla Alvarez, Roman

    2007-01-01

    Many investigations have been carried out trying to enlarge the information that can be gathered through the chemical analysis of archaeological findings. Chemical composition data sets, properly interpreted with multivariate analysis techniques, have been used extensively to supplement investigations involving provenance studies or more complex socio-economic aspects of the past communities. Correct inferences from the gathered compositional data are only possible if well documented background information about the studied samples is available, such as a correct interpretation of the archaeological contexts, knowledge about the nature of the used raw materials or procurement sources (geology of the territories), among others. The combined use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) has been widely applied to the classification of archaeological pottery. However the need to remove at least a minimal part (invasion) of the sample and the time delay required for radioisotope decay and the high costs involved in INAA often restrict its use. Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) is advantageous to perform a completely non-destructive analysis in a relatively fast way, but several problems have restricted its wider use in the past. The highly matrix-dependent attenuation of x-rays in the analysed sample hampers the use of the standard-less quantification procedures as an alternative when suitable certified reference materials are not at hand, and the relatively limited instrumental sensitivity of the conventional spectrometers has not allowed the determination of some trace elements that are relevant for compositional differentiation and provided a comparatively higher uncertainties. This contribution presents the results of several investigations aimed to achieving classification of archaeological pottery using reliable quantitative EDXRF procedures. The main factors affecting the

  13. Lahtimuukimata tume energia / Dennis Overbye

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Overbye, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Salapärase tumeda energia avastamisest on möödas kümme aastat, ent teadmatus, millega on tegu ja kuidas seda üldse teada võiks saada, ajab teadlased endiselt meeleheitele. Lisaks joonis: Laiali kihutavad galaktikad

  14. Eesti Energia tahab elektrit toota Pihkvas / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia ja Venemaa ettevõte RAO Rossija võivad koos rajada Pihkvasse ühise gaasielektrijaama. Eesti Energia juhatuse liikme Lembit Vali kommentaare. Lisa: Fortum ja Eesti Energia otsivad koostöövõimalusi

  15. Eesti Energia gets lower than hoped for price hike

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Konkurentsiamet ja Eesti Energia leppisid kokku elektritariifi tõusu põhimõtetes. Elektri hinna tõus on kolm korda väiksem kui Eesti Energia lootis. Eesti Energia on huvitatud tuumaelektrijaamast

  16. Preliminary results of standard quantitative analysis by ED-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Alessandro L. de; Franca, Alana C.; Neto, Manoel R.M.; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: alellara@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A comparison between the results of elemental concentration proposed by XRS-FP software , using data obtained by EDXRF technique with those obtained by stoichiometric calculation was performed. For this purpose, five standard samples of known compounds were produced: two lead- oxide, magnesium chloride and iodine in controlled amounts. The compounds were subsequently mixed and compressed to form tablets. The samples were irradiated in three endpoints, according to an orientation. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory for Radiological UTFPR using X-123SDD the Amptek detector and X-ray tube with silver target from the same manufacturer. The operating conditions tube were 05μA current to a 40 kV voltage. Finally, the 15 spectra analyzed with the software to determine the concentration of chlorine, iodine and lead. Data from this analysis were compared with results expected in stoichiometric calculations. The data provided by the program, a convergence of results, indicating homogeneity of the samples was found. Compared to the stoichiometric calculation, a considerable discrepancy that may be the result of a misconfiguration or contamination of the sample was found. At the end, we created a proposal for continuation of the work using an auxiliary calculation should be developed in the next step.

  17. EDXRF study of Tupi-guarani archaeological ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Fernando R. Espinoza [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Exatas; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Aragao, Pedro H.; Santos, Adenilson O. dos; Silva, Luzeli M.; Barbieri, Paulo F.; Coimbra, Melayne M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Fisica e Meteorologia]|[Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    A set of indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by an archaeometric non-destructive technique. The pottery fragments were accidentally discovered in the Santa Dalmacia farm, sited near Cambe city at the north of Parana brazilian state. Each one of these fragments came from different ceramic recipients and their physical characteristics are very similar. The EDXRF measurements were performed employing both an X-ray tube and three radioisotope sources (Fe, Cd and Pu). The compositional data of the ceramics paste and pigments is investigated. For detection of the elements within the ceramic paste, the fragments were irradiated at the center of the lateral section. While several superficial areas with remaining plastic decoration were also chosen and irradiated at the convex and concave sides of each fragment. A paste-subtracted compositional data of the remaining pigments was statically extracted from the XRF analysis of each area. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. (author)

  18. EDXRF study of Tupi-guarani archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones, Fernando R. Espinoza

    2000-01-01

    A set of indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by an archaeometric non-destructive technique. The pottery fragments were accidentally discovered in the Santa Dalmacia farm, sited near Cambe city at the north of Parana brazilian state. Each one of these fragments came from different ceramic recipients and their physical characteristics are very similar. The EDXRF measurements were performed employing both an X-ray tube and three radioisotope sources (Fe, Cd and Pu). The compositional data of the ceramics paste and pigments is investigated. For detection of the elements within the ceramic paste, the fragments were irradiated at the center of the lateral section. While several superficial areas with remaining plastic decoration were also chosen and irradiated at the convex and concave sides of each fragment. A paste-subtracted compositional data of the remaining pigments was statically extracted from the XRF analysis of each area. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. (author)

  19. Tracers discrimination of sediment provenience in rural catchment through EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Thomaz, Edivaldo L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geografia

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Sediment dynamics understanding in a drainage system is fundamental for soil and water conservation at hydro graphic basins. This work aim was to discriminate sediment provenance tracers in rural basin. Sediment samples from different points in the headwater (road, forest, riverbank, river sediment deposit) were collected. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was the analytical technique applied, which was efficient to detect the chemical composition of the sediments. The samples were dried for 48h at 50 deg C, ground and sieved for granulometry 1mm. In natura samples (3 g) were placed in cells covered with mylar film for irradiation. Titanium, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Y and Zr were identified. It was concluded that the elements, when analyzed individually or paired, do not allow a clear environment distinction except for yttrium (Y) that indicates distinct characteristics between the riverbank materials related to the other environments. However, the cluster analysis provided discrimination between the different sources of sediment. Also, it was verified that the recent deposited sediment in the river channel displays greater similarity with the materials of the road than with the riverbank. It is probable that the roads has been the mainly sediment source in the studied headwater. The methodology is innovative for tracer determination in soil and erosion quantification. (author)

  20. Tracers discrimination of sediment provenience in rural catchment through EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiades, Fabio L.; Thomaz, Edivaldo L.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Sediment dynamics understanding in a drainage system is fundamental for soil and water conservation at hydro graphic basins. This work aim was to discriminate sediment provenance tracers in rural basin. Sediment samples from different points in the headwater (road, forest, riverbank, river sediment deposit) were collected. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was the analytical technique applied, which was efficient to detect the chemical composition of the sediments. The samples were dried for 48h at 50 deg C, ground and sieved for granulometry 1mm. In natura samples (3 g) were placed in cells covered with mylar film for irradiation. Titanium, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Y and Zr were identified. It was concluded that the elements, when analyzed individually or paired, do not allow a clear environment distinction except for yttrium (Y) that indicates distinct characteristics between the riverbank materials related to the other environments. However, the cluster analysis provided discrimination between the different sources of sediment. Also, it was verified that the recent deposited sediment in the river channel displays greater similarity with the materials of the road than with the riverbank. It is probable that the roads has been the mainly sediment source in the studied headwater. The methodology is innovative for tracer determination in soil and erosion quantification. (author)

  1. Preliminary results of standard quantitative analysis by ED-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Alessandro L. de; Franca, Alana C.; Neto, Manoel R.M.; Paschuk, Sergei A.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison between the results of elemental concentration proposed by XRS-FP software , using data obtained by EDXRF technique with those obtained by stoichiometric calculation was performed. For this purpose, five standard samples of known compounds were produced: two lead- oxide, magnesium chloride and iodine in controlled amounts. The compounds were subsequently mixed and compressed to form tablets. The samples were irradiated in three endpoints, according to an orientation. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory for Radiological UTFPR using X-123SDD the Amptek detector and X-ray tube with silver target from the same manufacturer. The operating conditions tube were 05μA current to a 40 kV voltage. Finally, the 15 spectra analyzed with the software to determine the concentration of chlorine, iodine and lead. Data from this analysis were compared with results expected in stoichiometric calculations. The data provided by the program, a convergence of results, indicating homogeneity of the samples was found. Compared to the stoichiometric calculation, a considerable discrepancy that may be the result of a misconfiguration or contamination of the sample was found. At the end, we created a proposal for continuation of the work using an auxiliary calculation should be developed in the next step

  2. Locating the origins of blue and white porcelains using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Miao, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Among the main sites of production of ancient Chinese blue and white porcelains can be included Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Province, the Yuxi and Jianshui Kilns of Yunnan Province and the Pinghe Kiln of Fujian Province. The current work focuses on an elemental characterization of ancient porcelains according to the location of manufacture, also incorporating a similar study of the blue and white porcelains of the Qing dynasty from Wun Yiu in Hong Kong, and modern blue and white porcelains from Germany, Japan and Thailand. Non-destructive analysis of samples of porcelain using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has yielded results in terms of 13 chemical elements, namely, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr. Principal component analysis has been performed on the data, allowing representation of the first, second and third principal components of the data in 3 D scatter plots; the results reveal data clusterings which correlate to a high degree with the known sites of origin. The conclusion is that the present method is capable of determining differences in elemental concentrations of blue and white porcelains, and that these differences can be used to locate the originating site of manufacture. (Author)

  3. Locating the origins of blue and white porcelains using EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N. [City Univ., Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Physics and Materials Science; Miao, J.M. [Palace Museum, Beijing (China). Dept. of Science and Technology

    1997-07-30

    Among the main sites of production of ancient Chinese blue and white porcelains can be included Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Province, the Yuxi and Jianshui Kilns of Yunnan Province and the Pinghe Kiln of Fujian Province. The current work focuses on an elemental characterization of ancient porcelains according to the location of manufacture, also incorporating a similar study of the blue and white porcelains of the Qing dynasty from Wun Yiu in Hong Kong, and modern blue and white porcelains from Germany, Japan and Thailand. Non-destructive analysis of samples of porcelain using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has yielded results in terms of 13 chemical elements, namely, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr. Principal component analysis has been performed on the data, allowing representation of the first, second and third principal components of the data in 3 D scatter plots; the results reveal data clusterings which correlate to a high degree with the known sites of origin. The conclusion is that the present method is capable of determining differences in elemental concentrations of blue and white porcelains, and that these differences can be used to locate the originating site of manufacture. (Author).

  4. Comparison between EDXRF and FAAS for Zn determination in terrestrial molluscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Julyanne T.B.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Santos, Katarine M.B.; Franca, Elvis J.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Even with the most advanced analytical techniques, achieving the true values of a given analyte in a sample cannot be an easy task. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) have been widely used for analysis of the chemical composition of biological matrices in environmental studies. However, depending on the sample matrix, a combination of techniques could be needed for the correct determination of the analyte. Zinc distribution in Littoraria angulifera and Melampus coffea is quite dependent on the environment, so that, diverse methods could be necessary to evaluate the chemical composition of these mollusks. This study aimed at the comparison between EDXRF and FAAS techniques for determining Zn in the soft tissues of terrestrial mollusks. The animals were collected in three mangroves in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. After shell removal, tissues were lyophilized and milled in a mortar. Test portions of 500 mg were analyzed by EDXRF, followed by chemical treatment for FAAS analysis. For the quality of the analytical procedure, the standard reference material SRM 2976 Mussel Tissue was analyzed together with the samples. The results for the analysis of the certified reference material SRM 2976 indicated the quality of the analytical procedure for both techniques. Adjusted-R 2 between EDXRF and FAAS results was 0.95, indicating a good equivalence of Zn determination by both techniques. However, some improvement of EDXRF determination could be necessary because of the tendency of lower results compared to FAAS, probably related to spectral interferences during the analysis. (author)

  5. Energy education; Pedagogia da energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Rafael Ninno, e-mail: rafaelninno@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    'Pedagogia da Energia' (energy education) is a qualification course that has as intention to unite ambient education with renewable energies through the art-education and of the long-distance education. Collective made up of theoretical and practical activities through group dynamic and works, with intention to integrate and to enable the participants as a whole, aiming to form potentials to agreement and diffusion of energy concepts of the subjects environment - energy - residues. It possess the structure of an actual course with support of long-distance education with a platform of available web education in the Internet, where the participants have access the all content used in the course (texts, presentations and figures), virtual library, colloquy room, thematic list of quarrel and forum, beyond guardianship accompaniment. A structure constructed in classroom for the participants uses as pedagogical tool titled 'Mandala das Energias' where the concepts studied are worked in. The politics characteristics presented are, ambient and social of the use of the power plants and its implications in the daily one of the humanity. It understands the education as a reciprocal process, that understands the intention to teach and to learn in a set of exchanges of necessary information to the curious nature of the human beings. This article explains the structure and methodology of functioning of the course with a summary of the worked chapters. It also presents the pedagogical tool 'Mandala das Energias' and its respective flowchart of energies that originated it in annex at the end of the text. (author)

  6. EDXRF analysis of books from 18 and 19 centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcelo O., E-mail: marcelocefetrj@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET), Nova Iguacu, RJ (Brazil); Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, Renato P., E-mail: renato.freitas@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Paracambi, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the analysis of the elemental composition of paper employed in books from 18 and 19 centuries and also the characterization of pigments used to decorate its edges by means of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The measurements were carried out with a portable system developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), consisting of an Oxford TF3005 X-ray tube (with W anode) and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. The angle between the X-ray tube and the detector window is 60°, the source-sample and the detector-sample distances are 4 cm. Several spectra were obtained, working at 25 kV and 100 μA, with an acquisition time of 300 seconds and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The results identified the elemental composition of the paper used in the books and the use of the following pigments to decorate its edges: chromium yellow (PbCrO4), barium yellow (BaCrO{sub 4}), chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or viridian (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O), vermilion (HgS) and Prussian blue (Fe{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}.14-16H{sub 2}O). These results revealed the presence of highly toxic elements/compounds - like lead, mercury and chromates - which were used in the manufacture of ancient pigments. This fact evidences that restorers, conservators and researchers who work directly with these kind of compounds need to take adequate safety measures and use personal protective equipment. (author)

  7. EDXRF analysis of books from 18 and 19 centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Freitas, Renato P.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the analysis of the elemental composition of paper employed in books from 18 and 19 centuries and also the characterization of pigments used to decorate its edges by means of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The measurements were carried out with a portable system developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), consisting of an Oxford TF3005 X-ray tube (with W anode) and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. The angle between the X-ray tube and the detector window is 60°, the source-sample and the detector-sample distances are 4 cm. Several spectra were obtained, working at 25 kV and 100 μA, with an acquisition time of 300 seconds and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The results identified the elemental composition of the paper used in the books and the use of the following pigments to decorate its edges: chromium yellow (PbCrO4), barium yellow (BaCrO 4 ), chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) or viridian (Cr 2 O 3 .H 2 O), vermilion (HgS) and Prussian blue (Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 .14-16H 2 O). These results revealed the presence of highly toxic elements/compounds - like lead, mercury and chromates - which were used in the manufacture of ancient pigments. This fact evidences that restorers, conservators and researchers who work directly with these kind of compounds need to take adequate safety measures and use personal protective equipment. (author)

  8. Identification of unknown sample using NAA, EDXRF, XRD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvi, Aditi A.; Swain, K.K.; Chavan, Trupti; Remya Devi, P.S.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) receives samples from law enforcement agencies such as Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Customs for analysis. Five unknown grey powdered samples were received for identification and were suspected to be Iridium (Ir). Identification of unknown sample is always a challenging task and suitable analytical techniques have to be judiciously utilized for arriving at the conclusion. Qualitative analysis was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer at ACD, BARC. A SLP series LEO Si (Li) detector (active area: 30 mm 2 ; thickness: 3.5 mm; resolution: 140 eV at 5.9 keV of Mn K X-ray) was used during the measurement and only characteristic X-rays of Ir (Lα: 9.17 keV and Lβ: 10.70 keV) was seen in the X-ray spectrum. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results indicated that the Ir was in the form of metal. To confirm the XRD data, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was carried out by irradiating samples and elemental standards (as comparator) in graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Critical Facility (AHWR CF) reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After suitable decay period, gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. Characteristic gamma line at 328.4 keV of the activation product 194 Ir was used for quantification of iridium and relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. NAA results confirmed that all the samples were Iridium metal. (author)

  9. Arsenic speciation in water by precipitation with APDC and EDXRF measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarcel, L.; Estevez, J.; Montero, A.; Pupo, I.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of As (III) by precipitation with APDC and EDXRF measurements was developed. A reduction step with sodium thiosulphate is necessary in order to determine the As(V) concentration. Recoveries of As(III) and As(V) were approximately 95-96%

  10. Energy education; Pedagogia da energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Rafael Ninno, e-mail: rafaelninno@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    'Pedagogia da Energia' (energy education) is a qualification course that has as intention to unite ambient education with renewable energies through the art-education and of the long-distance education. Collective made up of theoretical and practical activities through group dynamic and works, with intention to integrate and to enable the participants as a whole, aiming to form potentials to agreement and diffusion of energy concepts of the subjects environment - energy - residues. It possess the structure of an actual course with support of long-distance education with a platform of available web education in the Internet, where the participants have access the all content used in the course (texts, presentations and figures), virtual library, colloquy room, thematic list of quarrel and forum, beyond guardianship accompaniment. A structure constructed in classroom for the participants uses as pedagogical tool titled 'Mandala das Energias' where the concepts studied are worked in. The politics characteristics presented are, ambient and social of the use of the power plants and its implications in the daily one of the humanity. It understands the education as a reciprocal process, that understands the intention to teach and to learn in a set of exchanges of necessary information to the curious nature of the human beings. This article explains the structure and methodology of functioning of the course with a summary of the worked chapters. It also presents the pedagogical tool 'Mandala das Energias' and its respective flowchart of energies that originated it in annex at the end of the text. (author)

  11. Energia eólica

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.

    2013-01-01

    O vento (massas de ar em movimento) é utilizado há milhares de anos para suprir as necessidades energéticas que decorrem de um vasto conjunto de actividades humanas. Por exemplo, o vento foi muito utilizado para propulsar alguns meios de transporte (barcos a vela), bombear água ou permitir o funcionamento de actividades industriais, como foi o caso dos moinhos de vento que ainda hoje existem em muitas regiões de Portugal. Como a maior parte das fontes de energia renováveis (excepto a ener...

  12. Comparison between EDXRF and FAAS for Zn determination in terrestrial molluscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Julyanne T.B.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Santos, Katarine M.B.; Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: julyanne.melo@ufpe.br, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: katarine.mizan@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2015-07-01

    Even with the most advanced analytical techniques, achieving the true values of a given analyte in a sample cannot be an easy task. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) have been widely used for analysis of the chemical composition of biological matrices in environmental studies. However, depending on the sample matrix, a combination of techniques could be needed for the correct determination of the analyte. Zinc distribution in Littoraria angulifera and Melampus coffea is quite dependent on the environment, so that, diverse methods could be necessary to evaluate the chemical composition of these mollusks. This study aimed at the comparison between EDXRF and FAAS techniques for determining Zn in the soft tissues of terrestrial mollusks. The animals were collected in three mangroves in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. After shell removal, tissues were lyophilized and milled in a mortar. Test portions of 500 mg were analyzed by EDXRF, followed by chemical treatment for FAAS analysis. For the quality of the analytical procedure, the standard reference material SRM 2976 Mussel Tissue was analyzed together with the samples. The results for the analysis of the certified reference material SRM 2976 indicated the quality of the analytical procedure for both techniques. Adjusted-R{sup 2} between EDXRF and FAAS results was 0.95, indicating a good equivalence of Zn determination by both techniques. However, some improvement of EDXRF determination could be necessary because of the tendency of lower results compared to FAAS, probably related to spectral interferences during the analysis. (author)

  13. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de

    2015-01-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E n Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  14. EDXRF applied to the chemical element determination of small invertebrate samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Souza, Thomas Marques de; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: thomasmarques@live.com.pt, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF is a fast analytical technique of easy operation, however demanding reliable analytical curves due to the intrinsic matrix dependence and interference during the analysis. By using biological materials of diverse matrices, multielemental analytical protocols can be implemented and a group of chemical elements could be determined in diverse biological matrices depending on the chemical element concentration. Particularly for invertebrates, EDXRF presents some advantages associated to the possibility of the analysis of small size samples, in which a collimator can be used that directing the incidence of X-rays to a small surface of the analyzed samples. In this work, EDXRF was applied to determine Cl, Fe, P, S and Zn in invertebrate samples using the collimator of 3 mm and 10 mm. For the assessment of the analytical protocol, the SRM 2976 Trace Elements in Mollusk produced and SRM 8415 Whole Egg Powder by the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were also analyzed. After sampling by using pitfall traps, invertebrate were lyophilized, milled and transferred to polyethylene vials covered by XRF polyethylene. Analyses were performed at atmosphere lower than 30 Pa, varying voltage and electric current according to the chemical element to be analyzed. For comparison, Zn in the invertebrate material was also quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid treatment (mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide) of samples have. Compared to the collimator of 10 mm, the SRM 2976 and SRM 8415 results obtained by the 3 mm collimator agreed well at the 95% confidence level since the E{sub n} Number were in the range of -1 and 1. Results from GFAAS were in accordance to the EDXRF values for composite samples. Therefore, determination of some chemical elements by EDXRF can be recommended for very small invertebrate samples (lower than 100 mg) with advantage of preserving the samples. (author)

  15. Monte Carlo simulation and gaussian broaden techniques for full energy peak of characteristic X-ray in EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhe; Liu Min; Shi Rui; Wu Xuemei; Tuo Xianguo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-standard analysis (NSA) technique is one of the most important development directions of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Purpose: This NSA technique is mainly based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and full energy peak broadening, which were studied preliminarily in this paper. Methods: A kind of MC model was established for Si-PIN based EDXRF setup, and the flux spectra were obtained for iron ore sample. Finally, the flux spectra were broadened by Gaussian broaden parameters calculated by a new method proposed in this paper, and the broadened spectra were compared with measured energy spectra. Results: MC method can be used to simulate EDXRF measurement, and can correct the matrix effects among elements automatically. Peak intensities can be obtained accurately by using the proposed Gaussian broaden technique. Conclusions: This study provided a key technique for EDXRF to achieve advanced NSA technology. (authors)

  16. Feasibility analysis of EDXRF method to detect heavy metal pollution in ecological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhixu; Qin, Xulei

    2018-02-01

    The change of heavy metal content in water environment, soil and plant can reflect the change of heavy metal pollution in ecological environment, and it is important to monitor the trend of heavy metal pollution in eco-environment by using water environment, soil and heavy metal content in plant. However, the content of heavy metals in nature is very low, the background elements of water environment, soil and plant samples are complex, and there are many interfering factors in the EDXRF system that will affect the spectral analysis results and reduce the detection accuracy. Through the contrastive analysis of several heavy metal elements detection methods, it is concluded that the EDXRF method is superior to other chemical methods in testing accuracy and method feasibility when the heavy metal pollution in soil is tested in ecological environment.

  17. Comparative study between EDXRF and ASTM E572 methods using two-way ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummenauer, A.; Veit, H. M.; Zoppas-Ferreira, J.

    2018-03-01

    Comparison with reference method is one of the necessary requirements for the validation of non-standard methods. This comparison was made using the experiment planning technique with two-way ANOVA. In ANOVA, the results obtained using the EDXRF method, to be validated, were compared with the results obtained using the ASTM E572-13 standard test method. Fisher's tests (F-test) were used to comparative study between of the elements: molybdenum, niobium, copper, nickel, manganese, chromium and vanadium. All F-tests of the elements indicate that the null hypothesis (Ho) has not been rejected. As a result, there is no significant difference between the methods compared. Therefore, according to this study, it is concluded that the EDXRF method was approved in this method comparison requirement.

  18. Characterization of mercury based Indian herbomineral drug by radioisotope induced EDXRF and synchrotron based EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Saxena, A.; Joseph, Rajeeta; Rajput, P.; Nayak, C.; Bhattacharya, D.; Jha, S.N.; Natrajan, V.

    2014-01-01

    An Indian herbomineral drug was characterized for its trace elements by radioisotope induced EDXRF. The drug contains minerals like mercury, sulfur and arsenic disulfide, along with herbs such as dhaturra, bhrami, vacha etc. All the above ingredients were processed together in a step wise manner (6 steps). Hence the motive was to expect some change in the drug molecule at every step of processing it. The 6 samples are the samples collected at every step of drug preparation. These 6 samples which are collected as intermediatary samples would be then evaluated for its role in various neuropsychological (psychosis, depression etc) disorders in experimental animals such as rats/mice. Hence it was required to find the elements/trace elements composition, details of chemical components present in the drug samples. It was seen that using EDXRF it was possible to determine As and Hg. The EXAFS results also showed the presence of As in their sulphide form. (author)

  19. Understanding interaction of curcumin and metal ions on electrode surfaces using EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Daisy; Kumar, K. Krishna; Narayanan, S. Sriman

    2018-04-01

    A chemically modified electrode was developed for determination of metal ions (Cd, Pb, Zn, Co, Hg). The modifier used for the study was Curcumin. Curcumin acts as a complexing agent at the surface of the electrode for preconcentration of metal ions from electrolyte to electrode surface and stripped back to electrolyte during analysis. EDXRF was used to analyze these electrodes and it was concluded that the PCR modified electrode favored effective chelation for lead and mercury.

  20. EDXRF applied to the chemical characterization of domestic and industrial sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gleyce Kelly A. da; Dutra, Emmanuel Damiliano; França, Elvis J. de

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Dispersion X-ray Fluorescence – EDXRF is a low-cost, fast, non-destructible analytical technique, useful for analyzing diverse geological samples. The determination of chemical elements by EDXRF in solid urban wastes is economic and operationally feasible, since the concentration of many heavy metals can be easily monitored. Besides, chemical elements as aluminum and some minerals that compose important natural cycles add valuable information for deciding the final destination of these wastes. The objective of this work was the obtaining the analytical curves for quantifying chemical elements by EDXRF in sewage sludge. For this, analytical portions (1 g) of the certified reference materials SRM 2781 Domestic Sludge and SRM 2782 Industrial Sludge produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were transferred to polyethylene tubes and sealed at the top and bottom with polypropylene film specific for EDXRF analysis. Exactly 500 mg of each of the above SRMs were mixed by means of a ball mill for composing the SRM MIX, also analyzed for obtaining the analytical curves. All samples were analyzed in an atmosphere close to the vacuum (less than 30 Pa), with dead time less than 35%. For Al, As, Cu, Fe, K, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn, linear regressions have been fitted with respective linear coefficients higher than 0.95. To evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, an independent test portion of the reference material SRM 2781 Sludge Domestic was used, calculating the Number En obtaining values between -1 and 1, range considered adequate for the quality assurance at the 95% confidence level. (author)

  1. EDXRF applied to the chemical characterization of domestic and industrial sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gleyce Kelly A. da; Dutra, Emmanuel Damiliano, E-mail: gleyce_kelly990@hotmail.com, E-mail: emmanuel.dutra@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); França, Elvis J. de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Energy Dispersion X-ray Fluorescence – EDXRF is a low-cost, fast, non-destructible analytical technique, useful for analyzing diverse geological samples. The determination of chemical elements by EDXRF in solid urban wastes is economic and operationally feasible, since the concentration of many heavy metals can be easily monitored. Besides, chemical elements as aluminum and some minerals that compose important natural cycles add valuable information for deciding the final destination of these wastes. The objective of this work was the obtaining the analytical curves for quantifying chemical elements by EDXRF in sewage sludge. For this, analytical portions (1 g) of the certified reference materials SRM 2781 Domestic Sludge and SRM 2782 Industrial Sludge produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were transferred to polyethylene tubes and sealed at the top and bottom with polypropylene film specific for EDXRF analysis. Exactly 500 mg of each of the above SRMs were mixed by means of a ball mill for composing the SRM MIX, also analyzed for obtaining the analytical curves. All samples were analyzed in an atmosphere close to the vacuum (less than 30 Pa), with dead time less than 35%. For Al, As, Cu, Fe, K, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn, linear regressions have been fitted with respective linear coefficients higher than 0.95. To evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, an independent test portion of the reference material SRM 2781 Sludge Domestic was used, calculating the Number En obtaining values between -1 and 1, range considered adequate for the quality assurance at the 95% confidence level. (author)

  2. Element Content Analysis of Edible Insect of Ghana (Curculionidae: Sitophilus zeamais) Using EDXRF Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    AYDOĞAN, Zeynep; GÜROL, Ali; İNCEKARA, Ümit; TAHİDU, Osman Damba

    2016-01-01

    The overall study objective was to develop baseline information on the heavy elements concentration in edible insect Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and to evaluate the contamination levels of this insect. Twelve heavy elements (V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Sn, Sb, I, La, Ce, Pb) were analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The element concentration showed trend of Cu>Zn>Sn>Sb>Mn>Fe>I=La>Ce>Br>V>P...

  3. Eesti Energia, vara veel! / Väino Sarnet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarnet, Väino, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Majanduskonsultant avaldab arvamust, millised on argumendid Eesti Energia kiireks börsiletulekuks, kes sellega võidaksid ja kes kaotaksid ning miks pole praegu õige aeg Eesti Energia aktsiate avalikuks müügiks

  4. Eesti Energia loovutas Estlinki energiabörsile / Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia otsustas rentida Estlinki merekaabli välja Soome ja Eesti põhivõrkudele, kellel on omakorda kohustus anda see üle vabaturu kasutusse. Eesti Energia finantsdirektori Margus Kaasiku kommentaar

  5. Eesti Energia hakkab Jordaanias varsti ehitama / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Energia loodab, et Jordaania esimese põlevkivielektrijaama ehitus algab juba 2012. aastal. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul on Jordaani puhul tegemist Eesti võimalusega, Eesti Energia on Jordaania projekti kaasanud juba rahastajaid

  6. Simple procedure for nutrient analysis of coffee plant with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezotto, Tiago; Favarin, Jose Laercio; Neto, Ana Paula; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes, E-mail: tiago.tezotto@usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Gratao, Priscila Lupino [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP/ FCAV), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada a Agropecuaria; Mazzafera, Paulo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP/IB), SP (Brazil). Dept. Biologia Vegetal

    2013-07-15

    Nutrient analysis is used to estimate nutrient content of crop plants to manage fertilizer application for sustained crop production. Direct solid analysis of agricultural and environmental samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) was chosen as alternative technique to evaluate the simultaneous multielemental quantification of the most important essential elements in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and certified reference materials made from leaves were used to calibrate and check the trueness of EDXRF method for the determination of the concentration of several nutrients in coffee leaves and branches. Fluorescence spectrometry proved to be advantageous and presented low cost as loose powder samples could be used. Samples collected from a field experiment where coffee plants were treated with excess of Ni and Zn were used to verify the practical application of the method. Good relationships were achieved between certified values and data obtained by EDXRF, with recoveries ranging from 82 to 117 %.(author)

  7. Some thoughts for 'Energia Nucleara'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, David S.

    2002-01-01

    This is a report of an interview between the 'Energia Nucleara' reporter and Mr David S. Harris, the AECL project director for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2. The following items were addressed during the interview: the status of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 project; the differences in the project between Unit 1 and Unit 2; the Romanian infrastructure and industrial contributions to the Unit 2 project; the cooperation with Romanian design team; the Canadian authorities support to Unit 2 completion; Unit 3 project and AECL possible involvement. Following the Romanian Government's decision to complete Cernavoda Unit 2 in late 2002 work was recommenced in the key areas of engineering, procurement of equipment and materials signing of major supply contracts and construction, such that the total project is now 52% complete. actual construction activities are now 41% complete, and the number of key milestones have recently been achieved, such as: Closure of the Reactor Building 'B' Opening; commencement of rolling in of 45,000 main turbine condenser tubes; commencement of post-tensioning works on the Reactor Building structure and the completion of various infrastructure civil works. Structures and equipment already delivered, and installed or stored are in good conditions and ready for construction continuation. The following changes were implemented in Unit 2 as compared to Unit 1: design changes to meet new regulations and provide increases in the margin of safety; changes due to development of nuclear technology, particularly those improving performance and reliability of operation; design changes to replace equipment affected by obsolescence to allow purchasing of spare parts in the future. Concerning the future, AECL is willing to cooperate with the Romanian SNN on the Unit 3 completion process

  8. Determination of multi-element profiles of soil at Visakhapatnam using EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandeep, P.; Kothai, P.; Dusane, C.B.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study attempt has been made to generate elemental profile database for major sources of soil pollution, specific to Visakhapatnam. Representative road dust and soil samples from major industrial locations were collected and analyzed for various metals distribution using EDXRF. Analysis results indicate that V and Ni were predominant at PR and Zn was found to be dominating in road dust samples. Higher concentration of Arsenic was observed at TPP as compared to all other sites. Cr was found to be dominating at TPP and SP. I geo calculations suggest that soil is highly contaminated with heavy metal pollutants. (author)

  9. EDXRF analysis of Yanhedian Ru kiln and Jun official kiln porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Chang; Zhao Huixian; Li Guoxia; Gao Zhengyao; Zhao Weijuan; Sun Hongwei; Guo Min; Xie Jianzhong; Li Rongwu; Guo Peiyu

    2009-01-01

    The chemical components of the body and glaze samples of some Ru porcelains from Yanhedian kiln and Jun official porcelains from Juntai kiln are determined by the technology of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence(EDXRF) in this work. The difference of the two kiln's glaze and body are analyzed by factor analysis method of Multi-dimensional statistical analysis. The results indicate that Yanhedian Ru porcelains can be well distinguished from Jun official porcelains from Juntai kiln. This evidence once again proves that Jun ceramics and Ru ceramics can be distinguished obviously. (authors)

  10. A comparative study on determination of composition of uranium thorium mixed oxides by tube and radioisotope excited EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Sangita; Sanjay Kumar, S.; Misra, N.L.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Singh, Ajit Kumar; Lodha, G.S.

    2009-01-01

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methods for determination of uranium and thorium in their mixed oxide matrices using tube and radioisotope excitation sources have been developed. The methodology involves preparation of mixed oxide calibration/sample mixtures of uranium and thorium oxides, mixing of fixed amount of internal standard Yttrium in form of Yttrium oxide, pelletizing these mixtures after thorough mixing and recording their EDXRF spectra using Rh target as well as 109 Cd radioisotope source. The samples were analysed for uranium and thorium on the basis of calibration plots

  11. Intelligent use of the energy; Uso inteligente de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Ahedo, Carlos [Director General de la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) is an administrative agency independent of the Secretaria de Energia that serves as a technical agency for consultancy in matters of efficient use of energy and advantageous use of renewable energies. This document searches to inform the population how to satisfy the necessity of energy in an intelligent way. For this purpose some useful actions to be performed were detected: the making of a balance between the supply and the energy demand, the consultancy on how the saving of energy is performed in order to reduce its waste, to count on equipment and efficient systems, to use domestic renewable energies and to use the solar energy and the biomass. [Spanish] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) es el organo administrativo desconcentrado de la Secretaria de Energia que funge como organismo tecnico de consulta en materia de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia y aprovechamiento de energias renovables. Este documento busca informar a la poblacion acerca de como satisfacer la necesidad de energia a cambio de su utilizacion de manera inteligente, para ello se detectaron areas de oportunidad como: un balance entre la oferta y la demanda energetica, informar a la gente sobre como se efectua el ahorro de energia para con ello reducir el desperdicio de esta, contar con equipos y sistemas eficientes, usar energias renovables domesticas y utilizar la energia solar y la biomasa.

  12. EDXRF for determination of chemical elements in the beetle Alphitobius diaperinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Cunha, Franklin M. da; Zacarias, Vyvyane L.

    2015-01-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry has been widely employed for chemical element determination of biological matrices, including insects. The beetle Alphitobius diaperinus is a major problem in poultry production, thereby infesting poultry litter and stored grains. Up to now, little is known about the behavior, physiology and environmental interactions of this insect. In this paper, EDXRF was applied to quantify the main chemical elements in A. diaperinus. For the quality of the analytical protocol, certified reference materials produced by National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were analyzed together with the samples. The technique was able to quantify Cl, P, S and Zn in this insect, presenting no significant variation at the 95% confidence level among the repetitions (n = 4). A different pattern of chemical element accumulation in this beetle was noticed compared to other Coleoptera species, in which the concentration of the chemical elements were markedly lower in A. diaperinus, probably associated to the restricted availability of chemical elements in food. Since no result has been found in the literature before, A. diaperinus was firstly chemically characterized in this paper. (author)

  13. EDXRF for determination of chemical elements in the beetle Alphitobius diaperinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Magalhaes, Marcelo L.R. de; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Cunha, Franklin M. da; Zacarias, Vyvyane L., E-mail: ukento@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vyvyanebiologicas@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry has been widely employed for chemical element determination of biological matrices, including insects. The beetle Alphitobius diaperinus is a major problem in poultry production, thereby infesting poultry litter and stored grains. Up to now, little is known about the behavior, physiology and environmental interactions of this insect. In this paper, EDXRF was applied to quantify the main chemical elements in A. diaperinus. For the quality of the analytical protocol, certified reference materials produced by National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST were analyzed together with the samples. The technique was able to quantify Cl, P, S and Zn in this insect, presenting no significant variation at the 95% confidence level among the repetitions (n = 4). A different pattern of chemical element accumulation in this beetle was noticed compared to other Coleoptera species, in which the concentration of the chemical elements were markedly lower in A. diaperinus, probably associated to the restricted availability of chemical elements in food. Since no result has been found in the literature before, A. diaperinus was firstly chemically characterized in this paper. (author)

  14. Characterization of Brazilian artists' palette from the XIX century using EDXRF portable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Pedreira, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The palette of some of the most representative Brazilian painters from the XIX century was characterized using EDXRF technique. In this work were analyzed paintings of: Eliseu Visconti, Almeida Junior, Rodolfo Amoedo, Henrique Bernardelli, Rafael Frederico, Modesto Brocos, Augusto Rodrigues Duarte and Pedro Peres - all of them belonging to the National Museum of Fine Arts Collection. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system developed by the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with tungsten (W) anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. In each color and distinct hue of the paint layer were obtained several spectra, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were processed and analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL from IAEA. Some pigments used by the artists were: zinc white, lead white, ochre, umbra, vermilion, Prussian blue, cobalt blue, cadmium yellow, black iron oxide, manganese violet, etc. These results - together with the Computed Radiography analyses - have been used to create a database about the XIX century collection of the National Museum of Fine Arts, in order to assist restorators, conservators, art students and researchers in the field of archaeometry

  15. Characterisation of a Proto-historic bronze collection by micro-EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Elin; Araújo, M. Fátima; Silva, Rui J.C.; Vilaça, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A collection of Proto-historic metal artefacts was analysed by micro-EDXRF. ► Composition of major and minor elements has been determined. ► Artefacts were manufactured in a bronze alloy with a low impurity pattern. ► The alloy shows parallels with indigenous Late Bronze Age Iberian productions. -- Abstract: Studies concerning European Proto-historic metallic artefacts can provide important clues about technological transfers during a period of time characterised by diverse cultural interactions. A collection of Proto-historic metallic artefacts from Medronhal (western Iberian Peninsula) composed by rings, bracelets and a fibula related to different cultural affiliations were investigated by micro-EDXRF to provide a major and a minor elemental characterisation. Results show that the Medronhal collection was manufactured in a Cu–Sn alloy (binary bronze) with similar Sn contents among the various types of artefacts and a low impurity pattern. Results of the type and quality of metal were compared to other artefact collections to infer about metallurgical parallels. Strong parallels with indigenous Late Bronze Age Iberian metallurgical productions were found

  16. Characterisation of a Proto-historic bronze collection by micro-EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Elin, E-mail: elin@itn.pt [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Araújo, M. Fátima [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Silva, Rui J.C. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Vilaça, Raquel [CEAUCP-FCT, Instituto de Arqueologia, Departamento de História, Arqueologia e Artes, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Coimbra, Palácio de Sub-Ripas, 3000-395 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► A collection of Proto-historic metal artefacts was analysed by micro-EDXRF. ► Composition of major and minor elements has been determined. ► Artefacts were manufactured in a bronze alloy with a low impurity pattern. ► The alloy shows parallels with indigenous Late Bronze Age Iberian productions. -- Abstract: Studies concerning European Proto-historic metallic artefacts can provide important clues about technological transfers during a period of time characterised by diverse cultural interactions. A collection of Proto-historic metallic artefacts from Medronhal (western Iberian Peninsula) composed by rings, bracelets and a fibula related to different cultural affiliations were investigated by micro-EDXRF to provide a major and a minor elemental characterisation. Results show that the Medronhal collection was manufactured in a Cu–Sn alloy (binary bronze) with similar Sn contents among the various types of artefacts and a low impurity pattern. Results of the type and quality of metal were compared to other artefact collections to infer about metallurgical parallels. Strong parallels with indigenous Late Bronze Age Iberian metallurgical productions were found.

  17. Study on provenance of Ru porcelain in yanhedian kiln and official jun porcelain by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Guo Min; Zhao Weijuan; Sun Hongwei; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Wen Chang; Wang Chuan; Li Rongwu; Guo Peiyu; Yang Dawei

    2010-01-01

    To understand the provenance relationship of Ru porcelain in Yanhedian kiln and official Jun porcelain , with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF) measured 56 Ru porcelain in Yanhedian kiln and official Jun porcelain samples of chemical composition of the main volume, analysis results show: Yanhedian kiln Ru porcelain bodies Al 2 O 3 average content Outpaces official Jun porcelain bodies, SiO 2 , K 2 O average below official Jun porcelain bodies; Yanhedian kiln Ru porcelain glazes Al 2 O 3 average content Outpaces official Jun porcelain glaze, SiO 2 , CaO average significantly lower than Jun glaze, two primary body and glaze on porcelain to chemical composition of the averages vary. A display of the peacekeeping two-dimensional scatter analysis supplies of official Jun porcelain bodies focused, Yanhedia kiln Ru porcelain bodies birth supplies comparatively, Jun and Yanhedian kiln Ru porcelain bodies material habitats near but not identical. The official Jun porcelain glazes origin focused, glaze formula changes less, and Yanhedia kiln Ru porcelain glazes origin and formula are scattered. Therefore, Yanhedian kiln Ru porcelain samples and the Official Jun porcelain samples can be commendably differentiated by EDXRF testing and chemical composition scatter analysis. (authors)

  18. Possible indicators for bio-mass burning in a small Swedish city as studied by energy dispersive fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin Lindgren, Eva; Henriksson, Dag; Lundin, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    to investigate the contribution of biomass incineration to air quality, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis was performed on aerosol particles sampled in the centre of the small city of Växjö. PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 fractions were sampled with the special aim of determining the contribution...

  19. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jean Christophe Balouet; Walter C. Shortle; Michel Chalot; François Beaujard; Hakan Grudd; Don A. Vroblesky; Joel G. Burken

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to...

  20. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  1. Measurements of K shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios using EDXRF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacal, Mustafa Recep; Han, İbrahim; Akman, Ferdi

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, the K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios for 30 elements between Ti ( Z = 22) and Er ( Z = 68) were measured by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The jump factors and jump ratios for these elements were determined by measuring the K shell fluorescence parameters such as the Kα X-ray production cross-sections, K shell fluorescence yields, Kβ-to- Kα X-rays intensity ratios, total atomic absorption cross sections and mass attenuation coefficients. The measurements were performed using an Am-241 radioactive point source and a Si (Li) detector in direct excitation and transmission experimental geometry. The results for jump factors and jump ratios were compared with theoretically calculated and the ones available in the literature.

  2. In situ non-invasive EDXRF analysis to reconstruct stratigraphy and thickness of Renaissance pictorial multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonizzoni, L.; Poldi, G.; Milazzo, M.; Galli, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report a few examples showing how energy dispersive XRF analysis (EDXRF) coupled with visible reflectance spectroscopy (vis-RS) can be successfully applied for the investigation of wood or canvas paintings by performing stratigraphic analyses with non-invasive techniques. The specific aim is to reconstruct layers and their thicknesses. The method has been tested in the laboratory on paint layers similar to traditional Renaissance ones. In situ analyses of a famous wood painting by Andrea Mantegna - 'Madonna col bambino e un coro di cherubini', Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan - were also carried out. While illustrating the results concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of layer stratigraphy, advantages and limitation of this method are pointed out. (authors)

  3. Compositional study of IIIrd century BC silver coins from Kreshpan hoard (Albania) using EDXRF spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civici, N.; Gjongecaj, Sh.; Stamati, F.; Dilo, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Polychroniadis, E.K.; Smit, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The elemental composition of 122 silver coins from a hoard of the 3rd century BC, minted by the Illyrian king Monounios and the ancient cities of Dyrrachion and Korkyra was determined by EDXRF. The results showed that the different groups of coins were made of a similar Ag-Cu alloy with Ag concentration in the range 94-98%. The examination of the contents of minor elements Pb, Au and Bi showed that the coins minted by the Illyrian king Monounios have similar composition with the largest part of Dyrrachion coins and those from Korkyra. On the other side, two subgroups containing different amounts of Au and Bi can be observed within the general group of coins minted in Dyrrachion

  4. Metal identification in small rural areas of bovine creations by EDXRF methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouk, Luana C.; Melquiades, Fabio L.; Biase, Gabriel E.V.; Antunes Junior, Osmar R. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Peres, Jayme A. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of metal pollution in the environment, from rural areas of bovine creation in the Rio das Pedras area in Serra da Esperanca, municipal district of Guarapuava - Parana. The analytical technique employed was Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Methodology with a portable equipment. Water, grass, soil, sediment and feed samples were collected from three small rural properties. Water samples were filtered for particulate matter retention and precipitation with APDC chelating agent was used for pre-concentration. For solid samples, between 0.3 g and 3 g, were placed in a cell covered with mylar film for irradiation and EDXRF direct analysis. Feed samples were analyzed without preparation. Soil and sediment samples were dried, ground and sieved for in natura EDXRF analysis. Grass samples were dried, crushed and ground up to powder form and then submitted to the same preparation as soil samples. The measurement system, from Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of UEL, consists in a Si-PIN X-ray detector (221 eV resolution for 5,9 keV line, 25 mum Be window) and a mini X-ray tube (4W, Ag target, 50 mum Ag filter). Sensitivity values were obtained from MicroMatter Standards and used for water and grass quantification. Calcium, Fe and Cu were found on water and K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Rb, Zr and Pb on grass samples. Potassium, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb,Sr, Y, Zr, Pb were identified on soil and sediment samples. In this case just Ti, Fe and Zr were quantified due to the standards available for sensitivity determination. Noting that the presence of lead was found in one of the analyzed places. (author)

  5. Water and sediment analysis of touristic places in Guarapuava, PR using a portable EDXRF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes Junior, Osmar R.; Biasi, Gabriel E.V.; Melquiades, Fabio L.; Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) have increasingly been applied for in situ trace metal analysis in different kinds of samples. Results of a monitoring sampling, in the winter and summer of 2008, respectively, from 6 touristic places in Guarapuava, PR city are presented. The work consisted on the use of a portable EDXRF system constituted by a X-ray tube to excite the samples, a Si-Pin detector, a holder for the excitation-detection system and samples positioning, with the standard data acquisition electronics to register the spectra. The water samples were filtered in membranes for suspended particulate matter retention. After this, APDC precipitation methodology was applied for sample preconcentration with posterior filtering in membranes. So, the dissolved and non dissolved metal fractions were determined separately. Sediment samples were dried at 60 C for 24h and sieved through 60 mesh. Micromatter standards were used for sensitivity determination for membranes samples. For sediments 5 multi-element standards were used and calibration curves were constructed. For water membrane measurements, Fe concentration was quantified from 0.026±0.004 to 5.1±1.0, in mg L -1 . For sediments, considering all the sampling locations, Mn, Cu, Sr, Y and Nb were identified qualitatively, and it was possible to quantify the following range of elements and concentrations, mg Kg -1 : Ca (1977 - 10162), Ti (12494 - 22320), Fe (36972 - 88452), Zn (73 - 185) and Zr (158 - 960). The performance of the equipment was very good and the results are quite satisfactory for portable equipment. (author)

  6. Härra Eesti Energia lahkus haruldase kaevurikirkaga / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2005-01-01

    30. novembril oli Eesti Energia juhi kohalt lahkuval Gunnar Okil viimane tööpäev, kuigi Eesti Energia juhatus pakkus Gunnar Okile korralise lepingu lõppemise järel aastast lepingut, keeldus juhatuse esimees selle sõlmimisest. Lisa: Oki-ajastu

  7. Parts harvendas ootamatult Eesti Energia nõukogu / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts otsustas 1. juulil päevapealt Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi kutsuda Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku, kes olid vastu Eesti Energia üle viie miljoni euro suurusele investeeringule Weroli rapsiõlitehase juurde rajatavasse elektri- ja küttejaama. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts

  8. Eesti Energia pakuks börsil boonusaktsiaid / Agnes Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium valmistub Eesti Energia aktsia avalikuks pakkumiseks. Riik soovib, et aktsionäride hulgas oleks rohkelt tavakodanikke, aktsiate ostmise motiveerimiseks lubatakse, et aasta pärast kingitakse lisaaktsiaid. Rahandusministeerium peab otsima alternatiive, kuidas Eesti Energia saaks lisaraha börsile minemata

  9. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-387] Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia... application. SUMMARY: Energia Renovable S.C., LLC (Energia Renovable) has applied for authority to transmit...)). On September 11, 2012, DOE received an application from Energia Renovable for authority to transmit...

  10. Field-portable high-resolution EDXRF analysis with HgI2-detector-based instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, P.F.; Little, S.R.; Voots, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis is well known for its efficient use of x-ray detector technology for simultaneous multielement determination. Low-intensity excitation, such as from a radioisotope source, can thus be employed and has enabled the design of many types of truly portable EDXRF instrumentation. Portable design, however, has not been without significant compromise in analytical performance because of the limited x-ray resolving power of prior detection methods, except by the use of a cryogenically operated detector. The developments we refer to stem from the use of a comparatively new x-ray detection device fabricated from mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ). For this detector, only a modest degree of cooling is required to achieve an energy resolution of > 300 eV. Two field-portable instrument designs of different hand-held measurement probe configurations are available that have applications for industrial quality assurance and environmental screening

  11. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C.; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Håkan; Vroblesky, Don A.; Burkem, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to distinguish dendrochemical effects of internal processes from environmental contamination. Calcium, potassium, and zinc are three marker cations that illustrate the influence of these processes. We found changes in cation chemistry in tree rings potentially due to biomineralization, development of cracks or checks, heartwood/sapwood differentiation, intra-annual processes, and compartmentalization of infection. Distinguishing internal from external processes that affect dendrochemistry will enhance the value of EDXRF for both physiological and forensic investigations.

  12. Development of a method for multielemental determination in water by EDXRF with radioisotopic source of 238Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, C.; Estévez, J.; Montero, A.; Pupo, I.; Herrero, Z.; Leyva, D.; Arteche, J.; Varcárcel, L.; Van Espen, P.; Santos Júnior, J. A. dos

    2017-01-01

    A method for determination of Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg and Pb in waters by Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was implemented, using a radioisotopic source of 238 Pu. For previous concentration was employed a procedure including a coprecipitation step with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as quelant agent, the separation of the phases by filtration, the measurement of filter by EDXRF and quantification by a thin layer absolute method. Sensitivity curves for K and L lines were obtained respectively. The sensitivity for most elements was greater by an order of magnitude in the case of measurement with a source of 238 Pu instead of 109 Cd, which means a considerable decrease in measurement times. The influence of the concentration in the precipitation efficiency was evaluated for each element. In all cases the recoveries are close to 100%, for this reason it can be affirmed that the method of determination of the studied elements is quantitative. Metrological parameters of the method such as trueness, precision, detection limit and uncertainty were calculated. A procedure to calculate the uncertainty of the method was elaborated; the most significant source of uncertainty for the thin layer EDXRF method is associated with the determination of instrumental sensitivities. The error associated with the determination, expressed as expanded uncertainty (in %), varied from 15.4% for low element concentrations (2.5-5 μg/L) to 5.4% for the higher concentration range (20-25 μg/L). (author)

  13. EDXRF analysis of the Pentecost Triptych from the “São Pedro de Miragaia” church (Porto, Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Ferrero, José; Juanes, David; Carballo, Jorgelina; Calvo, Ana; Aguiar, Maria

    2013-01-01

    EDXRF spectrometry was used to determine the pigment composition of the Pentecost Triptych, a Flemish masterpiece located at the Church of São Pedro de Miragaia (Porto, Portugal). The triptych was restored at the beginning of the 20th century and presents a great number of zones with repaints and colour alterations that can be observed on the whole of their surface. The identification of the original pigments and restoration pigments was based on their characteristic colour and the correlation between the detected elements and the named “key elements” of ancient pigments (Ca, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb,…) and modern pigments (Ti, Ba, Cr, Zn, Co, Cd,…). The analysis of the triptych has been carried out in situ by means of portable instrumentation. - Highlights: ► In situ EDXRF measurements by means of a portable EDXRF spectrometer are made. ► Characteristic elements from original and restored areas are identified and compared. ► Lead based pigments are identified as main components of the reintegration pigments. ► The presence of cadmium red is compatible with a restoration later than 1910. ► Ca compounds in deep layers and Pb pigments in superficial layers are identified.

  14. Development of a method for multielemental determination in water by EDXRF with radioisotopic source of {sup 238}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, C.; Estévez, J.; Montero, A.; Pupo, I.; Herrero, Z.; Leyva, D.; Arteche, J.; Varcárcel, L. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), (Cuba); Van Espen, P. [University of Amberes, (Belgium); Santos Júnior, J. A. dos, E-mail: cserrano@cedaen.edu.cu [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A method for determination of Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg and Pb in waters by Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was implemented, using a radioisotopic source of {sup 238}Pu. For previous concentration was employed a procedure including a coprecipitation step with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as quelant agent, the separation of the phases by filtration, the measurement of filter by EDXRF and quantification by a thin layer absolute method. Sensitivity curves for K and L lines were obtained respectively. The sensitivity for most elements was greater by an order of magnitude in the case of measurement with a source of {sup 238}Pu instead of {sup 109}Cd, which means a considerable decrease in measurement times. The influence of the concentration in the precipitation efficiency was evaluated for each element. In all cases the recoveries are close to 100%, for this reason it can be affirmed that the method of determination of the studied elements is quantitative. Metrological parameters of the method such as trueness, precision, detection limit and uncertainty were calculated. A procedure to calculate the uncertainty of the method was elaborated; the most significant source of uncertainty for the thin layer EDXRF method is associated with the determination of instrumental sensitivities. The error associated with the determination, expressed as expanded uncertainty (in %), varied from 15.4% for low element concentrations (2.5-5 μg/L) to 5.4% for the higher concentration range (20-25 μg/L). (author)

  15. EDXRF and INAA analyses of surface sediments of the Gulf of Saros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuz, T.; Mukhamedshina, N.; Mirsagatova, A.A.; Akyuz, S.; Sari, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A variety of elements and organic matter have been introduced to the environment as a result of human activities. Such substances find their way to the aquatic sediments from direct discharges to waterways, atmospheric emissions, and run of. In aquatic systems, sediments become the eventual sink for most of these chemicals. One of the most useful approaches to long-term monitoring of aquatic systems is the analysis of marine sediments. The Gulf of Saros in the northeastern Aegean Sea (Turkey) is a relatively unpolluted marine environment. It is located between latitudes 40 o 19 ' N - 40 o 37 ' N and longitudes 26 o 19 ' E - 26 o 50 ' E and has approximately 60 km length and 6-33 km wide. The main sources of fresh water and sediment to the Gulf are the Meric River in the northwest and the Kavak Creek in the east. In this study, 54 surface sediment samples, collected at different water depths in the Saros Gulf, by cruise of Sismik-1 of Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, using Van Veen graph sampler were analysed quantitatively by radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques. In the case of EDXRF analysis, samples were excited using an 241 Am source (10 mCi) and a HPGe detector or a 109 Cd source (25 mCi) and a Si(Li) detector for 50,000 s with resolutions of approximately 350 eV and 185 eV FWHM, respectively, at 5.89 keV. The quantitative analyses were performed by the fundamental parameter technique, in order to minimise the matrix effects in X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the case of INAA method, the samples of 0.1 - 0.15 g mass were irradiated simultaneously with reference materials at a fission spectra neutron flux of the density of ∼5.10 13 cm -2 .s -1 (WWR-SM) nuclear reactor of Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The concentrations of 40 elements were determined. The main interest of the present study is to assess the environmental state

  16. Analysis of artifacts from ancient Egypt using an EDXRF portable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Freitas, Renato P.; Brancaglion Junior, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In this work, XRF technique was used to analyze some artifacts from the Egyptian Collection of the National Museum (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which is probably the oldest in the Americas. Most pieces of this collection were acquired in 1826, when the Italian trader Nicolau Fiengo brought from Marseille (France) to Rio de Janeiro various antiquities excavated by Giovanni Battista Belzoni in the necropolis of Thebes, at Karnak Temple. The artifacts were bought by the Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro I, which donated them to the Royal Museum, established in 1818. The analyzed samples include: a wooden polychrome funerary mask and different kind of sculptures (portraying the god Bes, a priest, female and macrophallic figurines and an ushabti). The analyses were carried out with an EDXRF portable system developed in the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. In each sample were obtained several spectra, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 1.5 and 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXASAXIL from IAEA. The results revealed the elemental composition of the material employed to execute the sculptures and the original pigments used in the mask and also in the decoration of some sculptures (Egyptian blue, malachite, realgar, red and yellow ochre, black iron oxide, etc.). (author)

  17. Application of 241Am EDXRF to the determination of rare earth samples of solvent extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chunhua; Jia Jiangtao; Liao Chunsheng; Li Biaoguo

    1998-01-01

    A rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) analysis system is established to determine rare earth concentrations. The characteristic K-shell series X-rays of rare earths were excited by a 1.1 x 10 9 Bq 241 Am radioisotope source. The spectra were recorded and analyzed using a multi-channel analyzer, employing a high-purity Ge detector. In this method, the Compton scattering peak, absorption of elements, and specific simplification are considered. Samples of light, middle and heavy rare earths during separation processes in both hydrochloride solution and rare earth loaded organic phases were analyzed off-line. Some comparative results measured by ICP are also given. The results show that the method can be used for a wide range of rare earth concentrations (0.1-300 g l -1 rare earth oxide). Being rapid, effective, precise and non-destructive, the method can be applied to on-line analysis to determine rare earth concentrations during separation by solvent extraction. (orig.)

  18. Pollution assessment in the Trancao river basin (Portugal) by PIXE, EDXRF and isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Araujo, M.F.; Carreira, P.M.; Valerio, P.; Nunes, D.; Alves, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the inorganic contamination assessment of a river basin and local water resources in order to establish quality standards. PIXE was applied to the elemental determination of the freeze-dried water dry residue and EDXRF was used for the evaluation of elemental content of sediments. To infer the water provenance the electrical conductivity was measured as well as the isotopic composition of surface waters using the 18 O/ 16 O ratio. The combined isotopic and elemental composition information enables to establish dominant contamination contributions from the several tributaries. Moreover, the variability observed for certain parameters, associates them with specific basin regions as for instance, dry residue mass, conductivity and Br, or S, Cl and As or Cr, Ni, Zn and Pb which permit to establish both pollution characterisation and their origin (agriculture, industrial, etc.). At certain locations, enhanced concentrations of elements as Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb are observed both in sediments and in the surface water. The elemental particular associations also permit to characterise pollution sources

  19. BP neural network optimized by genetic algorithm approach for titanium and iron content prediction in EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Liu Mingzhe; Li Zhe; Li Lei; Shi Rui; Tuo Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative elemental content analysis is difficult due to the uniform effect, particle effect and the element matrix effect, etc, when using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. In this paper, a hybrid approach of genetic algorithm (GA) and back propagation (BP) neural network was proposed without considering the complex relationship between the concentration and intensity. The aim of GA optimized BP was to get better network initial weights and thresholds. The basic idea was that the reciprocal of the mean square error of the initialization BP neural network was set as the fitness value of the individual in GA, and the initial weights and thresholds were replaced by individuals, and then the optimal individual was sought by selection, crossover and mutation operations, finally a new BP neural network model was created with the optimal initial weights and thresholds. The calculation results of quantitative analysis of titanium and iron contents for five types of ore bodies in Panzhihua Mine show that the results of classification prediction are far better than that of overall forecasting, and relative errors of 76.7% samples are less than 2% compared with chemical analysis values, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. (authors)

  20. Studies through EDXRF of pre hispanic objects of the archaeological zone of Cholula, Puebla, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres H, J.; Navarrete M, Z.

    2005-01-01

    In the valley of Puebla-Tlaxcala in Mexico flourished a culture, as great as the Teotihuacana, the Cholulteca, between the years 0-800. The product most known of this culture was the ceramic, famous by its colours; however, there was another important activity where they left master pieces, the mural painting. The mural 'Los Bebedores' is probably unique in its type. The technique used to paint it is not defined, but it was very similar to that known as 'al fresco'. This mural is inside of the great pyramid of Cholula and present damage due to its age and the different attempt to restore it. In this work we present the results obtained using a portable system of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) to characterize the chemical composition of the polychromatic ceramic and the pigments, used in the mural painting, of Cholula. We describe the problems associated to the characterization of composition of the dyes used in the mural painting, due mainly to the thin layers of the pigments of this type of samples. (Author)

  1. Composition analysis of Ta-W alloy using NAA and EDXRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, K.K.; Remya Devi, P.S.; Chavan, Trupti A.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Tantalum-Tungsten (Ta-W) alloy is a high strength alloy and is used in corrosion resistant chemical process equipment's including heat exchangers, condensers, heating and cooling coils and reaction vessels. Ta-W alloy is also used as ion extraction plate during laser Isotope separation of uranium and hence the composition is critical for its optimal application. The composition of the alloy was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) techniques. Ta-W alloy sample was received from Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad. For NAA, samples (50 - 500 mg) were sealed in polyethylene. High purity Ta foil (30 - 40 mg) and W foil (10 - 20 mg) were packed and used as comparators. Samples and standards were irradiated in the graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Critical Facility (AHWR CF) reactor, BARC, Mumbai for 4 hours. After suitable decay period, radioactivity assay was carried out using a 45% relative efficiency high purity germanium (HPGe) detector coupled to MCA with 8 k conversion gain

  2. Trace level determination of precious metals in aqueous medium, U, Th and Zr based nuclear materials by ICP-AES and EDXRF - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Thulasidas, S.K.; Natarajan, V.

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out to determine Ag, Au and Pt in aqueous samples, uranium, zirconium, and thorium based nuclear fuels and associated materials by CCD based ICP-AES and EDXRF. In ICP-AES, the spectral interference of U, Th, Zr matrices on trace level determination of Ag, Au and Pt were studied for different analytical lines of these analytes. The analytical performance of different lines including detection limits, sensitivity, linear dynamic range etc were studied both by ICP-AES and EDXRF. Though EDXRF technique was known its non destructive nature, the overall analytical performance of ICP-AES technique was found to be superior to EDXRF. Based on the spectral contribution from emission rich matrix elements and the analytical performance of different analytical lines of these analytes, a method was developed for direct determination of these analytes by ICP-AES without chemical separation. The method was validated with synthetic samples and compared with EDXRF technique and conventional ICP-AES technique where the major matrix was chemically separated using suitable organic phase containing selective ligands. The ICP-AES method for direct determination of analytes without chemical separation was found to be simple, less time consuming, without generation of organic waste with acceptable analytical performance

  3. Eesti Energia sihib hiiglaslikku hinnatõusu / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 5. sept. 2007, lk. 2. Eesti Energia taotleb 2007. aasta märtsikuust 23%-list hinnatõusu. Energiaturu inspektsiooni (ETI) juhi Märt Otsa sõnul pole teada, mis otsuse inspektsioon hinnatõusu küsimuses langetab. Diagramm: Elektri hind tõuseb jõudsalt. Vt. samas intervjuud Eesti Energia juhatuse liikme Tiit Niguliga

  4. Som Energia: sostenibilitat energètica i cooperativisme

    OpenAIRE

    Duran i Grant, Alexandre; Huijink, Gijsbert; Roselló, Marc

    2013-01-01

    La cooperativa Som Energia és una organització innovadora en el sector energètic a casa nostra. Proposa una forma de fer diferent de la de les empreses tradicionals del sector: ven energia renovable certificada, no té ànim de lucre i busca el bé comú. La proposta treballa per la sostenibilitat energètica.

  5. Biodiesel: uma energia alternativa e verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Carvalho Teixeira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto busca expor a importância do uso de energias alternativas. O biodiesel é apontado como uma das soluções para o esgotamento do petróleo e seus derivados e para o problema do aquecimento global, e o Brasil, por apresentar biodiversidade e forte economia agrícola, permitiu que o Governo Federal criasse o Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso de Biodiesel (PNPB com chances de sucesso. O programa explora várias fontes energéticas, de culturas temporárias e perenes ao uso do óleo residual, além de trazer benefícios ao desenvolvimento do país, gerando emprego e renda, e, principalmente, redução nas emissões de gás carbônico.

  6. Chemical characterization of terrestrial gastropods of Brazilian mangroves by EDXRF; Caracterização química de gastrópodes terrestres de manguezais brasileiros por EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélo, Julyanne T.B.; Pereira Neto, Alberto; França, Elvis J. de, E-mail: julyanne.melo@ufpe.br, E-mail: nibbering4@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Bruno F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: brunodasilva1996@hotmail.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In environmental studies, the application of multielement analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence by Energy Dispersion - EDXRF is interesting due to the rapidity in the analysis and preservation of the sample. In the work, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and Zn were quantified in gastropods of the species Littoraria anguliferae Melampus coffea of mangroves located in tourist regions of Itamaracá, Pernambuco, and Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by EDXRF at a pressure lower than 30 Pa, detection time of 840 seconds in a Shimadzu EDX-720 model spectrometer. To guarantee the quality of the analytical procedure, reference materials SRM 2976 - Musseltissue and SRM 1547 - Peachleaves were analyzed. In both locations, the mass fractions of Mg and P were similar for L. anguliferae. For Zn, the average mass fraction of more than 3,000 mg kg{sup -1} of the Barra de Guaratiba animals was considerably higher than that obtained in the Itamaracá mangrove. The M. coffea species also presented a considerably higher accumulation of Zn (approximately 4500 mg kg{sup -1}) when compared to the mass fraction obtained in the Pernambuco mangrove. For Sr, there was a higher concentration in the Itamaracá mangrove (400mg kg{sup -1} for L. anguliferae 180 mg kg{sup -1} for M. coffea) compared to that obtained in Barra de Guaratiba. The analytical technique of EDXRF was successfully employed for the evaluation of both molluscan species as biomonitoring of the environmental quality of mangroves.

  7. Application of 241Am EDXRF in detecting and controlling of rare earth separation process by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chunhua; Jia Jiangtao; Liao Chunsheng; Wang Mingwen; Li Biaoguo; Xu Guangxian

    1996-01-01

    The article investigated a fast EDXRF analysis method by radioisotope excited ( 241 Am) employing a high-purity germanium detector in rare earth separation process by solvent extraction. Applying the method, hydrochloride aqueous samples of SeEuGd/Tb/Dy separation processes were off-line analyzed. Comparative results measured by ICP were also given out. The results show that the method can be used for a wide rare earth concentration range with low error. Being fast, effective, precise and non-destructive, it can be used for on-line analysis to detect and control rare earth separation process by solvent extraction

  8. A non invasive method to detect stratigraphy, thicknesses and pigment concentration of pictorial multilayers based on EDXRF and vis-RS: in situ applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonizzoni, L.; Caglio, S.; Galli, A.; Poldi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Energy dispersive XRF analysis (EDXRF) in association with visible reflectance spectroscopy (vis-RS), both achieved by portable instruments, can be successfully applied, in a wide range of cases, to investigate wood or canvas paintings in order to obtain some stratigraphic information with non-invasive techniques. The specific aim of this work is to use them as quantitative tools: EDXRF to reconstruct the thicknesses of the detected layers, vis-RS to report pigment concentration in the uppermost layer. We present here some in situ analyses of famous paintings by Andrea Mantegna and Giovanni Bellini, compared with stratigraphic optical microscopy observations on cross sections. Advantages and limits are pointed out. (orig.)

  9. Elemental composition by EDXRF of marine sponges from the Berlengas portuguese natural park - western portuguese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Maria Fatima; Conceicao, Ana; Barbosa, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Marine sponges are sedentary and unselective filter-feeding metazoans, which are nowadays represented by more than six thousand species with the Demospongiae being the most representative, inhabiting all aquatic environments. Due to their way of feeding, by filtering large amounts of water, these benthic organisms are particularly exposed to pollutants. Previous studies have demonstrated their aptitude in being used as environmental monitors. Besides, some authors have evidenced a selective bio-accumulation capability for some transition elements (e.g. Ni, Zn) which is dependent on the species. The present work aims at the investigation of marine sponges collected at the Berlengas Islands located at Western Portuguese Coastal area. These islands constitute a National Park with controlled access and low signal of anthropogenic influences, being a nearly ideal habitat to evaluate a possible selective bio-accumulation. Thirty-five sponges collected in August 1998, at the Berlengas National Park were classified and analysed by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). The major, minor and some trace elements: Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, I and Pb were determined. Besides, sediment samples were also taken from the area to assess some lithological influence on the sponge composition. Due to the high percentage of elements that do not emit characteristic X-ray lines, absorption corrections for quantitative calculations were carried out taking into account the ratio between the inelastic and elastic scattered incident radiation of compounds and standard reference materials, from a silver secondary target. A lithological influence on the sponge major elemental composition is demonstrated. The absence of any trace metal contamination was confirmed and a clear selective bio-accumulation in some trace elements, such as Ni, Zn and As was detected

  10. Analysis of SHLW by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadivu, Senthil; Seshadreesan, N.P.; Kumar, R.; Venkatasubramani, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    The simulated high level liquid waste (SHLW) sample expected from fuel reprocessing experiments containing uranium and about 20 various other elements were analysed by EDXRF technique. An investigation with respect to Nd estimation, a burn up monitor, in presence of varying concentrations of U was also carried out. The simulated raffinate solution with a mixture of 20 expected elements was used as standard solution. Four samples of varying concentrations were prepared by appropriate dilution from the standard solution. Calibrations were carried out for its various constituent elements. The elements such as Cs, Mo, Sr,Y, Cd, Ba, Ce, U and La were analysed using W-filter whereas the elements such as Nd, Fe and Ni were analysed using Ge secondary target. The results of 4 simulated samples analysed using FDXRF are given. These values for each element are the mean of the three values obtained. The results obtained for different simulated waste are also shown. These solutions are of different compositions and therefore, vary in their matrix effects. Nevertheless, the medium of second simulated waste is in 3.5N HNO 3 where as the calibration is done with 0.1N HNO 3 medium and hence this might be the cause for large deviations observed in some of the results. A trend of the non-interference of the Uranium matrix in the assay of Nd was demonstrated typically at a fixed concentration of 92.3 ppm in uranium matrix of 900 and 6000 ppm. In both the cases, it was observed that the concentration of Nd measured remained same. This is in accordance to the fact that the characteristic X-ray energy peaks of Nd (L-lines) and U (M-lines) are well separated in the spectrum and the contribution of the low energy peak of Uranium to the higher energy peak of Nd is negligible. But the limiting concentration of Uranium may be the one in which a overlapping of its peak occurs

  11. Areas and limits of employment of portable EDXRF equipment for in situ investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigante, G.E.; Ricciardi, P.; Ridolfi, St.

    2005-01-01

    The use of mobile spectrometers in the archaeo-metric study of ancient artefacts has become a very common practice over the past few years. It does open methodological questions on the employment of such techniques in a non-destructive manner, i.e. avoiding the damage of the artifact. Some additional methodological questions come by (i) the use of such instrumentation for diagnostic scopes (in which a different approach to the measurement is required) and (ii) the use of the spectrometers in systematic analysis on big number of artefacts, stored in several museums (during experimental campaigns). This paper's aim is to discuss some of this questions, on the basis of the experience in the use of mobile (or Field Portable) systems for Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy that we have harvested in the last years. Our conclusions mainly regard the precision of measures, which is related both to the positioning of the spectrometer and to the instrument's instability. Also we deal with the more complex problem of the object's matrix not being homogeneous and of how this can affect the response of the measuring system. Moreover, it is discussed the more general question of the use of portable spectrometers and, consequently, of the meaning one can give to the results so obtained. As a matter of fact the use of such systems, which have an intrinsic analytic potential, in a non-destructive manner, frequently creates ambiguities that have not been, sometimes, taken into account with attention by the investigators. Finally some ideas are traced on the development of methodologies which favor a better use of such spectroscopic systems for the analysis of ancient artefacts. (authors)

  12. "Oravad" tõmbavad Eesti Energia börsileminekule piduri peale / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Riigikogu Reformierakonna fraktsiooni kohtumisest Eesti Energia juhi Sandor Liive ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi esindajatega. Fraktsiooni esimees Peep Aru räägib küsimustest, mis on seotud Eesti Energia börsilemineku kavaga

  13. Parts ja Tiivas peavad aega Eesti Energia börsile tulekuks heaks / Jaana Pikalev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikalev, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul tuleks Eesti Energia aktsiat müüa soodustingimustel. East Capital Exploreri juhi Gert Tiivase hinnangul pole paremat aega Eesti Energia börsile toomiseks kui praegu

  14. Sõnnikust elektri tootmine on Eesti Energia otsustada / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Seakasvatusfirma Ekseko tahab hakata seasõnnikust elektrit ja soojust tootma, kui Eesti Energia finantseerib projekti. Taani konsultatsioonifirma Energy Consulting Network soovitab rajada koostootmisjaama maksumusega umbes 50-60 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Eesti Energia teeb otsuse lähiajal

  15. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Italy): Portable EDXRF in a multi-technique approach for the analyses of large paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridolfi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with its portable capability, generally characterized by a small Xray tube and a Si-PIN or Si-drift detector, is particularly useful to analyze works of art. The main aspect that characterizes the EDXRF technique is its non-invasive character. This characteristic that makes the technique so powerful and appealing is on the other hand the main source of uncertainty in XRF measurements on Cultural Heritage. This problem is even more evident when we analyze paintings because of their intrinsic stratigraphic essence. As a matter of fact a painting is made of several layers: the support, which can be mainly of wood, canvas, paper; the preparation layer, mainly gypsums, white lead or ochre; pigment layers and at the end the protective varnish layer. The penetrating power of X rays allows that most of the times the information of all the layers reaches the detector. Most of the information that is in the spectrum arrives from deep layers of which we have no clue. In order to better understand this concept, let us use the equation of A. Markowicz. in which the various uncertainties that influence the analyses with portable EDXRF are reported. Let us adjust this equation for non invasive portable EDXRF analysis. The second, the third and the fourth term do not exist, for obvious reasons. Only the first and the last term influence the total uncertainty of an EDXRF analysis. The ways to reduce the influence of the fifth term is known by any scientist: good stability of the system, long measuring time, correct standard samples, good energy resolution etc. But what about the first term when we are executing a non invasive analysis? An example that shows the influence of the sample representation in the increasing of the uncertainty of a XRF analysis is the case in which we are asked to determine the original pigments used in a painting. If we have no clue of where restoration areas are dislocated on the painting, the probability of

  16. Eesti Energia tegi esimesed tehingud elektribörsil / Kerli Nõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõu, Kerli

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Energia ei avalikusta NordPoolil sõlmitud tehingute mahtu ärisaladuse tõttu. NordPooli börsil hajutavad riske energia tootjad, suurtarbijad ja hulgikauplejad, kes peavad end energia hinnatõusu vastu kaitsma. Järgmise aasta tulevikutehingute hinda mõjutavatest teguritest. Lisa: NordPool

  17. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  18. Measurement of L3 subshell absorption jump ratios and jump factors for high Z elements using EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaçal, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) has been employed for measuring L 3 -subshell absorption jump ratios, r L 3 and jump factors, J L 3 for high Z elements. Jump factors and jump ratios for these elements have been determined by measuring L 3 subshell fluorescence parameters such as L 3 subshell X-ray production cross section σ L 3 , L 3 subshell fluorescence yield, ω L 3 , total L 3 subshell and higher subshells photoionization cross section σ L T . Measurements were performed using a Cd-109 radioactive point source and an Si(Li) detector in direct excitation experimental geometry. Measured values for jump factors and jump ratios have been compared with theoretically calculated and other experimental values. - Highlights: • This paper regards L 3 subshell absorption jump ratios and jump factors using the EDXRF method. • These parameters were measured using a new method. • This method is more useful than other methods which require much effort. • Results are in good agreement with theoretical and experimental values

  19. Identification of metals in bordering soils and sediments of Lake Ipe (Mato Grosso do Sul State), Brazil, by EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, Sonia Regina G.; Barreto, Wagner J.; Nozaki, Jorge; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do; Aragao, Pedro Henrique A.

    2002-01-01

    Lake Ipe, located in a floodplain area of Parana River, is an ecosystem that apparently does not show signs of pollution. The samplings of sediments in this lake, with a surface area of approximately 10,700 m 2 , were taken at the central point. The soil samples were gathered in a terrestrial area close to the lake not exposed to inundation by overflowing. The qualitative determinations of the main metals, Mg to Pb in soils and sediments were performed by EDXRF. The comparative study among peaks areas analysis of metals by EDXRF in soils and sediments indicated that the concentration of Fe, Zn, and Ga in sediments were respectively 3.29, 4.32, and 7.04 times higher than the soils. On the other hand, the concentrations of Rb and Pb were 100 and 1,552 times higher in sediments. The peak areas of K, Co, Ni, and Cu in sediments were practically twice in the soil samples. The peak areas of Ca, Ti, Cr, and Mn were equivalents in both compartments. The absence of Pb in soils, and the high concentrations observed in sediments, indicated that Pb came from allochthonous sources carried by water of Parana River and not by lixiviation of adjacent soils. (author)

  20. FT-Raman spectroscopy, µ-EDXRF spectrometry, and microhardness analysis of the dentin of primary and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carolina Paes; Miranda Gomes-Silva, Jaciara; Menezes-Oliveira, Maria Angélica Hueb; Silva Soares, Luís Eduardo; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2018-05-01

    The chemical compositions (organic and inorganic contents) and mechanical behaviors of the dentin of permanent and deciduous teeth were analyzed and compared using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (µ-EDXRF) Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and a microhardness test (HD). Healthy fresh human primary and permanent molars (n = 10) were selected, The buccal surfaces facing upwards were stabilized in an acrylic plate, flattened, polished, and submitted to the µ-EDXRF, FT-Raman, and HD analysis. The results of the analysis were subjected to ANOVAs and Mann-Whitney U/Student's t multiple comparisons tests. The data showed similar values for the dentin of the primary and permanent teeth in P content, organic content (amide I peak), inorganic content ( PO43- - 430 and 590), and microhardness, Nevertheless, Ca content and Ca/P weight ratio were higher, and the CO32- peak was lower in the dentin of the permanent teeth compared to primary teeth. It be concluded that despite permanent teeth showed more Ca element, both substrates showed similar behavior of chemical and physical properties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 77 FR 49789 - Record of Decision for Issuing a Presidential Permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission, LLC, for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project...: Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: DOE announces its decision to issue a Presidential permit to Energia... analyzed in the Environmental Impact Statement for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project...

  2. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  3. Fundamentos sobre energia das ondas (e sistemas fotovoltaicos para bombagem de água)

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.

    2017-01-01

    Texto de apoio às aulas da UC "Energias Renováveis II" do Mestrado em Ciências e Tecnologias do Ambiente Devido ao crescente aumento do consumo energético, os últimos anos têm sido caracterizados por uma aposta estratégica na procura de fontes de energia alternativas aos combustíveis fósseis tradicionais. Este documento aborda os principais fundamentos adstritos a dois diferentes tipos de fontes alternativas de energia, nomeadamente a energia das ondas do oceano e a energia solar fotovolta...

  4. Avaliação da conversão da energia fotovoltaica em sistemas isolados

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro de Oliveira, Kleber

    2007-01-01

    Esta dissertação apresenta a importância do uso da energia solar fotovoltaica em relação ao impacto ambiental causado pelas fontes de energia convencionais. O fato da energia solar fotovoltaica ser uma energia livre de poluentes e crescente devido à diminuição dos preços dos painéis fotovoltaicos a deixa em condições de competir com as outras fontes de energia. São apresentados aspectos gerais sobre geração fotovoltaica e são discutidos o princípio de funcionamento, o processo ...

  5. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  6. Renewable energy and technological development; Energia renovable y desarrollo tecnologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio [Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia, (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation is widely described the work carried out by the Trust Fund for Electrical Energy Savings (FIDE) with reference to renewable energy foster. In the first part, it is found the FIDE's mission, which is focused on achieving the efficient use of the energy. Then, there are quiet briefly described the processes -carried out by the FIDE- in favour of the groundbreaking technology that achieves to decrease the energy squandering. In addition, there are mentioned different means boosting the energy savings. Then, there are described the issues the energy system should change in order to improve the actual situation of many Mexicans. There are briefly mentioned not only the environmental but also the social benefits of the use of renewable energy; besides, there are given the necessary elements in order to make it possible. Then, there are explained why the use of renewable energy would be profitable. Finally, it is described the methodology that should be followed in case it is wanted to find sponsors up to 100% for a project related to improvement of the energy production. [Spanish] Esta presentacion describe ampliamente la labor que realiza el Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia (FIDE) en relacion con el fomento de la energia renovable, asi como el desarrollo de tecnologias que refuercen el uso de este tipo de energia. En la primera parte, se encuentra la mision del FIDE, que se enfoca en lograr que el uso de la energia sea apropiado. Enseguida, de forma breve se describen los procesos que realiza el FIDE en favor de la tecnologia innovadora que haga decrecer el dispendio de energia. Luego, se explican las aspectos endebles del sistema energetico de Mexico. Se describen escuetamente los beneficios, no solo ambientales sino tambien sociales, del uso de energia renovable; ademas, se mencionan los elementos necesarios para que esto pueda lograrse. Mas adelante, se dan las razones por las que para Mexico seria rentable el uso de energia renovable

  7. Renewable energy and technological development; Energia renovable y desarrollo tecnologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio [Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia, (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation is widely described the work carried out by the Trust Fund for Electrical Energy Savings (FIDE) with reference to renewable energy foster. In the first part, it is found the FIDE's mission, which is focused on achieving the efficient use of the energy. Then, there are quiet briefly described the processes -carried out by the FIDE- in favour of the groundbreaking technology that achieves to decrease the energy squandering. In addition, there are mentioned different means boosting the energy savings. Then, there are described the issues the energy system should change in order to improve the actual situation of many Mexicans. There are briefly mentioned not only the environmental but also the social benefits of the use of renewable energy; besides, there are given the necessary elements in order to make it possible. Then, there are explained why the use of renewable energy would be profitable. Finally, it is described the methodology that should be followed in case it is wanted to find sponsors up to 100% for a project related to improvement of the energy production. [Spanish] Esta presentacion describe ampliamente la labor que realiza el Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia (FIDE) en relacion con el fomento de la energia renovable, asi como el desarrollo de tecnologias que refuercen el uso de este tipo de energia. En la primera parte, se encuentra la mision del FIDE, que se enfoca en lograr que el uso de la energia sea apropiado. Enseguida, de forma breve se describen los procesos que realiza el FIDE en favor de la tecnologia innovadora que haga decrecer el dispendio de energia. Luego, se explican las aspectos endebles del sistema energetico de Mexico. Se describen escuetamente los beneficios, no solo ambientales sino tambien sociales, del uso de energia renovable; ademas, se mencionan los elementos necesarios para que esto pueda lograrse. Mas adelante, se dan las razones por las que para Mexico seria rentable el uso de energia renovable

  8. Crise de energia e governança ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    França, Georgeana Barbosa de

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho analisa os processos de transformação territorial ocasionados pela implantação de instrumentos de gestão ambiental que visam a promoção de energia renovável em pequena escala em meios rurais. Esta investigação, que possui foco interdisciplinar, emprega a perspectiva metodológica da Teoria do Ator-Rede. O estudo de caso desta pesquisa é uma iniciativa local para produção de energia renovável em uma comunidade rural do Oeste do Paraná, Brasil. Conduzida por ...

  9. Eesti Energia salajased uuringud / Sulev Vedler, Tarmo Vahter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 2. märts nr. 9 lk. 160. Hoitakse salajas Briti konsultatsioonifirma Lexicon Partners poolt koostatud uuringut, mida peaks Eesti riik peale hakkama oma osalusega monopoolses elektriettevõttes Eesti Energia. Majandusminister Edgar Savisaar lasi uuringu ministeeriumisse tuua ning andis juristidele ülesande analüüsida, kui palju saab dokumendist avaldada. Vt. samas: Elektri hind

  10. Energia avastuskeskus = Energy discovery center / Margit Aule ; kommenteerinud Kristiina Raid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Margit, 1981-

    2015-01-01

    Energia avastuskeskuse (Põhja pst 29/31, Tallinn) interjöörist ja ekspositsiooni kujundusest. Autor Margit Argus (KAOS Arhitektid); ekspositsiooni kujundus Margit Argus, Margit Aule; arhitektid Sander Aas, Margit Aule, Pelle Sten Viiburg (KAOS Arhitektid). Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2014/2015 parima ajaloolise interjööri eest

  11. Eesti Energia valib Ameerikas tuumajaamale reaktoreid / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Energia liitus rahvusvahelise tuumareaktoriprojektiga IRIS, projekti eesmärk on luua lihtsa konstruktsiooniga, ohutu ja suhteliselt odav reaktor. Jürgen Ligi sõnul saab Eesti oma IRIS-tüüpi tuumajaama juba 2019. aastal. Joonis: Potentsiaalne tuumajaam

  12. Eesti Energia tahab Liivi lahes broneerida hiigeltuulepargid / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia taotleb valitsuselt viie ala broneerimist Liivi lahes, et analüüsida seal üle 300 meretuuliku püstitamise võimalikkust. Nende koguvõimsus oleks 1500 MW, Eleringi uuringu kohaselt võiks Eestis probleemideta töötada tuuleparke koguvõimsusega 600 MW

  13. Konverents "Turg. Tööstus. Energia." / T Tiidemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiidemann, T

    1993-01-01

    Rootsi organisatsioon SWENESCO (Swedish Network of Engineers and Seientists for Conversion - Rootsi inseneride ja teadlaste võrk konversiooni eest) korraldab konverentsi praktilistest kogemustest Rootsi - Eesti tööstuse ja energia tehnikaalastes projektides 18-20 juuni 1993 Pirita Purjespordikeskuses

  14. Comparison of 14 MeV-NAA, k0-NAA and ED-XRF for air pollution bio-monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senhou, A.; Chouak, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Lferde, M.; Elyahyaoui, A.; Bertho, X.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Piccot, D.

    2002-01-01

    Performances and the limitations of three multi-elementary analysis techniques are compared applied to a study of air pollution biomonitoring in Morocco. These techniques are: 14 MeV neutron activation analysis (14 MeV-NAA), thermal neutron activation analysis using the k 0 quasi-absolute method (k 0 -NAA) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (ED-XRF). The experimental procedures and the control of the analytical results using certified reference materials are described and discussed. The three methods were confronted for the analysis of lichens, mosses and tree-barks. The complementarity of these methods enabled us to determine 43 elements in different samples. The most suitable method for each element was selected according to the sensitivity and selectivity necessitating the minimum corrections of the matrix effects and/or the interfering reactions. (author)

  15. Mapa de energia baseado em predição para redes de sensores sem fio

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Aparecida de Freitas Mini

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é construir o mapa de energia de uma rede de sensores sem fio utilizando técnicas de predição. Em mapas de energia baseados em predição, cada nó sensor utiliza algoritmos de predição para modelar sua dissipação de energia com o objetivo de prever seu consumo de energia no futuro. Nesta situação, ao invés de enviar para o nó sorvedouro apenas sua quantidade de energia disponível, cada sensor envia também os parâmetros do modelo que descreve seu consumo de energia. O n...

  16. A study of accumulation of trace metals in coffee plants grown on ultisols fertilized with rock phosphates by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Lal, Madan; D'Souza, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in soil and leaves of coffee plants have been analysed by a non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study their accumulation due to repeated rock phosphate fertilization. Analysis of standard reference materials of soil and leaves through EDXRF yielded values within 5% error of the certified values. This method was therefore used to determine the trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Zr and Y) concentrations of soils, rock phosphates and leaves of coffee grown in experimental ultisols. Results indicate that rock phosphate fertilization over a period of 10 years did not contribute significantly to high trace metal concentration in plants. (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Applications of the renewable energies; Aplicaciones de las energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Rocha, Luis Martin [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The solar energy manifests itself in different forms and its application has been fundamental for the humankind development. These forms are known as renewable energies, since they are energy forms that are renewed or remade with time or that are so abundant on Earth, that they will last for hundreds or thousands of years, either we use them or not. The main advantage of the utilization of the renewable energies in comparison with hydrocarbons is the one of having smaller impact on the environment, which brings about the conservation of nonrenewable resources, and to postpone its exhaustion. They allow the distributed generation, diminishing the power losses in the transmission and distribution systems, which increases the overall efficiency. In addition they can be the drive for regional development and generation of employment, because when having applications in remote zones and being a field still not completely developed in Mexico, the possibility exists of enabling professionals and technicians. From the point of view of the power sector, the renewable energies extend the supply and availability of energy, making more flexible and independent the operation and reliability of the national power system. [Spanish] La energia solar se manifiesta de diversas formas y su aplicacion ha sido fundamental para el desarrollo de la humanidad. A estas formas se les conoce como energias renovables, ya que son formas de energia que se van renovando o rehaciendo con el tiempo o que son tan abundantes en la tierra, que perduraran por cientos o miles de anos, las usemos o no. La principal ventaja del aprovechamiento de las energias renovables en comparacion con los hidrocarburos es la de tener menor impacto al medio ambiente, lo que trae consigo la conservacion de recursos no renovables, y posponer su termino. Permiten la generacion distribuida, disminuyendo las perdidas energeticas en los sistemas de transmision y distribucion, lo que incrementa la eficiencia general. Ademas

  18. Analüütikud soovitavad Eesti Energia börsile viia / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Kohalikud analüütikud soovitavad viia Eesti Energia börsile, kuna see elavdaks aktsiaturgu ja tõmbaks ligi välisinvestoreid. Vt. samas: Raivo Vare: raske aeg töötab Eesti Energia börsiletoomise kasuks; Analüüs ootab pääsu valitsuskabinetti; Juhid ei püsi enam Eesti Energias. Diagrammid: Majandusnäitajad; Varade maht

  19. Asjatundja soovitab Eesti Energia kiiresti börsile viia / Tiit Nigul ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nigul, Tiit

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia endine juhatuse liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad riigi energiapoliitikat ja -varustust, elektrienergia hinnatõusu, energiafirma börsileminekut, tasakaalu konkurentsiameti ja Eesti Energia vahel, ettevõtte tulusid, Narva Elektrijaamade tootmisvõimsust, koostööd Leedu tuumajaama projektiga, elektriturgu, ettevõtja Urmas Sõõrumaa süüdistamist siseinfo kasutamises, Eesti Energia strateegilist eesmärki saavutada aastaks 2015 kaks miljonit klienti

  20. The application of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) to the analysis of cosmetic evidence in Indian nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Sawhney, K.J.S.; Lodha, G.S.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    The application of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry in the quantitative analysis of samples of Indian nail polishes of apparently similar shades from different manufacturers has been examined by evaluating the possibility of detecting spurious material which is marketed under the guise of a popular brand. On the basis of the number of elements detected, and from the ratios of particular elements [Fe/Ti,Fe/Cu,Ti/Cu] the results are very encouraging. (author)

  1. The application of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) to the analysis of cosmetic evidence in Indian nail polishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, G. (Forensic Science Lab., Chandigarh (India)); Sawhney, K.J.S.; Lodha, G.S. (Nuclear Research Lab., Srinagar (India)); Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S. (Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-05-01

    The application of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry in the quantitative analysis of samples of Indian nail polishes of apparently similar shades from different manufacturers has been examined by evaluating the possibility of detecting spurious material which is marketed under the guise of a popular brand. On the basis of the number of elements detected, and from the ratios of particular elements (Fe/Ti,Fe/Cu,Ti/Cu) the results are very encouraging. (author).

  2. Studies of trace elements in biological systems by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Madan; Choudhury, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Applicability of EDXRF and PIXE techniques for trace elemental analysis in biology and medicine is demonstrated. Due to increasing importance of the need to determine the role of essential and toxic trace elements in human health and disease, the method of PIXE analysis has assumed great importance in recent years. This method has been found to be particularly useful for biological samples. EDXRF also offers a complimentary method particularly in the range of elements of Z=45 to 60 where the sensitivity of PIXE analysis is not quite adequate. EDXRF can also be usefully employed for other elements of the periodic chart with relatively lesser sensitivity. The work being presented here includes trace element analysis of normal and cancer bearing tissues of Swiss mice, trace element profiles in cancerous human oesophageal tissues, investigations on the effect of toxic metals such as Hg from Ayurvedic drugs on Wister rats, and investigations of blood lead levels of children admitted to Sion Hospital from Dharavi slums of Bombay. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed. (author). 21 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Precision and accuracy of ST-EDXRF performance for As determination comparing with ICP-MS and evaluation of As deviation in the soil media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Songul; Cevik, Ugur; Van, Aydın Ali; De Wael, Karolien; Van Grieken, Rene

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to (i) determine the precision and accuracy of arsenic measurement in soil samples using ST-EDXRF by comparison with the results of ICP-MS analyses and (ii) identify the relationship of As concentration with soil characteristics. For the analysis of samples, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) were performed. According to the results found in the soil samples, the addition of HCl to HNO3, used for the digestion gave significant variations in the recovery of As. However, spectral interferences between peaks for As and Pb can affect detection limits and accuracy for XRF analysis. When comparing the XRF and ICP-MS results a correlation was observed with R(2)=0.8414. This means that using a ST-EDXRF spectrometer, it is possible to achieve accurate and precise analysis by the calibration of certified reference materials and choosing an appropriate secondary target. On the other hand, with regard to soil characteristics analyses, the study highlighted that As is mostly anthropogenically enriched in the studied area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. L'energia nuclear: pot resoldre el problema de l'escalfament global?

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Josep

    2006-01-01

    Sovint es diu que l'energia nuclear pot ser la solució pel problema de l'escalfament global: l'article presenta dades i raonaments per concloure que, si tota l'electricitat mundial fos d'origen nuclear, l'escalfament global es reduiria tan sols en un 12%. També s'analitzen els subproductes militars de la indústria de l'energia nuclear "civil" i la problemàtica dels residus radioactius de l'energia nuclear de fissió. També s'analitza l'alt grau de dificultats que presenta l'energia nuclear de ...

  5. Kätega ravimine ehk me kõik oleme energia / Kerttu Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Kerttu, 1961-

    2011-01-01

    Erinevatest energia vahendamisel põhinevatest psühhotehnikatest ja ravimeetoditest: reiki, Silva ultra, maagiline maatriks ehk MM, elektromagnetvälja tasakaalustamise tehnika EMF, kvantpuudutus, bioenergeetika

  6. Geração de energia a partir das ondas do mar

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo, Diogo Dinis

    2013-01-01

    Dado o aumento do consumo de energia e a necessidade de reduzir as emissões de poluentes para a atmosfera, o presente trabalho visa propor uma solução de produção de energia limpa a partir das ondas do mar. O objetivo desta dissertação é criar um sistema alternativo de conversão da energia cinética proveniente das ondas do mar em energia elétrica, tendo como ponto de partida o projeto do sistema pendular SEAREV. Numa primeira fase foi realizada uma análise dos sistemas de co...

  7. Paradigmas da energia solar no Brasil e no mundo

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha Kemerich, Pedro Daniel; Balestrin Flores, Carlos Eduardo; de Borba, Willian Fernando; Borth da Silveira, Rafael; Rodrigues França, Jacson; Levandoski, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Com o aumento gradativo da população e dos padrões de consumo da sociedade atual, os debates envolvendo as questões energéticas estão sendo cada vez mais frequentes. A base energética do Brasil gira em torno das hidrelétricas, visto que o país possui uma ótima disponibilidade hídrica. Com a escassez dos recursos não renováveis causado pelo consumo desenfreado, voltam-se os olhos para as fontes de energias renováveis, dentre elas destaca-se a energia solar. Com isso o presente estudo teve por ...

  8. A definition model of electric power tariff based on marginal cost: case study at CERON - the electric company of Rondonia, Brazil; Um modelo de definicao de tarifa de energia eletrica baseada no custo marginal: estudo de caso na CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domiciano, Jose Antonio

    2002-07-01

    The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)

  9. A definition model of electric power tariff based on marginal cost: case study at CERON - the electric company of Rondonia, Brazil; Um modelo de definicao de tarifa de energia eletrica baseada no custo marginal: estudo de caso na CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domiciano, Jose Antonio

    2002-07-01

    The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)

  10. O espaço da energia nuclear no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Francisco de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo repassa a história e descreve a experiência acumulada em energia nuclear no Brasil, mostrando que as aplicações biomédicas, industriais e agrícolas desenvolveram-se bem no país, a partir dos anos 1950. Em seguida, o artigo demonstra que o país pode cobrir seu consumo de energia elétrica apenas com fontes renováveis de energia, sem recorrer a usinas nucleares de potência. Por fim, são analisados os argumentos comuns na imprensa, a favor e contrários às centrais nucleares, e são discutidos alguns aspectos comerciais e políticos do problema. São também examinadas as estratégias de vendas da indústria nuclear no Brasil.This article reviews the history and describes the experience on nuclear energy in Brazil, showing that nuclear technology applied to biomedical sciences, industry and agriculture has been largely developed in this country, from the year 1950 on. Then the paper shows that Brazil can cover its electricity consumption with only renewable energy sources, without nuclear power plants. Finally the arguments usually employed in the press, pro and against nuclear power plants are analyzed and some commercial and political aspects of the problem are commented. The sales strategy of the nuclear industry in Brazil is also commented.

  11. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by TXRF and EDXRF: child weight and aging mother dependences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Custodio, P.J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2000-01-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the age's mother in trace elemental concentration in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during the delivery, from healthy mothers and healthy infants. According to the age of the mother three different groups were considered: from 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40. Only two mothers were aged more than 35. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg. The organic matrices of the amniotic fluid samples were removed by wet ashing with HNO 3 in oxygen plasma. Yttrium was used as internal standard, for TXRF analysis. For EDXRF placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni, and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, independently of age of the mother and child weight. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in the newborn health, was not significantly different in the analyzed samples, however, was related, though weakly, to birth weigh. The obtained concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/L and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta respectively. The only two elements seemed to be significantly affected with age mother and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both kind of samples: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and elder mothers, however Fe increased with the increase of the age mother but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated in its function in the organism with Fe and has a similar behavior with this element, however not so pronounced. (author)

  12. Inorganic elements determination in human and animal whole blood samples by X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redigolo, Marcelo Miyada

    2011-01-01

    Blood is a suspension of cells contained in a complex liquid called plasma. The term 'whole blood' refers to samples with both solid and liquid parts. Inorganic elements are responsible for essential functions, such as osmotic regulation, cardiac frequency and contractibility, blood clotting and neuromuscular excitability. The determination of inorganic elements in corporeal fluids such as blood, serum, plasma, tissue and urine is used as a monitor for a part or the whole organism. In this work, the X-Ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) was used for the determination of inorganic elements in whole blood samples from humans and animals (golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and crioula breed horses, Equus caballus). The reference intervals of Na (1788 - 1826 μg g'- 1 ), Mg (63 - 75 μg g -1 ), P (602 - 676 μg g -1 ), S (1519 - 1718 μg g -1 ), Cl (2743 - 2867 μg g -1 ), K (1508 - 1630 μg g -1 ), Ca (214 - 228 μg g'- 1 ), Cu (4 -6 μg g -1 ) e Zn (1 - 3 μg g'- 1 ) were determined for human blood. The reference intervals, for golden hamster blood were found to be: Na (1714 - 1819 μg g -1 ), Mg (51 - 79 μg g -1 ), P (970 - 1080 μg g -1 ), S (1231 - 1739 μg g -1 ), Cl (2775 - 2865 μg g -1 ), K (1968 - 2248 μg g -1 ), Ca (209 - 257 μg g-1), Cu (4 - 6 μg g -1 ) e Zn (3 - 5 μg g -1 ). The reference intervals, for crioula breed horse blood, showed to be: Na (1955 - 2013 μg g -1 ), Mg (51 - 75 μg g -1 ), P (443 - 476 μg g -1 ), S (1038 - 1140 μg g - '1), Cl (2388 - 2574 μg g -1 ), K (1678 - 1753 μg g -1 ), Ca (202 - 213 μg g -1 ), Cu (4,1 - 4,5 μg g -1 ) e Zn (2,0 - 2,2 μg g -1 ). Comparative study between NAA and EDXRF, both techniques showed the same performance for the analyses of biological matrices. The results contribute for the establishment of reference intervals for the Brazilian healthy population and the referred animal species. (author)

  13. Eesti Energia senine juhatus jätkab veel vähemalt aasta / Anneli Ammas, Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu otsustas jätta ettevõtte juhatuse veel aastaks ametisse, juhikonkursi korraldamise kohta otsust ei langetatud. Nõukogu liikmete kommentaare. Lisa: Eesti Energia kasvatas eksporti

  14. Studies through EDXRF of pre hispanic objects of the archaeological zone of Cholula, Puebla, Mexico; Estudios mediante EDXRF de objetos prehispanicos de la zona arqueologica de Cholula, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres H, J.; Navarrete M, Z. [INAOP, 72840 Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In the valley of Puebla-Tlaxcala in Mexico flourished a culture, as great as the Teotihuacana, the Cholulteca, between the years 0-800. The product most known of this culture was the ceramic, famous by its colours; however, there was another important activity where they left master pieces, the mural painting. The mural 'Los Bebedores' is probably unique in its type. The technique used to paint it is not defined, but it was very similar to that known as 'al fresco'. This mural is inside of the great pyramid of Cholula and present damage due to its age and the different attempt to restore it. In this work we present the results obtained using a portable system of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) to characterize the chemical composition of the polychromatic ceramic and the pigments, used in the mural painting, of Cholula. We describe the problems associated to the characterization of composition of the dyes used in the mural painting, due mainly to the thin layers of the pigments of this type of samples. (Author)

  15. Energy of our planet; La energia de nuestro planeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Alvarado, Ignacio; Santoyo Gutierrez, Edgar [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The total heat flowing from the Earth's interior to the surface is estimated at {approx}42 TW (1012 watts) of which 19% comes from the crust, the 76% comes from the mantle and the 5% comes from the nucleus. The ability to drive the heat of the rocks is very low, causing the need of hundreds of millions of years to exhaust this energy resource. Based on the properties of the renewable heat flow and the long geological times required for its exhaustion, the Earth energy is considered by many scientists as a source of inexhaustible renewable energy, and by its natural availability in all parts of our planet, perhaps the best distributed, together with solar energy. One of the most important advantages of geothermal energy is that its energy can be used not only to generate electric power, but in a large number of applications or direct uses: the heating of buildings, greenhouses or incubators; aquaculture; in various industrial processes (drying products, food packaging, paper manufacturing, chemicals, etc.); balneology for recreational purposes and medicines, and many other applications. In fact, geothermal applications can be integrally one after another or in processes in cascade to fully utilize its energy content. [Spanish] El calor total que fluye del interior de la Tierra hacia la superficie se estima en {approx}42 TW (1012 watts) del cual 19% proviene de la corteza, el 76% proviene del manto y el 5% proviene del nucleo. La capacidad para conducir el calor de las rocas es muy baja, lo que ocasiona que se necesiten cientos de millones de anos para agotar este recurso energetico. Basado en las propiedades renovables del flujo de calor y los largos tiempos geologicos requeridos para su agotamiento, la energia de la Tierra es considerada por muchos cientificos como una fuente de energia renovable, practicamente inagotable, y por su disponibilidad natural en todo nuestro planeta, quizas la mejor distribuida, junto con la energia solar. Una de las ventajas mas

  16. Eesti Energia nõukogu liikmed Jaotusvõrgu hinnatõusutaotlust kommenteerima ei kipu / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu liige Kalle Palling kommenteerib peaminister Andrus Ansipi öeldut, et Eesti Energia investeeringud tuleb üle vaadata. Nõukogu liikme Rein Kilgi sõnul tunduvad talle rünnakud Eesti Energia vastu ülekohtused

  17. TXRF, PIXE and EDXRF: a first step towards normalization of x-ray spectrometry for chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiros, M.A.; Costa, M.M.; Palha, M.; Pinheiro, T.; Araujo, M.F.; Silva, R.C. da

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, many research studies rely on analytical measurements to which x-ray spectrometry techniques are particularly adequate. Because they are multi-elemental, versatile, fast and can reach low detection limits they are often applied to environmental and biomedical studies. Besides, they are able to provide reliable and accurate results. As also occurs with other analytical procedures, the quality assurance for non-routine analysis in R and D laboratories, is much less well established. when compared with routine analytical work. Thus, it is of foremost importance, to set the major quality parameters that significantly affect the quality of results. In addition, there is a need to apply the new concepts of trace ability and uncertainty to these techniques. This work reports on the reliability of TXRF, PIXE and EDXRF measurements by evaluating the uncertainty and trace ability for elemental analysis. The set of experimental and statistical procedures used to ensure the quality of results relative to the proposed objectives, as well as the methods applied to estimate the uncertainties will be presented and discussed. The sample preparation procedures, analytical calibration and spectral evaluation will be the parameters examined in this inter-laboratory study. The sample preparation procedures comprise pressure acid digestion and pelletizing for solid samples. The internal quality control for analytical calibration and spectral analysis is performed using certified reference materials and standard solutions. The goal of this work is to present a first step towards normalization of x-ray spectrometry techniques for chemical analysis. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the composition of filters additional of equipment radiological intraoral by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, Alana Caroline; Torres, Catarina A.M.P.; Rocha, Ana S.S.; Deniak, Valeriy; Lara, Alessandro L.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Fernandes, Angela; Westphalen, Fernando Henrique

    2013-01-01

    The need for high quality standards for radiographic images in order to make a diagnosis assertive, and being the additional filtration required in the intraoral X-ray equipment show the need of evaluating these filters. This study aims to examine the influence of the elemental composition of the filters of X-ray of dental intraoral equipment in the radiographic images quality. The filters analysis were performed by using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method (EDXRF). Ten conventional filters were analysed. In this study, 33 radiographic exposures were performed using films: twenty radiographs in the incisor region and ten in the molar region, three exposures were also made in the same regions with same conditions without using filter. After radiographs development, optical density was measure and all radiographs were submitted to subjective evaluation by dental radiologists. Data obtained were correlated to effects evaluation of the elemental composition of all filters in the quality of the radiographic images. The elements found were: aluminum, cobalt, copper, sulfur, iron, manganese, titanium, zinc, and zirconium. The images obtained were identified in groups: Molars to 0.3 s; Incisors to 0.2 s; Incisors to 0.3 s, and for the group without filters. From the results obtained it was concluded that both unclear radiographs and ideal radiographs were produced by using filters of elementary common. Therefore, conventional filters evaluated were an acceptable option to produce quality images in dental radiology, despite differences in the composition of the alloys. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the composition of filters additional of equipment radiological intraoral by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Alana Caroline; Torres, Catarina A.M.P.; Rocha, Ana S.S.; Deniak, Valeriy; Lara, Alessandro L.; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: alanacarolinef@gmail.com, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial; Fernandes, Angela; Westphalen, Fernando Henrique, E-mail: angelafernandes@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias da Saude

    2013-07-01

    The need for high quality standards for radiographic images in order to make a diagnosis assertive, and being the additional filtration required in the intraoral X-ray equipment show the need of evaluating these filters. This study aims to examine the influence of the elemental composition of the filters of X-ray of dental intraoral equipment in the radiographic images quality. The filters analysis were performed by using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method (EDXRF). Ten conventional filters were analysed. In this study, 33 radiographic exposures were performed using films: twenty radiographs in the incisor region and ten in the molar region, three exposures were also made in the same regions with same conditions without using filter. After radiographs development, optical density was measure and all radiographs were submitted to subjective evaluation by dental radiologists. Data obtained were correlated to effects evaluation of the elemental composition of all filters in the quality of the radiographic images. The elements found were: aluminum, cobalt, copper, sulfur, iron, manganese, titanium, zinc, and zirconium. The images obtained were identified in groups: Molars to 0.3 s; Incisors to 0.2 s; Incisors to 0.3 s, and for the group without filters. From the results obtained it was concluded that both unclear radiographs and ideal radiographs were produced by using filters of elementary common. Therefore, conventional filters evaluated were an acceptable option to produce quality images in dental radiology, despite differences in the composition of the alloys. (author)

  20. Modern, PC based, high resolution portable EDXRF analyzer offers laboratory performance for field, in-situ analysis of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piorek, Stanislaw

    1994-01-01

    The introduction of a new, high resolution, portable probe that has improved the sensitivity of the conventional field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) by up to an order of magnitude had been reported earlier [S. Piorek and J.R. Pasmore, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Field Screening Methods for Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals, Las Vegas, 1991, p. 737]. A high resolution Si(Li) detector probe operates connected to a multichannel X-ray analyzer (2048 channels) which is housed in a portable, battery powered industrial computer. An improved energy resolution of the detector allows the implementation of more sophisticated data treatment methods to convert the measured intensities into mass concentrations of the analytes. A backscatter with a fundamental parameters approach (BFP) is one of the best methods, specifically for metallic contaminants in soil. A program has been written based on the BFP method for use with the new probe. The new software/probe combination enables one to quickly assess levels of contaminants on the site without the need of analyzed samples for instrument calibration. The performance of the EDXRF system in application to analysis of metals in contaminated soil is discussed in this paper. Also discussed is the extension of this method in the analysis of other types of environmental samples such as air particulates collected on filter paper. ((orig.))

  1. Study on elemental features of Longquan celadon at Fengdongyan kiln site in Yuan and Ming Dynasties by EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, S.L., E-mail: fengsl@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, X.Q.; Xu, Q.; Yan, L.T.; Ma, B.; Liu, L. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-12-01

    The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is used to determine the chemical compositions of Longquan celadon body and glaze at Fengdongyan kiln in Yuan and Ming Dynasties. In order to analyze the elemental features in different cultural periods, 196 typical Longquan celadon shards are selected including the Early Yuan (EY), the Middle and Late Yuan (MLY), the Early Ming (EM) and the Middle Ming (MM) periods. The results indicate that the contents of K{sub 2}O, CaO, TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} for celadon body and glaze are various in different cultural periods. The b values b=RO/(RO+R{sub 2}O), RO represents for alkali-earth metal elements and R{sub 2}O stands for alkali metal elements) show that the glazes of Longquan celadon in Yuan and Ming Dynasties belong to the category of calcium-alkali glaze. The principal component analysis (PCA) exhibits that the raw materials used for body and glaze in four periods have the inheritance relation. The only difference is that the raw materials for glaze in MM period were similar to those in EM period. The producing and firing technology of Longquan celadon had reached a higher level in the Early Ming Dynasty.

  2. Multilayered samples reconstructed by measuring Kα/Kβ or Lα/Lβ X-ray intensity ratios by EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesareo, Roberto; de Assis, Joaquim T.; Roldán, Clodoaldo; Bustamante, Angel D.; Brunetti, Antonio; Schiavon, Nick

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a general method based on energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been tested to assess its possible use as a tool to reconstruct the structure and determine the thickness of two and/or multi-layered materials. The method utilizes the X-ray intensity ratios of Kα/Kβ or Lα/Lβ peaks (or the ratio of these peaks) for selected elements present in multi-layered objects of various materials (Au alloys, gilded Cu, gilded Ag, gilded Pb, Ag-Au Tumbaga, stone surfaces with protective treatments, Zn or Nickel plating on metals). Results show that, in the case of multi-layered samples, a correct calculation of the peak ratio (Kα /Kβ and/or Lα/Lβ) of relevant elements from energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra, can provide important information in assessing the exact location of each layer and for calculating its thickness. The methodological approach shown may have important applications not only in materials science but also when dealing with the conservation and restoration of multi-layered cultural heritage objects where the use of a Non-Destructive techniques to determine slight chemical and thickness variations in the layered structure is often of paramount importance to achieve the best results.

  3. Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Huang, Y.; Sun, H.Y.; Yan, L.T.; Feng, S.L.; Xu, Q.; Feng, X.Q.

    2016-01-01

    A lot of official wares carved “Guan” or the dragon patterns were excavated on the strata of Ming dynasty of the Fengdongyan kiln site at Dayao County. The imperial porcelain was fired in Hongwu and Yongle eras. However, the emergence of this imperial porcelain has triggered academic debate about the property of Fengdongyan kiln in the Early Ming dynasty. Based on the differences of the official kiln management, some scholars have determined that the property of the production for this kiln was the civilian kiln. According to the historical textural records and typology, others preliminary confirmed that Fengdongyan kiln was the official kiln. In this paper, the elemental compositions of body and glaze in imperial and civilian porcelain are study by INAA and EDXRF for determining the property of the production for this kiln in Early Ming dynasty. After the processing of experimental data by geochemical analysis and principal component analysis, the result show that the raw materials for making body and glaze in imperial porcelain are similar with those of the civilian porcelain and the degrees of elutriation for body can be slightly different in HW-M period of Ming dynasty. The analytical results support the view that the Fengdongyan kiln is civilian not official.

  4. Measurement of transient thickness between the body and glaze layers of ancient porcelains using microprobe EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zicheng

    2004-01-01

    The oxide contents of TiO 2 , MnO, SrO and Fe 2 O 3 in the body and glaze layers of the Jiao-Tan-Xia (JTX) and Lao-Hu-Dong (LHD) porcelains in Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279 A.D.) have been determined using an International Eagle-II μ-probe EDXRF spectrometer. The results show that the contents in the body are much different from those in the glaze one. Therefore, the transient thickness (TT) between the body and glaze layers can be measured through determination of a distance of the drift change in the chemical contents. The TT average for the JTX porcelains is 161 μm, while that for the LHD porcelains is 258 μm, which are consistent with a range of 0.15-0.3 mm in the Ru-Yao porcelains. The different TT is related to the variances in firing temperature and raw material for manufacturing the respective porcelains. (authors)

  5. Effect of bleaching gel in Ca, P and Zn content in tooth enamel evaluated by μ-EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, J.; Silveira, J.; Mata, A. [Oral and Biomedical Sciences Research Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, M.L. [Centro de Física Atómica, Av. Professor Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal); Pessanha, S., E-mail: aldaspsousa@gmail.com [Centro de Física Atómica, Av. Professor Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this in vitro study is to assess whether the elemental content of P, Ca and Zn in tooth enamel is altered when bleaching the teeth with bleaching gel. In order to perform this evaluation, sound vestibular surfaces of six anterior healthy teeth, extracted for periodontal or orthodontic reasons were used. Cuts were made in order to obtain 8 × 2 mm samples. Samples were then treated with the bleaching product (Opalescence PF 10%) accordingly to manufacturer instructions and stocked in artificial saliva between each application. The elemental content of each sample, before and after treatment was obtained by a portable micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (μ-EDXRF), making use of a polycapillary optic to obtain a focal spot of 100 μm for Fe-Kα. Quantitative calculations were obtained by WinAXIL compare mode method, using four standard reference materials. The obtained results show that no significant statistic differences were observed for the studied elements.

  6. Reducing matrix effect error in EDXRF: Comparative study of using standard and standard less methods for stainless steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Masliana Muhammad; Wilfred, P.

    2013-01-01

    Even though EDXRF analysis has major advantages in the analysis of stainless steel samples such as simultaneous determination of the minor elements, analysis can be done without sample preparation and non-destructive analysis, the matrix issue arise from the inter element interaction can make the the final quantitative result to be in accurate. The paper relates a comparative quantitative analysis using standard and standard less methods in the determination of these elements. Standard method was done by plotting regression calibration graphs of the interested elements using BCS certified stainless steel standards. Different calibration plots were developed based on the available certified standards and these stainless steel grades include low alloy steel, austenitic, ferritic and high speed. The standard less method on the other hand uses a mathematical modelling with matrix effect correction derived from Lucas-Tooth and Price model. Further improvement on the accuracy of the standard less method was done by inclusion of pure elements into the development of the model. Discrepancy tests were then carried out for these quantitative methods on different certified samples and the results show that the high speed method is most reliable for determining of Ni and the standard less method for Mn. (Author)

  7. Effect of bleaching gel in Ca, P and Zn content in tooth enamel evaluated by μ-EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, J.; Silveira, J.; Mata, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Pessanha, S.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study is to assess whether the elemental content of P, Ca and Zn in tooth enamel is altered when bleaching the teeth with bleaching gel. In order to perform this evaluation, sound vestibular surfaces of six anterior healthy teeth, extracted for periodontal or orthodontic reasons were used. Cuts were made in order to obtain 8 × 2 mm samples. Samples were then treated with the bleaching product (Opalescence PF 10%) accordingly to manufacturer instructions and stocked in artificial saliva between each application. The elemental content of each sample, before and after treatment was obtained by a portable micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (μ-EDXRF), making use of a polycapillary optic to obtain a focal spot of 100 μm for Fe-Kα. Quantitative calculations were obtained by WinAXIL compare mode method, using four standard reference materials. The obtained results show that no significant statistic differences were observed for the studied elements.

  8. Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Y.; Sun, H.Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan, L.T.; Feng, S.L.; Xu, Q. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, X.Q., E-mail: fengxq@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A lot of official wares carved “Guan” or the dragon patterns were excavated on the strata of Ming dynasty of the Fengdongyan kiln site at Dayao County. The imperial porcelain was fired in Hongwu and Yongle eras. However, the emergence of this imperial porcelain has triggered academic debate about the property of Fengdongyan kiln in the Early Ming dynasty. Based on the differences of the official kiln management, some scholars have determined that the property of the production for this kiln was the civilian kiln. According to the historical textural records and typology, others preliminary confirmed that Fengdongyan kiln was the official kiln. In this paper, the elemental compositions of body and glaze in imperial and civilian porcelain are study by INAA and EDXRF for determining the property of the production for this kiln in Early Ming dynasty. After the processing of experimental data by geochemical analysis and principal component analysis, the result show that the raw materials for making body and glaze in imperial porcelain are similar with those of the civilian porcelain and the degrees of elutriation for body can be slightly different in HW-M period of Ming dynasty. The analytical results support the view that the Fengdongyan kiln is civilian not official.

  9. Arsenic in drinking water and in scalp hair by EDXRF. A major recent health hazard in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Tarafdar, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic content in drinking water and in scalp hair of the arsenic affected areas in Bangladesh were measured using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) to determine the contribution of drinking water to body burden and health risks. Around 61% of the water analyzed from tube-wells has arsenic content above 0.05 mg/l and about 13% have arsenic content above 0.01 mg/l. The mean concentration of arsenic in contaminated water is about 0.26 mg/l with the maximum level of 0.83 mg/l. The contaminated water thus contributes a significant amount to the arsenic budget in humans in Bangladesh and consequently, to their health hazards. The average concentration of arsenic in hair of a patient group drinking contaminated water is 14.1 mg/kg where the normal levels are <3.0 mg/kg. The distribution of arsenic in water and in hair is compared and discussed with the data reported in the literature. The daily dietary intake value of arsenic by the adult population in Bangladesh is estimated and assessed signifying health effects. (author)

  10. Roheline energia läheb müüki topelthinnaga / Ervin Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Ervin

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Energia on märtsi keskel käivitanud Rohelise Energia kampaaniaga leidnud võtte, kuidas kaks korda kõrgema elektri müügihinnaga katta alternatiivenergia kohustusliku kokkuostu järjest kasvavaid kulusid

  11. Eesti Energia kärpis elektrihinna tõusu / Aivar Reinap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinap, Aivar, 1968-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 13. veebr. 2004, lk. 1. Eesti Energia nõukogu otsustas vähendada taotletavat elektrienergia hinnatõusu 15%ni ja lükkas hinnapakettide lõpliku kinnitamise edasi nädala võrra. Riigikogu ja Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme Janno Reiljani arvamus

  12. Eesti Energia börsile! Argus riputaks ta meile kiviks kaela / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia võimalikust börsileviimisest. Autori sõnul poleks börsikavagi täieliku riskita, peaküsimus võib hakata puudutama nn. rahvaaktsia kava. Kõige halvem oleks Eesti Energia puhul otsustamatus

  13. Eesti Energia juhi küsimus jäi ajapuudusel lahendamata / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu jättis otsustamata, kas ettevõtte juhatuse esimehe kohale kuulutatakse välja avalik konkurss. Vt. samas: Oki valulaps on elektri hind; Kronoloogia: Eesti Energia on Gunnar Oki juhtimisel kõvasti kosunud

  14. Projecte d'implantació d'energia solar fotovoltaica al municipi d'Albanyà

    OpenAIRE

    Molins i Galas, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Disseny d’una instal·lació d’energia solar fotovoltaica per als edificis públics del municipi d’Albanyà (Alt Empordà) per connectar-la a la xarxa i amb un estudi sobre la substitució dels actuals fanals de l’enllumenat públic per fanals alimentats amb energia solar fotovoltaica

  15. Eesti Energia ekstöötaja asutas konkureeriva firma / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    OÜ Baltic Energy Partners (BEP) üks omanikke on endine Eesti Energia teeninduse hulgivaldkonna juht Peeter Pikk. BEP hakkab tegutsema ühena Eesti elektrisüsteemi bilansihalduritest. Eesti Energia ostis Skandinaavia elektribörsi Nord Pool maaklerfirma Solidus OY

  16. Ülikoolihõnguline personalikoolitus Eesti Energias / Annika Kaseorg ; küsitlenud Kadri Kiigema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaseorg, Annika

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Energia alustatud uuest projektist "Nädalalõpu Ülikool" räägib Eesti Energia Jaotusvõrgu personali arendamise projektijuht Annika Kaseorg. Avaseminaril tegi ettekande töövõime säilitamisest TLÜ terviseteaduste ja spordi teaduskonna dekaan Kristjan Port

  17. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  18. TTÜ energia- ja sisekliimalabor : energiasääst passiivse arhitektuurilise jahutuse ja/või küttemeetodite kavandamise abil / Hendrik Voll, Teolan Tomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voll, Hendrik, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    TTÜ ehitusteaduskonna kütte ja ventilatsiooni õppetoolis valmis energia- ja sisekliima labor, mille spetsiaalsed päikesekiirguse ja hajuvalguse stendid aitavad inseneridel ja arhitektidel parandada energiasimulatsiooniprogrammide kasutusoskusi

  19. Avaliação económica de um investimento em geração de energia das ondas e energia solar térmica

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Ruben Fernando Lopes

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objectivo efectuar a avaliação económica e determinar a viabilidade com e sem os incentivos fiscais de duas tecnologias de conversão de duas fontes distinta e emergentes de energia renovável, o Concentrador Cilindro-parabólico e a Torre Solar para a energia solar termoeléctrica e a Coluna de Água Oscilante e o Pelamis para a energia das ondas. Realiza-se uma curta abordagem à energia Solar e à energia dos Oceanos, e às tecnologias existentes para estes tipos de en...

  20. Api Energia IGCC plant is fully integrated with refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bravo, R. [api Energia, Rome (Italy); Trifilo, R. [ABB Sadelmi, Milan (Italy); Chiantore, P.V. [api anonima petroli Italiania Spa, Rome (Italy); Starace, F. [ABB Power Generation, Baden (Switzerland); O`Keefe, L.F. [Texico, White Plains (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The api Energia integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant being built at Falconara Marittima, on Italy`s Adriatic coast, is one of the three IGCC plants under construction in Italy following the liberalization of the electricity production sector. The plant will take 59.2 t/h of high sulphur heavy oil produced by the Falconara refinery, convert it to syngas and use the gas to generate 280 MW of electricity, plus steam and other gases for use in the refinery. The IGCC plant will be highly integrated into the refining process, with a large number of interchanges between the IGCC unit and the rest of the refinery. (author)

  1. Comparative study of inorganic elements determined in whole blood from Dmd(mdx)/J mice strain by EDXRF and NAA analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redígolo, M M; Sato, I M; Metairon, S; Zamboni, C B

    2016-04-01

    Several diseases can be diagnosed observing the variation of specific elements concentration in body fluids. In this study the concentration of inorganic elements in blood samples of dystrophic (Dmd(mdx)/J) and C57BL/6J (control group) mice strain were determined. The results obtained from Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were compared with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. Both analytical techniques showed to be appropriate and complementary offering a new contribution for veterinary medicine as well as detailed knowledge of this pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of some elements along the length of pine needles by means of the scanning energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.; Katkevics, J.; Nulle, S.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXDF) is used to measure the distribution of trace elements along the length of single pine needles. The current set up allows simultaneous determination up to 15 trace elements. The pilot experiments showed that the distribution of some elements varied along length of the pine needle. Concentration variations of trace elements with the needle age and needle position within the foliage crown were also observed. This could be one way of studying the annual physiological cycle of needles. The scanning EDXRF method was compared with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). (authors)

  3. Elemental evaluation in plastic garbage bags purchased from local markets in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, using the EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Cavagis, Alexandre D.M.; Menegario, Amauri A.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic garbage bags have been used for packing household waste in Piracicaba city and nearby cities broadly. Many of these bags are made from recycled polymers and the presence of harmful elements is a matter of concern. In this work fourteen plastic garbage bags of different brands and colors were purchased from local markets in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo. For the analysis, the samples in triplicate were cut into 47 mm diameter circle and attached into acrylic holder and analyzed directly by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF. The excitation was carried out using an X-ray tube Mo target and Zr filter (15 kV / 25 mA) under non-vacuum. The characteristic X-rays were detected by a semiconductor detector Si(Li), coupled to a multichannel analyzer system. The acquisition time was 500 s and the X-ray spectra were deconvulated by the AXIL software. For quantification it was used a standard set produced by the MicroMatter/USA and the absorption effect was corrected by the known chemical composition matrix technique, in which allowed the determination of K, Ca Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr by Kα lines and Pb by the line Lα simultaneously. The trueness of the method was verified by analyzing a certified reference material (NIST air particulate on filter media, SRM2783). The limits of detection (LD) for these elements were: K - 38.9; Ca - 19.4; Ti - 7.1; Cr - 3.1; Mn - 2.1; Fe - 1.5; Cu - 0.86; Zn - 0.85; Sr - 4.6 and Pb - 2.8 μg g -1 . Some elements showed minimum and/or maximum concentrations well above the LDs, as K: -1 . (author)

  4. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akçay, Nilay, E-mail: nilay.akcay@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Physics, Rize (Turkey); Batan, Nevzat, E-mail: nbatan@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Maçka Vocational School, Trabzon (Turkey); Çinar, Yunus, E-mail: yunus.cinar@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Vocational School of Technical Studies, Rize (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  5. In situ measurement of heavy metals in water using portable EDXRF and APDC pre-concentration methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiades, Fabio L.; Parreira, Paulo S.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Silva, Wislley D.; Lopes, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    With the objective of identify and quantify metals in water and obtain results in the sampling place, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology with a portable equipment was employed. In this work are presented metal concentration results for water samples from two points of Londrina city. The analysis were in situ, measuring in natura water and samples pre-concentrated in membranes. The work consisted on the use of a portable X-ray tube to excite the samples and a Si-Pin detector with the standard data acquisition electronics to register the spectra. The samples were filtered in membranes for suspended particulate matter retention. After this APDC precipitation methodology was applied for sample pre-concentration with posterior filtering in membranes. For in natura samples were found concentrations of total iron in Capivara River 254 ± 30 mg L -1 and at Igapo Lake 63 ± 9 mg L -1 . For membrane measurements, the results for particulate suspended matter at Capivara River were, in mg L -1 : 31.0 ± 2.5 (Fe), 0.17 ± 0.03 (Cu) and 0.93 ± 0.08 (Pb) and for dissolved iron was 0.038 ± 0.004. For Igapo Lake just Fe was quantified: 1.66 ±0.19 mg L -1 for particulate suspended iron and 0.79 ± 0.11 mg L -1 for dissolved iron. In 4 h of work at field it was possible to filter 14 membranes and measure around 16 samples. The performance of the equipment was very good and the results are satisfactory for in situ measurements employing a portable instrument. (author)

  6. Evaluation of analysis method standardless by WDXRF and EDXRF of aluminum powder used in MTR type fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Salvador, Vera L.R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A.F.; Scapin, Marcos A.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear fuel used in IEA-R1m reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP) is the MTR type. This fuel is compound of a core (U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion briquette) wrapped in an aluminum plate with two cladding (superior and inferior) both in aluminum. The fuel element efficiency depends on the quality control of U 3 Si 2 and aluminum. For aluminum should be checked the impurities levels such as Si, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and others and Al total . Aiming to provide a quick method, multielemental and non-destructive, the performance of the wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) and energy dispersive (EDXRF) X-ray fluorescence techniques, using the curve instrument sensitivity curve method, also known like standard less analysis, was evaluated. This method allows the determination from the element boron (Z=5) to uranium (Z=92) with concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 99.99% without the need for individual calibration curve and chemical pretreatments in the sample preparation. The results were compared with calibration curve method data, using statistical tests tools. By multivariate analysis of all the experimental data, especially by the discriminant analysis (DA) and cluster analysis (CA), respectively, it was possible to evaluate a correlation between variables of the applied analytical methods could be interpreted in context to qualify the fuels by XRF technique and method standard less. The results showed that the proposed method is satisfactory for both spectrometers; however it was found that the WDXRF presents the greatest conformity degree. (author)

  7. Minema kupatatud nõukoguliikmed: Eesti Energia projektid kukkusid läbi / Dannar Leitmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leitmaa, Dannar, 1982-

    2011-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts otsustas Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi kutsuda Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku, kes olid vastu Eesti Energia üle viie miljoni euro suurusele investeeringule Weroli rapsiõlitehase juurde rajatavasse elektri- ja küttejaama. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium peab tagandatud nõukoguliikmete väiteid, et Eesti Energia juhtkond käitub omanikust riigiga omatahtsi ja peab endiselt plaani siirduda börsile, absurdiks. Ministeerium: ei mingit IPO-t

  8. Sem-EDXRF and ICP-MS investigation of the morphological and chemical composition of depleted uranium particles from Kuwait areas affected by the 1991 Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Burns, K.; Campbell, M.; Ciurapinski, A.; Donohue, D.; Admon, U.; Burkart, W.

    2004-01-01

    Selected soil samples collected in Kuwait locations where residues of DU ammunition existed as a legacy of the 1991 Gulf War, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence detector (SEM- EDXRF) with the objective to identify the presence of DU particles and characterize their shape and size. The isotopic and total bulk concentrations of uranium in the samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. The samples studied by SEM-EDXRF were prepared by gently tapping an aluminum stab covered with a doubled-sided adhesive carbon disk, thereby ensuring that the physical integrity of the samples was maintained. The results have indicted that soil collected just below (∼ 5 cm) corroded DU penetrators contained several DU oxide particles (isotopic ratio 235 U/ 238 U = 0.0021) ranging in size from 1 to 10 microns (approximate geometrical diameter) having an irregular shape. The particles are most likely corrosion products from the DU penetrators. Some particles are imbedded in a larger matrix containing aluminum oxide (corrosion product of the penetrator jacket) and silica (sand). Swipes collected inside holes in tanks hit by DU ammunition, using ultra-pure cotton cloths, have indicated the presence of many small DU particles in the range 1 to 10 microns. In this case the particles were found to contain also small quantities of Fe, probably the results on alloying process occurring when the DU penetrators impact with the tank armor. (author)

  9. Energia solar no tratamento de corante têxtil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Farias Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As indústrias utilizam a água em todo o seu processo, desperdiçando enormes volumes de água gerando efluentes com altos índices de produtos químicos, precisando de tratamento para ser reutilizado ou lançado no meio ambiente. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Engenharia Ambiental e de Qualidade na Universidade Federal de Pernambuco objetivando-se a degradação de corante utilizados nas indústrias têxtis através do uso da energia solar como alternativa de tratamento de efluente. Nesta pesquisa os testes fotocatalíticos foram realizados com o catalisador em pó (TiO2 - P25, contendo o corante têxtil Remazol Amarelo Ouro RNL (RGY ou sem catalisador nos testes de fotólise. Foram testados dois tipos de radiação, a artificial e a energia solar (natural. Para avaliar a descoloração e a degradação das amostras, a Espectroscopia UV-visível foi a principal técnica analítica empregada como também realizadas análises de Carbono Orgânico Total (COT e Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO. Nas 6 (seis analises realizadas obteve-se um elevado índice de remoção da cor do corante, superior a 97%, com alta eficiência do processo com uma significativa redução da COT e da DQO. Os métodos utilizados foram eficientes na descoloração do RGY, como também na sua degradação, tornando-se uma técnica inovadora com o uso da energia solar para o tratamento de efluentes têxteis.Palavras-chave: efluente industrial, alternativa sustentável, degradação do remazol amarelo ouro, descoloração de efluente

  10. Eesti Energia korraldas OSELCA projekti raames Tallinnas rahvusvahelise seminari / Reigo Lehtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtla, Reigo

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia AS korraldas 12.-13. septembrini 2005. a. Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli energeetikahoones rahvusvahelise seminari olelusringi hindamise (Life Cycle Assessment) metoodika hetkeseisust Ida-Euroopa regioonis

  11. Energia ja sisekliima labor aitab parandada arhitektide ja inseneride koostööd / Hendrik Voll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voll, Hendrik, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    TTÜ ehitusteaduskonna kütte ja ventilatsiooni õppetoolis valmis energia ja sisekliima labor, mille spetsiaalsed päikesekiirguse ja hajuvalguse stendid aitavad inseneridel ja arhitektidel parandada energiasimulatsiooniprogrammide kasutusoskusi

  12. Application of a portable equipment EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) in the monitoring of the restoration work of murals paints in the Church of Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio; Rizzo, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) of the Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina in the analysis in situ of pigments in wall paintings, as well as in monitoring restoration processes

  13. The Ciudad Universitaria and the energy; La ciudad universitaria y la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola Valdes, Eduardo; Villanueva Moreno, Carlos; Alvarez Watkins, Pablo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    The fundamental intention of the macro project La Ciudad Universitaria y la Energia is to turn to the university campus of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) into a model of intelligent use of the different necessary forms of energy for the satisfaction of its necessities. In order to do so, the macro project is sustained in six lines of investigation and development: Solar energy, energy from biomass; hydrogen energy; diagnosis and energy saving; use and energy saving; and energy culture. The macro project is framed in an effort of the UNAM to foment the trans-disciplinary collaboration and therefore, under the coordination of the Faculty of Engineering the following university dependencies participate in this persistence: Faculty of Sciences; Faculty of Chemistry; Faculty of Architecture; Faculty of Accountants and Administration; Faculty of Economy; FES Aragon; Institute of Engineering; Institute of Geophysics; Institute of Physics; Research Center in Energy; Center of Applied Sciences and Technological Development. For that intention, in the period the 2005-2007 the Trans-disciplinary Program in Investigation and Development for Faculties and Schools of the UNAM will contribute with 30 million pesos to the macro project La Ciudad Universitaria y la Energia. [Spanish] El proposito fundamental del macroproyecto La Ciudad Universitaria y la Energia es el convertir al campus universitario de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) en un modelo de utilizacion inteligente de las diferentes formas de energia necesarias para la satisfaccion de sus necesidades. Para lograrlo, el macroproyecto se sustenta en las seis lineas de investigacion y desarrollo: Energia solar, energia de biomasa; energia del hidrogeno; diagnostico y ahorro de energia; utilizacion y ahorro de energia; y cultura energetica. El macroproyecto se enmarca en un esfuerzo de la UNAM por fomentar la colaboracion transdisciplinaria y por tanto, bajo la coordinacion de la Facultad

  14. Protective effect of fluoride varnish and fluoride gel on enamel erosion: roughness, SEM-EDS, and µ-EDXRF studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; De Carvalho Filho, Antonio Carlos Belfort

    2015-03-01

    The effects of fluoride treatment on bovine enamel subjected to acid erosion were studied by roughness (Ra) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and microenergy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Enamel samples (63) were divided into nine groups (n = 7): artificial saliva (AS), Pepsi Twist(®) (PT), orange juice (OJ), Duraphat(®)  + Pepsi Twist(®) (DPH/PT), Duraphat(®)  + orange juice (DPH/OJ), Duofluorid(®)  + Pepsi Twist(®) (DUO/PT), Duofluorid(®)  + orange juice (DUO/OJ), fluoride gel + Pepsi Twist(®) (FG/PT), and fluoride gel + orange juice (FG/OJ). Fluoride was applied and the samples were submitted to six cycles (demineralization: Pepsi Twist(®) or orange juice, 10 min; remineralization: saliva, 1 h). The enamel surface in depth was exposed and 63 line-scan maps were performed. The elemental analysis by EDS revealed that only fluoride treated groups had any detectable fluorine after erosion cycles (DPH/PT: 3.50 wt%; DPH/OJ: 3.37 wt%; DUO/PT: 2.69 wt%; DUO/OJ: 3.54 wt%; FG/PT: 2.17 wt%; FG/OJ: 2.77 wt%). PT treatment resulted in significantly higher Ra values than the artificial saliva (P < 0.001). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of fluoride protected enamel showed areas with some globular structures or a residual layer of varnish. The enamel thickness was significantly lower in PT (0.63 ± 0.087 mm) than in DPH/PT (0.87 ± 0.16 mm) and DUO/PT (0.92 ± 0.14 mm) groups (P < 0.01). Fluoride treatments protected enamel without Ra increase and loss of enamel tissue. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Eesti Energia kuulutas naabritele elektrisõja / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia plaanib Läti ja Leedu kohtusse anda, kui läbirääkimised ei too lahendust. Sandor Liive peab oluliseks, et EL kehtestaks tollimaksu Vene elektrile. Käimas on lobitöö Põhjamaade elektribörsi laiendamiseks Eestisse 2009. aastast, mis tooks siia avatud turu läbipaistva hinnakujunduse; peetakse reaalseks, et Eesti Energia võib saada äriosaluse kavandatavas Olkiluoto 6. reaktoris. Lisa: Elektri hind võib 1. jaanuarist kahekordistuda

  16. Russian RSC Energia employees inspect DM in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Employees of the Russian aerospace company RSC Energia prepare to conduct final inspections of the Russian-built Docking Module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles.

  17. Russian RSC Energia employees attach trunnions to DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Employees of the Russian aerospace company RSC Energia attach trunnions to the Russian-built docking module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC so that it can be mounted in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles.

  18. EL ALTO MAGDALENA- COLOMBIA DE LA MANO CON ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barragán-Alturo, Ancízar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El afán por destruir un paradigma, que mantiene encadenados a los habitantes de Girardot y la región, a una compañía de distribución de la energía eléctrica con sus altos precios para el kilowatt-hora, ha inspirado la investigación CUNDINAMARCA DE LA MANO DE LAS ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS, demostrando por diversos caminos que el montaje de paneles solares para generación de energía eléctrica en las cubiertas de las casas es la energía alternativa para la solución de diversos problemas, entre ellos: los costos elevados, las fluctuaciones de voltaje, los cortes de energía, los daños en los electrodomésticos

  19. Energy saving programs and renewable energies in Chihuahua, Mexico; Programas de ahorro de energia y energias renovables en Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra Noris, Jose Luis [Gobierno del Estado de Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The high index of economic and technological growth registered in the border zone of northern Mexico in the last years, has simultaneously caused an annual growth in the electrical energy demand in a percentage higher than 6%. In this document are included the economic and environmental impacts caused by the projects developed in the Chihuahua State on energy efficiency and on the available potential of renewable energies. In order to evaluate the environmental impact that is caused when saving electrical energy in the diverse projects in process, the emission of CO{sub 2} is the only emission taken into account (even though also emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and Hg exist) for being this polluting agent the one that contributes in greater amount to the global warming and the greenhouse effect. The emission index of CO{sub 2} that we considered in this presentation is of 600 kg/mwh, on the basis of the type of fuel and volume of generation of the plants in operation of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in the Chihuahua State. [Spanish] El alto indice de crecimiento economico y tecnologico registrado en la zona fronteriza del norte de Mexico en los ultimos anos, ha ocasionado paralelamente un crecimiento en la demanda de energia electrica superior al 6% anual. En este documento se incluyen los impactos economicos y ambientales de los proyectos que se desarrollan en el estado de Chihuahua en eficiencia energetica y en el potencial que se tiene de energias renovables. Para evaluar el impacto ambiental que se obtiene al ahorrar energia electrica en los diversos proyectos en proceso, se toma en cuenta unicamente emisiones de CO{sub 2} (aun cuando tambien existen emisiones de SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} y Hg) por ser este el contaminante que en mayor cantidad afecta al calentamiento global y al efecto invernadero. El indice de emisiones de CO{sub 2} que consideramos en esta presentacion es de 600 kg/mwh, en base al tipo de combustible y volumen de generacion de las

  20. Energy saving plan: use of solar energy in the university of Valencia (Spain); Uso de la energia solar en la universidad de Valencia (Espana) para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Gomez Amo, J.L.; Tena, F.; Martinez Lozano, J.A.; Utrillas, M.P. [Grupo de Radiacion Solar, Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2005-07-15

    The University of Valencia financed a pilot project that would study the installation's feasibility of a generating station with photovoltaic energy, solar type, in order to replace or complement conventional sources of energy. This paper presents some of the preliminary results of the study's application in an University building, along with the analysis of the initial situation and the proposals for the handling of reactive energy and the outer and inner lighting as solutions for energy saving. This experimental project entitled Study of the Energy Saving Strategies and the Viability of Installing Solar Energy equipment in the Buildings of the University of Valencia throws preliminary data specifying the amount of investment necessary to obtain real annual benefits, as well as the recovery time of the investment and the beneficial ecological impact in quantitative terms of a measurable CO{sub 2} reduction. [Spanish] La Universidad de Valencia financio un proyecto piloto que estudiaria la factibilidad de instalacion de una estacion generadora de energia fotovoltaica de tipo solar para sustituir o complementar fuentes convencionales de energia. Este trabajo presenta algunos de los resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del estudio en un edificio de la Universidad junto con el analisis de la situacion inicial y las propuestas del manejo de energia reactiva, de iluminacion exterior e interior como soluciones para el ahorro de energia. Este proyecto experimental titulado Estudio de las estrategias del ahorro de la energia y de la viabilidad de instalar energia solar en los edificios de la Universidad de Valencia arroja datos preliminares que especifican el monto de la inversion necesaria para obtener beneficios anuales reales, asi como el tiempo de recuperacion de la inversion y el impacto ecologico benefico en terminos cuantitativos de una reduccion cuantificable de CO{sub 2}.

  1. PERSPECTIVAS DE INSERÇÃO DA ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA NA GERAÇÃO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA NO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto César Fialho Wanderley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A geração de energia elétrica no Brasil é predominantemente renovável, com a geração interna hidráulica sendo superior a 74% do total de sua matriz energética. O racionamento de energia elétrica ocorrido em 2001, devido à falta de chuvas, levou o país a incrementar a participação de fontes alternativas de energia. Esta necessidade por novas fontes de energia faz com que as potencialidades regionais sejam aproveitadas, o que configura a mudança do modelo de geração, passando de geração centralizada para geração distribuída. Dentre as fontes alternativas de energia, a solar apresenta-se como uma fonte bastante promissora para o Brasil, tendo em vista que a maior parte do seu território está localizada próximo à linha do equador, o que acarreta em um dia de maior duração solar. O Rio Grande do Norte (RN tem um dos maiores índices de incidência solar do território brasileiro, o que o torna apto a receber investimentos para a instalação de usinas solares fotovoltaicas. Este artigo analisará o potencial de geração da energia solar fotovoltaica no RN através de medições solarimétricas realizadas em Natal, capital do estado.

  2. Analytical study of the prospectives published by the Secretaria de Energia; Estudio analitico de las prospectivas publicadas por la Secretaria de Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector Alejandro; Urias Romero, Francisco [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Since 1997 the Secretaria de Energia (SENER) publishes an annual report named Prospectiva del Sector Electrico, in which detailed information on the situation of the Mexican electrical sector is included, the information is related to the technological, economic and environmental aspects of all the organisms involved in the matter of electrical energy, within which stand out the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) and the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE). In the prospectives the tendency of the modifications that will undergo the sector in a period of 10 years is analyzed. All the prospectives of the electrical sector, agree in that the growth of this sector is determined by the construction of power stations that use natural gas as primary energy, reason why we made an analysis of the prospectives of the natural gas market, with the purpose of observing the interaction between both sectors. At the moment seven prospectives of each sector have been published, given the conditions at the moment of their publication, they present differences and agreements between each other for periods of intersection. The present work shows the comparison between the expectations of growth reported by each one of the Prospectives. [Spanish] Desde 1997 la Secretaria de Energia (SENER) publica un reporte anual llamado Prospectiva del Sector Electrico, en el que se incluye informacion detallada sobre la situacion del sector electrico mexicano, la informacion esta relacionada con los aspectos tecnologicos, economicos y medioambientales de todos los organismos involucrados en materia de energia electrica, dentro de los cuales destacan la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), la Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) y la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE). En las prospectivas se analiza la tendencia de las modificaciones que sufrira el sector

  3. Study of the elementary composition and stratigraphy layers of pigments in statues of polychromed wood using a portable system of EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonski, Maria Selia

    2007-07-01

    The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a non-destructive analytical technique, which permits the determination of the chemical elements present in art works. EDXRF is a non destructive and very interesting methodology for the study of objects of cultural and historical interest, due to the simplicity of the technique, which does not need a previous preparation of the sample, to the multi elemental analysis character and the possibility of the use of portable equipment, which allows in situ analysis. In this work a portable equipment of X-ray fluorescence was used for measurements of pigments in sculptures of polychromed woods belonging to the Laboratory of Conservation and Restoration of the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of the University of Sao Paulo (MAE-USP), and sculptures and decorated wood of the Church of the Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao, in Sao Paulo-SP. The portable EDXRF system is constituted of a X -ray tube with Ag anode (operated at 17 kV and 2 μA for the Church measurements and at 17 kV and 3 μA for the sculptures of the museum measurements), a Si-PIN detector (FWHM = 221 eV for the 55 Fe(Mn) 5.9 keV line), standard nuclear electronic chain for X-ray spectrometry, a 8K multichannel analyser, a HP200LX palm top and a mechanical system for the positioning of detector and X-ray tube, which permits two degrees of freedom for the excitation-detection system movement. The excitation-detection time was 500 s for each measurement. In the sculptures of the Church, the analysis of the regions of the brown clothes for both sculptures showed the presence of Fe and Mn indicating to be the pigment brown umbria, due to the strong presence of the respective elements. In the decoration of the column of the altar, gold region, was verified the presence of the elements Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Au. In the pulpit (gold region), it was verified the elements K, Ca, Ti, Fe and Au. In a stain of that gilding region of the pulpit, that was recuperated more

  4. Measurement of K-shell jump ratios and jump factors for some elements in 76≤Z≤92 using EDXRF spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, N.; Apaydin, G.; Tirasoglu, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents experimental values of the K-shell jump factor and jump ratio (ratio of the K-shell photoionization cross section to the photoionization cross section of the rest of the atom at the K edge) for some elements in 76≤Z≤92 using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer and compares those values with the theoretical ones giving reasonable agreement. The experimental values have been determined using the fluorescence parameters: K α production cross sections, K β /K α X-rays intensity ratios, total atomic attenuation cross sections, etc. To the best of our knowledge, K-shell jump ratios and jump factors have been measured without having any data on K edge for the first time in these elements. The results have been plotted versus atomic number.

  5. Characterization of chemical elements in soil submitted to different systems use and management by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastowski, Arci Dirceu; Rosa, Genesio Mario da; Cherubin, Mauricio Roberto; Rigon, Joao Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical elements levels in soil, submitted to different management systems and use by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry - EDXRF. The systems were T1 - agroforestry (SAF), T2 - native field (CN), T3 - native forest (NM), T4 - tillage forest (PF); T5 - conventional tillage system (SPC) and T6 - system tillage (NT). Samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm, dried and ground for analysis in EDX-720. The soil showed no difference in the average concentrations of chemical elements analyzed in the profiles, but the systems presented different concentrations of metal elements, and T3 had the highest K, Ca and Zn at 0-10 cm and higher contents of K, Ca, Cu, Zn and Mn in the layer of 10-20 cm. (author)

  6. Analysis of Heavy Metal in Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS from the Textile Industry by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution due to discharges of heavy metal containing sludge from textile industries is a common nuisance in Bangladesh, where no treatment of sludge is carried out before final disposals. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF was employed in the present study to analyze the heavy metal content of Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS collected from a composite textile industry. Thirteen heavy metals, viz., Mn, Ti, Cu, Zn, Ni, Sr, V, Cr, Zr, Hg, Cd, Nb and Ga, were detected. Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd exceeded the permissible limit to apply the EMHS in agricultural land. Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn were compared to the values of the European legislation to evaluate the environmental risk and to classify the wastes as inert wastes or as wastes that have to be control landfilled. EMHS was categorized as class I and needs to be deposited in controlled landfills.

  7. The superiority of PIXE compared to EDXRF, SEM/EDX and ICP-MS determining the provenance of medieval silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Schreiner, M.; Demortier, G.; Schreiner, M.

    2001-01-01

    157 coins of the Tiroler Kreuzer, an Austrian mintage of the XIV century, were analyzed in order to determine their provenance. The silver coins were produced in the mints of Merano (Italy) and Hall (Austria) but have no markers or punches, which would enable a clear distinction. Therefore, non destructive EDXRF was applied in order to determine the Ag-content as well as minor (Cu, Pb, Bi) and trace elements (Fe, Au, Hg, Ni) Additionally investigation of cross sections using SEM/EDX were carried out to determine the Ag concentration of the core of the coins. Due to the fact that corrosion processes changed the chemical composition of the coins surfaces the analysis results showed differences up to 50% between the composition of the core and the surface

  8. EDXRF portable system used in the analysis of altars, sculptures and paintings from XVII and XVIII centuries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, R.P.; Calza, C.; Lopes, R.T.; Santos, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The preservation of cultural heritage has acquired increasing interest in the last decades and many scientific techniques have been employed to analyze paintings, manuscripts, ceramics, glasses, statues, coins and metal artifacts in order to solve problems related to restoration, conservation, dating and attribution of artworks. There is also an increasing trend for non-destructive investigations since most of the samples are unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) is the most widely used investigative technique in the field of archaeometry, due to a number of favorable analytical characteristics, such as multielemental and non-destructive analysis, high sensitivity and applicability to a wide range of samples. In this work, XRF was used to analyze altars, sculptures and paintings in the Saint Anthony Convent (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The cornerstone of this convent was launched in 1608, by the Franciscan friars, and the construction of the church was finished in 1620. The Saint Anthony sculpture in the main altar is one of the few remaining pieces from the XVII century in Rio de Janeiro. The splendid Baroque carvings of the chapel, covered with integral gilding, in the national Portuguese style, dates from 1716 to 1719. The results obtained during the analyses have been used in the meticulous process of restoration, developed in the last two years, in order to recover the original splendour of this important piece of our cultural heritage. The analyses were carried out with an EDXRF portable system developed in the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. In each sample were obtained several spectra, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 1.5 and 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL from IAEA. The analysis of the golden carvings of the altars, in

  9. Sem-EDXRF and ICP-MS investigation of the morphological and chemical composition of depleted uranium particles from Kuwait areas affected by the 1991 Gulf War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danesi, P.R.; Burns, K.; Campbell, M.; Ciurapinski, A.; Donohue, D.; Admon, U.; Burkart, W. [International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Selected soil samples collected in Kuwait locations where residues of DU ammunition existed as a legacy of the 1991 Gulf War, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence detector (SEM- EDXRF) with the objective to identify the presence of DU particles and characterize their shape and size. The isotopic and total bulk concentrations of uranium in the samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. The samples studied by SEM-EDXRF were prepared by gently tapping an aluminum stab covered with a doubled-sided adhesive carbon disk, thereby ensuring that the physical integrity of the samples was maintained. The results have indicted that soil collected just below ({approx} 5 cm) corroded DU penetrators contained several DU oxide particles (isotopic ratio {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.0021) ranging in size from 1 to 10 microns (approximate geometrical diameter) having an irregular shape. The particles are most likely corrosion products from the DU penetrators. Some particles are imbedded in a larger matrix containing aluminum oxide (corrosion product of the penetrator jacket) and silica (sand). Swipes collected inside holes in tanks hit by DU ammunition, using ultra-pure cotton cloths, have indicated the presence of many small DU particles in the range 1 to 10 microns. In this case the particles were found to contain also small quantities of Fe, probably the results on alloying process occurring when the DU penetrators impact with the tank armor. (author)

  10. 77 FR 23476 - Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1470-000] Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. Gunnar Okk jääb vähemalt aastaks Eesti Energia etteotsa / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu otsustas, et Eesti Energia juhi kohale korraldatakse konkurss aasta pärast ning nõukogu esimees Urmas Sõõrumaa sai volituse juhatuse liikmetega läbi rääkida ja nende lepinguid aasta võrra pikendada. Lisa: Gunnar Oki töö

  12. Book Presentation: “L’Energia del vuoto” by Bruno Arpaia

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    “It is nighttime on a Swiss highway. A car travels at high speed, heading to Marseilles. Pietro Leone, UN Geneva civil servant, is at the wheel. His son Nico is asleep next to him. The two are fleeing from something unknown...   ... Pietro only knows that, for the past few days, someone has been discreetly following him and his family, and that his wife Emilia, a CERN researcher, vanished from home a few days before…” Would you like to know what happens next? The Library, in cooperation with the association “Cultura Italia”, is organizing a presentation of “L’energia del vuoto”. A brief introduction to this book will be followed by a debate among the participants. Bruno Arpaia, journalist, writer and translator, has written 3 novels and 4 political essays. “L’energia del vuoto” is his latest novel, inspired by a visit he paid to CERN.   “L’energia del...

  13. Interactive applications for energy saving; Aplicaciones interactivas para ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adame Gonzalez, Alejandro; Ramirez Anaya, Cesar; Gutierrez, Hector; Dominguez Ojeda, Xerxes; Aguilar Galvan, Alfredo [Ingenieria Energetica Integral S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A series of ideas are presented that can help in the development of interactive applications for energy saving. Emphasis is made on the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE)`s Interactive Course on Demand Management and Power Factor Compensation, in order to demonstrate how far one can go with the multimedia development. [Espanol] Se presenta un conjunto de ideas que pueden auxiliar en la elaboracion de aplicaciones interactivas para ahorro de energia. Se hace principal enfasis sobre el curso interactivo Administracion de la Demanda y Compensacion del Factor de Potencia del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) con la finalidad de mostrar hasta donde puede llegarse con un desarrollo multimedia.

  14. Interactive applications for energy saving; Aplicaciones interactivas para ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adame Gonzalez, Alejandro; Ramirez Anaya, Cesar; Gutierrez, Hector; Dominguez Ojeda, Xerxes; Aguilar Galvan, Alfredo [Ingenieria Energetica Integral S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    A series of ideas are presented that can help in the development of interactive applications for energy saving. Emphasis is made on the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE)`s Interactive Course on Demand Management and Power Factor Compensation, in order to demonstrate how far one can go with the multimedia development. [Espanol] Se presenta un conjunto de ideas que pueden auxiliar en la elaboracion de aplicaciones interactivas para ahorro de energia. Se hace principal enfasis sobre el curso interactivo Administracion de la Demanda y Compensacion del Factor de Potencia del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) con la finalidad de mostrar hasta donde puede llegarse con un desarrollo multimedia.

  15. ED-XRF spectrometric analysis of comparative elemental composition of in vivo and in vitro roots of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees-a multi-medicinal herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, P.R., E-mail: priyaranjan2004@gmail.co [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Lab, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Nayak, P [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Lab, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Barik, D.P., E-mail: barikdp@yahoo.co [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Rautray, T.R., E-mail: trrautray@gmail.co [Ion Beam Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Thirunavoukkarasu, M [Plant Biotechnology Lab, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Chand, P.K., E-mail: pkchanduubot@yahoo.co.i [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India)

    2010-12-15

    The multi-elemental composition of in vitro-proliferated root tissues of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees was compared with that of the naturally grown in vivo plants. Trace elements namely Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb in addition to two macro-elements K and Ca were identified and quantified in root tissues of both sources using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. ED-XRF analysis was performed using Mo K X-rays generated from a secondary molybdenum target. The elemental content of in vitro roots was found to be at par with that of naturally grown plants of the same species. This opens up a possibility of exploiting in vitro root cultures as a viable, alternative and renewable source of phytochemicals of relevance, besides providing a means for conservation of the valuable natural resources.

  16. ED-XRF spectrometric analysis of comparative elemental composition of in vivo and in vitro roots of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees-a multi-medicinal herb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, P.R.; Nayak, P.; Barik, D.P.; Rautray, T.R.; Thirunavoukkarasu, M.; Chand, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    The multi-elemental composition of in vitro-proliferated root tissues of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees was compared with that of the naturally grown in vivo plants. Trace elements namely Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb in addition to two macro-elements K and Ca were identified and quantified in root tissues of both sources using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. ED-XRF analysis was performed using Mo K X-rays generated from a secondary molybdenum target. The elemental content of in vitro roots was found to be at par with that of naturally grown plants of the same species. This opens up a possibility of exploiting in vitro root cultures as a viable, alternative and renewable source of phytochemicals of relevance, besides providing a means for conservation of the valuable natural resources.

  17. Energy saving, social and government communication; Ahorrro de energia, sociedad y comunicacion gubernamental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Camarena, Francisco [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The actions for the energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energies are multiple and dispersed, in each one of the energy consumption points of the country. For this reason, two important factors to foment these actions are to promote the social participation and the effective government communication towards the society: energy saving and social participation. One of the main faculties of the National Commission of Energy Saving (CONAE) is to foment the efficiency in the energy use, through actions coordinated with the different agencies and organizations of the Federal Public Administration, with the governments of the federal entities and the municipalities and, through coordinated operations, with the private and social sectors. The CONAE has established mechanisms of coordination and cooperation with the private and social sectors, having fomented programs, projects and actions whose purpose is the energy efficiency, outstanding: 1) Committees and work groups; 2) Cooperation Agreements; 3) the Advisory Council for the Foment of Renewable Energy. [Spanish] Las acciones para la eficiencia energetica y el aprovechamiento de las energias renovables son multiples y dispersas, en cada uno de los puntos de consumo de energia del pais. Por ello, dos factores importantes para fomentar estas acciones son promover la participacion social y la comunicacion gubernamental eficaz hacia la sociedad: Ahorro de energia y participacion social. Una de las principales facultades de la Comision Nacional de Ahorro de Energia es fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de energia, a traves de acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal, con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y de los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. La CONAE ha establecido mecanismos de coordinacion y de cooperacion con los sectores privado y social, fomentando programas, proyectos y acciones cuyo

  18. Inovação e sustentabilidade na produção de energia: o caso do sistema setorial de energia eólica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cavalcante Nascimento

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo verificar como as ações do sistema setorial brasileiro de energia eólica se relacionam com as perspectivas econômicas, sociais e ambientais que caracterizam inovações sustentáveis. Argumenta que as questões energéticas estão no cerne do desenvolvimento humano ao longo de sua história e que, em decorrência do atual cenário de mudanças climáticas, o desenvolvimento de fontes alternativas de energia é de vital importância na contemporaneidade. Metodologicamente, o estudo pode ser considerado exploratório e descritivo em relação aos fins e bibliográfico no que diz respeito aos meios. Foram utilizados dados primários de agências nacionais, regionais e mundiais de energia eólica para aumentar a consistência das informações coletadas e do trabalho como um todo. Os resultados evidenciam que o sistema setorial de energia eólica está estruturado em torno de uma série de instituições públicas, autarquias, associações de pesquisa e outros stakeholders que demonstram crescente interesse no desenvolvimento do setor no país. Os dados indicam, ainda, que os valores alcançados ao longo dos últimos leilões de energia eólica têm evidenciado o potencial de competitividade dessa fonte energética em comparação com as demais. Conclusivamente, é possível verificar que os pilares da sustentabilidade podem ser visualizados ao longo de praticamente todas as questões envolvendo a implantação de novas usinas eólicas, mas que a dimensão econômica ainda é a de maior destaque, tornando as dimensões sociais e ambientais dependentes da capacidade dessa modalidade de energia competir com outras.

  19. Energia solar aplicada al bombeig hidràulic en una central hidroelèctrica

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Reig, Pau

    2015-01-01

    El present projecte té com a objectiu fonamental convertir la coberta d’una nau industrial en un element actiu de captació i transformació de l’energia fotovoltaica per a posteriorment ser utilitzada en l’accionament d’una bomba hidràulica que impulsarà aigua cap a un embassament superior, possibilitant-ne una futura obtenció d’energia elèctrica turbinant aquesta aigua que ha sigut bombejada. Si bé l’abast del projecte es centra fonamentalment en el polígon industrial de Berga i en la pres...

  20. Modelos para estimar as exigências de energia metabolizável para poedeiras

    OpenAIRE

    Sakomura,Nilva Kazue; Basaglia,Roberta; Sá-Fortes,Cristina M. L.; Fernandes,João Batista K.

    2005-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, elaborar um modelo para estimar as exigências de energia metabolizável (EM) para poedeiras leves da linhagem Lohmann LSL, utilizando-se o método fatorial. Para determinar o efeito da temperatura sobre as exigências de EM para mantença, foram conduzidos experimentos em câmaras climáticas com temperaturas constantes de 12, 22 e 31ºC, utilizando a técnica do abate comparativo. A exigência de energia líquida para o ganho de peso foi determinada por meio da regress...

  1. Automated mineralogy based on micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence microscopy (µ-EDXRF) applied to plutonic rock thin sections in comparison to a mineral liberation analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonow, Wilhelm; Rammlmair, Dieter

    2017-10-01

    Recent developments in the application of micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry mapping (µ-EDXRF) have opened up new opportunities for fast geoscientific analyses. Acquiring spatially resolved spectral and chemical information non-destructively for large samples of up to 20 cm length provides valuable information for geoscientific interpretation. Using supervised classification of the spectral information, mineral distribution maps can be obtained. In this work, thin sections of plutonic rocks are analyzed by µ-EDXRF and classified using the supervised classification algorithm spectral angle mapper (SAM). Based on the mineral distribution maps, it is possible to obtain quantitative mineral information, i.e., to calculate the modal mineralogy, search and locate minerals of interest, and perform image analysis. The results are compared to automated mineralogy obtained from the mineral liberation analyzer (MLA) of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and show good accordance, revealing variation resulting mostly from the limit of spatial resolution of the µ-EDXRF instrument. Taking into account the little time needed for sample preparation and measurement, this method seems suitable for fast sample overviews with valuable chemical, mineralogical and textural information. Additionally, it enables the researcher to make better and more targeted decisions for subsequent analyses.

  2. New business activities of Helsinki Energia; Helsinki Energian uusi liiketoiminta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuura, L.

    2001-07-01

    Helsinki Energia has started a new business activity - district cooling. The service is offered to cooling of large buildings, e.g. shopping centers, offices, etc. District cooling power is generated centrally at the power plant and the cooling power is transferred to the customer via separated distribution network. There are three main alternatives for production of district cooling power, mainly compressors, absorption devices and heat pumps. The operating energies required by them include electric power, district heat, steam, burning matter or some waste heat. The conditions for profitable district cooling are that the buildings to be cooled are built on a compact area at a reasonable distance from the district cool generation plant, that there enough need for district cool at the area, and that the district cool production plant is located at the seaside. Technically and economically reasonable construction of district cooling network requires that both the transmissions and distribution networks are as short as possible because the pipe dimensions are large, and because the streets are full of other infrastructure. Location near a sea ease the cooling of the district cool generation process, and especially, it is possible to use the coldness of the seawater directly via heat exchangers. The objective of district cool generation is to intensify the combined heat and power generation during warm seasons by reducing the electric power consumption and by increasing the utilization of surplus heat. It is also possible to reduce the use of harmful refrigerants. The district cooling activities of Helsinki Energia started in 1998 in Pitaejaenmaeki. Ruoholahti district cool system is the first larger area district cool project in Finland. The district cooling plant is constructed at the area of the Salmisaari power plant, hence the plant can utilize the present space and equipment of the power plant in generation of district cool. Energy needed for operation of the

  3. Energy from garbage; Energia a partir de la basura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The subject of energy generation from garbage is discussed. A description is made of the sanitary fill, which is a system for the conversion or stabilization of garbage encompassing gas generation and lixiviates, these are collected to be used as fuels or a treatment process is applied to them avoiding this way the soil, water and air pollution; also a description is made of the utilization of a biogas recovery well, which recovers the biogas, cleans it from particles and condensates and afterwards feeds an internal combustion motor coupled to an electric generator. It is concluded that if the biogas generated by the buried garbage in the sanitary refills is utilized, the effects that cause the polluting emissions would be diminished and at the same time an additional energy resource would be on hand [Espanol] Se analiza el caso de la generacion de energia a partir de la basura. Se describe la tecnologia de relleno sanitario, la cual es un sistema de conversion o estabilizacion de la basura en el que existe generacion de biogas y lixiviados, estos se capturan para usarlos como combustibles o se les da un proceso de tratamiento y asi se evita la contaminacion del suelo, agua y aire; tambien se describe la utilizacion de un pozo de recuperacion de biogas, el cual recupera el biogas, lo limpia de particulas y condensados y despues alimenta a un motor de combustion interna acoplado a un generador. Se concluye en que si se aprovecha el biogas generado por la basura enterrada en rellenos sanitarios se diminuiran los efectos que causan las emisiones contaminantes y al mismo tiempo se tendria un recurso energetico adicional

  4. Energy from garbage; Energia a partir de la basura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The subject of energy generation from garbage is discussed. A description is made of the sanitary fill, which is a system for the conversion or stabilization of garbage encompassing gas generation and lixiviates, these are collected to be used as fuels or a treatment process is applied to them avoiding this way the soil, water and air pollution; also a description is made of the utilization of a biogas recovery well, which recovers the biogas, cleans it from particles and condensates and afterwards feeds an internal combustion motor coupled to an electric generator. It is concluded that if the biogas generated by the buried garbage in the sanitary refills is utilized, the effects that cause the polluting emissions would be diminished and at the same time an additional energy resource would be on hand [Espanol] Se analiza el caso de la generacion de energia a partir de la basura. Se describe la tecnologia de relleno sanitario, la cual es un sistema de conversion o estabilizacion de la basura en el que existe generacion de biogas y lixiviados, estos se capturan para usarlos como combustibles o se les da un proceso de tratamiento y asi se evita la contaminacion del suelo, agua y aire; tambien se describe la utilizacion de un pozo de recuperacion de biogas, el cual recupera el biogas, lo limpia de particulas y condensados y despues alimenta a un motor de combustion interna acoplado a un generador. Se concluye en que si se aprovecha el biogas generado por la basura enterrada en rellenos sanitarios se diminuiran los efectos que causan las emisiones contaminantes y al mismo tiempo se tendria un recurso energetico adicional

  5. Study of the elementary composition and stratigraphy layers of pigments in statues of polychromed wood using a portable system of EDXRF; Estudo da composicao elementar e estratigrafia das camadas de pigmentos em estatuas de madeira policromada usando um sistema portatil de EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonski, Maria Selia

    2007-07-15

    The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a non-destructive analytical technique, which permits the determination of the chemical elements present in art works. EDXRF is a non destructive and very interesting methodology for the study of objects of cultural and historical interest, due to the simplicity of the technique, which does not need a previous preparation of the sample, to the multi elemental analysis character and the possibility of the use of portable equipment, which allows in situ analysis. In this work a portable equipment of X-ray fluorescence was used for measurements of pigments in sculptures of polychromed woods belonging to the Laboratory of Conservation and Restoration of the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of the University of Sao Paulo (MAE-USP), and sculptures and decorated wood of the Church of the Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao, in Sao Paulo-SP. The portable EDXRF system is constituted of a X -ray tube with Ag anode (operated at 17 kV and 2 {mu}A for the Church measurements and at 17 kV and 3 {mu}A for the sculptures of the museum measurements), a Si-PIN detector (FWHM = 221 eV for the {sup 55}Fe(Mn) 5.9 keV line), standard nuclear electronic chain for X-ray spectrometry, a 8K multichannel analyser, a HP200LX palm top and a mechanical system for the positioning of detector and X-ray tube, which permits two degrees of freedom for the excitation-detection system movement. The excitation-detection time was 500 s for each measurement. In the sculptures of the Church, the analysis of the regions of the brown clothes for both sculptures showed the presence of Fe and Mn indicating to be the pigment brown umbria, due to the strong presence of the respective elements. In the decoration of the column of the altar, gold region, was verified the presence of the elements Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Au. In the pulpit (gold region), it was verified the elements K, Ca, Ti, Fe and Au. In a stain of that gilding region of the pulpit, that was

  6. ENERGIA FÓSSIL: implantação de refletores na quadra de esportes, utilizando energia fóssil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Mazzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente projeto consiste na utilização da energia fóssil para aplicar melhorias na quadra desportiva da escola Oswaldo Cruz, localizada na cidade de Sinop/MT.Tais melhorias poderão ser vistas na iluminação, tomadas e acessibilidade. Todavia, isto irá trazer benefícios para toda a sociedade, como acontecimento de eventos esportivos, lúdicos e sua utilização no período noturno.A energia fornecida para a quadra será através de um motor a combustão (gasolina, que será menos poluente, pois os hidrocarbonetos da gasolina poluem menos que do óleo diesel.Assim será produzido 15 horas de iluminação por cada tanque do motor. 

  7. KIT EDUCACIONAL PARA ESTUDO DE GERAÇÃO ELÉTRICA A PARTIR DE ENERGIA EÓLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz P. S. Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos desenvolvidos nos últimos anos apontam para as implicações e impactos sócio-ambientais do consumo de energia. Fontes de energias renováveis são apresentadas como alternativa para atender as demandas da sociedade com qualidade, segurança e redução dos danos ambientais decorrentes do consumo de energia. Este artigo apresenta uma proposta de kit educacional para ensino do uso de energia eólica na geração de energia elétrica. Inicialmente, o artigo descreve a evolução do aproveitamento da energia eólica. Depois, o artigo apresenta algumas experiências sobre o ensino desse tipo de energia no ensino médio e superior. O kit educacional é apresentado, mostrando-se resultados obtidos com o aerogerador tais como tensão gerada e circuitos eletrônicos utilizados. Algumas práticas são sugeridas. Por fim, as principais conclusões acerca do sistema são apresentadas.

  8. The joined use of n.i. spectroscopic analyses - FTIR, Raman, visible reflectance spectrometry and EDXRF - to study drawings and illuminated manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruni, S.; Guglielmi, V.; Caglio, S.; Poldi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Some art objects being small and very precious prevents conservators and conservation scientists from whatever kind of sampling, so that only completely non-invasive (n.i.) studies are permitted. Besides, also moving the object is sometimes forbidden: this happens for jewels as well as for manuscripts, illuminated codices, drawings and paintings. Some important physical n.i. analyses, such as PIXE and PIGE, therefore cannot be used in many cases. With these limitations, only imaging techniques in X, UV, Visible and IR bands, and a few spectroscopic methods that can be carried out with portable instruments can be applied, i.e. molecular spectroscopies like Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, UV visible and near IR reflectance spectrometry (UV-Vis-NIR RS) and atomic spectroscopy like energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The use of only one or two of these techniques is usually far from giving all the information required to achieve a full characterization of materials used by the artist or during restorations, and to understand some conservative problems of the object. On the contrary, a joined use of n.i. analyses can supply a larger set of data, allowing for cross checks. With this aim we show a fully integrated spectroscopic approach to polychrome objects, and, in particular, to drawings and illuminated manuscripts, using portable instruments, specifically μ-FTIR, μ-Raman, Vis-RS and EDXRF, where also the Raman signal does not suffer fluorescence caused by varnish coating and from binder. We propose the joined use of all these four physical analyses to characterize materials - support, pigments, dyes, binders, etc. - on a complex case: a painted and drawn parchment of the late 15th century, or the beginning of the 16th, partly attributed to Andrea Mantegna. The collected spectroscopic data have been compared to proper spectral databases, some of which specifically realized in our laboratories. Also, mixtures of pigments and their stratigraphical

  9. Renewable energy: Political momentum and technology for a sustainable Mexico; Energias Renovables: Impulso politico y tecnologico para un Mexico sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Hernandez, Sergio; Romero Hernandez, Omar; Wood, Duncan [Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico (ITAM) (Mexico)

    2011-04-15

    The renewable energy sector in Mexico, as shown in this book, is alive and in good condition, prospers and has great potential. In this regard, it is essential that Mexico sees itself as a country with an energy future beyond Cantarell, beyond Pemex and beyond oil. The future of renewable energy offers great hope for the country and the region, and the time is right for a consensus government, business and social more strongly boost the development of this sector. This book discusses the following topics: Renewable energy and sustainable economic development, the regulatory framework for the use of renewable energy, hydropower, bioenergy, Part I: biomass and biogas, bioenergy, Part II: Liquid biofuels; elements for promotion of wind energy in Mexico, geothermal energy, solar PV, solar thermal and micro. [Spanish] El sector de la energia renovable en Mexico, como se muestra en este libro, esta vivo y en buenas condiciones, prospera y tiene gran potencial. En ese sentido, resulta indispensable que Mexico se vea a si mismo como un pais con un futuro energetico mas alla de Cantarell, mas alla de PEMEX, mas alla del petroleo. El futuro de la energia renovable ofrece una gran esperanza para el pais y la region, y el tiempo es adecuado para que una concertacion gubernamental, empresarial y social impulse con mas fuerza el desarrollo de este sector. En este libro se analizan los siguientes temas: Energias renovables y desarrollo economico sustentable; el marco normativo de la utilizacion de las energias renovables; energia hidroelectrica; bioenergia, parte I: biomasa y biogas; bioenergia, parte II: biocombustibles liquidos; elementos para la promocion de la energia eolica en Mexico; energia geotermica; energia solar fotovoltaica; energia solar termica, y la microgeneracion.

  10. Agreements for energy and environment; Patto per l'energia e l'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    In this paper are reported in ambit of italian national conference of energy and environment, an agreement undersigned by deputy of political and social forces. [Italian] In questo documento e' illustrato il patto per l'energia e l'ambiente cui hanno aderito forze sociali e politiche del paese.

  11. Fundamentos e métodos de medidas de energia dinâmica no SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Belincanta

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Discutem-se neste trabalho os métodos disponíveis no Brasil e no exterior para a medida da energia transferida às hastes no SPT, apresentando-se inclusive registros típicos dos eventos dinâmicos correspondentes

  12. Eesti Energia jätkab PR-kampaaniaga / Lembit Kaljuvee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljuvee, Lembit, 1952-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikogu liige ja Eesti Põlevkivi juhatuse endine liige peab Eesti Energia börsile viimist majandusloogiliselt õigeks sammuks, kuid viitab börsile viimisega seotud riskidele. Tema väitel ei ole ettevõttes järgmisel aastal investeeringurahaga midagi peale hakata, sest pole tööks kõlblikke reaalseid projekte

  13. Elagu eesti energia : Jaan ja Jüri Ojaver, Paul Rodgers / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    2001-01-01

    Paul Rodgersi, Jüri ja Jaan Ojaveri ühisnäitusest "Koostöö" Rakvere Kesklinna galeriis. P. Rodgersilt ja Jüri Ojaverilt on väljas Viinist "Eesti energia" näituselt naasnud tööd, Jaan Ojaverilt minimalistlikud tööriistad-objektid

  14. Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) - Sao Paulo, Brazil, - Annual report, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The activities carried out at 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) S.P., Brazil, in 1978 are related, such as : development of research on the use of radioisotopes in crop improvement and plant breeding, as well as in the improvement of animal production; works in collaboration with other entities; personnel formation and scientific exchange with other countries. (M.A.) [pt

  15. Eesti Energia jääb riigi monopoliks / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2002-01-01

    Valitsus otsustas katta elektri hinna tõusu 5-10 sendise kärpe Euroopa Liidu abirahade ja laenudega, loobudes Eesti Energia aktsiate börsile viimisest ja säilitades ettevõtte monopoli. Kommenteerib majandusministri nõunik Heido Vitsur

  16. Eesti Energia salatseb IPO eeltööde hinnaga / Jan Jõgis-Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgis-Laats, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia juhatuse esimehe Sandor Liive väitel oli ettevõtte börsilemineku ettevalmistamise kulude suurusjärk kümnetes miljonites kroonides, suurimad kulutused tehti õigus- ja majandusanalüüsile. Eesti Energiat nõustanud firmad

  17. Eesti Energia : investeerimata oleme varsti hädas / Krista Taim, Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taim, Krista

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu kinnitas ettevõtte investeeringutekava aastani 2018, 15 aasta jooksul tuleb investeerida 46 miljardit krooni, rahastamisallikatena nähakse välislaenu, riigi abi või hinnatõusu. Kommenteerivad Eiki Nestor ja Marika Tuus

  18. Energiasõltumatuse ohtlik fantaasia / A. F. Alhajji, Gavin Longmuir ; tõlk. Marek Laane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alhajji, A. F.

    2007-01-01

    Autorid leiavad, et maailmas üha häälekamalt kõlav soov taotleda energiasõltumatust on absurdne, sest selle poole püüdlevate maade energeetiline julgeolek tegelikult väheneb. Kommenteerib energeetikaekspert Raivo Vare

  19. Technological advances in zero energy buildings; Avances tecnologicos en edificios de energia cero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Milla, Guillermo; Perez Rebolledo, Hugo; Acoltzi Acoltzi, Higinio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Buildings use a large amount of energy to operate and are one of the main sources of contaminating emissions. A building is a complex system and all of their components contribute to the total energy demand. The technology to construct zero-energy buildings is already available, but obstacles exist such as the lack of information and technical training of architects and engineers to design highly energy efficient buildings. The present article describes the progress to-date and the future prospects for the design and construction of zero-energy buildings, as well as the problems involved in its implementation. [Spanish] Los edificios usan una gran cantidad de energia para operar y son una de las principales fuentes de emisiones contaminantes. Un edificio es un sistema complejo y todos sus componentes contribuyen a la demanda total de energia. La tecnologia para construir edificios de energia cero ya esta disponible, pero existen barreras como falta de informacion o capacitacion tecnica a arquitectos e ingenieros, para disenar edificios de alta eficiencia energetica. El presente articulo muestra los avances a la fecha y la prospectiva para el diseno y construccion de edificios de energia cero, asi como la problematica para su implementacion.

  20. Design of the zero power reactor core of Instituto de Energia Atomica, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Antonio Carlos de Almeida

    1974-01-01

    The main characteristics of a graphite moderated core of a critical assembly to be installed in the zero power reactor of the Instituto de Energia Atomica have been defined. Several simple geometric configurations have been selected and criticality studies have been made. The necessary quantity of fissile uranium has been calculated. (author)

  1. Eesti Energia ehtis end võõraste kuresulgedega / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Lõuna-Eesti traadita internetituru liider Kernel on üllatunud, et Eesti Energia tütarfirma Televõrk traadita internetivõrk Kõu kasutas reklaamiks nende kurepilti. Lisa: Eilseks kadunud kurejutt. Ilmunud ka: Postimees, 20. juuni 2007, lk. 4

  2. Energia do hidrogênio: mudanças paradigmáticas rumo à uma "economia verde" no Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Lube

    2012-01-01

    Esta dissertação analisa o desenvolvimento da energia do hidrogênio no Brasil, numa perspectiva de mudança paradigmática. A perspectiva da sustentabilidade do desenvolvimento e de economia verde basilar no presente trabalho requer mudança de paradigma no setor energético. A energia é fundamental para melhoraria da qualidade de vida e do bem estar da população, porém é necessário buscar novas fontes de energias, limpas e renováveis, alternativamente às fontes de origem fóssil, e que possam sus...

  3. Um estudo da viabilidade de pequenos aerogeradores na produção de energia elétrica

    OpenAIRE

    Martins de Melo, Gilberto

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho propõe o desenvolvimento de um aplicativo e discute ambos os resultados econômicos e técnicos obtidos com um procedimento chamado PEL - perfil de energia local. Esta ferramenta é a elaboração de metodologia alternativa para a estimativa de energia elétrica obtida a partir de energia eólica disponível usando turbinas de pequeno eixo horizontal. Os dados necessários para este procedimento são registrados como série simultânea anual da temperatura de ar e velocidade ...

  4. Inversor para sistemas domésticos de produção de energia eólica

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Cirilo Leonel da

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho descreve a simulação de um gerador e inversor para sistemas domésticos de produção de energia eólica. Este projecto pretende simular a produção de energia eléctrica por meio de uma energia renovável (vento). Descreve-se toda a arquitectura do sistema e respectiva implementação. São apresentados os resultados das partes mais importantes do sistema e respectiva análise. Os diversos componentes do sistema são inicialmente apresentados individualmente, ...

  5. CONSUMO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA: UMA ANÁLISE DE FONTE ALTERNATIVA DE COLETOR SOLAR DE BAIXO CUSTO

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Alves de Oliveira; Murillo Ribeiro de Moura

    2015-01-01

    Com o aumento do consumo de energia elétrica e tarifas, a procura por geração de energias alternativas vem crescendo gradativamente, principalmente que sejam de baixo custo, assim possibilitando uma maior inclusão social beneficiando também as residências de baixa renda. Com o espírito de inovação a pesquisa buscou ideias simples que possam contribuir para a sociedade buscando alternativas sustentáveis e de baixo custo para a economia de energia elétrica Esse artigo teve como obje...

  6. Electric power conservation while using pumping systems; Conservacion de Energia Electrica en Sistemas de Bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, P

    2007-01-15

    The pumping systems provide about 20 to 25 percent of energy which is necessary worldwide: it is fruitful to understand how to use electric power efficiently, to achieve the reduction regarding expenses a pumping system implies.It is essential to possess a better knowledge about the pumping system and its applications, in order to be able to use energy responsibly. If people do not how to operate this kind of systems properly, they will use inadequate equipment that will cause an energy waste. In addition it is important to know: alternative methods to meet variable demands, an adapted system to pump water requirements in order to ensure the pump work in its pumping point, and the life cycle system cost for the energy saving in the long term. [Spanish] En promedio del 20 al 25% de la energia necesaria en el mundo proviene de los sistemas de bombeo, por tal razon es importante saber como utilizar la energia electrica con eficiencia para asi lograr reducir los gastos que este tipo de sistemas implican. Para poder hacer un buen uso de la energia, es necesario que se tenga un conocimiento mayor del sistema de bombeo y aplicacion, ya que la ignorancia sobre esto exige el uso de aparatos que contribuyen al desperdicio de la energia; por otro lado tambien es esencial conocer metodos alternos para demandas variables, tener un sistema que se adapte a las necesidades de bombeo del agua para asegurarse de que cada bomba trabaje cerca de su punto de bombeo y finalmente conocer el costo del ciclo de vida del sistema para el ahorro de energia a largo plazo.

  7. Non-destructive characterization of oriental porcelain glazes and blue underglaze pigments using μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman and VP-SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, M.L.; Muralha, V.S.F.; Mirao, J.; Veiga, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The study of ancient materials with recognized cultural and economic value is a challenge to scientists and conservators, since it is usually necessary an approach through non-destructive techniques. Difficulties in establishing a correct analytical strategy are often significantly increased by the lack of knowledge on manufacture technologies and raw materials employed combined with the diversity of decay processes that may have acted during the lifetime of the cultural artefacts. A non-destructive characterization was performed on the glaze and underglaze pigments from a group of Chinese porcelain shards dated from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) excavated at the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha in Coimbra (Portugal). Chemical analysis was performed using micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Mineralogical characterization was achieved by Raman microscopy (μ-Raman) and observation of small-surface crystallization dark spots with a metallic lustre in areas with high pigment concentration was done by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Cobalt aluminate was identified as the blue underglaze pigment and a comparison of blue and dark blue pigments was performed by the ratio of Co, Mn, and Fe oxides, indicating a compositional difference between the two blue tonalities. Manganese oxide compounds were also identified as colouring agents in dark blue areas and surface migration of manganese compounds was verified. (orig.)

  8. Non-destructive characterization of oriental porcelain glazes and blue underglaze pigments using μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman and VP-SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, M.L. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, REQUIMTE-CQFB, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Muralha, V.S.F. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Research Unit VICARTE, Vidro e Ceramica para as Artes, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Mirao, J. [Universidade de Evora, Laboratorio HERCULES, Evora (Portugal); Veiga, J.P. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-03-15

    The study of ancient materials with recognized cultural and economic value is a challenge to scientists and conservators, since it is usually necessary an approach through non-destructive techniques. Difficulties in establishing a correct analytical strategy are often significantly increased by the lack of knowledge on manufacture technologies and raw materials employed combined with the diversity of decay processes that may have acted during the lifetime of the cultural artefacts. A non-destructive characterization was performed on the glaze and underglaze pigments from a group of Chinese porcelain shards dated from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) excavated at the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha in Coimbra (Portugal). Chemical analysis was performed using micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Mineralogical characterization was achieved by Raman microscopy (μ-Raman) and observation of small-surface crystallization dark spots with a metallic lustre in areas with high pigment concentration was done by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Cobalt aluminate was identified as the blue underglaze pigment and a comparison of blue and dark blue pigments was performed by the ratio of Co, Mn, and Fe oxides, indicating a compositional difference between the two blue tonalities. Manganese oxide compounds were also identified as colouring agents in dark blue areas and surface migration of manganese compounds was verified. (orig.)

  9. Lead post-mortem intake in human bones of ancient populations by (109)Cd-based X-ray fluorescence and EDXRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebôcho, J; Carvalho, M L; Marques, A F; Ferreira, F R; Chettle, D R

    2006-12-15

    In this work we measured the lead concentration in human bones of Middle Age by means of a portable X-ray fluorescence system based on (109)Cd radioactive source. The detection system consists on a Ge hyperpure detector. This system, conceived for in vivo Pb analysis in bone, is portable, non-destructive and is based on lead K lines detection. The analysed bones are part of two collections of bones both from the end of Middle Age and submitted for some years to a lead polluted burial environment. The bones of one collection were buried initially on the soil in a convent, in Lisbon (Portugal) and further on, kept in a lead coffin for around 100 years. The second collection contains bones buried permanently on the soil around an old church on the south of Portugal. This place became a parking car for around 20 years. In this work we studied the distribution of Pb in cortical bone, and trabecular regions from the outside surface to the inner part of the bone and the results are compared with the obtained ones by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The obtained values present a strong contamination of Pb in spongy bones kept in the lead coffin with concentrations ranging from 250 to 350mugPb/g bone mineral, and 4 to 7mugPb/g bone mineral for bones buried in the soil. Good agreement was observed between the results obtained by the two techniques.

  10. Non-destructive characterization of oriental porcelain glazes and blue underglaze pigments using μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman and VP-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, M. L.; Muralha, V. S. F.; Mirão, J.; Veiga, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    The study of ancient materials with recognized cultural and economic value is a challenge to scientists and conservators, since it is usually necessary an approach through non-destructive techniques. Difficulties in establishing a correct analytical strategy are often significantly increased by the lack of knowledge on manufacture technologies and raw materials employed combined with the diversity of decay processes that may have acted during the lifetime of the cultural artefacts. A non-destructive characterization was performed on the glaze and underglaze pigments from a group of Chinese porcelain shards dated from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) excavated at the Monastery of Santa Clara- a- Velha in Coimbra (Portugal). Chemical analysis was performed using micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Mineralogical characterization was achieved by Raman microscopy (μ-Raman) and observation of small-surface crystallization dark spots with a metallic lustre in areas with high pigment concentration was done by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Cobalt aluminate was identified as the blue underglaze pigment and a comparison of blue and dark blue pigments was performed by the ratio of Co, Mn, and Fe oxides, indicating a compositional difference between the two blue tonalities. Manganese oxide compounds were also identified as colouring agents in dark blue areas and surface migration of manganese compounds was verified.

  11. Study on the chemical composition features of Longquan celadon excavated from the Chuzhou site of Huai'an City in Jiangsu Province by EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Feng, Song-Lin; Feng, Xiang-Qian; Xu, Qing; Yan, Ling-Tong; Ma, Bo; Huo, Hua

    2011-07-01

    A mass of Longquan celadon shards were excavated from the Chuzhou site of Huai'an City in Jiangsu Province, China. These celadon shards were fired during the period of the Late Yuan Dynasty to the Tianshun era of the Ming Dynasty, as identified by archaeologists at Nanjing Museum. In order to research the chemical composition features of this ancient celadon porcelain, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for non-destructive analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the porcelain body and glaze in these shards. The results indicate that Ti and Fe in the body of Longquan celadon are characteristic elements which can distinguish porcelain produced during the Late Yuan Dynasty from those produced in the Ming Dynasties. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) show that different body and glaze raw materials were used for the production of porcelain in different periods and the raw materials of the body and glaze are also different for various vessel shapes. The chemical compositions in the porcelain body of civilian ware are slightly different. The imperial and civilian Longquan celadon porcelains produced during the Hongwu era to the Tianshun era of the Ming Dynasty are distinguishable by the MnO, Fe2O3, Rb2O and SrO content in their porcelain glaze.

  12. Study of trace element correlations with drought tolerance in different sorghum genotypes using Energy Dispersive X-Rays Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Assar, A.H.; Joseph, Daisy; Choudhury, R.K.; Saxena, A.; Suprasanna, P.; Bapat, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Drought tolerant and susceptible genotypes of sorghum plants were analysed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study the correlation of trace elements with drought tolerance capacities for sorghum plants. Samples prepared from mature seeds, young seedlings and old plants were analyzed using 109 Cd radioisotope source and a Si(Li) semiconductor detector of resolution 170 eV for 5.9 keV Mn K α X-ray. The elements such as K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr and Y were seen to be present in varying concentrations in different samples. The trace element profile in the seeds of 11 genotypes and in seedlings (young and old) of four sorghum genotypes that were studied exhibited considerable variation in their concentrations. Some seed genotypes showed the presence of Hg in small amounts. It was observed that in most of the genotypes (seeds), K and Fe concentrations were more in the tolerant genotype as compared to the susceptible type. Concentration of Fe decreased with maturity in the tolerant group while it increased with maturity in the susceptible group. The genotype Arfa Gadamak (AG) showed a distinct abnormality in its young seedling with high level of Zn. (author)

  13. Estudi de l’energia geotèrmica a Catalunya i la seva implementació a l’edificació. Comparativa amb l’energia solar tèrmica

    OpenAIRE

    Roca Subirana, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Aquest projecte pretén analitzar l’estat actual de l’energia geotèrmica a Catalunya i estudiarne la seva implementació en l’edificació. A més, pretén realitzar un estudi comparatiu entre aquesta energia renovable i l’energia solar tèrmica. Primerament, es realitza un balanç sobre el consum i la producció actuals d’energia a Catalunya. Aquest balanç es complementa amb una incisió sobre l’estat actual de les energies renovables a Catalunya, com també el futur que se’ls hi depara....

  14. L'uso pacifico dell'energia nucleare da Ginevra 1955 ad oggi : il caso italiano : atti del convegno

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Energia e sviluppo (le fonti energetiche) ; l'Italia e l'opzione nucleare ; stato a prospettive delle tecnologie nucleari ; reattori nucleari di nuova generazione ; tecniche nucleari in biologia, medicina biochimica, agraria e beni culturali ; sicurezza e ambiente.

  15. Börs nutab taga Eesti Energia loobumist / Jaana Pikalev ; kommenteerinud Jürgen Ligi, Sandor Liive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikalev, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    SEB privaatpanganduse osakonna strateeg Peeter Koppel, LHV Panga analüütik Sten Pisang, investor Stefan Andresson avaldavad arvamust seoses otsusega Eesti Energia veel mitte börsile viia. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi arvamus

  16. Management report 2003 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2003 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2003, involving the government programs in the areas of nuclear safety, medicine application, technological development, administration and miscellaneous.

  17. Eesti Energia: valitsus võtab aja maha ja laseb börsimõttel veel settida / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Täna valitsuskabinetis toimuv arutelu ei paista keskenduvat mitte sellele, kas Eesti Energia börsile viimise plaan on hea või halb, vaid pigem sellele, kui kiire Eesti Energial oma plaanide rahastamisega on ning kas kõik ettevõtte soovid lähevad riigi eesmärkidega kokku. Eesti Energia investeeringute kava tekitab praegu rohkem küsimusi kui rahastamine

  18. Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development (Spanish Edition); Energia Nucleoelectrica y Desarrollo Sostenible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Any discussion of 21st century energy trends must take into account the global energy imbalance. Roughly 1.6 billion people still lack access to modern energy services, and few aspects of development - whether related to living standards, health care or industrial productivity - can take place without the requisite supply of energy. As we look to the century before us, the growth in energy demand will be substantial, and 'connecting the unconnected' will be a key to progress. Another challenge will be sustainability. How can we meet these growing energy needs without creating negative side effects that could compromise the living environment of future generations? Nuclear power is not a 'fix-all' option. It is a choice that has a place among the mix of solutions, and expectations for the expanding use of nuclear power are rising. In addition to the growth in demand, these expectations are driven by energy security concerns, nuclear power's low greenhouse gas emissions, and the sustained strong performance of nuclear plants. Each country must make its own energy choices; one size does not fit all. But for those countries interested in making nuclear power part of their sustainable development strategies, it is important that the nuclear power option be kept open and accessible [Spanish] En cualquier analisis de las tendencias energeticas del siglo XXI hay que tomar en cuenta el desequilibrio energetico mundial. Aproximadamente 1 600 millones de persona aun no tienen acceso a servicios energeticos modernos, y pocos aspectos del desarrollo - ya se trate de los niveles de vida, la atencion sanitaria o la productividad industrial - pueden conseguirse sin el necesario suministro de energia. Si consideramos el siglo que tenemos por delante, vemos que el crecimiento de la demanda energetica sera sustancial y que una clave del progreso consistira en 'conectar a los que carecen de conexion'. Otro desafio sera la sostenibilidad. Como podemos satisfacer estas necesidades

  19. Aplicação de alguns modelos quimiométricos à espectroscopia de fluorescência de raios-X de energia dispersiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimidt Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to accomplish the simultaneous determination of some chemical elements by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF Spectroscopy through multivariate calibration in several sample types. The multivariate calibration models were: Back Propagation neural network, Levemberg-Marquardt neural network and Radial Basis Function neural network, fuzzy modeling and Partial Least Squares Regression. The samples were soil standards, plant standards, and mixtures of lead and sulfur salts diluted in silica. The smallest Root Mean Square errors (RMS were obtained with Back Propagation neural networks, which solved main EDXRF problems in a better way.

  20. Análise de um sistema de aquecimento de água para residências rurais, utilizando energia solar

    OpenAIRE

    Basso,Luiz H.; Souza,Samuel N. M. de; Siqueira,Jair A. C.; Nogueira,Carlos E. C.; Santos,Reginaldo F.

    2010-01-01

    A conscientização da importância do meio ambiente tem incentivado o estudo de novas fontes energéticas renováveis e menos poluentes. Dentre essas fontes, a energia solar destaca-se por ser perene e limpa. A utilização da energia solar em sistemas de aquecimento de água residencial rural pode colaborar com a economia de energia elétrica, base da matriz energética brasileira. Conhecer os fatores que influenciam na operação de um sistema de aquecimento de água por energia solar é importante na d...

  1. Determination of heavy metals concentrations in airborne particulates matter (APM) from Manjung district, Perak using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particulates trace metals are considered as public health concern as it can enter human lungs through respiratory system. Generally, any substance that has been introduced to the atmosphere that can cause severe effects to living things and the environment is considered air pollution. Manjung, Perak is one of the development districts that is active with industrial activities. There are many industrial activities surrounding Manjung District area such as coal fired power plant, quarries and iron smelting which may contribute to the air pollution into the environment. This study was done to measure the concentrations of Hg, U, Th, K, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Pb and Cd in the Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) collected at nine locations in Manjung District area within 15 km radius towards three directions (North, North-East and South-East) in 5 km intervals. The samples were collected using mini volume air sampler with cellulose filter through total suspended particulate (TSP). The sampler was set up for eight hours with the flow rate of 5 L/min. The filter was weighed before and after sample collection using microbalance, to get the amount of APM and kept in desiccator before analyzing. The measurement was done using calibrated Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The air particulate concentrations were found below the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for TSP (260 µg/m3). All of the metals concentrations were also lower than the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Argonne National Laboratory, USA NCRP (1975). From the concentrations, the enrichment factor were calculated.

  2. Assessing heavy metal toxicity in sediments of Chennai Coast of Tamil Nadu using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) with statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholkappian, M; Ravisankar, R; Chandrasekaran, A; Jebakumar, J Prince Prakash; Kanagasabapathy, K V; Prasad, M V R; Satapathy, K K

    2018-01-01

    The concentration of some heavy metals: Al, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, Mg, Mn, V, Cr, Zn, Ni and Co in sediments from Pulicat Lake to Vadanemmeli along Chennai Coast, Tamil Nadu has been determined using EDXRF technique. The mean concentrations of Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn were found to be 1918, 25436, 9832, 9859, 2109, 8209, 41.58, 34.14, 160.80, 2.85. 18.79 and 29.12 mg kg -1 respectively. These mean concentrations do not exceed the world crustal average. The level of pollution attributed to heavy metals was evaluated using several pollution indicators in order to determine anthropogenically derived contaminations. Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (I geo ), Contamination Factor (CF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were used in evaluating the contamination status of sediments. Enrichment Factors (EF) reveal the anthropogenic sources of V, Cr, Ni and Zn Geoaccumulation Index (I geo ) results reveal that the study area is not contaminated by the heavy metals. Similar results were also obtained by using pollution load index (PLI). The results of pollution indices indicates that most of the locations were not polluted by heavy metals. Multivariate statistical analysis performed using principal components and clustering techniques were used to identify the source of the heavy metals. The result of statistical procedures indicate that heavy metals in sediments are mainly of natural origin. This study provides a relatively novel technique for identifying and mapping the distribution of metal pollutants and their sources in sediment.

  3. Impurities determination on nuclear fuel element components for the IEA-R1 research reactor by analytical methods based on ED-XRF and ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Edson Luis Tocaia dos; Scapin, Marcos; Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza; Salvador, Vera Lucia; Pires, Maria Aparecida Faustino

    2009-01-01

    The production of nuclear fuel used in the research reactor at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) requires a series of chemical and metallurgical processes. The quality of the end product depends on the control over all the stages of the manufacturing process and over the quality of raw materials employed. In fact, spectrometric methods are increasingly used as quantitative analytical techniques applicable to uranium compounds because of simultaneous determination of several elements with minimum amounts of sample. However, the main obstacle of uranium compounds analysis by spectrometric techniques such as optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) is the complex emission spectrum of uranium. The ICP-OES is not appropriately capable of determining the major elements of interest without initial chemical separation of uranium. In this sense, the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) has been considered for quantitative determination of main elements with the advantage of not being destructive and not requiring a prior preparation of samples for analysis. Due to the simplicity of this technique, its applicability includes research and quality control in universities, research institutions, petrochemical industries, metallurgy, mining, etc. In this work, some components considered impurities in nuclear fuel element samples used in the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN/CNEN-SP were chemically characterized by ICP-OES analysis after chromatography extraction separation by using TBP/XAD-14 system and compared to results obtained by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). (author)

  4. Análise De Oportunidades E Desafios Para O Nexo Água-energia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani; L; Guarenghi; MM; Mito; JYL; Cavaliero; CKN; Galvao; RRD

    2016-01-01

    O desenvolvimento econômico, o crescimento da população mundial e o aumento da urbanização, tendem a aumentar a demanda mundial por água e energia, intensificando os conflitos entre os setores hídrico e energético e gerando impactos sobre o meio ambiente. Além da interferência direta dos seres humanos sobre esses recursos, as mudanças climáticas e eventos climáticos extremos têm afetado a disponibilidade de água e, consequentemente, a geração de energia de forma significativa. Este trabalho t...

  5. Contratos bilaterais em mercados de energia elétrica multiagente: protocolo de rede de contratos

    OpenAIRE

    Fragoso, Frederico Parente

    2015-01-01

    O setor elétrico tem assistido a mudanças profundas na sua estrutura e organização, devido à sua liberalização, o que levou a uma maior competitividade nos mercados de energia elétrica. Uma gestão eficiente dos mercados de energia torna-se cada vez mais uma prioridade devido aos riscos que estes podem apresentar, aliado à elevada volatilidade dos preços e volumes nos diferentes períodos horários (incertezas na produção e consumo). A liberalização do setor elétrico levou à criação de sim...

  6. Fome de energia? Do desperdício à poupança

    OpenAIRE

    Malico, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    A intensificação das atividades económicas a nível mundial e o aumento da população amplificam alguns dos problemas ambientais que a humanidade enfrenta hoje em dia. Alguns deles prendem-se com a conversão e utilização de energia. No seu relatório anual de 2012, a Agência Internacional de Energia refere que em 2035 as necessidades energéticas mundiais serão mais de 1/3 superiores às atuais [1]. Nos países da OCDE as necessidades energéticas aumentarão pouco, mas assistir-se-á até 2035 a uma c...

  7. Europa, energia e geoeconomia: infraestruturas prioritárias e novas soluções

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, José Félix

    2012-01-01

    Em 2010 a Comissão Europeia avançou com a proposta de um conjunto de corredores e interconexões europeias na área da energia, que culmina um processo de definição gradual de uma estratégia geoeconómica para garantir maior segurança energética e sustentabilidade

  8. Eesti Energia IPO nõuab sadu miljoneid kroone / Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2009-01-01

    Valitsus ei otsustanud, kas müüa Eesti Energia uued aktsiad maha börsi kaudu või osta need ise ära. Peaministri majandusnõuniku Aare Järvani sõnul on tegemist olulise poliitilise otsusega ja see ei tohi tekitada rahvas pahameelt. Autori sõnul võidaks börsiplaan poolehoidu näiteks siis, kui firma töötajad ja jaekliendid saaksid osta aktsiaid soodustingimustel

  9. Produção de biomassa florestal para energia em sistemas agroflorestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Browne de Deus Ribeiro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa revisão foi avaliar o potencial da produção de biomassa florestal com fins energéticos em Sistemas Agroflorestais (SAFs. O uso da madeira e de resíduos florestais para energia tem sido bastante estimulado no Brasil e no mundo nas últimas décadas, em razão de questões ambientais e da sua viabilidade técnica e econômica. No entanto, seu desenvolvimento em SAFs ainda necessita de mais estudos. Foram analisadas as principais características técnicas e econômicas para a produção de madeira para energia em SAFs, destacando espécies arbóreas, qualidade de sítio, características socioeconômicas e práticas agrossilviculturais. Os principais estudos encontrados são oriundos da Europa, Estados Unidos, Ásia e África, enquanto que no Brasil ainda existe escassez de trabalhos nesse tema, embora o país seja grande consumidor de biomassa florestal para energia. Todos os trabalhos encontrados indicaram que existe potencial técnico e econômico para a geração de energia de biomassa em SAFs, tanto para o abastecimento do produtor rural, quanto para a comercialização da madeira com qualidade para uso energético. Contudo, essa relação depende fundamentalmente de: maior estruturação do mercado para biomassa florestal, características socioeconômicas regionais e condições ambientais.

  10. Techniques of thermal energy conservation; Tecnicas de conservacion de la energia termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caltenco Estevez, Juan Luis; Roblez Lopez, Francisco; Ceballos Serna, Andres Alberto [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    In modern industry the thermal energy is the energy more intensely used, which implies that in the processes and equipment that operate based on it, rely the greatest opportunities for saving . In this paper some saving and conservation techniques of thermal energy, which nowadays have been developed, are presented, whose application has helped to the successful attainment of the objectives of increased productivity of industrial plants, with the additional benefit of reducing the environmental impact of the production activities. [Spanish] En la industria moderna la energia termica es la forma de energia mas intensamente utilizada, lo cual implica que en los procesos y equipos que operan basandose en esta, residan las mayores oportunidades de ahorro. En este trabajo se presentan algunas de las tecnicas de ahorro y conservacion de energia termica, que hoy en dia se han desarrollado, cuya aplicacion ha coadyuvado a la consecucion exitosa de los objetivos de incremento de la productividad de plantas industriales, con el beneficio adicional de reducir el impacto ambiental de las actividades productivas.

  11. Efeito de impactos repetidos de baixa energia em compósitos pultrudados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morais Willy Ank de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Danos internos podem ser gerados em compósitos de matriz polimérica submetidos a impactos de baixa energia. O efeito repetido de eventos desse tipo pode levar, eventualmente, à falha da estrutura. Neste trabalho dois tipos de perfis pultrudados foram submetidos a impactos por queda livre de peso de 0,5 m e 1,0 m de altura. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados em função da disposição das fibras nos perfis e mostram que a existência de uma camada rica em resina em um dos perfis, contribui para reduzir significativamente o desempenho deste perfil. Este comportamento foi associado à formação prematura de trincas na camada rica em resina. O número de eventos de impacto, o tempo de duração de cada choque e a forma da área danificada foram correlacionados com a presença, ou não, da região rica em resina. Os resultados obtidos indicam ainda que a diferença na microestrutura dos perfis analisados é mais significativa para os ensaios de menor energia (queda de 0,5 m. Para os ensaios de maior energia (queda de 1 m a configuração do material teve apenas uma importância secundária.

  12. Asymptotic energies and sustainable electrical development; Energias asintoticas y desarrollo electrico sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez O, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A review is made of the energy resources in use existing at the moment for the electricity production (hydraulic, coal, oil, gas and uranium). The asymptotic energies (solar, geothermal and nuclear fission and fusion) are described and the state of development in which they are up to the moment. One concludes that in the case of Mexico it would be convenient to make flexible and to reinforce the electrical systems in forecast of a greater participation of the distributed generation and to orient the extensions of the electrical generation to make a greater use of the three asymptotic energies already used: the solar (in its forms hydraulic and wind power), geothermal and the nuclear fission. [Spanish] Se pasa revista a los recursos existentes en las energias actualmente en uso para la produccion de electricidad (hidraulica, carbon, petroleo, gas y uranio). Se describen las energias asintoticas (solar, geotermia y fision y fusion nucleares) y el estado de desarrollo en que se encuentran hasta el momento. Se concluye que en el caso de Mexico convendria flexibilizar y reforzar el sistema electrico en prevision de una mayor participacion de la generacion distribuida y orientar las ampliaciones de la generacion electrica para hacer un mayor uso de tres de las energias asintoticas ya utilizadas: la solar (en sus formas hidraulica y eolica), la geotermia y la fision nuclear.

  13. ENERGIA SOLAR: ALTERNATIVA ENERGÉTICA E ECONÔMICA PARA O INSTITUTO FEDERAL DO MARANHÃO - CAMPUS BACABAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves Fontes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No mundo atual os tipos de produção de energias são, em sua maioria, muito poluentes e degradam o meio ambiente. A busca por energias não poluentes tornou-se a principal linha de pesquisa junto às energias alternativas, porque são abundantes na natureza e não degradam o meio ambiente, como por exemplo, a Fotovoltaica (FV. O nordeste brasileiro é uma região promissora nesse tipo de geração de energia, devido a grande incidência de irradiação solar. Bacabal, cidade central do Maranhão, encontra-se em uma boa localização em relação à Linha do Equador o que a torna favorável para o estudo de energia solar. Mostra-se neste trabalho a análise da possível implantação de um sistema FV no Instituto Federal do Maranhão (IFMA. Comprovando-se, com gráficos e tabelas simulados em plataformas nacionais, a viabilidade e a eficiência desta forma de obtenção de energia, bem como a contribuição para a preservação do meio ambiente com a não emissão de dióxido de carbono (CO2, quando se deixa de usar as energias advindas de hidrelétricas.

  14. Restore procedure to remove insoluble salts on murals paintings in the church of Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP) with accompaniment of portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence); Procedimento de restauro para remocao de sais insoluveis sobre pinturas murais na igreja da Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP) com acompanhamento por equipamento portatil de EDXRF (fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Marcia [MRizzo Restauracoes - Laboratorio de Conservacao e Restauracao de Bens Culturais Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio, E-mail: appoloni@uel.b, E-mail: parreira@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the proposition and application procedure for removal of insoluble salts, deposited on the surface of a wall painting in water-soluble, as well as the physical-chemical study with fluorescence X-ray in situ, that support and/or validated the restoration decision making

  15. Risk control in energy saving projects; Control de riesgo en los proyectos de ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Since one of the restrictive problems when investing in energy saving is the uncertainty of obtaining the planed savings, a technique in the risk handling for energy efficiency projects, called Insurance for the Energy Saving (IES) is presented. IES economically stimulates those who implement projects for energy saving so they go beyond the normal measures and really obtain significant saving levels, thus contributing to the fulfillment of national objectives in energy saving. In order to reduce the risk of low performance in energy caused by saving projects there exist the international performance measurement and the protocol of investment (IMPVP) as well as diagnoses and starting processes, whereas in order to transfer the financial risk that a saving project represents, mechanisms such as FDIC insurance, conversion of the debt in values, Saving's Guarantees, Performance Bonuses or Guarantee Bonuses and Insurances for Energy Saving can be of great help. This article deals on the IES insurance policies, their loss control management, successful cases, benefits, particular advantages, place in the market and refers argued insurance exceptions and perception surveys. [Spanish] Dado que uno de los problemas restrictivos a la hora de invertir en el ahorro de energia es la incertidumbre de obtener los ahorros proyectados, se presenta una tecnica en el manejo del riesgo para proyectos de eficiencia energetica llamada Seguro para el Ahorro de Energia (SAE). SAE estimula financieramente a quienes implementan proyectos para el ahorro de energia con el fin de que vayan mas alla de las medidas normales y consigan niveles significativos de ahorro, contribuyendo asi al cumplimiento de objetivos nacionales de ahorro energetico. Para reducir el riesgo de bajo desempeno de energia provocados por proyectos de ahorro existe la medicion del desempeno internacional y el protocolo de inversion (IMPVP) asi como diagnosticos y procesos de arranque, mientras que para transferir el

  16. ED-XRF spectrometry-based comparative inorganic profile of leaf-derived in vitro calli and in vivo leaf samples of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn.--a hepatoprotective herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, P; Behera, P R; Thirunavoukkarasu, M; Chand, P K

    2011-03-01

    The Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) set-up incorporating a molybdenum secondary exciter was used for quantitative determination of major and minor elements in leaves of in vivo grown medicinal herb Phyllanthus amarus vis-á-vis its leaf-derived in vitro callus culture. The elements such as K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb were identified, quantified and compared between both the sources. Experimental results revealed that, compared to the naturally grown herb, in vitro leaf-derived callus cultures were more efficient in accumulating inorganic elements, especially trace elements, which are essential for growth and development and more importantly for prevention and cure of diseases. This investigation on a medicinal plant species is the first of its kind to have used the ED-XRF technique to demonstrate a comparative account of the elemental profile of in vitro callus cultures with their in vivo donor in order to explore the possibility of exploiting the former as a viable alternative and a renewable source of phytochemicals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ED-XRF spectrometry-based comparative inorganic profile of leaf-derived in vitro calli and in vivo leaf samples of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn.-a hepatoprotective herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, P., E-mail: pranati_nayak_23@yahoo.co.i [Plant Tissue and Cell Culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, (C.S.I.R., Govt. of India), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Behera, P.R., E-mail: priyaranjan2004@gmail.co [Plant Tissue and Cell Culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, (C.S.I.R., Govt. of India), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Thirunavoukkarasu, M., E-mail: mtarasu@yahoo.co [Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, (C.S.I.R., Govt. of India), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Chand, P.K., E-mail: pkchanduubot@rediffmail.co [Plant Tissue and Cell Culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India)

    2011-03-15

    The Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) set-up incorporating a molybdenum secondary exciter was used for quantitative determination of major and minor elements in leaves of in vivo grown medicinal herb Phyllanthus amarus vis-a-vis its leaf-derived in vitro callus culture. The elements such as K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb were identified, quantified and compared between both the sources. Experimental results revealed that, compared to the naturally grown herb, in vitro leaf-derived callus cultures were more efficient in accumulating inorganic elements, especially trace elements, which are essential for growth and development and more importantly for prevention and cure of diseases. This investigation on a medicinal plant species is the first of its kind to have used the ED-XRF technique to demonstrate a comparative account of the elemental profile of in vitro callus cultures with their in vivo donor in order to explore the possibility of exploiting the former as a viable alternative and a renewable source of phytochemicals.

  18. ENERGIA EÓLICA: uma fonte energética limpa e renovável em nosso meio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL MOREIRA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Segundo o IBGE, no ano de 2010, a população brasileira teve um crescimento de 1,12%. Tendo em vista que tal crescimento necessita de uma grande demanda energética, precisa-se de fontes alternativas. Um bom meio supressor é a energia eólica. Meio de energia renovável e limpa. Segundo o documentário, Energia Eólica: a caçada pelos ventos, exibido pela TV Zabelê: “É uma dádiva da natureza o fato da nossa região ter esse grande potencial eólico [...].” No entanto, sua instalação necessita-se de grandes investimentos. Tendo em vista este grande crescimento populacional o projeto de pesquisa Energia Eólica: Uma fonte energética limpa e renovável em nosso meio, tem como objetivo a produção de um pequeno campo de energia eólica, em uma biblioteca na escola Oswaldo Cruz, na cidade de Sinop, Mato Grosso. Desta forma temos a possibilidade de reduzir 70% do consumo energético convencional, proporcionando uma economia financeira considerável. A implantação deste projeto está prevista para o segundo semestre de 2014.

  19. Energy balance of the metropolitan zone of the valley of Mexico, methodology and the entailment energy-air quality; Balance de energia de la zona metropolitana del valle de Mexico metodologia y la vinculacion energia - calidad del aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Navarrete, Gerardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The present document raises a methodology for the elaboration of the Energy Balance of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (ZMVM), in order to unify criteria and to facilitate the work of entities and investigators, mainly of those that require the entailment of energy and environment. The applied methodology, the consolidated format and the caloric unity facilitates the insertion of the Energy Balance of the ZMVM within the National Balance of Energy. The regional balances of energy have the intention of knowing the energy consumption patterns in the ZMVM and the indexes of energy intensity by sector. They establish the relationship of the indexes of energy intensity with the local and global air quality of the region, performing studies of incidence with the main polluting agents and with the greenhouse effect gases. [Spanish] El presente documento plantea una metodologia para la elaboracion del Balance de Energia de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Mexico (ZMVM), con el proposito de unificar criterios y facilitar el trabajo de organismos e investigadores, sobre todo de aquellos que requieren vincular energia y medio ambiente. La metodologia aplicad, el formato consolidado y la unidad calorica facilitan la insercion del Balance de Energia de la ZMVM dentro del Balance Nacional de Energia. Los balances regionales de energia tienen el proposito de conocer los patrones de consumo de energia en la ZMVM y los indices de intensidad energetica por sector. Establecen la relacion de los indices de intensidad energetica con la calidad del aire local y global de la region, realizando estudios de incidencia con los principales contaminantes y con los gases de efecto invernadero.

  20. APLICAÇÃO DE UMA FONTE ALTERNATIVA DE ENERGIA TERMELÉTRICA A GÁS NATURAL VISANDO REDUZIR O CUSTO COM ENERGIA ELÉTRICA EM UM EDIFÍCIO COMERCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Antonio Ochoa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo reduzir o consumo de energia elétrica de um Edifício Comercial, através da utilização de uma unidade termelétrica (grupo gerador que opera com gás natural. A unidade termelétrica servirá como uma fonte alternativa de energia na matriz energética do empreendimento. O custo de energia elétrica representa um impacto considerável nos custos operacionais do edifício. A análise quantitativa dos dados de consumo de energia do Edifício Comercial estudado, associado ao conhecimento do sistema tarifário hora-sazonal foi fundamental para determinar a viabilidade do projeto. Além disto, foi verificada a viabilidade econômica do projeto, tendo como base dois parâmetros financeiros de tempo de retorno (payback e critério do valor presente líquido (CVPL. Os resultados permitiram demonstrar, que realmente é tecnicamente e economicamente viável a aplicação do investimento neste projeto, obtendo uma redução de consumo de energia elétrica de aproximadamente 20% a. m., o equivalente a R$295.000,00 menos do valor pago mensalmente. Outro ganho é que o Edifício Comercial diversificou suas fontes de energia elétrica e assim permanecerá com alimentação elétrica quando houver interrupção no fornecimento da rede pública.

  1. Proceedings of the 24. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services and 7. Binational seminar on energy saving [Selected Papers]; 24. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios y 7. Seminario binacional de ahorro de energia. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document contains the technical briefings of the 24. National Seminar on the rational use of energy, and exhibition of the equipment and services and the 7. Binational seminar on energy saving, organized by the Asociacion de Profesionistas y Tecnicos en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, from November 9 to 11, 2005. This seminar dealt with subjects such as: electrical energy saving, energy distribution, solar energy, energy saving in compressed air, biomass, administration and control of the demand of the electrical energy, bioclimatic architecture, use of the compressed natural gas, renewable energy, co-generation, qualification and consultancy for the intelligent use of the energy in PyMES. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 24 Seminario Nacional sobre el uso racional de energia, y exposicion de los equipos y servicios y el 7 Seminario binacional de ahorro de energia, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, del 9 al 11 de noviembre del 2005. Este seminario trato temas tales como: ahorro de energia electrica, distribucion de la energia, energia solar, ahorro de energia en aire comprimido, biomasa, administracion y control de la demanda de la energia electrica, arquitectura bioclimatica, uso del gas natural comprimido, energia renovable, cogeneracion, capacitacion y consultoria para el uso inteligente de la energia en las Pymes.

  2. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  3. Uma definição natural de energia cinética e potencial em termodinâmica

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,G.F. Leal

    2007-01-01

    Na tentativa de tornar a termodinâmica mais familiar e sem violação do seu formalismo, define-se a partir de expressão do diferencial da energia, já incorporando as conseqüências da 2 Lei, o diferencial da energia cinética como associado às variações de temperatura a volume constante e o de energia potencial às de volume, à temperatura constante. A comparação entre os diferenciais é realizada pela normalização das variações de temperatura e de volume às de pressão. Ver-se-á que na fase gasosa...

  4. Otimização da Contratação do Fornecimento de Energia Elétrica

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Vítor Manuel Neves de

    2016-01-01

    A nova realidade do sector elétrico a partir da desverticalização da sua cadeia de valor e abertura à concorrência das atividades de Produção e Comercialização fez emergir novas oportunidades para os consumidores de energia elétrica. Fruto dessas novas oportunidades, pretende-se com a presente dissertação simular e quantificar a redução de custos com a aquisição de energia elétrica, obtida a partir da análise e otimização dos contratos de energia elétrica em instalações reais. O objetiv...

  5. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  6. RedeGasEnergia and associated technologies with industrial market; A RedeGasEnergia e as tecnologias associadas a aplicacoes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Luiz F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gas Natural; Lodi, Cristiane [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Rede Gas Energia

    2004-07-01

    The industrial segment shows a potential of consumption of about 40 millions m{sup 3}/d. This represent a great opportunity for RedeGasEnergia, a net of excellent with realize a cooperative and segmented work with Technology for development of natural gas once that at this moment this segment consume almost 20 millions m{sup 3}/d. The search for solutions economically and sustainable for replacing others energetics sources that are currently being used, placing emphasis on the quality of product, a concern with the environment, the need for technological development, the ease handling of equipment, safety regulations, those are the aims of the Industrial Applications of Technology. The development of projects in the technology field associate to combustion/conversion of industrial installations, acclimatization/refrigeration, industrial equipment, and new products and processes, which will make use of the natural gas has being our main goal nowadays. (author)

  7. CONSUMO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA: UMA ANÁLISE DE FONTE ALTERNATIVA DE COLETOR SOLAR DE BAIXO CUSTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Alves de Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento do consumo de energia elétrica e tarifas, a procura por geração de energias alternativas vem crescendo gradativamente, principalmente que sejam de baixo custo, assim possibilitando uma maior inclusão social beneficiando também as residências de baixa renda. Com o espírito de inovação a pesquisa buscou ideias simples que possam contribuir para a sociedade buscando alternativas sustentáveis e de baixo custo para a economia de energia elétrica Esse artigo teve como objetivo desenvolver um Coletor Solar de baixo custo. A metodologia utilizada foi quantitativa descritiva de caráter exploratório. Os procedimentos adotados foram uma pesquisa bibliográfica e desenvolvimento de um protótipo como procedimento experimental para coleta de dados. Dados os resultados nota-se que os testes realizados com o coletor solar de baixo custo, obteve um resultado com a temperatura da água para o banho de 37,1°C superior ao do chuveiro elétrico de 35,5°C. Com esse resultado o coletor solar se mostra, eficiente no quesito temperatura de banho e uma alternativa eficiente para a geração de energia térmica para aquecimento da água, além de reduzir a energia elétrica consumida em uma residência ao substituir o chuveiro tradicional que tem mais de 5000W , que é considerado um vilão para o consumo de energia elétrica.

  8. GERAÇÃO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA A PARTIR DO BIOGÁS / ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAIANA G. MARTINEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o sistema de geração de energia elétrica, através do uso do biogás proveniente de uma unidade produtora de suínos, localizada no município de São Miguel do Iguaçu, levando em consideração os aspectos relacionados ao consumo de biogás e geração de eletricidade. Foi utilizado um medidor de fluxo visando à contabilização da vazão de Biogás, utilizou-se GCP-22 que é o equipamento de controle e proteção do gerador, à aquisição de dados também foi realizada através de analisadores de energia. Estes analisadores registram a produção/consumo de energia em um intervalo de tempo de 15 minutos. Observou-se que o mês de maio teve o maior consumo, chegando a aproximadamente 18 mil m³ de biogás. Avaliando o período, a energia total gerada do conjunto moto gerador obteve um valor aproximado 110,3 MWh. O consumo de energia da propriedade foi de 55 MWh, sendo 16,8 MWh consumido da rede de distribuição. A energia excedente exportado para a rede de distribuição foi de aproximadamente 72 MWh. A geração média no período foi de 605,93 kWh. A média do consumo de biogás pelo conjunto moto gerador foi de 49,3 Nm³.h.

  9. Viabilidade económica da implementação de um reactor nuclear para a produção de energia eléctrica em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, Miguel António de Morais

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objectivo avaliar economicamente e determinar a viabilidade da implementação de um reactor nuclear para produção de energia eléctrica. Faz-se uma abordagem a aspectos da energia nuclear no mundo e em particular a energia nuclear na união europeia, faz-se uma análise sobre a estrutura do sector nuclear em Espanha e o futuro da energia no mundo. É realizada uma análise sobre a energia nuclear em Portugal, são abordados aspectos como o planeamento energético, a local...

  10. Velocidade e energia cinética da chuva de um emissor usado em pivô central

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Denise de Jesus Lemos

    2014-01-01

    A erosão decorrente do escoamento superficial causa grande impacto no potencial produtivo das áreas cultivadas. Portanto, o estudo da velocidade e da energia cinética com que as gotas de água atingem a superfície do solo irrigado é de fundamental importância para o desenvolvimento de diagnósticos e medidas que visem minimizar os efeitos negativos no manejo das áreas irrigadas. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a velocidade de impacto e a energia cinética de chuvas artificiais ...

  11. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 3: Special reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report (Part 3: Special reports) is the third in a series of four reporting the results of the eNERGIA project. The first report presents the eight countries examined in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The second report deals mainly with selected renewable energy technologies, which are discussed from different perspectives. The fourth report provides a summary of the whole project. The present report summarises the SWOT analyses of the Nordic countries and the eNERGIA workshops, and presents case studies of good practice. (Author) refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs

  12. Handbook of the energy sector 1992-1997; 1. ed.; Prontuario del sector de energia 1992-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Fuentes, Adrian; Ylizaliturri Ridriguez, Jose Carlos; Aguilar Alejandre, Vicente; Gomez Chiu, Rebeca [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The planning of the energy sector requires a detailed knowledge of the relations that exist among the International markets of energy and the position of Mexico with respect to these. The Handbook of the energy sector 1992-1997 analyzes the tendency of the International markets of energy and the relative importance of the countries in relationship to its resources, production volumes, energy demand, fuel prices and foreign trade. It allows to know how and to what extent the energy sector has responded to the new economic conditions of the country and to the global tendencies, presenting statistics of easy consultation, updated information at International level on the reserves, installed capacity, production, consumption, prices and commerce of the main energy sources, and of the position of Mexico within this context. The information consists of seven chapters: First, analyzes the world-wide balance of energy, detailing the consumption of primary energy by region and source; in the second, the main crude petroleum statistics are analyzed, of selected countries; the third analyzes the refined products of petroleum, the fourth analyzes the world-wide natural gas reserves; the fifth the world-wide coal reserves and the sixth, the installed capacity of electricity generation in several countries. [Espanol] La planeacion del sector de energia requiere un conocimiento detallado de las relaciones que existen entre los mercados internacionales de energia y la posicion de Mexico con respecto a estos. El Prontuario del sector de energia 1992-1997 analiza la tendencia de los mercados internacionales de energia y la importancia relativa de los paises en relacion con sus recursos, volumenes de produccion, demanda de energia, precios de combustibles y comercio exterior. Permite conocer como y en que medida el sector de energia ha respondido a las nuevas condiciones economicas del pais y a las tendencias globales, al presentar estadisticas de facil consulta, de informacion

  13. Renewable energies in the national power supply; Energias renovables en la oferta energetica nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Mexico is a country endowed with abundant power resources. By the magnitude of its reserves and the installed production capacity. This article presents the different nonconventional energy resources which Mexico has, with the purpose of using them for the generation of electric energy. [Spanish] Mexico es un pais dotado de abundantes recursos energeticos. Por la magnitud de sus reservas y por la capacidad instalada de produccion. Este articulo presenta los diferentes recursos energeticos no convencionales con los que cuenta Mexico, con el fin de utilizarlos para la generacion de energia electrica.

  14. Evolution of energy conversion plants; Evoluzione delle macchine per la conversione dell'energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osnaghi, C. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica

    2001-06-01

    The paper concerns the evolution and the future development of energy conversion plants and puts into evidence the great importance of the scientific and technological improvement in machines design, in order to optimize the use of energy resources and to improve ambient compatibility. [Italian] L'articolo descrive l'evoluzione recente e lo sviluppo futuro degli impianti di conversione dell'energia, evidenziando la grande importanza del progresso scientifico e tecnologico nella progettazione delle macchine, al fine di ottimizzare l'uso delle risorse energetiche e migliorare la compatibilita' ambientale.

  15. The scenario of power generation in Brazil; O cenario da geracao de energia no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Abreu Junior, Otavio Castor de; Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada; Carajilescov, Pedro; Leite, Patricia Teixeira; Cicogna, Marcelo A.

    2008-07-01

    The values concerning to the production of national power today, the evolution of composition and the installed capacity of electric matrix between the years 1980-2005, the outlook for demand and supply of energy according to the 'Plano Decenal de Energia' (2006-2015) were used as information basis for this study and analysis of some peculiar characteristics of the management of the energy sector in Brazil. The main objective was to highlight the importance of hydroelectric generation in Brazil. Finally we tried to make the comparison of the costs of hydroelectric generation in relation to other alternative sources available in the country.

  16. O nexo água, energia e alimentos no contexto da Metrópole Paulista

    OpenAIRE

    GIATTI, LEANDRO LUIZ; JACOBI, PEDRO ROBERTO; FAVARO, ANA KARINA MERLIN DO IMPERIO; EMPINOTTI, VANESSA LUCENA

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Em face do contexto de contingências e interdependências inerentes ao desenvolvimento sustentável, emerge a recente abordagem do nexo de compensações e/ou possíveis sinergias nas demandas e provimentos de água, energia e alimentos, ao que se dirige este texto enquanto uma contribuição conceitual e ensaio de aplicação e problematização, enfocando o recorte territorial da Macrometrópole Paulista. Nesta análise, pautamos desafios de aplicabilidade do nexo quanto a escalas espacial e tempo...

  17. PROSPECÇÃO EM SIMULADOR DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Elisalvo Alves; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Nunes, Maria Augusta Silveira Netto; Universidade Federal de Sergipe

    2014-01-01

    O processo de educar a população, em relação ao hábito de consumo consciente, é uma árdua tarefa, visto que as pessoas vivem em torno de aparatos tecnológicos que evoluem com uma velocidade nunca antes vivida pela humanidade, os quais oferecem mais comodidade, porém, em contrapartida incita-se a consumir mais energia. Assim, um dos meios de auxiliar as pessoas a terem um consumo consciente, é possibilitando-lhes mensurar seus consumos diários, através de um simulador de consumo, onde este pos...

  18. Materiais para as tecnologias da energia: desafios e o papel da reciclagem 

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    A indústria da energia, nomeadamente as tecnologias renováveis e de baixo carbono, necessita de matérias-primas, algumas raras e mesmo consideradas críticas, para produzir os materiais de que necessita para o seu desenvolvimento. Muitos desses materiais são escassos na Europa, colocando-a numa posição de grande dependência e fragilidade. A utilização dos resíduos como fontes secundárias dessas matérias-primas é uma das medidas essenciais para enfrentar este desafio. Neste artigo discute-se es...

  19. Epidemiologia das lesões traumáticas de alta energia em idosos

    OpenAIRE

    Katz,Márcio; Okuma,Marcos Antônio Akira; Santos,Alexandre Leme Godoy dos; Guglielmetti,Cesar Luiz Betoni; Sakaki,Marcos Hideyo; Zumiotti,Arnaldo Valdir

    2008-01-01

    O aumento proporcional de idosos na população mundial associado à melhoria nas condições de saúde e suporte preventivo para essa faixa etária, permite forma de vida mais ativa, expondo-os a risco mais elevado de acidentes e traumas de alta energia. Esses pacientes têm características fisiológicas, doenças associadas, padrão comportamental e complicações pós-operatórias que levam a resposta sistêmica diferente dos demais grupos etários. Esse trabalho avaliou prospectivamente 28 pacientes com i...

  20. Crise financeira, energia e sustentabilidade no Brasil Financial crisis, energy and sustainability in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Lucon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A recente crise financeira global traz consigo efeitos como a redução da atividade econômica e, consequentemente, do consumo de energia. Essa pode ser uma importante oportunidade para reorganizar o sistema energético em bases mais sólidas e sustentáveis: a eficiência, a maior participação das fontes renováveis e a descentralização da produção de energia. O Brasil e outros países em desenvolvimento podem aproveitar a experiência dos países desenvolvidos em eficiência energética, complementando com um programa vigoroso em energias renováveis, particularmente as "modernas" (eólica, solar, biomassa e pequenas hidrelétricas. Entretanto, preocupa o cenário inercial nacional, baseado num aumento da participação das fontes fósseis de energia na matriz, na priorização dos recursos à exploração de petróleo e gás natural e na manutenção de padrões insustentáveis de produção e consumo.The recent global financial crisis brings about effects such as a reduction in the economic activity and consequently in energy consumption. This may be an important opportunity to reorganize the energy system under more solid and sustainable foundations: efficiency, higher share of renewables and decentralized energy production. Brazil and other developing countries can leapfrog the experience acquired by developed nations in energy efficiency, complementing with a vigorous program in renewables, particularly the "modern" (wind, solar, biomass and small hydros. However, there is a concern about the inertial Brazilian scenario, based on an increasing share of fossil fuels in the matrix, in prioritizing resources to oil and gas exploration and in the continuing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption.

  1. Fontes de energias alternativas e os desafios para a cadeia produtiva automotiva

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Marcelo Ivanildo dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A indústria automotiva sempre esteve envolta num processo permanente de inovações e mais recentemente ela vem passando por várias e importantes mudanças. Essas mudanças decorrem de três fatores fundamentais: motivações ambientais, preço do petróleo e novos mercados. Num cenário de aperfeiçoamento dos padrões atuais de propulsão veicular, percebe-se o surgimento de fontes de energias alternativas. Onde o etanol surge como alternativa e poderá ser adotado em determinados mercados, como ...

  2. Inorganic elements determination in human and animal whole blood samples by X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF); Determinacao de elementos quimicos inorganicos em amostras de sangue total humano e de animais de experimentacao (hamster dourado e cavalo da raca crioula) pela tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X (EDXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redigolo, Marcelo Miyada

    2011-07-01

    Blood is a suspension of cells contained in a complex liquid called plasma. The term 'whole blood' refers to samples with both solid and liquid parts. Inorganic elements are responsible for essential functions, such as osmotic regulation, cardiac frequency and contractibility, blood clotting and neuromuscular excitability. The determination of inorganic elements in corporeal fluids such as blood, serum, plasma, tissue and urine is used as a monitor for a part or the whole organism. In this work, the X-Ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) was used for the determination of inorganic elements in whole blood samples from humans and animals (golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and crioula breed horses, Equus caballus). The reference intervals of Na (1788 - 1826 {mu}g g'-{sup 1}), Mg (63 - 75 {mu}g g{sup -1}), P (602 - 676 {mu}g g{sup -1}), S (1519 - 1718 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cl (2743 - 2867 {mu}g g{sup -1}), K (1508 - 1630 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Ca (214 - 228 {mu}g g'-{sup 1}), Cu (4 -6 {mu}g g{sup -1}) e Zn (1 - 3 {mu}g g'-{sup 1}) were determined for human blood. The reference intervals, for golden hamster blood were found to be: Na (1714 - 1819 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Mg (51 - 79 {mu}g g{sup -1}), P (970 - 1080 {mu}g g{sup -1}), S (1231 - 1739 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cl (2775 - 2865 {mu}g g{sup -1}), K (1968 - 2248 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Ca (209 - 257 {mu}g g-1), Cu (4 - 6 {mu}g g{sup -1}) e Zn (3 - 5 {mu}g g{sup -1}). The reference intervals, for crioula breed horse blood, showed to be: Na (1955 - 2013 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Mg (51 - 75 {mu}g g{sup -1}), P (443 - 476 {mu}g g{sup -1}), S (1038 - 1140 {mu}g g{sup -}'1), Cl (2388 - 2574 {mu}g g{sup -1}), K (1678 - 1753 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Ca (202 - 213 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cu (4,1 - 4,5 {mu}g g{sup -1}) e Zn (2,0 - 2,2 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Comparative study between NAA and EDXRF, both techniques showed the same performance for the analyses of biological matrices. The results contribute for the establishment of reference

  3. Wind energy for electricity generation; Generacion electrica con energia del viento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M; Borja Diaz, Marco Antonio R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    A description is made of electricity generation utilizing wind energy (Eoloelectric Generation). The case of Mexico is reviewed in respect to this technology, mentioning a small power plant of 1.5 Megawatts installed by the Comision Federal de Electricidad in the zone of La Ventosa in the State of Oaxaca. Mention is made of the possible causes why Mexico has not advanced in this type of power plants for power generation as in other countries like Germany, Spain and India. The advance in these countries is shown as well as the growth statistics of the wind power in the world. It is concluded that there is not in Mexico a strategy for wind energy utilization for electricity generation in spite of the potential benefits this technology offers [Espanol] Se describe el caso de la generacion electrica utilizando la energia del viento (Generacion Eoloelectrica). Se aborda el caso de Mexico respecto a esta tecnologia, mencionando una pequena central de 1.5 Megawatts (MW) instalada por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en la zona de la Ventosa, Oaxaca. Se mencionan las posibles causas por las que en Mexico este tipo de centrales de generacion de energia no ha avanzado como en otros paises, por ejemplo: Alemania, Espana y la India. Se muestran los avances de estos paises, asi como una estadistica del crecimiento de la generacion eoloelectrica en el mundo. Se concluye en que no existe en Mexico una estrategia para la generacion eoloelectrica a pesar de los beneficios potenciales que ofrece esta tecnologia

  4. Potential of energy saving with photovoltaic systems; Potencialidad de ahorro de energia con sistemas fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman S, Eusebio; Bratu S, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an approach on the application of photovoltaic systems in energy saving. The problem of the electric energy demand in the coming years is analyzed and its consequences on the environment and on the energy reserves of conventional sources. A model of the electric circuit equivalent to a photovoltaic cell illustrates the behavior of the photovoltaic cell in function of the climatological conditions. The former in order to show some of the limiting factors in this type of generator. Also, the evolution of the applications of the photovoltaic systems and its forecasting in the installed capacity in the next 20 years, is described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un enfoque de la aplicacion de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en el ahorro de energia. Se plantea el problema del crecimiento de la demanda energetica en los proximos anos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente y las reservas de energia por fuentes convencionales. Un modelo del circuito electrico equivalente de una celda fotovoltaica ilustra el comportamiento del generador fotovoltaico en funcion de las condiciones climatologicas. Lo anterior con el fin de mostrar algunas limitantes de este tipo de generador. Tambien se describe la evolucion de las aplicaciones de los sistemas fotovoltaicos y el pronostico de la potencia instalada en los proximos 20 anos.

  5. Wind power prognosis statistical system; Sistema estadistico de pronostico de la energia eoloelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Garcia, Alfredo; De la Torre Vega, Eli [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The integration of the first Aeolian farm of large scale (La Venta II) to the National Interconnected System requires taking into account the random and discontinuous nature of the Aeolian energy. An important tool, for this task, is a system for the prognosis of the Aeolian energy in the short term. For this reason, the Instituto of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) developed a statistical model to realize this prognosis. The prediction is done through an adaptable linear combination of alternative competing models, where the weights given to each model are based on its more recent prognosis quality. Also, the application results of the prognoses system are presented and analyzed. [Spanish] La integracion de la primera grana eolica de gran escala (La Venta II) al Sistema Interconectado Nacional requiere tomar en cuenta la naturaleza aleatoria y discontinua de la energia eolica. Una importante herramienta, para esta tarea, es un sistema para el pronostico de la energia eolica a corto plazo. Por ello, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) desarrollo un modelo estadistico para realizar este pronostico. La prediccion es hecha a traves de una combinacion lineal adaptable de modelos competidores alternativos, donde los pesos dados a cada modelo estan basados en su mas reciente calidad de pronostico. Tambien se presentan y analizan los resultados de la aplicacion del sistema de pronosticos.

  6. Potential of energy saving with photovoltaic systems; Potencialidad de ahorro de energia con sistemas fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman S, Eusebio; Bratu S, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper presents an approach on the application of photovoltaic systems in energy saving. The problem of the electric energy demand in the coming years is analyzed and its consequences on the environment and on the energy reserves of conventional sources. A model of the electric circuit equivalent to a photovoltaic cell illustrates the behavior of the photovoltaic cell in function of the climatological conditions. The former in order to show some of the limiting factors in this type of generator. Also, the evolution of the applications of the photovoltaic systems and its forecasting in the installed capacity in the next 20 years, is described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un enfoque de la aplicacion de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en el ahorro de energia. Se plantea el problema del crecimiento de la demanda energetica en los proximos anos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente y las reservas de energia por fuentes convencionales. Un modelo del circuito electrico equivalente de una celda fotovoltaica ilustra el comportamiento del generador fotovoltaico en funcion de las condiciones climatologicas. Lo anterior con el fin de mostrar algunas limitantes de este tipo de generador. Tambien se describe la evolucion de las aplicaciones de los sistemas fotovoltaicos y el pronostico de la potencia instalada en los proximos 20 anos.

  7. Zamak samples analyses using EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, J.T. de; Lima, I.; Monin, V., E-mail: joaquim@iprj.uerj.b, E-mail: inaya@iprj.uerj.b, E-mail: monin@iprj.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica e Energia; Anjos, M. dos; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Alves, H., E-mail: marcelin@uerj.b, E-mail: haimon.dlafis@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2009-07-01

    Zamak is a family of alloys with a base metal of zinc and alloying elements of aluminium, magnesium and copper. Among all non-ferrous metal alloys, Zamak is one that has more applications, for their physical, mechanical properties and easy ability to electrodeposition. It has good resistance to corrosion, traction, shock and wear. Its low melting point (approximately 400 deg C) allows greater durability of the mold, allowing greater production of melted series parts. Zamak can be used in several kinds of areas, such as, to produce residential and industrial locks, construction and carpentry components, refrigerators hinges and so on. It is observed that in some cases the quality of these products is not very good. The problem should be the quality of Zamak alloy purchased by the industries. One possible technique that can be used to investigate the quality of these alloys is Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence. In this paper we present results of eight samples of Zamak alloy by this technique and it was possible to classify Zamak alloy and verify some irregularity on these alloys. (author)

  8. Zamak samples analyses using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, J.T. de; Lima, I.; Monin, V.; Anjos, M. dos; Lopes, R.T.; Alves, H.

    2009-01-01

    Zamak is a family of alloys with a base metal of zinc and alloying elements of aluminium, magnesium and copper. Among all non-ferrous metal alloys, Zamak is one that has more applications, for their physical, mechanical properties and easy ability to electrodeposition. It has good resistance to corrosion, traction, shock and wear. Its low melting point (approximately 400 deg C) allows greater durability of the mold, allowing greater production of melted series parts. Zamak can be used in several kinds of areas, such as, to produce residential and industrial locks, construction and carpentry components, refrigerators hinges and so on. It is observed that in some cases the quality of these products is not very good. The problem should be the quality of Zamak alloy purchased by the industries. One possible technique that can be used to investigate the quality of these alloys is Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence. In this paper we present results of eight samples of Zamak alloy by this technique and it was possible to classify Zamak alloy and verify some irregularity on these alloys. (author)

  9. Management report 2007 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2007 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2007, involving the CNEN role in the public policy execution, the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  10. Management report 2004 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2004 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2004, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  11. Eesti Energia lubab võlgades paberivabriku elektrita jätta / Eiris Teeveere, Päären Mardiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teeveere, Eiris

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia lülitab välja elektri Kehras asuvas Horizon Tselluloosi ja Paberivabrikus, kui võlgu tähtajaks ei maksta. Tehase sulgemine tooks kaasa 500 inimese töötuks jäämise ning reovee puhastuse lõppemise

  12. Adoção da energia solar fotovoltaica em hospitais: revisando a literatura e algumas experiências internacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Barbosa dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O Sol possui um papel de extrema importância para a existência dos seres humanos e o Brasil possui uma posição geográfica privilegiada para explorar a luz solar. A união desses dois fatores favorece o uso de células solares para conversão de energia solar em energia elétrica por meio da tecnologia fotovoltaica, tornando-se ótima alternativa de energia, principalmente por ser uma fonte limpa, gerando menores danos ao meio ambiente. Este trabalho tem por objetivo abordar a tecnologia fotovoltaica tendo como foco analítico os hospitais, por meio de casos de sucesso encontrados na literatura internacional. Os hospitais, mesmo executando serviços de total importância à sociedade, apresentam potencial poluidor capaz de causar danos à saúde das pessoas e ao meio ambiente que se localiza ao seu redor. Há estimativas de que as reservas brasileiras de petróleo sejam suficientes para 22 anos, tornando-se necessária a busca por novas fontes alternativas para a geração de energia.

  13. Interazione onda struttura in un dispositivo di conversione dell'energia da onda a tracimazione e probematiche progettuali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, D.; Margheritini, Lucia; Zanuttigh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Il presente lavoro riassume i risultati inerenti l’interazione delle onde con un innovativo cassone frangiflutti per la produzione d’energia elettrica denominato Seawave Slot-cone Generator (SSG). Il funzionamento dell’SSG é basato sul noto principio della tracimazione e della conservazione dell’...

  14. ANÁLISE EXPERIMENTAL DA INFLUÊNCIA DA TECNOLOGIA HOMEPLUG NA QUALIDADE DA ENERGIA ELÉTRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Pereira de Siqueira Campos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos recentes têm estudado características do meio elétrico para a transmissão de dados, ruídos e técnicas empregadas na comunicação pela rede elétrica. A maioria dos trabalhos limita-se a fazer testes de desempenho do protocolo. Diversos pesquisadores têm se preocupado com a influência das transmissões de dados na rede elétrica sobre as comunicações sem fio, mas ninguém tem se preocupado com a influência dessas transmissões na qualidade da energia elétrica. Este trabalho apresenta resultados preliminares sobre o efeito produzido por redes de computadores que utilizam a tecnologia Homeplug 1.0 na qualidade da energia elétrica. Para isso, foram escolhidos parâmetros apropriados para análise da qualidade da energia elétrica, bem como, foram definidas as formas de se obter esses parâmetros. Foi montada uma rede de computadores, com modem’s PLC, no CEFET-RN e realizados testes iniciais para medição da qualidade de energia elétrica. Resultados numéricos são apresentados.

  15. Strategies for energy saving in warm climate dwellings; Estrategias de ahorro de energia para viviendas en clima calido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky, I [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia -CONAE (Mexico); Morillon, David [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Oskam, A. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The domestic sector consumes almost one quarter of the national electrical energy. In order to reduce in an important manner the power consumption in dwellings there is an integral alternative based on three elements: the bio-climatic design, the saving and efficient use of the energy in equipment and apparatuses, and the use of centralized air conditioning systems. Besides saving the electrical and thermal power consumption, with this scheme, comfort conditions are pretended to be reached in dwellings and, contributing at the same time, to the diminution of polluting emissions. [Spanish] El sector domestico consume casi una cuarta parte de la energia electrica nacional. Con objeto de reducir de manera importante el consumo de energia en las viviendas, se presenta una alternativa integral, basada en tres elementos: el diseno bioclimatico, el ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia en equipos y aparatos, y la utilizacion de sistemas de climatizacion centralizados. Ademas del ahorro en el consumo de energia electrica y termica, con este esquema se pretende alcanzar condiciones de confort en las viviendas y, al mismo tiempo, contribuir a la disminucion de emisiones contaminantes.

  16. Management report 2005 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2005 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  17. Management report 2006 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2006 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  18. Energia e sustentabilidade: desafios do Brasil na expansão da oferta e na gestão da demanda

    OpenAIRE

    Hollanda, Lavínia; Varejão, Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Esse caderno é fruto de uma parceria entre a FGV Energia e a Catavento, que somaram esforços no intuito de estimular um novo olhar sobre os dilemas enfrentados no setor de energia no Brasil. Alimentar o debate em torno de questões primordiais, que afetam tanto as possibilidades de expansão das fontes de energia, quanto o papel da demanda, em um contexto de uso eficiente de recursos naturais e restrições crescentes às emissões de gases de efeito estufa, é a premissa desse trabal...

  19. Inovar na produção de energia elétrica a partir do vento. O recurso a postes de eletricidade existentes

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Miguel Leichsenring

    2012-01-01

    O vento é utilizado há milhares de anos para suprir as necessidades energéticas da atividade humana. A energia eólica é, como a maioria das fontes de energia renovável, uma forma de energia solar, tendo origem no aquecimento da atmosfera pelo sol, que põe em movimento as massas de ar. A rotação da terra, a forma e cobertura da superfície terrestre e os planos de água, influenciam por seu turno o regime dos ventos, ou seja, a velocidade, direção e variabilidade do vento...

  20. Electrical energy saving in motors and frequency variators; Ahorro de energia electrica en motores y variadores de frecuencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, Roger [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The necessity of saving energy is urgent and undeniable. We must already begin with the rational use of energy. Which is obtaining the maximum benefit of the consumed energy and of the necessary facilities for its generation, transmission and use. Guaranteeing at the same time an operation free of interferences or interruptions for the users. The electricity in alternating current does not allow its storage, reason why it is necessary to generate and distribute it at the precise moment when it is required. This forces to determine the proportions of the generation facilities, to be able to feed the periods of maximum demand called {sup p}eaks{sup .} It is this very point where the problem of the inappropriate use of the electrical energy starts. The energy waste is self-evident during the periods of low demand because of the low efficiency of the sub-utilized facilities. Electrical motors of the induction type use approximately more than 60% of the energy in the industry. If we use high efficiency motors instead of standard motors, a better advantage of the energy demanded from Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is obtained. [Spanish] Es impostergable e innegable la necesidad de ahorrar energia. Tenemos que empezar ya con el uso racional de la energia: Obtener el maximo beneficio de la energia consumida y de las instalaciones necesarias para su generacion, transmision y utilizacion. Garantizando a los usuarios un funcionamiento sin interferencias o interrupciones. La electricidad en corriente alterna no permite su almacenamiento, por lo que es necesario generarla y distribuirla en el momento preciso en que es requerida. Esto obliga a dimensionar las instalaciones de generacion, para poder alimentar los periodos de maxima demanda llamados pico. Desde esta parte inicia el problema de la mala utilizacion de la energia electrica. Ya que en los periodos de baja demanda, las instalaciones se encuentran subutilizadas y si su eficiencia es muy baja, el desperdicio de

  1. The electric energy and the environment in Mexico. Volume 3; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Volumen 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document is the third one of three volumes of the 1. Seminar on the Current Conditions and Perspectives of the Electric Sector in Mexico, organized by the Programa Universitario de Energia and the Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas (University Program of Energy and the Institute of Economic Research), both of them agencies of the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The titles of the three volumes are the following: Volume 1.- The opening of the Mexican Electric Sector to foreign investment. Volume 2.- Concrete innovation and technological learning experiences at the Luz y Fuerza del Centro enterprise. Volume 3.- The Electric Energy and the Environment in Mexico. This third volume covers the following subjects: Hydroelectricity, land use and water managing; the electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impact, the nuclear electricity and the handling of radioactive materials; the exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with children`s leukemia; the energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; potential of electricity generation in large scale with wind power in Mexico; towards a scheme of distributed electric power generation with non-conventional energies and renewable energy sources in Mexico in the 21Century. These documents were elaborated by specialists of the electric sector, from the sector itself as well as from private and public academic entities [Espanol] Este documento constituye el tercero de tres volumenes del Primer Seminario sobre Situacion y Perspectivas del Sector Electrico en Mexico, organizado por el Programa Universitario de Energia y el Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, ambas dependencias de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Los titulos de los tres volumenes son los siguientes: volumen 1: La apertura externa del sector electrico mexicano, volumen 2: Experiencias concretas de innovacion y aprendizaje tecnologico en la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro, volumen 3: Energia electrica

  2. FONTES ALTERNATIVAS E RENOVÁVEIS DE ENERGIA NO BRASIL: MÉTODOS E BENEFÍCIOS AMBIENTAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Santos do Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Atualmente, os recursos renováveis tem sido o foco de inúmeras pesquisas, devido à preocupação com o meio ambiente. Nesse sentido, várias são as razões para a implementação de fontes renováveis de energia. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi identificar os diferentes tipos de energias renováveis existentes no Brasil, bem como, a aplicabilidade e o impacto ambiental gerado por essas fontes. O trabalho foi desenvolvido sobre os preceitos do estudo exploratório por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica. Foram identificados cinco tipos de energias alternativas renováveis no Brasil, Biomassa, Eólica, Geotérmica, Hidráulica, Marítima e Solar. A energia Solar foi considerada a mais viável em função de sua aplicabilidade, mesmo em locais isolados, do potencial encontrado em todo território, e, a redução dos impactos ambientais. Foram consideradas expressivas as diferenças de impacto ambiental entre as fontes estudadas e as fontes não-renováveis. Ainda, identificou-se que mesmo com diversas alternativas energéticas e um imenso potencial de recursos renováveis, a utilização desses recursos no Brasil deve ser considerada insuficiente para geração de energia.

  3. Renewable energy to produce electricity; Nuevas fuentes de energia para producir electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto; Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-05-01

    There are several new energy sources to produce electricity. One of them is the wind energy, which has reached huge commercialization in worldwide. There are in Mexico some zones with high speed wind, which can be used in a short term. This has been proved by the wind pilot power plant of La Venta, Oaxaca, where production costs of US 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) have been obtained. These costs are among the lowest in the world. By the other hand, among the main uses of solar energy, including both thermal and photovoltaic techniques, the biggest thermo-solar utility, with 350 megawatts (MW) of capacity, is remarkable. This is the plant located in the Mojave Desert, California, USA. In Mexico there is big potential, which can make an important contribution to supplies of electricity. Biomass is another important renewable source, particularly the use of solid municipal waste, the livestock and the wood waste. Finally, other alternate technique is represented by the fuel cells, though it is not properly renewable. However, considering its modular and low environmental impact characteristics, it can get a wide commercial development in the next decade. [Espanol] Existen diversas fuentes nuevas de energia para generar electricidad. Entre ellas, la energia eolica es una de las tecnologias alternas que mayor comercializacion ha alcanzado a nivel mundial. Mexico posee zonas con vientos de velocidades altas en las que su aplicacion puede ser inmediata, como lo prueba la experiencia obtenida con la central piloto de La Venta, Oaxaca, en donde se han alcanzado costos de produccion de 4.3 centavos de dolar por kilowatt-hora (kWh), de los mas bajos a nivel internacional. Por otra parte, entre las principales aplicaciones de la energia solar, en sus tecnologias termica y fotovoltaica, destaca el mayor de los aprovechamientos termosolares, con 350 megawatts de capacidad (MW), localizado en el desierto de Mojave, en California, EUA. En Mexico hay un gran potencial

  4. Economizing energies in urban public transportation; Como economizar energias en el transporte publico urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los

  5. The alternative and renewable energy sources in Mexico; Fuentes alternativas y renovables de energia en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbano C, J Antonio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Matsumoto K, Yasuhiro; Asomoza P, Rene [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the efforts that have been made in our Mexico in the area of Alternative and Renewable Sources of Energy, effort performed by different institutions, government agencies and private companies along the last 25 years. Older periods are not contemplated, although significant advances have existed, specifically in the area of small micro-hydraulic power plants, since the end of the past century and in solar collectors, more than 60 years ago, as the most relevant advances have been contemplated in these last two decades. The entire world energy demand is analyzed, making emphasis in our country, the efforts on the installed geothermal power plants, the flat collectors for domestic use, the solar power plants installed by some government agencies are also mentioned, as well as the strong growth in the photo-voltaic field at worldwide level as well as at domestic level (a graph is presented of the multiple applications of the photo-voltaic conversion of the solar energy at world level of which some of these are already operational in our country), including the hybrid systems (wind power photo-voltaic Diesel, the pilot biogas plants, the solar ponds efforts and the recently inaugurated wind-power plant of 1.575 MW installed at La Venta, in the Oaxaca State. [Espanol] El presente articulo, presenta una revision de los esfuerzos que se han desarrollado en nuestro Mexico, en el campo de las Fuentes Alternas y Renovables de Energia, esfuerzos realizados por diferentes instituciones, dependencias y companias a lo largo de los ultimos 25 anos. No se contemplan periodos mas antiguos, aunque han existido adelantos significativos, especificamente, en el campo de pequenas centrales microhidraulicas desde fines del siglo, y de colectores solares desde hace mas de 60 anos, ya que los mas relevantes se contemplan en estas ultimas dos decadas de recopilacion. Se analiza la demanda de energia mundial, haciendo enfasis a nuestro pais, se mencionan los

  6. The alternative and renewable energy sources in Mexico; Fuentes alternativas y renovables de energia en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbano C, J. Antonio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Matsumoto K, Yasuhiro; Asomoza P, Rene [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the efforts that have been made in our Mexico in the area of Alternative and Renewable Sources of Energy, effort performed by different institutions, government agencies and private companies along the last 25 years. Older periods are not contemplated, although significant advances have existed, specifically in the area of small micro-hydraulic power plants, since the end of the past century and in solar collectors, more than 60 years ago, as the most relevant advances have been contemplated in these last two decades. The entire world energy demand is analyzed, making emphasis in our country, the efforts on the installed geothermal power plants, the flat collectors for domestic use, the solar power plants installed by some government agencies are also mentioned, as well as the strong growth in the photo-voltaic field at worldwide level as well as at domestic level (a graph is presented of the multiple applications of the photo-voltaic conversion of the solar energy at world level of which some of these are already operational in our country), including the hybrid systems (wind power photo-voltaic Diesel, the pilot biogas plants, the solar ponds efforts and the recently inaugurated wind-power plant of 1.575 MW installed at La Venta, in the Oaxaca State. [Espanol] El presente articulo, presenta una revision de los esfuerzos que se han desarrollado en nuestro Mexico, en el campo de las Fuentes Alternas y Renovables de Energia, esfuerzos realizados por diferentes instituciones, dependencias y companias a lo largo de los ultimos 25 anos. No se contemplan periodos mas antiguos, aunque han existido adelantos significativos, especificamente, en el campo de pequenas centrales microhidraulicas desde fines del siglo, y de colectores solares desde hace mas de 60 anos, ya que los mas relevantes se contemplan en estas ultimas dos decadas de recopilacion. Se analiza la demanda de energia mundial, haciendo enfasis a nuestro pais, se mencionan los

  7. Economizing energies in urban public transportation; Como economizar energias en el transporte publico urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los

  8. Viabilidade de utilização de micro-turbinas eólicas para produção de energia elétrica

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, João Miguel Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    A utilização de combustíveis fósseis para colmatar as necessidades energéticas tem vindo a aumentar continuamente as emissões de Dióxido de Carbono e outros gases de efeito estufa (GEE) que contribuem, também, para o aquecimento global. Uma das formas de minimizar estes efeitos negativos é com a utilização de energias renováveis, como a energia proveniente do sol, vento, ondas e biomassa. A energia do vento é utilizada para a produção de energia elétrica através de turbinas eólicas, estas pod...

  9. Energia Avastuskeskus : Tallinna Elektrijaama restaureerimine = Energy Discovery Centre : restoration of Tallinn Power Plant / Pelle-Sten Viiburg, Margit Argus, Margit Aule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viiburg, Pelle-Sten

    2015-01-01

    Energia Avastuskeskus endises Tallinna Elektrijaama hoones Põhja pst 29, valminud 2014. Arhitektid Sander Aas, Margit Aule, Pelle-Sten Viiburg (KAOS Arhitektid), sisearhitekt Margit Argus (KAOS Arhitektid), ekspositsiooni kujundus Margit Argus ja Margit Aule. 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  10. Uma abordagem jurídica à questão do ressarcimento de danos elétricos pelas distribuidoras de energia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Oliveira Salomão

    2012-01-01

    Com o aumento da necessidade e do consumo da energia elétrica, aliado a uma maior conscientização dos consumidores acerca de seus direitos e deveres perante a sociedade, constatou-se o surgimento de um crescente número de contendas envolvendo estes últimos e as concessionárias de energia elétrica, principalmente no que tange ao setor de distribuição de energia elétrica. Isto se deve à ocorrência de danos ocasionados por falhas na prestação do serviço público de energia elétrica, destacando-se...

  11. Energy conservation in ice manufacturing; Ahorro de energia en la fabricacion de hielo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This paper shows the results of the energy diagnosis study for ice manufacturing industries. The identified opportunities for conservation and efficient use of energy have allowed the reduction of the electric bill, modernizing at the same time, its installations and addressing inherent aspects of the use of energy producing items; in which the estimated investments are recovered in its major part in a period of a year, the goodness of the investments propitiate the growth and competitiveness required in these days. [Espanol] En este documento se exponen los resultados del estudio del diagnostico energetico para industrias productoras de hielo. Las oportunidades de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia identificadas, han permitido reducir la facturacion energetica, a la par de modernizar sus instalaciones y atender aspectos inherentes al uso de energeticos; en lo cual las inversiones estimadas se recuperan en su mayoria en un ano, las bondades de las inversiones propician un crecimiento y competitividad requerida en estos dias.

  12. Project of renewable energy for agriculture; Proyecto de energia renovable para la agricultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montufar Avilez, Octavio [FIRCO (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The document presents a general design of the hydraulic system, a hydraulic design of cattle ranch and a hydraulic design by dripping. It also discusses the components of the energy project, which are: institutional fortification, promotion and diffusion, market development (studies), specifications and certification, investments, technical support and direction of the project. The objective of this project is to diminish ignorance in the sector, to reduce the investment costs and to obtain a long term-sustainable effect. [Spanish] En este documento se describe un diseno general del sistema hidraulico, un diseno hidraulico de ganaderia, un diseno hidraulico por goteo y los componentes del proyecto de energia que son: fortalecimiento institucional, promocion y difusion, desarrollo del mercado (estudios), especificaciones y certificacion, inversiones, asistencia tecnica y direccion del proyecto. El objetivo de este proyecto es minimizar el desconocimiento en el sector, reducir los costos de inversion y que el efecto sea sostenible a largo plazo.

  13. The Energy Regulatory Commission (1). Law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Energy Regulatory Commission. Reforms to the Electric Energy Public Service Law (1992) and the Regulatory Law of Article 27 on Petroleum (1995) have brought about fundamental changes in the electric and natural gas industries. The legal reforms explicitly permit the private sector to construct, operate, and own, systems of electric generation and natural gas transportation, storage and distribution. The participation of the private sector in these areas required a redefinition in the government regulatory institutions. Accordingly the Federal Congress enacted the law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) in 1995. The CRE law expands the scope of the CRE's authority and the breadth of its powers beyond those established when it was initially created in 1993. The CRE commenced operations in January 1994 as a decentralized technical and consultative body of the Energy Ministry. The decree that created the Commission limited the scope of its authority to an analysis and consultative role applicable only to the electric industry. (Author)

  14. Carbon Bonds and the saving of energy; Bonos de carbono y el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Ramirez, Alejandro [NovaEnergia (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This document deals with the development of the carbon bond project, the energy saving and the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol at a world-wide level. In this project Mexico opts for a development model in which the economic growth brakes ties with the discharge of greenhouse effect gases and in which the progress does not mean more damages to our planet. [Spanish] Este documento trata sobre el desarrollo del proyecto de bonos de carbono, ahorro de energia y la entrada en vigor del Protocolo de Kyoto a nivel mundial, en el cual Mexico opta por un modelo de desarrollo en el que el crecimiento economico esta desvinculado de la emision de gases de efecto invernadero y en donde el progreso no signifique mas danos a nuestro planeta.

  15. Energy conservation in ice manufacturing; Ahorro de energia en la fabricacion de hielo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This paper shows the results of the energy diagnosis study for ice manufacturing industries. The identified opportunities for conservation and efficient use of energy have allowed the reduction of the electric bill, modernizing at the same time, its installations and addressing inherent aspects of the use of energy producing items; in which the estimated investments are recovered in its major part in a period of a year, the goodness of the investments propitiate the growth and competitiveness required in these days. [Espanol] En este documento se exponen los resultados del estudio del diagnostico energetico para industrias productoras de hielo. Las oportunidades de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia identificadas, han permitido reducir la facturacion energetica, a la par de modernizar sus instalaciones y atender aspectos inherentes al uso de energeticos; en lo cual las inversiones estimadas se recuperan en su mayoria en un ano, las bondades de las inversiones propician un crecimiento y competitividad requerida en estos dias.

  16. Energy and telecommunications public services; Servizi pubblici nei settori dell'energia e delle telecomunicazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salini, M. P. [Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi SpA, Rapporti Istituzionali per l' Italia e l' Unione Europea, Milan (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this work is the evolution of the energy and telecommunication public services. The article runs through the main stages in the public services' history and shows how open market rules may cause the future dissolution of public service notion. The conclusion wishes the hastening of public services privatisation and a Corporate Governance reform as a mean to pursue general interest. [Italian] Oggetto di questo lavoro e' l'evoluzione dei servizi pubblici nei settori dell'energia e delle telecomunicazioni. Se ne ripercorrono le principali tappe storiche e si evidenzia come le regole di apertura dei mercati possano causare la dissoluzione del concetto di servizio pubblico. Le conclusioni sottolineano la necessita' di accelerare la privatizzazione dei servizi pubblici e la riforma della Corporate Governance come strumento per il raggiungimento dell'interesse generale.

  17. Requerimentos de energia e nutrientes da população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignez Salas Martins

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados os requerimentos de energia, proteínas, vitamina A, B1, B2, C, D, B12, ácido fólico e dos minerais ferro e cálcio da população brasileira. Foi utilizada a metodologia recomendada nos relatórios técnicos dos Comitês de Peritos FAO/OMS. Partindo-se da pressuposição de que, até 19 anos de idade, o indivíduo tem um potencial de desenvolvimento a ser atingido, as recomendações de energia foram estabelecidas tomando-se como referência o percentil 97 da população. Os requerimentos dos adultos foram estimados para o homem-tipo e mulher-tipo representativos da população brasileira do percentil 50. As recomendações de proteínas e dos demais nutrientes foram calculadas para atender as necessidades de 95% da população.The requirements for energy, proteins, vitamins - A, B1, B2, C, D, B12 - Folie acid, and iron and calcium were estimated and for this purpose the method recommended by the FAO/OMS committees was used. Based on the presupposition that an individual achieves a development potential by the age of 19, energy requirements were established using as references the 97th percentile of the population. Adult requirements were estimated for the typical-man and typical-woman, representative of the 50th percentile of the Brazilian population. The protein requirements and those of the other nutrients were calculated to meet the needs of the 95th percentile of the population.

  18. Energy saving in the sugar cane agroindustry; Ahorro de energia en la agroindustria azucarera canera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Luis [Grupo de paises Latinoamericanos y del Caribe exportadores de azucar (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The traditional sugar mill is inefficient from the energy point of view. Most of the sugar mills were designed to use all the available bagasse, due to the risk of spontaneous ignition and environmental pollution. Consequently, the steam generators, the turbines and other components were designed to work with low efficiencies. Each ton of sugar produced generates a power potential equivalent to four to six oil barrels (bagasse and residues). That is to say, a sugar mill is capable of producing 500 ton/day of sugar, equivalent to an oil well of 2000 to 3000 barrels/day and one thermoelectric power plant of 15,000 kW. Under this context an analysis is made of the sugar mills in Latin America and the Caribbean as one of the ways of increasing their efficiency and obtain great energy savings. As far as steam generation the appropriate use of energy is dictated by the boilers' efficiency. [Spanish] El ingenio azucarero tradicional es ineficiente desde el punto de vista energetico. La mayoria de los ingenios azucareros se disenaron para usar todo el bagazo disponible, debido al riesgo de ignicion espontanea y contaminacion. En consecuencia, los generadores de vapor, las turbinas y demas componentes fueron disenados para trabajar con bajas eficiencias. Cada tonelada de azucar producida genera una potencialidad energetica equivalente de cuatro a seis barriles de petroleo (bagazo y residuos). Es decir, un ingenio capaz de producir 500 ton/dia de azucar equivalente a un pozo de petroleo de 2000 a 3000 barriles/dia y una termoelectrica de 15000 kW. Bajo este contexto se hace un analisis del ingenio azucarero en Latinoamerica y el Caribe como una de las vias para incrementar su eficiencia y lograr grandes ahorros en la energia. En cuanto a generacion de vapor se refiere, el buen uso de la energia viene expresado por la eficiencia de las calderas.

  19. Energy saving in the management of the BIMBO group distribution fleet; Ahorro de energia en la operacion de la flotilla de distribucion del grupo BIMBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mexico, BIMBO

    2005-07-01

    In this work BIMBO demonstrates that in order to save energy it is necessary to invest in equipment, parts, research and people. This is why they got involved in the task of developing the projects of fuel cells participating with universities, associations, Secretaria de Energia, Comision Nacional de Ahorro de Energia (National Commission for Energy Saving) (CONAE) and the National Council for Science and Tecnologia (CONACYT), through financial supports with projects of mechanisms of clean development (Kyoto Protocol). For doing it they had to prove different types of fuels: biodiesel, hydrogen, alcohol and hybrids; for them to determine the most profitable and practical thus reducing the energy consumption. With the saving of fuels and lubricants in our vehicles, a greater yield in the company is obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo BIMBO demuestra que para ahorrar energia hay que invertir en equipo, partes, investigacion y gente. Es por eso que se dieron a la tarea de desarrollar los proyectos de celdas de combustible, participando con universidades, asociaciones, la Secretaria de Energia, la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) y el Consejo Nacional para la Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), a traves de apoyos financieros con proyectos de mecanismos de desarrollo limpio (protocolo de Kyoto). Para ello tuvieron que probar diferentes tipos de combustibles: biodiesel, hidrogeno, alcohol e hibridos, para determinar los mas rentables y practicos y asi reducir el consumo de energia; con el ahorro de combustibles y lubricantes en nuestros vehiculos, logrando una mayor rentabilidad en la empresa.

  20. Avaliação da correção da energia pelo balanço de nitrogênio em alimentos para frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Andrade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar valores de energia metabolizável aparente e de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio de alimentos para frangos de corte, bem como avaliar os efeitos da correção da energia sobre seu desempenho, foram conduzidos dois experimentos: I determinação da energia do milho, do farelo de soja, da farinha de carne e ossos, da farinha de vísceras e da farinha de penas, pelo método de coleta total de excretas, utilizando-se 450 pintos de corte com um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, sendo seis tratamentos e cinco repetições; II desempenho de 960 frangos de corte, distribuídos ao acaso, em cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. As aves que receberam os tratamentos A (matriz energética de acordo com Rostagno et al. (2011 e E (energia sem correção com ajuste pela idade apresentaram melhor desempenho, e as aves do tratamento E tiveram melhor conversão alimentar. Portanto, formulações com energia sem correção pelo balanço de nitrogênio e ajustadas pela idade são viáveis tanto sob o ponto de vista zootécnico, quanto econômico.

  1. Lógica Fuzzy aplicada ao controle de um sistema híbrido de geração de energia elétrica: eólica, fotovoltaica e biogás

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Luiz Octávio Mattos dos [UNESP

    2002-01-01

    Este trabalho desenvolve o estudo de um sistema híbrido para geração de energia elétrica a ser aplicado em pequenas comunidades rurais não servidas pelo serviço de eletrificação rural. Fatores geográficos e econômicos, em muitos casos, impossibilitam as empresas de energia em construírem sistemas de distribuição rurais. Mas estas pequenas comunidades rurais desenvolvem uma micro-economia, necessitando de energia elétrica. O sistema proposto produz energia a partir de fontes alternativas utili...

  2. Análise de um sistema de captura de energia piezoelétrico não linear e não ideal utilizando-se uma estrutura aporticada.

    OpenAIRE

    Itamar Iliuk

    2016-01-01

    A crescente utilização de novas tecnologias, as quais necessitam de uma fonte de energia menor e mais eficiente, como os microssensores para monitoramento de sistemas e estruturas nas chamadas cidades inteligentes, torna a captura da energia do ambiente uma opção viável para alimentação de tais dispositivos. Como a energia cinética é uma fonte de energia facilmente encontrada no ambiente, os sistemas que a capturam e convertem em eletricidade têm sido amplamente estudados, especialmente os qu...

  3. Desenvolvimento de um kit de irrigação por microtubos com moto-bomba propulsionada por energia solar

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Ricardo Sobenko

    2016-01-01

    O bombeamento de água por meio da energia solar vem se mostrando uma alternativa para localidades onde outras fontes de energia não estão disponíveis ou são limitadas. Torna-se interessante aliar essa alternativa a um sistema de irrigação que opera com vazão e pressão relativamente baixas, como a irrigação localizada por microtubos, possibilitando assim a obtenção de alta eficiência. No presente trabalho teve-se por objetivo dimensionar e avaliar um kit de irrigação por microtubos, alimentado...

  4. Contributos para a Gestão de Energia em Serviços de Águas

    OpenAIRE

    Boavida, Sara Maria Quaresma

    2016-01-01

    O nexo água-energia reveste-se de grande importância nos serviços de águas. A água é o seu core business e a energia é essencial às suas atividades. O crescente ritmo de urbanização, a escassez de água e a legislação mais exigente no tratamento de águas residuais fazem prever um aumento das necessidades energéticas das entidades gestoras. O aumento da fatura energética nas entidades gestoras compromete a sua sustentabilidade financeira e as emissões de gases de efeito de estufa decorrentes do...

  5. Níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina na qualidade da carne suína

    OpenAIRE

    Amin,Melissa; Kiefer,Charles; Feijó,Gelson Luís Dias; Gonçalves,Liliane Maria Piano; Souza,Karina Márcia Ribeiro de; Rodrigues,Gabriela Puhl

    2014-01-01

    Realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar qualitativamente a carne de suínos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de energia líquida e suplementadas com 10ppm de ractopamina. Foram utilizados 100 suínos, machos castrados, de alto potencial genético, com peso médio inicial de 73,62 ± 4,76kg e peso médio final de 97,31 ± 1,12kg. Os animais foram distribuidos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5x2 (cinco níveis de energia líquida: 2.300; 2.42...

  6. INVESTIGAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL DA GERAÇÃO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA SOLAR FOTOVOLTÁICA

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Luiz P. S. Campos; Aécio Vinícius Amorim Farias; Leandro Alves de Farias; Valter Nogueira Pereira Júnior; Bruno Palhano da Costa; Idelcácio Paulino de Macedo

    2010-01-01

    Os painéis solares fotovoltaicos são dispositivos desenvolvidos para a geração de energia elétrica. Este trabalho aborda conceitos envolvidos na fabricação e funcionamento desses dispositivos tais como: histórico da energia solar fotovoltaica, tipos de painéis solares e aplicação de painéis solares em sistemas isolados. Foi feito um estudo de eficiência de geração elétrica de um painel solar existente no Campus Natal – Zona Norte do IFRN. Nesse estudo, foram levadas em consideração a incidênc...

  7. Obtenção do cermet Ni-ZrO2 por moagem de alta energia

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Will Leite

    2010-01-01

    A obtenção do Cermet de níquel-zircônia via moagem de alta energia (Mechanical Alloying MA) foi estudado visando a preparação de anodos de células a combustível de óxido sólido (SOFC). O níquel metálico foi adicionado em três concentrações: 30, 40 e 50% em volume. As operações de moagem foram conduzidas em moinho vibratório de alta energia do tipo SPEX. Estudou-se a influência do tempo de moagem, a eficiência de aditivos para controle do processo, tipo e geometria dos potes de moagem. A infl...

  8. INVESTIGAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL DA GERAÇÃO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA SOLAR FOTOVOLTÁICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz P. S. Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os painéis solares fotovoltaicos são dispositivos desenvolvidos para a geração de energia elétrica. Este trabalho aborda conceitos envolvidos na fabricação e funcionamento desses dispositivos tais como: histórico da energia solar fotovoltaica, tipos de painéis solares e aplicação de painéis solares em sistemas isolados. Foi feito um estudo de eficiência de geração elétrica de um painel solar existente no Campus Natal – Zona Norte do IFRN. Nesse estudo, foram levadas em consideração a incidência solar e a hora do dia. Por fim, são apresentadas conclusões sobre o estudo desenvolvido.

  9. First discussion for fostering the photovoltaic energy in Mexico; Primer coloquio para el fomento de la energia fotovoltaica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The varied spheres (political, environmental, economic, scientific and social) day by day are looking for the key issues, which are going to make them to preserve or disappear either in the present or in the future. Therefore, it was carried out the first conversation in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. Here there were shown different advances related to the renewable energies by those spheres. Generally speaking, it was in this event where there were gather together private and government organs in order to present every issue related to the use and to the promotion of the renewable energies. By these means, it was probed that the renewable energies are: the current market, the groundbreaking technology, the best option friendly-environment, the panacea for the society and for the improvement of the economy of many countries both developing countries and developed countries. The renewable energy topic is seen from different point of views. [Spanish] Las diferentes esferas que rigen el dia a dia; es decir, la politica, el medio ambiente, la economia, las ciencias y la sociedad, siempre estan en busca de cuestiones que las hagan crecer y evolucionar para asi seguir ocupando un espacio no solo en el presente sino tambien en el futuro. En esta ocasion fue en el primer coloquio, realizado en el Estado de Zacatecas, Mexico, donde dichas esferas se reunieron con el fin de mostrar sus diversos avances acerca de las energias fotovoltaicas. En otras palabras, fue en este coloquio donde se reunieron organos privados y gubernamentales con el fin de mostrar todo lo relacionado con el uso y la promocion de las energias renovables. Comprobando que las energias renovables son tanto: el mercado de hoy, la tecnologia de punta, la mejor opcion ambiental, la panacea para la sociedad y para la mejora de la economia de muchos paises en vias de desarrollo y de primer mundo. En estas ponencias no solo se habla de las energias renovables desde un aspecto cientifico, sino tambien financiero

  10. Estudo comparativo de sistemas de iluminação artificial considerando luz natural e consumo de energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Niero Moraes

    Full Text Available Além do aproveitamento da iluminação natural, indicado como um fator primordial na economia de energia das edificações, o posicionamento das luminárias bem como de suas especificações pode contribuir para o conforto ambiental e a conservação de energia. Essas preocupações, no entanto, não fazem parte da prática atualmente estabelecida pelos profissionais de iluminação. Considerando essa lacuna, o presente trabalho visa desenvolver um estudo que aborda a avaliação de diferentes sistemas de iluminação artificial. A metodologia da pesquisa é baseada na avaliação do desempenho luminoso, como uniformidade, níveis e distribuição de iluminâncias, e consumo de energia de sistemas de iluminação artificial, através de simulação computacional. As análises de aproveitamento da luz natural foram utilizadas para uma estimativa simplificada do consumo energético para diferentes sistemas de iluminação artificial, através da divisão de circuitos de acionamento. Os sistemas de iluminação artificial propostos eram diferenciados pelas fotometrias e disposições das luminárias. Os resultados mostram diferenças significativas quanto à distribuição da iluminação, assim como no consumo de energia, chegando a economias de até 46% em relação ao projeto-base. As principais contribuições deste estudo são a obtenção de critérios que conduzam a um melhor dimensionamento do sistema de iluminação artificial.

  11. Actions done by SAGARPA to foster renewable energies; Acciones realizadas por la SAGARPA para el fomento de las energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez de Sollano Elcoro, Rodrigo [Fideicomiso de riesgo compartido, Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly focused on all the projects carried out in order to boost renewable energies. Such projects have not only good results for the environmental sphere but also for the economic one. In the first part, there are found the general targets, which are going to foster the use of these sort of energies. Then, there are shown different kinds of photovoltaic systems. The implementation of these systems have a double target: to improve both activities: stock breeding and agriculture, and to foster the use of renewable energy. Next, there are mentioned the project investors. Similarly, there are described some of the components that are part of such projects along with their corresponding results. Finally, it is given a succinctly explanation about the conclusions as well as the future plans. [Spanish] Esta presentacion principalmente se enfoca en todos los proyectos que se han realizado para el fomento de las energias renovables, teniendo un impacto no solo ambiental sino tambien economico. En la primera parte, se encuentran los objetivos generales que se tienen para fomentar el uso de este tipo de energia. Enseguida, se muestran los diferentes sistemas basados en el uso de energia renovable. La implementacion de estos sistemas tiene un doble objetivo: mejorar de alguna manera la actividad de la ganaderia o de la agricultura, y fomentar el uso de energias renovables. Enseguida, se mencionan los inversionistas que participaron en la realizacion de los proyectos; asimismo, se describen algunos de los elementos, que forman parte de los proyectos, acompanados de sus respectivos resultados obtenidos. Finalmente, se da una breve explicacion de las conclusiones a las que se llegaron, asi como de los planes a futuro.

  12. Renewable energies. 25 years of UNAM in Temixco; Energias renovables. 25 anos de la UNAM en Temixco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    At the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), the research in renewable energy began since the decade of 70's. In 1985 the Laboratory of Solar Energy (LES) of the Institute for Research in Materials in Temixco, Morelos was inaugurated, and in 1996 this became the Energy Research Center (CIE) of the UNAM. Currently, CIE is the only research center of the UNAM devoted mainly to the study and development of applications of renewable energies in Mexico. In its 25 years of existence, the LES-CIE has shown to be a university entity with a high academic performance: both in the scientific and technological production, as in the formation of high quality human resources, its outreach activities and more recently with the linkage. This commemorative book for the 25 years was made with the intention of leaving constancy of the origins and evolution of what today is done in this University Research Center. [Spanish] En la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), se iniciaron las investigaciones en energias renovables desde la decada de los anos 70's. En 1985 se inaugura el Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LES) del Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales en Temixco, Morelos y en 1996 este se transforma en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM. Actualmente, el CIE es el unico centro de investigacion de la UNAM dedicado principalmente al estudio y desarrollo de aplicaciones de las energias renovables en Mexico. En sus 25 anos de existencia, el LES-CIE ha mostrado ser una entidad universitaria con un alto rendimiento academico: tanto en la produccion cientifica y tecnologica, como en la formacion de recursos humanos de alta calidad, sus actividades de difusion y mas recientemente con la vinculacion. Este libro conmemorativo por los 25 anos se realizo con el proposito de dejar constancia de los origenes, evolucion y de lo que hoy es y se hace en este Centro Universitario de Investigacion.

  13. COMPARAÇÃO DA CAPACIDADE PREDITIVA DE MODELOS ARIMA PARA O CONSUMO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Silveira Amaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao fato de que a energia elétrica, em grandes quantidades, não pode ser armazenada de forma viável e eficiente, torna-se extremamente importante mensurar de forma precisa e confiável a sua demanda futura. Deste modo, o objetivo desta pesquisa é comparar a capacidade preditiva de modelos Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average para a série de demanda de energia elétrica de médio prazo do Brasil. Para que tal objetivo seja alcançado, realizam-se previsões da demanda de energia elétrica mensal para 50 passos à frente, em cada modelo concorrente, com reajuste dos parâmetros a cada passo. Como resultado, as evidências empíricas encontradas demonstraram que o melhor modelo para realizar previsões eficientes e confiáveis para a série é um processo com dois vetores autorregressivos, um vetor de média móvel e ordem de integração unitária.

  14. Energia nuclear em um cenário de trinta anos Nuclear energy over a 30-year scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Feu Alvim

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A perspectiva da Energia Nuclear no Brasil é analisada sob os aspectos demanda, custos, ambiental, tecnológico e estratégico. A demanda energética projetada, mesmo para crescimentos abaixo dos desejados e considerando algum esforço de redução da intensidade energética, mostra a necessidade de adicionar energia térmica à geração elétrica, hoje predominantemente hídrica. A energia nuclear deve ter participação nessa geração por motivos econômicos, ambientais, tecnológicos e estratégicos.The perspectives of nuclear energy in Brazil is analyzed regarding demand, costs, environmental, technological and strategic aspects. The projected energy demand, even for a growth rate below the desired one and considering some efforts relative to energy intensity reduction, shows the need of adding thermal energy to electricity generation, now predominantly hydraulic. Nuclear energy should have a share in this generation due to economical, environmental, technological and strategic reasons.

  15. Energy management system. Opti-dmaX Control; Sistema de administracion de energia. Control Opti-dmaX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Automatizacion, Productividad y Calidad S.A. de C.V. Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The electrical energy is an essential element in the activities of the present world. Optimizing its consumption represents a competitive advantage for the companies, since the operation costs would be reduced as well as the negative impact to the environment. In billing the electrical energy the tariffs consider: the consumption, the demand, the power and the schedule of use for the medium and large companies. With the Opti-dmaX system the necessary information for the correct administration of the electrical energy consumption is obtained from the measurement in the strategic points of the installation. At the same time, the processes and services are controlled, maintaining an efficient power operation that diminishes operative costs. [Spanish] La energia electrica es un elemento indispensable en las actividades del mundo actual, y optimizar su consumo, representa una ventaja competitiva para las empresas, ya que se consigue reducir los costos de operacion y el impacto al ambiente. En la facturacion de la energia electrica las tarifas consideran: el consumo, la demanda, la potencia y el horario de uso para las medianas y grandes empresas. Con el sistema Opti-dmaX se obtiene la informacion necesaria para la correcta administracion del consumo de energia electrica a partir de la medicion en los puntos estrategicos de la instalacion. A su vez, se controlan los procesos y servicios, manteniendo una operacion energetica eficiente que minimiza los costos operativos.

  16. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 2: Technology reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 2: Technology reports) is the second report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The first report deals with the countries covered by the eNERGIA project, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives. The report comprises the following nine chapters. Chapter 1 is the presentation of the selected renewable technologies (solar photovoltaic technology, wind technology, 2nd generation bio-energy technology, wave technology and hydroelectric technology) and a subsequent elaboration of the status of the technologies in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 2 gives an overview of patterns of international R&D collaboration as seen from the countries in question. Chapter 3 draws on technology specific patenting data and bibliometric data, describing the level of technology specific activity in each country. Chapter 4 and 5 describe the status of renewable energy production and renewable energy research respectively in each country. The four last chapters are relatively brief descriptions of the situation in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 6 gives an overview of the venture capital situation. Chapter 7 is about market regulations and Chapter 8 is about social concerns. Finally, Chapter 9 addresses infrastructural challenges. (Author) 77 figs., 70 tabs

  17. Exigências nutricionais de zebuínos: energia Nutritional requirements of zebu cattle: energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de energia e as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso e mantença de zebuínos, foi desenvolvido um experimento envolvendo 19 novilhos anelorados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 270 kg. Quatro animais foram abatidos ao início do experimento, para servirem de referência para estudos posteriores, três foram alimentados ao nível de mantença e os 12 restantes foram alocados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos: 5, 35 e 65% de concentrado na base da matéria seca total. O volumoso foi constituído de pré-secado de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.. As dietas foram isonitrogenadas e os animais foram alimentados ad libitum. A exigência líquida de energia para mantença (ELm foi estimada como o anti-log do intercepto da equação obtida pela regressão linear entre o logaritmo da produção de calor (PC e o consumo de energia metabolizável (CEM, bem como pelo coeficiente "a" da equação de regressão exponencial entre a PC e o CEM dos animais do tratamento com 35% de concentrado e os do grupo mantença. As quantidades de energia e gordura no ganho elevaram-se com o aumento do peso vivo (PV dos animais. O teste de identidade dos modelos de regressão demonstrou não haver diferenças entre os tratamentos. O requisito energético diário para mantença foi de 68,60 kcal/PV0,75. A k m estimada foi de 0,66 e as k g calculadas foram de 0,26; 0,41 e 0,46, respectivamente, para concentrações de EM de 2,31; 2,47 e 2,62 Mcal/kg de MS, correspondentes aos teores de 5, 35 e 65% de concentrado na dieta. Os requisitos diários de EM e NDT para mantença de um animal de 400 kg de PV foram de 9,30 Mcal e 2,57 kg, respectivamente.A trial involving nineteen zebu steers with initial live weight of 270 kg were conducted with the objective of determining their energy requirements and the efficiency of utilization of

  18. Análise da comercialização de energia elétrica cogerada pelo setor sucroalcooleiro no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda da Penha Teixeira Nagaoka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil viveu, em 2001, uma crise de oferta de energia elétrica sem precedentes que coincidiu com o processo de reestruturação do setor elétrico brasileiro e possibilitou aos autoprodutores de energia elétrica,como o setor sucroalcooleiro, comercializarem o excedente de energia, obtidos pelo processo de cogeração, que apesar do elevado potencial de comercialização, não está sendo devidamente aproveitado. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o mercado de energia elétrica cogerada e analisar os obstáculos à comercialização da energia cogerada, à luz da existência dos custos de transação e econômicos, enfrentados pelo setor sucroalcooleiro e distribuidoras. Para a coleta de informações, foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com o responsável pela área de cogeração das usinas e distribuidora de energia, que consistiam em perguntas pré-determinadas que foram lidas na mesma ordem e da mesma maneira para todos os entrevistados para assegurar a comparabilidade dos resultados. As entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e examinadas por meio da análise de conteúdo. Os resultados indicaram que poderiam ser estabelecidos contratos de longo prazo, mas os custos de transação e econômicos entre os agentes podem estar superando os benefícios da comercialização de energia elétrica cogerada, fazendo os agentes atuarem preferencialmente no mercado spot

  19. Tendencies and perspectives of the residential energy in Mexico; 1. ed.; Tendencias y perspectivas de la energia residencial en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    production of electricity. In the fifth chapter the saving potential is presented and the conservation policies and energy efficiency of the of the OCED countries. The second part exposes the tendencies in the use of the residential energy in Mexico from 1980 to 1990 and analyzes and evaluates the possible applications of the experience of the OECD countries to the case of our country. This part is initiated in the sixth chapter and in it the tendencies of the use of residential energy in Mexico at aggregated level from 1970 to 1990 are studied and for end uses from 1980 to 1990, in this chapter is also included a calculation of the elasticities demand-price and demand income, and an aggregated analysis of the change indices. In the seventh chapter the associated emissions of the main polluting agents and green house gases associated to the use of residential energy in Mexico are presented. In the eighth chapter the conservation potential is analyzed and the necessary energy policies to achieve it. In the ninth chapter the conclusions and recommendations are presented.. Finally three appendices are presented: the first one shows the source of the data for the countries of the OECD, the second shows the procedure of auto regression and the third one the prices of the residential energy in Mexico and the present average and minimum wage. [Espanol] Este trabajo es un estudio comparativo del uso de la energia residencial en Mexico y nueve paises fundadores de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (OCDE). Su principal objetivo es conocer las causas de la tendencias en el uso de la energia residencial en dichos paises, sus efectos ambientales, el potencial tecnico de conservacion y las posibles politicas de ahorro y eficiencias energeticas. El trabajo se divide en dos partes: La primera parte presenta el analisis de las tendencias observadas durante el periodo de 1973 a 1990 asi como las perspectivas del uso de la energia residencial en Estados Unidos

  20. Greenhouse effect gases (GEI) by energy consumption; Gases efecto invernadero (GEI) por consumo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Bazan N, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    carburos organicos volatiles que no son metano (NMVOC, por sus siglas en ingles) y son productos secundarios y nocivos que se obtienen de los procesos que convierten los combustibles en energia (combustion). Las principales fuentes de GEI son: fuentes fijas (industrias, residencias, comercios, servicios publicos y transformacion de energia, como la produccion de electricidad); fuentes moviles (que incluyen todo tipo de transporte que use combustible). Los combustibles que, por su volumen y eficiencia, generan mas emisiones de GEI son el petroleo crudo, gas natural y biomasa solida (lena - bagazo de cana). Cualquier esfuerzo por reducir estas emisiones es muy importante y notable si incide en estos combustibles.

  1. Multilayered samples reconstructed by measuring K{sub α}/K{sub β} or L{sub α}/L{sub β} X-ray intensity ratios by EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, Roberto, E-mail: cesareo@uniss.it [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nano Strutturati, CNR-Montelibretti, via Salaria km. 29.5, 00015 Monterotondo (Romania); Assis, Joaquim T. de, E-mail: joaquim.iprj@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Politécnico, P.O. Box 97282, 28625-570 Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Roldán, Clodoaldo, E-mail: Clodoaldo.Roldan@uv.es [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, P.O. Box 22085, E46071 Valencia (Spain); Bustamante, Angel D., E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (Peru); Brunetti, Antonio, E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Politiche, Scienza della Comunicazione e Ingegneria dell’ Informazione, Università di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Schiavon, Nick [Hercules Laboratory and Évora Geophysical Centre, University of Evora (Portugal)

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a general method based on energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been tested to assess its possible use as a tool to reconstruct the structure and determine the thickness of two and/or multi-layered materials. The method utilizes the X-ray intensity ratios of K{sub α}/K{sub β} or L{sub α}/L{sub β} peaks (or the ratio of these peaks) for selected elements present in multi-layered objects of various materials (Au alloys, gilded Cu, gilded Ag, gilded Pb, Ag–Au Tumbaga, stone surfaces with protective treatments, Zn or Nickel plating on metals). Results show that, in the case of multi-layered samples, a correct calculation of the peak ratio (K{sub α} /K{sub β} and/or L{sub α}/L{sub β}) of relevant elements from energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra, can provide important information in assessing the exact location of each layer and for calculating its thickness. The methodological approach shown may have important applications not only in materials science but also when dealing with the conservation and restoration of multi-layered cultural heritage objects where the use of a Non-Destructive techniques to determine slight chemical and thickness variations in the layered structure is often of paramount importance to achieve the best results.

  2. Jüri Käo: Eesti Energia jääb isegi börsil poliitikute kontrolli alla / Jüri Käo ; intervjueerinud Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käo, Jüri, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu esimees ei poolda mitte Eesti Energia suuremahulist börsile viimist, vaid vähemusaktsiate börsil noteerimist. Tema sõnul on IPO suurim oht, et sellest saab poliitilise valimisvõitluse objekt ning unustatakse, et energeetikas tehakse otsuseid 30 ja 50 aasta perspektiivis

  3. Environmental radiometric control at the vicinity of the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedani, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    Optimized derived limits (ODL) for gaseous and liquid wastes released to the environment of Instituto de Energia Atomica (IEA) following the ICRP's recommendations were determined. Techniques for routine environmental monitoring were implanted in order to ensure that these limits be respected. The treatment of liquid wastes which gives rise to the optimized discharge resulted from cost-benefit analysis, is the elimination of medium half-lived radioisotopes in the soil. The ODL value for iodine-131 is 50mCi/y and 7,5 Ci/y for gaseous and liquid effluents, respectively. The ODL values for other radionuclides of radiosanitary interest in liquid waste also determined. The most appropriate environmental monitoring techniques for IEA were studied and parameters of radioactive material dilution in the atmosphere and water courses were determined. Sample collection points were chosen to obtain the most representative data for the evaluation of radioactive dose in the critical group and the detriment produced in the population. Detection system and methods were calibrated and standardized for the determination of radionuclides in wastes released from IEA in order to evaluate their concentrations in the main transference pathways. (Author) [pt

  4. O nexo água, energia e alimentos no contexto da Metrópole Paulista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO LUIZ GIATTI

    Full Text Available RESUMO Em face do contexto de contingências e interdependências inerentes ao desenvolvimento sustentável, emerge a recente abordagem do nexo de compensações e/ou possíveis sinergias nas demandas e provimentos de água, energia e alimentos, ao que se dirige este texto enquanto uma contribuição conceitual e ensaio de aplicação e problematização, enfocando o recorte territorial da Macrometrópole Paulista. Nesta análise, pautamos desafios de aplicabilidade do nexo quanto a escalas espacial e temporal e a questão da governança. Sendo o território macrometropolitano marcado pela escassez hídrica, esse território permite vislumbrar essas questões desafiadoras do nexo. Conclui-se quanto ao poder da abordagem do nexo como contribuição ao desenvolvimento sustentável e que, a perspectiva de sua governança conecta-se com a perspectiva necessária de reflexividade.

  5. Project of energy saving in compressed air; Proyecto de ahorro de energia en aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Automatizacion, Productividad y Calidad S.A. de C.V. Puebla, (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this project is to reduce the operation costs by means of the energy saving through the use of the compressed air system. For this purpose the solenoid valves controlled per time and the manually acted valves of sphere must be replaced by pneumatic purges that remove from the system the condensed humidity without discharging air and which act automatically when the water reaches the level of unloading in its deposit. The pressure level is the reduction of the operation rank of pressure in the compressors, satisfying the operation requirements of the process equipment. [Spanish] El objetivo de este proyecto es reducir el costo de operacion mediante el ahorro de energia en la utilizacion del sistema de aire comprimido. Para ello se tienen que remplazar las valvulas solenoides controladas por tiempo y valvulas de esfera actuadas manualmente por purgas neumaticas que remueven del sistema la humedad condensada sin descargar aire y que actuan en forma automatica al alcanzar el agua el nivel de descarga en su deposito. El nivel de presion es la reduccion del rango de operacion de presion de los compresores, satisfaciendo los requerimientos de operacion de los equipos de proceso.

  6. Municipal hydraulic planning for energy saving; Planeacion hidraulica municipal para el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Garcia, Enrique [PTF S.C. Consultores, Leon, Gto. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The efficient handling of the economic and natural resources of the municipalities, is nowadays so much complex, that it requires a formal planning. In the public service of potable water supply, two fundamental approaches are conjugated to consider: the rational use of the water resource and the efficient use of the electrical energy, for its extraction from the underground deep reservoirs. In the paper that is presented, the individual features of the previous matters are described and the positive results in a municipality of the Guanajuato's Low Lands (Bajio ), where already the dual objectives are obtained and that with a more professional municipal hydraulic planning, these will be permanent, with the inherent benefit towards the population. [Spanish] El manejo eficiente de los recursos economicos y naturales de los municipios, es hoy en dia cada vez mas complejo, que requiere una planeacion formal. En el servicio publico de abastecimiento de agua potable, se conjugan dos enfoques primordiales a considerar: el uso racional del recurso agua y la utilizacion eficiente de la energia electrica, para su extraccion de los acuiferos subterraneos profundos. En el trabajo que se presenta, se describen las particularidades de lo anterior y los resultados positivos en un municipio del Bajio guanajuatense, donde ya se logran los objetivos duales y que con una planeacion hidraulica municipal mas profesional, estos seran permanentes, con el beneficio inherente hacia la poblacion.

  7. Energy and the exercise of the power; Energia y ejercicio del poder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Maraven S.A. (Venezuela)

    2007-07-15

    In different periods of the history, the central spot of the power game, played among nations, has been occupied by certain specific topics for a while. Among the occupants there are found: ground, food, religion, treasure and trade. Despite the fact that his arrival was unnoticed, there have been already 20 years since the energy -more specifically by the crude oil- has become the new occupant of such spot. Although, this occupant is not going to be the last one, it still has a long way to cover on the spot of the worldwide forces. [Spanish] En diferentes periodos de la historia, ciertos temas especificos han llegado a ocupar durante algun tiempo una posicion focal en el juego de poder entre naciones, grupos o individuos. Entre esos temas estan la tierra, los alimentos, la religion, el tesoro y el comercio. En los ultimos 20 anos, y de manera inadvertida en un principio, la energia -mas especificamente el petroleo- ha pasado a ocupar este papel central. Si bien no se puede esperar que lo retenga para siempre, en los proximos anos seguira en el centro de la interaccion de las fuerzas mundiales.

  8. Evaluation of radioactive wastes in Instituto de Energia Atomica (Sao Paulo-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawakuchi, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of present and future production of radioactive waste in several departments of the Instituto de Energia Atomica has been done. Taking into account this evaluation, the criteria for disposal and convenient treatment technique have been studied. The most critical form of liquid radioactive waste is that of 131 I processing because high concentration of radiotellurium always accompanies this form of waste. Ion exchange and precipitation techniques were used to study this waste processing. Two kinds of resins were used by the ion exchange method: the strong anionic and the stron cationic. Quantitative tellurium retention has not been attained by the ion exchange method using either resins. The technique of precipitation of radioactive tellurium as ammonium tellurate was also used, allowing us to obtain more than 99% of tellurium removal. The remaining radioactive wastes can be eliminated using the storage for decay criteria with further release to the sewers in the case of liquids and burial in the case of solids. (Author) [pt

  9. Advantage of the renewable energies in isolated zones; Aprovechamiento de las energias renovables en zonas aisladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Zazueta, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Riesgo Compartido de la SAGARPA (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The present article has as objective to present the experiences obtained for more than ten years, in the development and implementation of actions that in the matter of renewable energy have been orchestrated in the Mexican field by the Secretariat of Agriculture, Animal Industry, Rural Development, Fishing, and Nutrition, trough the Shared Risk Trust Fund. The activities began in 1994; the most common applications realized are the water pumping for the drinking trough of cattle and the automation of the irrigation in small surfaces with fruit trees, vegetables, forages and the operation of greenhouses. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene como objetivo presentar las experiencias obtenidas durante mas de diez anos, en el desarrollo e implementacion de acciones que en materia de energia renovable se han instrumentado en el campo mexicano por la the Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural Pesca y Alimentacion, a traves del Fideicomiso de Riesgo Compartido. Las actividades se iniciaron en 1994, las aplicaciones mas comunes realizadas son el bombeo de agua para el abrevadero de ganado y la tecnificacion del riego en pequenas superficies con frutales, hortalizas, forrajes y la operacion de invernaderos.

  10. Cernavoda NPP: The contribution of ANSALDO ENERGIA to the development of the Nuclear Program in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziosi, G.; Benvenuto, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The development of east European countries has been very slow during the second part of the 20th century, but, with the end of the cold war, they are recovering through a continuous improvement of their economy. The continuous improvement of the countries is usually accompanied by an increase of the energy demand and, as consequence, a rapid increase of their energy production is taking place. It is strategic that the energy production of these countries be based on earliest technologies available today, in order to avoid the worsening of the problems deriving from the energy policies adopted by the western countries: one for all the CO 2 emission in the atmosphere. Clearly to promote the use of new technologies in the growing east European countries, a tied collaboration between western and eastern European countries is essential. This is the case of Romania. The agreement reached by Romania with the Italian and Canadian industries (Ansaldo Energia and AECL) has permitted: - The construction and commissioning of Cernavoda Unit 1 NPP, realized adopting CANDU technology and in operation since 1996; - The continuous maintenance / surveillance / improvement (through a specific service agreement) that assures the safe production of the energy; - The realization of a new Nuclear Power Station: Cernavoda Unit 2, adopting the last technology available for the CANDU type. Its operation is expected to start in 2007. Furthermore, benefit/cost evaluation is under analysis in order to verify the possibility to realize Cernavoda Unit 3 NPP. (authors)

  11. Cernavoda NPP: The contribution of ANSALDO ENERGIA to the development of the Nuclear Program in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziosi, G.; Benvenuto, F.

    2005-01-01

    The development of east European countries has been very slow during the second part of the 20th century, but, with the end of the cold war, they are recovering through a continuous improvement of their economy. The continuous improvement of the countries is usually accompanied by an increase of the energy demand and, as consequence, a rapid increase of their energy production is taking place. It is strategic that the energy production of these countries be based on earliest technologies available today, in order to avoid the worsening of the problems deriving from the energy policies adopted by the western countries: one for all the CO 2 emission in the atmosphere. Clearly to promote the use of new technologies in the growing east European countries, a tied collaboration between western and eastern European countries is essential. This is the case of Romania. The agreement reached by Romania with the Italian and Canadian industries (ANSALDO ENERGIA and AECL) has permitted: - The construction and commissioning of Cernavoda Unit 1 NPP, realized adopting CANDU technology and in operation since 1996; - The continuous maintenance / surveillance / improvement (through a specific service agreement) that assures the safe production of the energy; - The realization of a new Nuclear Power Station: Cernavoda Unit 2, adopting the last technology available for the CANDU type. Its operation is expected to start in 2007. Furthermore, benefit/cost evaluation is under analysis in order to verify the possibility to realize Cernavoda Unit 3 NPP. (authors)

  12. Incorporação de energia na vida útil de uma colhedora autopropelida de cana-de-açúcar

    OpenAIRE

    Edemilson José Mantoam

    2011-01-01

    A questão energética é um dos principais desafios do século XXI. Por outro lado, os aspectos geopolíticos e ambientais, são fontes de preocupação para o modelo econômico atual. O Brasil é um país que apresenta vantagens em relação ao mundo em termos de utilização de fontes renováveis de energia. Desde 2007 os produtos da cana-de-açúcar assumiram o primeiro lugar na oferta de energia renovável. A análise de energia é necessária para o gerenciamento de recursos naturais limitados, para abastece...

  13. Dimensionamento do Sistema Híbrido para Alimentação de Energia Elétrica da Escola Rural de Nangade (Cabo Delgado)

    OpenAIRE

    João, Manuel António Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Os combustíveis fósseis, como o carvão, o petróleo e o gás, constituem fontes de energia que em breve se esgotarão e que são demasiado caras para serem desperdiçadas pelas centrais elétricas na produção de electricidade. Para além desse facto, existem outros argumentos (sobretudo económicos) que inviabilizam a utilização destas fontes de energia em algumas regiões, abrindo caminho a fontes de energia alternativas (e.g. solar, eólica, biomassa, mini-hídricas, geotérmicas, etc) e preferencia...

  14. Sazonalidade do Balanço de Energia e Evapotranspiração em Área Arbustiva Alagável no Pantanal Mato-Grossense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Gomes Machado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O Pantanal apresenta períodos de inundação que modelam a paisagem e atuam como filtro ao estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de plantas. Perturbações antrópicas ou naturais podem alterar a distribuição da energia disponível no ecossistema. Diante da necessidade de compreensão da variabilidade temporal do balanço de energia em paisagens naturais inundáveis, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a sazonalidade do balanço de energia em área arbustiva alagável composta por Combretum lanceolatum Pohl no Pantanal Mato-grossense. As estimativas do fluxo de calor latente (LE e sensível (H, e da evapotranspiração (ET foram obtidas pelo método da razão de Bowen entre maio de 2012 e abril de 2013. A energia disponível foi destinada prioritariamente ao LE (64,1%, seguido ao H (35,8% e quase zero ao fluxo de calor no solo (0,1%. Os componentes do balanço de energia apresentaram forte sazonalidade, com maior LE durante a estação chuvosa e maior H durante a estação seca. A evapotranspiração foi menor durante a estação seca devido ao baixo conteúdo de água no solo e transpiração da vegetação dominante na área de estudo. Os resultados obtidos nesse trabalho sugerem que o ambiente estudado é limitado pela disponibilidade de energia e água.

  15. Integral programs of energy conservation (exergy) in the petroleum industry; Programas integrales de ahorro de energia (exergia) en la industria petrolera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero Rodriguez, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents some of the fundamental issues related to energy conservation programs in general and to the petroleum industry in particular with the purpose of integrating them both, that is, considering not only the energy issues, but also the ecological and economical aspects. This is achieved by using the two fundamental laws of thermodynamics (the science that studies energy, its characteristics, and its transformations) through the use of the exergy concept, which is a measure of the energy quality and of its withdrawal with respect to the environment. The origins of the present-day technologies, regarding energy conservation, the short, medium and long term general strategies and the implementation stages of the integral programs of energy conservation are presented, and it concludes with a series of general policies aimed at making the energy conservation programs more congruent with the maintenance of a sustainable development. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales relacionados con los programas de ahorro de energia en general, y en la industria petrolera en particular, con objeto de lograr que los mismos sean integrales, es decir que consideren no solo los aspectos puramente energeticos, sino tambien los aspectos ecologicos y economicos. Esto se logra utilizando conjuntamente las dos leyes fundamentales de la termodinamica (la ciencia que estudia la energia, sus caracteristicas y sus transformaciones), mediante la utilizacion del concepto de exergia, que es una medida de la calidad de la energia y de su alejamiento con respecto al medio ambiente. Se presentan los origenes de las tendencias tecnologicas actuales en materia de ahorro de energia, las estrategias generales a corto, mediano y largo plazos y las etapas en la implementacion de programas integrales de ahorro de energia, para concluir con una serie de politicas generales tendientes a lograr que los programas de ahorro de energia sean congruentes con el

  16. Integral programs of energy conservation (exergy) in the petroleum industry; Programas integrales de ahorro de energia (exergia) en la industria petrolera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero Rodriguez, R [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents some of the fundamental issues related to energy conservation programs in general and to the petroleum industry in particular with the purpose of integrating them both, that is, considering not only the energy issues, but also the ecological and economical aspects. This is achieved by using the two fundamental laws of thermodynamics (the science that studies energy, its characteristics, and its transformations) through the use of the exergy concept, which is a measure of the energy quality and of its withdrawal with respect to the environment. The origins of the present-day technologies, regarding energy conservation, the short, medium and long term general strategies and the implementation stages of the integral programs of energy conservation are presented, and it concludes with a series of general policies aimed at making the energy conservation programs more congruent with the maintenance of a sustainable development. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales relacionados con los programas de ahorro de energia en general, y en la industria petrolera en particular, con objeto de lograr que los mismos sean integrales, es decir que consideren no solo los aspectos puramente energeticos, sino tambien los aspectos ecologicos y economicos. Esto se logra utilizando conjuntamente las dos leyes fundamentales de la termodinamica (la ciencia que estudia la energia, sus caracteristicas y sus transformaciones), mediante la utilizacion del concepto de exergia, que es una medida de la calidad de la energia y de su alejamiento con respecto al medio ambiente. Se presentan los origenes de las tendencias tecnologicas actuales en materia de ahorro de energia, las estrategias generales a corto, mediano y largo plazos y las etapas en la implementacion de programas integrales de ahorro de energia, para concluir con una serie de politicas generales tendientes a lograr que los programas de ahorro de energia sean congruentes con el

  17. Valor nutricional e energia metabolizável de subprodutos do trigo utilizados para alimentação de suínos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rui Wesendonck

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutricional e energético de subprodutos do trigo, em dietas para suínos em crescimento, e obter equações de predição da energia metabolizável. Foram utilizados 36 suínos machos, castrados, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas individuais. Realizou-se a coleta total de fezes e urina em dois períodos de dez dias: cinco para adaptação e cinco para coleta. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, tendo-se considerado o período de coleta como bloco, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições. A dieta referência foi substituída em 30% por um dos subprodutos testados: farinheta, farelo fino, farelo de trigo, farelo grosso e farelo grosso moído; este último usado para avaliar a influência da granulometria na digestibilidade. A fibra bruta foi a variável que proporcionou a melhor estimativa da energia metabolizável. O farelo fino foi superior em energia digestível e metabolizável, em comparação ao farelo grosso moído. O farelo grosso moído apresentou os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade, e a diminuição de seu diâmetro geométrico médio não aumentou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e da energia. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, a farinheta apresenta maior energia digestível, energia metabolizável e proteína digestível, o que mostra elevado potencial para utilização em dietas para suínos em crescimento.

  18. Electrical energy measurement under free market schemes; Medicion de la energia electrica bajo esquemas de libre mercado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata Garcia, Juan A [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico); Vidrio Lopez, Gilberto; Gomez Lopez, Jose M; Mijarez Castro, R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The energy markets deregulation brings new opportunities and challenges, for the companies of electricity as well as for the consumers. The transaction of electricity in an open market requires of well informed participants to analyze the market conditions, they need to know how much energy is consumed, in what time and in what point of the electrical circuits. The lack of a good measurement system is one of the main barriers that prevent the participants to benefit from the opportunities of an open market. In this article the more representative schemes of measurement of the state of art in schemes of free market are exposed, their technological capacities and technologies behind them. It is also mentioned the measurement facilities, control centers, energy quality and technological tendencies. [Spanish] La desregulacion de los mercados de energia trae nuevas oportunidades y retos, tanto para la companias de electricidad como para los consumidores. La compra-venta de electricidad en un mercado abierto requiere de participantes bien informados para analizar las condiciones del mercado, estos necesitan conocer cuanta energia se consume, en que tiempo y en que lugar de los circuitos electricos. La falta de un buen sistema de medicion es una de las principales barreras que impide a los participantes beneficiarse de las oportunidades de un mercado abierto. En este articulo se exponen los esquemas de medicion mas representativos del estado de la practica en esquemas de libre mercado, sus capacidades y tecnologias detras de ellos. Tambien se habla sobre las instalaciones de medicion centros de control, calidad de energia y tendencias tecnologicas.

  19. Optimization in the use of energy in a petrochemical process; Optimizacion del uso de la energia en un proceso petroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picon Nunez, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Quillares Vargas, L. [Tecnopinch, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Torres Reyes, E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study to reduce the energy consumption in a section of a dimethyl terephthalate plant. A thermal analysis was performed to evaluate the opportunities in energy saving. It was found that the plant operates with a high level of energy integration, that is, the maximum amount of heat is recovered by the generation of steam that is utilized in other sections of the plant. Nevertheless, the process design is such that an important part of the heating potential of this steam is lost due to the expansion it is subjected to adjust its pressure to the distribution header pressure which in this way limits its optimum usage. A proposal is also presented to reduce the losses of potential and the overall consumption of energy in approximately 5 millions of Btu/hr. [Espanol] En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de un estudio para reducir el consumo de energia en una seccion de una planta de dimetil tereftalato. Se realizo un analisis termico para evaluar las oportunidades de ahorro de energia. Se encontro que la planta opera con un alto nivel de integracion energetica, es decir, se recupera la maxima cantidad de calor en forma de vapor y se reutiliza en otras secciones de la planta. Sin embargo, el diseno del proceso es tal que una fraccion importante del potencial de calentamiento de este vapor se pierde debido a la expansion a que es sometido para ajustar su presion a la del cabezal de distribucion, limitando de esta manera su uso optimo. Se presenta una propuesta para reducir las perdidas de potencial y reducir el consumo global de energia en aproximadamente 5 millones de Btu/hr.

  20. Optimization in the use of energy in a petrochemical process; Optimizacion del uso de la energia en un proceso petroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picon Nunez, M [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Quillares Vargas, L [Tecnopinch, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Torres Reyes, E [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study to reduce the energy consumption in a section of a dimethyl terephthalate plant. A thermal analysis was performed to evaluate the opportunities in energy saving. It was found that the plant operates with a high level of energy integration, that is, the maximum amount of heat is recovered by the generation of steam that is utilized in other sections of the plant. Nevertheless, the process design is such that an important part of the heating potential of this steam is lost due to the expansion it is subjected to adjust its pressure to the distribution header pressure which in this way limits its optimum usage. A proposal is also presented to reduce the losses of potential and the overall consumption of energy in approximately 5 millions of Btu/hr. [Espanol] En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de un estudio para reducir el consumo de energia en una seccion de una planta de dimetil tereftalato. Se realizo un analisis termico para evaluar las oportunidades de ahorro de energia. Se encontro que la planta opera con un alto nivel de integracion energetica, es decir, se recupera la maxima cantidad de calor en forma de vapor y se reutiliza en otras secciones de la planta. Sin embargo, el diseno del proceso es tal que una fraccion importante del potencial de calentamiento de este vapor se pierde debido a la expansion a que es sometido para ajustar su presion a la del cabezal de distribucion, limitando de esta manera su uso optimo. Se presenta una propuesta para reducir las perdidas de potencial y reducir el consumo global de energia en aproximadamente 5 millones de Btu/hr.

  1. Energia eólica, geração de empregos e desenvolvimento sustentável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moana Simas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A energia eólica no Brasil passou por um período de lento crescimento, porém, os projetos contratados nos últimos três anos deverão quintuplicar a capacidade instalada. É a tecnologia limpa que mais tem crescido na última década, trazendo benefícios ambientais e sociais para diversos países. Nosso trabalho buscou quantificar a geração de empregos diretos e indiretos pela energia eólica no país. Até 2020, serão gerados 195 mil empregos, e 70% desses são diretos, a maioria na construção civil, com grande potencial para a criação de empregos em localidades rurais. Assim, a energia eólica deverá contribuir decisivamente para o desenvolvimento sustentável do país.Wind power development in Brazil has experienced a long period of slow growth; however, projects contracted over the last three years might increase the current installed capacity by fivefold. This was the fastest growing clean energy technology over the last decade, bringing environmental and social benefits to several countries. Our work has determined direct and indirect job creation potential due to indigenous wind power deployment. About 195,000 jobs will be created up to 2020, out of which 70% direct, and most of them in construction, which has great local job creation potential. Therefore, wind power plays a major role in the sustainable development of the country.

  2. Altervative energy sources, principles, applications, state of the art and perspectives; Fuentes alternativas de energia, principios, aplicaciones, estado del arte y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana Flores, R; Gonzalez Galarza, R; Ramos Berumen, C; Agredano Diaz, J; Arvizu Fernandex, J L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Saldana Flores, R; Gonzalez Galarza, R; Ramos Berumen, C; Agredano Diaz, J; Arvizu Fernandez, J L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    All over the world, the energy availability has turned out to be one of the most important problems. The greatest majority of countries, developing as well as industrialized countries are being affected by the increasing demand of energy to satisfy their social and economic development goals and the need of complementing the conventional sources of energy with the non-conventional sources has become imperative for most of them. Beginning the last decade, it has been recognized the inevitability that in a non too far future the energy supply will suffer a transitional change from its present oil dependency towards more diversified energy combinations. This transition that involves the development of a variety of energy sources, with preference to the renewable sources, represents an important technological challenge that has to be attained in a gradual and orderly fashion. Among the new energy forms and the new technologies to obtain energy that have been considered to become a part of the energy supply in the future are the so called non-conventional sources of energy (NCSE) or alternative sources of energy, such as solar, biomass, wind power and small hydro stations. [Espanol] A nivel mundial, la disponibilidad de energia se ha convertido en uno de los problemas ms importantes. La gran mayoria de los paises, tanto en desarrollo como industrializados, se ven afectados por demandas crecientes de energia para satisfacer sus metas de desarrollo econonico y social, y la necesidad de complementar las fuentes comerciales con fuentes no convencionales se ha vuelto imperativa para la mayoria de ellos. A partir de la ultima decada, se ha reconocido como inevitable que en un futuro no muy lejano la oferta de energa debera sufrir una transicin desde su actual dependencia de los hidrocarburos hacia combinaciones energeticas mas diversificadas. Esta transicion que implica lograr el aprovechamiento de una variedad de fuentes de energia, prestando particular atencion a los

  3. Sistemas híbrido de produção de energia para sistema de comunicações rádio

    OpenAIRE

    Carreiras, José Manuel Patrício

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Sistemas de Energias Renováveis na Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão do Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo Este trabalho de projeto incidiu sobre o dimensionamento de cinco sistemas Autónomos de produção de energia para alimentação de Pontos repetidores do sistema de comunicação e sua implementação. O presente trabalho iniciou-se em 2006 quando por motivos profissionais foi necessário construir um sistema de comunicação de suporte ao sistema de telegestã...

  4. "Avaliação ambiental de diferentes formas de geração de energia elétrica"

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria de Oliveira Guena

    2007-01-01

    No mundo moderno a energia elétrica tem um papel fundamental; ela é a base do progresso e desenvolvimento mundial. O seu surgimento propiciou a melhora no saneamento, na saúde, no abastecimento de água e alimentos, na qualidade de vida e também fez surgir a sociedade capitalista e de consumo. A utilização do petróleo como fonte geradora de energia foi o impulso da revolução industrial e através dele foram desenvolvidos motores, geradores e máquinas que contribuíram para o progresso. Com isto...

  5. ENERGIA SOLAR TÉRMICA: INOVAÇÃO EM AQUECIMENTO DE ÁGUA PARA PROCESSOS INDUSTRIAIS / SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY: WATER HEATING INNOVATION FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    E. F. Carreira Junior; J. B. Sacomano; M. Mollo Neto

    2014-01-01

    O aumento do consumo mundial de energia tem gerado a busca de fontes alternativas, inclusive a solar, de fácil utilização, não exigindo equipamentos muito sofisticados nem complexos. Muitos processos industriais utilizam água em temperaturas até 100°C. O uso de energia solar na indústria ainda é baixo se comparado ao consumo energético total. O objetivo deste artigo é investigar possibilidades de usos de aquecimento solar de água em processos industriais, para o que foi utilizada pesquisa bib...

  6. Inventário de materiais, energia e emissões dos gases de efeito estufa na vida útil de máquinas agrícolas

    OpenAIRE

    Edemilson José Mantoam

    2016-01-01

    A questão energética, associada às mudanças climáticas e à dependência dos recursos naturais é um dos principais desafios do século XXI. A necessidade de produzir alimentos, para atender a crescente demanda da população, requer o aumento da utilização de máquinas e equipamentos, demandando maior quantidade de energia e causando emissões dos gases de efeito estufa. Fontes de materiais e de energia são consumidas ao longo do ciclo de vida do produto, portanto é importante reduzir a demanda dess...

  7. Análise da participação dos autoprodutores e produtores independentes de energia no setor elétrico brasileiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Marcondes

    2008-01-01

    Historicamente o suprimento de energia elétrica no Brasil, desempenha papel de destaque no crescimento econômico nacional, por conta da sua capacidade de agregar renda através do fomento às grandes indústrias. Sua forte associação na composição da renda nacional preocupa de maneira geral todos os envolvidos e interessados no abastecimento de energia que, na pauta dos últimos governos, discute a priorização dos investimentos para o setor. O domínio do setor por pequenos investidores consolidou...

  8. Altervative energy sources, principles, applications, state of the art and perspectives; Fuentes alternativas de energia, principios, aplicaciones, estado del arte y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana Flores, R; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Ramos Berumen, C.; Agredano Diaz, J.; Arvizu Fernandex, J.L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Saldana Flores, R.; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Ramos Berumen, C.; Agredano Diaz, J.; Arvizu Fernandez, J.L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    All over the world, the energy availability has turned out to be one of the most important problems. The greatest majority of countries, developing as well as industrialized countries are being affected by the increasing demand of energy to satisfy their social and economic development goals and the need of complementing the conventional sources of energy with the non-conventional sources has become imperative for most of them. Beginning the last decade, it has been recognized the inevitability that in a non too far future the energy supply will suffer a transitional change from its present oil dependency towards more diversified energy combinations. This transition that involves the development of a variety of energy sources, with preference to the renewable sources, represents an important technological challenge that has to be attained in a gradual and orderly fashion. Among the new energy forms and the new technologies to obtain energy that have been considered to become a part of the energy supply in the future are the so called non-conventional sources of energy (NCSE) or alternative sources of energy, such as solar, biomass, wind power and small hydro stations. [Espanol] A nivel mundial, la disponibilidad de energia se ha convertido en uno de los problemas ms importantes. La gran mayoria de los paises, tanto en desarrollo como industrializados, se ven afectados por demandas crecientes de energia para satisfacer sus metas de desarrollo econonico y social, y la necesidad de complementar las fuentes comerciales con fuentes no convencionales se ha vuelto imperativa para la mayoria de ellos. A partir de la ultima decada, se ha reconocido como inevitable que en un futuro no muy lejano la oferta de energa debera sufrir una transicin desde su actual dependencia de los hidrocarburos hacia combinaciones energeticas mas diversificadas. Esta transicion que implica lograr el aprovechamiento de una variedad de fuentes de energia, prestando particular atencion a los

  9. Technological tendencies and their relation with energy markets; Tendencias tecnologicas y su relacion con mercados de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Castro, Salvador [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article some associate technological tendencies with areas of interest of the Control Systems Division of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are presented. Here the relations or influence that these tendencies have and will continue having in the future with the definition and implantation of energy markets are mentioned. [Spanish] En este articulo se presentan algunas tendencias tecnologicas asociadas con areas de interes de la Division de Sistemas de Control del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Aqui se mencionan las relaciones o influencia que dichas tendencias tienen y continuaran teniendo en el futuro con la definicion e implantacion de mercados de energia.

  10. A report with the results of measurements carried out in AQUILON 2 for the Junta de Energia Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourme, P.; Jacquemart, R.; Ledanois, G.

    1964-01-01

    Buckling measurements have been performed in support of the 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' program in the heavy water moderated critical facility AQUILON concerning lattices of uranium carbide fuel assemblies. In part of the experiments, these fuel assemblies were sheathed by housing tubes filled with organic to simulate a coolant. Each fuel assembly is a cluster of nineteen aluminium cladded, 13 mm in diameter U C rods. Experiments were made using substitution method i.e. critical approach and pulsed neutron techniques. Results are compared to lattice calculation analogous to oxide cluster calculation except about p factor. (authors) [fr

  11. Experiences of energy saving and co-generation projects; Experiencias de proyectos de ahorro de energia y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Barajas, Alberto [Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this document are presented the successful projects of energy saving and co-generation that Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V. has made in diverse industries. The investment recovery periods have been smaller to 18 months. The projects have been made for different companies within Mexican Republic. [Spanish] Se presentan los casos exitosos de proyectos de ahorro de energia y cogeneracion que Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V. ha realizado en diversas industrias cuyo periodo de recuperacion de la inversion han sido menores a 18 meses. Los proyectos han sido realizados para distintas empresas dentro de la Republica Mexicana.

  12. Análise de controladores eletrônicos em sistemas de distribuição de energia

    OpenAIRE

    Alampi Filho, Sergio [UNESP

    2005-01-01

    O número crescente de cargas não-lineares, bem como altas taxas de energia pagas pelos consumidores, com tributações adicionais, tais como multas por baixo ou alto fator de potência, tarifas elevadas em horários de ponta e necessidade de elevados contratos de demanda, para suprir possíveis ultrapassagens de contrato, estão entre as principais motivações técnicas para a realização desta pesquisa. Sob esta perspectiva, os principais controladores FACTS são apresentados, com enfoque principal no...

  13. Cost-benefit of energy saving in bioclimatic designs; Costo-beneficio del ahorro de energia en los disenos bioclimatios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez P, J. Manuel A. [Doble dos soluciones de Negocios (Mexico); Morillon G, David; Rdriguez V, Luis [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    Tools and criteria for Cost-Benefit Analysis (ACB) of energy saving in bioclimatic designs (DB) are presented, for which a reference project is established. Based on the traditional design of air conditioning of a building and with the support of this one, the estimation of costs and benefits of the same building is made; but with passive systems. The tools used consider related resources such as time and money. Criteria are used such as: Present value (VP), Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) and the Cost of the conserved Energy (CEC). The costs related to the construction, maintenance and operation of the design are taken into consideration. The differences between the design of reference and the Bioclimatic Design, established from the application of these criteria, allow evaluating the economic margin as far as operation and maintenance. Finally, the cost of the conserved energy of the bioclimatic measures is evaluated as an initiative for energy saving and calculates the present value from them in all of the period of useful life of the bioclimatic design. [Spanish] Se presentan herramientas y criterios para el analisis Costo-Beneficio (ACB) del ahorro de energia en los disenos bioclimaticos (DB), para lo cual se establece un proyecto de referencia. Basado en el diseno tradicional de la climatizacion de un edificio y con apoyo en este, se realiza la estimacion de costos y beneficios del mismo edificio; pero con sistema pasivos. Las herramientas usadas consideran recursos relacionados como son tiempo y dinero. Se usan criterios tales como: Valor Presente (VP), Costo Anual Equivalente (CAE) y el Costo de la Energia conservada (CEC). Se toman en consideracion los costos relacionados con la construccion, mantenimiento y operacion del diseno. Las diferencias entre el diseno de referencia y el Diseno Bioclimatico, establecidas a partir de la aplicacion de estos criterios, permiten evaluar el margen economico en cuanto a la operacion y el mantenimiento. Finalmente, se

  14. Projetos de estruturas lineares: o transporte e suas trilhas e os caminhos da energia - os limites da sustentabilidade

    OpenAIRE

    Celina Franco Bragança Rosa Claudio

    2008-01-01

    O assunto básico da pesquisa, como o titulo selecionado, refere-se às estruturas lineares e às faixas necessárias para sua implantação como as linhas de infra-estrutura de rodovias e demais modais de transporte, bem como a infra-estrutura de energia realizada por meio de dutos e linhas de transmissão. As partes da pesquisa selecionadas para a Tese fazem referência aos módulos que serão desenvolvidos, a saber: Primeiro Módulo: Trata dos antecedentes do projeto de pesquisa e da natureza da tip...

  15. Uncertainty measurement evaluation of WDXRF and EDXRF techniques for the Si and U{sub total} determination in U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} used as nuclear fuel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Salvador, Vera L.R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F.; Sato, Ivone M., E-mail: mascapin@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2009-07-01

    Uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}), 20% {sup 235}U enriched powder, is an intermetallic compound used as nuclear fuel material; that is the state-of-the-art among nuclear fuel materials used in modern research reactors. It is produced by IPEN and used as nuclear fuel of the IEA-R1 reactor (IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil); U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} has 92.3%wtU and 7.7%wtSi. The qualification of this material requires chemical and physical tests such as Si and U{sub total} content, isotope ratio, impurities, density, specific surface area and particle size determination. The Si and U{sub total} determination were made by gravimetric and volumetric procedures at the Environment Chemistry Center (CQMA-IPEN/CNEN). Usually, these classical methods require a long time for analyses and are expensive. The objective of this study was to establish a fast and efficient analytical method to meet ISO/IEC 17025:2005 requirements in the Si and U{sub total} determination. The X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF) were chosen to allow a direct and non-destructive testing, what is a principal advantage faced to other instrumental techniques, since previous chemical treatments are not necessary. In this study, the performance of the wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) and energy dispersive (EDXRF) X- ray fluorescence techniques was evaluated. Furthermore, two different sample preparation procedures, plain powdered and pressed powdered were evaluated. Statistical tools were used to evaluate the results and a comparison between these results and the conventional methods was done. (author)

  16. X-ray Fluorescence in Member States: Ghana. The Use of XRF for Contaminated Site Assessment in Ghana. 2. Estimation of Heavy Metals Contamination at Agbogbloshie E-scrap Yard Using EDXRF Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiemo, S.M.; Ofosu, F.G.; Aboh, I.J. Kwame

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the digital age has underscored the important role that electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) plays in a nation's socioeconomic development, including education, health delivery and communications, as well as global connectivity. In 2003 Ghana formulated its policy on information and communications technology (ICT) for accelerated development, with the understanding for instance, that Ghana's accelerated development would not be possible without an ICT-driven development agenda. The demand for EEE in Ghana grows by the day with a corresponding high rate of waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) generation. The WEEE industry in Ghana is a very vibrant one, growing at an amazing rate year after year. Ghana currently imports about 215 000 tonnes of electrical and electronic equipment per annum out of which an estimated 70% are second hand products. About 60-70% of the second hand products arrive in good working condition, 20-30% can be repaired or refurbished to get them functioning and 10-20% are junk and sent directly for the informal recycling. The Agbogbloshie scrap market in Accra came into the limelight following the publication of the report entitled 'Poisoning the Poor' by Greenpeace International. The report gave a damning revelation about the activities of scrap dealers and recyclers at the market. It was noted from the report that surface dust samples contained high concentrations of both heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants due to the unsafe and crude means of retrieving metals and components from the WEEE. This project was therefore designed to determine the heavy metal concentration of surface dust using the EDXRF and estimate the degree of contamination of the dust samples. Surface dust samples were collected from various vicinities within the scrap yard using the methods described above.

  17. Saving of electrical energy in educative institutions; Ahorro de energia electrica en instituciones educativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Medina, Gabino [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Campus Estado de Mexico, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work looks for integrating the actions of energy saving that can be applied in educative institutions, not concerning the level or size of the same ones. The actions go from questions of making aware the student population until those involved in the change in the operation, migration and implementation of technology. Without overlooking the formative aspect that the educative institutions have and the social commitment of these last ones. It is important that the saving measures have as mission to achieve a culture focussed to make efficient use of the resources, of energy as well as material. This culture must be born from the classrooms and must transform the way to be and act of the student community that will permeate itself with the society. Let us remember that actions are worth more than words, so the educative institutions must preach with the example. [Spanish] El presente trabajo busca integrar las acciones de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en instituciones educativas, no importando el nivel o tamano de las mismas. Las acciones van desde cuestiones de concienciar a la poblacion estudiantil hasta las que involucran el cambio en la operacion, migracion e implementacion de tecnologia. Sin perder de vista el aspecto formativo que tienen las instituciones educativas y el compromiso social de estas ultimas. Es importante que las medidas de ahorro tengan como mision lograr una cultura enfocada a hacer uso eficiente de los recursos, tanto energeticos como materiales. Dicha cultura debe nacer desde las aulas y debe transformar la manera de ser y actuar, de la comunidad estudiantil que se permeara con la sociedad. Recordemos que las acciones valen mas que las palabras, asi que las instituciones educativas deben predicar con el ejemplo.

  18. Natural ionizing system to electrical protection and energy; Sistema ionizante natural de proteccion electrica y energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabareda Fermin; Luis [Universidad de Los Andes (Venezuela)]. E-mail: lcabaredaf@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    This is the new highest technology, 100% Venezuelan and unique in the world, technological innovation, world patent for maximum protection, security and zero risk (0) to all electrical and power generation systems: hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants, wind, nuclear and solar power plants, etc; it's the only technology around the world that has the potential to disperse and propagate to land mass the enormous energies associated to the atmospheric discharges (lightning), which are in the order: 200,000 to 500,000 Amperes; 1,000 million Kilowatts and high-level transient voltage of 100 million Volts. This new high technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it is the mechanism to end blackouts that produce so many damages and losses of billions of dollars to both generators and users of electrical service, throughout the world. [Spanish] Esta nueva mas alta tecnologia, 100% venezolana y unica en el mundo, innovacion tecnologica, patente mundial ofrece maxima proteccion, seguridad y riesgo cero (0) a todos los sistemas de generacion electrica: centrales hidroelectricas, termoelectricas, de viento, nucleares y solar, otros; es la unica tecnologia en el mundo que tiene el potencial para dispersar y propagar a la masa terrestre las enormes energias asociadas a las descargas atmosfericas (rayos) que estan en el orden de: 200.000 a 500.000 amperios, 1.000 millones de kilovatios y voltajes transitorios de alto nivel de 100 millones de voltios. Esta nueva alta tecnologia es la solucion al paradigma de Benjamin Franklin y es el mecanismo para eliminar apagones que producen danos y perdidas de billones de dolares para ambos: generados y usuarios del servicio electrico, alrededor del mundo.

  19. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report outlines the energy research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The report is the result of the research project Competitive policies in the Nordic Energy Research and Innovation Area (eNERGIA). The project was co-funded by Nordic Energy Research and NIFU STEP. The objective of the project was to determine possible policy interventions targeted at the development and commercial promotion of promising renewable energy production technologies in the Nordic countries. The report is based on an analysis of the framework conditions for the sector innovation systems for energy production, with a focus on research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries. We identified the key actors and institutions in all the eight countries studied. In addition, we conducted a performance assessment based on the quantitative indicators of publishing and patenting, international collaboration and funding data. Using these indicators as a basis, we conducted an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) of the Nordic sector innovation systems for energy production. This analysis identified common or diverging characteristics, challenges, framework conditions, energy-technology specialisation and, most important of all, cases of good practice in key technologies. The project included two workshops, and the results of these are also reported here. The outcomes of the workshops have been used in several parts of the project: A Nordic workshop on the environmental consequences of deployment at scale of these technologies to replace existing energy systems, with a focus on wind energy and photovoltaic energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, and second-generation bioenergy. A Nordic workshop on policy implications for Nordic Energy Research. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports

  20. Description of the international scenarios and the renewable energies (Chapter 4 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Descripcion de los escenarios internacionales y las energias renovables (Capitulo 4 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter, energy scenarios made by different organizations are described, the majority foreign, and they do not represent an official version of the Secretaria de Energia of the Mexican government. 1. The IEO-2004, Projections to year 2025 of the Energy Information Agency (EIA) of the Department of Energy of the USA (DOE, USA). - it describes the world-wide energy situation with historical information (1970-2000) and projections to the future (2001-2025); 2. The WOE-2004, Projections to year 2030 of the Agency International of Energy of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (AIE-OECD) - it describes the world-wide energy situation with historical information (1971-2002) and projections to the future (2002-2030); 3. The scenarios of Shell to year 2050; 4, Scenarios to year 2025 of the Agency International of Energy oriented to a sustainable future: it is a document published in the 2003, it contains the results of an exercise to develop three exploratory scenarios and a formative scenario/projections; 5. The study of the World-wide Council of Energy on the activators of the energy sector; 6. Other scenarios for Mexico are: Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation, GEO-Mexico and the Centro de Investigacion de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. [Spanish] En este capitulo, se describen escenarios energeticos a largo plazo realizados por diferentes entidades, la mayoria extranjeras, y no representan una version oficial de la Secretaria de Energia del gobierno de Mexico. 1. El IEO-2004, Proyecciones al 2025 de la Energy Information Agency (EIA) del departamento de energia de los EUA (DOE, USA).- describe la situacion energetica mundial con informacion historica (1970-2000) y proyecciones a futuro (2001-2025); 2. El WOE-2004, Proyecciones al 2030 de la Agencia Internacional de Energia de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (AIE-OCDE).- describe la situacion energetica mundial con informacion historica

  1. Description of the international scenarios and the renewable energies (Chapter 4 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Descripcion de los escenarios internacionales y las energias renovables (Capitulo 4 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter, energy scenarios made by different organizations are described, the majority foreign, and they do not represent an official version of the Secretaria de Energia of the Mexican government. 1. The IEO-2004, Projections to year 2025 of the Energy Information Agency (EIA) of the Department of Energy of the USA (DOE, USA). - it describes the world-wide energy situation with historical information (1970-2000) and projections to the future (2001-2025); 2. The WOE-2004, Projections to year 2030 of the Agency International of Energy of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (AIE-OECD) - it describes the world-wide energy situation with historical information (1971-2002) and projections to the future (2002-2030); 3. The scenarios of Shell to year 2050; 4, Scenarios to year 2025 of the Agency International of Energy oriented to a sustainable future: it is a document published in the 2003, it contains the results of an exercise to develop three exploratory scenarios and a formative scenario/projections; 5. The study of the World-wide Council of Energy on the activators of the energy sector; 6. Other scenarios for Mexico are: Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation, GEO-Mexico and the Centro de Investigacion de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. [Spanish] En este capitulo, se describen escenarios energeticos a largo plazo realizados por diferentes entidades, la mayoria extranjeras, y no representan una version oficial de la Secretaria de Energia del gobierno de Mexico. 1. El IEO-2004, Proyecciones al 2025 de la Energy Information Agency (EIA) del departamento de energia de los EUA (DOE, USA).- describe la situacion energetica mundial con informacion historica (1970-2000) y proyecciones a futuro (2001-2025); 2. El WOE-2004, Proyecciones al 2030 de la Agencia Internacional de Energia de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (AIE-OCDE).- describe la situacion energetica mundial con informacion historica

  2. Management and control of the electrical energy demand; Administracion y control de la demanda de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson Controls [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Administrative measures allow a reduction in the energy consumption, but not always in the electrical demand. Control measures allow a reduction in the billing of the electrical demand, but not always in the energy consumption. This is why it is explained in this document what management and control of the electrical demand is, as well as its control strategies, the control alternatives, the billing demand and at the same time graphical representations along with three practical cases on the management of demand in air compressors, air conditioning equipment and in corporative buildings are presented. [Spanish] La aplicacion de las medidas administrativas permite reducir el consumo de energia, pero no siempre la demanda electrica. La aplicacion de medidas de control permiten reducir la demanda electrica facturable, pero no siempre el consumo de energia. Es por eso que en este documento se explica que es la administracion y el control de la demanda electrica, sus estrategias de control, las alternativas de control, la demanda facturable, representaciones graficas y tres casos practicos sobre la administracion de demanda en compresores de aire, la administracion de demanda en aire acondicionado y la administracion de demanda en un edificio corporativo.

  3. Potential of bioclimatic architecture for energy saving in buildings; Potencial de la arquitectura bioclimatica para ahorro de energia en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Chavez, Jose Roberto [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The design and construction of current buildings has been characterized, most of all, in the last 30 years, for the lack of consideration in the design process of aspects that nowadays represent a fundamental importance. These aspects are related to energy conservation and environmental protection, with man as the main center of attention for the optimum satisfaction of its physiological as well as psychological needs. In this paper are presented the causes for the lack of consideration of the mentioned aspects and guidelines to follow are set forth for their integration in the design process. Also the architecture potential with a bioclimatic approach is analyzed, for energy saving in buildings. [Espanol] El diseno y construccion de edificios contemporaneos se ha caracterizado, sobre todo en los ultimos treinta anos, por la falta de consideracion en el proceso de diseno, de aspectos que hoy en dia revisten una importancia primordial. Estos aspectos se relacionan con la preservacion de la energia y del medio ambiente, teniendo al hombre como principal centro de atencion, para la satisfaccion optima de sus necesidades, tanto fisiologicas como psicologicas. En este trabajo, se presentan las causas de la falta de consideracion de los aspectos antes citados y se plantean las pautas a seguir para su integracion en el proceso de diseno. Asi mismo, se analiza el potencial de la arquitectura con un enfoque bioclimatico, para ahorro de energia en los edificios.

  4. Energy saving by the use of polystyrene in construction; Ahorro de energia por la utilizacion de poliestireno en la construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Raul [Polioles S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In the past last years, the building industry has been faced with requirements in the rational energy use and environmental preservation. The polystyrene foam is a material that for more than forty years has demonstrated its attributes all over the world in its application in the construction industry as well as in the packing and crating industries, becoming a synonym of economic construction in regard to energy saving and a synonym also of a rational and safe packing. In this paper a short description is made of the manufacturing process of the expandable polystyrene foam, its properties and applications in the construction industry. [Espanol] En los ultimos anos, la industria de la construccion se ha enfrentado a exigencias en el uso racional de la energia y en la preservacion del medio ambiente. La espuma de poliestireno expansible es un material que por mas de cuarenta anos, ha demostrado sus cualidades a nivel mundial en su aplicacion tanto en la industria de la construccion como en la del empaque y embalaje, llegando a convertirse en sinonimo de una construccion economica en cuanto a ahorro de energia y sinonimo tambien de un embalaje racional y seguro. En este trabajo se hace una breve descripcion del proceso de fabricacion de la espuma de poliestireno expandible, sus propiedades y aplicaciones dentro de la industria de la construccion.

  5. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 1: Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 1: Country reports) is the first report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This first report is the presentation of the countries studied in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The policy system and the political framework conditions that underpin energy related industrial activity are reviewed for each country. This includes energy strategies, laws and regulations, R&D and innovation policies and instruments, and international collaboration. Key actors and institutions in the public domain, research and education, and non-governmental organisations are mapped. Finally, the descriptions of the countries include also technology specific overviews of R&D-intensive firms in the energy sector. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports Part 3: Special reports The results are summarised in the Synthesis report. (Author). refs., 24 figs., 49 tabs

  6. Balanço de energia e consumo hídrico de vinhedo de ‘Cabernet Franc’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O método do balanço de energia foi utilizado em vinhedo da uva para vinho ‘Cabernet Franc’, conduzido em espaldeira alta, para caracterizar a repartição do saldo de radiação (SR nos diferentes fluxos de calor: latente (LE, sensível e no solo. Em média LE representou aproximadamente 79% de SR. São apresentadas as variações horárias dos componentes do balanço de energia para dias: ensolarado e nublado. O consumo hídrico do vinhedo para os diferentes subperíodos fenológicos foi: poda-florescimento (99 mm, florescimento-início de maturação (249 mm e início de maturação-colheita (201 mm. Para o ciclo total (poda-colheita, o consumo hídrico obtido foi de 549 mm.

  7. Energy saving by the use of polystyrene in construction; Ahorro de energia por la utilizacion de poliestireno en la construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Raul [Polioles S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In the past last years, the building industry has been faced with requirements in the rational energy use and environmental preservation. The polystyrene foam is a material that for more than forty years has demonstrated its attributes all over the world in its application in the construction industry as well as in the packing and crating industries, becoming a synonym of economic construction in regard to energy saving and a synonym also of a rational and safe packing. In this paper a short description is made of the manufacturing process of the expandable polystyrene foam, its properties and applications in the construction industry. [Espanol] En los ultimos anos, la industria de la construccion se ha enfrentado a exigencias en el uso racional de la energia y en la preservacion del medio ambiente. La espuma de poliestireno expansible es un material que por mas de cuarenta anos, ha demostrado sus cualidades a nivel mundial en su aplicacion tanto en la industria de la construccion como en la del empaque y embalaje, llegando a convertirse en sinonimo de una construccion economica en cuanto a ahorro de energia y sinonimo tambien de un embalaje racional y seguro. En este trabajo se hace una breve descripcion del proceso de fabricacion de la espuma de poliestireno expandible, sus propiedades y aplicaciones dentro de la industria de la construccion.

  8. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. Second Part: Technologies for the advantage of the solar energy (Annexe 6-II in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Segunda Parte: Tecnologias para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar (Anexo 6-II en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Usually one distinguishes two main types of systems of advantage of the solar energy: the photovoltaic and the photo thermal ones. The first ones are those based on the photovoltaic effect, which allows the direct conversion of the energy of the solar radiation in electrical energy. The second ones transform the solar energy into heat, which can be used in a large variety of processes. By the degree of development of both technologies it is advisable to present them in different sections. Also, there is a great variety of technologies of photo thermal systems that we have classified as technologies for the termosolar generation of electrical power, whose temperatures of operation are high, technologies the solar heating at low temperatures and technologies for industrial heat process. [Spanish] Se suele distinguir dos tipos principales de sistemas de aprovechamiento de la energia solar: los fotovoltaicos y los fototermicos. Los primeros son aquellos basados en el efecto fotovoltaico, que permite la conversion directa de la energia de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Los segundos transforman la energia solar en calor, el cual puede ser utilizado en una gran variedad de procesos. Por el grado de desarrollo de ambas tecnologias es conveniente presentarlas en secciones diferentes. Asi mismo, existe una gran variedad de tecnologias de sistemas fototermicos que hemos clasificado en tecnologias para la generacion termosolar de potencia electrica, cuyas temperaturas de operacion son altas, tecnologias para el calentamiento solar a bajas temperaturas y tecnologias para calor de proceso industrial.

  9. Disseny de calefacció amb terra radiant d'una casa a l'horta de Lleida mitjançant energia geotèrmica

    OpenAIRE

    Fillat Sobrino, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    S'ha realitzat el disseny de calefacció d'una vivenda mitjançant energia geotèrmica de baixa temperatura, amb un bescanviador vertical de 80 m de profunditat. El sistema de calefacció és de terra radiant en forma d'espiral.

  10. A evolução da indústria de energia elétrica e a estratégia do grupo Iberdrola no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Gervásio Ferreira dos

    2003-01-01

    A nova possibilidade de competição em segmentos que eram tradicionalmente monopólios tem motivado comportamentos mais dinâmicos das empresas de energia elétrica, que transformam as incertezas e riscos em oportunidades de mercado.

  11. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J.; Morillon Galvez, D. [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  12. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J; Morillon Galvez, D [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  13. Computerized information system of support to the electric energy losses control; Sistema de informacion computarizado de apoyo al control de perdidas de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba Mar, Alvaro R; Perez Ortega, Joaquin; Rodriguez Ortiz, Guillermo; Rodriguez Cano, Rene; Zapata Garcia, Juan Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The energy losses are due to several reasons, among others, to the same nature of the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe in a general manner a decentralized system that processes the information of the energy and demand meters, to obtain the energy balances and losses indexes at national level. Additionally, the main services offered by the functional model and of the data base, the adopted policies for the energy interchanges among responsibility areas and the concepts of use, are described; next, the data sources of the system are described, the fragmentation and corresponding replication to the database are described and its architecture of software and hardware is shown. [Espanol] Las perdidas de energia se deben a varias razones, entre otras, a la naturaleza misma de los procesos de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la electricidad. El proposito de este articulo es describir de manera general un sistema descentralizado que procesa la informacion de los medidores de energia y demanda, para la obtencion de balances de energia e indices de perdidas a nivel nacional. Ademas, se describen los principales servicios que ofrece, el modelo funcional y el de la base de datos, las politicas adoptadas para los intercambios de energia entre areas de responsabilidad y los conceptos de uso; despues se describen las fuentes de datos del sistema, la fragmentacion y replicacion correspondiente a la base de datos y se muestra su arquitectura de hardware y software.

  14. Avaliação de uma Unidade de Geração de Energia Através da Teoria de Opções Reais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Caporal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde o final da década de 1990, o setor elétrico brasileiro vem sofrendo fortes mudanças estruturais, cujo principal objetivo é o de aumentar a competição e permitir ao setor crescer através do investimento privado. Em função disso, a Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica (ANEEL tem oferecido uma multiplicidade de oportunidades de investimentos, principalmente através de leilões de unidades geradoras de energia (em sua maioria hidrelétricas, de linhas de transmissão e incentivos ao investimento em Pequenas Centrais Hidrelétricas (PCH. Neste artigo, propomos um modelo de avaliação de uma unidade de geração de energia em condições de incerteza, incorporando a flexibilidade de escolha do mecanismo de venda da energia gerada através da metodologia das Opções Reais, e aplicamos este modelo ao caso de uma PCH. Os resultados indicam que o projeto flexível tem um valor significativamente maior do que o valor obtido através da análise de fluxo de caixa tradicional.

  15. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. Second Part: Technologies for the advantage of the solar energy (Annexe 6-II in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Segunda Parte: Tecnologias para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar (Anexo 6-II en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Usually one distinguishes two main types of systems of advantage of the solar energy: the photovoltaic and the photo thermal ones. The first ones are those based on the photovoltaic effect, which allows the direct conversion of the energy of the solar radiation in electrical energy. The second ones transform the solar energy into heat, which can be used in a large variety of processes. By the degree of development of both technologies it is advisable to present them in different sections. Also, there is a great variety of technologies of photo thermal systems that we have classified as technologies for the termosolar generation of electrical power, whose temperatures of operation are high, technologies the solar heating at low temperatures and technologies for industrial heat process. [Spanish] Se suele distinguir dos tipos principales de sistemas de aprovechamiento de la energia solar: los fotovoltaicos y los fototermicos. Los primeros son aquellos basados en el efecto fotovoltaico, que permite la conversion directa de la energia de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Los segundos transforman la energia solar en calor, el cual puede ser utilizado en una gran variedad de procesos. Por el grado de desarrollo de ambas tecnologias es conveniente presentarlas en secciones diferentes. Asi mismo, existe una gran variedad de tecnologias de sistemas fototermicos que hemos clasificado en tecnologias para la generacion termosolar de potencia electrica, cuyas temperaturas de operacion son altas, tecnologias para el calentamiento solar a bajas temperaturas y tecnologias para calor de proceso industrial.

  16. Avaliação da indústria de equipamentos para aproveitamento de fontes renováveis de energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sérgio Bonanni

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, incentivado pelo Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, procurou avaliar e identificar o "estado da arte" da tecnologia industrial brasileira de equipamentos de pequeno e médio porte para aproveitamento de fontes renováveis de energia. O projeto atuou nas seguintes áreas: Pequenas Centrais Hidrelétricas (PCH, Energia Solar, Energia Eólica, Biodigestores e Equipamentos de Biogás e Gaseificadores de combustíveis sólidos (Gasogênios, não somente "identificando" como "localizando" os atuais fabricantes de equipamentos utilizados no aproveitamento e renovação da energia. O projeto focalizou ainda os aspectos econômicos e financeiros das indústrias pesquisadas, tais como: caracterização e evolução recente, sua produção industrial em mercado atual e futuro, além das suas dificuldades na produção e comercialização de seus produtos.This work, sponsored by the Brazilian Research Council, carried out a sectorial appraisal of the manufacturers of equipment that use renewable energy sources. The survey was executed in Small Hydroelectric Plants, Solar Energy, Eolic Energy, Biogas and Gasification of solid combustible identifying the manufacturers and their localization. The survey pointed out the industries economical and financial aspects, as well as, the difficulties in producing and trading their products.

  17. The wind power in Brazil: Proinfa and the new model of the electric sector; A energia eolica no Brasil: Proinfa e o novo modelo do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Proinfa - Programa de Incentivo as Fontes Alternativas de Energia (Energy Alternative Sources Improvement Program), its maturation period, the first stage results and the difficulties and the conflicts generated by the New Model of Electric Sector for the development of the aeolian energy in the Brazilian electric matrix.

  18. Computerized information system of support to the electric energy losses control; Sistema de informacion computarizado de apoyo al control de perdidas de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba Mar, Alvaro R.; Perez Ortega, Joaquin; Rodriguez Ortiz, Guillermo; Rodriguez Cano, Rene; Zapata Garcia, Juan Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The energy losses are due to several reasons, among others, to the same nature of the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe in a general manner a decentralized system that processes the information of the energy and demand meters, to obtain the energy balances and losses indexes at national level. Additionally, the main services offered by the functional model and of the data base, the adopted policies for the energy interchanges among responsibility areas and the concepts of use, are described; next, the data sources of the system are described, the fragmentation and corresponding replication to the database are described and its architecture of software and hardware is shown. [Espanol] Las perdidas de energia se deben a varias razones, entre otras, a la naturaleza misma de los procesos de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la electricidad. El proposito de este articulo es describir de manera general un sistema descentralizado que procesa la informacion de los medidores de energia y demanda, para la obtencion de balances de energia e indices de perdidas a nivel nacional. Ademas, se describen los principales servicios que ofrece, el modelo funcional y el de la base de datos, las politicas adoptadas para los intercambios de energia entre areas de responsabilidad y los conceptos de uso; despues se describen las fuentes de datos del sistema, la fragmentacion y replicacion correspondiente a la base de datos y se muestra su arquitectura de hardware y software.

  19. ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA: UM ESTUDO DE CASO DA APLICAÇÃO NO SISTEMA DE ILUMINAÇÃO EM UMA INSTITUIÇÃO DE ENSINO PROFISSIONALIZANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivisson Rodrigues Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como tema uma fonte de energia renovável não poluidora que poderá ser mais uma prática sustentável nos próximos anos. A fonte de energia estudada foi o Sistema Fotovoltaico e foi realizado uma análise do aproveitamento do recurso solar para o propósito de geração de eletricidade. Foi apresentado um estudo de viabilidade ambiental para uma instituição de ensino profissionalizante, a fim de explanar as dificuldades e benefícios ambientais do uso da energia fotovoltaica para a alimentação do sistema de iluminação. Para tal foi utilizado a pesquisa aplicada com analises qualitativas e quantitativas e quanto aos meios de pesquisa foi aplicado o estudo de caso. Os procedimentos utilizados para coleta e análise dos dados foram a entrevista informal e observação do participante. Os resultados foram obtidos através de um estudo teórico de viabilidade para a implantação de um sistema fotovoltaico e foi apresentado como resultado uma economia tanto no consumo de energia quanto no gasto mensal com o sistema convencional utilizado.

  20. Ferramenta de auxílio no processo de medição de energia elétrica utilizando inteligência computacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Silva Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda assuntos relacionados aos problemas encontrados na medição de energia elétrica em decorrência de distorções harmônicas da rede. Tais distorções podem ser capazes de provocar erros consideráveis, acarretando, consequentemente, em cobrança de uma quantidade indevida de energia pela empresa fornecedora. Tendo em vista esse problema, o objetivo deste artigo consiste em tornar o processo de medição de energia elétrica mais eficiente por meio de conceitos referentes a Redes Neurais Artificias e Redes Neuro-Fuzzy.Palavras-chave: Medição de energia elétrica. Distorções Harmônicas. Redes Neurais Artificiais. Redes Neuro-Fuzzy.AbstractA tool to assist in the process of electric energy measurement by the use of computational intelligenceThis article discusses issues related to problems encountered on electrical energy measurement due to harmonics distortions in the network. Such distortions may be able to cause considerable errors and consequently an undue amount of energy collection by the supplier. In view of this problem, the objective of this article is to make the process of measuring more efficient electricity through concepts related to Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Networks.Keywords: Electrical energy measurement. Harmonic Distortions. Artificial Neural Networks. Neuro-Fuzzy Networks.

  1. Pesquisa e desenvolvimento e a qualidade no fornecimento de energia elétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Torres da Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil os serviços de fornecimento de energia elétrica, salvo raras exceções, são prestados com exclusividade por empresas públicas e privadas, em operações regulamentadas por dispositivos legais específicos e contratos de concessão ou permissão. Pela legislação em vigor tais empresas são obrigadas ainvestir em P&D (pesquisa e desenvolvimento. De outro lado, essas empresas também têm que cumprir metas relacionadas à qualidade dos seus serviços. Tais aspectos motivaram a realização de uma pesquisa, objeto do presente artigo, visando avaliar a existência, ou não, de relação entre esses investimentos e a qualidade dos serviços. Para tal finalidade foram levantados dados que foram analisados pelo método estatístico da correlação. Os resultados obtidos indicaramuma baixa correlação entre os indicadores utilizados, permitindo concluir que, até o momento, os investimentos em P&D podem não estar apresentando nenhum impacto significativo na qualidade dos serviços.Abstract In Brazil the services of electricity supply, with few exceptions, are provided exclusively by public and private companies, in operations regulated by specific legal provisions and concession contracts or permits. By existing legislation suchcompanies are required to invest in P&D (research and development. On the other hand, these companies also have to meet targets related to the quality of their services. These aspects motivated the implementation of a research objective of this article, to evaluate the existence or not of a relation between the investment andservice quality. For this purpose data was collected were analyzed by statistical method of correlation. The results indicated a low correlation between the indicators used, allowing to conclude that so far, the investments in P&D may not be showing any significant impact on service quality.

  2. Energia dal mare: modelli numerici e GIS per la valutazione del potenziale energetico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanela Caiaffa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso l’uso di modelli numerici oceanografici applicati al Mar Mediterraneo i ricercatori del laboratoriodi modellistica climatica e impatti dell’ENEA stanno valutando il potenziale energetico contenuto nel motoondoso lungo la fascia costiera e più in generale nei mari italiani, allo scopo di identificare i siti più idoneiall’installazione di impianti di conversione del moto ondoso in energia elettrica. Energy from the sea: numerical models and GIS for the evaluation of potential production Marine renewable energy is an emerging sector with great potential to contribute in achieving European renewable energy and decarbonisation targets. Marine renewable energy is here defined to include both wave and tidal current energy. With a diverse set of technologies in development and policy support mechanisms introduced in a number of European countries, the sector is working towards achieving commercial deployments in the near future. The present paper after a short and simple description of the WAve prediction Model (WAM, a numerical wave model to assess the wave potential energy in the Mediterranean basin, describes the potential advantages in in-tegrating the numerical results in a GIS (Geographic Information System containing environmental  and  territorial  data.  The  analysis  of  multiple  layers  of  geo-referenced information allows to explore the spatial relationship between the wave energy poten-tial and other variables such as the location of protected areas or navigational routes. This kind of analysis helps identifying the most suitable areas for the the installation of wave energy converters. As an example, in order to better highlight the results along the Italian coast, the values of the potential energy, extracted along the coast (about 12 km from the coast, have been included in a series of thematic maps.

  3. Energia dal mare: modelli numerici e GIS per la valutazione del potenziale energetico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanela Caiaffa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso l’uso di modelli numerici oceanografici applicati al Mar Mediterraneo i ricercatori del laboratoriodi modellistica climatica e impatti dell’ENEA stanno valutando il potenziale energetico contenuto nel motoondoso lungo la fascia costiera e più in generale nei mari italiani, allo scopo di identificare i siti più idoneiall’installazione di impianti di conversione del moto ondoso in energia elettrica.   Energy from the sea: numerical models and GIS for the evaluation of potential production Marine renewable energy is an emerging sector with great potential to contribute in achieving European renewable energy and decarbonisation targets. Marine renewable energy is here defined to include both wave and tidal current energy. With a diverse set of technologies in development and policy support mechanisms introduced in a number of European countries, the sector is working towards achieving commercial deployments in the near future. The present paper after a short and simple description of the WAve prediction Model (WAM, a numerical wave model to assess the wave potential energy in the Mediterranean basin, describes the potential advantages in in-tegrating the numerical results in a GIS (Geographic Information System containing environmental  and  territorial  data.  The  analysis  of  multiple  layers  of  geo-referenced information allows to explore the spatial relationship between the wave energy poten-tial and other variables such as the location of protected areas or navigational routes. This kind of analysis helps identifying the most suitable areas for the the installation of wave energy converters. As an example, in order to better highlight the results along the Italian coast, the values of the potential energy, extracted along the coast (about 12 km from the coast, have been included in a series of thematic maps.

  4. Tidal power plant energy estimation; Cuantificacion de energia de una planta mareomotriz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Gonzalez, J.; Hiriart Le Bert, G.; Silva Casarin, R. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (mexico)]. E-mail: JlopezGo@iingen.unam.mx; gerardo367@yahoo.com.mx; RSilvaC@iingen.unam.mx

    2010-04-15

    In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of flow tide and the other flow-ebb tides, with two tidal basin systems operating: single and double reservoir systems. To obtain the normalised nomograph the numerical results for simulations of several tidal power plants under differing operational conditions over a period of one year. These conditions were established by varying the electricity installed capacity, the hydraulic conditions in flow tide, ebb tides or both and with single or double reservoir systems and using sea level information taken every 15 minutes. To validate the model information from the tidal power plant at Rance, France, was used, which includes data concerning production, electricity installed capacity, turbine characteristics and tidal ranges. A very good correlation was found between the results of the numerical model and those reported in various technical reports. [Spanish] Se presenta una metodologia que permite estimar de manera rapida y sencilla el potencial de energia que puede ser extraido a traves de una planta mareomotriz. La evaluacion se realiza utilizando un nomograma normalizado que es funcion del area del embalse versus la capacidad electrica instalada, para asi obtener el potencial energetico en una zona en particular. Los resultados contemplan dos formas de operacion, una llamada en flujo y otra en flujo-reflujo, dos esquemas de embalse (sencillo y doble embalse). Para la elaboracion del nomograma normalizado se utilizaron resultados numericos de la simulacion de multiples plantas mareomotrices bajo diferentes escenarios durante un ano de operacion. Los escenarios

  5. National Energy Strategy 2012-2026; Estrategia Nacional de Energia 2012-2026

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Direccion General de Planeacion Estrategica, Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    In compliance with the provisions of the Congress, the National Energy Strategy 2012-2026 (NES) outlines the direction of the Mexican energy sector with a horizon of 15 years. Its vision is supported by a comprehensive planning exercise that collects information from each of the parastatals and decentralized administrative bodies that make up the sector. This ensures the accuracy and relevance of information presented throughout the document and integrates the perspectives of all public bodies involved. From that interagency and interdisciplinary approach, the NES provides energy policy guidelines that are essential to realize this vision. In turn, these serve to construct detailed criteria of public policy. Finally, the NES raises specific targets for 2026, which can be achieved based on the implementation of actions considered within the planning guidelines. The NES is a prospective tool and indicative that stands as a useful tool for any plan or program. To serve as an instrument of dialogue between institutions and authorities, NES is a document with a solid vision and a planned role in Mexico's energy policy. [Spanish] En cumplimiento por lo establecido por el Congreso de la Union, la Estrategia Nacional de Energia 2012-2026 (ENE) delinea el rumbo del sector energetico mexicano con un horizonte de 15 anos. Su vision esta sustentada en un ejercicio integral de planeacion que recaba informacion de cada una de las entidades paraestatales y organos administrativos desconcentrados que conforman el sector. Esto garantiza la precision y pertinencia de la informacion presentada a lo largo del documento e integra las perspectivas de todos los entes publicos involucrados. A partir de ese enfoque interinstitucional e interdisciplinario, la ENE establece los lineamientos de politica energetica que son indispensables para materializar esta vision. A su vez, estos sirven para construir criterios detallados de politica publica. Finalmente, la ENE plantea metas concretas

  6. Estimativa do balanço de energia utilizando imagens TM - Landsat 5 e o algoritmo SEBAL no litoral sul de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Cristina Machado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As trocas de energia na interface solo-planta-atmosfera, por meio das componentes do balanço de radiação (Rn e dos fluxos de calor no solo (G, sensível (H e latente (LE, são essenciais para a modelagem climática e hidrológica que, por sua vez, afetam toda a biosfera. Dessa forma, esta pesquisa teve por objetivos: (1 estimar e comparar o comportamento dos componentes do balanço de energia, usando o algoritmo SEBAL - Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land, em diferentes tipos de uso e cobertura do solo e (2 validar o algoritmo. Para isso, foram usadas três imagens TM - Landsat 5 de órbita e ponto 214/066, com datas de passagem em 26 de agosto de 2006, 6 de setembro de 2010 e 28 de janeiro de 2011, todas recortadas para enquadrar o litoral sul de Pernambuco. Os resultados mostraram a capacidade do SEBAL de estimar a variabilidade espacial dos diferentes componentes do balanço de energia, com capacidade de distinguir diferentes ocupações do solo. O cômputo do balanço de energia possibilita observar as formas diferenciadas do uso da energia pelos diferentes tipos de cobertura do solo e verificar aqueles que propiciam melhor conforto térmico. As estimativas da evapotranspiração obtidas pelo algoritmo SEBAL apresentaram uma boa concordância com os resultados obtidos pelo método da FAO-Penman-Monteith demonstrando, dessa forma, a potencialidade da abordagem metodológica escolhida.

  7. Utilization of the computational technic for the promotion and diffusion of the energy conservation practice; Utilizacion de tecnicas computacionales para promocionar y difundir el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, N. [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper are presented the developments obtained through the application of the new computational technologies in the diffusion and promotion tasks of energy efficient use and conservation. The most relevant aspects are described of three multimedia courses that were designed in order to increase the possibilities of offering personal training in efficient energy technic, as well as to have on hand totally open consulting and interactive tools. The courses that are described are: ``Design of Energy Conservation Programs for the Industry``, ``Energy Conservation in Combustion Equipment`` and ``Energy Cogeneration Technologies.`` On another subject, an analysis is also made of the possibilities for the development and application of expert systems that advise and give support to the work of technicians and engineers dedicated to energy conservation. The main characteristics of an expert system to give support to the energy analysis of lighting industrial systems, malls, buildings and hotels are also described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los desarrollos obtenidos por la aplicacion de las tareas de difusion y promocion del uso eficiente y ahorro de energia. Se describen los aspectos mas relevantes de tres cursos multimedia que fueron disenados con el objeto de incrementar las posibilidades de brindar capacitacion individualizada en tecnicas energeticas eficientes, asi como de contar con herramientas de consulta totalmente abiertas e interactivas. Los cursos que se describen son: ``Diseno de Programas de Ahorro de Energia en la Industria,`` ``Ahorro de Energia en Equipos de Combustion`` y ``Tecnologias de Cogeneracion de Energia.`` Por otro lado, tambien se hace un analisis de las posibilidades para el desarrollo y aplicacion de sistemas expertos que asesoren y apoyen el trabajo de tecnicos e ingenieros dedicados al ahorro de energia. Se describen las caracteristicas principales de un sistema experto disenado para brindar apoyo en analisis energeticos

  8. Utilization of the computational technic for the promotion and diffusion of the energy conservation practice; Utilizacion de tecnicas computacionales para promocionar y difundir el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, N [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the developments obtained through the application of the new computational technologies in the diffusion and promotion tasks of energy efficient use and conservation. The most relevant aspects are described of three multimedia courses that were designed in order to increase the possibilities of offering personal training in efficient energy technic, as well as to have on hand totally open consulting and interactive tools. The courses that are described are: ``Design of Energy Conservation Programs for the Industry``, ``Energy Conservation in Combustion Equipment`` and ``Energy Cogeneration Technologies.`` On another subject, an analysis is also made of the possibilities for the development and application of expert systems that advise and give support to the work of technicians and engineers dedicated to energy conservation. The main characteristics of an expert system to give support to the energy analysis of lighting industrial systems, malls, buildings and hotels are also described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los desarrollos obtenidos por la aplicacion de las tareas de difusion y promocion del uso eficiente y ahorro de energia. Se describen los aspectos mas relevantes de tres cursos multimedia que fueron disenados con el objeto de incrementar las posibilidades de brindar capacitacion individualizada en tecnicas energeticas eficientes, asi como de contar con herramientas de consulta totalmente abiertas e interactivas. Los cursos que se describen son: ``Diseno de Programas de Ahorro de Energia en la Industria,`` ``Ahorro de Energia en Equipos de Combustion`` y ``Tecnologias de Cogeneracion de Energia.`` Por otro lado, tambien se hace un analisis de las posibilidades para el desarrollo y aplicacion de sistemas expertos que asesoren y apoyen el trabajo de tecnicos e ingenieros dedicados al ahorro de energia. Se describen las caracteristicas principales de un sistema experto disenado para brindar apoyo en analisis energeticos

  9. Energy conservation programs of Pemex exploration and production, south region; Programas de ahorro de energia en Pemex exploracion y produccion, region sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Milla, Guillermo; Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    The technological developments of energy economizing equipment constitute a powerful tool for the conservation and saving of the electric energy in new or existing installations. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploration and Production initiated in 1997 a program for energy economizing in the South region, for which the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, through its Unit for the Use of Energy, collaborated performing energy assessments in 115 buildings of the above mentioned region. This paper describes the employed methodology to carry on the energy assessment, which consisted in an analysis of each building and different options for energy economizing were presented, which was accompanied with cost-benefit studies. The results obtained show that the air conditioning equipment and lighting represent the most important loads permanently connected, therefore the study was concentrated in these two loads [Espanol] Los desarrollos tecnologicos de equipos ahorradores de energia constituyen una poderosa herramienta para la conservacion y el ahorro de energia electrica en instalaciones nuevas o existentes. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploracion y Produccion inicio en 1997 un programa para el ahorro de energia en la region sur, para lo cual el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, a traves de la Unidad de Uso de Energia, colaboro realizando diagnosticos energeticos en 115 edificios de dicha region. En este documento se describe la metodologia utilizada para realizar el diagnostico energetico, el cual consistio en un analisis de cada edificio y se presentaron diversas opciones para ahorrar energia, lo cual se acompano de estudios de costo-beneficio. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los equipos de aire acondicionado e iluminacion representan la parte mas importante de las cargas conectadas permanentemente, por lo que el estudio se concentro en estas dos cargas

  10. Energy conservation programs of Pemex exploration and production, south region; Programas de ahorro de energia en Pemex exploracion y produccion, region sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Milla, Guillermo; Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The technological developments of energy economizing equipment constitute a powerful tool for the conservation and saving of the electric energy in new or existing installations. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploration and Production initiated in 1997 a program for energy economizing in the South region, for which the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, through its Unit for the Use of Energy, collaborated performing energy assessments in 115 buildings of the above mentioned region. This paper describes the employed methodology to carry on the energy assessment, which consisted in an analysis of each building and different options for energy economizing were presented, which was accompanied with cost-benefit studies. The results obtained show that the air conditioning equipment and lighting represent the most important loads permanently connected, therefore the study was concentrated in these two loads [Espanol] Los desarrollos tecnologicos de equipos ahorradores de energia constituyen una poderosa herramienta para la conservacion y el ahorro de energia electrica en instalaciones nuevas o existentes. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploracion y Produccion inicio en 1997 un programa para el ahorro de energia en la region sur, para lo cual el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, a traves de la Unidad de Uso de Energia, colaboro realizando diagnosticos energeticos en 115 edificios de dicha region. En este documento se describe la metodologia utilizada para realizar el diagnostico energetico, el cual consistio en un analisis de cada edificio y se presentaron diversas opciones para ahorrar energia, lo cual se acompano de estudios de costo-beneficio. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los equipos de aire acondicionado e iluminacion representan la parte mas importante de las cargas conectadas permanentemente, por lo que el estudio se concentro en estas dos cargas

  11. A personal memory of the history of the group of energy and mass transference; Una memoria personal de la historia del grupo de transferencia de energia y masa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Eduardo [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    An object that is exposed to sunlight heats up. Based on the everyday experiences, this is a claim that the majority of us would agree. In a more technical note, this object increases its temperature and internal energy. Reflection for a moment, perhaps we would come to the conclusion that the energy captured by the object exposed to solar radiation could be used in a useful fashion. It would require a much longer time of reflection and analysis to imagine the method to convert the heat into useful energy. It is precisely this analysis that has been the objective of the group of energy and mass transference of the Center for Energy Research since its foundation, and probably will remain so while it can be identified as a group of scientific research. In the following pages we will feature briefly, from a personal stand point of view the history of the work, successes and failures of the group since its inception till the present. [Spanish] Un objeto que se expone a la luz solar se calienta. Basados en la experiencia cotidiana, esta es una aseveracion con la que la mayoria de nosotros estaria de acuerdo. Dicho de manera mas tecnica, este objeto aumenta su temperatura y su energia interna. Reflexionando un instante, quiza llegariamos a la conclusion que la energia capturada por el objeto expuesto a la radiacion solar podria ser usada de manera util. Se requeriria un tiempo mucho mas largo de reflexion y analisis para imaginar el metodo para convertir el calor en energia util. Precisamente este analisis ha sido el objetivo del grupo de Transferencia de Energia y Masa del Centro de Investigacion en Energia desde su fundacion, y probablemente lo seguira siendo mientras se le pueda identificar como un grupo de investigacion cientifica. En las paginas siguientes resenaremos brevemente desde un punto de vista personal la historia del trabajo, exitos y fracasos del grupo desde su inicio hasta el presente.

  12. A Aproximação entre Tecnologia e Economia: Os Emergentes Papéis da Energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Mallet Guy Guerra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Os estágios de desenvolvimento do ser humano, desde o primitivo até o tecnológico, possuem uma estreita correlação com o consumo de energia. Comparando-se o nível de desenvolvimento das nações industrializadas com o dos demais países constata-se que aquelas, com apenas 16% da população mundial, consomem 50% dos recursos mundiais e ostentam os mais altos índices de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH. A análise dos índices de consumo de energia per capita com os do IDH, evidencia que a forma de alcançar o bem estar dos povos desenvolvidos está alicerçado em um exacerbado consumo dos recursos energéticos e um notório egoísmo quanto a preservação de seu “status quo”. O processo histórico particular de cada nação pobre impõe um ônus de difícil reversão dentro da atual conjuntura política mundial. Isso porque a questão energética assume caracter de soberania e desafio para os países em desenvolvimento e subdesenvolvidos, que necessitam crescer economicamente para sair dos índices de pobreza humana. A eficiência energética das novas tecnologias se coloca como uma alternativa de conservação da energia e de respeito aos limites dos ecossistemas, mas não se constituiu na solução para a exclusão social de grande parte da humanidade. A sustentabilidade supõe uma nova estrutura social e de poder, com um sistema ético que conduz a direitos igualitários de qualidade de vida para toda a sociedade global.

  13. Conservação de energia em fornos de cozimento de anodo Energy saving in anode baking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A tendência por unidades de produção mais sustentáveis vem obrigando a indústria de alumínio a adotar estratégias para reduzir o consumo de energia e minimizar a geração de resíduos. Procedimentos nesta direção têm sido implementados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, onde alguns aprimoramentos têm permitido a redução no consumo de energia. Entretanto, sabe-se que durante a etapa de queima do anodo, elevada quantidade de calor é ainda dissipada para o ambiente, aumentando os custos com energia. Desta forma, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar alternativas de redução do consumo de combustível do forno de cozimento de anodo considerando, para isto, o transporte de calor das câmaras de combustão desde as paredes refratárias até o bloco de carbono, passando pelo coque fluido. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que uma possível mudança da distribuição do tamanho de partículas do coque, bem como, a adição de uma manta isolante no topo do forno pode aperfeiçoar o desempenho do sistema quando o foco é sustentabilidade e otimização do processo.The trend for sustainable production units induced the aluminum industry to adopt strategies of reducing the energy consumption and waste generation. In this sense, several procedures have been carried out in the anode baking furnace, reducing its energy consumption. However, during the carbon block thermal treatment, a great amount of heat is still released to the environment, increasing the energy cost. Therefore, the present work aims to show alternatives of reducing the anode furnace energy consumption considering the heat flow from the combustion chamber, via the flue wall and the fluid coke, till the anode. The results point out that a change in the fluid coke particle size distribution as well as placing an insulating blanket on the top of the furnace can optimize the anode furnace performance when the focus is sustainability and the process optimization.

  14. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla, Henry [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  15. Millora de l’eficiència energètica d’un edifici mitjançant energia solar fotovoltaica i aerotèrmica. Comparativa amb l’energia solar tèrmica

    OpenAIRE

    Casellas Sanz, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Aquest projecte pretén realitzar un anàlisi de l’impacte que suposa la implantació d’una instal·lació fotovoltaica conjuntament amb una bomba de calor aerotèrmica sobre la qualificació energètica d’un habitatge. Per això, es dissenya una solució que combina les dues tecnologies esmentades (fotovoltaica i aerotèrmica) i posteriorment es compara amb el cas estàndard homòleg, que és l’energia solar tèrmica. En primer lloc es realitza l’avaluació energètica de l’habitatge en qüestió, on es car...

  16. Determinação dos valores de energia e do balanço de nitrogênio de alguns alimentos para leitões na fase inicial

    OpenAIRE

    Bertol,Teresinha Marisa; Ludke,Jorge Vítor

    1999-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado para obter valores de energia digestível (ED) e metabolizável (EM) de quatorze alimentos, em cinco experimentos, utilizando-se 144 leitões com 28 dias de idade e peso médio de 9,42±0,76 kg. O teor de energia digestível (ED) e o de energia metabolizável (EM) foram determinados por intermédio do método de coleta total de fezes e urina. As fontes de proteína provenientes do leite foram superiores aos subprodutos da soja, com relação à digestibilidade da energia e da p...

  17. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    this is a system of the non-invasive type, it does not interfere with the operation of the electrical circuits. [Spanish] Las companias de electricidad de todo el mundo sufren, en mayor o menor grado, de perdidas de energia electrica. Un gran porcentaje de estas perdidas se debe, principalmente, a apropiaciones indebidas de energia. Los consumidores, mediante practicas ilicitas como tomas clandestinas y alteracion del funcionamiento de los medidores, llevan a cabo el robo de energia. Para tratar de aliviar la problematica de perdidas de energia electrica, en su mayoria por ilicitos, las companias de electricidad han implementado una o mas acciones. Entre las mas importantes estan: Inspeccion visual de las instalaciones de medicion. Su proposito es verificar el estado de las protecciones tradicionales del medidor, como son sellos y anillos de seguridad. Equipos de deteccion. Son registradores de consumo de energia y de fallas en conductores, se utilizan para detectar desviaciones en los patrones de consumo y derivaciones o conexiones ilicitas a la acometida de energia electrica o a la red secundaria de distribucion. Analisis estadistico de consumos. Muchas companias de electricidad han adaptado sus sistemas de procesamiento de lecturas de consumos para detectar desviaciones en los patrones de consumo de los clientes. Esto pudiera corresponder a situaciones anormales. Dado que este pais no es ajeno a la problematica de perdidas de energia, en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas se desarrollo un Sistema de Medicion y Deteccion de Perdidas de Energia Electrica (SIM-IV) como resultado del conocimiento de la problematica obtenido de los proyectos en el area de medicion y de la interaccion a traves de reuniones de trabajo con personal de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y de Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), en el que se aplicaron conceptos y tecnologia avanzada de medicion de variables electricas. El SIM-IV es un sistema orientado a la medicion de consumos y la

  18. Recuperació de metalls en l’aigua residual de la indústria galvànica mitjançant l’electròlisi i l’energia solar

    OpenAIRE

    Santaló Rius, Alba; Altarriba Alberch, M. Lluïsa; Viñolas Boix, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Proposta del procés d’electròlisi com a mètode de recuperació de metalls pesants presents en les aigües de rentat de la indústria galvànica i l’obtenció de l’energia necessària a través de l’energia solar fotovoltaica

  19. Evolução diferencial aplicada ao problema de exploração de arquiteturas de memória cache visando desempenho e redução de energia

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Leonardo José Corrêa

    2013-01-01

    Impulsionado pelo crescimento do mercado de dispositivos móveis, diversos estudos têm sido realizados com o intuito de diminuir a energia consumida destes dispositivos. No entanto, aplicações que exigem alto poder de processamento estão sendo cada vez mais utilizadas nestes tipos de dispositivos. Logo, encontrar o melhor compromisso entre capacidade de processamento e energia consumida tem se tornado um desafio em projetos de hardware. Este trabalho apresenta uma nova metodologia para avaliar...

  20. Remote control systems evolution in the new open energy market; Evoluzione del telecontrollo nel nuovo mercato dell'energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castiglioni, L. [Soluzioni hardware/software per l' automazione e il controllo degli impianti industriali, Taizzano sul Naviglio, Milan (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    Considering new energy market in Italy, the new role of remote control applications is discussed. In the open market the whole electric process is managed by several different actors; common protocol scheme and additional sharing data policies are necessaries facing the increased communications requirements due to deregulation. Remote control systems evolution then will lead from process oriented to data management oriented systems; related methodologies and solutions are described. [Italian] Il telecontrollo, nell'ambito del nuovo mercato dell'energia, diviene di importanza fondamentale per la necessita' di condivisione dei dati verso il livello di pianificazione e di analisi prestazionale. Viene individuata una linea evolutiva per i sistemi di telecontrollo, dove da un'attenzione rivolta al processo si passa a sistemi orientati all'apertura verso l'esterno e al data management. Vengono descritte alcune metodologie orientate allo scambio dati tra centri e verso sistemi esterni.

  1. Projecto integrado de AVAC e outras especialidades para um edifício com necessidades quase nulas de energia

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Valter Gonçalo Ferrão de

    2014-01-01

    Trabalho Final de Mestrado para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Mecânica Em finais de 2018 segundo a directiva europeia 2010/31/UE todos os edifícios novos ocupados e detidos por autoridades públicas deverão ser edifícios com necessidades quase nulas de energia e, no início de 2021 todos os edifícios novos também o deverão ser. Assim, surge a necessidade de obter soluções e estudar a sua conjugação para que esta directiva seja cumprida. Neste trabalho, atrav...

  2. Consumo de energia em escalonadores de transações em sistemas de memória transacional em software

    OpenAIRE

    Marques Junior, Ademir [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    O conceito de Memória Transacional foi criado para simplificar a sincronização de dados em memória, necessária para evitar a computação de dados inconsistentes por processadores multinúcleos, que se tornaram padrão devido às limitações encontradas em processadores de um núcleo. Em evolução constante pela busca de desempenho, os escalonadores de transação foram criados como alternativa aos gerenciadores de contenção presentes nos Sistemas de Memória Transacional. O consumo de energia é preocup...

  3. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F; Sanchez, A [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  4. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V. [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F.; Sanchez, A. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  5. Renewable energies. A challenge and an opportunity for Central America; Energias renovables. Un reto y una oportunidad para America Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Leo; Castro S, Rene [Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas (INCAE) (Costa Rica)

    2007-07-15

    There are analyzed in this working paper the following aspects: the Central America countries and their relations with the regional energy potencies -Mexico and Venezuela- and the impact they have in the energy supply. There are also explore the following aspects: the San Jose Agreement linked to the fossil fuels supply, the emerging scope boosted by Brazil and Colombia regarding to the alternative fuels. [Spanish] Este trabajo analiza los paises centroamericanos y sus relaciones con las potencias energeticas regionales como Mexico y Venezuela, y como estas impactan el suministro de energia en la region. Tambien se exploran mecanismos como el Pacto de San Jose, ligado al suministro de combustibles fosiles y las oportunidades emergentes impulsadas por Brasil y Colombia con combustibles alternativos.

  6. Importance of the validation of saving technologies of electric power; Importancia de la validacion de tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las

  7. Research activities in the use of energy; Actividades de investigacion en el uso de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio; Garcia Juarez, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    The use of energy is intimately related to the development and is found in the human activities of all types, consequently we could say that to a greater usage it must correspond a greater benefit. This paper carries on a comparative analysis of the Mexico`s energy efficiency versus industrialized countries; this analysis shows that while Mexico indicates a growing tendency, in the industrialized countries the tendency is to the drop, unmistakable sign of a better usage of the energy sources. It also makes evident that promoting the energy efficiency in Mexico will stimulate and regulate the energy conservation at National level, in the same way it is mentioned that an appropriate energy demand Management for the users as well as for the service providers, will diminish the peak demand, the adequate application of the electric rates at the actual conditions and the energy saving and the strategic load growth [Espanol] El uso de la energia esta intimamente relacionado con el desarrollo y se encuentra en las actividades humanas de todo tipo, de tal suerte que podriamos decir que a mayor uso debe corresponder un mayor beneficio. En este documento se realiza un analisis comparativo de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico contra paises industrializados; este analisis muestra que mientras Mexico indica una tendencia creciente, en los paises industrializados la tendencia es a la baja, signo inequivoco de un mejor uso de los energeticos, tambien hace ver que la promocion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico estimulara y regulara el ahorro de energia a nivel nacional, de igual manera se menciona que una buena administracion de la demanda energetica tanto por los usuarios como los que prestan el servicio, reducira la demanda pico, la adecuacion de las tarifas electricas a las condiciones reales y el ahorro de los energeticos y el crecimiento estrategico de la carga

  8. Research activities in the use of energy; Actividades de investigacion en el uso de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio; Garcia Juarez, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The use of energy is intimately related to the development and is found in the human activities of all types, consequently we could say that to a greater usage it must correspond a greater benefit. This paper carries on a comparative analysis of the Mexico`s energy efficiency versus industrialized countries; this analysis shows that while Mexico indicates a growing tendency, in the industrialized countries the tendency is to the drop, unmistakable sign of a better usage of the energy sources. It also makes evident that promoting the energy efficiency in Mexico will stimulate and regulate the energy conservation at National level, in the same way it is mentioned that an appropriate energy demand Management for the users as well as for the service providers, will diminish the peak demand, the adequate application of the electric rates at the actual conditions and the energy saving and the strategic load growth [Espanol] El uso de la energia esta intimamente relacionado con el desarrollo y se encuentra en las actividades humanas de todo tipo, de tal suerte que podriamos decir que a mayor uso debe corresponder un mayor beneficio. En este documento se realiza un analisis comparativo de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico contra paises industrializados; este analisis muestra que mientras Mexico indica una tendencia creciente, en los paises industrializados la tendencia es a la baja, signo inequivoco de un mejor uso de los energeticos, tambien hace ver que la promocion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico estimulara y regulara el ahorro de energia a nivel nacional, de igual manera se menciona que una buena administracion de la demanda energetica tanto por los usuarios como los que prestan el servicio, reducira la demanda pico, la adecuacion de las tarifas electricas a las condiciones reales y el ahorro de los energeticos y el crecimiento estrategico de la carga

  9. The electric energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; La energia electrica en Mexico y el desarrollo sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Aragon, Leticia [Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document explains the importance of the sustainable development in the electric energy, that is, that the technological advances in the electric sector do no hamper the future of the generations to come and generate potential problems such as: environmental pollution, unnecessary expenses in the realization of new technologies already executed. Mention is made of the relationship between nature and society, the ecological crisis, and the electric energy, seven points are given on how to control and treat waste waters, three points are given to handle and dispose of solid wastes, finally four points are given on the noise contamination control. It is concluded that the problem of reducing the environmental impact of the generation of electricity does not depend on the applied technology, since there are technological options for its solution, but on other more complex factors that deal with the generation of wealth, its distribution and the population growing [Espanol] En el presente documento se explica la importancia del desarrollo sustentable en la energia electrica, es decir que los avances tecnologicos en el sector energetico no entorpezcan el futuro de las generaciones venideras y generen posibles problemas como: contaminacion del medio ambiente, gastos innecesarios en la realizacion de las nuevas tecnologias realizadas. Se menciona la relacion entre la naturaleza y la sociedad, la crisis ecologica y la energia electrica, se dan siete puntos de como controlar y tratar aguas residuales, se proporcionan tres puntos para manejar y disponer de residuos solidos, por ultimo se dan cuatro puntos sobre el control de la contaminacion por ruido. Se concluye en que el problema de reducir el impacto ambiental por la generacion de electricidad no depende de la tecnologia empleada pues existen alternativas tecnologicas para su solucion, sino en otros aun mas complejos que tienen que ver con la generacion de la riqueza, su distribucion y el crecimiento de la poblacion

  10. Variables that influence in the consumption of electrical energy; Variables que influyen en el consumo de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Fiscal Escalante, Raul; Maqueda Zamora, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Sada Gamiz, Jesus; Buitron Sanchez, Horacio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    It is said that when a program of saving and efficient use of the electrical energy is implemented it must be business for three: user, society and electrical utility. Regarding to the user his decision making is very simple: it is to me more cheap or more expensive, the benefit for the society can be seen from very diverse aspects, being the most important conservation of the natural resources and the environment, as far as the electric utility factors of more weight are the differing of investments and the reliability of the system. The present paper shows the importance of monitoring of the ways of energy use in different types of users, to be able to make decisions of programs: ALD, DMS (Demand Side Management) in very diverse scenarios: cities, types of users, income levels et cetera. [Spanish] Se dice que cuando se implanta un programa de ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia eletrica debe ser negocio para tres: usuario, sociedad y empresa eletrica. En lo que respecta al usuario su toma de decision es muy simple: me resulta mas barato o mas caro, el beneficio para la sociedad puede verse desde muy diversos aspectos, siendo el mas importante la conservacion de los recursos naturales y el medio ambiente, en cuanto a la empresa los factores de mas peso son el diferimiento de inversiones y la confiabilidad del sistema. En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia que tiene el monitoreo de las formas de uso de la energia en diferentes tipos de usuarios, para poder tomar decisiones de programas ALD, DMS por sus siglas en ingles (Demand Side Managenment) en muy diversos escenarios: ciudades, tipos de usuarios, niveles de ingresos, etcetera.

  11. Reflexões sobre hidrelétricas na Amazônia: água, energia e desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Koiffmann Becker

    Full Text Available O ensaio discute a implantação de hidrelétricas na Amazônia a partir das relações entre consumo de água e hidroeletricidade em diferentes escalas de análise, pois, se todos os lugares do planeta são afetados por processos globais, eles não o são de modo homogêneo. À escala global, domina o discurso apocalíptico de escassez crescente da água e do aquecimento global, exigindo a redução de emissões de gases de efeito estufa mediante o uso de energias renováveis e novas tecnologias. Na escala nacional, os problemas do Brasil são, pelo contrário, como gerir a abundância de água com justiça social e territorial, e como sustar a perda de 20% da energia elétrica produzida. Finalmente, é na escala regional - na Amazônia - que emergem os maiores problemas: i o maior paradoxo entre abundância de água e inacessibilidade social ao recurso; ii grande parte das hidrelétricas planejadas para o país será ali construída, com risco dos graves impactos conhecidos; iii a cogitada obrigatoriedade da construção de eclusas em todas as hidrelétricas, proposta pelo setor industrial em benefício da navegabilidade dos rios, deverá propiciar, na verdade, o escoamento de commodities produzidas na região Centro-Oeste. Coloca-se, assim, para a sociedade e para o governo, a questão ética se realmente são necessárias tantas hidrelétricas na Amazônia.

  12. Estimated losses of energy in a power system using a semi-statistical methodology; Estimacion de perdidas de energia en un sistema electrico de potencia mediante una metodologia semi-estadistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Martinez, D [Centro Universitario UAEM, Valle de Teotihuacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: david_2mtz@hotmail.com; Martinez Lendech, J.F [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores del Oriente del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: mrtzlendech@hotmail.com; Garcia Herrera, C; Olvera Ricano, J.G. [Centro Universitario UAEM, Valle de Teotihuacan (Mexico)]. E-mails: cozobi_garcia@yahoo.com.mx; jgolverar@uaemex.mx

    2013-03-15

    Determination of electrical losses is one of the most important tasks for any enterprise dedicated to generation, transmission, transformation and/or distribution of electric energy. Any enterprise dedicated to these activities does continuously energy balances in order to estimate whole electrical losses of specific processes. However, it is necessary to classify the whole electrical losses into technical and non-technical losses. This paper presents a proposal for estimating technical and non-technical losses in an electrical power system. [Spanish] La determinacion de las perdidas de energia electrica es una de las labores mas importantes en cualquier empresa dedicada a la generacion, transmision, transformacion y/o distribucion de energia electrica. Es indudable que toda empresa dedicada a cualquiera de las actividades mencionadas anteriormente realiza periodicamente balances de energia que permiten estimar el valor de las perdidas totales de energia del proceso considerado. No obstante, para poder realizar un mejor analisis de la problematica de las perdidas de energia, es necesario separar el valor total de perdidas obtenido mediante un balance de energia, en perdidas tecnicas y perdidas no tecnicas. El presente trabajo presenta una propuesta para la estimacion de perdidas tecnicas y no tecnicas en un sistema electrico de potencia.

  13. 19. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 19. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This document contains the technical proceedings of the 19 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociacion de Tecnicos y Pofesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE) (Association of Technicians and Professionals on Energy Application) conducted in Mexico City on September 21-25, 1998. This seminar encompassed subjects such as: energy saving in the energy sector, energy efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in buildings, transportation, non-renewable energy utilization and environmental impact and eco-energies. [Espanol] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 19 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F, los dias 21-25 de septiembre de 1998. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables, e impacto ambiental y eco-energias.

  14. Proceedings of the 20 National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. [Selected Papers]; 20. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 20 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociaciacion de Tenicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Mexico, D.F, from the 15 to the 19 of November of 1999. This Seminar covered subjects such as: Energy saving in the power sector, power efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in constructions, transport, utilization of renewable energies, and energy and the environment. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 20 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F., del 15 al 19 de noviembre de 1999. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables, y energia y ambiente.

  15. 19. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 19. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    This document contains the technical proceedings of the 19 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociacion de Tecnicos y Pofesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE) (Association of Technicians and Professionals on Energy Application) conducted in Mexico City on September 21-25, 1998. This seminar encompassed subjects such as: energy saving in the energy sector, energy efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in buildings, transportation, non-renewable energy utilization and environmental impact and eco-energies. [Espanol] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 19 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F, los dias 21-25 de septiembre de 1998. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables, e impacto ambiental y eco-energias.

  16. Development and implementation of a pilot network for continuous monitoring of electric energy; Desarrollo e implantacion de una red piloto de monitoreo continuo de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Cifuentes, A.; Cortes Eslava, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The ``Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE)`` (University Energy Program) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) through the project ``Ecologic Control of The University Campus`` has the objective of instrumenting policies for the rational use of the electric energy in the UNAM installations. The PUE has performed a series of activities aimed at the establishment of an integral program for the electric energy management in the UNAM. This program has to consider the measures for energy saving (MES) of general kind and to promote a series of specific measures to be adequated and implemented for each one of the departments. The success in establishing a series of MES compels to quantify its effects, to register and to analyze them to be in position of enhancing them, since it must be kept in mind that something that can not be measured can not be improved. For this purpose the PUE is developing a continuous monitoring pilot network of electric energy with local and remote access and an automated metering system. Two monitoring schemes are experimented, one commercial metering equipment and another one with own metering technology. In this paper the characteristics of the proposed monitoring schemes are described. [Espanol] El Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE) de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), a traves del proyecto {sup C}ontrol Ecologico del Campus Universitario{sup ,} tiene como objetivo instrumentar politicas de uso racional de la energia en las instalaciones universitarias. El PUE ha realizado una serie de actividades encaminadas a establecer un programa integral de administracion de la energia electrica en la UNAM. El programa mencionado debe considerar medidas de ahorro de energia (MAE) de tipo general y promover una serie de medidas particulares, para ser adecuadas e implantadas por cada una de las dependencias. El exito en el establecimiento de una serie de MAE, obliga a cuantificar sus efectos, registrarse y

  17. Development and implementation of a pilot network for continuous monitoring of electric energy; Desarrollo e implantacion de una red piloto de monitoreo continuo de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Cifuentes, A; Cortes Eslava, A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The ``Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE)`` (University Energy Program) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) through the project ``Ecologic Control of The University Campus`` has the objective of instrumenting policies for the rational use of the electric energy in the UNAM installations. The PUE has performed a series of activities aimed at the establishment of an integral program for the electric energy management in the UNAM. This program has to consider the measures for energy saving (MES) of general kind and to promote a series of specific measures to be adequated and implemented for each one of the departments. The success in establishing a series of MES compels to quantify its effects, to register and to analyze them to be in position of enhancing them, since it must be kept in mind that something that can not be measured can not be improved. For this purpose the PUE is developing a continuous monitoring pilot network of electric energy with local and remote access and an automated metering system. Two monitoring schemes are experimented, one commercial metering equipment and another one with own metering technology. In this paper the characteristics of the proposed monitoring schemes are described. [Espanol] El Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE) de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), a traves del proyecto {sup C}ontrol Ecologico del Campus Universitario{sup ,} tiene como objetivo instrumentar politicas de uso racional de la energia en las instalaciones universitarias. El PUE ha realizado una serie de actividades encaminadas a establecer un programa integral de administracion de la energia electrica en la UNAM. El programa mencionado debe considerar medidas de ahorro de energia (MAE) de tipo general y promover una serie de medidas particulares, para ser adecuadas e implantadas por cada una de las dependencias. El exito en el establecimiento de una serie de MAE, obliga a cuantificar sus efectos, registrarse y

  18. Eesti Energia võttis elektri salaja ära : elektritarbija, kellel jäi kord enda süül, siis aga panga, Eesti Energia ja tarbija enda vahelise arusaamatuse tõttu elektri eest tasumata, leidis end ootamatult elektrita jäetuna / Kai Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Kai

    2003-01-01

    Otsekorralduslepinguga elektriarve tasumata jätnud kliendilt elektri väljalülitamisest. Kommenteerivad Eesti Energia pressiesindaja Riina Vändre, tarbijakaitseameti pressiesindaja Kristina Vaksmaa, Hansapanga Eesti meediasuhete juht Kristiina Tamberg ja Eesti Ühispanga pressiesindaja Evelin Pull

  19. Proposal for the optimization of the procedures for the analysis, assessment and follow-up of energy efficiency at the Manaus Energia S/A enterprise environment; Proposta de otimizacao dos procedimentos para analise, avaliacao e acompanhamento de projetos de eficiencia energetica no ambito da empresa Manaus Energia S/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Benjamim Cordeiro [Manaus Energia S/A., AM (Brazil). Programa de Eficiencia Energetica e Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2006-07-01

    The present article has for objective, to present a proposal to optimize the procedures for analysis and evaluation of projects that composes the annual Program of Energy Efficiency of Manaus Energia S/A, assisting to criteria of market prices, sustainability and return for the company. (author)

  20. Environmental impact study due to end use energy technologies; Estudio prospectivo del impacto ambiental debido a tecnologias de uso final de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzini Poli, Fabio

    1997-11-01

    Two thirds of the internal offer of energy in Mexico is consumed by end use sectors through end use technologies (TUF). Here is presented an integral conceptual frame for the environmental impact evaluation due to end use technologies, then the evolution of the interactions between technology-environment-fuel is analyzed in the long term (year 2025) according to three possible scenarios: business as usual, blocks and sustainable. [Spanish] Dos terceras partes de la oferta interna de energia en Mexico la utilizan los sectores de consumo final mediante tecnologias de uso final energetico. En el presente trabajo se introduce un marco conceptual integral para evaluar los impactos ambientales debidos a la utilizacion de tecnologias de uso final de la energia (TUF), luego se analiza la evolucion de las interacciones entre tecnologia-energetico-ambiente a largo plazo (ano 2025) de acuerdo a tres escenarios posibles: tendencial, bloques y sustentable.

  1. Esfera em plano inclinado: conservação da energia mecânica e força de atrito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Wilton Pereira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe um experimento visando demonstrar que a força de atrito estático é conservativa. O experimento consiste em uma esfera rolando em um plano inclinado. para o qual a inclinação pode ser variada. Para cada ângulo estabelecido a energia mecânica no início e no fim da pista foi determinada. A análise dos resultados mostrou que a conservação da energia mecânica ocorre até um ângulo limite, a partir do qual há escorregamento. A determinação deste ângulo por inspeção gráfica possibilitou o cálculo do coeficiente de atrito estático entre a pista e a esfera em movimento.

  2. Potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy; Effetti della vendita tramite asta dell'energia CIP 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campidoglio, C. [Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan (Italy). Osservatorio Energia

    2000-12-01

    This paper analyses the potential benefits of selling by auction the CIP 6 energy. This would both reduce the supply shortage and the prices on the eligible market, increase competition on the contract-for-difference market, indicate a clear price to which regulated energy charges could be indexed, thus extending the auction benefits to the franchise market to avoid the reintroduction of cross-subsidies. [Italian] L'articolo analizza i possibili benefici della vendita tramita asta dell'energia CIP 6. In particolare, l'asta ridurrebbe la scarsita' d'offerta e quindi i pressi sul mercato libero, aumenterebbe la concorrenza nel mercato dei contratti per differenza, fornirebbe un prezzo chiaro a cui indicizzare il prezzo dell'energia in tariffa, estendendo i benefici dell'asta sul mercato vincolato ed evitando la reintroduzione di sussidi incrociati.

  3. Metodologia generalizada para análise em regime permanente de sistema de distribuição de energia elétrica

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago de Moraes Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Visando manter a qualidade da energia elétrica entregue aos consumidores e atender os critérios de operação impostos pelos órgãos reguladores dos sistemas elétricos, necessita-se realizar análi-ses técnicas em sistemas de distribuição de energia. Os principais estudos realizados são os de cálculo de fluxo de potência, cálculo de curto-circuito e também análises da distorção harmônica. Um problema encontrado atualmente é que apesar de muitos métodos serem desenvolvidos com o objetivo d...

  4. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  5. Nexus água e energia em empreendimentos hoteleiros. Metodologia e resultados da aplicação em hotéis de 4 e 5 estrelas.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, A.; Afonso, A.; Santos, A.; Rodrigues, C.; Rodrigues, F.

    2016-01-01

    Os elevados padrões de conforto e a qualidade dos serviços prestados nos hotéis de quatro e cinco estrelas conduz a grandes consumos específicos de água e de energia por pessoa. Uma parte importante desse consumo destina-se aos banhos dos hóspedes, o que acarreta inerentes consumos de energia para aquecimento de água e para a sua bombagem até aos dispositivos de utilização. A adoção de dispositivos de utilização (chuveiros) eficientes permite, por um lado, reduzir o consumo de água ao nível d...

  6. Utilização de desperdícios (latas de refrigerante) na captação de Energia Solar para o aquecimento de ar

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, Constança

    2013-01-01

    Esta dissertação tem o intuito de apresentar um protótipo construído por Jorge Lourenço, em Olhão, Algarve, permitindo desta forma promover pistas para a criação de um novo produto vocacionado para o aproveitamento de Energia Solar Térmica para o aquecimento de ar. Assim, será analisado um painel solar que produz Energia Solar Térmica construído com latas de refrigerante e alguns materiais básicos de construção. Além de apresentar uma forma simples de se construir um Painel Solar Térmic...

  7. Strategies for energy saving in buildings by means of automatic control; Estrategias de ahorro de energia en inmuebles mediante el control automatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Trujillo, Oscar [Johnson Controls de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper some of the measures and strategies for energy saving that can be applied in different types of buildings, mainly in hotels and office buildings, are presented. The proposed actions are accomplished with the aid of the automatic control equipment and the operation and/or maintenance personnel that supervises and establishes the control parameters of each one of the strategies than are focused to the appropriate utilization of the electric energy. [Espanol] En este documento se presentan algunas de las medidas y estrategias de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en diferentes tipos de inmuebles, principalmente en hoteles y en edificios de oficinas. Las acciones propuestas son realizadas con la ayuda del equipo de control automatico y del personal de operacion y/o mantenimiento quien supervisa y establece los parametros de control de cada una de las estrategias que son destinadas a la buena utilizacion de la energia electrica.

  8. A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico; Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The Direccion General de Desarrollo Tecnologico of the Secretaria de Planeacion y Desarrollo (main directorate of technological development of the secretariat of planning and technological development) of the Secretaria de Energia (Sener), with the support of the World Bank performed a study, coordinated by Pablo Mulas del Pozo to analyze the possible penetration of the renewable energy sources in Mexico between today and year 2030. In this project are included as small renewable sources the small hydroelectric plants (mini, micro and smaller than 20 MW), the geothermal, the solar energy, the wind energy and the biomass. As part of this study three large lines of reflection are contemplated: (1) a bibliographical revision of the possible futures of the renewable energies, including some projections over the future evolution of the national power sector, and over the technological status of the same ones; (2) Projections on the possible future evolution of the national power sector and the possible penetration of the renewable sources of energy in it, using a simulation model (LEAP model); and (3) Groups of approach to consult experts on different aspects related to the possible future penetration of the renewable sources of energy in Mexico (especially, on present and future obstacles that face the renewable sources in our country, the possible carrying events of future which could modify the rate of penetration of these energies, and possible policy guidelines that could benefit the penetration of the same ones as of today). [Spanish] La Direccion General de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Secretaria Planeacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Sener, con el apoyo del Banco Mundial realizo un estudio, coordinado por el Pablo Mulas del Pozo, para analizar la posible penetracion de las fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico entre hoy y el ano 2030. En dicho proyecto se incluyen como fuentes renovables a las pequenas hidroelectricas (micro y mini, menores de 20 MW), la

  9. Energias renováveis nos edifícios de Museus : contribuição para a preservação ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Manuel Cardoso Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Trata-se de um artigo na área da Museologia, onde relacionamos a responsabilidade social dos Museus com a aplicação das energias renováveis aos seus edifícios, quer existentes ou a construir de raiz. Apresentamos as energias renováveis cuja tecnologia de captação e produção estão tecnologicamente desenvolvidas e prontas a serem utilizadas, dando relevo àquelas que mais se adequem na aplicação direta aos edifícios de Museus, de modo a contribuir-se por esta via para a sustentabilidade e pre...

  10. Modelagem conceitual para identificação de áreas com potencial para geração de energia por fonte renovável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Celestino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O mundo enfrenta um desafio na busca de alternativas para atender a demanda de energia elétrica de forma sustentável e diminuir os efeitos dos Gases de Efeito Estufa. Uma maneira de minimizar estes efeitos e expandir o parque gerador é incrementar a produção com recurso a fontes renováveis. Mas para que, no momento de instalar um novo empreendimento, seja tomada uma decisão assertiva é necessário realizar a compilação de variáveis que sejam pertinentes ao tema e ao espaço geográfico. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma modelagem conceitual por objetos (de acordo com o padrão OMT-G de forma a identificar áreas potenciais para gerar energia elétrica por fontes renováveis.

  11. Agregação da energia solar térmica ao aquecimento da água para o banho na moradia popular no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Naspolini, Helena Flávia

    2012-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Civil A presente tese tem como objetivo principal desenvolver um método para avaliar os benefícios e o potencial da agregação da energia solar térmica ao aquecimento da água para o banho na habitação popular, através de técnicas de medição e verificação da demanda e energia elétrica consumida por um grupo de sistemas de aquecimento solar monitorados. O método desenvolvido ...

  12. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  13. Strategies for energy saving in buildings by means of automatic control; Estrategias de ahorro de energia en inmuebles mediante el control automatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Trujillo, Oscar [Johnson Controls de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    In this paper some of the measures and strategies for energy saving that can be applied in different types of buildings, mainly in hotels and office buildings, are presented. The proposed actions are accomplished with the aid of the automatic control equipment and the operation and/or maintenance personnel that supervises and establishes the control parameters of each one of the strategies than are focused to the appropriate utilization of the electric energy. [Espanol] En este documento se presentan algunas de las medidas y estrategias de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en diferentes tipos de inmuebles, principalmente en hoteles y en edificios de oficinas. Las acciones propuestas son realizadas con la ayuda del equipo de control automatico y del personal de operacion y/o mantenimiento quien supervisa y establece los parametros de control de cada una de las estrategias que son destinadas a la buena utilizacion de la energia electrica.

  14. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L. R. [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  15. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L R [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  16. Review of experience gained in fabricating nuclear grade uranium and thorium compounds and their analytical quality control at the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.; Franca Junior, J.M.; Ikuta, A.

    1977-01-01

    The main activities developed at 'Instituto de Energia Atomica' Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the recovery of uranium from ores, the purification of uranium and thorium raw concentrates and their transformation in nuclear grade compounds, are reviewed. The design and assemble of pilot facilities for ammonium diuranate (ADV) uranium tetrafluoride, uranium trioxide, uranium oxide microspheres, uranyl nitrate denitration, uranim hexafluoride and thorium compounds are discussed. The establishment of analytical procedures are emphasized [pt

  17. ENERGIA SOLAR TÉRMICA: INOVAÇÃO EM AQUECIMENTO DE ÁGUA PARA PROCESSOS INDUSTRIAIS / SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY: WATER HEATING INNOVATION FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Carreira Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do consumo mundial de energia tem gerado a busca de fontes alternativas, inclusive a solar, de fácil utilização, não exigindo equipamentos muito sofisticados nem complexos. Muitos processos industriais utilizam água em temperaturas até 100°C. O uso de energia solar na indústria ainda é baixo se comparado ao consumo energético total. O objetivo deste artigo é investigar possibilidades de usos de aquecimento solar de água em processos industriais, para o que foi utilizada pesquisa bibliográfica em artigos internacionais visando identificar o estágio atual dessas aplicações no mundo. Pesquisa exploratória de dados secundários do mercado brasileiro de sistemas de aquecimento solar no Departamento Nacional de Aquecimento Solar (DASOL, e no Plano Nacional de Eficiência Energética 2010-2030 (PNEf-2010 do Ministério de Minas e Energia, buscou caracterizar o estágio atual desse setor no Brasil. O estudo permite concluir que o uso de aquecimento solar de água em indústrias no Brasil é possível e representa uma alternativa que pode contribuir para a redução do custo e do consumo de energia em 30% a 40% dos processos de aquecimento em baixas temperaturas, especialmente nos setores de alimentos, bebidas, têxtil e químico.

  18. Estratégias para edifícios de escritórios energia zero no Brasil com ênfase em BIPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Leite Didoné

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de transformação de edifícios de escritório brasileiros em edifícios energia zero (EEZ em diferentes climas. O estudo foi baseado em simulações computacionais, e o desenvolvimento do modelo foi dividido em três etapas. A primeira etapa consistiu na avaliação do caso protótipo (edifício referencial, que representa uma tipologia de edifícios de escritórios no Brasil. A segunda etapa consistiu no desenvolvimento do caso otimizado (edifício com baixo consumo de energia de acordo com o regulamento de eficiência energética brasileiro. O comportamento dos dois casos foi determinado e comparado com o cálculo do balanço térmico e energético do edifício. Finalmente, o caso energia zero foi obtido por meio da aplicação de tecnologias solares (BIPV na edificação. As simulações computacionais foram realizadas através dos programas EnergyPlus e Daysim para Fortaleza, CE, e Florianópolis, SC, cidades localizadas em diferentes zonas climáticas do Brasil. Os resultados mostraram que, em Fortaleza, mais módulos fotovoltaicos foram necessários devido ao maior consumo de energia, principalmente com refrigeração. O uso do regulamento de eficiência energética proporcionou redução no consumo de aproximadamente 50%. Porém, com o uso da janela fotovoltaica, outras estratégias foram necessárias para atingir o EEZ.

  19. Penetration of the renewable sources of energy in Mexico: group of approach on the possible present and future obstacles for the renewable energies (Annexe 11 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Penetracion de las fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico: grupo de enfoque sobre los posibles obstaculos actuales y futuros para las energias renovables (Anexo 11 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernudi, Montserrat; Alonso C, Antonio [Analitica Consultores S.A. de C.V., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this study it is analyzed the possible penetration of the renewable sources of energy in Mexico between today and year 2030. In this project are included as small renewable sources the hydroelectric ones (mini, smaller micro and less than of 20 MW), the geothermal, the solar energy, the wind energy and the biomass. This report corresponds to the results obtained in the group of consultation of experts on the present obstacles and future of the renewable energies in Mexico, made o May 24, 2005 in the Mexico City with a small group of approach that presented the objectives of the project, defined the main present obstacles and the possible future evolution for the penetration of the renewable sources of energy in Mexico. [Spanish] En este estudio se analiza la posible penetracion de las fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico entre hoy y el ano 2030. En dicho proyecto se incluyen como fuentes renovables a las pequenas hidroelectricas (micro y mini, menores de 20 MW), la geotermia, la energia solar, la energia eolica y la biomasa. Este informe corresponde a los resultados obtenidos en el grupo de consulta a expertos sobre los obstaculos presentes y futuros de las energias renovables en Mexico, realizado el 24 de mayo de 2005 en la ciudad de Mexico con un pequeno grupo de enfoque que presento los objetivos del proyecto, definio los principales obstaculos actuales y la posible evolucion futura para la penetracion de las fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico.

  20. The satisfaction of developing a project of electrical energy saving; La satisfaccion de desarrollar un proyecto de ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola Suarez, Alejandro [Hotel Club Marival, Nuevo Vallarta, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    The projects for the energy saving in hotels represent a great opportunity to reduce the operation costs in the demand and consumption of electrical energy, since the existing facilities can take advantage of new technologies in illumination, air conditioning, refrigeration and heating. By their constitution, the hotels work the year around uninterruptedly and must provide all type of services to the guests and working personnel, which originates that they consume great amounts of energy in air conditioning, lightning, laundry, etc., since the prestige of the installation depends on it. [Spanish] Los proyectos para el ahorro de energia en hoteles representan una gran oportunidad para reducir costos de operacion en la demanda y consumo de energia electrica, ya que las instalaciones existentes pueden aprovechar nuevas tecnologias en iluminacion, aire acondicionado, refrigeracion y calefaccion. Por su constitucion, los hoteles trabajan ininterrumpidamente todo el ano y deben proporcionar toda clase de servicios a los huespedes y personal que labora, lo cual origina que consuman grandes cantidades de energia en aire acondicionado, iluminacion, lavanderia, etc., pues de ello depende el prestigio de la instalacion.