WorldWideScience

Sample records for energetiques quels codes

  1. Which future energetic package?; Quel bouquet energetique futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B.

    2011-01-15

    In this plenary session presided over by Olivier Appert (President of the IFP new Energies), are considered hypotheses, evolutions or constraints which will orient the making of this package while satisfying the need of people mobility and flashing a searchlight on the conditions and problems raised by the gas development. (O.M.)

  2. The globalization of energy activities: what are the issues?; La mondialisation des activites energetiques: quels enjeux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percebois, J. [Montpellier I Univ., (France)

    2001-03-01

    Globalization in many sectors such as information, research and development, finance, technology, etc. led to the implementation of transnational networks to facilitate decision-making. The result is that governments are left to regulation functions. This globalization also led to a larger gap between North and South. Developing countries represent 80 per cent of world population, yet only produce less than 33 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). In the energy sector, developing countries have limited access to energy and use it less efficiently, since they do not master the latest technologies. States must retain their power to regulate this sector to ensure competition takes place in a fair environment within specified guidelines. Licenses must be issued through bidding or auctioned off, but in every case the State must ensure that commitments are met. It must also ensure that pricing is fair. Access for third parties to the power distribution system must be adequate, especially when the company operates in a monopoly environment. The State ends up managing a new category of risks (called major risks) that the private sector is not willing to consider, for example global warming or the management of nuclear waste. Confidence in market mechanisms is limited. Energy exchanges and others represent an economic growth factor and a potential guarantee for world peace. Who is responsible for the social costs associated with economic growth, and what are the solutions? A major issue left to decision-makers is the sharing of wealth within humankind and nations, and the State has a vital role to play. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. The new challenges of the energy policy; Quels nouveaux defis pour la politique energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Political uncertainties, reserves depletion, increase of the energy consumption and environmental impact are many reasons to wonder on our the future choices in matter of energy (consumption habits, energy conservation). In this context the meeting, which took place at Paris the 18 march 2003, aims to wonder on the increasing energy demand, the evolution of the consumption and production habits and the decision making. The full text of the presentations and allocution are provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy transition and security: which voluntary codes? Energy efficiency: IEA, IEC and ISO dialogue. The European Commission's safety, solidarity and efficiency measures. Securing natural gas supplies and favoring cogeneration. Less energy consuming buildings: rework of the energy efficiency directive. Energy efficiency inside buildings: GDF Suez report; Transition et securite energetiques: quels codes volontaires? Efficacite energetique: dialogue AIE, CEI et ISO. Les mesures de securite, solidarite et efficacite de la commission europeenne. Securiser l'approvisionnement en gaz naturel et favoriser la cogeneration. Des batiments moins gourmands en energie: refonte de la directive sur la performance energetique. Efficacite energetique dans les batiments: GDF Suez au rapport (volontaire)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourneur, J.C

    2009-10-15

    This dossier gathers a series of short articles about energy security and efficiency in a context of policy transition. The first paper deals with the use of international standards to promote energy efficiency thanks to efficient public policies and private sector actions. This was the main topic of the mixed workshop organized by the International electrotechnics Commission (IEC) in spring 2009. The second paper presents the new strategic analysis of the European commission in the domain of energy which stresses on the '20-20-20' climate change proposals approved in December 2008. A new European action plan for energy security and solidarity defines 5 domains requiring an extra action to warrant a sustainable energy supply. The commission is also examining the challenges that Europe will have to face between 2020 and 2050. The third article treats of the security of natural gas supplies which represents a quarter of the European Union (EU) energy mix. The supply crises susceptible to occur may have serious economic and social consequences. Therefore, the EU must be prepared to warrant its security of supplies. Cogeneration allows the EU to stay close to its energy goals. Buildings play a key role in the realisation of the EU's energy saving objectives and fight against climate change. The new directive on buildings energy efficiency (2002/91/CE) will allow to exploit this potential of saving and to stimulate sustainable investment and employment as well. Finally, the publication of the second WBCSD (World business council for sustainable development) international report on buildings energy efficiency has led GDF Suez utility to reaffirm its commitment in favour of energy saving and efficiency. (J.S.)

  5. Estimation of the energy needs; Estimation des besoins energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailleret, [Electricite de France (EDF), Dir. General des Etudes de Recherches, 75 - Paris (France)

    1955-07-01

    The present report draws up the balance on the present and estimable energy consumption for the next twenty years. The present energy comes mainly of the consumption of coal, oil products and essentially hydraulic electric energy. the market development comes essentially of the development the industrial activity and of new applications tributary of the cost and the distribution of the electric energy. To this effect, the atomic energy offers good industrial perspectives in complement of the energy present resources in order to answer the new needs. (M.B.) [French] Le present rapport dresse le bilan sur la consommation energetique actuelle et previsionnelle pour les vingt prochaines annees. L'energie actuelle provient principalement consommation de charbon, de produits petroliers et d'energie electrique essentiellement hydraulique. l'evolution du marche provient essentielement du developpement l'activite industriel et de nouvelles applications tributaire du cout et de la distribution de l'energie electrique. A cet effet, l'energie atomique offre de bonne perspectives industrielles en complement des sources actuelles energetiques afin de repondre aux nouveaux besoins. (M.B.)

  6. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte; Mirelys Rodríguez Alfaro; Alfredo Montero Álvarez; Juan Estévez Álvarez; Adriana M. de Aguiar Accioly; Clístenes W. Araujo Do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    El contenido de Níquel (Ni) en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas real...

  7. Mobility energy label: An indicator for a sustainable city; Les etiquettes energetiques de mobilite: Un indicateur pour la ville durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flety, Yann; Antoni, Jean-Philippe; Vuidel, Gilles; de Sede-Marceau, Marie-Helene

    2010-09-15

    Perspectives of energy consumption reduction linked to global warming are bringing a desire for actions relating to the mastering and the improvement of energy efficiency. In this context, from the French example of greater Besancon (Communaute d'Agglomeration du Grand Besancon (CAGB)), the research presented here wants to define an energy indicator useful to planners called 'Territory energy label': to measure how the urban area is situated energy wise in terms of the daily mobility of its inhabitants, the behaviour of whom is looked at in a prescriptive manner. [French] Les perspectives de reduction des consommations energetiques en lien avec le rechauffement climatique se traduisent par une volonte d'actions en matiere de maitrise et d'amelioration de l'efficacite energetique. Dans ce contexte, a partir de l'exemple francais de la Communaute d'Agglomeration du Grand Besancon (CAGB), la recherche presentee vise a definir un indicateur energetique utile aux amenageurs intitule 'etiquette energetique Territoriale' : il s'agit de mesurer comment 'se situent energetiquement' les differents espaces que regroupent une meme aire urbaine du point de vu des mobilites quotidiennes de ses habitants, dont le comportement est apprehende de maniere normative.

  8. Energy policy and challenges: which part for the nuclear energy; Politique et defis energetiques: quel role pour l'energie nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, J

    2004-07-01

    This document provides many data and charts on the energy domain: energy consumption, energy demand, the reserves, the climatic changes, the renewable energies, the energy cost, the radioactive wastes management, the new nuclear technology. (A.L.B.)

  9. The influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon; Les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdem, Maxime; Edzengte, Joseph

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon. The method used is in two stages: the first stage is a statistical analysis that has allowed to determine the level of energy poverty in rural areas, which is 7.5%. The second stage assesses the influencing factors of this poverty type. The results show that the revenue impacts on energy poverty, as well as the size of the household, in which the arrival of an additional person increases by 1.16% the chances that the household will suffer from energy poverty. [French] L'objectif de cette etude est d'evaluer les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun. La methode mise en oeuvre procede en deux etapes : la premiere est une analyse statistique qui a permis de determiner le seuil de pauvrete energetique en milieu rural, qui se situe a 7,5%. La deuxieme etape evalue les determinants de ce type de pauvrete. Les resultats indiquent que le revenu explique la pauvrete energetique, de meme que la taille du menage dont l'arrivee d'une personne supplementaire accroit de 1,16% les chances de ce menage d'etre pauvre sur le plan energetique.

  10. Quels usages de la bibliotheque au Maroc 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Cohen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Officine de l’âme et de l’esprit, la bibliothèque représente ce lieu où se forme un patrimoine, individuel ou collectif, et où s’élabore une construction, personnelle ou non, référant à une histoire, elle-même relative à une mémoire propre. Afin de cerner ce qu’il en est au Maroc, nous interrogerons, sous un angle ethnologique, le rapport des lecteurs à leur bibliothèque, qu’elle soit publique ou privée, afin non seulement de comprendre quels sont les livres appelés à constituer le patrimoine dont elle sera le dépositaire : à faire patrimoine, mais également cerner les représentations qui lui sont attachées, la mémoire à laquelle elle réfère, les usages qui en découlent, et le rôle qui lui est attribué. Alors que la bibliothèque publique fait l’objet d’usages limités et strictement fonctionnels de la part de ses usagers, la bibliothèque privée donne lieu à davantage d’appropriations personnelles. Nous tenterons de comprendre pourquoi les pratiques attachées à la bibliothèque sont davantage, voire essentiellement, retranchées dans le domaine privé, en interrogeant les usages réels, c'est-à-dire privés, de la bibliothèque. On observera que les bibliothèques privées sont dépositaires d’un patrimoine traditionnel tirant son essence de l’histoire arabe et d’une mémoire de l’Antiquité. Un patrimoine, nous le verrons, davantage véhiculé par l’esthétique propre aux ouvrages qui le portent que par leur contenu. A cette fonction esthétique de la bibliothèque s’ajoute un rôle distinctif, chaque individu en effet, au travers de sa bibliothèque racontant son histoire relative à une mémoire singulière.

  11. Le financement de l'éducation dans les collectivités locales, quels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le financement de l'éducation dans les collectivités locales, quels défis ? Marie Elisabeth Dembélé. Abstract. This article aims to analyse the support provided by the state to local collectivities in Mali, to target the expenditure categories included in the funding and observe their appropriation by the beneficiaries of education ...

  12. Irrigation, santé et sécurité alimentaire en Afrique : quels liens ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-12

    Irrigation, santé et sécurité alimentaire en Afrique : quels liens ? January 12, 2011. Gérard Parent, Jean-Noël Poda, Noël-Marie Zagré, Renaud de Plaen, and Georges Courade ... Preserving the health of the Rio de la Plata ... set up by researchers from Uruguay and Canada, is improving the management and conservation.

  13. Influencia sobre el extractable de níquel de los minerales oxidados del yacimiento Punta Gorda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Chang-Cardona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fue validar, a escala industrial, una metodología para períodos largos en una loza de 8 hornos en la empresa productora de níquel Comandante Ernesto Che Guevara, con el fin de crear una base de datos de producción confiable para su procesamiento estadístico y demostrar la influencia del contenido de los principales minerales oxidados sobre el extractable de níquel y la tendencia en el comportamiento del extractable de cobalto. Se demostró, mediante experimentos, durante tres meses de monitoreo, la efectividad del software COMPRAC para obtener la composición racional de 100 kg de varios tipos de mena laterítica que entran a los hornos de reducción. A partir de la base de datos creada se obtuvo, por primera vez, las gráficas que reflejan la influencia del contenido de los principales minerales sobre los extractables de níquel y de cobalto; en el caso del níquel con suficiente sensibilidad y confiabilidad para la toma de decisiones operacionales eficaces en el circuito tecnológico Mina-Preparación de Mineral-Hornos de Reducción

  14. La Mycorhize à arbuscules : quels bénéfices pour l'homme et son ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La Mycorhize à arbuscules : quels bénéfices pour l'homme et son ... et quantitative de la production végétale mais aussi pour une gestion et une remédiation ... Mycorrhizal symbiosis, and specifically arbuscular mycorrhization, which occurs ...

  15. Analysis of the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria; Analyse de l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdani, Sid Ahmed

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this communication is analyze the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria and to show the areas of possible rationalization in this sector. Our approach is to analyze the existing configuration of the sector and its impact on energy consumption, by developing a sectional model Bottom Up, where the transport park has been modified by the means used. We have shown that the potential to improve the transport system energy efficiency is important and have recommended some options aimed at the sector organisation and aimed at increasing the relative part of transport systems to make it more energy efficient. [French] L'objectif de cette communication est d'analyser l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport algerien et de montrer les gisements de rationalisation possibles dans ce secteur. Notre approche consiste a analyser la configuration existante du secteur et son impact sur la consommation d'energie, en elaborant un modele sectoriel Bottom Up, ou le parc de transport a ete desagrege par moyen utilise. Nous avons montre que le potentiel d'amelioration de la performance energetique du systeme de transport est important et avons recommande quelques options ciblant l'organisation du secteur et visant a augmenter la part relative de moyens de transport plus efficace energetiquement.

  16. Développement professionnel en PHP quels frameworks s'offrent aux entreprises ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrbar, Jérôme; Hauri, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Les frameworks PHP sont des outils aidant à la réalisation d’une application. Le but de ce travail était de déterminer quels frameworks les entreprises peuvent-elles choisir. Il commence par une sélection de frameworks PHP existant sur le marché. Un ensemble de critères a été définis afin de les évaluer. Sur la base de cette analyse, certains frameworks ont été sélectionnés dans le but de réaliser une petite application avec chaque framework. Ainsi, le lecteur voit les différences de façon pr...

  17. REMOCIÓN DE COBRE Y NÍQUEL POR INTERCAMBIO CATIÓNICO CON UNA ZEOLITA NATURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldy Estupiñan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se empleó la zeolita natural clinoptilolita, para remover cobre y níquel de aguas residuales de una industria de galvanotecnia. La capacidad de intercambio determinada para la zeolita transformada al estado homoiónico sódico, fue de 0,794 meq/g para cobre y 0,447 meq/g para níquel. Se realizaron ensayos en cochada y en columna, alcanzando éste último un mayor acercamiento al equilibrio. En los ensayos de regeneración, la zeolita sódica concentró el cobre hasta 23,5 veces con respecto al valor que presenta en los enjuagues de los baños de recubrimiento en medio ácido, mostrando su potencialidad para usarla en el tratamiento de estos residuos, por su efectividad y bajo costo.

  18. Revestimento de Níquel Depositado pela Soldagem MIG e MIG com Arame Frio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mendes da Mota

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo apresenta um estudo das características operacionais, geométricas e microestruturais de soldas MIG e MIGAF (MIG com arame frio aplicadas no revestimento de chapa de um aço AISI 1020, com uma superliga de níquel ER NiCrMo-4, tipo Hastelloy 276C. A soldagem foi automatizada, na posição plana, e realizada por uma fonte eletrônica em CC+ com aquisição instantânea dos oscilogramas de corrente e tensão de soldagem. As variáveis de entrada foram às velocidades do arame eletrodo e do arame frio, e a velocidade de soldagem. Foram avaliadas a operacionalidade dos processos e o efeito da energia de soldagem sobre as características geométricas (reforço e largura, diluição, microestrutura e microdureza do revestimento. Os resultados indicaram um bom desempenho operacional, a ausência de defeitos nos passes isolados e nos revestimentos para as soldagens com MIGAF. Além disso, constataram-se menores níveis de diluição.

  19. Quebec energy development in a sustainable development context; Le developpement energetique du Quebec dans un contexte de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.

    2010-09-15

    Quebec is a net importer of oil and it is clear that the reduction of its dependence with regards to hydrocarbons must be a main preoccupation. Moreover, the energy consumption per habitant of Quebec is higher than that of the majority of the other developed countries. This analysis looks at the choice on offer to the society of the province of Quebec, in terms of energy resources and technologies of today and tomorrow, in a context of sustainable development. [French] Le Quebec est un importateur net de petrole et il est clair que la reduction de sa dependance a l'egard des hydrocarbures doit etre une preoccupation de premier plan. De plus, la consommation energetique par habitant du Quebec est plus elevee que celle de la majorite des autres pays developpes. La presente analyse adresse les choix qui s'offrent a la societe quebecoise, en matiere de ressources et de technologies de l'energie d'aujourd'hui et de demain, dans un contexte de developpement durable.

  20. The engineer, sustainable development craftsman at the center of the global energy challenge!; L'ingenieur, artisan du developpement durable au centre du defi energetique mondial!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.; Dery, Gaston; Berube, Martin

    2010-09-15

    By its omnipresence in society, the energy question is at the heart of sustainable development issues. The engineer, as a central actor of human society development, is therefore tightly linked to the energy issue and he must actively contribute to resolve it by integrating to his practices the principles of sustainable development and by applying the solutions that arises. Part of these elements include as the main ones, listening to the consideration of citizens, becoming aware of the environment importance and reducing costs at all levels. The engineer is a social actor that cannot be ignored in the resolution of these issues. [French] Par son omnipresence dans la societe, la question energetique est au coeur des enjeux du developpement durable. L'ingenieur, etant un acteur central du developpement des societes humaines, est donc inextricablement lie a la question energetique qu'il doit contribuer activement a resoudre en integrant a sa pratique les principes du developpement durable et en appliquant les solutions qui en decoulent. Parmi ces elements, l'ecoute des considerations citoyennes, la prise de conscience de l'importance de l'environnement et la reduction des couts a tous les niveaux sont des elements centraux. L'ingenieur est un acteur social incontournable pour la resolution de ces enjeux.

  1. Od polityki i teorii do literatury. Wokół „Théorie d'ensemble" grupy Tel Quel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dziadek

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at a description of the famous manifesto published by the group Tel Quel in France in 1968. The author gives a short analysis of chosen texts by Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Roland Barthes and particularly Julia Kristeva. The analysis shows important links between politics and literary theory of the Tel Quel. It also shows the way that politics and theory (based on such intertexts as Marx, Freud and Lacan influenced new notion of the text, of the intertextuality and the others.

  2. Nouveaux pétroles : quel avenir ? Partie 2 New Oil: What's in the Future? Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boy De la Tour X.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available PaL'accroissement des prix de 1973 a rendu accessible toute une plage de pétroles chers, mais ces nouveaux pétroles soulèvent encore des problèmes techniques considérables et leur compétitivité économique a été très affectée par le retournement du marché pétrolier. Quel est l'état des technologies ? Que reste-t-il des ambitieux projets conçus dans les années 70 ? Aux horizons 2000/2010, quel sera l'impact de ces nouveaux pétroles, en terme de quantités et au plan stratégique ? Telles sont les questions auxquelles la présente étude tente de répondre. The increase in oil prices in 1973 made an entire range of expensive oil available, but this new oil still raises considerable technical problems, and its economic competitiveness has been greatly affected by the downturn in the oil market. What is the state of the art of existing technologies ? What remains of the ambitious projects conceived in the 1970s? As of 2000/2010, what will the impact of this new oil be in terms of amounts and from the strategic standpoint? These are the questions that the present study attempts to answer.

  3. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  4. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  5. Estudio de la adsorción de cadmio, níquel y zinc sobre una bentonita natural y homoiónica de sodio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Darío Silva Giraldo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se esmdió la adsorción de cadmio, níquel y zinc, en solución acuosa a 25 "C, sobre una bentonita procedente del Valle del Cauca, tanto en su estado natural como en su forma homoiónica de sodio.

  6. Desactivación de electrodos de oro modificados con hidróxido de níquel

    OpenAIRE

    Caram, Bruno Federico; Tucceri, Ismael Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudió la modificación (desactivación) que sufre el proceso de transporte de carga en películas de hidróxido de níquel, sintetizadas electroquímicamente sobre electrodos de oro, cuando son almacenadas sin uso durante tiempo prolongado. Se encontró que las películas usadas después de ser almacenadas, se tornan menos conductoras que las películas usadas inmediatamente después de ser preparadas. En este estudio se empleó como técnica electroquímica, la Voltamperometría Estaci...

  7. Aleación superficial de superaleaciones base níquel mediante láser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, G. P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Ni based superalloys present a high oxidation resistance at high temperature as well as good mechanical properties. But new tecnhology developments forcé to research in this materials to improve their properties at high temperature. In this work, two Ni based superalloys (Nimonic 80A and Inconel 600 were surface alloyed with aluminium using a high power laser. SEM and EDX were used to study the microstructure of the obtained coatings. Alloyed specimens were tested at 1.273 K between 24 and 250 h. Results showed the generation of a protective and continuous coating of alumina on the laser treated specimens surface that can improve oxidation resistance.

    Las superaleaciones base níquel presentan una elevada resistencia a la oxidación a alta temperatura, así como excelentes propiedades mecánicas. Los nuevos desarrollos tecnológicos (condiciones cada vez más agresivas obligan a una casi continua modificación de dichas aleaciones. En el presente trabajo, dos superaleaciones base níquel (Nimonic 80A e Inconel 600 se alean superficialmente con aluminio utilizando un láser de alta potencia. Se estudia la microestructura de la capas obtenidas mediante SEM y EDX. Se realizan ensayos de oxidación a 1.273 K sobre las probetas aleadas y sobre el material base durante tiempos variables entre 24 y 250 h. Los resultados indican la formación de una capa protectora de alúmina sobre las probetas aleadas que puede incrementar la resistencia a la oxidación.

  8. Viscosidad y conductividad de escorias típicas en la producción de ferroníquel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Raúl Pérez Villamil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerro Matoso S.A. procesa mineral  laterítico de níquel.Sus  actividades  involucran:  explotación minera, reducción,  fusión vía Arco Eléctrico y  refinación en hornos  tipo  cuchara.  El  producto  ferroníquel  es exportado en su  totalidad. La operación de fusión se realiza en un horno eléctrico, y una de las variables de control de proceso más importante es  la  temperatura de la escoria, que depende de las relaciones de SIO2 y magnesia (MgO, S/M, y de los porcentajes de alúmina(AL2O3. Cuando  la relación S/M es baja, o en  los casos  de  alúminas muy  altas,  las  propiedades  de  la escoria,  como  viscosidad  y  resistividad,  cambian ostensiblemente  y  resulta muy  complicado drenarla del  horno. Con  valores  calculados  de  viscosidad  y conductividad  eléctrica,  a partir  de una  herramienta diseñada  por  la  empresa,  se  procede  a  ubicarcomposiciones  de  escoria  típicas  en  un  diagrama modelo resultante de la operación en el año 2006.

  9. Problems and energy choices in Burkina Faso[Energie ; Economie domestique ; Bois de feu ; Produits petroliers ; Legislation fonciere ; Electricite]; Burkina : Problemes et choix energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-15

    This document is about the evaluation of the energy sector in Burkina Faso. It reports about the main issues of energy: poverty of the households, the lack of fund to finance the sector, desertification...The main resources of energy are firewood, fuel and electricity. The energy needs of Burkina Faso are related to the cooking of food, with liquid fuels intended for the railway transport and fuels used in industry and for the production of electricity. With regard to the transport sector, there is currently no possibility of substitution for the fuel, except the use of ethanol diluted in the gasoline. At the industrial level, agro-industrial, bagasse and the other residues constitute right now the independent source of energy for the production of industrial heat as well as for that of electricity. For the public network of electricity supply, the production rests exclusively on diesel power stations. Regarding the immense needs for its populations in energy, Burkina has only very limited resources. The biomass used for domestic needs cannot continuously ensure the households with the necessary energy supply for food cooking. As for the agro-industrial residues, they cannot reduce the industrial consumption of fuels. There are also hydraulic resources whose conscientious exploitation could contribute to decrease the fuel consumption in terms of electricity. In sum, it would be necessary to improve the regulation as regards firewood supply, to promote the use of improved hearths with wood, to plan the fuel supplies and to assist the SONABEL in the electric production capacities reinforcement of its fuel-based power stations. [French] Ce document traite de l evaluation du secteur de l energie au Burkina. Il fait etat des principaux problemes energetiques : pauvrete des menages, manque de financement dans le secteur, desertification... Les principales ressources energetiques sont le bois de feu, les produits petroliers et l electricite. Les besoins energetiques du

  10. Presentation of the D.A.R.C. code. Which future for a university made calculation code?; Presentation du code D.A.R.C. Quel avenir pour un code de calcul universitaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavroulakis, A; Trombe, A [INSA - Genie Civl, Laboratoire d` Etudes Thermiques et Mecaniques, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the main processes which allow to determine and to take into account in terms of form factors, a scene seen from an emitter and projected onto a receiver. The elements that compose the emitter have a triangular shape while no subdivision is made on the receiver. The analytical method used for the calculation of the form factors of one element in front of a polygonal receiver is briefly presented. Two cell configurations are presented, the second one having not convex facets with no prerequisite subdivision. The sums of form factors from one given emitter are less than 0.01 away from the unit value. For each configuration, the influence of obstacles is encoded as change rates of individual form factors. Finally, in order to illustrate the interest of these form factor calculations, an example of computerized simulation applied to a complex cavity is presented. (J.S.) 6 refs.

  11. Presentation of the D.A.R.C. code. Which future for a university made calculation code?; Presentation du code D.A.R.C. Quel avenir pour un code de calcul universitaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavroulakis, A.; Trombe, A. [INSA - Genie Civl, Laboratoire d`Etudes Thermiques et Mecaniques, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the main processes which allow to determine and to take into account in terms of form factors, a scene seen from an emitter and projected onto a receiver. The elements that compose the emitter have a triangular shape while no subdivision is made on the receiver. The analytical method used for the calculation of the form factors of one element in front of a polygonal receiver is briefly presented. Two cell configurations are presented, the second one having not convex facets with no prerequisite subdivision. The sums of form factors from one given emitter are less than 0.01 away from the unit value. For each configuration, the influence of obstacles is encoded as change rates of individual form factors. Finally, in order to illustrate the interest of these form factor calculations, an example of computerized simulation applied to a complex cavity is presented. (J.S.) 6 refs.

  12. Resistência de união entre liga de níquel-cromo e cimentos resinosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANÇA Rodrigo de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi a determinação da retentividade, por ensaio de tração, entre uma liga de níquel-cromo e cimentos resinosos (Comspan, Panavia Ex e All-Bond C & B, com quatro tratamentos superficiais (liso, microjateado, ataque eletrolítico e silicoater e armazenagem por 3 e 30 dias em solução de NaCl a 0,9%, a 37° C e termociclagem intercalada na segunda (a 5 e 55° C, por 1 minuto em cada banho, perfazendo 600 ciclos. Os corpos de prova eram discos, providos de alça fixadora entre si dois a dois. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: superfícies lisas conduzem a baixíssimas retentividades e tratadas com silicoater a altíssimos valores, com qualquer cimento e condição de armazenagem; Panavia Ex com superfícies microjateadas também conduz a altas retentividades; a maior retentividade foi obtida pela combinação silicoater/All-Bond C&B.

  13. Sobre la impedancia faradaica de la disolución electroquímica del níquel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrisuelas, J.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Consecutive impedance spectra for nickel electrodes in acid medium have been obtained. The first recorded spectrum is fitted to an equivalent circuit with three time constants, if one consider a partially or completely passivated electrode. The second registered spectrum is characteristic to a corrosion kinetic controlled by the transport across a finite layer thickness. The microscopic images show an increase in the irregularity of the electrode surface after the second spectrum is registered. Also, the double layer capacity is considerably increased.

    Se han obtenido espectros de impedancia consecutivos sobre electrodos de níquel en medio ácido. El primer espectro registrado se ajusta a un circuito equivalente con tres constantes de tiempo, considerando un electrodo parcialmente pasivado o completamente pasivado. El segundo espectro registrado es característico de una cinética de corrosión controlada por el transporte a través de una capa de espesor finito. Tras registrar el segundo espectro, las imágenes microscópicas muestran un aumento de la irregularidad en la superficie electródica. Al mismo tiempo la capacidad de doble capa aumenta considerablemente.

  14. Elución de iones de níquel desde esferas de alginato en un medio ácido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracena, Alvaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elution of nickel ions from alginate beads was studied in a temperature range of 2 to 80 °C and a sulfuric acid concentration between 0.005 to 2.5 g L−1. The elution mechanism was established by ion exchange between nickel and ions protons, obtaining a value of 93% elution at a temperature of 80 °C and a H2SO4 concentration of 0.25 g L−1. The influence of other acids on nickel elution was also studied. The nickel elution rate was significantly influenced by temperature and concentration of H2SO4. Elution kinetics of nickel ions was studied, and the 1-(1-α1/3=kappt model properly described the kinetics of this reaction. The dependence of nickel elution on the sulfuric acid concentration was of the order of 0.33. Moreover, the intrinsic rate constants were determined and an activation energy value of 54.5 kJ mol−1 was obtained for the temperature range studied. The results indicated that the nickel elution is a process controlled by chemical reactions.Se estudió la elución de iones de níquel desde esferas de alginato en un intervalo de temperaturas de 2 a 80 °C y una concentración de ácido sulfúrico entre 0,005 a 2,5 g L−1. El mecanismo de elución fue establecido por intercambio iónico entre protones e iones de níquel alcanzando valores de elución de 93% a una temperatura de 80 °C y concentración de H2SO4 de 0,25 g L−1. También se estudió la influencia de otros ácidos sobre la elución de níquel. La velocidad de elución de níquel fue significativamente influenciada por la temperatura y concentración de H2SO4. La cinética de elución de iones de níquel fue estudiada y el modelo 1-(1-α1/3=kappt describió muy bien la cinética de esta reacción. La dependencia de la elución de níquel sobre la concentración de ácido sulfúrico fue del orden de 0,33. Además, fueron determinadas las constantes de velocidad intrínseca y se obtuvo un valor de energía de activación de 54,5 kJ mol−1 para el intervalo de

  15. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  16. Sinterização por micro-ondas de ferrita de níquel sintetizada pelo método Pechini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Muñoz Hoyos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A sinterização por micro-ondas é uma técnica que oferece enorme potencial para a fabricação de diversos materiais cerâmicos com microestruturas cerâmicas diferenciadas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo sinterizar cerâmicas de ferrita de níquel (NiFe2O4 em forno de micro-ondas, visando controle de crescimento de grão e alta densificação. Para realizar esta investigação, foi utilizado o processo de síntese por Pechini para a preparação do pó das ferritas de níquel. Amostras desse material foram sinterizadas em forno convencional e de micro-ondas. A caracterização foi feita por difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, determinação de densidade aparente e obtenção das curvas de histerese magnética. A sinterização da ferrita de níquel por micro-ondas levou apenas 10% do tempo gasto da sinterização convencional. As amostras apresentaram menor tamanho de grão, e densidade e magnetização de saturação semelhantes às obtidas pela sinterização convencional, mostrando o alto potencial de aplicação da técnica de micro-ondas para o processamento desses materiais.

  17. Build together the problem, obligatory passage for the conception of acceptable energy solutions?; Construire ensemble le probleme, passage oblige pour la conception de solutions energetiques acceptables?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, Marie-Jose; Le Floch, Sophie

    2010-09-15

    Social acceptance is a condition in performing energy projects. This notion is however complex: just like 'build', it is based on several factors and is changing. We would like to show that its construction requires that some time be spend at a stage often neglected, that of the formulation of the problem. So that the 'awareness' would be aimed not only to the public, but also to the decision makers and promoters, so that everyone has a good knowledge of the concerns of the others, and of their limits. To this end, the 'participation' could take several forms, complementary to the 'public' one generally accepted. [French] L'acceptabilite sociale est une condition de realisation de projets energetiques. Cette notion est toutefois complexe : comme 'construit', elle se fonde sur plusieurs facteurs et est evolutive. Nous voudrions montrer que sa construction exige qu'un temps soit consacre a une etape souvent negligee, celle de la formulation du probleme. Ainsi, la 'sensibilisation' serait destinee non seulement au grand public, mais aussi aux decideurs et promoteurs, afin que tous aient une bonne connaissance des preoccupations des uns et des autres, comme de leurs contraintes. A cette fin, la 'participation' pourrait prendre plusieurs formes, complementaires a celle 'publique' generalement adoptee.

  18. Avaliação de Revestimentos de Liga de Níquel 625 Depositados pelo Processo Eletroescória

    OpenAIRE

    Sandes, Soraia Simões; Alvarães, Camila Pereira; Mendes, Matheus Campolina; Araújo, Leonardo Sales; Souza, Luis Felipe Guimarães de; Jorge, Jorge Carlos Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Resumo A aplicação de revestimentos de ligas de níquel é comumente realizada na indústria de petróleo e gás para aumento da vida de equipamentos em ambientes agressivos, dado que este procedimento melhora a resistência à corrosão, sem um aumento significativo do custo de produção quando comparado com equipamentos maciços fabricados com outras ligas. Normalmente, as juntas são soldadas pelos processos de eletrodos revestidos, MIG/MAG ou TIG. Neste aspecto, o processo eletroescória realiza depo...

  19. Caracterización superficial, electroquímica y de composición de aleaciones zinc níquel electrodepositadas

    OpenAIRE

    PIRATOBA, ULISES; VERA, ENRIQUE; ORTIZ, CESAR

    2008-01-01

    La gran demanda de láminas de acero recubiertas con Zinc o con aleaciones de Zinc, es atendida conprocesos de electro deposición en continuo; estos requieren de altas densidades de corriente, obtenidas en electrolitos ácidos. En este trabajo se presenta la composición, morfología superficial y la caracterización electroquímica de aleaciones Zinc Níquel fase gamma sobre láminas de acero, depositadas con altas densidades de corriente. Estas fueron determinadas mediante Análisis de Energía Disp...

  20. Local energy policies: Planning devices and coaching tools - Example of the French case; Politiques energetiques locales: Dispositifs de planification et outils d'accompagnement - Exemple du cas francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanard, Camille; de Sede-Marceau, Marie-Helene

    2010-09-15

    Collectivities traditionally have multiple responsibilities linked to energy. They act directly on the energy chain (production-distribution-consumption) through their heritage, but also on the tripych space-environment-society, in particular through their planning choices. Hence, all the public policies are concerned by the energy theme. However, collectivities seem to suffer from an information deficit, both on planning devices that can be mobilized and on the territory features. This article proposes to realise an overview tour of the coaching tools that can be used by the French territories collectivities to build efficient energy policies. [French] Les collectivites ont traditionnellement des responsabilites multiples en lien avec l'energie. Elles agissent directement sur la chaine energetique (production-distribution-consommation) a travers leur patrimoine, mais aussi sur le triptyque espace-environnement-societe, en particulier a travers leurs choix d'amenagement. Ainsi, toutes les politiques publiques sont concernees par la thematique ' energie '. Cependant, les collectivites semblent souffrir d'un deficit d'information, tant sur les dispositifs de planification pouvant etre mobilises que sur les caracteristiques du territoire. Cet article propose de realiser un tour d'horizon de l'ensemble des outils d'accompagnements pouvant etre mobilises par les collectivites territoriales francaises pour construire des politiques energetiques efficaces.

  1. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  2. Metodología para el diseño de indicadores económico-ambientales en la minería de níquel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L. Reynaldo-Argüelles

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En las empresas mineras de la industria del níquel en Cuba la eficiencia económica se evalúa mediante dos únicos indicadores que no incluyen el análisis de la dimensión ambiental. En este artículo se realiza un estudio comparativo de los métodos internacionalmente aplicados para evaluar impactos ambientales con el fin de proponer una metodología que incluya indicadores económico-ambientales para la minería del níquel. La metodología que se propone formula nueve indicadores que, basados esencialmente en los costos, permiten medir la responsabilidad ambiental de las empresas. La aplicación de estos indicadores minimiza la incidencia de los costos de la actividad minera en el costo total de la empresa, facilita la planificación, el uso adecuado y el control de los recursos naturales, y la asunción de conductas responsables hacia el entorno.

  3. Processamento de Ligas de Níquel com Técnica de Manufatura Aditiva Utilizando Plasma por Arco Transferido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo André Alberti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA manufatura aditiva é um processo utilizado para a construção e reparos de peças que possuem geometria complexa ou que necessitem de gradiente de propriedades. Nessa técnica múltiplas camadas são depositadas para a construção da geometria do componente. O sucesso desse procedimento depende de fatores como a técnica de deposição, parâmetros, liga a ser depositada e condições da deposição, como temperatura e atmosfera protetora. Neste estudo, o potencial da técnica de Plasma por arco transferido para manufatura aditiva foi avaliado produzindo “paredes finas”, construídas a partir da sobreposição de cordões. Foram utilizadas duas ligas a base de níquel, uma endurecida por precipitação e outra endurecida por solução sólida. Durante os trabalhos, foram selecionados os parâmetros de processamentos, incluindo a avaliação do efeito do pré-aquecimento a 300°C. Resultados mostraram que a composição química da liga influencia a geometria da parede construída assim como a utilização de pré-aquecimento. Estruturas de solidificação exibindo dendritas refinadas com crescimento epitaxial entre camadas são identificadas. Entretanto, as características da liga determinam o perfil de dureza ao longo da seção transversal, sendo a liga endurecida por precipitação influenciada pelos ciclos térmicos de deposição e a liga endurecida por solução sólida pela diluição com o substrato. Em qualquer dos casos é recomendado a aplicação de tratamento térmico pós-soldagem para uniformização das propriedades.

  4. Coding Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony McCosker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As well as introducing the Coding Labour section, the authors explore the diffusion of code across the material contexts of everyday life, through the objects and tools of mediation, the systems and practices of cultural production and organisational management, and in the material conditions of labour. Taking code beyond computation and software, their specific focus is on the increasingly familiar connections between code and labour with a focus on the codification and modulation of affect through technologies and practices of management within the contemporary work organisation. In the grey literature of spreadsheets, minutes, workload models, email and the like they identify a violence of forms through which workplace affect, in its constant flux of crisis and ‘prodromal’ modes, is regulated and governed.

  5. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  6. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  7. Utilidad de la conformación del túnel liso antes de usar limas rotatorias endodónticas de níquel-titanio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Laureano Nino Barrera

    Full Text Available Introducción: para prevenir la fractura de instrumentos endodonticos actualmente se siguen investigando materiales, técnicas y diseños los cuales buscan reducir su incidencia. La conformación de túnel liso (Glide Path se ha propuesto con este fin, sin embargo su utilidad ha sido controvertida. Objetivo: comprobar teóricamente mediante la utilización de un análisis de elementos finitos, la utilidad de la conformación de túnel liso, antes de la utilización de limas rotatorias endodonticas de níquel-titanio. Métodos: se realizó una simulación numérica mediante un análisis de elementos finitos, para lo cual se construyeron modelos matemáticos de las limas rotatorias de níquel-titanio S1 y S2 de la serie Protaper®. Con el software Simulation multyphisics de Autodesk® se programaron las propiedades mecánicas de las limas y un límite de falla por fractura de 1270,588 MPa. Posteriormente se aplicó el torque recomendado por el fabricante y se fijo la punta del instrumento (sin conformación de túnel liso aplicando allí restricciones en todos los grados de libertad.Para simular la realización de la conformación de túnel liso, se aplicaron restricciones en todos los grados de libertad a una determinada distancia de la punta del instrumento, simulando de esta forma que la punta del instrumento permanecía libre. Resultados: al fijar la punta de las limas, los esfuerzos máximos fueron 1545,77 MPa para la S1 y 1306,47 MPa para la S2, observando fractura de los instrumentos. Al fijar las limas a distancia de la punta no se observó fractura. Conclusiones: se demostró teóricamente que al impedir que se atrapen la punta de las limas, se previene su fractura y que dicho atrapamiento se evita con una conformación de túnel liso, por lo que se concluye que este procedimiento es útil para prevenir la fractura de los instrumentos rotatorios de níquel-titanio.

  8. Les difficultés de la replantation. Quel avenir pour le cacao en Côte d’Ivoire ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruf François

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La conférence internationale sur le thème « Quel avenir pour les cultures pérennes ? » est née de deux préoccupations. La première recouvre le champ des difficultés de la replantation, difficultés techniques, économiques mais aussi environnementales, sociales et politiques : comment replanter 1 ? La seconde est la baisse des cours, probablement structurelle, de la plupart des matières premières agricoles, notamment de celles produites par des cultures pérennes. Si les prix restent aussi bas de façon aussi durable, pourquoi replanter ? De même qu’il est toujours de bon aloi d’acheter des actions quand la bourse s’écroule, les économistes recommandent de planter quand les cours des matières premières sont à leur plancher. Toutefois, si des centaines de milliers d’hectares sont plantés par des producteurs qui anticipent une remontée des cours, celle-ci peut alors être fort retardée. Cette capacité à anticiper un retour à des prix élevés est ainsi une des causes du prolongement de la phase des très bas prix du cacao jusqu’en 2001, ce qui semble bien relever d’un échec du marché 2. Le pourquoi et le comment de la replantation sont bien indissociables. Face aux enjeux, de nombreux pays détenteurs du patrimoine « cultures pérennes tropicales » ne manquent-ils pas d’une véritable politique de replantation prenant acte des changements nécessaires dans les conditions de production, se remettant en cause, tout en faisant face aux difficultés à interpréter les marchés ? Les problèmes de replantation ne peuvent se surmonter qu’à partir d’une compréhension des processus en œuvre, sur le terrain, en commençant par les décisions des producteurs. Les exemples, les études de cas, par village, par région, restent donc des fondamentaux pour une réflexion globale, pour une anticipation des problèmes, une action nationale, voire internationale, sur la replantation. En même temps, la question de

  9. APLICACIÓN DE LA PLANEACIÓN ESTRATÉGICA EN EL CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES DEL NÍQUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Rodríguez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se realiza en el Centro de Investigaciones del Níquel, con el objetivo de diseñar la Planeación Estratégica de la empresa y así mejorar su desempeño. Para alcanzar el objetivo, se utilizaron métodos teóricos de investigación científica: análisis y síntesis, hipotético-deductivo, histórico-lógico; así como algunos de los métodos empíricos de investigación: observación directa, entrevistas, tormenta de ideas, encuestas, consulta y revisión de documentos, trabajo en grupos, entre otros. Para procesar toda la información obtenida se empleó el paquete de programas de Office y otros software.Entre los principales resultados alcanzados se encuentran la definición de una nueva misión y visión del centro, involucrando a los trabajadores en el proceso de toma de decisiones; la definición de los objetivos estratégicos y las estrategias a seguir para alcanzarlos; así como la elaboración del plan de acción, cuya ejecución ha permitido desde el 2007 a la fecha actual, el incremento de las ventas en un 23 % con la realización de 60 nuevos servicios científico-tecnológicos, la disminución del consumo de energía eléctrica en 180 MW, el aumento de la productividad en más de 3000 pesos, y el logro de la ejecución de inversiones por 594 miles de pesos, que significan un mejoramiento considerable en las condiciones de trabajo del centro.AbstractThe investigation is carried out in the Nickel research Center, with the objective of designing the Strategic Projection of the company in order to improve its performance. To reach the objective, theoretical methods of scientific investigation were used, such as: the analysis-synthesis method, deductive-hypothetical, logical-historical method; as well as some of the empiric methods of investigation: direct observation, interviews, brainstorming, surveys, the consult and revision of documents, team group, among others. To process all the obtained information it was

  10. Aztheca Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G.; Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  11. Vocable Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Cox, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    a computational and poetic composition for two screens: on one of these, texts and voices are repeated and disrupted by mathematical chaos, together exploring the performativity of code and language; on the other, is a mix of a computer programming syntax and human language. In this sense queer code can...... be understood as both an object and subject of study that intervenes in the world’s ‘becoming' and how material bodies are produced via human and nonhuman practices. Through mixing the natural and computer language, this article presents a script in six parts from a performative lecture for two persons...

  12. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  13. Energy diagnosis; Diagnostic energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivien, P. [Centre Technique des Industries Mecaniques (CETIM), Franche-Comte (France)

    1996-12-31

    Through a partnership with regional authorities and the French Energy Conservation Agency (ADEME), the CETIM (Technical Agency for Mechanical Industries) is proposing energy audits in industrial plants with the aim to increase the plant performances, reduce energy costs and work out environmental issues. Concrete improvement solutions are proposed with profitability calculations. The audit procedure is presented. The most efficient solutions generally involve energy tariff rate shifts, heating regulation, power cut-off, reactive energy compensation and lighting management

  14. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  15. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  16. Sistema para el almacenamiento de la información geológica en empresas del níquel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelis Rasúa-López

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se exponen las características de un sistema computarizado para el almacenamiento y consulta de la información geológica llamado PinExplorer, y realizado por encargo de la Empresa Pinares S.A. Soportado sobre Delphi 4, PinExplorer se inserta totalmente en interfaz de Windows 95 y de Windows NT, trabaja eficientemente en red, tiene un diseño normalizado de las bases de datos, y estas pueden ser importadas y exportadas de forma conveniente con la garantía de validación correspondiente. Para mayor seguridad, las bases se almacenan en formato comprimido y protegidas con contraseña. Por sus características, PinExplorer puede ser implementado en cualquiera de las empresas del níquel de nuestro país.

  17. REMOCIÓN DE NÍQUEL Y DQO PRESENTES EN LAS AGUAS RESIDUALES DE LA INDUSTRIA AUTOMOTRIZ MEDIANTE ELECTROCOAGULACIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado Martínez, Iván Darío; González Silva, Germán; Valencia Hurtado, Sergio Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Mediante este estudio se determinó si la técnica de electrocoagulación contribuye a minimizar la concentración de níquel y materia orgánica y la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO) en las aguas residuales de la industria automotriz. Se empleó un diseño experimental factorial multinivel aleatorio en el que la densidad de la corriente y el tiempo de reacción fueron evaluados en tres niveles, mientras que la separación entre electrodos fue analizada en dos niveles. La electrocoagulación se llevó a ...

  18. Modelación matemática del proceso de reducción para la obtención de ferroníquel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianis Columbié-Navarro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se modeló matemáticamente el proceso de reducción para la obtención de ferroníquel. Partiendo de las ecuaciones de balance material y energético se expone el sistema de ecuaciones que conforman el modelo matemático dinámico y la fundamentación científica sobre la cual fueron obtenidas. Para la transformación de las ecuaciones de balance material y energético se consideraron los principales óxidos y elementos que componen el mineral, los gases de la combustión y las temperaturas del material, de las paredes del horno y de los gases reductores. Se obtuvo un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales de primer orden, complementadas con otras ecuaciones algebraicas que establecen la relación entre los coeficientes y los parámetros físicos.

  19. Propiedades mecánicas de tres marcas de arcos ortodóncicos de níquel-titanio termoactivados. Estudio in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Torres, Viviana; Soldevilla Galarza, Luciano; Mattos Vela, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    La selección óptima de los alambres ortodóncicos permite al profesional realizar el tratamiento de manera eficiente; por ello, se requiere el conocimiento de las propiedades mecánicas básicas, las cuales no son reveladas por sus fabricantes. El estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar las propiedades mecánicas (tensión en la zona de activación constante, elongación en la zona de activación constante, resistencia máxima y límite de ruptura) de tres marcas de alambres ortodóncicos de níquel-titanio ...

  20. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  1. Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  2. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  3. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621 ...

  4. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  5. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  6. Adubação foliar com níquel e molibdênio no feijoeiro comum cv. Ouro Vermelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Lopes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação foliar de níquel (Ni e molibdênio (Mo sobre componentes de rendimento, crescimento e composição mineral do feijoeiro comum Ouro Vermelho. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e arranjo fatorial 5 x 2, constituído de doses de Ni (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60 g ha-1 e de Mo (0 e 80 g ha-1, aplicadas por via foliar, aos 25 dias após a semeadura, na forma de cloreto de níquel hexaidratado e de molibdato de amônio, respectivamente. As doses de Ni não influenciaram os teores foliares de N, P, K, Fe, Mo e Ni, aumentaram, porém, os teores de N, Ni e de proteína bruta na semente. A aplicação foliar de Mo reduziu os teores foliares de P, Fe e Ni, aumentou, no entanto, o teor foliar de Mo e o teor de N, Mo e de proteína bruta na semente. Observou-se que as doses de Ni e de Mo não afetaram a massa de sementes, o número de sementes por vagem, o número de vagens por planta e a massa seca de raiz do feijoeiro. A aplicação de Mo aumentou em 21,62% o número de nódulos.

  7. REMOCIÓN DE NÍQUEL Y DQO PRESENTES EN LAS AGUAS RESIDUALES DE LA INDUSTRIA AUTOMOTRIZ MEDIANTE ELECTROCOAGULACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Mercado Martínez

    Full Text Available Mediante este estudio se determinó si la técnica de electrocoagulación contribuye a minimizar la concentración de níquel y materia orgánica y la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO en las aguas residuales de la industria automotriz. Se empleó un diseño experimental factorial multinivel aleatorio en el que la densidad de la corriente y el tiempo de reacción fueron evaluados en tres niveles, mientras que la separación entre electrodos fue analizada en dos niveles. La electrocoagulación se llevó a cabo en un reactor batch usando electrodos de hierro con arreglo monopolar. Fueron utilizadas las técnicas analíticas de digestión ácida, absorción atómica de llama de aire-acetileno y reflujo cerradocolorimétrico (micro DQO para determinar el contenido de los contaminantes. Las condiciones con que se obtuvo la mayor descontaminación del agua analizada fue con la densidad de corriente aplicada: 1,04 A/dm² y tiempo de operación: 17 minutos; con estas variables se observó que la separación electródica no influyó. Los resultados indican que la electrocoagulación podría ser usada para disminuir el níquel y la materia orgánica (DQO presentes en las aguas residuales de la industria automotriz.

  8. Panda code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Minton, G.

    1975-02-01

    PANDA is a new two-group one-dimensional (slab/cylinder) neutron diffusion code designed to replace and extend the FAB series. PANDA allows for the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. PANDA has a completely general search facility which will seek criticality, maximize reactivity, or minimize peaking. Any single parameter may be varied in a search. PANDA is written in FORTRAN IV, and as such is nearly machine independent. However, PANDA has been written with the present limitations of the Westinghouse CDC-6600 system in mind. Most computation loops are very short, and the code is less than half the useful 6600 memory size so that two jobs can reside in the core at once. (auth)

  9. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gara, P.; Martin, E.

    1983-01-01

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils [fr

  10. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  11. Biologia e conservação de quelônios no Delta do Rio Jacuí - RS : aspectos da história natural de espécies em ambientes alterados pelo homem

    OpenAIRE

    Clovis de Souza Bujes

    2008-01-01

    O conhecimento que temos sobre a história natural de quelônios ocorrentes no Brasil, e principalmente no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, é ainda rudimentar. As principais causas dessa carência de informações na literatura são atribuídas à dificuldade de obtenção de dados de animais na natureza. As ações humanas colocaram em risco várias populações de quelônios e sua biodiversidade tem declinado por todo o mundo. Desta forma, este estudo busca informações básicas acerca da historia natural de pop...

  12. Remoção de sulfeto em uma estação de tratamento de efluentes de níquel por oxidação úmida

    OpenAIRE

    ALVES, Valderice Pereira

    2006-01-01

    O tratamento das águas residuárias de uma indústria de componentes eletrônicos que utiliza níquel em seu processo de deposição eletroquímica, consiste no uso dos métodos físico-químicos tradicionais, como precipitação química e filtração. Esta indústria da região nordeste remove o níquel presente em seu efluente pela adição de sulfeto de sódio em excesso garantindo a completa precipitação do metal. O processo de oxidação adotado pela indústria para remover o sulfeto remanescente é a remoção c...

  13. Automatic coding method of the ACR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwi Ae; Ihm, Jong Sool; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Baik, Seung Kook; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a computer program for automatic coding of ACR(American College of Radiology) code. The automatic coding of the ACR code is essential for computerization of the data in the department of radiology. This program was written in foxbase language and has been used for automatic coding of diagnosis in the Department of Radiology, Wallace Memorial Baptist since May 1992. The ACR dictionary files consisted of 11 files, one for the organ code and the others for the pathology code. The organ code was obtained by typing organ name or code number itself among the upper and lower level codes of the selected one that were simultaneous displayed on the screen. According to the first number of the selected organ code, the corresponding pathology code file was chosen automatically. By the similar fashion of organ code selection, the proper pathologic dode was obtained. An example of obtained ACR code is '131.3661'. This procedure was reproducible regardless of the number of fields of data. Because this program was written in 'User's Defined Function' from, decoding of the stored ACR code was achieved by this same program and incorporation of this program into program in to another data processing was possible. This program had merits of simple operation, accurate and detail coding, and easy adjustment for another program. Therefore, this program can be used for automation of routine work in the department of radiology

  14. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  15. Parámetros y factores asociados a la dilución interna en yacimientos cubanos de níquel y cobalto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Fernández-Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue establecer, en los yacimientos cubanos de níquel y cobalto, los elementos que condicionan e identifican las intercalaciones de baja ley, generadoras de dilución interna, para su posterior separación durante el laboreo minero. La observación y la interpretación de datos geológicos y geoquímicos de pozos y frentes de explotación permitieron diferenciar, según su naturaleza geológica o minera, los distintos elementos que engloban los parámetros y factores vinculados con la dilución interna. Son los parámetros y factores geoquímicos del componente geológico los que mejor caracterizan las intercalaciones a partir de muestras de perforación, mientras que el control de campo es, dentro del componente minero, el que mejor permite identificar (y separar las intercalaciones inmediatamente antes del ingreso de las menas al proceso industrial, en virtud del potencial selectivo de la tecnología minera y de los equipos de arranque actuales.

  16. ¿Cuál es el mejor método para estimar variables en yacimientos lateríticos de níquel y cobalto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niurka Pérez-Melo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar el método más adecuado de estimar los contenidos de hierro, níquel y cobalto en los yacimientos lateríticos del nordeste de Cuba, se compararon los errores puntuales asociados a varios algoritmos de estimación y simulación, tomando como caso de estudio el bloque O48 del Yacimiento Punta Gorda. La comparación se basó en los resultados de la técnica de jackknife. Los métodos de estimación y simulación lognormal, krigeage con modelo de spline, simulación gaussiana secuencial y simulación condicional por el método de bandas rotantes, esta última con 100 bandas aleatorias. En todos los casos se alcanzaron resultados similares con respecto a la media de los errores, a excepción del krigeage con modelo de spline. La diferencia entre los métodos sólo se hace evidente al comparar las distribuciones de frecuencias de dichos errores. Se demuestra que la exactitud de la estimación, en este caso de estudio, está más influenciada por las características de los datos experimentales y de la estrategia (o elipsoide de búsqueda, que por los métodos de estimación que se empleen.

  17. HIERRO ELEMENTAL PARA REMOCIÓN DE NÍQUEL, COMÚNMENTE ENCONTRADO EN DRENAJE ÁCIDO DE MINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Liendo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la remoción del Ni2+ con partículas de hierro comercial, pues este catión se encuentra frecuentemente en los drenajes ácidos de minas (DAM, que es uno de los problemas ambientales más serios en la industria minera que afecta fuentes de aguas naturales. Fueron realizados ensayos en laboratorio con hierro comercial y soluciones sintéticas que contienen Ni2+, para observar tanto la cinética de remoción como los datos de equilibrio. Los resultados, mostraron que estos siguen el modelo de la isoterma de adsorción de Langmuir y que los datos cinéticos se ajustaron con la ecuación del modelo de adsorción de pseudo segundo orden. Se concluye del presente estudio que la remoción de níquel con hierro en estado elemental (HEE es posible y ocurre de manera rápida.

  18. Fabricación de una superaleación de base níquel con estructura celular y microporosidad interconectada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabé, A.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available A cellular metallic material with interconnected porosity of controlled size of an order of 10 μm has been developed by electrochemical dissolution of tungsten grains in a W-Ni-Fe heavy alloy. The nickel superalloy with sponge structure and high surface/volume ratio can also be processed recycling chips from heavy metal machining (Patent n° P9700191, 1997. Applications for the new material could be found as support for catalysts, high temperature filters for corrosive fluids, burners, etc.

    En este artículo se describe la preparación y caracterización de una superaleación de base níquel de microporosidad controlada, partiendo de una aleación pesada W-Ni-Fe de naturaleza densa y con métodos electrolíticos. Se ha conseguido un proceso factible de fabricación y, simultáneamente, una oportunidad de reciclado de las virutas de mecanizado de metal pesado. Tanto el nuevo material como el proceso de obtención han sido objeto de patente (Núm. P9700191, 1997. El nuevo material podría ser interesante como soporte de catalizadores, filtro de fluidos corrosivos a temperaturas elevadas, difusor en quemadores, etc.

  19. Dynamic Shannon Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gagie, Travis

    2005-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for dynamic prefix-free coding, based on Shannon coding. We give a simple analysis and prove a better upper bound on the length of the encoding produced than the corresponding bound for dynamic Huffman coding. We show how our algorithm can be modified for efficient length-restricted coding, alphabetic coding and coding with unequal letter costs.

  20. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  1. Codes Over Hyperfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamewoue Surdive

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define linear codes and cyclic codes over a finite Krasner hyperfield and we characterize these codes by their generator matrices and parity check matrices. We also demonstrate that codes over finite Krasner hyperfields are more interesting for code theory than codes over classical finite fields.

  2. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  3. Homological stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  4. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  5. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  6. Avaliação de Revestimentos de Liga de Níquel 625 Depositados pelo Processo Eletroescória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Simões Sandes

    Full Text Available Resumo A aplicação de revestimentos de ligas de níquel é comumente realizada na indústria de petróleo e gás para aumento da vida de equipamentos em ambientes agressivos, dado que este procedimento melhora a resistência à corrosão, sem um aumento significativo do custo de produção quando comparado com equipamentos maciços fabricados com outras ligas. Normalmente, as juntas são soldadas pelos processos de eletrodos revestidos, MIG/MAG ou TIG. Neste aspecto, o processo eletroescória realiza deposições com elevada energia de soldagem e baixa diluição, podendo ser uma opção interessante, uma vez que proporciona uma elevada produtividade, permitindo a soldagem com aplicação de apenas uma camada. O presente trabalho avalia propriedades mecânicas, microestruturais e de corrosão de revestimentos de liga de níquel 625 depositada em aço carbono ASTM A516 Grau 70 pelo processo eletroescória, tanto na condição como soldado quanto tratado termicamente. A deposição foi realizada com uma e duas camadas sobre chapas de dimensão 50x400x400 mm, na posição plana e energia de soldagem média de 11,7 kJ/mm. Após a soldagem realizou-se tratamento térmico a 620°C por 10 horas, sendo esta condição comparada ao estado de como soldado. Os ensaios de dobramento não indicaram evidências de defeitos. A avaliação microestrutural realizada por microscopia ótica (MO, eletrônica de varredura (MEV e eletrônica de transmissão (MET mostrou uma microestrutura austenítica para o depósito com pequena fração volumétrica de fases secundárias e o tratamento térmico de alívio de tensões não promoveu mudanças significativas nas propriedades. Na região de grãos grosseiros da zona termicamente afetada (RGGZTA foi observada a ocorrência de ferrita pró-eutetóide, perlita e bainita para o depósito com 1 camada e basicamente ferrita e perlita refinadas para o deposito com 2 passes devido às baixas taxas de resfriamento

  7. Protección contra la corrosión de electrorrecubrimientos níquel/cobre utilizando la técnica PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Aperador, Dionisio Laverde, Enrique Vera y Javier Guerrero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la implementación de la técnica de corriente pulsante inversa para electrodepositar películas delgadas de Cu-Ni en forma de bicapa sobre sustratos de zamac, controlando  los  voltajes  y  tiempos  de  electrodepósitos anódicos (Vlow, TLow y catódicos (VHight, THight y obteniendo como respuesta el monitoreo de la corriente anódica (ILow y catódica (IHight en función del tiempo anódico (TLow y catódico (THight respectivamente. Se obtuvieron películas de Cu (electrolitos cianurados y Ni (electroli tos  ácidos  con  espesores  entre  18  y  62 micrómetros. Se observó, mediante microscopía de fuerza atómica (AFM, que el control pulsante del voltaje durante el depósito permite obtener películas de Cu/Ni más densas y de mejor granulometría que las películas convencionales depositadas  por  la  técnica  de  corriente  directa.  Se determinó la composición química de las capas usando la sonda  de  difracción  de  rayos X  (EDX;  además,  se realizaron medidas de brillo y microdureza vickers de laúltima capa, correspondiente al níquel.

  8. Influencia de los parámetros de soldeo fuerte en la microestructura y propiedades mecánicas de la unión de la aleación base níquel Hastelloy B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotelo, José Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the high vacuum brazing process of solid solution strengthened Hastelloy B2 nickel alloy has been done. A first stage of research has focused on the selection of the most appropriate brazing filler metal to the base material and vacuum furnace brazing process. The influence of welding parameters on joint microstructure constituents, relating the microstructure of the joint to its mechanical properties, has been evaluated. Two gaps of 50 and 200 micrometers, and two dwell times at brazing temperature of 10 and 90 minutes were studied. The braze joint mainly consists of the nickel rich matrix, nickel silicide and ternary compounds. Finally, the results of this study have shown the high bond strength for small gaps and increased dwell times of 90 minutes.Se realizó un estudio pormenorizado del proceso de soldeo fuerte en horno de alto vacío de la aleación base níquel Hastelloy B2 fortalecida por solución sólida. En una primera fase del trabajo se seleccionó el material de aporte acorde al material objeto de unión y a la fuente de calentamiento seleccionada. Posteriormente, se evaluó la influencia del gap (50 y 200 micrómetros y tiempo de permanencia a temperatura de soldeo (10 y 90 minutos sobre los microconstituyentes de la unión, relacionando la microestructura con las propiedades mecánicas de la junta. Los análisis metalográficos mostraron una unión constituida por una matriz rica en níquel, siliciuros de níquel y compuestos ternarios. Finalmente, los resultados de los ensayos mecánicos a esfuerzos cortantes mostraron una elevada resistencia para gaps de 50 micrómetros y tiempos de permanencia de 90 minutos.

  9. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  10. Entropy Coding in HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Vivienne; Marpe, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced in H.264/AVC and now used in the latest High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. While it provides high coding efficiency, the data dependencies in H.264/AVC CABAC make it challenging to parallelize and thus limit its throughput. Accordingly, during the standardization of entropy coding for HEVC, both aspects of coding efficiency and throughput were considered. This chapter describes th...

  11. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng Bei

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  12. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  13. In vitro effect of 470 nm LED (Light Emitting Diode in keloid fibroblasts Efeito in vitro do LED (Light Emitting Diode de 470 nm em fibroblastos de quelóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvilena Bonatti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To quantify keloid fibroblasts after irradiation with 470nm blue LED, in vitro. Methods: Fibroblasts from keloid and adjacent skin have been obtained from 6 patients. Cells have been cultivated and maintained in DMEM culture medium. In Petri dishes, they were irradiated with energy doses of 6J, 12J and 18J. After 24 h, counting was done by the average of the triplicates for each sample. Results: There were no significant differences in the number of irradiated keloid fibroblasts at the studied doses (p=0.261. In adjacent skin fibroblasts, differences were observed (p=0.025 concerning the doses of 18 J and 6 J (p=0.03. Conclusions: There was a reduction in the number of adjacent skin fibroblasts irradiated with 470nm blue LED at the energy dose of 18 J compared to the ones irradiated at the energy dose of 6 J. There were no changes in keloid fibroblasts counting at any of the doses applied, 24 h after irradiation.Objetivo: Quantificar fibroblastos de quelóide após irradiação com LED azul de 470nm, in vitro. Métodos: Foram obtidos fibroblastos de quelóide e pele adjacente, de seis pacientes. As células foram cultivadas e mantidas em meio de cultura DMEM. Em placas de Petri, receberam irradiação com doses de energia de 6J, 12J e 18J. Após 24 horas a contagem foi feita pela média da triplicata para cada amostra. Resultados: Não houve diferença na quantidade de fibroblastos de quelóide irradiados nas doses estudadas (p=0,261. Observou-se diferença nos fibroblastos de pele adjacente (p=0,025, com relação às doses de 18 J e 6 J (p=0,03. Conclusões: Houve redução dos fibroblastos de pele adjacente irradiados com LED azul de 470 nm na dose de energia de 18 J em relação à dose de 6 J. Não houve alteração na quantidade de fibroblastos de quelóide nas doses aplicadas após 24 horas da irradiação.

  14. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  15. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  16. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  17. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  18. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shannon limit of the channel. Among the earliest discovered codes that approach the. Shannon limit were the low density parity check (LDPC) codes. The term low density arises from the property of the parity check matrix defining the code. We will now define this matrix and the role that it plays in decoding. 2. Linear Codes.

  19. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  20. Coding in Muscle Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyell K; Ney, John P

    2016-12-01

    Accurate coding is critically important for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of administrative coding for patients with muscle disease and includes a case-based review of diagnostic and Evaluation and Management (E/M) coding principles in patients with myopathy. Procedural coding for electrodiagnostic studies and neuromuscular ultrasound is also reviewed.

  1. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  2. Estudio cinético del proceso de precipataión de los sulfuros de níquel y cobalto con hidrógeno sulfuro de sodio, en el licor de desecho (WL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Sosa-Martínez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se realiza un estudio cinético del proceso de precipitación de sulfuros a partir del licor residual WL que se genera en la Empresa Moa Níckel S. A -Pedro Soto Alba. La investigación se realiza a escala de laboratorio empleando una variante de tratamiento del licor en dos etapas de precipitación a diferentes valores de pH, donde se analiza la influencia de los factores que intervienen en el proceso como la temperatura, concentración de hidrógeno sulfuro de sodio y el régimen de agitación, basado en el método factorial completo donde se conjugan los niveles experimentales de las variables estudiadas respecto al grado de precipitación de los principales elementos níquel cobalto, cinc, y cobre. En la primera etapa se logra obtener una mezcla de sulfuros mixtos ricos en  cobre y cinc con extracciones superiores  a  80 % y 64 % respectivamente, mientras que en la segunda etapa se obtiene un precipitado de color negro correspondiente a los sulfuros de níquel y cobalto cuyas recuperaciones alcanzan valores de 84% y  82%.

  3. Caracterización físico-química y mineralógica de la escoria de fundición de ferroníquel de Moa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaritza Ramírez-Cruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La escoria de fundición de ferroníquel obtenida a escala piloto a partir del mineral saprolítico del yacimiento Moa Occidental, se caracterizó desde el punto de vista físico, químico y mineralógico con el objetivo de evaluar sus posibilidades de utilización industrial. Mediante Espectrometría por Fluorescencia de Rayos X y Difracción de Rayos X se constató que en su composición existen fundamentalmente óxidos de silicio y magnesio, con valores promedios de 46% el primero y 37 % el segundo. El olivino, la forsterita y la clinoenstatita se identificaron como sus fases mineralógicas principales. La densidad es de 3,20 g/cm 3 ; temperatura de fusión de 1 650ºC y viscosidad de 6,5 poises. Estos resultados evidenciaron similitud con escorias de ferroníquel obtenidas en otras partes del mundo, que son usadas como material abrasivo, material de construcción y refractario

  4. Efecto de dos metales pesados, cadmio y níquel, sobre la eficiencia de remoción de carga orgánica de un reactor UASB a escala de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Forero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron ensayos en tres reactores UASB de tres litros cada uno, a un tiempo de retención hidráulico (TRH de cuatro horas y carga orgánica volumétrica de 4,8 g/L/d. Después de la fase inicial de arranque, tiempo de 4.000 horas para los tres reactores, se procedió a afectarlos de la siguiente forma: el primer reactor fue alimentado con 5 mg/L de cloruro de cadmio en forma continua, el segundo reactor fue alimentado con 10 mg/L de cloruro de níquel en forma continua también, mientras que el tercer reactor no se afectó con sustancia alguna y sirvió como control. La eficiencia de remoción de demanda química de oxígeno (DQO del primer reactor cambió del 60% de la fase de arranque (fase 1 al 18% en la fase afectada con cadmio (fase dos; la eficiencia de remoción de DQO en el reactor dos pasó del 60 al 24% y a su vez para el reactor tres control no hubo cambio significativo en dicha eficiencia. A su vez el reactor uno acumuló el cadmio en el lodo, mientras que el reactor dos no hizo lo propio con el níquel.

  5. Migración de hierro y níquel, y estabilidad oxidativa del aceite refinado de soja calentado en utensilios culinarios de diversos materiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeyda Haj-Isa, Niurka Maritza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cookware may release some inorganic components into foods during cooking, some of which have undesirable consequences. In fried foods, for instance, oil oxidation is favored by metals. The present study evaluated oxidative stability (AOCS method and iron and nickel migration (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry into refined soybean oil in four cycles, with intervals of 24 hours. The cookware materials were glass, aluminum, stainless steel, iron and soapstone. The results demonstrated that the lowest metal migration occurred from glass and aluminum pans while the oil heated in these pans showed the highest oxidative stability. The highest migration of Fe and Ni into the oil occurred from the soapstone and iron pots (3.94 and 3.21 mg _ kg-1, respectively.Nevertheless, increasing loss of oxidative stability was evident in the oils heated in the soapstone, stainless steel and iron cookware, in this order. Since iron migration was lower from glass and aluminum pans, these were considered the best type of materials for fryingDurante la elaboración de alimentos los utensilios culinarios pueden liberar componentes inorgánicos ocasionalmente no deseables. La oxidación del aceite es durante la fritura es favorecida por la presencia de metales. Fue evaluada la migración de hierro y níquel (espectrometría de emisión óptica y la estabilidad oxidativa (método AOCS del aceite de soja sometido a cuatro calentamientos con intervalos de 24 horas en cazuelas de vidrio, aluminio, acero inoxidable, hierro y piedra-jabón. La mayor migración de hierro al aceite ocurrió en las cazuelas de hierro (3,94 mg•kg–1 y piedra (3,21 mg _ kg–1, sin diferencia estadística entre ellas. La pérdida progresiva de estabilidad oxidativa fue acentuada en los aceites calentados en utensilios de piedra, acero inoxidable e hierro, en tal orden. Vidrio y aluminio fueron considerados los mejores materiales para la fabricación de cazuelas

  6. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  7. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This essay studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN......, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...... to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  8. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  9. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, A.M. do.

    1989-01-01

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  10. Dis-moi quels champignons...

    OpenAIRE

    Lévi-Strauss, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Nous croyons tous, ou presque, être amateurs de champignons. Paris a donné son nom à la seule espèce européenne cultivée, le champignon figure à nos menus, c’est une « garniture » prescrite de la cuisine d’apparat. Pourtant, interrogez autour de vous, demandez à vos amis le nombre d’espèces connues et consommées par eux : ils vous parleront du champignon de Paris, du cèpe, de la girolle, de la morille, de la truffe. Bien rares ceux qui iront au-delà. Cette attitude timorée envers les champign...

  11. Synthesizing Certified Code

    OpenAIRE

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach for formally demonstrating software quality. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates that can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it requires detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding annotations to th...

  12. FERRET data analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.

    1979-09-01

    A documentation of the FERRET data analysis code is given. The code provides a way to combine related measurements and calculations in a consistent evaluation. Basically a very general least-squares code, it is oriented towards problems frequently encountered in nuclear data and reactor physics. A strong emphasis is on the proper treatment of uncertainties and correlations and in providing quantitative uncertainty estimates. Documentation includes a review of the method, structure of the code, input formats, and examples

  13. Stylize Aesthetic QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Mingliang; Su, Hao; Li, Yafei; Li, Xi; Liao, Jing; Niu, Jianwei; Lv, Pei; Zhou, Bing

    2018-01-01

    With the continued proliferation of smart mobile devices, Quick Response (QR) code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code in the world. Aiming at beautifying the appearance of QR codes, existing works have developed a series of techniques to make the QR code more visual-pleasant. However, these works still leave much to be desired, such as visual diversity, aesthetic quality, flexibility, universal property, and robustness. To address these issues, in this paper, we pro...

  14. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  15. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    doing formal coding and when doing more “traditional” conversation analysis research based on collections. We are more wary, however, of the implication that coding-based research is the end result of a process that starts with qualitative investigations and ends with categories that can be coded...

  16. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  17. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  18. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  19. Efecto del tratamiento térmico posterior sobre la resistencia al desgaste por deslizamiento de un recubrimiento base níquel depositado por HVOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadenas, P.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, a nickel base coating was deposited on an AISI 1020 substrate by using high velocity oxy-fuel technique (HVOF. The coating was subsequently post heat -treated by means of an oxyacetylene flame. For the conditions evaluated in the present study, it was found that the CTT coating has 1,15 better wear resistance for the smaller level of the applied load and nearly 50 times for the highest level of the applied load when compared to the STT coatings. These results have been attributed to a better distribution of the hard phases, better cohesion between particles and an increase in hardness, as consequence of the post heat treatment process. A severe wear regime was found for all the samples since the wear rates presented values which were higher than 1·10-5 mm3/m. For the CTT coatings, the wear mechanism was mainly due to the adhesion and oxidation phenomena, meanwhile for the steel counterpart mechanisms such oxidation, grooving and three body abrasion were observed.

    En el presente trabajo, se depositó un recubrimiento base níquel sobre un acero AISI 1020 por la técnica de termorrociado de alta velocidad que utiliza oxígeno como combustible (High Velocity Oxygen Fuel - HVOF y, posteriormente, fue tratado térmicamente mediante llama oxiacetilénica. Para las condiciones evaluadas en este estudio, se encontró que el recubrimiento CTT tiene desde 1,15 veces más resistencia al desgaste, para el menor nivel de carga aplicada y mayor velocidad de deslizamiento y, hasta 50 veces más resistencia al desgaste para el mayor nivel carga aplicada y mayor velocidad de deslizamiento, comparado con el recubrimiento STT. Estos resultados se atribuyeron a una mejor distribución de las fases endurecedoras, una mejor cohesión entre partículas y un aumento en la microdureza del recubrimiento, como consecuencia del tratamiento térmico posterior. El régimen de desgaste presente en todas las muestras fue severo, ya que las

  20. Morfologia de órgãos genitais femininos de quelônio semi-aquático Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkiria F. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei (Testudines: Chelidae é um quelônio de água doce cuja ocorrência é descrita nas bacias dos rios Amazonas, Tocantins, Paraguai, Paraná e Uruguai. Consta na lista vermelha de espécies ameaçadas da International Union for Conservation of Nature, como espécie de baixo risco, mas que poderá se tornar ameaçada, sendo necessário a atualização de seus dados ecológicos e biológicos. Considerando que planos de manejo e conservação de espécies dependem também de vasto conhecimento sobre a biologia reprodutiva, apresentamos a primeira descrição macroscópica dos órgãos genitais de fêmeas jovens e adultas de M. vanderhaegei correlacionando esses achados ao tamanho do espécime e ao período do ano. Exemplares de M. vanderhaegei foram coletados no município de Chapada dos Guimarães, área de ampla ocorrência natural da espécie. A descrição dos órgãos genitais foi realizada a partir de 17 fêmeas fixadas em formol a 10% e dissecadas para evidenciação de particularidades relacionadas à anatomia externa e interna. Os órgãos genitais M. vanderhaegei jovens e adultas são constituídos por pares de ovários e ovidutos que desembocam dorsolateralmente na cloaca, formando junto com o ureter a papila urogenital. Os ovários são órgãos alongados, com a extremidade cranial mais larga e caudal afunilada, já os ovidutos são longos e localizados lateralmente aos ovários, sendo em adultas, muito diferenciado na sua forma e tamanho em relação ao das jovens. Em ambas faixas etárias, os órgãos genitais são sustentados por pregas de membrana celomática que emergem do teto da cavidade, constituindo os mesovário e mesoviduto. De acordo com a forma e o padrão de mucosa do oviduto em fêmeas adultas, o segmento cranial corresponde as regiões do infundíbulo e magnum, o segmento médio, ao istmo e no caudal identificam-se as regiões útero e vagina. No assoalho do urodeum aloja-se o clit

  1. Estrés producido por sedimentos contaminados con níquel en una granja de trucha arcoiris, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Pisces: Salmonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martínez-Tabche

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudios previos indicaron la presencia de elevadas concentraciones de níquel (Ni en los estanques de la granja "El Truchón", por tal motivo fue necesario establecer correlaciones entre las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los sedimentos de este embalse y el daño que puede producirse sobre la trucha arcoiris cuyo cultivo se lleva a cabo en un reservorio denominado rústico. El estudio se inició con la determinación de las propiedades fisicoquímicas de los sedimentos de la granja, las cuales incluyeron: composición granular, porcentaje de nitrógeno total, contenido de materia orgánica, pH, potencial redox, capacidad de intercambio canónico y la concentración de Ni. Se determinó la CLSO del Ni-96 H sobre Oncorhynchus mykiss en el sistema agua-sedimentos de la granja-metal al equilibrio. En este mismo sistema se evaluó la toxicidad subletal del Ni, mediante la determinación de niveles de metalotioneina (MT, la actividad de la o-desmetilasa (OD y la concentración de proteínas. Los resultados muestran un incremento significativo en los tres parámetros bioquímicos, observándose una relación linear entre efecto y concentración del Ni, por lo que estos biomarcadores de daño se recomiendan para evaluar la toxicidad del Ni. Probablemente estos efectos se deban a las propiedades fisicoquímicas del sedimento que le confiere alta capacidad de absorber el metal. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos en este estudio se sugiere al truticultor no emplear estanques rústicos, sino aquellos revestidos de concreto, para evitar la acumulación de sustancias tóxicas o bien realizar remociones periódicas de su sedimento.Previous studies indicated the presence of high concentrations of nickel in the "El truchón" ponds (in México, so it was necessary to find a possible correlation between sediment physicochemical properties of this water body and the damage that could be produced on the rainbow trout which culture is done in a rustic reservoir

  2. The network code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Network Code defines the rights and responsibilities of all users of the natural gas transportation system in the liberalised gas industry in the United Kingdom. This report describes the operation of the Code, what it means, how it works and its implications for the various participants in the industry. The topics covered are: development of the competitive gas market in the UK; key points in the Code; gas transportation charging; impact of the Code on producers upstream; impact on shippers; gas storage; supply point administration; impact of the Code on end users; the future. (20 tables; 33 figures) (UK)

  3. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  4. Optimisation structurelle des systemes energetiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloux, Etienne

    The development of renewable energies is growing over the last decade to face environmental issues due to the world fossil fuel consumption increase. These energies are highly involved in houses and commercial buildings and numerous systems have been proposed to meet their energy demand. Therefore, improving both efficiency and use of systems, i.e. improving energy management, appears essential to limit the ecological footprint of humanity on the planet. However, system integration yields a very complex problem to be solved due to the large number of units and theirs technology, size, working conditions and interconnections. This situation highlights the lack of systematic analysis for comparing integrated system performance and for correctly pointing out their potential. As a result, the objective of this thesis is to develop and to present such a method, in other words the structural optimization of energy systems. It will be helpful to choose the optimal equipment by identifying all the possibilities of system arrangements and for comparing their performance. Combinations have then been subjected to environmental (climate), structural (available area) and economical constrains while assessment criteria have considered both energy, economic and ecological aspects. For that reason, as well as energy and economic analyses, the exergy concept has also been applied to the equipment. Nevertheless, the high degree of complexity of integrated systems and the tedious numerical calculations make the resolution by using standard software very difficult. It is clear that the whole optimization project would be considerable and the aim is to develop models and optimization tools. First of all, an exhaustive review of energy equipment including photovoltaic panels, solar collectors, heat pumps and thermal energy storage systems, has been performed. Afterwards, energy and exergy models have been developed and tested for two specific energy scenarios: a) a solar assisted heat pump using ice and warm water storages and b) an ambient air heat pump associated to photovoltaic panels. A superstructure has then been constructed to account for every system combination possibility. The different energy paths have been illustrated while irreversibility along every path is identified. Thus, it allows the system operation to be clearly understood. Besides, an exergy diagram has been developed and permits energy and exergy assessment of system and system arrangements to be not only identified but also quantified and separated depending on their (renewable or non-renewable) source. Finally, dimensions and operation variables have been optimized according to exergy and economic criteria for the aforementioned scenarios; the potential of each energy option has been estimated and yield a better energy management to be reached.

  5. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  6. XSOR codes users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ''XSOR''. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms

  7. Reactor lattice codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowska, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present lecture has a main goal to show how the transport lattice calculations are realised in a standard computer code. This is illustrated on the example of the WIMSD code, belonging to the most popular tools for reactor calculations. Most of the approaches discussed here can be easily modified to any other lattice code. The description of the code assumes the basic knowledge of reactor lattice, on the level given in the lecture on 'Reactor lattice transport calculations'. For more advanced explanation of the WIMSD code the reader is directed to the detailed descriptions of the code cited in References. The discussion of the methods and models included in the code is followed by the generally used homogenisation procedure and several numerical examples of discrepancies in calculated multiplication factors based on different sources of library data. (author)

  8. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  9. Georges et le code secret

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Parsons, Gary

    2015-01-01

    À Foxbridge, Georges et Annie s'ennuient, ils rêvent de repartir dans l'espace pour de nouvelles aventures intergalactiques. Pourtant, sur la terre ferme, il se passe des choses étranges... L'argent s'envole des distributeurs de billets, les avions refusent de décoller et les caisses enregistreuses des supermarchés ne fonctionnent plus... Quel chaos ! Il semblerait qu'un bug planétaire ait déréglé tous les systèmes informatiques. S'ils veulent découvrir ce qui se cache derrière tout ça, les deux amis devront voyager plus loin que jamais dans l'espace...

  10. Léz-ards plastiques: en arts plastiques, quels sont les éléments nécessaires au développement des enfants de un à cinq ans

    OpenAIRE

    Vianin, Mégane; Rosell-Curty, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Afin de rédiger ce travail de mémoire sur la thématique des arts plastiques dont la question de départ était formulée ainsi : « En arts plastiques, quels sont les éléments nécessaires au développement des enfants de un à cinq ans ? », deux entretiens ont été menés. À travers cette recherche, il en est ressorti qu’en arts plastiques, les conditions idéales pour parvenir au succès d’une activité ou d’un projet sont les suivantes : préparer le lieu, tenir compte de l’heure, instaurer des ro...

  11. Acumulación de metales (cadmio, zinc, cobre, cromo, níquel y plomo) en especies del género Pelargonium, suministro desde el suelo, ubicación en la planta y toxicidad

    OpenAIRE

    Orroño, Daniela Inés

    2011-01-01

    La acción antrópica puede causar la contaminación de los suelos con metales. Para la remediación de pequeñas áreas contaminadas se sugirió el uso de plantas ornamentales. En esta tesis, inicialmente se estudió la capacidad de fitorremediación de tres especies del género Pelargonium en un suelo contaminado con cadmio, zinc, cobre, cromo, níquel y plomo, y se seleccionó la más tolerante (Pelargonium hortorum). Los objetivos fueron estudiar en qué fracciones químicas y físicas del suelo se ubica...

  12. Modelo matemático del proceso de calcinación del carbonato básico de níquel (cbn en el horno tubular rotatorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Sevila-Rodríguez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo recoge los resultados de los autores en lo relacionado con la modelación matemática del proceso de calcinación del carbonato básico de níquel en el horno tubular rotatorio. Se exponen las ecuaciones que conforman el modelo y la fundamentación científica sobre la cual fueron obtenidas. La modelación se basa principalmente en el planteamiento de las ecuaciones del balance material y energético en forma dinámica, que lleva a la obtención de un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales en derivadas parciales, las cuales se complementan con otras ecuaciones algebraicas que establecen la relación entre los diferentes coeficientes y parámetros físicos.

  13. Dermatite de contato por metais: prevalência de sensibilização ao níquel, cobalto e cromo Metal contact dermatitis: prevalence of sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Duarte

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Dermatite de contato (DC por metais é dermatose comum em diversos grupos populacionais. OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar o grupo com DC ao níquel, cromo e cobalto na população estudada, determinar a prevalência da sensibilização aos mesmos, verificar as combinações de testes positivos e comparar com a literatura. CASUÍSTICAS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados testes epicutâneos em 1.208 pacientes com hipótese diagnóstica de DC. Selecionaram-se aqueles com testes positivos aos metais. RESULTADOS: Obtiveram-se 404 pacientes (33,5% da amostra com pelo menos um teste positivo ao níquel e/ou cobalto e/ou cromo. Foram 487 testes positivos a metais, correspondendo a 48% de todos os testes positivos. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (72%, de cor branca (54%, com idade entre 40 e 49 anos (25% empregada na área de limpeza (59%. Dos 404, 329 (81,5% foram positivos a apenas um tipo de metal, sendo 60% com teste positivo ao níquel, 13% ao cromo e 8,5% ao cobalto. Cerca de 18,5% apresentaram testes positivos a dois ou três metais, sendo a associação níquel/cobalto a mais comum. CONCLUSÕES: A sensibilização aos metais foi de 48%, entre os testes positivos e ocorreu principalmente em mulheres da cor branca, na faixa etária de 40 a 49 anos e sem correlação ocupacional. A maioria apresentou sensibilização a apenas um metal. Esses dados são semelhantes aos de outros trabalhos já publicados.BACKGROUND: Metal contact dermatitis (nickel, cobalt and chromium is a common dermatosis among several population groups. OBJECTIVE: To describe the individuals with metal contact dermatitis in the group studied, to determine the prevalence of skin sensitization by nickel, cobalt and chromium, to verify the positive test combinations among these three substances and to compare our results with the literature. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patch test was performed in 1208 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of contact dermatitis. Those with

  14. Evaluación de la resistencia a la corrosión erosión de recubrimientos de níquel modificados con nanopartículas de diamante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Amira Torres Medina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La incorporación de nanopartículas de carburos, nitruros, óxidos o diamante en una matriz metálica, generalmente muestran mejoras en la dureza, en la resistencia al desgaste y a la corrosión, comparado con un recubrimiento del metal puro. Estos recubrimientos compuestos se pueden obtener mediante la técnica de electrodeposición, logrando economía y calidad en los depósitos. Los recubrimientos de níquel modificados con nanopartículas de diamante (Ni-D, fueron aplicados sobre un acero AISI SAE 1016 mediante la técnica de electrodeposición desde una solución típica Watts sin aditivos, que contiene nanopartículas de diamante. El efecto que ejercen algunas variables que intervienen en el proceso de electrodeposición como: densidad de corriente, velocidad de agitación y concentración de partículas en el baño, en la dureza y en la resistencia a la corrosión-erosión, se estudiaron mediante un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado 2k. La resistencia a la corrosión- erosión se evaluó mediante el monitoreo del potencial de corrosión de las probetas con recubrimiento sometidas a un fluido corrosivo y abrasivo en movimiento. Los recubrimientos compuestos de Ni-D obtenidos presentan mejor resistencia a la corrosión-erosión que los recubrimientos de níquel puro. Los recubrimientos más resistentes a la corrosión-erosión fueron los obtenidos a 5 A/dm², 900 rpm y 10 g/L de diamante.

  15. Biossorção de níquel e cromo de um efluente de galvanoplastia utilizando alga marinha pré-tratada em coluna - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i2.864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Teresinha Veit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo da biossorção dos íons cromo e níquel presentes no efluente do processo de uma indústria de galvanoplastia, utilizando como biossorvente a biomassa de alga marinha pré-tratada Sargassum filipendula. As condições de operação da coluna foram: massa de biossorvente de 8 g, pH do efluente de alimentação 3,85, temperatura de 30ºC, vazão de 6 mL min.-1 e concentrações iniciais de alimentação (cromo+níquel de 7,12 e 3,66 meq L-1. Foi empregado um modelo matemático para representar a dinâmica da biossorção em coluna de leito fixo. O modelo da isoterma multicomponente de Langmuir (qm= 2,78 meq g-1, bCr = 0,85 L meq-1, bNi = 0,08 L meq-1 foi utilizado para representar os dados de equilíbrio da coluna e para simular a dinâmica de biossorção dos íons. Os resultados da simulação demonstraram que o modelo matemático empregado foi capaz de descrever satisfatoriamente a complexa dinâmica de biossorção dos íons presentes no efluente.

  16. Preparação e caracterização do compósito PVDF/Pani com partículas de níquel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel da Cruz Dias

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste trabalho partículas de níquel foram incorporadas através da mistura física do pó resultante da mistura PVDF/Pani obtido por síntese química. Filmes homogêneos foram obtidos através da prensagem a temperatura de 180°C. A partir dos resultados pode-se notar alterações favoráveis e desfavoráveis nas propriedades do compósito após a incorporação e como estas tornam-se dependentes da incorporação. Os resultados de difratometria apresentaram picos característicos tanto da fase α da matriz polimérica e das partículas de níquel, e juntamente com as analises térmicas, que não há alteração na estrutura conformacional e a configuracional. Mesmo apresentando uma boa estabilidade térmica a incorporação indica que além da presença do polímero condutor como o aumento de partículas são prejudiciais às propriedades mecânicas finais da amostra. As micrografias apresentam as partículas de forma dispersas ao longo do filme e determinantes para os valores de condutividade elétrica e obtenção de uma fase magnética.

  17. Toric Varieties and Codes, Error-correcting Codes, Quantum Codes, Secret Sharing and Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder

    We present toric varieties and associated toric codes and their decoding. Toric codes are applied to construct Linear Secret Sharing Schemes (LSSS) with strong multiplication by the Massey construction. Asymmetric Quantum Codes are obtained from toric codes by the A.R. Calderbank P.W. Shor and A.......M. Steane construction of stabilizer codes (CSS) from linear codes containing their dual codes....

  18. An Optimal Linear Coding for Index Coding Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pezeshkpour, Pouya

    2015-01-01

    An optimal linear coding solution for index coding problem is established. Instead of network coding approach by focus on graph theoric and algebraic methods a linear coding program for solving both unicast and groupcast index coding problem is presented. The coding is proved to be the optimal solution from the linear perspective and can be easily utilize for any number of messages. The importance of this work is lying mostly on the usage of the presented coding in the groupcast index coding ...

  19. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  20. Majorana fermion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara M; Leemhuis, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    We initiate the study of Majorana fermion codes (MFCs). These codes can be viewed as extensions of Kitaev's one-dimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions in quantum wires to higher spatial dimensions and interacting fermions. The purpose of MFCs is to protect quantum information against low-weight fermionic errors, that is, operators acting on sufficiently small subsets of fermionic modes. We examine to what extent MFCs can surpass qubit stabilizer codes in terms of their stability properties. A general construction of 2D MFCs is proposed that combines topological protection based on a macroscopic code distance with protection based on fermionic parity conservation. Finally, we use MFCs to show how to transform any qubit stabilizer code to a weakly self-dual CSS code.

  1. Theory of epigenetic coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, D

    1984-06-07

    The logic of genetic control of development may be based on a binary epigenetic code. This paper revises the author's previous scheme dealing with the numerology of annelid metamerism in these terms. Certain features of the code had been deduced to be combinatorial, others not. This paradoxical contrast is resolved here by the interpretation that these features relate to different operations of the code; the combinatiorial to coding identity of units, the non-combinatorial to coding production of units. Consideration of a second paradox in the theory of epigenetic coding leads to a new solution which further provides a basis for epimorphic regeneration, and may in particular throw light on the "regeneration-duplication" phenomenon. A possible test of the model is also put forward.

  2. DISP1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokac, P.

    1999-12-01

    DISP1 code is a simple tool for assessment of the dispersion of the fission product cloud escaping from a nuclear power plant after an accident. The code makes it possible to tentatively check the feasibility of calculations by more complex PSA3 codes and/or codes for real-time dispersion calculations. The number of input parameters is reasonably low and the user interface is simple enough to allow a rapid processing of sensitivity analyses. All input data entered through the user interface are stored in the text format. Implementation of dispersion model corrections taken from the ARCON96 code enables the DISP1 code to be employed for assessment of the radiation hazard within the NPP area, in the control room for instance. (P.A.)

  3. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  5. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described

  6. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  7. Tokamak Systems Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged

  8. Efficient Coding of Information: Huffman Coding -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to a stream of equally-likely symbols so as to recover the original stream in the event of errors. The for- ... The source-coding problem is one of finding a mapping from U to a ... probability that the random variable X takes the value x written as ...

  9. NR-code: Nonlinear reconstruction code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    NR-code applies nonlinear reconstruction to the dark matter density field in redshift space and solves for the nonlinear mapping from the initial Lagrangian positions to the final redshift space positions; this reverses the large-scale bulk flows and improves the precision measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale.

  10. Synthesizing Certified Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  11. Code of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  12. Interleaved Product LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Product LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of product codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.

  13. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  14. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  15. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene; Pries-Heje, Jan; Dalgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  16. RFQ simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1984-04-01

    We have developed the RFQLIB simulation system to provide a means to systematically generate the new versions of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac simulation codes that are required by the constantly changing needs of a research environment. This integrated system simplifies keeping track of the various versions of the simulation code and makes it practical to maintain complete and up-to-date documentation. In this scheme, there is a certain standard version of the simulation code that forms a library upon which new versions are built. To generate a new version of the simulation code, the routines to be modified or added are appended to a standard command file, which contains the commands to compile the new routines and link them to the routines in the library. The library itself is rarely changed. Whenever the library is modified, however, this modification is seen by all versions of the simulation code, which actually exist as different versions of the command file. All code is written according to the rules of structured programming. Modularity is enforced by not using COMMON statements, simplifying the relation of the data flow to a hierarchy diagram. Simulation results are similar to those of the PARMTEQ code, as expected, because of the similar physical model. Different capabilities, such as those for generating beams matched in detail to the structure, are available in the new code for help in testing new ideas in designing RFQ linacs

  17. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  18. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International... Code. International Property Maintenance Code. International Residential Code. International Swimming Pool and Spa Code International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. International Zoning Code. ICC Standards...

  19. Validation of thermalhydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Thermalhydraulic codes require to be validated against experimental data collected over a wide range of situations if they are to be relied upon. A good example is provided by the nuclear industry where codes are used for safety studies and for determining operating conditions. Errors in the codes could lead to financial penalties, to the incorrect estimation of the consequences of accidents and even to the accidents themselves. Comparison between prediction and experiment is often described qualitatively or in approximate terms, e.g. ''agreement is within 10%''. A quantitative method is preferable, especially when several competing codes are available. The codes can then be ranked in order of merit. Such a method is described. (Author)

  20. Fracture flow code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W; Herbert, A.; Long, J.

    1989-03-01

    The hydrology of the SCV site will be modelled utilizing discrete fracture flow models. These models are complex, and can not be fully cerified by comparison to analytical solutions. The best approach for verification of these codes is therefore cross-verification between different codes. This is complicated by the variation in assumptions and solution techniques utilized in different codes. Cross-verification procedures are defined which allow comparison of the codes developed by Harwell Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Golder Associates Inc. Six cross-verification datasets are defined for deterministic and stochastic verification of geometric and flow features of the codes. Additional datasets for verification of transport features will be documented in a future report. (13 figs., 7 tabs., 10 refs.) (authors)

  1. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  2. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  3. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  4. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  5. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  6. Transport theory and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter begins with a neutron transport equation which includes the one dimensional plane geometry problems, the one dimensional spherical geometry problems, and numerical solutions. The section on the ANISN code and its look-alikes covers problems which can be solved; eigenvalue problems; outer iteration loop; inner iteration loop; and finite difference solution procedures. The input and output data for ANISN is also discussed. Two dimensional problems such as the DOT code are given. Finally, an overview of the Monte-Carlo methods and codes are elaborated on

  7. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  8. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  9. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2018-01-01

    coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements

  10. SASSYS LMFBR systems code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.; Weber, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    The SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code is being developed mainly to analyze the behavior of the shut-down heat-removal system and the consequences of failures in the system, although it is also capable of analyzing a wide range of transients, from mild operational transients through more severe transients leading to sodium boiling in the core and possible melting of clad and fuel. The code includes a detailed SAS4A multi-channel core treatment plus a general thermal-hydraulic treatment of the primary and intermediate heat-transport loops and the steam generators. The code can handle any LMFBR design, loop or pool, with an arbitrary arrangement of components. The code is fast running: usually faster than real time

  11. OCA Code Enforcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Office of the County Attorney (OCA) processes Code Violation Citations issued by County agencies. The citations can be viewed by issued department, issued date...

  12. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  13. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  14. Induction technology optimization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. (Author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  15. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  16. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  17. Reactor lattice codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowska, T.

    2001-01-01

    The description of reactor lattice codes is carried out on the example of the WIMSD-5B code. The WIMS code in its various version is the most recognised lattice code. It is used in all parts of the world for calculations of research and power reactors. The version WIMSD-5B is distributed free of charge by NEA Data Bank. The description of its main features given in the present lecture follows the aspects defined previously for lattice calculations in the lecture on Reactor Lattice Transport Calculations. The spatial models are described, and the approach to the energy treatment is given. Finally the specific algorithm applied in fuel depletion calculations is outlined. (author)

  18. Critical Care Coding for Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwer, Marc R; Vespa, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  19. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  20. Towards advanced code simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriven, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) uses advanced thermohydraulic codes extensively to support PWR safety analyses. A system has been developed to allow fully interactive execution of any code with graphical simulation of the operator desk and mimic display. The system operates in a virtual machine environment, with the thermohydraulic code executing in one virtual machine, communicating via interrupts with any number of other virtual machines each running other programs and graphics drivers. The driver code itself does not have to be modified from its normal batch form. Shortly following the release of RELAP5 MOD1 in IBM compatible form in 1983, this code was used as the driver for this system. When RELAP5 MOD2 became available, it was adopted with no changes needed in the basic system. Overall the system has been used for some 5 years for the analysis of LOBI tests, full scale plant studies and for simple what-if studies. For gaining rapid understanding of system dependencies it has proved invaluable. The graphical mimic system, being independent of the driver code, has also been used with other codes to study core rewetting, to replay results obtained from batch jobs on a CRAY2 computer system and to display suitably processed experimental results from the LOBI facility to aid interpretation. For the above work real-time execution was not necessary. Current work now centers on implementing the RELAP 5 code on a true parallel architecture machine. Marconi Simulation have been contracted to investigate the feasibility of using upwards of 100 processors, each capable of a peak of 30 MIPS to run a highly detailed RELAP5 model in real time, complete with specially written 3D core neutronics and balance of plant models. This paper describes the experience of using RELAP5 as an analyzer/simulator, and outlines the proposed methods and problems associated with parallel execution of RELAP5

  1. Cracking the Gender Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    extensive work to raise the proportion of women. This has helped slightly, but women remain underrepresented at the corporate top. Why is this so? What can be done to solve it? This article presents five different types of answers relating to five discursive codes: nature, talent, business, exclusion...... in leadership management, we must become more aware and take advantage of this complexity. We must crack the codes in order to crack the curve....

  2. PEAR code review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, R.; Jamieson, T.; Lord, M.; Lafortune, J.F.

    1997-07-01

    As a necessary component in the continuous improvement and refinement of methodologies employed in the nuclear industry, regulatory agencies need to periodically evaluate these processes to improve confidence in results and ensure appropriate levels of safety are being achieved. The independent and objective review of industry-standard computer codes forms an essential part of this program. To this end, this work undertakes an in-depth review of the computer code PEAR (Public Exposures from Accidental Releases), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to assess accidental releases from CANDU reactors. PEAR is based largely on the models contained in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) N288.2-M91. This report presents the results of a detailed technical review of the PEAR code to identify any variations from the CSA standard and other supporting documentation, verify the source code, assess the quality of numerical models and results, and identify general strengths and weaknesses of the code. The version of the code employed in this review is the one which AECL intends to use for CANDU 9 safety analyses. (author)

  3. KENO-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P 1 scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes

  4. Code, standard and specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography also same as the other technique, it need standard. This standard was used widely and method of used it also regular. With that, radiography testing only practical based on regulations as mentioned and documented. These regulation or guideline documented in code, standard and specifications. In Malaysia, level one and basic radiographer can do radiography work based on instruction give by level two or three radiographer. This instruction was produced based on guideline that mention in document. Level two must follow the specifications mentioned in standard when write the instruction. From this scenario, it makes clearly that this radiography work is a type of work that everything must follow the rule. For the code, the radiography follow the code of American Society for Mechanical Engineer (ASME) and the only code that have in Malaysia for this time is rule that published by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) known as Practical code for radiation Protection in Industrial radiography. With the existence of this code, all the radiography must follow the rule or standard regulated automatically.

  5. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content ...

  6. SPECTRAL AMPLITUDE CODING OCDMA SYSTEMS USING ENHANCED DOUBLE WEIGHT CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. HASOON

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new code structure for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems based on double weight (DW code families is proposed. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Enhanced double-weight (EDW code is another variation of a DW code family that can has a variable weight greater than one. The EDW code possesses ideal cross-correlation properties and exists for every natural number n. A much better performance can be provided by using the EDW code compared to the existing code such as Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes. It has been observed that theoretical analysis and simulation for EDW is much better performance compared to Hadamard and Modified Frequency-Hopping (MFH codes.

  7. Nuclear code abstracts (1975 edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanuma, Makoto; Hirakawa, Takashi

    1976-02-01

    Nuclear Code Abstracts is compiled in the Nuclear Code Committee to exchange information of the nuclear code developments among members of the committee. Enlarging the collection, the present one includes nuclear code abstracts obtained in 1975 through liaison officers of the organizations in Japan participating in the Nuclear Energy Agency's Computer Program Library at Ispra, Italy. The classification of nuclear codes and the format of code abstracts are the same as those in the library. (auth.)

  8. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  9. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  10. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  11. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  12. The Aster code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  13. Adaptive distributed source coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varodayan, David; Lin, Yao-Chung; Girod, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    We consider distributed source coding in the presence of hidden variables that parameterize the statistical dependence among sources. We derive the Slepian-Wolf bound and devise coding algorithms for a block-candidate model of this problem. The encoder sends, in addition to syndrome bits, a portion of the source to the decoder uncoded as doping bits. The decoder uses the sum-product algorithm to simultaneously recover the source symbols and the hidden statistical dependence variables. We also develop novel techniques based on density evolution (DE) to analyze the coding algorithms. We experimentally confirm that our DE analysis closely approximates practical performance. This result allows us to efficiently optimize parameters of the algorithms. In particular, we show that the system performs close to the Slepian-Wolf bound when an appropriate doping rate is selected. We then apply our coding and analysis techniques to a reduced-reference video quality monitoring system and show a bit rate saving of about 75% compared with fixed-length coding.

  14. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  15. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, S.; Hussein, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  16. Aztheca Code; Codigo Aztheca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada G, S.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Centeno P, J.; Sanchez M, H., E-mail: sequga@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Exterior s/n, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents the Aztheca code, which is formed by the mathematical models of neutron kinetics, power generation, heat transfer, core thermo-hydraulics, recirculation systems, dynamic pressure and level models and control system. The Aztheca code is validated with plant data, as well as with predictions from the manufacturer when the reactor operates in a stationary state. On the other hand, to demonstrate that the model is applicable during a transient, an event occurred in a nuclear power plant with a BWR reactor is selected. The plant data are compared with the results obtained with RELAP-5 and the Aztheca model. The results show that both RELAP-5 and the Aztheca code have the ability to adequately predict the behavior of the reactor. (Author)

  17. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Revised SRAC code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio; Ido, Masaru.

    1986-09-01

    Since the publication of JAERI-1285 in 1983 for the preliminary version of the SRAC code system, a number of additions and modifications to the functions have been made to establish an overall neutronics code system. Major points are (1) addition of JENDL-2 version of data library, (2) a direct treatment of doubly heterogeneous effect on resonance absorption, (3) a generalized Dancoff factor, (4) a cell calculation based on the fixed boundary source problem, (5) the corresponding edit required for experimental analysis and reactor design, (6) a perturbation theory calculation for reactivity change, (7) an auxiliary code for core burnup and fuel management, etc. This report is a revision of the users manual which consists of the general description, input data requirements and their explanation, detailed information on usage, mathematics, contents of libraries and sample I/O. (author)

  19. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  20. La calidad de la información en el proceso de automatización de la minería del níquel en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana M. Laborde-Chacón

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Enfocado hacia la automatización, se analizan los aspectos cualitativos que definen la calidad de la información utilizada en las actividades de la minería cubana del níquel, y se destacan en primer lugar los criterios para la clasificación de esta información, así como los elementos por considerar a fin de definir el formato, organización y herramientas para la manipulación de la misma. En segundo lugar, son valorados los aspectos básicos que garantizan la fiabilidad de la información y la capacidad del personal técnico, geólogo y minero, para relacionarse con la información en computadoras; se argumenta la necesidad de crear en cada mina un Grupo de Gestión de Datos y de Informatización. Finalmente, se definen los conceptos de Información Disponible, Información Visible e Información Oculta, a la vez que se plantean las formas más comunes de acceso a la información y la protección de la misma.

  1. The correspondence between projective codes and 2-weight codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Eupen, van M.J.M.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.; Willems, F.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The hyperplanes intersecting a 2-weight code in the same number of points obviously form the point set of a projective code. On the other hand, if we have a projective code C, then we can make a 2-weight code by taking the multiset of points E PC with multiplicity "Y(w), where W is the weight of

  2. Visualizing code and coverage changes for code review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwaal, Sebastiaan; van Deursen, A.; De Souza Coelho, R.; Sawant, A.A.; Bacchelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the tasks of reviewers is to verify that code modifications are well tested. However, current tools offer little support in understanding precisely how changes to the code relate to changes to the tests. In particular, it is hard to see whether (modified) test code covers the changed code.

  3. Turbo-Gallager Codes: The Emergence of an Intelligent Coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, both turbo codes and low-density parity-check codes are largely superior to other code families and are being used in an increasing number of modern communication systems including 3G standards, satellite and deep space communications. However, the two codes have certain distinctive characteristics that ...

  4. Code of Medical Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . SZD-SZZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Te Code was approved on December 12, 1992, at the 3rd regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia and revised on April 24, 1997, at the 27th regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia. The Code was updated and harmonized with the Medical Association of Slovenia and approved on October 6, 2016, at the regular meeting of the General Assembly of the Medical Chamber of Slovenia.

  5. Supervised Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed

    2018-04-08

    Convolutional Sparse Coding (CSC) is a well-established image representation model especially suited for image restoration tasks. In this work, we extend the applicability of this model by proposing a supervised approach to convolutional sparse coding, which aims at learning discriminative dictionaries instead of purely reconstructive ones. We incorporate a supervised regularization term into the traditional unsupervised CSC objective to encourage the final dictionary elements to be discriminative. Experimental results show that using supervised convolutional learning results in two key advantages. First, we learn more semantically relevant filters in the dictionary and second, we achieve improved image reconstruction on unseen data.

  6. CONCEPT computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.

    1984-01-01

    CONCEPT is a computer code that will provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for nuclear and coal-fired power plants. The code can develop an estimate for construction at any point in time. Any unit size within the range of about 400 to 1300 MW electric may be selected. Any of 23 reference site locations across the United States and Canada may be selected. PWR, BWR, and coal-fired plants burning high-sulfur and low-sulfur coal can be estimated. Multiple-unit plants can be estimated. Costs due to escalation/inflation and interest during construction are calculated

  7. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  8. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...... includes a reformulation of the usual methods to estimate the minimum distances of evaluation codes into the setting of affine variety codes. Finally we describe the connection to the theory of one-pointgeometric Goppa codes. Contents 4.1 Introduction...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 4.9 Codes form order domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 4.10 One-point geometric Goppa codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 4.11 Bibliographical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 References...

  9. Dual Coding in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  10. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  11. Radioactive action code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    A new coding system, 'Hazrad', for buildings and transportation containers for alerting emergency services personnel to the presence of radioactive materials has been developed in the United Kingdom. The hazards of materials in the buildings or transport container, together with the recommended emergency action, are represented by a number of codes which are marked on the building or container and interpreted from a chart carried as a pocket-size guide. Buildings would be marked with the familiar yellow 'radioactive' trefoil, the written information 'Radioactive materials' and a list of isotopes. Under this the 'Hazrad' code would be written - three symbols to denote the relative radioactive risk (low, medium or high), the biological risk (also low, medium or high) and the third showing the type of radiation emitted, alpha, beta or gamma. The response cards indicate appropriate measures to take, eg for a high biological risk, Bio3, the wearing of a gas-tight protection suit is advised. The code and its uses are explained. (U.K.)

  12. Building Codes and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  13. Physics of codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Jones, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The title given this paper is a bit presumptuous, since one can hardly expect to cover the physics incorporated into all the codes already written and currently being written. The authors focus on those codes which have been found to be particularly useful in the analysis and design of linacs. At that the authors will be a bit parochial and discuss primarily those codes used for the design of radio-frequency (rf) linacs, although the discussions of TRANSPORT and MARYLIE have little to do with the time structures of the beams being analyzed. The plan of this paper is first to describe rather simply the concepts of emittance and brightness, then to describe rather briefly each of the codes TRANSPORT, PARMTEQ, TBCI, MARYLIE, and ISIS, indicating what physics is and is not included in each of them. It is expected that the vast majority of what is covered will apply equally well to protons and electrons (and other particles). This material is intended to be tutorial in nature and can in no way be expected to be exhaustive. 31 references, 4 figures

  14. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  15. Ready, steady… Code!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This summer, CERN took part in the Google Summer of Code programme for the third year in succession. Open to students from all over the world, this programme leads to very successful collaborations for open source software projects.   Image: GSoC 2013. Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global programme that offers student developers grants to write code for open-source software projects. Since its creation in 2005, the programme has brought together some 6,000 students from over 100 countries worldwide. The students selected by Google are paired with a mentor from one of the participating projects, which can be led by institutes, organisations, companies, etc. This year, CERN PH Department’s SFT (Software Development for Experiments) Group took part in the GSoC programme for the third time, submitting 15 open-source projects. “Once published on the Google Summer for Code website (in April), the projects are open to applications,” says Jakob Blomer, one of the o...

  16. CERN Code of Conduct

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR

    2010-01-01

    The Code is intended as a guide in helping us, as CERN contributors, to understand how to conduct ourselves, treat others and expect to be treated. It is based around the five core values of the Organization. We should all become familiar with it and try to incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.

  17. Nuclear safety code study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.H.; Ford, D.; Le, H.; Park, S.; Cooke, K.L.; Bleakney, T.; Spanier, J.; Wilburn, N.P.; O' Reilly, B.; Carmichael, B.

    1981-01-01

    The objective is to analyze an overpower accident in an LMFBR. A simplified model of the primary coolant loop was developed in order to understand the instabilities encountered with the MELT III and SAS codes. The computer programs were translated for switching to the IBM 4331. Numerical methods were investigated for solving the neutron kinetics equations; the Adams and Gear methods were compared. (DLC)

  18. Revised C++ coding conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Callot, O

    2001-01-01

    This document replaces the note LHCb 98-049 by Pavel Binko. After a few years of practice, some simplification and clarification of the rules was needed. As many more people have now some experience in writing C++ code, their opinion was also taken into account to get a commonly agreed set of conventions

  19. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  20. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    information and coding theory. A large scale relay computer had failed to deliver the expected results due to a hardware fault. Hamming, one of the active proponents of computer usage, was determined to find an efficient means by which computers could detect and correct their own faults. A mathematician by train-.

  1. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives ...

  2. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  3. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  4. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  5. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    having a probability Pi of being equal to a 1. Let us assume ... equal to a 0/1 has no bearing on the probability of the. It is often ... bits (call this set S) whose individual bits add up to zero ... In the context of binary error-correct~ng codes, specifi-.

  6. The Redox Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Sies, Helmut

    2015-09-20

    The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O₂ and H₂O₂ contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine.

  7. Z₂-double cyclic codes

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, J.

    2014-01-01

    A binary linear code C is a Z2-double cyclic code if the set of coordinates can be partitioned into two subsets such that any cyclic shift of the coordinates of both subsets leaves invariant the code. These codes can be identified as submodules of the Z2[x]-module Z2[x]/(x^r − 1) × Z2[x]/(x^s − 1). We determine the structure of Z2-double cyclic codes giving the generator polynomials of these codes. The related polynomial representation of Z2-double cyclic codes and its duals, and the relation...

  8. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Essential idempotents and simplex codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Chalom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We define essential idempotents in group algebras and use them to prove that every mininmal abelian non-cyclic code is a repetition code. Also we use them to prove that every minimal abelian code is equivalent to a minimal cyclic code of the same length. Finally, we show that a binary cyclic code is simplex if and only if is of length of the form $n=2^k-1$ and is generated by an essential idempotent.

  10. Rate-adaptive BCH codes for distributed source coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for distributed source coding. A feedback channel is employed to adapt the rate of the code during the decoding process. The focus is on codes with short block lengths for independently coding a binary source X and decoding it given its...... strategies for improving the reliability of the decoded result are analyzed, and methods for estimating the performance are proposed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. Simulation results show that rate-adaptive BCH codes achieve better performance than low...... correlated side information Y. The proposed codes have been analyzed in a high-correlation scenario, where the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X, given Y is highly skewed (unbalanced). Rate-adaptive BCH codes are presented and applied to distributed source coding. Adaptive and fixed checking...

  11. Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes constructed from negacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhang; Huang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Chunhui; Chen, Riqing

    2017-12-01

    Recently, entanglement-assisted quantum codes have been constructed from cyclic codes by some scholars. However, how to determine the number of shared pairs required to construct entanglement-assisted quantum codes is not an easy work. In this paper, we propose a decomposition of the defining set of negacyclic codes. Based on this method, four families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes constructed in this paper satisfy the entanglement-assisted quantum Singleton bound, where the minimum distance satisfies q+1 ≤ d≤ n+2/2. Furthermore, we construct two families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes with maximal entanglement.

  12. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  13. Coded Network Function Virtualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off......-the-shelf hardware is less reliable than the dedicated network elements used in conventional cellular deployments. The typical solution for this problem is to duplicate network functions across geographically distributed hardware in order to ensure diversity. In contrast, this letter proposes to leverage channel...... coding in order to enhance the robustness on NFV to hardware failure. The proposed approach targets the network function of uplink channel decoding, and builds on the algebraic structure of the encoded data frames in order to perform in-network coding on the signals to be processed at different servers...

  14. The NIMROD Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, D. D.; Glasser, A. H.

    1996-11-01

    NIMROD is a new code system that is being developed for the analysis of modern fusion experiments. It is being designed from the beginning to make the maximum use of massively parallel computer architectures and computer graphics. The NIMROD physics kernel solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations with neo-classical effects in toroidal geometry of arbitrary poloidal cross section. The NIMROD system also includes a pre-processor, a grid generator, and a post processor. User interaction with NIMROD is facilitated by a modern graphical user interface (GUI). The NIMROD project is using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) team management techniques to minimize re-engineering and reduce code development time. This paper gives an overview of the NIMROD project. Operation of the GUI is demonstrated, and the first results from the physics kernel are given.

  15. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  16. Discrete Sparse Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchakis, Georgios; Lücke, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Sparse coding algorithms with continuous latent variables have been the subject of a large number of studies. However, discrete latent spaces for sparse coding have been largely ignored. In this work, we study sparse coding with latents described by discrete instead of continuous prior distributions. We consider the general case in which the latents (while being sparse) can take on any value of a finite set of possible values and in which we learn the prior probability of any value from data. This approach can be applied to any data generated by discrete causes, and it can be applied as an approximation of continuous causes. As the prior probabilities are learned, the approach then allows for estimating the prior shape without assuming specific functional forms. To efficiently train the parameters of our probabilistic generative model, we apply a truncated expectation-maximization approach (expectation truncation) that we modify to work with a general discrete prior. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm by applying it to a variety of tasks: (1) we use artificial data to verify that the algorithm can recover the generating parameters from a random initialization, (2) use image patches of natural images and discuss the role of the prior for the extraction of image components, (3) use extracellular recordings of neurons to present a novel method of analysis for spiking neurons that includes an intuitive discretization strategy, and (4) apply the algorithm on the task of encoding audio waveforms of human speech. The diverse set of numerical experiments presented in this letter suggests that discrete sparse coding algorithms can scale efficiently to work with realistic data sets and provide novel statistical quantities to describe the structure of the data.

  17. Code of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Colin; Hone, Christopher; Nowlan, N.V.

    1984-05-01

    This Code of Practice introduces accepted safety procedures associated with the use of alpha, beta, gamma and X-radiation in secondary schools (pupils aged 12 to 18) in Ireland, and summarises good practice and procedures as they apply to radiation protection. Typical dose rates at various distances from sealed sources are quoted, and simplified equations are used to demonstrate dose and shielding calculations. The regulatory aspects of radiation protection are outlined, and references to statutory documents are given

  18. Tokamak simulation code manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Kyoo; Oh, Byung Hoon; Hong, Bong Keun; Lee, Kwang Won

    1995-01-01

    The method to use TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code) developed by Princeton plasma physics laboratory is illustrated. In KT-2 tokamak, time dependent simulation of axisymmetric toroidal plasma and vertical stability have to be taken into account in design phase using TSC. In this report physical modelling of TSC are described and examples of application in JAERI and SERI are illustrated, which will be useful when TSC is installed KAERI computer system. (Author) 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  20. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....

  1. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Code Modernization of VPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert; Nystrom, David; Albright, Brian

    2017-10-01

    The ability of scientific simulations to effectively deliver performant computation is increasingly being challenged by successive generations of high-performance computing architectures. Code development to support efficient computation on these modern architectures is both expensive, and highly complex; if it is approached without due care, it may also not be directly transferable between subsequent hardware generations. Previous works have discussed techniques to support the process of adapting a legacy code for modern hardware generations, but despite the breakthroughs in the areas of mini-app development, portable-performance, and cache oblivious algorithms the problem still remains largely unsolved. In this work we demonstrate how a focus on platform agnostic modern code-development can be applied to Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to facilitate effective scientific delivery. This work builds directly on our previous work optimizing VPIC, in which we replaced intrinsic based vectorisation with compile generated auto-vectorization to improve the performance and portability of VPIC. In this work we present the use of a specialized SIMD queue for processing some particle operations, and also preview a GPU capable OpenMP variant of VPIC. Finally we include a lessons learnt. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 and supported by the LANL LDRD program.

  3. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  4. MELCOR computer code manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR's phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package

  5. Quality Improvement of MARS Code and Establishment of Code Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2010-04-01

    The improvement of MARS code quality and coupling with regulatory auditing code have been accomplished for the establishment of self-reliable technology based regulatory auditing system. The unified auditing system code was realized also by implementing the CANDU specific models and correlations. As a part of the quality assurance activities, the various QA reports were published through the code assessments. The code manuals were updated and published a new manual which describe the new models and correlations. The code coupling methods were verified though the exercise of plant application. The education-training seminar and technology transfer were performed for the code users. The developed MARS-KS is utilized as reliable auditing tool for the resolving the safety issue and other regulatory calculations. The code can be utilized as a base technology for GEN IV reactor applications

  6. Design of convolutional tornado code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Yang, Yao; Gao, Hongmin; Tan, Lu

    2017-09-01

    As a linear block code, the traditional tornado (tTN) code is inefficient in burst-erasure environment and its multi-level structure may lead to high encoding/decoding complexity. This paper presents a convolutional tornado (cTN) code which is able to improve the burst-erasure protection capability by applying the convolution property to the tTN code, and reduce computational complexity by abrogating the multi-level structure. The simulation results show that cTN code can provide a better packet loss protection performance with lower computation complexity than tTN code.

  7. Random linear codes in steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  8. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  9. Aspectos metalúrgicos de revestimentos dissimilares com a superliga à base de níquel inconel 625 Metallurgical aspects of dissimilar weld overlays of inconel 625 nickel based superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Carvalho Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolongar a vida útil e aumentar a confiabilidade de equipamentos e tubulações de plantas de produção e processamento de petróleo é uma busca constante no setor de petróleo e gás. Tais aspectos dependem essencialmente do uso de ligas resistentes à corrosão. Neste contexto, a soldagem de revestimento com superligas à base de níquel tem sido uma alternativa interessante, pois confere aos equipamentos uma alta resistência à corrosão com um custo inferior, se comparado à fabricação de componentes ou tubulações maciças com superligas. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o comportamento metalúrgico de revestimento de superliga à base de níquel do tipo Inconel 625 depositados pelo processo TIG com alimentação de arame frio. As soldagens foram realizadas em uma bancada robotizada, empregando uma fonte eletrônica de soldagem com sistema de aquisição de dados para o monitoramento dos sinais de corrente e tensão. A caracterização microestrutural foi realizada através das técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e transmissão (MET, espectroscopia de energia dispersiva de raios-X (EDS. Os resultados mostraram que a microestrutura do metal de solda foi constituída por uma matriz γ com fases secundárias ricas em Nb. Foi encontrada a formação de precipitados complexos de carbonetos/nitretos de Ti e Nb.To extend the life and reliability of pipes and equipment in oil & gas production and processing settings is a continuous demand. These aspects are essentially dependent on corrosion resistant alloys used. In this context, the weld overlay with Ni-based superalloys is a great interesting alternative, since improve the corrosion resistance without increase the cost of manufacture when compared to massive equipment. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the metallurgical aspects of Inconel 625 weld overlays deposited by GTAW cold wire feed process. The welds were performed using a

  10. Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Thommesen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes.......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes....

  11. TASS code topical report. V.1 TASS code technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Suk K.; Chang, W. P.; Kim, K. D.; Kim, H. C.; Yoon, H. Y.

    1997-02-01

    TASS 1.0 code has been developed at KAERI for the initial and reload non-LOCA safety analysis for the operating PWRs as well as the PWRs under construction in Korea. TASS code will replace various vendor's non-LOCA safety analysis codes currently used for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs in Korea. This can be achieved through TASS code input modifications specific to each reactor type. The TASS code can be run interactively through the keyboard operation. A simimodular configuration used in developing the TASS code enables the user easily implement new models. TASS code has been programmed using FORTRAN77 which makes it easy to install and port for different computer environments. The TASS code can be utilized for the steady state simulation as well as the non-LOCA transient simulations such as power excursions, reactor coolant pump trips, load rejections, loss of feedwater, steam line breaks, steam generator tube ruptures, rod withdrawal and drop, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The malfunctions of the control systems, components, operator actions and the transients caused by the malfunctions can be easily simulated using the TASS code. This technical report describes the TASS 1.0 code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code models including reactor thermal hydraulic, reactor core and control models. This TASS code technical manual has been prepared as a part of the TASS code manual which includes TASS code user's manual and TASS code validation report, and will be submitted to the regulatory body as a TASS code topical report for a licensing non-LOCA safety analysis for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs operating and under construction in Korea. (author). 42 refs., 29 tabs., 32 figs

  12. Construction of new quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Divya; Gupta, Manish; Narula, Rajesh; Bhullar, Jaskaran

    Obtaining quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes from dual containing classical constacyclic codes using Hermitian construction have paved a path to undertake the challenges related to such constructions. Using the same technique, some new parameters of quantum MDS codes have been constructed here. One set of parameters obtained in this paper has achieved much larger distance than work done earlier. The remaining constructed parameters of quantum MDS codes have large minimum distance and were not explored yet.

  13. OXIDACIÓN DE LA SUPERFICIE DE CARBÓN ACTIVADO MEDIANTEHNO3 Y H2O2: EFECTO SOBRE LA REMOCIÓN DE NÍQUEL (IIEN SOLUCIÓN ACUOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodriguez estupiñan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el efecto de la modificaciónde la química superficial deun carbón activado granular, CAG, poroxidación con ácido nítrico, CAG-N,y peróxido de hidrogeno, CAG-P en laadsorción de iones níquel desde soluciónacuosa.Las muestras obtenidas se caracterizarona través de diferentes técnicas; laquímica superficial se evaluó por determinacionesde acidez y basicidad total,punto de carga cero y espectroscopia IR,que muestran el efecto del agente oxidante.Los parámetros texturales, como áreasuperficial BET y volúmenes de poro, seevaluaron mediante adsorción de gases.Los valores de área superficial BET delos sólidos se encuentran entre 816 y 876m2g-1, adicionalmente se determinaronentalpías de inmersión de los carbonesactivados en agua y benceno.Finalmente, los resultados experimentalesde la adsorción desde soluciónse ajustaron a los modelos de Langmuir,Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson y Toth,y se encontró el mejor ajuste para esteúltimo. Los valores de la capacidad deadsorción determinadas por el modelo deLangmuir están entre 29,68 y 50,97 mgg-1, lo que indica que la capacidad de adsorcióndepende, en gran medida, de laquímica superficial del sólido.

  14. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli.

  15. TEORES DE DIMETIL SULFETO ESTIMADOS PELO MÉTODO NÍQUEL-RANEY E ACEITABILIDADE DE AMOSTRAS DE CACHAÇA Dimethyl sulfide contents estimated by Ni-Raney method and “cachaça” samples acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. A. TOLEDO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    O defeito sensorial das aguardentes de cana destiladas na ausência de cobre já foi relacionado com a presença do dimetil sulfeto (DMS, o que revela a importância de identificar os teores deste composto eventualmente presente nesta bebida. Considerando-se, porém, o custo relativamente elevado dos métodos de cromatografia de fase gasosa até agora utilizados na determinação do DMS, foi objetivo deste trabalho avaliar a possível utilização do método de Níquel-Raney como forma de controlar o referido defeito. Nesse sentido foi estudada a relação entre os teores de DMS estimados pelo método proposto, com sua influência sensorial avaliada através de testes de aceitação. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que mesmo em concentrações abaixo de 5mg/L, os testes sensoriais revelam haver alta correlação entre os teores de DMS, determinados pelo método de Níquel-Raney com a diminuição da qualidade sensorial das amostras avaliadas. Os resultados obtidos permitem propor o método de Níquel-Raney como uma opção válida no controle da presença de DMS na cachaça e assim, prevenir efeitos negativos na qualidade sensorial do produto final.

    The sensory defect of “cachaça”, when distilled in absence of copper, had been already related to dimethyl sulphide levels, pointing out the importance to control its contents in this beverage. Considering the relatively higher costs of the gas-chromatography techniques, the aim of this work was to evaluate the possible use of the Níquel-Raney method, to control the dimethyl sulphide contents. In this way, the dimethyl sulphide contents (estimated by Níquel-Raney method and its sensory deffect evaluated by acceptability sensory tests, were compared. The results showed that

  16. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  17. Apical displacement produced by rotary nickel-titanium instruments and stainless steel files Deslocamento apical produzido por instrumentos de níquel-titânio acionados a motor e limas de aço inoxidável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Vanni

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical displacement produced by different rotary nickel-titanium instruments, testing the hypothesis that rotary systems with nickel-titanium instruments produce lower mean values of apical displacement than stainless steel hand instruments. A total of 100 maxillary permanent first molars were selected for the study. The mesiobuccal roots were sectioned at the top cervical third and embedded in blocks of self-curing resin. The specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups and the root canals were prepared using the following nickel-titanium instruments: Group 1 - Quantec system 2000 (Analytic Endodontics, Mexico; Group 2 - Pro-File T.0.04 (Dentsply/Maillefer, Switzerland; Group 3 - Pro-File Series 29 T.0.04 (Dentsply Tulsa, Switzerland; Group 4 - Pow-R T.0.02 (Moyco-Union Broach, USA. Specimens in Group 5 were prepared using stainless steel hand instruments Flexofile (Dentsply/Maillefer, Switzerland. All root canals were previously submitted to cervical preparation using Orifice Shaper instruments #1, 2, 3 and 4 (Dentsply/Maillefer, Switzerland. After odontometry, the remaining root canal was shaped employing increasingly larger instruments, so that the final instrument corresponded to Quantec #9, Pro-File Series 29 #6, and #35 for the other groups. Specimens in Groups 1 to 4 were prepared using an electric handpiece with 16:1 reduction at 350 rpm. The specimens in Group 5 were manually prepared. Apical displacement was measured and recorded by means of radiographic superimposition on a specific desk. Statistical analysis (ANOVA of the results revealed that all groups presented apical displacements. Considering only the nickel-titanium instruments, Group 4 showed the lowest mean value while Groups 2 and 3 produced the highest mean apical displacement values (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o deslocamento apical produzido por diferentes instrumentos de níquel-titânio acionadas a motor testando a

  18. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Remoção de níquel(II de soluções aquosas pela biomassa Sargassum filipendula em múltiplos ciclos de sorção-dessorção - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i1.840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Aparecida Seolatto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o desempenho da alga marinha Sargassum filipendula na remoção de níquel de uma solução de concentração de 50 mg L-1 em pH 3,5, em colunas de leito fixo que operam em ciclos de adsorção/dessorção. Foram testados dois sistemas de eluição; o primeiro operou com a passagem direta e o segundo com a recirculação do eluente. Em seguida, foram realizados dez ciclos consecutivos de sorção-dessorção em duas colunas de leito fixo, uma regenerada com o eluente H2SO4 (0,1 M e outra com MgSO4/H2SO4 (pH 3, em sistema de recirculação do eluente. As etapas de sorção e dessorção foram realizadas em 30 e 2h, respectivamente, representando 20 dias de uso contínuo da biomassa. Foi observada alta quantidade recuperada de níquel nas etapas de eluição (aproximadamente 95%. Ao final do décimo ciclo, verificou-se que a alga Sargassum filipendula continuava apresentando valores elevados da capacidade de remoção de níquel da solução, mostrando-se como alternativa eficiente de tratamento de águas residuárias contendo metais. A regeneração da biomassa apresentou baixo custo, além de ter facilitado o processo de tratamento que dispensou trocas sucessivas da biomassa.

  20. Code stroke in Asturias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, L; Villanueva, M J; Vega, P; Casado, I; Vidal, J A; Castaño, B; Amorín, M; de la Vega, V; Santos, H; Trigo, A; Gómez, M B; Larrosa, D; Temprano, T; González, M; Murias, E; Calleja, S

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase is an effective treatment for ischaemic stroke when applied during the first 4.5 hours, but less than 15% of patients have access to this technique. Mechanical thrombectomy is more frequently able to recanalise proximal occlusions in large vessels, but the infrastructure it requires makes it even less available. We describe the implementation of code stroke in Asturias, as well as the process of adapting various existing resources for urgent stroke care in the region. By considering these resources, and the demographic and geographic circumstances of our region, we examine ways of reorganising the code stroke protocol that would optimise treatment times and provide the most appropriate treatment for each patient. We distributed the 8 health districts in Asturias so as to permit referral of candidates for reperfusion therapies to either of the 2 hospitals with 24-hour stroke units and on-call neurologists and providing IV fibrinolysis. Hospitals were assigned according to proximity and stroke severity; the most severe cases were immediately referred to the hospital with on-call interventional neurology care. Patient triage was provided by pre-hospital emergency services according to the NIHSS score. Modifications to code stroke in Asturias have allowed us to apply reperfusion therapies with good results, while emphasising equitable care and managing the severity-time ratio to offer the best and safest treatment for each patient as soon as possible. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Decoding Xing-Ling codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed.......This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed....

  2. WWER reactor physics code applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, J.; Kereszturi, A.; Gacs, A.; Telbisz, M.

    1994-01-01

    The coupled steady-state reactor physics and thermohydraulic code system KARATE has been developed and applied for WWER-1000 and WWER-440 operational calculations. The 3 D coupled kinetic code KIKO3D has been developed and validated for WWER-440 accident analysis applications. The coupled kinetic code SMARTA developed by VTT Helsinki has been applied for WWER-440 accident analysis. The paper gives a summary of the experience in code development and application. (authors). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  3. The path of code linting

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  4. The CORSYS neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.; Krumbein, A.D.; Saphier, D.; Shapira, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assemble a code package for LWR core physics including coupled neutronics, burnup and thermal hydraulics. The CORSYS system is built around the cell code WIMS (for group microscopic cross section calculations) and 3-dimension diffusion code CITATION (for burnup and fuel management). We are implementing such a system on an IBM RS-6000 workstation. The code was rested with a simplified model of the Zion Unit 2 PWR. (authors). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs

  5. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  6. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially-available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  7. Quick response codes in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moidin Shakil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick response (QR code codes are two-dimensional barcodes, which encodes for a large amount of information. QR codes in Orthodontics are an innovative approach in which patient details, radiographic interpretation, and treatment plan can be encoded. Implementing QR code in Orthodontics will save time, reduces paperwork, and minimizes manual efforts in storage and retrieval of patient information during subsequent stages of treatment.

  8. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  9. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis

    2013-01-01

    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  10. UNSPEC: revisited (semaphore code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neifert, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The UNSPEC code is used to solve the problem of unfolding an observed x-ray spectrum given the response matrix of the measuring system and the measured signal values. UNSPEC uses an iterative technique to solve the unfold problem. Due to experimental errors in the measured signal values and/or computer round-off errors, discontinuities and oscillatory behavior may occur in the iterated spectrum. These can be suppressed by smoothing the results after each iteration. Input/output options and control cards are explained; sample input and output are provided

  11. The FLIC conversion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  12. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  13. The FLIC conversion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, J C [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-05-15

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  14. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A

    2012-01-01

    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  15. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft Bolsa jugal no hamster (Mesocricetus auratus como modelo experimental de investigação de enxertos heterólogos de pele humana e quelóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of grafted fragments of human skin and keloid was seen in late periods (84 days since the microscopic assessment showed the presence of blood vases within the conjunctive tissue of grafted fragments. It was also possible to see among the grafted fragments the epithelium, the appearing of early cellular infiltrated, epithelial secretion of keratin, the presence of melanocytes, and delayed changes on the aspect of collagen fibers of conjunctive tissue. Pooled results allow to define hamster cheek pouch sub-epithelium as an experimental model to investigating heterologous graft physiology of human total skin and keloid with epithelium.Descrever a integração dos enxertos de pele total humana e quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, cujo subepitélio é, naturalmente, um "Local de Privilégio Imunológico". Foram transplantados fragmentos, de pele humana normal e de quelóide, obtidos da região mamária de pacientes pardas, no subepitélio da bolsa jugal in situ. O procedimento operatório, e de preparo das bolsas enxertadas para exame microscópico em vários períodos de transplante, foi padronizado. Verificou-se a integração dos fragmentos enxertados de pele humana e de quelóide em períodos tardios (84 dias, uma vez que a avaliação microscópica revelou a presença de vasos sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo dos fragmentos enxertados. Foi também possível observar, nos fragmentos enxertados, o epitélio, o aparecimento de infiltrado

  16. Order functions and evaluation codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pellikaan, Ruud; van Lint, Jack

    1997-01-01

    Based on the notion of an order function we construct and determine the parameters of a class of error-correcting evaluation codes. This class includes the one-point algebraic geometry codes as wella s the generalized Reed-Muller codes and the parameters are detremined without using the heavy...... machinery of algebraic geometry....

  17. Direct-semidirect (DSD) codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvelbar, F.

    1999-01-01

    Recent codes for direct-semidirect (DSD) model calculations in the form of answers to a detailed questionnaire are reviewed. These codes include those embodying the classical DSD approach covering only the transitions to the bound states (RAF, HIKARI, and those of the Bologna group), as well as the code CUPIDO++ that also treats transitions to unbound states. (author)

  18. Dual Coding, Reasoning and Fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    1982-01-01

    Develops the theory that a fallacy is not a comparison of a rhetorical text to a set of definitions but a comparison of one person's cognition with another's. Reviews Paivio's dual coding theory, relates nonverbal coding to reasoning processes, and generates a limited fallacy theory based on dual coding theory. (PD)

  19. Strongly-MDS convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Rosenthal, J; Smarandache, R

    Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes have the property that their free distance is maximal among all codes of the same rate and the same degree. In this paper, a class of MDS convolutional codes is introduced whose column distances reach the generalized Singleton bound at the

  20. Lattice polytopes in coding theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Soprunov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss combinatorial questions about lattice polytopes motivated by recent results on minimum distance estimation for toric codes. We also include a new inductive bound for the minimum distance of generalized toric codes. As an application, we give new formulas for the minimum distance of generalized toric codes for special lattice point configurations.

  1. Computer codes for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.F.

    1986-11-01

    Computer codes for fusion safety analysis have been under development in the United States for about a decade. This paper will discuss five codes that are currently under development by the Fusion Safety Program. The purpose and capability of each code will be presented, a sample given, followed by a discussion of the present status and future development plans

  2. Geochemical computer codes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.

    1987-01-01

    In this report a review of available codes is performed and some code intercomparisons are also discussed. The number of codes treating natural waters (groundwater, lake water, sea water) is large. Most geochemical computer codes treat equilibrium conditions, although some codes with kinetic capability are available. A geochemical equilibrium model consists of a computer code, solving a set of equations by some numerical method and a data base, consisting of thermodynamic data required for the calculations. There are some codes which treat coupled geochemical and transport modeling. Some of these codes solve the equilibrium and transport equations simultaneously while other solve the equations separately from each other. The coupled codes require a large computer capacity and have thus as yet limited use. Three code intercomparisons have been found in literature. It may be concluded that there are many codes available for geochemical calculations but most of them require a user that us quite familiar with the code. The user also has to know the geochemical system in order to judge the reliability of the results. A high quality data base is necessary to obtain a reliable result. The best results may be expected for the major species of natural waters. For more complicated problems, including trace elements, precipitation/dissolution, adsorption, etc., the results seem to be less reliable. (With 44 refs.) (author)

  3. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are 1/2 and 1/3. The performances of both systems with high (10−2 and low (10−4 BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  4. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  5. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ 2 + μυ F 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF 2 . In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R 2 , for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ 2 = 0, υ 2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R 2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R 2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2 . (paper)

  6. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burr Alister

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are and . The performances of both systems with high ( and low ( BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  7. Converter of a continuous code into the Grey code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchar, A.I.; TrUbnikov, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a converter of a continuous code into the Grey code used in a 12-charged precision amplitude-to-digital converter to decrease the digital component of spectrometer differential nonlinearity to +0.7% in the 98% range of the measured band. To construct the converter of a continuous code corresponding to the input signal amplitude into the Grey code used is the regularity in recycling of units and zeroes in each discharge of the Grey code in the case of a continuous change of the number of pulses of a continuous code. The converter is constructed on the elements of 155 series, the frequency of continuous code pulse passing at the converter input is 25 MHz

  8. Energetic integration of discontinuous processes by means of genetic algorithms, GABSOBHIN; Integration energetique de procedes discontinus a l'aide d'algorithmes genetiques, GABSOBHIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummenacher, P.; Renaud, B.; Marechal, F.; Favrat, D.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents a new methodological approach for the optimal design of energy-integrated batch processes. The main emphasis is put on indirect and, to some extend, on direct heat exchange networks with the possibility of introducing closed or open storage systems. The study demonstrates the feasibility of optimising with genetic algorithms while highlighting the pros and cons of this type of approach. The study shows that the resolution of such problems should preferably be done in several steps to better target the expected solutions. Demonstration is made that in spite of relatively large computer times (on PCs) the use of genetic algorithm allows the consideration of both continuous decision variables (size, operational rating of equipment, etc.) and integer variables (related to the structure at design and during operation). Comparison of two optimisation strategies is shown with a preference for a two-steps optimisation scheme. One of the strengths of genetic algorithms is the capacity to accommodate heuristic rules, which can be introduced in the model. However, a rigorous modelling strategy is advocated to improve robustness and adequate coding of the decision variables. The practical aspects of the research work are converted into a software developed with MATLAB to solve the energy integration of batch processes with a reasonable number of closed or open stores. This software includes the model of superstructures, including the heat exchangers and the storage alternatives, as well as the link to the Struggle algorithm developed at MIT via a dedicated new interface. The package also includes a user-friendly pre-processing using EXCEL, which is to facilitate to application to other similar industrial problems. These software developments have been validated both on an academic and on an industrial type of problems. (author)

  9. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  10. Two-terminal video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  11. The Art of Readable Code

    CERN Document Server

    Boswell, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    As programmers, we've all seen source code that's so ugly and buggy it makes our brain ache. Over the past five years, authors Dustin Boswell and Trevor Foucher have analyzed hundreds of examples of "bad code" (much of it their own) to determine why they're bad and how they could be improved. Their conclusion? You need to write code that minimizes the time it would take someone else to understand it-even if that someone else is you. This book focuses on basic principles and practical techniques you can apply every time you write code. Using easy-to-digest code examples from different languag

  12. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  13. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... documents from ICC's Chicago District Office: International Code Council, 4051 W Flossmoor Road, Country... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International...

  14. Polynomial weights and code constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massey, J; Costello, D; Justesen, Jørn

    1973-01-01

    polynomial included. This fundamental property is then used as the key to a variety of code constructions including 1) a simplified derivation of the binary Reed-Muller codes and, for any primepgreater than 2, a new extensive class ofp-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 2) a new class of "repeated-root" cyclic codes...... of long constraint length binary convolutional codes derived from2^r-ary Reed-Solomon codes, and 6) a new class ofq-ary "repeated-root" constacyclic codes with an algebraic decoding algorithm.......For any nonzero elementcof a general finite fieldGF(q), it is shown that the polynomials(x - c)^i, i = 0,1,2,cdots, have the "weight-retaining" property that any linear combination of these polynomials with coefficients inGF(q)has Hamming weight at least as great as that of the minimum degree...

  15. Introduction of SCIENCE code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haoliang; Li Jinggang; Zhu Ya'nan; Bai Ning

    2012-01-01

    The SCIENCE code package is a set of neutronics tools based on 2D assembly calculations and 3D core calculations. It is made up of APOLLO2F, SMART and SQUALE and used to perform the nuclear design and loading pattern analysis for the reactors on operation or under construction of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group. The purpose of paper is to briefly present the physical and numerical models used in each computation codes of the SCIENCE code pack age, including the description of the general structure of the code package, the coupling relationship of APOLLO2-F transport lattice code and SMART core nodal code, and the SQUALE code used for processing the core maps. (authors)

  16. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory text to algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain inside knowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeper understanding of state-of-the-art coding systems. This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar with this topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptography and communication. Linear error-correcting block codes through elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text. Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decoding algorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography and secret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutions at the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbert bound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac- Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error, and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finite field Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm f...

  17. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    of interfering nodes and usage of spatial reservation mechanisms. Specifically, we introduce a reserved area in order to protect the nodes involved in two-way relaying from the interference caused by neighboring nodes. We analytically derive the end-to-end rate achieved by PLNC considering the impact......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  18. Concatenated quantum codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.

    1996-07-01

    One main problem for the future of practial quantum computing is to stabilize the computation against unwanted interactions with the environment and imperfections in the applied operations. Existing proposals for quantum memories and quantum channels require gates with asymptotically zero error to store or transmit an input quantum state for arbitrarily long times or distances with fixed error. This report gives a method which has the property that to store or transmit a qubit with maximum error {epsilon} requires gates with errors at most {ital c}{epsilon} and storage or channel elements with error at most {epsilon}, independent of how long we wish to store the state or how far we wish to transmit it. The method relies on using concatenated quantum codes and hierarchically implemented recovery operations. The overhead of the method is polynomial in the time of storage or the distance of the transmission. Rigorous and heuristic lower bounds for the constant {ital c} are given.

  19. Code des baux 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Vial-Pedroletti, Béatrice; Kendérian, Fabien; Chavance, Emmanuelle; Coutan-Lapalus, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Le code des baux 2018 vous offre un contenu extrêmement pratique, fiable et à jour au 1er août 2017. Cette 16e édition intègre notamment : le décret du 27 juillet 2017 relatif à l’évolution de certains loyers dans le cadre d’une nouvelle location ou d’un renouvellement de bail, pris en application de l’article 18 de la loi n° 89-462 du 6 juillet 1989 ; la loi du 27 janvier 2017 relative à l’égalité et à la citoyenneté ; la loi du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique ; la loi du 18 novembre 2016 de modernisation de la justice du xxie siècle

  20. GOC: General Orbit Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-08-01

    GOC (General Orbit Code) is a versatile program which will perform a variety of calculations relevant to isochronous cyclotron design studies. In addition to the usual calculations of interest (e.g., equilibrium and accelerated orbits, focusing frequencies, field isochronization, etc.), GOC has a number of options to calculate injections with a charge change. GOC provides both printed and plotted output, and will follow groups of particles to allow determination of finite-beam properties. An interactive PDP-10 program called GIP, which prepares input data for GOC, is available. GIP is a very easy and convenient way to prepare complicated input data for GOC. Enclosed with this report are several microfiche containing source listings of GOC and other related routines and the printed output from a multiple-option GOC run

  1. LDGM Codes for Channel Coding and Joint Source-Channel Coding of Correlated Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Frias

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a coding scheme based on the use of systematic linear codes with low-density generator matrix (LDGM codes for channel coding and joint source-channel coding of multiterminal correlated binary sources. In both cases, the structures of the LDGM encoder and decoder are shown, and a concatenated scheme aimed at reducing the error floor is proposed. Several decoding possibilities are investigated, compared, and evaluated. For different types of noisy channels and correlation models, the resulting performance is very close to the theoretical limits.

  2. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  3. Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes from negacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liangdong; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena; Liu, Yang

    2018-03-01

    The entanglement-assisted formalism generalizes the standard stabilizer formalism, which can transform arbitrary classical linear codes into entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs) by using pre-shared entanglement between the sender and the receiver. In this work, we construct six classes of q-ary entanglement-assisted quantum MDS (EAQMDS) codes based on classical negacyclic MDS codes by exploiting two or more pre-shared maximally entangled states. We show that two of these six classes q-ary EAQMDS have minimum distance more larger than q+1. Most of these q-ary EAQMDS codes are new in the sense that their parameters are not covered by the codes available in the literature.

  4. An algebraic approach to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinero, Fernando

    This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter, contains a short introduction to coding theory in which we explain the coding theory concepts we use. In the second chapter, we present the required theory for evaluation codes and also give an example of some fundamental codes in coding...... theory as evaluation codes. Chapter three consists of the introduction to graph based codes, such as Tanner codes and graph codes. In Chapter four, we compute the dimension of some graph based codes with a result combining graph based codes and subfield subcodes. Moreover, some codes in chapter four...

  5. Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code for spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hassan Yousif; Nisar, K. S.

    2013-08-01

    Code with ideal in-phase cross correlation (CC) and practical code length to support high number of users are required in spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. SAC systems are getting more attractive in the field of OCDMA because of its ability to eliminate the influence of multiple access interference (MAI) and also suppress the effect of phase induced intensity noise (PIIN). In this paper, we have proposed new Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code families with ideal in-phase CC based on Jordan block matrix with simple algebraic ways. Four sets of DEU code families based on the code weight W and number of users N for the combination (even, even), (even, odd), (odd, odd) and (odd, even) are constructed. This combination gives DEU code more flexibility in selection of code weight and number of users. These features made this code a compelling candidate for future optical communication systems. Numerical results show that the proposed DEU system outperforms reported codes. In addition, simulation results taken from a commercial optical systems simulator, Virtual Photonic Instrument (VPI™) shown that, using point to multipoint transmission in passive optical network (PON), DEU has better performance and could support long span with high data rate.

  6. Self-complementary circular codes in coding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmel, Elena; Michel, Christian J; Starman, Martin; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2018-04-01

    Self-complementary circular codes are involved in pairing genetic processes. A maximal [Formula: see text] self-complementary circular code X of trinucleotides was identified in genes of bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses (Michel in Life 7(20):1-16 2017, J Theor Biol 380:156-177, 2015; Arquès and Michel in J Theor Biol 182:45-58 1996). In this paper, self-complementary circular codes are investigated using the graph theory approach recently formulated in Fimmel et al. (Philos Trans R Soc A 374:20150058, 2016). A directed graph [Formula: see text] associated with any code X mirrors the properties of the code. In the present paper, we demonstrate a necessary condition for the self-complementarity of an arbitrary code X in terms of the graph theory. The same condition has been proven to be sufficient for codes which are circular and of large size [Formula: see text] trinucleotides, in particular for maximal circular codes ([Formula: see text] trinucleotides). For codes of small-size [Formula: see text] trinucleotides, some very rare counterexamples have been constructed. Furthermore, the length and the structure of the longest paths in the graphs associated with the self-complementary circular codes are investigated. It has been proven that the longest paths in such graphs determine the reading frame for the self-complementary circular codes. By applying this result, the reading frame in any arbitrary sequence of trinucleotides is retrieved after at most 15 nucleotides, i.e., 5 consecutive trinucleotides, from the circular code X identified in genes. Thus, an X motif of a length of at least 15 nucleotides in an arbitrary sequence of trinucleotides (not necessarily all of them belonging to X) uniquely defines the reading (correct) frame, an important criterion for analyzing the X motifs in genes in the future.

  7. Minimização de defeitos em revestimentos de superligas de níquel depositada pelo processo TIG com alimentação de arame frio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Carvalho Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência dos parâmetros de soldagem na formação de defeitos na soldagem de revestimentos com ligas à base de níquel, e sua possível eliminação através do correto ajuste dos referidos parâmetros. Para tanto, foram depositados revestimentos com as ligas à base de Ni do tipo Inconel 625, Hastelloy C276 e Inconel 686, sobre um substrato de aço C-Mn, através do processo TIG com alimentação de arame frio. O planejamento dos experimentos foi realizado aplicando-se o método Taguchi. Os fatores de controle avaliados foram a Técnica da energia (TE, o nível de energia de soldagem (E, o tipo de liga (L, o gás de proteção (G e o tipo de tecimento (T. Outros parâmetros foram mantidos constantes, tendo sido investigados previamente. Os resultados mostraram que o tipo de tecimento em espiral, embora contribua significativamente para a redução da diluição, causa uma forte instabilidade ao processo, resultando na maioria dos casos em defeitos superficiais ou defeitos entre passes. A condição ótima para evitar a formação de defeitos entre passes identificada pelo método Taguchi foi constituída pelas seguintes combinação de fatores de controle 2-2-2-3-3, ou seja: TE-I; Emédia; Liga Hastelloy C276; Gás de proteção Ar+He; Tecimento Duplo-8. A condição ótima para a soldagem sem defeitos resulta em alto nível de diluição não sendo indicada para a soldagem de revestimentos resistentes à corrosão.

  8. Resistência à torção de dois instrumentos endodônticos rotatórios de níquel-titânio Torsional resistance of two nickel-titanium rotatory endodontic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da COSTA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores compararam a resistência à torção entre os instrumentos rotatórios de níquel-titânio Quantec Series 2000 e Pow-R, valendo-se de quarenta instrumentos para cada marca divididos em oito para cada um dos seguintes tamanhos nº 15, nº 20, nº 25, nº 35 e nº 40 com 21 mm e conicidade .02. Com a ajuda de um troptômetro modificado cada instrumento foi fixado em um madril e preso à 3 mm de sua ponta, previamente marcada com uma caneta de tinta permanente, na base do aparelho por uma morsa. Em seguida ativou-se a manivela que continha a escala em graus até notar-se sinal característico da fratura do instrumento registrando-se o valor da quantidade de movimento até este momento. Após tabulação dos dados procedeu-se a análise estatística de acordo com o teste t de Student com nível de significância de 1%. Os resultados mostraram haver diferença estatisticamente significante ao comparar-se limas de mesmo número confrontadas as duas marcas, favorável para o instrumento Pow-R.The authors compared the torsional resistance between the Quantec Series 2000 and Pow-R nickel-titanium rotatory instruments, using forty instruments of each brand, divided in eight of each one of the following numbers: nº 15, nº 20, nº 25, nº 35 and nº 40 with 21 mm and taper .02. Each instrument was fixed in the mandrel of a modified tropometer and held 3 mm away from its tip, on a spot that had been previously stamped with a permanent ink pen, by apprehension claws localized on the base of the equipment. Then the graduated handle was activated until a characteristic break sign of the instrument was noticed, the quantity of movement up to this moment being recorded. After the values were tabulated, the statistical analysis was carried out according to the Student t test. The results revealed a statistically significant difference when instruments of the same number, from both evaluated brands, were compared, favouring the Pow-R instruments.

  9. CARACTERIZACIÓN TRIBOLÓGICA DE RECUBRIMIENTOS DE NÍQUEL QUÍMICO-TEFLÓN OBTENIDOS EN UN BAÑO CON DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE ENVEJECIMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryory Astrid Gómez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los recubrimientos de níquel químico (NQ constituyen un tratamiento superficial de altas prestaciones funcionales. La incorporación de micropartículas de teflón (PTFE da lugar a la formación de un "composite" (NQ-PTFE consistente en partículas de teflón (PTFE de tamaño micrométrico, uniformemente embebidas en una matriz de NQ. De esta manera, el recubrimiento resultante combina las propiedades de dureza del NQ con las excelentes propiedades de lubricación del teflón. En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados de la caracterización tribológica de diferentes recubrimientos con la estructura sustrato NQ/NQ-PTFE depositados sobre acero al carbono, con una proporción de teflón presente en el NQ-PTFE de alrededor del 20 %. Los ensayos se realizaron en un tribómetro de bola sobre disco contra bola de alúmina, mediante los cuales se determinó el coeficiente de fricción. Se discuten los resultados de los recubrimientos NQ-PTFE obtenidos en distintas condiciones del baño químico y se comparan con los obtenidos para recubrimientos simples de NQ.Electroless nickel coating (EN is a highly functional engineered finish. A "composite" coating (EN-PTFE of electroless nickel and PTFE (Teflon is formed when PTFE micro-particles are uniformly dispersed throughout the coating. The resulting coating combines the corrosion resistance and hardness of EN with the excellent release properties and lubricity of PTFE. In this work we present the results of the tribological characterization of different coatings with a PTFE content of about 20 % and a structure Substrate EN-PTFE deposited on steel. The tribological characterization was conducted in a ball-on-disk tribometer using an alumina ball from which the friction coefficients were determined. The results for different ENPTFE coatings are discussed and compared to those obtained for simple EN coatings.

  10. Antioxidant isoenzyme responses to nickel-induced stress in tobacco cell suspension culture Resposta de isoenzimas antioxidantes ao estresse induzido por níquel em cultura de células em suspensão de fumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Bertoni Pompeu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nickel (Ni at high concentrations can lead to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS resulting in oxidative damage at the cellular level. We investigated the antioxidative responses of Nicotiana tabacum cv BY-2 cell suspension to Ni stress (0.075 and 0.75 mM NiCl2 over a 72 h period with special attention to potential alterations in isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR. Two main SOD isoenzymes were observed, a Mn-SOD (band I and a Fe-SOD (band II, as well as one CAT isoenzyme and four GR isoenzymes. Activity staining analysis revealed that CAT activity plays a major role in the early response to Ni-induced oxidative stress, particularly when the Ni concentration used was low, whilst a specific GR isoenzyme appears to respond to the Ni-induced oxidative stress when a much higher Ni concentration was used to induce the stress for the same period of treatment. These results illustrate the importance and advantages of determining individual isoenzyme activities.A exposição ao níquel (Ni, em altas concentrações, pode levar à produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EAOs, resultando em danos oxidativos em nível celular. Foram investigadas as respostas antioxidativas de células em suspensão do cultivar BY-2 de Nicotiana tabacum submetidas ao estresse por Ni (0.075 e 0.75 mM de NiCl2 por 72 h, com atenção especial às alterações potencias em isoenzimas de superóxido dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT e glutatione redutase (GR. Duas principais isoenzimas de SOD foram observadas, uma Mn-SOD (banda I e outra Fe-SOD (banda II, bem como uma isoenzima CAT e quatro isoenzimas de GR. As análises revelaram que a atividade de CAT tem papel principal no momento inicial de resposta ao estresse oxidativo induzido por Ni, particularmente, quando sua concentração foi mais baixa, enquanto uma isoenzima específica de GR parece responder a este estresse na concentração mais alta de Ni

  11. Distribuição espacial de cobre, zinco e níquel em um Latossolo após quinze anos da aplicação de lodo de esgoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Centurion Maciel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização agrícola do lodo de esgoto como fonte de nutrientes para as plantas é uma das alternativas mais viáveis de reciclar este material sem comprometer a qualidade do meio ambiente. Este trabalho foi realizado visando quantificar e mapear os teores de cobre, zinco e níquel em um solo após quinze anos da aplicação de lodo de esgoto (LE. De 1983 a 1987, a área experimental foi utilizada em um ensaio com doses de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 Mg ha-1 de lodo de esgoto e de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 em cultivo de milho. Com o término deste experimento, o solo permaneceu sob pousio com gramínea (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf e, em 2002, foram coletadas novas amostras de terra, nas camadas de 0-20 cm e de 20-40 cm de profundidade e da parte aérea das plantas de maneira georreferenciada. As amostragens foram realizadas a cada 3 m sobre três transeções distantes 15 m uma da outra e locadas em ângulo de 45º em relação aos limites da área experimental, totalizando 50 pontos amostrais. Os dados foram analisados inicialmente em função dos momentos estatísticos descritivos e a variabilidade espacial dos atributos do solo e da planta foi determinada por análise geoestatística utilizando semivariogramas que permitiram também a obtenção de mapas interpolados por krigagem desses parâmetros. Os atributos do solo pH, MOS e CTC não estão correlacionados com os teores de Cu, Zn e Ni no solo e nas plantas. Tanto o DTPA quanto o Mehlich-3 foram eficientes na predição da disponibilidade de Zn no solo e na planta. Após 15 anos da aplicação de biossólido, os teores de Cu, Zn e Ni na camada de 0 - 20 cm de profundidade e determinados tanto com DTPA quanto Mehlich-3, estavam com estrutura de dependência espacial classificada como forte e/ou moderada. O grau de dependência espacial dos teores de Cu, Zn e Ni, nas plantas, foi diferente do verificado para esses elementos no solo.

  12. Aplicación de un puente LCR en la caracterización de superficies de níquel tratadas voltamperométricamente en medio ácido en ausencia y presencia de ion cloruro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregori, J.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Impedance spectra for nickel electrodes at his corrosion potential after voltammetric treatment in acid media has been obtained. A LCR bridge has been used, controlling the applied potential by means of a potentiostat. The passive layer, generated after successive potential scans, has been characterized by means of the interfacial double layer capacitance and the faradaic impedance. The generalized corrosion, and also the localized attack, have been observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, whilst the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM has been used in order to realize the morphological analysis of the surfaces. In this way we want to correlate the morphological changes in the electrode surface after the successive scans in the acid media in absence and in presence of chloride with the impedance electrochemical response of the interface. When chloride is present in the acid media the charge transport across the interface is less impeded. The localized corrosion damages the passive layer electrogenerated after successive scans.

    Se obtuvieron espectros de impedancias de electrodos de níquel a su potencial de corrosión, tras su tratamiento voltamperométrico en medio ácido. Para ello, se utilizó un puente LCR controlando el potencial aplicado mediante un potenciostato. La capa de pasivado, generada tras ciclados sucesivos de potencial, se caracterizó a través de los valores de la capacidad interfacial de doble capa y de los de impedancia faradaica. La corrosión generalizada y también la localizada se observaron mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM, mientras que se utilizó la microscopía de efecto túnel (STM para realizar el análisis morfológico de las superficies. De este modo, se pretende correlacionar los cambios morfológicos producidos en la superficie electródica tras ciclados sucesivos en medio ácido en presencia y ausencia de iones cloruro, con la respuesta electroquímica de impedancias de

  13. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  14. Numerical Tokamak Project code comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, R.E.; Cohen, B.I.; Beer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Numerical Tokamak Project undertook a code comparison using a set of TFTR tokamak parameters. Local radial annulus codes of both gyrokinetic and gyrofluid types were compared for both slab and toroidal case limits assuming ion temperature gradient mode turbulence in a pure plasma with adiabatic electrons. The heat diffusivities were found to be in good internal agreement within ± 50% of the group average over five codes

  15. Ethical codes in business practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kobrlová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis discusses the issues of ethics and codes of ethics in business. The theoretical part defines basic concepts of ethics, presents its historical development and the methods and tools of business ethics. It also focuses on ethical codes and the area of law and ethics. The practical part consists of a quantitative survey, which provides views of selected business entities of business ethics and the use of codes of ethics in practice.

  16. QR code for medical information uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-11-06

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine.

  17. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  18. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  19. Programming Entity Framework Code First

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Take advantage of the Code First data modeling approach in ADO.NET Entity Framework, and learn how to build and configure a model based on existing classes in your business domain. With this concise book, you'll work hands-on with examples to learn how Code First can create an in-memory model and database by default, and how you can exert more control over the model through further configuration. Code First provides an alternative to the database first and model first approaches to the Entity Data Model. Learn the benefits of defining your model with code, whether you're working with an exis

  20. User manual of UNF code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang

    2001-01-01

    The UNF code (2001 version) written in FORTRAN-90 is developed for calculating fast neutron reaction data of structure materials with incident energies from about 1 Kev up to 20 Mev. The code consists of the spherical optical model, the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model. The man nal of the UNF code is available for users. The format of the input parameter files and the output files, as well as the functions of flag used in UNF code, are introduced in detail, and the examples of the format of input parameters files are given

  1. Semi-supervised sparse coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-07-06

    Sparse coding approximates the data sample as a sparse linear combination of some basic codewords and uses the sparse codes as new presentations. In this paper, we investigate learning discriminative sparse codes by sparse coding in a semi-supervised manner, where only a few training samples are labeled. By using the manifold structure spanned by the data set of both labeled and unlabeled samples and the constraints provided by the labels of the labeled samples, we learn the variable class labels for all the samples. Furthermore, to improve the discriminative ability of the learned sparse codes, we assume that the class labels could be predicted from the sparse codes directly using a linear classifier. By solving the codebook, sparse codes, class labels and classifier parameters simultaneously in a unified objective function, we develop a semi-supervised sparse coding algorithm. Experiments on two real-world pattern recognition problems demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods over supervised sparse coding methods on partially labeled data sets.

  2. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-12-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high-dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaicing and 4D light field view synthesis.

  3. Coded aperture tomography revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizais, Y.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.; Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Coded aperture (CA) Tomography never achieved wide spread use in Nuclear Medicine, except for the degenerate case of Seven Pinhole tomagraphy (7PHT). However it enjoys several attractive features (high sensitivity and tomographic ability with a statis detector). On the other hand, resolution is usually poor especially along the depth axis and the reconstructed volume is rather limited. Arguments are presented justifying the position that CA tomography can be useful for imaging time-varying 3D structures, if its major drawbacks (poor longitudinal resolution and difficulty in quantification) are overcome. Poor results obtained with 7PHT can be explained by both a very limited angular range sampled and a crude modelling of the image formation process. Therefore improvements can be expected by the use of a dual-detector system, along with a better understanding of its sampling properties and the use of more powerful reconstruction algorithms. Non overlapping multipinhole plates, because they do not involve a decoding procedure, should be considered first for practical applications. Use of real CA should be considered for cases in which non overlapping multipinhole plates do not lead to satisfactory solutions. We have been and currently are carrying out theoretical and experimental works, in order to define the factors which limit CA imaging and to propose satisfactory solutions for Dynamic Emission Tomography

  4. Mobile code security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Srikumar

    2001-11-01

    A highly secure mobile agent system is very important for a mobile computing environment. The security issues in mobile agent system comprise protecting mobile hosts from malicious agents, protecting agents from other malicious agents, protecting hosts from other malicious hosts and protecting agents from malicious hosts. Using traditional security mechanisms the first three security problems can be solved. Apart from using trusted hardware, very few approaches exist to protect mobile code from malicious hosts. Some of the approaches to solve this problem are the use of trusted computing, computing with encrypted function, steganography, cryptographic traces, Seal Calculas, etc. This paper focuses on the simulation of some of these existing techniques in the designed mobile language. Some new approaches to solve malicious network problem and agent tampering problem are developed using public key encryption system and steganographic concepts. The approaches are based on encrypting and hiding the partial solutions of the mobile agents. The partial results are stored and the address of the storage is destroyed as the agent moves from one host to another host. This allows only the originator to make use of the partial results. Through these approaches some of the existing problems are solved.

  5. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-04-11

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.

  6. Coding, cryptography and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald; Xing, Chaoping

    2004-01-01

    It has long been recognized that there are fascinating connections between cod­ ing theory, cryptology, and combinatorics. Therefore it seemed desirable to us to organize a conference that brings together experts from these three areas for a fruitful exchange of ideas. We decided on a venue in the Huang Shan (Yellow Mountain) region, one of the most scenic areas of China, so as to provide the additional inducement of an attractive location. The conference was planned for June 2003 with the official title Workshop on Coding, Cryptography and Combi­ natorics (CCC 2003). Those who are familiar with events in East Asia in the first half of 2003 can guess what happened in the end, namely the conference had to be cancelled in the interest of the health of the participants. The SARS epidemic posed too serious a threat. At the time of the cancellation, the organization of the conference was at an advanced stage: all invited speakers had been selected and all abstracts of contributed talks had been screened by the p...

  7. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup; Swanson, Robin; Heide, Felix; Wetzstein, Gordon; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high-dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaicing and 4D light field view synthesis.

  8. Computer code abstract: NESTLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.K.; Engrand, P.; Sarsour, H.N.; Faure, F.X.; Guo, W.

    1995-01-01

    NESTLE is a few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method (NEM) for eigenvalue, adjoint, and fixed-source steady-state and transient problems. The NESTLE code solve the eigenvalue (criticality), eigenvalue adjoint, external fixed-source steady-state, and external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two- or four-energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e., upscatter exits) is desired. Core geometries modeled include Cartesian and hexagonal. Three-, two-, and one-dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The thermal conditions predicted by the thermal-hydraulic model of the core are used to correct cross sections for temperature and density effects. Cross sections for temperature and density effects. Cross sections are parameterized by color, control rod state (i.e., in or out), and burnup, allowing fuel depletion to be modeled. Either a macroscopic or microscopic model may be employed

  9. Joint source-channel coding using variable length codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakirsky, V.B.

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of joint source-channel coding when variable-length codes are used for information transmission over a discrete memoryless channel. Data transmitted over the channel are interpreted as pairs (m k ,t k ), where m k is a message generated by the source and t k is a time instant

  10. Interrelations of codes in human semiotic systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Somov, Georgij

    2016-01-01

    Codes can be viewed as mechanisms that enable relations of signs and their components, i.e., semiosis is actualized. The combinations of these relations produce new relations as new codes are building over other codes. Structures appear in the mechanisms of codes. Hence, codes can be described as transformations of structures from some material systems into others. Structures belong to different carriers, but exist in codes in their "pure" form. Building of codes over other codes fosters t...

  11. Further Generalisations of Twisted Gabidulin Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde, Johan Sebastian Heesemann; Sheekey, John

    2017-01-01

    We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes.......We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes....

  12. MARS Code in Linux Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Bae, Sung Won; Jung, Jae Joon; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The two-phase system analysis code MARS has been incorporated into Linux system. The MARS code was originally developed based on the RELAP5/MOD3.2 and COBRA-TF. The 1-D module which evolved from RELAP5 alone could be applied for the whole NSSS system analysis. The 3-D module developed based on the COBRA-TF, however, could be applied for the analysis of the reactor core region where 3-D phenomena would be better treated. The MARS code also has several other code units that could be incorporated for more detailed analysis. The separate code units include containment analysis modules and 3-D kinetics module. These code modules could be optionally invoked to be coupled with the main MARS code. The containment code modules (CONTAIN and CONTEMPT), for example, could be utilized for the analysis of the plant containment phenomena in a coupled manner with the nuclear reactor system. The mass and energy interaction during the hypothetical coolant leakage accident could, thereby, be analyzed in a more realistic manner. In a similar way, 3-D kinetics could be incorporated for simulating the three dimensional reactor kinetic behavior, instead of using the built-in point kinetics model. The MARS code system, developed initially for the MS Windows environment, however, would not be adequate enough for the PC cluster system where multiple CPUs are available. When parallelism is to be eventually incorporated into the MARS code, MS Windows environment is not considered as an optimum platform. Linux environment, on the other hand, is generally being adopted as a preferred platform for the multiple codes executions as well as for the parallel application. In this study, MARS code has been modified for the adaptation of Linux platform. For the initial code modification, the Windows system specific features have been removed from the code. Since the coupling code module CONTAIN is originally in a form of dynamic load library (DLL) in the Windows system, a similar adaptation method

  13. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  14. MARS Code in Linux Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Bae, Sung Won; Jung, Jae Joon; Chung, Bub Dong

    2005-01-01

    The two-phase system analysis code MARS has been incorporated into Linux system. The MARS code was originally developed based on the RELAP5/MOD3.2 and COBRA-TF. The 1-D module which evolved from RELAP5 alone could be applied for the whole NSSS system analysis. The 3-D module developed based on the COBRA-TF, however, could be applied for the analysis of the reactor core region where 3-D phenomena would be better treated. The MARS code also has several other code units that could be incorporated for more detailed analysis. The separate code units include containment analysis modules and 3-D kinetics module. These code modules could be optionally invoked to be coupled with the main MARS code. The containment code modules (CONTAIN and CONTEMPT), for example, could be utilized for the analysis of the plant containment phenomena in a coupled manner with the nuclear reactor system. The mass and energy interaction during the hypothetical coolant leakage accident could, thereby, be analyzed in a more realistic manner. In a similar way, 3-D kinetics could be incorporated for simulating the three dimensional reactor kinetic behavior, instead of using the built-in point kinetics model. The MARS code system, developed initially for the MS Windows environment, however, would not be adequate enough for the PC cluster system where multiple CPUs are available. When parallelism is to be eventually incorporated into the MARS code, MS Windows environment is not considered as an optimum platform. Linux environment, on the other hand, is generally being adopted as a preferred platform for the multiple codes executions as well as for the parallel application. In this study, MARS code has been modified for the adaptation of Linux platform. For the initial code modification, the Windows system specific features have been removed from the code. Since the coupling code module CONTAIN is originally in a form of dynamic load library (DLL) in the Windows system, a similar adaptation method

  15. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Error-correction coding for digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G. C., Jr.; Cain, J. B.

    This book is written for the design engineer who must build the coding and decoding equipment and for the communication system engineer who must incorporate this equipment into a system. It is also suitable as a senior-level or first-year graduate text for an introductory one-semester course in coding theory. Fundamental concepts of coding are discussed along with group codes, taking into account basic principles, practical constraints, performance computations, coding bounds, generalized parity check codes, polynomial codes, and important classes of group codes. Other topics explored are related to simple nonalgebraic decoding techniques for group codes, soft decision decoding of block codes, algebraic techniques for multiple error correction, the convolutional code structure and Viterbi decoding, syndrome decoding techniques, and sequential decoding techniques. System applications are also considered, giving attention to concatenated codes, coding for the white Gaussian noise channel, interleaver structures for coded systems, and coding for burst noise channels.

  17. Distributed space-time coding

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Yindi

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Space-Time Coding (DSTC) is a cooperative relaying scheme that enables high reliability in wireless networks. This brief presents the basic concept of DSTC, its achievable performance, generalizations, code design, and differential use. Recent results on training design and channel estimation for DSTC and the performance of training-based DSTC are also discussed.

  18. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...... cooperating with the plurality of user equipment to decode the received data....

  19. Building codes : obstacle or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Goetzl; David B. McKeever

    1999-01-01

    Building codes are critically important in the use of wood products for construction. The codes contain regulations that are prescriptive or performance related for various kinds of buildings and construction types. A prescriptive standard might dictate that a particular type of material be used in a given application. A performance standard requires that a particular...

  20. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; Bellodi, G; Benedetto, E; Dorda, U; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, G; Schmidt, F; Todesco, E; Zotter, Bruno W; Payet, J; Bartolini, R; Farvacque, L; Sen, T; Chin, Y H; Ohmi, K; Oide, K; Furman, M; Qiang, J; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A; Vay, J L; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Cousineau, S M; Danilov, V; Holmes, J A; Shishlo, A; Kim, E S; Cai, Y; Pivi, M; Kaltchev, D I; Abell, D T; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Franchetti, G; Hofmann, I; Machida, S; Wei, J

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic acceleratorphysics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  1. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  2. Interleaver Design for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Zyablov, Viktor

    1997-01-01

    By a combination of construction and random search based on a careful analysis of the low weight words and the distance properties of the component codes, it is possible to find interleavers for turbo coding with a high minimum distance. We have designed a block interleaver with permutations...

  3. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  4. Development status of TUF code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.S.; Tahir, A.; Zaltsgendler

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the important development of the TUF code in 1995 is presented. The development in the following areas is presented: control of round-off error propagation, gas resolution and release models, and condensation induced water hammer. This development is mainly generated from station requests for operational support and code improvement. (author)

  5. Accident consequence assessment code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, T.; Togawa, O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  6. The nuclear codes and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonter, M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers problems faced by the mining industry when implementing the nuclear codes of practice. Errors of interpretation are likely. A major criticism is that the guidelines to the codes must be seen as recommendations only. They are not regulations. Specific clauses in the guidelines are criticised

  7. Survey of coded aperture imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    The basic principle and limitations of coded aperture imaging for x-ray and gamma cameras are discussed. Current trends include (1) use of time varying apertures, (2) use of ''dilute'' apertures with transmission much less than 50%, and (3) attempts to derive transverse tomographic sections, unblurred by other planes, from coded images

  8. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  9. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions with a ...

  10. On Network Coded Filesystem Shim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Médard, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Although network coding has shown the potential to revolutionize networking and storage, its deployment has faced a number of challenges. Usual proposals involve two approaches. First, deploying a new protocol (e.g., Multipath Coded TCP), or retrofitting another one (e.g., TCP/NC) to deliver bene...

  11. Running codes through the web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Clark presented a report and demonstration of running atomic physics codes through the WWW. The atomic physics data is generated from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) codes that calculate electron impact excitation, ionization, photoionization, and autoionization, and inversed processes through detailed balance. Samples of Web interfaces, input and output are given in the report

  12. Dynamic benchmarking of simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Paik, C.Y.; Hauser, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Computer simulation of nuclear power plant response can be a full-scope control room simulator, an engineering simulator to represent the general behavior of the plant under normal and abnormal conditions, or the modeling of the plant response to conditions that would eventually lead to core damage. In any of these, the underlying foundation for their use in analysing situations, training of vendor/utility personnel, etc. is how well they represent what has been known from industrial experience, large integral experiments and separate effects tests. Typically, simulation codes are benchmarked with some of these; the level of agreement necessary being dependent upon the ultimate use of the simulation tool. However, these analytical models are computer codes, and as a result, the capabilities are continually enhanced, errors are corrected, new situations are imposed on the code that are outside of the original design basis, etc. Consequently, there is a continual need to assure that the benchmarks with important transients are preserved as the computer code evolves. Retention of this benchmarking capability is essential to develop trust in the computer code. Given the evolving world of computer codes, how is this retention of benchmarking capabilities accomplished? For the MAAP4 codes this capability is accomplished through a 'dynamic benchmarking' feature embedded in the source code. In particular, a set of dynamic benchmarks are included in the source code and these are exercised every time the archive codes are upgraded and distributed to the MAAP users. Three different types of dynamic benchmarks are used: plant transients; large integral experiments; and separate effects tests. Each of these is performed in a different manner. The first is accomplished by developing a parameter file for the plant modeled and an input deck to describe the sequence; i.e. the entire MAAP4 code is exercised. The pertinent plant data is included in the source code and the computer

  13. Distributed source coding of video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Van Luong, Huynh

    2015-01-01

    A foundation for distributed source coding was established in the classic papers of Slepian-Wolf (SW) [1] and Wyner-Ziv (WZ) [2]. This has provided a starting point for work on Distributed Video Coding (DVC), which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side offering shifting processing...... steps, conventionally performed at the video encoder side, to the decoder side. Emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance all require lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. The video data of DVC schemes differ from...... the assumptions of SW and WZ distributed coding, e.g. by being correlated in time and nonstationary. Improving the efficiency of DVC coding is challenging. This paper presents some selected techniques to address the DVC challenges. Focus is put on pin-pointing how the decoder steps are modified to provide...

  14. Non-Protein Coding RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Nils G; Batey, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    This book assembles chapters from experts in the Biophysics of RNA to provide a broadly accessible snapshot of the current status of this rapidly expanding field. The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the discoverers of RNA interference, highlighting just one example of a large number of non-protein coding RNAs. Because non-protein coding RNAs outnumber protein coding genes in mammals and other higher eukaryotes, it is now thought that the complexity of organisms is correlated with the fraction of their genome that encodes non-protein coding RNAs. Essential biological processes as diverse as cell differentiation, suppression of infecting viruses and parasitic transposons, higher-level organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, and gene expression itself are found to largely be directed by non-protein coding RNAs. The biophysical study of these RNAs employs X-ray crystallography, NMR, ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, optical tweezers, cryo-electron microscopy, and ot...

  15. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  16. What Froze the Genetic Code?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Ribas de Pouplana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The frozen accident theory of the Genetic Code was a proposal by Francis Crick that attempted to explain the universal nature of the Genetic Code and the fact that it only contains information for twenty amino acids. Fifty years later, it is clear that variations to the universal Genetic Code exist in nature and that translation is not limited to twenty amino acids. However, given the astonishing diversity of life on earth, and the extended evolutionary time that has taken place since the emergence of the extant Genetic Code, the idea that the translation apparatus is for the most part immobile remains true. Here, we will offer a potential explanation to the reason why the code has remained mostly stable for over three billion years, and discuss some of the mechanisms that allow species to overcome the intrinsic functional limitations of the protein synthesis machinery.

  17. Verification of reactor safety codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murley, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    The safety evaluation of nuclear power plants requires the investigation of wide range of potential accidents that could be postulated to occur. Many of these accidents deal with phenomena that are outside the range of normal engineering experience. Because of the expense and difficulty of full scale tests covering the complete range of accident conditions, it is necessary to rely on complex computer codes to assess these accidents. The central role that computer codes play in safety analyses requires that the codes be verified, or tested, by comparing the code predictions with a wide range of experimental data chosen to span the physical phenomena expected under potential accident conditions. This paper discusses the plans of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for verifying the reactor safety codes being developed by NRC to assess the safety of light water reactors and fast breeder reactors. (author)

  18. What Froze the Genetic Code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís; Torres, Adrian Gabriel; Rafels-Ybern, Àlbert

    2017-04-05

    The frozen accident theory of the Genetic Code was a proposal by Francis Crick that attempted to explain the universal nature of the Genetic Code and the fact that it only contains information for twenty amino acids. Fifty years later, it is clear that variations to the universal Genetic Code exist in nature and that translation is not limited to twenty amino acids. However, given the astonishing diversity of life on earth, and the extended evolutionary time that has taken place since the emergence of the extant Genetic Code, the idea that the translation apparatus is for the most part immobile remains true. Here, we will offer a potential explanation to the reason why the code has remained mostly stable for over three billion years, and discuss some of the mechanisms that allow species to overcome the intrinsic functional limitations of the protein synthesis machinery.

  19. Tristan code and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.

    Since TRISTAN: The 3-D Electromagnetic Particle Code was introduced in 1990, it has been used for many applications including the simulations of global solar windmagnetosphere interaction. The most essential ingridients of this code have been published in the ISSS-4 book. In this abstract we describe some of issues and an application of this code for the study of global solar wind-magnetosphere interaction including a substorm study. The basic code (tristan.f) for the global simulation and a local simulation of reconnection with a Harris model (issrec2.f) are available at http:/www.physics.rutger.edu/˜kenichi. For beginners the code (isssrc2.f) with simpler boundary conditions is suitable to start to run simulations. The future of global particle simulations for a global geospace general circulation (GGCM) model with predictive capability (for Space Weather Program) is discussed.

  20. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    CERN Document Server

    Wien, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  1. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchette Mathieu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements.

  2. Corruption, croissance et capital humain : quels rapports ?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 oct. 2013 ... secteur public et la définit comme l'abus d'une fonction publique à des .... particulièrement ce dernier et un indice composite à partir des trois qu'il ..... suivant une loi normale de moyenne nulle et de variance constante et finie.

  3. Quel commerce du bois dans le monde?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2014-01-01

    In today’s global economy, French forest product manufacturers are in direct competition with manufacturers of other countries. Which countries are dominant in international trade in forest products? What are the implications of global price changes on French trade in forest products? This chapter describes the place of France in global markets and how the country’s...

  4. Coding for effective denial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jackie; Lineberry, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Nearly everyone will agree that accurate and consistent coding of diagnoses and procedures is the cornerstone for operating a compliant practice. The CPT or HCPCS procedure code tells the payor what service was performed and also (in most cases) determines the amount of payment. The ICD-9-CM diagnosis code, on the other hand, tells the payor why the service was performed. If the diagnosis code does not meet the payor's criteria for medical necessity, all payment for the service will be denied. Implementation of an effective denial management program can help "stop the bleeding." Denial management is a comprehensive process that works in two ways. First, it evaluates the cause of denials and takes steps to prevent them. Second, denial management creates specific procedures for refiling or appealing claims that are initially denied. Accurate, consistent and compliant coding is key to both of these functions. The process of proactively managing claim denials also reveals a practice's administrative strengths and weaknesses, enabling radiology business managers to streamline processes, eliminate duplicated efforts and shift a larger proportion of the staff's focus from paperwork to servicing patients--all of which are sure to enhance operations and improve practice management and office morale. Accurate coding requires a program of ongoing training and education in both CPT and ICD-9-CM coding. Radiology business managers must make education a top priority for their coding staff. Front office staff, technologists and radiologists should also be familiar with the types of information needed for accurate coding. A good staff training program will also cover the proper use of Advance Beneficiary Notices (ABNs). Registration and coding staff should understand how to determine whether the patient's clinical history meets criteria for Medicare coverage, and how to administer an ABN if the exam is likely to be denied. Staff should also understand the restrictions on use of

  5. ESCADRE and ICARE code systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reocreux, M.; Gauvain, J.

    1992-01-01

    The French sever accident code development program is following two parallel approaches: the first one is dealing with ''integral codes'' which are designed for giving immediate engineer answers, the second one is following a more mechanistic way in order to have the capability of detailed analysis of experiments, in order to get a better understanding of the scaling problem and reach a better confidence in plant calculations. In the first approach a complete system has been developed and is being used for practical cases: this is the ESCADRE system. In the second approach, a set of codes dealing first with primary circuit is being developed: a mechanistic core degradation code, ICARE, has been issued and is being coupled with the advanced thermalhydraulic code CATHARE. Fission product codes have been also coupled to CATHARE. The ''integral'' ESCADRE system and the mechanistic ICARE and associated codes are described. Their main characteristics are reviewed and the status of their development and assessment given. Future studies are finally discussed. 36 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. The ZPIC educational code suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, R.; Pardal, M.; Ninhos, P.; Helm, A.; Mori, W. B.; Decyk, V. K.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Fonseca, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    Particle-in-Cell (PIC) codes are used in almost all areas of plasma physics, such as fusion energy research, plasma accelerators, space physics, ion propulsion, and plasma processing, and many other areas. In this work, we present the ZPIC educational code suite, a new initiative to foster training in plasma physics using computer simulations. Leveraging on our expertise and experience from the development and use of the OSIRIS PIC code, we have developed a suite of 1D/2D fully relativistic electromagnetic PIC codes, as well as 1D electrostatic. These codes are self-contained and require only a standard laptop/desktop computer with a C compiler to be run. The output files are written in a new file format called ZDF that can be easily read using the supplied routines in a number of languages, such as Python, and IDL. The code suite also includes a number of example problems that can be used to illustrate several textbook and advanced plasma mechanisms, including instructions for parameter space exploration. We also invite contributions to this repository of test problems that will be made freely available to the community provided the input files comply with the format defined by the ZPIC team. The code suite is freely available and hosted on GitHub at https://github.com/zambzamb/zpic. Work partially supported by PICKSC.

  7. Stability analysis by ERATO code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Takeda, Tatsuoki; Matsuura, Toshihiko; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi

    1979-12-01

    Problems in MHD stability calculations by ERATO code are described; which concern convergence property of results, equilibrium codes, and machine optimization of ERATO code. It is concluded that irregularity on a convergence curve is not due to a fault of the ERATO code itself but due to inappropriate choice of the equilibrium calculation meshes. Also described are a code to calculate an equilibrium as a quasi-inverse problem and a code to calculate an equilibrium as a result of a transport process. Optimization of the code with respect to I/O operations reduced both CPU time and I/O time considerably. With the FACOM230-75 APU/CPU multiprocessor system, the performance is about 6 times as high as with the FACOM230-75 CPU, showing the effectiveness of a vector processing computer for the kind of MHD computations. This report is a summary of the material presented at the ERATO workshop 1979(ORNL), supplemented with some details. (author)

  8. ETR/ITER systems code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L. (ed.)

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. ETR/ITER systems code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs

  10. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Valentin; Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The computer program LFSC ( ) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output

  11. Coded communications with nonideal interleaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Shaul

    1991-02-01

    Burst error channels - a type of block interference channels - feature increasing capacity but decreasing cutoff rate as the memory rate increases. Despite the large capacity, there is degradation in the performance of practical coding schemes when the memory length is excessive. A short-coding error parameter (SCEP) was introduced, which expresses a bound on the average decoding-error probability for codes shorter than the block interference length. The performance of a coded slow frequency-hopping communication channel is analyzed for worst-case partial band jamming and nonideal interleaving, by deriving expressions for the capacity and cutoff rate. The capacity and cutoff rate, respectively, are shown to approach and depart from those of a memoryless channel corresponding to the transmission of a single code letter per hop. For multiaccess communications over a slot-synchronized collision channel without feedback, the channel was considered as a block interference channel with memory length equal to the number of letters transmitted in each slot. The effects of an asymmetrical background noise and a reduced collision error rate were studied, as aspects of real communications. The performance of specific convolutional and Reed-Solomon codes was examined for slow frequency-hopping systems with nonideal interleaving. An upper bound is presented for the performance of a Viterbi decoder for a convolutional code with nonideal interleaving, and a soft decision diversity combining technique is introduced.

  12. Coding and decoding for code division multiple user communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new algorithm is introduced which decodes code division multiple user communication signals. The algorithm makes use of the distinctive form or pattern of each signal to separate it from the composite signal created by the multiple users. Although the algorithm is presented in terms of frequency-hopped signals, the actual transmitter modulator can use any of the existing digital modulation techniques. The algorithm is applicable to error-free codes or to codes where controlled interference is permitted. It can be used when block synchronization is assumed, and in some cases when it is not. The paper also discusses briefly some of the codes which can be used in connection with the algorithm, and relates the algorithm to past studies which use other approaches to the same problem.

  13. GAMERA - The New Magnetospheric Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J.; Sorathia, K.; Zhang, B.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Daldorff, L. K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) code has been a main-line magnetospheric simulation code for 30 years. The code base, designed in the age of memory to memory vector ma- chines,is still in wide use for science production but needs upgrading to ensure the long term sustainability. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent efforts to update and improve that code base and also highlight some recent results. The new project GAM- ERA, Grid Agnostic MHD for Extended Research Applications, has kept the original design characteristics of the LFM and made significant improvements. The original de- sign included high order numerical differencing with very aggressive limiting, the ability to use arbitrary, but logically rectangular, grids, and maintenance of div B = 0 through the use of the Yee grid. Significant improvements include high-order upwinding and a non-clipping limiter. One other improvement with wider applicability is an im- proved averaging technique for the singularities in polar and spherical grids. The new code adopts a hybrid structure - multi-threaded OpenMP with an overarching MPI layer for large scale and coupled applications. The MPI layer uses a combination of standard MPI and the Global Array Toolkit from PNL to provide a lightweight mechanism for coupling codes together concurrently. The single processor code is highly efficient and can run magnetospheric simulations at the default CCMC resolution faster than real time on a MacBook pro. We have run the new code through the Athena suite of tests, and the results compare favorably with the codes available to the astrophysics community. LFM/GAMERA has been applied to many different situations ranging from the inner and outer heliosphere and magnetospheres of Venus, the Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. We present example results the Earth's magnetosphere including a coupled ring current (RCM), the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and the inner heliosphere.

  14. SCALE Code System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL

    2016-04-01

    The SCALE Code System is a widely-used modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design that is developed, maintained, tested, and managed by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SCALE provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor and lattice physics, radiation shielding, spent fuel and radioactive source term characterization, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides an integrated framework with dozens of computational modules including three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution strategy. SCALE includes current nuclear data libraries and problem-dependent processing tools for continuous-energy (CE) and multigroup (MG) neutronics and coupled neutron-gamma calculations, as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE includes unique capabilities for automated variance reduction for shielding calculations, as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization of nuclear data, and convenient access to desired results.SCALE 6.2 provides many new capabilities and significant improvements of existing features.New capabilities include:• ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries CE and MG with enhanced group structures,• Neutron covariance data based on ENDF/B-VII.1 and supplemented with ORNL data,• Covariance data for fission product yields and decay constants,• Stochastic uncertainty and correlation quantification for any SCALE sequence with Sampler,• Parallel calculations with KENO,• Problem-dependent temperature corrections for CE calculations,• CE shielding and criticality accident alarm system analysis with MAVRIC,• CE

  15. Code-Mixing and Code Switchingin The Process of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe a form of code switching and code mixing specific form found in the teaching and learning activities in the classroom as well as determining factors influencing events stand out that form of code switching and code mixing in question.Form of this research is descriptive qualitative case study which took place in Al Mawaddah Boarding School Ponorogo. Based on the analysis and discussion that has been stated in the previous chapter that the form of code mixing and code switching learning activities in Al Mawaddah Boarding School is in between the use of either language Java language, Arabic, English and Indonesian, on the use of insertion of words, phrases, idioms, use of nouns, adjectives, clauses, and sentences. Code mixing deciding factor in the learning process include: Identification of the role, the desire to explain and interpret, sourced from the original language and its variations, is sourced from a foreign language. While deciding factor in the learning process of code, includes: speakers (O1, partners speakers (O2, the presence of a third person (O3, the topic of conversation, evoke a sense of humour, and just prestige. The significance of this study is to allow readers to see the use of language in a multilingual society, especially in AL Mawaddah boarding school about the rules and characteristics variation in the language of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Furthermore, the results of this research will provide input to the ustadz / ustadzah and students in developing oral communication skills and the effectiveness of teaching and learning strategies in boarding schools.

  16. Neural Decoder for Topological Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2017-07-01

    We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the training of the network and a decoding strategy that is applicable to a wide variety of stabilizer codes with very little specialization. We demonstrate the neural decoder numerically on the well-known two-dimensional toric code with phase-flip errors.

  17. Coding chaotic billiards. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmo, D.; Giannoni, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Non-tiling compact billiard defined on the pseudosphere is studied 'a la Morse coding'. As for most bounded systems, the coding is non exact. However, two sets of approximate grammar rules can be obtained, one specifying forbidden codes, and the other allowed ones. In-between some sequences remain in the 'unknown' zone, but their relative amount can be reduced to zero if one lets the length of the approximate grammar rules goes to infinity. The relationship between these approximate grammar rules and the 'pruning front' introduced by Cvitanovic et al. is discussed. (authors). 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  18. Iterative nonlinear unfolding code: TWOGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnal, F.

    1981-03-01

    a new iterative unfolding code, TWOGO, was developed to analyze Bonner sphere neutron measurements. The code includes two different unfolding schemes which alternate on successive iterations. The iterative process can be terminated either when the ratio of the coefficient of variations in terms of the measured and calculated responses is unity, or when the percentage difference between the measured and evaluated sphere responses is less than the average measurement error. The code was extensively tested with various known spectra and real multisphere neutron measurements which were performed inside the containments of pressurized water reactors

  19. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  20. Writing the Live Coding Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackwell, Alan; Cox, Geoff; Lee, Sang Wong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a speculation on the relationship between coding and writing, and the ways in which technical innovations and capabilities enable us to rethink each in terms of the other. As a case study, we draw on recent experiences of preparing a book on live coding, which integrates a wide range...... of personal, historical, technical and critical perspectives. This book project has been both experimental and reflective, in a manner that allows us to draw on critical understanding of both code and writing, and point to the potential for new practices in the future....

  1. LiveCode mobile development

    CERN Document Server

    Lavieri, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide written in a tutorial-style, ""LiveCode Mobile Development Hotshot"" walks you step-by-step through 10 individual projects. Every project is divided into sub tasks to make learning more organized and easy to follow along with explanations, diagrams, screenshots, and downloadable material.This book is great for anyone who wants to develop mobile applications using LiveCode. You should be familiar with LiveCode and have access to a smartphone. You are not expected to know how to create graphics or audio clips.

  2. Network Coding Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Medard, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Network coding is a field of information and coding theory and is a method of attaining maximum information flow in a network. This book is an ideal introduction for the communications and network engineer, working in research and development, who needs an intuitive introduction to network coding and to the increased performance and reliability it offers in many applications. This book is an ideal introduction for the research and development communications and network engineer who needs an intuitive introduction to the theory and wishes to understand the increased performance and reliabil

  3. Linear network error correction coding

    CERN Document Server

    Guang, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches in the theory of network error correction coding. In this SpringerBrief, the authors summarize some of the most important contributions following the classic approach, which represents messages by sequences?similar to algebraic coding,?and also briefly discuss the main results following the?other approach,?that uses the theory of rank metric codes for network error correction of representing messages by subspaces. This book starts by establishing the basic linear network error correction (LNEC) model and then characterizes two equivalent descriptions. Distances an

  4. Tree Coding of Bilevel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Presently, sequential tree coders are the best general purpose bilevel image coders and the best coders of halftoned images. The current ISO standard, Joint Bilevel Image Experts Group (JBIG), is a good example. A sequential tree coder encodes the data by feeding estimates of conditional...... is one order of magnitude slower than JBIG, obtains excellent and highly robust compression performance. A multipass free tree coding scheme produces superior compression results for all test images. A multipass free template coding scheme produces significantly better results than JBIG for difficult...... images such as halftones. By utilizing randomized subsampling in the template selection, the speed becomes acceptable for practical image coding...

  5. Studies on DANESS Code Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon

    2009-09-01

    The DANESS code modeling study has been performed. DANESS code is widely used in a dynamic fuel cycle analysis. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has used the DANESS code for the Korean national nuclear fuel cycle scenario analysis. In this report, the important models such as Energy-demand scenario model, New Reactor Capacity Decision Model, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Facility History Model, and Fuel Cycle Model are investigated. And, some models in the interface module are refined and inserted for Korean nuclear fuel cycle model. Some application studies have also been performed for GNEP cases and for US fast reactor scenarios with various conversion ratios

  6. Optimisation multi-objectif des systemes energetiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipama, Jean

    The increasing demand of energy and the environmental concerns related to greenhouse gas emissions lead to more and more private or public utilities to turn to nuclear energy as an alternative for the future. Nuclear power plants are then called to experience large expansion in the coming years. Improved technologies will then be put in place to support the development of these plants. This thesis considers the optimization of the thermodynamic cycle of the secondary loop of Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant in terms of output power and thermal efficiency. In this thesis, investigations are carried out to determine the optimal operating conditions of steam power cycles by the judicious use of the combination of steam extraction at the different stages of the turbines. Whether it is the case of superheating or regeneration, we are confronted in all cases to an optimization problem involving two conflicting objectives, as increasing the efficiency imply the decrease of mechanical work and vice versa. Solving this kind of problem does not lead to unique solution, but to a set of solutions that are tradeoffs between the conflicting objectives. To search all of these solutions, called Pareto optimal solutions, the use of an appropriate optimization algorithm is required. Before starting the optimization of the secondary loop, we developed a thermodynamic model of the secondary loop which includes models for the main thermal components (e.g., turbine, moisture separator-superheater, condenser, feedwater heater and deaerator). This model is used to calculate the thermodynamic state of the steam and water at the different points of the installation. The thermodynamic model has been developed with Matlab and validated by comparing its predictions with the operating data provided by the engineers of the power plant. The optimizer developed in VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) uses an optimization algorithm based on the principle of genetic algorithms, a stochastic optimization method which is very robust and widely used to solve problems usually difficult to handle by traditional methods. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used in previous research and proved to be efficient in optimizing heat exchangers networks (HEN) (Dipama et al., 2008). So, HEN have been synthesized to recover the maximum heat in an industrial process. The optimization problem formulated in the context of this work consists of a single objective, namely the maximization of energy recovery. The optimization algorithm developed in this thesis extends the ability of GAs by taking into account several objectives simultaneously. This algorithm provides an innovation in the method of finding optimal solutions, by using a technique which consist of partitioning the solutions space in the form of parallel grids called "watching corridors". These corridors permit to specify areas (the observation corridors) in which the most promising feasible solutions are found and used to guide the search towards optimal solutions. A measure of the progress of the search is incorporated into the optimization algorithm to make it self-adaptive through the use of appropriate genetic operators at each stage of optimization process. The proposed method allows a fast convergence and ensure a diversity of solutions. Moreover, this method gives the algorithm the ability to overcome difficulties associated with optimizing problems with complex Pareto front landscapes (e.g., discontinuity, disjunction, etc.). The multi-objective optimization algorithm has been first validated using numerical test problems found in the literature as well as energy systems optimization problems. Finally, the proposed optimization algorithm has been applied for the optimization of the secondary loop of Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, and a set of solutions have been found which permit to make the power plant operate in optimal conditions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  7. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  8. Energy accounting. Comptabilite de la gestion energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This manual is intended to assist Canadian firms and organizations in the industrial, commercial and institutional sectors to design and implement an appropriate energy accounting system capable of monitoring energy productivity and performance. The manual provides a standard account format applicable to both single- and multi-unit organizations, and is presented through the use of text, forms, and numerical examples. It includes the basic concepts and relevant approaches, reporting considerations, the measurement of production outputs and energy inputs, and the measurement of energy productivity. Appendices provide a glossary of terms, calorific contents of energy commodities, metric conversion factors and prefixes, and a set of blank forms. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. (A.L.B.)

  10. Beam-dynamics codes used at DARHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Several beam simulation codes are used to help gain a better understanding of beam dynamics in the DARHT LIAs. The most notable of these fall into the following categories: for beam production – Tricomp Trak orbit tracking code, LSP Particle in cell (PIC) code, for beam transport and acceleration – XTR static envelope and centroid code, LAMDA time-resolved envelope and centroid code, LSP-Slice PIC code, for coasting-beam transport to target – LAMDA time-resolved envelope code, LSP-Slice PIC code. These codes are also being used to inform the design of Scorpius.

  11. Introduction to coding and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    1997-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce coding theory and information theory to undergraduate students of mathematics and computer science. It begins with a review of probablity theory as applied to finite sample spaces and a general introduction to the nature and types of codes. The two subsequent chapters discuss information theory: efficiency of codes, the entropy of information sources, and Shannon's Noiseless Coding Theorem. The remaining three chapters deal with coding theory: communication channels, decoding in the presence of errors, the general theory of linear codes, and such specific codes as Hamming codes, the simplex codes, and many others.

  12. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  13. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... methods for coded imaging, with the goal of making better anatomic and flow images and three-dimensional images. On the first stage, it investigates techniques for doing high-resolution coded imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional imaging. Subsequently it investigates how...... coded excitation can be used for increasing the frame rate. The work includes both simulated results using Field II, and experimental results based on measurements on phantoms as well as clinical images. Initially a mathematical foundation of signal modulation is given. Pulse compression based...

  14. National Tribal Building Codes Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tribal Building Codes summit statement developed to support tribes interested in adopting green and culturally-appropriate building systems to ensure safe, sustainable, affordable, and culturally-appropriate buildings on tribal lands.

  15. Tracking Code for Microwave Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability

  16. CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, L.A.

    1975-03-01

    The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)

  17. QUIL: a chemical equilibrium code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, J.L.

    1977-02-01

    A chemical equilibrium code QUIL is described, along with two support codes FENG and SURF. QUIL is designed to allow calculations on a wide range of chemical environments, which may include surface phases. QUIL was written specifically to calculate distributions associated with complex equilibria involving fission products in the primary coolant loop of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. QUIL depends upon an energy-data library called ELIB. This library is maintained by FENG and SURF. FENG enters into the library all reactions having standard free energies of reaction that are independent of concentration. SURF enters all surface reactions into ELIB. All three codes are interactive codes written to be used from a remote terminal, with paging control provided. Plotted output is also available

  18. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive...

  19. Zip Codes - MDC_WCSZipcode

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The WCSZipcode polygon feature class was created by Miami-Dade Enterprise Technology Department to be used in the WCS batch jobs to assign the actual zip code of...

  20. The intercomparison of aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Gauvain, J.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols in a reactor containment vessel following a severe accident could be an important determinant of the accident source term to the environment. Various processes result in the deposition of the aerosol onto surfaces within the containment, from where they are much less likely to be released. Some of these processes are very sensitive to particle size, so it is important to model the aerosol growth processes: agglomeration and condensation. A number of computer codes have been written to model growth and deposition processes. They have been tested against each other in a series of code comparison exercises. These exercises have investigated sensitivities to physical and numerical assumptions and have also proved a useful means of quality control for the codes. Various exercises in which code predictions are compared with experimental results are now under way

  1. Automatic code generation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Kuhrmann, Marco; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2016-01-01

    -specific language to specify those requirements and to allow for generating a safety-enforcing layer of code, which is deployed to the robot. The paper at hand reports experiences in practically applying code generation to mobile robots. For two cases, we discuss how we addressed challenges, e.g., regarding weaving......Mobile robots often use a distributed architecture in which software components are deployed to heterogeneous hardware modules. Ensuring the consistency with the designed architecture is a complex task, notably if functional safety requirements have to be fulfilled. We propose to use a domain...... code generation into proprietary development environments and testing of manually written code. We find that a DSL based on the same conceptual model can be used across different kinds of hardware modules, but a significant adaptation effort is required in practical scenarios involving different kinds...

  2. Squares of Random Linear Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego

    2015-01-01

    a positive answer, for codes of dimension $k$ and length roughly $\\frac{1}{2}k^2$ or smaller. Moreover, the convergence speed is exponential if the difference $k(k+1)/2-n$ is at least linear in $k$. The proof uses random coding and combinatorial arguments, together with algebraic tools involving the precise......Given a linear code $C$, one can define the $d$-th power of $C$ as the span of all componentwise products of $d$ elements of $C$. A power of $C$ may quickly fill the whole space. Our purpose is to answer the following question: does the square of a code ``typically'' fill the whole space? We give...

  3. Cost reducing code implementation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, Randall L.; Griswold, Michael E.; Jones, Gary C.; Daley, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Sargent and Lundy's Code consulting experience reveals a wide variety of approaches toward implementing the requirements of various nuclear Codes Standards. This paper will describe various Code implementation strategies which assure that Code requirements are fully met in a practical and cost-effective manner. Applications to be discussed includes the following: new construction; repair, replacement and modifications; assessments and life extensions. Lessons learned and illustrative examples will be included. Preferred strategies and specific recommendations will also be addressed. Sargent and Lundy appreciates the opportunity provided by the Korea Atomic Industrial Forum and Korean Nuclear Society to share our ideas and enhance global cooperation through the exchange of information and views on relevant topics

  4. Adaptive decoding of convolutional codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hueske

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Convolutional codes, which are frequently used as error correction codes in digital transmission systems, are generally decoded using the Viterbi Decoder. On the one hand the Viterbi Decoder is an optimum maximum likelihood decoder, i.e. the most probable transmitted code sequence is obtained. On the other hand the mathematical complexity of the algorithm only depends on the used code, not on the number of transmission errors. To reduce the complexity of the decoding process for good transmission conditions, an alternative syndrome based decoder is presented. The reduction of complexity is realized by two different approaches, the syndrome zero sequence deactivation and the path metric equalization. The two approaches enable an easy adaptation of the decoding complexity for different transmission conditions, which results in a trade-off between decoding complexity and error correction performance.

  5. Covariance data processing code. ERRORJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Kazuaki

    2001-01-01

    The covariance data processing code, ERRORJ, was developed to process the covariance data of JENDL-3.2. ERRORJ has the processing functions of covariance data for cross sections including resonance parameters, angular distribution and energy distribution. (author)

  6. Multimedia signal coding and transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical background of one- and multidimensional signal processing, statistical analysis and modelling, coding and information theory with regard to the principles and design of image, video and audio compression systems. The theoretical concepts are augmented by practical examples of algorithms for multimedia signal coding technology, and related transmission aspects. On this basis, principles behind multimedia coding standards, including most recent developments like High Efficiency Video Coding, can be well understood. Furthermore, potential advances in future development are pointed out. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the concepts covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia compression systems in industry.

  7. NESTLE: A nodal kinetics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Chalabi, R.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Faure, F.-X.; Sarsour, H.N.; Engrand, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    The NESTLE nodal kinetics code has been developed for utilization as a stand-alone code for steady-state and transient reactor neutronic analysis and for incorporation into system transient codes, such as TRAC and RELAP. The latter is desirable to increase the simulation fidelity over that obtained from currently employed zero- and one-dimensional neutronic models and now feasible due to advances in computer performance and efficiency of nodal methods. As a stand-alone code, requirements are that it operate on a range of computing platforms from memory-limited personal computers (PCs) to supercomputers with vector processors. This paper summarizes the features of NESTLE that reflect the utilization and requirements just noted

  8. Description of the COMRADEX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, G.W.; Boling, M.; Rhoades, W.A.; Willis, C.A.

    1967-01-01

    The COMRADEX Code is discussed briefly and instructions are provided for the use of the code. The subject code was developed for calculating doses from hypothetical power reactor accidents. It permits the user to analyze four successive levels of containment with time-varying leak rates. Filtration, cleanup, fallout and plateout in each containment shell can also be analyzed. The doses calculated include the direct gamma dose from the containment building, the internal doses to as many as 14 organs including the thyroid, bone, lung, etc. from inhaling the contaminated air, and the external gamma doses from the cloud. While further improvements are needed, such as a provision for calculating doses from fallout, rainout and washout, the present code capabilities have a wide range of applicability for reactor accident analysis

  9. Adaptive decoding of convolutional codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueske, K.; Geldmacher, J.; Götze, J.

    2007-06-01

    Convolutional codes, which are frequently used as error correction codes in digital transmission systems, are generally decoded using the Viterbi Decoder. On the one hand the Viterbi Decoder is an optimum maximum likelihood decoder, i.e. the most probable transmitted code sequence is obtained. On the other hand the mathematical complexity of the algorithm only depends on the used code, not on the number of transmission errors. To reduce the complexity of the decoding process for good transmission conditions, an alternative syndrome based decoder is presented. The reduction of complexity is realized by two different approaches, the syndrome zero sequence deactivation and the path metric equalization. The two approaches enable an easy adaptation of the decoding complexity for different transmission conditions, which results in a trade-off between decoding complexity and error correction performance.

  10. The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...... geometries. We give results on the minimum distances of the codes....

  11. Verification of ONED90 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Chang Ho

    1993-12-01

    ONED90 developed by KAERI is a 1-dimensional 2-group diffusion theory code. For nuclear design and reactor simulation, the usage of ONED90 encompasses core follow calculation, load follow calculation, plant power control simulation, xenon oscillation simulation and control rod maneuvering, etc. In order to verify the validity of ONED90 code, two well-known benchmark problems are solved by ONED90 shows very similar result to reference solution. (Author) 11 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Summary of Code of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    The Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses is an excellent guideline for all nurses regardless of their area of practice. I greatly enjoyed reading the revisions in place within the 2015 edition and refreshing my nursing conscience. I plan to always keep my Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses near in order to keep my moral compass from veering off the path of quality care.

  13. UNIX code management and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, T.; Kunz, P.F.

    1992-09-01

    We describe a code management and distribution system based on tools freely available for the UNIX systems. At the master site, version control is managed with CVS, which is a layer on top of RCS, and distribution is done via NFS mounted file systems. At remote sites, small modifications to CVS provide for interactive transactions with the CVS system at the master site such that remote developers are true peers in the code development process

  14. Language Recognition via Sparse Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    explanation is that sparse coding can achieve a near-optimal approximation of much complicated nonlinear relationship through local and piecewise linear...training examples, where x(i) ∈ RN is the ith example in the batch. Optionally, X can be normalized and whitened before sparse coding for better result...normalized input vectors are then ZCA- whitened [20]. Em- pirically, we choose ZCA- whitening over PCA- whitening , and there is no dimensionality reduction

  15. System Based Code: Principal Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhide Asada; Masanori Tashimo; Masahiro Ueta

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept of the 'System Based Code' which has initially been proposed by the authors intending to give nuclear industry a leap of progress in the system reliability, performance improvement, and cost reduction. The concept of the System Based Code intends to give a theoretical procedure to optimize the reliability of the system by administrating every related engineering requirement throughout the life of the system from design to decommissioning. (authors)

  16. "The Electric City": Sherbrooke et son paysage hydroelectrique (1880--1930)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Remi

    Ce memoire presente l'imbrication des elements hydroelectrique au sein du paysage de la ville de Sherbrooke entre 1880 et 1930. Nous cherchons a comprendre comment les nouveaux elements energetiques s'integrent a celui-ci et comment la population sherbrookoise se represente ces espaces transformes. Comment le paysage hydroelectrique, en tant qu'espace vu et vecu, interagit-il avec la societe sherbrookoise ? A l'interieur de cette problematique generale, nous chercherons a repondre a trois sous-questions. Quelles sont les transformations physiques et materielles engendrees par l'implantation de cette nouvelle technologie hydroelectrique sur le paysage urbain sherbrookois ? Qu'est-ce que les differents groupes valorisent au sein du paysage ? Quel sens prennent ces nouveaux paysages pour les Sherbrookois ? En effet, l'etude du developpement rapide du potentiel hydroelectrique de la riviere Magog nous amene a demontrer que l'exploitation des ressources energetiques a profondement transforme le paysage de Sherbrooke : vastes modifications du trace des cours d'eau, apparition de batiments specifiques a la production energetique, structures de distributions et infrastructures permettant l'illumination de la ville. Nous avancons aussi que differents groupes d'individus ne valorisent pas les memes elements paysagers. Finalement, nous proposons que le regard porte par les citoyens sur le paysage energetique est tributaire de l'usage qu'ils en font. Comme la fonction des elements energetiques paysagers evolue, le regard qu' ils portent vers ces structures se transforme lui aussi. Mots cles: histoire de Sherbrooke, paysage, hydroelectricite, electricite, transformation de l'espace, histoire environnementale

  17. The RETRAN-03 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, M.P.; McFadden, J.H.; Peterson, C.E.; McClure, J.A.; Gose, G.C.; Jensen, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The RETRAN-03 code development effort is designed to overcome the major theoretical and practical limitations associated with the RETRAN-02 computer code. The major objectives of the development program are to extend the range of analyses that can be performed with RETRAN, to make the code more dependable and faster running, and to have a more transportable code. The first two objectives are accomplished by developing new models and adding other models to the RETRAN-02 base code. The major model additions for RETRAN-03 are as follows: implicit solution methods for the steady-state and transient forms of the field equations; additional options for the velocity difference equation; a new steady-state initialization option for computer low-power steam generator initial conditions; models for nonequilibrium thermodynamic conditions; and several special-purpose models. The source code and the environmental library for RETRAN-03 are written in standard FORTRAN 77, which allows the last objective to be fulfilled. Some models in RETRAN-02 have been deleted in RETRAN-03. In this paper the changes between RETRAN-02 and RETRAN-03 are reviewed

  18. Fuel performance analysis code 'FAIR'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1994-01-01

    For modelling nuclear reactor fuel rod behaviour of water cooled reactors under severe power maneuvering and high burnups, a mechanistic fuel performance analysis code FAIR has been developed. The code incorporates finite element based thermomechanical module, physically based fission gas release module and relevant models for modelling fuel related phenomena, such as, pellet cracking, densification and swelling, radial flux redistribution across the pellet due to the build up of plutonium near the pellet surface, pellet clad mechanical interaction/stress corrosion cracking (PCMI/SSC) failure of sheath etc. The code follows the established principles of fuel rod analysis programmes, such as coupling of thermal and mechanical solutions along with the fission gas release calculations, analysing different axial segments of fuel rod simultaneously, providing means for performing local analysis such as clad ridging analysis etc. The modular nature of the code offers flexibility in affecting modifications easily to the code for modelling MOX fuels and thorium based fuels. For performing analysis of fuel rods subjected to very long power histories within a reasonable amount of time, the code has been parallelised and is commissioned on the ANUPAM parallel processing system developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). (author). 37 refs

  19. Individualización cinética de reacciones simultáneas por espectrometría de masa: descomposición térmica de los carbonatos básicos de níquel y de cobalto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jerez-Mendez

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available El análisis térmico por espectrometría de masa resuelve problemas experimentales que presenta el análisis térmico convencional al aire, en el cual es imposible detectar las reacciones que tienen lugar simultáneamente en un mismo intervalo de temperatura y, por lo tanto, resulta imposible individualizarlas a partir de la pérdida de masa por análisis termogravimétrico (AT o por el efecto (endotérmico o exotérmico, según el caso registrado por análisis térmico diferencial (ATD debido al solapamiento de los procesos en dichas curvas. El análisis térmico mediante espectrometría de masa permitió individualizar la cinética de la descomposición térmica de los carbonatos básicos de níquel y de cobalto. Estos resultados se comparan con los obtenidos en la descomposición térmica del carbonato de calcio, donde existe la evolución de un único producto gaseoso. Los resultados demuestran que en la descomposición térmica de los carbonatos básicos de níquel y de cobalto, la salida del agua de constitución y del dióxido de carbono no son procesos sucesivos. Parte del agua de constitución abandona la muestra simultáneamente con el dióxido de carbono, aunque en los termogramas estas transformaciones sólo se visualizan como efectos que se solapan

  20. Discriminación de reacciones simultáneas por espectrometría de masa en la descomposición térmica de carbonatos básicos de níquel y de cobalto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Llópiz-Yurell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron, por espectrometría de masa y termogravimetría convencional, los parámetros y modelos cinéticos de los procesos de salida de agua y dióxido de carbono en la descomposición térmica de carbonatos básicos de níquel y de cobalto. Se demostró la ventaja de la espectrometría de masa para individualizar la cinética de procesos complejos de descomposición térmica, cuando las reacciones ocurren simultáneamente y de forma competitiva en un intervalo de temperatura. Se estudió además la cinética de la descomposición térmica del carbonato de calcio por ambas técnicas para comparar los resultados. Se observó la semejanza entre los resultados de las dos técnicas, en cuanto a modelo y parámetros cinéticos, cuando ocurre un proceso único durante la trasformación de la muestra, como en el carbonato de calcio, mientras que para los carbonatos básicos de níquel y de cobalto en la salida de agua y dióxido de carbono, que son reacciones simultáneas en el mismo intervalo de temperatura y además son competitivas, los valores de los parámetros cinéticos difieren notablemente de los obtenidos por el análisis termogravimétrico, que no puede discriminar la cinética de ambos procesos, aunque el modelo cinético resultó el mismo por ambas técnicas.

  1. Análise térmica e caracterização elétrica de materiais cerâmicos com comportamento termistor à base de óxidos de manganês, de níquel e de cobalto Thermal analysis and electrical characterization of ceramic thermistors based on manganese, nickel and cobalt oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ferreira Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Materiais cerâmicos à base de óxidos de manganês, de níquel e de cobalto foram preparados por meio de mistura de óxidos seguida de homogeneização e sinterização a 1250 ºC. Os compostos foram caracterizados por meio das técnicas de difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Análise termogravimétrica foi feita sob atmosferas oxidante e redutora. O comportamento termistor foi estudado por meio de medidas de resistividade elétrica pela técnica dc de duas pontas de prova entre temperatura ambiente e 220 °C. Os principais resultados mostram a preparação de termistores em ampla faixa de resposta elétrica por meio da variação da composição relativa dos óxidos de manganês, de níquel e de cobalto.Ceramic thermistors based on manganese, nickel and cobalt oxides were prepared by mixing these oxides followed by pressing and sintering at 1250 °C. The oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The thermistor behavior was studied by two-probe dc electrical resistivity measurements in the room temperature-220 °C range. The main results show the possibility of preparing thermistors in a wide range of electrical response by suitable choice of the relative concentrations of the precursor oxides.

  2. Tribal Green Building Administrative Code Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Administrative Code Example can be used as a template for technical code selection (i.e., building, electrical, plumbing, etc.) to be adopted as a comprehensive building code.

  3. NOAA Weather Radio - EAS Event Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search Coding Using SAME SAME Non-Zero Codes DOCUMENTS NWR Poster NWR Brochure NWR Brochure Printing Notes

  4. Geographic data: Zip Codes (Shape File)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all zip codes in Montgomery County. Zip codes are the postal delivery areas defined by USPS. Zip codes with mailboxes only are not included. As...

  5. Serial-data correlator/code translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    System, consisting of sampling flip flop, memory (either RAM or ROM), and memory buffer, correlates sampled data with predetermined acceptance code patterns, translates acceptable code patterns to nonreturn-to-zero code, and identifies data dropouts.

  6. KWIC Index of nuclear codes (1975 edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanuma, Makoto; Hirakawa, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    It is a KWIC Index for 254 nuclear codes in the Nuclear Code Abstracts (1975 edition). The classification of nuclear codes and the form of index are the same as those in the Computer Programme Library at Ispra, Italy. (auth.)

  7. Analysis of quantum error-correcting codes: Symplectic lattice codes and toric codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James William

    Quantum information theory is concerned with identifying how quantum mechanical resources (such as entangled quantum states) can be utilized for a number of information processing tasks, including data storage, computation, communication, and cryptography. Efficient quantum algorithms and protocols have been developed for performing some tasks (e.g. , factoring large numbers, securely communicating over a public channel, and simulating quantum mechanical systems) that appear to be very difficult with just classical resources. In addition to identifying the separation between classical and quantum computational power, much of the theoretical focus in this field over the last decade has been concerned with finding novel ways of encoding quantum information that are robust against errors, which is an important step toward building practical quantum information processing devices. In this thesis I present some results on the quantum error-correcting properties of oscillator codes (also described as symplectic lattice codes) and toric codes. Any harmonic oscillator system (such as a mode of light) can be encoded with quantum information via symplectic lattice codes that are robust against shifts in the system's continuous quantum variables. I show the existence of lattice codes whose achievable rates match the one-shot coherent information over the Gaussian quantum channel. Also, I construct a family of symplectic self-dual lattices and search for optimal encodings of quantum information distributed between several oscillators. Toric codes provide encodings of quantum information into two-dimensional spin lattices that are robust against local clusters of errors and which require only local quantum operations for error correction. Numerical simulations of this system under various error models provide a calculation of the accuracy threshold for quantum memory using toric codes, which can be related to phase transitions in certain condensed matter models. I also present

  8. CITOPP, CITMOD, CITWI, Processing codes for CITATION Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarhoum, M.

    2008-01-01

    Description of program or function: CITOPP processes the output file of the CITATION 3-D diffusion code. The program can plot axial, radial and circumferential flux distributions (in cylindrical geometry) in addition to the multiplication factor convergence. The flux distributions can be drawn for each group specified by the program and visualized on the screen. CITMOD processes both the output and the input files of the CITATION 3-D diffusion code. CITMOD can visualize both axial, and radial-angular models of the reactor described by CITATION input/output files. CITWI processes the input file (CIT.INP) of CITATION 3-D diffusion code. CIT.INP is processed to deduce the dimensions of the cell whose cross sections can be representative of the homonym reactor component in section 008 of CIT.INP

  9. Coding in Stroke and Other Cerebrovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Pearce J; Jones, William

    2017-02-01

    Accurate coding is critical for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of coding principles for patients with strokes and other cerebrovascular diseases and includes an illustrative case as a review of coding principles in a patient with acute stroke.

  10. Quasi-cyclic unit memory convolutional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Paaske, Erik; Ballan, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Unit memory convolutional codes with generator matrices, which are composed of circulant submatrices, are introduced. This structure facilitates the analysis of efficient search for good codes. Equivalences among such codes and some of the basic structural properties are discussed. In particular......, catastrophic encoders and minimal encoders are characterized and dual codes treated. Further, various distance measures are discussed, and a number of good codes, some of which result from efficient computer search and some of which result from known block codes, are presented...

  11. System Design Description for the TMAD Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finfrock, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as the System Design Description (SDD) for the TMAD Code System, which includes the TMAD code and the LIBMAKR code. The SDD provides a detailed description of the theory behind the code, and the implementation of that theory. It is essential for anyone who is attempting to review or modify the code or who otherwise needs to understand the internal workings of the code. In addition, this document includes, in Appendix A, the System Requirements Specification for the TMAD System

  12. On Code Parameters and Coding Vector Representation for Practical RLNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank

    2011-01-01

    RLNC provides a theoretically efficient method for coding. The drawbacks associated with it are the complexity of the decoding and the overhead resulting from the encoding vector. Increasing the field size and generation size presents a fundamental trade-off between packet-based throughput...... to higher energy consumption. Therefore, the optimal trade-off is system and topology dependent, as it depends on the cost in energy of performing coding operations versus transmitting data. We show that moderate field sizes are the correct choice when trade-offs are considered. The results show that sparse...

  13. International assessment of PCA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.; Lui, C.; Glynn, J.; Archarya, S.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past three years (1991-1993), an extensive international exercise for intercomparison of a group of six Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) codes was undertaken. The exercise was jointly sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This exercise was a logical continuation of a similar effort undertaken by OECD/NEA/CSNI in 1979-1981. The PCA codes are currently used by different countries for predicting radiological health and economic consequences of severe accidents at nuclear power plants (and certain types of non-reactor nuclear facilities) resulting in releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. The codes participating in the exercise were: ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this inter-code comparison effort, two separate groups performed a similar set of calculations using two of the participating codes, MACCS and COSYMA. Results of the intercode and inter-MACCS comparisons are presented in this paper. The MACCS group included four participants: GREECE: Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR Demokritos; ITALY: ENEL, ENEA/DISP, and ENEA/NUC-RIN; SPAIN: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear; USA: Brookhaven National Laboratory, US NRC and DOE

  14. The WIMS familly of codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, J.

    1981-01-01

    WIMS-D4 is the latest version of the original form of the Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme, developed in 1963-5 for lattice calculations on all types of thermal reactor, whether moderated by graphite, heavy or light water. The code, in earlier versions, has been available from the NEA code centre for a number of years in both IBM and CDC dialects of FORTRAN. An important feature of this code was its rapid, accurate deterministic system for treating resonance capture in heavy nuclides, and capable of dealing with both regular pin lattices and with cluster geometries typical of pressure tube and gas cooled reactors. WIMS-E is a compatible code scheme in which each calcultation step is bounded by standard interfaces on disc or tape. The interfaces contain files of information in a standard form, restricted to numbers representing physically meaningful quantities such as cross-sections and fluxes. Restriction of code intercommunication to this channel limits the possible propagation of errors. A module is capable of transforming WIMS-D output into the standard interface form and hence the two schemes can be linked if required. LWR-WIMS was developed in 1970 as a method of calculating LWR reloads for the fuel fabricators BNFL/GUNF. It uses the WIMS-E library and a number of the same module

  15. Translation of ARAC computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kunio; Chino, Masamichi; Honma, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Kai, Michiaki; Imai, Kazuhiko; Asai, Kiyoshi

    1982-05-01

    In 1981 we have translated the famous MATHEW, ADPIC and their auxiliary computer codes for CDC 7600 computer version to FACOM M-200's. The codes consist of a part of the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The MATHEW is a code for three-dimensional wind field analysis. Using observed data, it calculates the mass-consistent wind field of grid cells by a variational method. The ADPIC is a code for three-dimensional concentration prediction of gases and particulates released to the atmosphere. It calculates concentrations in grid cells by the particle-in-cell method. They are written in LLLTRAN, i.e., LLNL Fortran language and are implemented on the CDC 7600 computers of LLNL. In this report, i) the computational methods of the MATHEW/ADPIC and their auxiliary codes, ii) comparisons of the calculated results with our JAERI particle-in-cell, and gaussian plume models, iii) translation procedures from the CDC version to FACOM M-200's, are described. Under the permission of LLNL G-Division, this report is published to keep the track of the translation procedures and to serve our JAERI researchers for comparisons and references of their works. (author)

  16. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  17. Repetition code of 15 qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, James R.; Loss, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The repetition code is an important primitive for the techniques of quantum error correction. Here we implement repetition codes of at most 15 qubits on the 16 qubit ibmqx3 device. Each experiment is run for a single round of syndrome measurements, achieved using the standard quantum technique of using ancilla qubits and controlled operations. The size of the final syndrome is small enough to allow for lookup table decoding using experimentally obtained data. The results show strong evidence that the logical error rate decays exponentially with code distance, as is expected and required for the development of fault-tolerant quantum computers. The results also give insight into the nature of noise in the device.

  18. Halftone Coding with JBIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2000-01-01

    of a halftone pattern dictionary.The decoder first decodes the gray-scale image. Then for each gray-scale pixel looks up the corresponding halftonepattern in the dictionary and places it in the reconstruction bitmap at the position corresponding to the gray-scale pixel. The coding method is inherently lossy......The emerging international standard for compression of bilevel images and bi-level documents, JBIG2,provides a mode dedicated for lossy coding of halftones. The encoding procedure involves descreening of the bi-levelimage into gray-scale, encoding of the gray-scale image, and construction...... and care must be taken to avoid introducing artifacts in the reconstructed image. We describe how to apply this coding method for halftones created by periodic ordered dithering, by clustered dot screening (offset printing), and by techniques which in effect dithers with blue noise, e.g., error diffusion...

  19. List Decoding of Algebraic Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde

    We investigate three paradigms for polynomial-time decoding of Reed–Solomon codes beyond half the minimum distance: the Guruswami–Sudan algorithm, Power decoding and the Wu algorithm. The main results concern shaping the computational core of all three methods to a problem solvable by module...... Hermitian codes using Guruswami–Sudan or Power decoding faster than previously known, and we show how to Wu list decode binary Goppa codes....... to solve such using module minimisation, or using our new Demand–Driven algorithm which is also based on module minimisation. The decoding paradigms are all derived and analysed in a self-contained manner, often in new ways or examined in greater depth than previously. Among a number of new results, we...

  20. SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    The SASSYS code provides detailed steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic analyses of the reactor core, inlet and outlet coolant plenums, primary and intermediate heat-removal systems, steam generators, and emergency shut-down heat removal systems in liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The main purpose of the code is to analyze the consequences of failures in the shut-down heat-removal system and to determine whether this system can perform its mission adequately even with some of its components inoperable. The code is not plant-specific. It is intended for use with any LMFBR, using either a loop or a pool design, a once-through steam generator or an evaporator-superheater combination, and either a homogeneous core or a heterogeneous core with internal-blanket assemblies

  1. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  2. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standen, Ismo; Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2011-01-01

    Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker...... effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous...... genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call...

  3. Development of the DTNTES code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Prieto, P.; Morales Dorado, M.D.; Alonso Santos, A.

    1987-01-01

    The DTNTES code has been developed in the Department of Nuclear Technology of the Polytechnical University in Madrid as a part of the Research Program on Quantitative Risk Analysis. DTNTES code calculates several time-dependent probabilistic characteristics of basic events, minimal cut sets and the top event of a fault tree. The code assumes that basic events are statistically independent, and they have failure and repair distributions. It computes the minimal cut upper bound approach for the top event unavailability, and the time-dependent unreliability of the top event by means of different methods, selected by the user. These methods are: expected number of system failures, failure rate, Barlow-Proschan bound, steady-state upper bound, and T* method. (author)

  4. The histone codes for meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Xu, Zhiliang; Khawar, Muhammad Babar; Liu, Chao; Li, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Meiosis is a specialized process that produces haploid gametes from diploid cells by a single round of DNA replication followed by two successive cell divisions. It contains many special events, such as programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation, homologous recombination, crossover formation and resolution. These events are associated with dynamically regulated chromosomal structures, the dynamic transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling are mainly modulated by histone modifications, termed 'histone codes'. The purpose of this review is to summarize the histone codes that are required for meiosis during spermatogenesis and oogenesis, involving meiosis resumption, meiotic asymmetric division and other cellular processes. We not only systematically review the functional roles of histone codes in meiosis but also discuss future trends and perspectives in this field. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  5. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS (MHD GENERATION CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Frutos Alfaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program uses the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the magnetohydrodynamic equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a magnetohydrodynamic code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of the output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  6. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  7. Distributed Video Coding: Iterative Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van

    Nowadays, emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance are requiring lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics...... and noise modeling and also learn from the previous decoded Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames, side information and noise learning (SING) is proposed. The SING scheme introduces an optical flow technique to compensate the weaknesses of the block based SI generation and also utilizes clustering of DCT blocks to capture...... cross band correlation and increase local adaptivity in noise modeling. During decoding, the updated information is used to iteratively reestimate the motion and reconstruction in the proposed motion and reconstruction reestimation (MORE) scheme. The MORE scheme not only reestimates the motion vectors...

  8. Signal Constellations for Multilevel Coded Modulation with Sparse Graph Codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronie, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    A method to combine error-correction coding and spectral efficient modulation for transmission over channels with Gaussian noise is presented. The method of modulation leads to a signal constellation in which the constellation symbols have a nonuniform distribution. This gives a so-called shape gain

  9. Opportunistic Adaptive Transmission for Network Coding Using Nonbinary LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocco Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Network coding allows to exploit spatial diversity naturally present in mobile wireless networks and can be seen as an example of cooperative communication at the link layer and above. Such promising technique needs to rely on a suitable physical layer in order to achieve its best performance. In this paper, we present an opportunistic packet scheduling method based on physical layer considerations. We extend channel adaptation proposed for the broadcast phase of asymmetric two-way bidirectional relaying to a generic number of sinks and apply it to a network context. The method consists of adapting the information rate for each receiving node according to its channel status and independently of the other nodes. In this way, a higher network throughput can be achieved at the expense of a slightly higher complexity at the transmitter. This configuration allows to perform rate adaptation while fully preserving the benefits of channel and network coding. We carry out an information theoretical analysis of such approach and of that typically used in network coding. Numerical results based on nonbinary LDPC codes confirm the effectiveness of our approach with respect to previously proposed opportunistic scheduling techniques.

  10. Network Coding Over The 232

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus; Vingelmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Creating efficient finite field implementations has been an active research topic for several decades. Many appli- cations in areas such as cryptography, signal processing, erasure coding and now also network coding depend on this research to deliver satisfactory performance. In this paper we...... from a benchmark application written in C++. These results are finally compared to different binary and binary extension field implementations. The results show that the prime field implementation offers a large field size while maintaining a very good performance. We believe that using prime fields...

  11. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  12. List Decoding of Matrix-Product Codes from nested codes: an application to Quasi-Cyclic codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernando, Fernando; Høholdt, Tom; Ruano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    A list decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes is provided when $C_1,..., C_s$ are nested linear codes and $A$ is a non-singular by columns matrix. We estimate the probability of getting more than one codeword as output when the constituent codes are Reed-Solomon codes. We extend this list...... decoding algorithm for matrix-product codes with polynomial units, which are quasi-cyclic codes. Furthermore, it allows us to consider unique decoding for matrix-product codes with polynomial units....

  13. Development of a coupled code system based on system transient code, RETRAN, and 3-D neutronics code, MASTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. D.; Jung, J. J.; Lee, S. W.; Cho, B. O.; Ji, S. K.; Kim, Y. H.; Seong, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    A coupled code system of RETRAN/MASTER has been developed for best-estimate simulations of interactions between reactor core neutron kinetics and plant thermal-hydraulics by incorporation of a 3-D reactor core kinetics analysis code, MASTER into system transient code, RETRAN. The soundness of the consolidated code system is confirmed by simulating the MSLB benchmark problem developed to verify the performance of a coupled kinetics and system transient codes by OECD/NEA

  14. Optimal, Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    Reliability based code calibration is considered in this paper. It is described how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to the partial safety factors and characteristic values. The code calibration problem is presented in a decision theoretical form and it is discussed how...... of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  15. 21 CFR 106.90 - Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coding. 106.90 Section 106.90 Food and Drugs FOOD... of Infant Formulas § 106.90 Coding. The manufacturer shall code all infant formulas in conformity with the coding requirements that are applicable to thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in...

  16. A Dual Coding View of Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical perspective on acquiring sight vocabulary and developing meaningful vocabulary is presented. Dual Coding Theory assumes that cognition occurs in two independent but connected codes: a verbal code for language and a nonverbal code for mental imagery. The mixed research literature on using pictures in teaching sight vocabulary is…

  17. Channel coding techniques for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Deergha Rao, K

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses modern channel coding techniques for wireless communications such as turbo codes, low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, space–time (ST) coding, RS (or Reed–Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Many illustrative examples are included in each chapter for easy understanding of the coding techniques. The text is integrated with MATLAB-based programs to enhance the understanding of the subject’s underlying theories. It includes current topics of increasing importance such as turbo codes, LDPC codes, Luby transform (LT) codes, Raptor codes, and ST coding in detail, in addition to the traditional codes such as cyclic codes, BCH (or Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem) and RS codes and convolutional codes. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) communications is a multiple antenna technology, which is an effective method for high-speed or high-reliability wireless communications. PC-based MATLAB m-files for the illustrative examples are provided on the book page on Springer.com for free dow...

  18. Pump Component Model in SPACE Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Kyoung Doo

    2010-08-01

    This technical report describes the pump component model in SPACE code. A literature survey was made on pump models in existing system codes. The models embedded in SPACE code were examined to check the confliction with intellectual proprietary rights. Design specifications, computer coding implementation, and test results are included in this report

  19. Development of MCNP interface code in HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Liqing; Fu Rong; Deng Caiyu

    2007-01-01

    In order to describe the HFETR core with MCNP method, the interface code MCNPIP for HFETR and MCNP code is developed. This paper introduces the core DXSY and flowchart of MCNPIP code, and the handling of compositions of fuel elements and requirements on hardware and software. Finally, MCNPIP code is validated against the practical application. (authors)

  20. Entropy, Coding and Data Compression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy, Coding and Data Compression. S Natarajan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 35-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0035-0045 ...

  1. Visual communication with retinex coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F O; Fales, C L; Davis, R E; Alter-Gartenberg, R

    2000-04-10

    Visual communication with retinex coding seeks to suppress the spatial variation of the irradiance (e.g., shadows) across natural scenes and preserve only the spatial detail and the reflectance (or the lightness) of the surface itself. The separation of reflectance from irradiance begins with nonlinear retinex coding that sharply and clearly enhances edges and preserves their contrast, and it ends with a Wiener filter that restores images from this edge and contrast information. An approximate small-signal model of image gathering with retinex coding is found to consist of the familiar difference-of-Gaussian bandpass filter and a locally adaptive automatic-gain control. A linear representation of this model is used to develop expressions within the small-signal constraint for the information rate and the theoretical minimum data rate of the retinex-coded signal and for the maximum-realizable fidelity of the images restored from this signal. Extensive computations and simulations demonstrate that predictions based on these figures of merit correlate closely with perceptual and measured performance. Hence these predictions can serve as a general guide for the design of visual communication channels that produce images with a visual quality that consistently approaches the best possible sharpness, clarity, and reflectance constancy, even for nonuniform irradiances. The suppression of shadows in the restored image is found to be constrained inherently more by the sharpness of their penumbra than by their depth.

  2. International building code for bamboo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.J.A.; Kumar, Arun; Ramanuja Rao, I.V.; Sastry, Cherla

    2002-01-01

    One of the recommendations in the International Bamboo Congress and Workshop, held at Bali in 1995, requested the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), "to organize a task force to discuss and finalize a building code for bamboo". Consequently a draft was prepared under the title, "An

  3. Coding as literacy metalithikum IV

    CERN Document Server

    Bühlmann, Vera; Moosavi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in computer science, particularly "data-driven procedures" have opened a new level of design and engineering. This has also affected architecture. The publication collects contributions on Coding as Literacy by computer scientists, mathematicians, philosophers, cultural theorists, and architects. "Self-Organizing Maps" (SOM) will serve as the concrete reference point for all further discussions.

  4. Dual Coding and Bilingual Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Allan; Lambert, Wallace

    1981-01-01

    Describes study which tested a dual coding approach to bilingual memory using tasks that permit comparison of the effects of bilingual encoding with verbal-nonverbal dual encoding items. Results provide strong support for a version of the independent or separate stories view of bilingual memory. (Author/BK)

  5. Tri-Coding of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Timothy J.

    Paivio's Dual Coding Theory has received widespread recognition for its connection between visual and aural channels of internal information processing. The use of only two channels, however, cannot satisfactorily explain the effects witnessed every day. This paper presents a study suggesting the presence a third, kinesthetic channel, currently…

  6. CINETHICA - Core accident analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1989-10-01

    A computer program for nuclear accident analysis has been developed based on the point-kinetics approximation and one-dimensional heat transfer model for reactivity feedback calculation. Hansen's method/1/ were used for the kinetics equation solution and explicit Euler method were adopted for the thermohidraulic equations. The results were favorably compared to those from the GAPOTKIN Code/2/. (author) [pt

  7. The VEGA Assembly Spectrum Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    1997-01-01

    The VEGA is assembly spectrum code, developed as a design tool for producing a few-group averaged cross section data for a wide range of reactor types including both thermal and fast reactors. It belongs to a class of codes, which may be characterized by the separate stages for micro group, spectrum and macro group assembly calculations. The theoretical foundation for the development of the VEGA code was integral transport theory in the first-flight collision probability formulation. Two versions of VEGA are now in use, VEGA-1 established on standard equivalence theory and VEGA-2 based on new subgroup method applicable for any geometry for which a flux solution is possible. This paper describes a features which are unique to the VEGA codes with concentration on the basic principles and algorithms used in the proposed subgroup method. Presented validation of this method, comprise the results for a homogenous uranium-plutonium mixture and a PWR cell containing a recycled uranium-plutonium oxide. Example application for a realistic fuel dissolver benchmark problem , which was extensive analyzed in the international calculations, is also included. (author)

  8. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  9. Smells in software test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garousi, Vahid; Küçük, Barış

    2018-01-01

    As a type of anti-pattern, test smells are defined as poorly designed tests and their presence may negatively affect the quality of test suites and production code. Test smells are the subject of active discussions among practitioners and researchers, and various guidelines to handle smells are

  10. The fuel performance code future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, C.; Van de Laar, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes the LWR version of the fuel performance code FUTURE, which was recently developed to calculate the fuel response (swelling, cladding deformation, release) to reactor transient conditions, starting from a broad-based description of the processes of major concern. The main physical models assumed are presented together with the scheme of the computer program

  11. MAD parsing and conversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhov, Dmitri N.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe design and implementation issues while developing an embeddable MAD language parser. Two working applications of the parser are also described, namely, MAD-> C++ converter and C++ factory. The report contains some relevant details about the parser and examples of converted code. It also describes some of the problems that were encountered and the solutions found for them

  12. Visual Communication with Retinex Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Davis, Richard E.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel

    2000-04-01

    Visual communication with retinex coding seeks to suppress the spatial variation of the irradiance (e.g., shadows) across natural scenes and preserve only the spatial detail and the reflectance (or the lightness) of the surface itself. The separation of reflectance from irradiance begins with nonlinear retinex coding that sharply and clearly enhances edges and preserves their contrast, and it ends with a Wiener filter that restores images from this edge and contrast information. An approximate small-signal model of image gathering with retinex coding is found to consist of the familiar difference-of-Gaussian bandpass filter and a locally adaptive automatic-gain control. A linear representation of this model is used to develop expressions within the small-signal constraint for the information rate and the theoretical minimum data rate of the retinex-coded signal and for the maximum-realizable fidelity of the images restored from this signal. Extensive computations and simulations demonstrate that predictions based on these figures of merit correlate closely with perceptual and measured performance. Hence these predictions can serve as a general guide for the design of visual communication channels that produce images with a visual quality that consistently approaches the best possible sharpness, clarity, and reflectance constancy, even for nonuniform irradiances. The suppression of shadows in the restored image is found to be constrained inherently more by the sharpness of their penumbra than by their depth.

  13. The spammed code offset method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Vreede, de N.

    2013-01-01

    Helper data schemes are a security primitive used for privacy-preserving biometric databases and Physical Unclonable Functions. One of the oldest known helper data schemes is the Code Offset Method (COM). We propose an extension of the COM: the helper data is accompanied by many instances of fake

  14. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  15. CVSscan : Visualization of Code Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voinea, Lucian; Telea, Alex; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2005-01-01

    During the life cycle of a software system, the source code is changed many times. We study how developers can be enabled to get insight in these changes, in order to understand the status, history and structure better, as well as for instance the roles played by various contributors. We present

  16. Coding and English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Vance; Verschoor, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    According to Dudeney, Hockly, and Pegrum (2013) coding is a deeper skill subsumed under the four main digital literacies of language, connections, information, and (re)design. Coders or programmers are people who write the programmes behind everything we see and do on a computer. Most students spend several hours playing online games, but few know…

  17. The spammed code offset method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Vreede, de N.

    2014-01-01

    Helper data schemes are a security primitive used for privacy-preserving biometric databases and physical unclonable functions. One of the oldest known helper data schemes is the code offset method (COM). We propose an extension of the COM: the helper data are accompanied by many instances of fake

  18. SSI and the Environmental Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, T.

    1997-12-01

    Radiation is, to some extent, included in the environmental code being prepared by the government. As a consequence both the Radiation Protection Institute and the proposed Environmental Court may set legal conditions concerning radiation protection for the proponent. Legal and other matters related to this issue are discussed in the report

  19. Electron transport code theoretical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubi, A.; Horowitz, Y.S.

    1978-04-01

    This report mainly describes the physical and mathematical considerations involved in the treatment of the multiple collision processes. A brief description is given of the traditional methods used in electron transport via Monte Carlo, and a somewhat more detailed description, of the approach to be used in the presently developed code

  20. Computation of the Genetic Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Nicolay N.; Kozlova, Olga N.

    2018-03-01

    One of the problems in the development of mathematical theory of the genetic code (summary is presented in [1], the detailed -to [2]) is the problem of the calculation of the genetic code. Similar problems in the world is unknown and could be delivered only in the 21st century. One approach to solving this problem is devoted to this work. For the first time provides a detailed description of the method of calculation of the genetic code, the idea of which was first published earlier [3]), and the choice of one of the most important sets for the calculation was based on an article [4]. Such a set of amino acid corresponds to a complete set of representations of the plurality of overlapping triple gene belonging to the same DNA strand. A separate issue was the initial point, triggering an iterative search process all codes submitted by the initial data. Mathematical analysis has shown that the said set contains some ambiguities, which have been founded because of our proposed compressed representation of the set. As a result, the developed method of calculation was limited to the two main stages of research, where the first stage only the of the area were used in the calculations. The proposed approach will significantly reduce the amount of computations at each step in this complex discrete structure.

  1. QR Codes: Taking Collections Further

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    With some thought and direction, QR (quick response) codes are a great tool to use in school libraries to enhance access to information. From March through April 2013, Caitlin Ahearn interned at Sanborn Regional High School (SRHS) under the supervision of Pam Harland. As a result of Harland's un-Deweying of the nonfiction collection at SRHS,…

  2. Surgical navigation with QR codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katanacho Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is an alternative to established measurement systems in surgical navigation. The system is based on camera based tracking of QR code markers. The application uses a single video camera, integrated in a surgical lamp, that captures the QR markers attached to surgical instruments and to the patient.

  3. Multiple component codes based generalized LDPC codes for high-speed optical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Wang, Ting

    2014-07-14

    A class of generalized low-density parity-check (GLDPC) codes suitable for optical communications is proposed, which consists of multiple local codes. It is shown that Hamming, BCH, and Reed-Muller codes can be used as local codes, and that the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoding of these local codes by Ashikhmin-Lytsin algorithm is feasible in terms of complexity and performance. We demonstrate that record coding gains can be obtained from properly designed GLDPC codes, derived from multiple component codes. We then show that several recently proposed classes of LDPC codes such as convolutional and spatially-coupled codes can be described using the concept of GLDPC coding, which indicates that the GLDPC coding can be used as a unified platform for advanced FEC enabling ultra-high speed optical transport. The proposed class of GLDPC codes is also suitable for code-rate adaption, to adjust the error correction strength depending on the optical channel conditions.

  4. Fundamentals of information theory and coding design

    CERN Document Server

    Togneri, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In a clear, concise, and modular format, this book introduces the fundamental concepts and mathematics of information and coding theory. The authors emphasize how a code is designed and discuss the main properties and characteristics of different coding algorithms along with strategies for selecting the appropriate codes to meet specific requirements. They provide comprehensive coverage of source and channel coding, address arithmetic, BCH, and Reed-Solomon codes and explore some more advanced topics such as PPM compression and turbo codes. Worked examples and sets of basic and advanced exercises in each chapter reinforce the text's clear explanations of all concepts and methodologies.

  5. Software information sorting code 'PLUTO-R'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Naraoka, Kenitsu; Adachi, Masao; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1984-10-01

    A software information sorting code PLUTO-R is developed as one of the supporting codes of the TRITON system for the fusion plasma analysis. The objective of the PLUTO-R code is to sort reference materials of the codes in the TRITON code system. The easiness in the registration of information is especially pursued. As experience and skill in the data registration are not required, this code is usable for construction of general small-scale information system. This report gives an overall description and the user's manual of the PLUTO-R code. (author)

  6. Explicit MDS Codes with Complementary Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Duals Peter; Jin, Lingfei

    2018-01-01

    In 1964, Massey introduced a class of codes with complementary duals which are called Linear Complimentary Dual (LCD for short) codes. He showed that LCD codes have applications in communication system, side-channel attack (SCA) and so on. LCD codes have been extensively studied in literature....... On the other hand, MDS codes form an optimal family of classical codes which have wide applications in both theory and practice. The main purpose of this paper is to give an explicit construction of several classes of LCD MDS codes, using tools from algebraic function fields. We exemplify this construction...

  7. A class of Sudan-decodable codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2000-01-01

    In this article, Sudan's algorithm is modified into an efficient method to list-decode a class of codes which can be seen as a generalization of Reed-Solomon codes. The algorithm is specialized into a very efficient method for unique decoding. The code construction can be generalized based...... on algebraic-geometry codes and the decoding algorithms are generalized accordingly. Comparisons with Reed-Solomon and Hermitian codes are made....

  8. Development and validation of sodium fire codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morii, Tadashi; Himeno Yoshiaki; Miyake, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Development, verification, and validation of the spray fire code, SPRAY-3M, the pool fire codes, SOFIRE-M2 and SPM, the aerosol behavior code, ABC-INTG, and the simultaneous spray and pool fires code, ASSCOPS, are presented. In addition, the state-of-the-art of development of the multi-dimensional natural convection code, SOLFAS, for the analysis of heat-mass transfer during a fire, is presented. (author)

  9. Studi Kompresi Data dengan Metode Arithmetic Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, Petrus

    2001-01-01

    In Bahasa Indonesia : Ada banyak sekali metode kompresi data yang ada saat ini. Sebagian besar metode tersebut bisa dikelompokkan ke dalam salah satu dari dua kelompok besar, statistical based dan dictionary based. Contoh dari dictionary based coding adalah Lempel Ziv Welch dan contoh dari statistical based coding adalah Huffman Coding dan Arithmetic Coding yang merupakan algoritma terbaru. Makalah ini mengulas prinsip-prinsip dari Arithmetic Coding serta keuntungan-keuntungannya dibandi...

  10. Computer codes for ventilation in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcey, P.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors present some computer codes, developed in the last years, for ventilation and radioprotection. These codes are used for safety analysis in the conception, exploitation and dismantlement of nuclear facilities. The authors present particularly: DACC1 code used for aerosol deposit in sampling circuit of radiation monitors; PIAF code used for modelization of complex ventilation system; CLIMAT 6 code used for optimization of air conditioning system [fr

  11. User's manual for a measurement simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, E.A.

    1982-07-01

    The MEASIM code has been developed primarily for modeling process measurements in materials processing facilities associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the code computes materials balances and the summation of materials balances along with associated variances. The code has been used primarily in performance assessment of materials' accounting systems. This report provides the necessary information for a potential user to employ the code in these applications. A number of examples that demonstrate most of the capabilities of the code are provided

  12. Light-water reactor safety analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.F.; Ransom, V.H.; Ybarrondo, L.J.; Liles, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of the evolution of light-water reactor safety analysis codes is presented. Included is a summary comparison of the technical capabilities of major system codes. Three recent codes are described in more detail to serve as examples of currently used techniques. Example comparisons between calculated results using these codes and experimental data are given. Finally, a brief evaluation of current code capability and future development trends is presented

  13. Coding In-depth Semistructured Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Quincy, Charles; Osserman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Many social science studies are based on coded in-depth semistructured interview transcripts. But researchers rarely report or discuss coding reliability in this work. Nor is there much literature on the subject for this type of data. This article presents a procedure for developing coding schemes...... useful for situations where a single knowledgeable coder will code all the transcripts once the coding scheme has been established. This approach can also be used with other types of qualitative data and in other circumstances....

  14. Towers of generalized divisible quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haah, Jeongwan

    2018-04-01

    A divisible binary classical code is one in which every code word has weight divisible by a fixed integer. If the divisor is 2ν for a positive integer ν , then one can construct a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) code, where X -stabilizer space is the divisible classical code, that admits a transversal gate in the ν th level of Clifford hierarchy. We consider a generalization of the divisibility by allowing a coefficient vector of odd integers with which every code word has zero dot product modulo the divisor. In this generalized sense, we construct a CSS code with divisor 2ν +1 and code distance d from any CSS code of code distance d and divisor 2ν where the transversal X is a nontrivial logical operator. The encoding rate of the new code is approximately d times smaller than that of the old code. In particular, for large d and ν ≥2 , our construction yields a CSS code of parameters [[O (dν -1) ,Ω (d ) ,d ] ] admitting a transversal gate at the ν th level of Clifford hierarchy. For our construction we introduce a conversion from magic state distillation protocols based on Clifford measurements to those based on codes with transversal T gates. Our tower contains, as a subclass, generalized triply even CSS codes that have appeared in so-called gauge fixing or code switching methods.

  15. Coding and transmission of subband coded images on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Su, Xiao

    2001-09-01

    Subband-coded images can be transmitted in the Internet using either the TCP or the UDP protocol. Delivery by TCP gives superior decoding quality but with very long delays when the network is unreliable, whereas delivery by UDP has negligible delays but with degraded quality when packets are lost. Although images are delivered currently over the Internet by TCP, we study in this paper the use of UDP to deliver multi-description reconstruction-based subband-coded images. First, in order to facilitate recovery from UDP packet losses, we propose a joint sender-receiver approach for designing optimized reconstruction-based subband transform (ORB-ST) in multi-description coding (MDC). Second, we carefully evaluate the delay-quality trade-offs between the TCP delivery of SDC images and the UDP and combined TCP/UDP delivery of MDC images. Experimental results show that our proposed ORB-ST performs well in real Internet tests, and UDP and combined TCP/UDP delivery of MDC images provide a range of attractive alternatives to TCP delivery.

  16. Genetic coding and gene expression - new Quadruplet genetic coding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar Singh, Rama

    2012-07-01

    Successful demonstration of human genome project has opened the door not only for developing personalized medicine and cure for genetic diseases, but it may also answer the complex and difficult question of the origin of life. It may lead to making 21st century, a century of Biological Sciences as well. Based on the central dogma of Biology, genetic codons in conjunction with tRNA play a key role in translating the RNA bases forming sequence of amino acids leading to a synthesized protein. This is the most critical step in synthesizing the right protein needed for personalized medicine and curing genetic diseases. So far, only triplet codons involving three bases of RNA, transcribed from DNA bases, have been used. Since this approach has several inconsistencies and limitations, even the promise of personalized medicine has not been realized. The new Quadruplet genetic coding model proposed and developed here involves all four RNA bases which in conjunction with tRNA will synthesize the right protein. The transcription and translation process used will be the same, but the Quadruplet codons will help overcome most of the inconsistencies and limitations of the triplet codes. Details of this new Quadruplet genetic coding model and its subsequent potential applications including relevance to the origin of life will be presented.

  17. Amino acid codes in mitochondria as possible clues to primitive codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    Differences between mitochondrial codes and the universal code indicate that an evolutionary simplification has taken place, rather than a return to a more primitive code. However, these differences make it evident that the universal code is not the only code possible, and therefore earlier codes may have differed markedly from the previous code. The present universal code is probably a 'frozen accident.' The change in CUN codons from leucine to threonine (Neurospora vs. yeast mitochondria) indicates that neutral or near-neutral changes occurred in the corresponding proteins when this code change took place, caused presumably by a mutation in a tRNA gene.

  18. On the Combination of Multi-Layer Source Coding and Network Coding for Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Fitzek, Frank; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2013-01-01

    quality is developed. A linear coding structure designed to gracefully encapsulate layered source coding provides both low complexity of the utilised linear coding while enabling robust erasure correction in the form of fountain coding capabilities. The proposed linear coding structure advocates efficient...

  19. Some Families of Asymmetric Quantum MDS Codes Constructed from Constacyclic Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jianzhang; Feng, Chunhui; Chen, Riqing

    2018-02-01

    Quantum maximal-distance-separable (MDS) codes that satisfy quantum Singleton bound with different lengths have been constructed by some researchers. In this paper, seven families of asymmetric quantum MDS codes are constructed by using constacyclic codes. We weaken the case of Hermitian-dual containing codes that can be applied to construct asymmetric quantum MDS codes with parameters [[n,k,dz/dx

  20. CBP Phase I Code Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown and Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown and Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface