Non-equilibrium phonon generation and detection in microstructure devices
Hertzberg, J. B.; Otelaja, O. O.; Yoshida, N. J.; Robinson, R. D.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a method to excite locally a controllable, non-thermal distribution of acoustic phonon modes ranging from 0 to ∼200 GHz in a silicon microstructure, by decay of excited quasiparticle states in an attached superconducting tunnel
Non-equilibrium phonon generation and detection in microstructure devices
Hertzberg, J. B.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a method to excite locally a controllable, non-thermal distribution of acoustic phonon modes ranging from 0 to ∼200 GHz in a silicon microstructure, by decay of excited quasiparticle states in an attached superconducting tunnel junction (STJ). The phonons transiting the structure ballistically are detected by a second STJ, allowing comparison of direct with indirect transport pathways. This method may be applied to study how different phonon modes contribute to the thermal conductivity of nanostructures. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Influence of pre-strain on thermal stability of non-equilibrium microstructures in a low alloy steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Chao; Yang, Shanwu; Wang, Xian; Zhang, Rui; He, Xinlai
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► High pre-strain and low pre-strain influence differently on thermal stability of non-equilibrium microstructures. ► High pre-strain, in which dislocation sources can be actuated and dislocation density is increased excessively, will markedly promote recrystallization. ► Low pre-strain, in which dislocations are induced to redistribute into a low-energy structure, can slow down microstructure evolution. -- Abstract: Non-equilibrium microstructures in steels including martensite and bainite, which are main phases in current high strength steels, possess high strength and hardness. However, these microstructures are metastable due to their high density of crystal defects. In the present investigation, hardness test, optical microscopy and electron microscopy have been carried out to detect microstructure evolution in a low alloy steel, which was reheated and held isothermally at 550 °C. Special emphasis was put on influence of pre-strain on thermal stability of non-equilibrium microstructures. It is found that high pre-strain, in which dislocation sources can be actuated and dislocation density is increased excessively, will markedly promote recrystallization of non-equilibrium microstructures at 550 °C, while low pre-strain, in which only can mono-glide of dislocations can be operated in each grain and dislocations are induced to redistribute into a low-energy structure, can slow down microstructure evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maulois, Melissa; Ribière, Maxime; Eichwald, Olivier; Yousfi, Mohammed; Azaïs, Bruno
2016-01-01
The comprehension of electromagnetic perturbations of electronic devices, due to air plasma-induced electromagnetic field, requires a thorough study on air plasma. In the aim to understand the phenomena at the origin of the formation of non-equilibrium air plasma, we simulate, using a volume average chemical kinetics model (0D model), the time evolution of a non-equilibrium air plasma generated by an energetic X-ray flash. The simulation is undertaken in synthetic air (80% N_2 and 20% O_2) at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. When the X-ray flash crosses the gas, non-relativistic Compton electrons (low energy) and a relativistic Compton electron beam (high energy) are simultaneously generated and interact with the gas. The considered chemical kinetics scheme involves 26 influent species (electrons, positive ions, negative ions, and neutral atoms and molecules in their ground or metastable excited states) reacting following 164 selected reactions. The kinetics model describing the plasma chemistry was coupled to the conservation equation of the electron mean energy, in order to calculate at each time step of the non-equilibrium plasma evolution, the coefficients of reactions involving electrons while the energy of the heavy species (positive and negative ions and neutral atoms and molecules) is assumed remaining close to ambient temperature. It has been shown that it is the relativistic Compton electron beam directly created by the X-ray flash which is mainly responsible for the non-equilibrium plasma formation. Indeed, the low energy electrons (i.e., the non-relativistic ones) directly ejected from molecules by Compton collisions contribute to less than 1% on the creation of electrons in the plasma. In our simulation conditions, a non-equilibrium plasma with a low electron mean energy close to 1 eV and a concentration of charged species close to 10"1"3" cm"−"3 is formed a few nanoseconds after the peak of X-ray flash intensity. 200 ns after the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malik, Muhammad Arif; Schoenbach, Karl H
2012-01-01
Energetic and scalable non-equilibrium plasma was formed in pure water vapour at atmospheric pressure between wire-to-strip electrodes on a dielectric surface with one of the electrodes extended forming a conductive plane on the back side of the dielectric surface. The energy deposition increased by an order of magnitude compared with the conventional pulsed corona discharges under the same conditions. The scalability was demonstrated by operating two electrode assemblies with a common conductive plane between two dielectric layers. The energy yields for hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide generation were measured as ∼1.2 g H 2 /kWh and ∼4 g H 2 O 2 /kWh. (fast track communication)
Sagis, L.M.C.; Öttinger, H.C.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a general model for the dynamic behavior of multiphase systems in which the bulk phases and interfaces have a complex microstructure (for example, immiscible polymer blends with added compatibilizers, or polymer stabilized emulsions with thickening agents dispersed in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zank, G. P.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Burrows, R.; McComas, D.
2010-01-01
The Voyager 2 plasma observations of the proton distribution function downstream of the quasi-perpendicular heliospheric termination shock (TS) showed that upstream thermal solar wind ions played little role in the shock dissipation mechanism, being essentially transmitted directly through the shock. Instead, the hot supra-thermal pickup ion (PUI) component is most likely responsible for the dissipation at the TS. Consequently, the downstream proton distribution function will be a complicated superposition of relatively cool thermal solar wind protons and hot PUIs that have experienced either direct transmission or reflection at the TS cross-shock potential. We develop a simple model for the TS microstructure that allows us to construct approximate proton distribution functions for the inner heliosheath. The distribution function models are compared to κ-distributions, showing the correspondence between the two. Since the interpretation of energetic neutral atom (ENA) fluxes measured at 1 AU by IBEX will depend sensitively on the form of the underlying proton distribution function, we use a three-dimensional MHD-kinetic global model to model ENA spectra at 1 AU and ENA skymaps across the IBEX energy range. We consider both solar minimum and solar maximum-like global models, showing how ENA skymap structure can be related to global heliospheric structure. We suggest that the ENA spectra may allow us to probe the directly the microphysics of the TS, while the ENA skymaps reveal heliospheric structure and, at certain energies, are distinctly different during solar minimum and maximum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashimoto, A.; Kaneno, Y.; Semboshi, S.; Yoshizaki, H.; Saitoh, Y.; Okamoto, Y.; Iwase, A.
2014-01-01
Ni 3 V bulk intermetallic compounds with ordered D0 22 structure were irradiated with 16 MeV Au ions at room temperature. The irradiation induced phase transformation was examined by means of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurement (EXAFS) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD). We also measured the Vickers hardness for unirradiated and irradiated specimens. The TEM observation shows that by the Au irradiation, the lamellar microstructures and the super lattice spot in diffraction pattern for the unirradiated specimen disappeared. This TEM result as well as the result of XRD and EXAFS measurements means that the intrinsic D0 22 structure of Ni 3 V changes into the A1 (fcc) structure which is the lattice structure just below the melting point in the thermal equilibrium phase diagram. The lattice structure change from D0 22 to A1 (fcc) accompanies a remarkable decrease in Vickers microhardness. The change in crystal structure was discussed in terms of the thermal spike and the sequential atomic displacements induced by the energetic heavy ion irradiation
Piserchia, Andrea; Zerbetto, Mirco; Frezzato, Diego
2015-03-28
In this work we show that a non-equilibrium statistical tool based on Jarzynski's equality (JE) can be applied to achieve a sufficiently accurate mapping of the torsion free energy, bond-by-bond, for an alkyl thiol ligand tethered to a gold surface and sensing the presence of the surrounding cluster of similar chains. The strength of our approach is the employment of a strategy to let grow the internal energetics of the whole system (namely, the "energy morphing" stage recently presented by us in J. Comput. Chem., 2014, 35, 1865-1881) before initiating the rotational steering, which yields accurate results in terms of statistical uncertainties and bias on the free energy profiles. The work is mainly methodological and illustrates the feasibility of this kind of inspection on nanoscale molecular clusters with conformational flexibility. The outcomes for the archetype of self-assembled-monolayers considered here, a regular pattern of 10-carbon alkyl thiols on an ideal gold surface, give information on the conformational mobility of the ligands. Notably, such information is unlikely to be obtained by means of standard equilibrium techniques or by conventional molecular dynamics simulations.
Allen, Andrew; Zhang, Fan; Levine, Lyle; Ilavsky, Jan
2013-03-01
Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) can probe microstructures over the nanometer-to-micrometer scale range. Through use of a small instrument entrance slit, X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) exploits the partial coherence of an X-ray synchrotron undulator beam to provide unprecedented sensitivity to the dynamics of microstructural change. In USAXS/XPCS studies, the dynamics of local structures in a scale range of 100 nm to 1000 nm can be related to an overall hierarchical microstructure extending from 1 nm to more than 1000 nm. Using a point-detection scintillator mode, the equilibrium dynamics at ambient temperature of small particles (which move more slowly than nanoparticles) in aqueous suspension have been quantified directly for the first time. Using a USAXS-XPCS scanning mode for non-equilibrium dynamics incipient processes within dental composites have been elucidated, prior to effects becoming detectable using any other technique. Use of the Advanced Photon Source, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
2015-01-01
analytical Beer - Lambert absorption profile to model laser heating of pure energetic crystals without considering any EM wave propagation effects...temperature. These aggregates were studied using both an analytical distribution for laser heating following Beer - Lambert absorption and the full EM finite...surface (ysurface - y) and material absorption coefficient, α, following a Beer - Lambert absorption relation given by , = !()
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Z.Z.; Yang, W., E-mail: weiyang@mail.nwpu.edu.cn; Chen, S.H.; Yu, H.; Xu, Z.F.
2014-06-15
Non-equilibrium solidification of commercial AZ91 magnesium alloy was performed by copper mold spray-casting technique and the thermal stability property of as-formed meta-stable microstructure was investigated by subsequent annealing at different temperatures and times. Remarkable grain refinement appears with increasing cooling rate during solidification process, which is accompanied by a visible cellular/dendrite transition for the grain morphology of primary phase. Moreover, the non-equilibrium solidified alloy exhibits obvious precipitation hardening effect upon annealing at 200 °C, and the precipitation mode of β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase changes from discontinuous to continuous with extending isothermal time from 4 h to 16 h, which generates an increase of resultant micro-hardness value. After solid solution treatment at the elevated temperature of 420 °C, the volume fraction of β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase decreases and a notable grain growth phenomenon occurs, which give rise to a reduction of hardness in comparison with that of as-quenched alloy.
Nonequilibrium synthesis of NbAl3 and Nb-Al-V alloys by laser cladding. I - Microstructure evolution
Sircar, S.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Mazumder, J.
1992-01-01
The evolution of the microstructure in NbAl3 synthesized by a laser cladding technique (a rapid solidification process, with cooling rates up to 10 exp 6 C/sec) is investigated, and the phases are identified using convergent beam electron diffraction. Two new metastable phases were identified and characterized in detail. The effect of adding V on the final microstructure was also investigated, and the various phase chemistries and the partitioning of different elements into different phases were studied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maes, Christian
2012-01-01
In contrast to the quite unique entropy concept useful for systems in (local) thermodynamic equilibrium, there is a variety of quite distinct nonequilibrium entropies, reflecting different physical points. We disentangle these entropies as they relate to heat, fluctuations, response, time asymmetry, variational principles, monotonicity, volume contraction or statistical forces. However, not all of those extensions yield state quantities as understood thermodynamically. At the end we sketch how aspects of dynamical activity can take over for obtaining an extended Clausius relation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Judith A; LaBarbera, Darrell A; Zikry, Mohammed A
2014-01-01
Hot-spot formation in energetic aggregates subjected to dynamic pressure loading and laser irradiation has been investigated. Specialized finite-element techniques with a dislocation-density-based crystalline plasticity constitutive formulation and thermo-mechanical coupling of heat conduction, adiabatic heating, laser heating and thermal decomposition were used to predict hot-spot formation in RDX–polymer aggregates subjected to dynamic pressures and laser energies. The effects of the electromagnetic absorption coefficient coupled with void distribution and spacing, grain morphology, crystal–binder interactions and dislocation densities were analyzed to determine their influence on the time, location and mechanisms of hot-spot formation. Four different mechanisms for hot-spot initiation under dynamic laser and pressure loads were identified, which depend on the localization of plastic shear strain and laser heat absorption within the aggregate. The predictions indicate that hot-spot formation is accelerated by higher absorption coefficients and by localized plastic deformations that occur in areas of significant laser heating. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
More, K.L.; Davis, R.F.
1986-01-01
Pulsed laser irradiation and ion beam mixing of thin Ni overlayers on sintered alpha-SiC have been investigated as potential surface modification techniques for the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the SiC. Each of these surface processing methods are nonequilibrium techniques; materials interactions can be induced at the specimen surface which are not possible with conventional thermal techniques. As a result of the surface modification, the physical properties of the ceramic can be altered under the correct processing conditions. Following laser irradiation using a pulsed ruby or krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser, the fracture strength of the SiC was increased by approximately 50 percent and 20 percent, respectively. However, ion-beam mixing of Ni on SiC resulted in no change in fracture strength. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering techniques, have been used to characterize the extent of mixing between the Ni and SiC as a result of the surface modification and to determine the reason(s) for the observed changes in fracture strength. 19 references
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...
Multiscale Modeling of Grain Boundaries in ZrB2: Structure, Energetics, and Thermal Resistance
Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Squire, Thomas H.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.
2012-01-01
A combination of ab initio, atomistic and finite element methods (FEM) were used to investigate the structures, energetics and lattice thermal conductance of grain boundaries for the ultra high temperature ceramic ZrB2. Atomic models of idealized boundaries were relaxed using density functional theory. Information about bonding across the interfaces was determined from the electron localization function. The Kapitza conductance of larger scale versions of the boundary models were computed using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics. The interfacial thermal parameters together with single crystal thermal conductivities were used as parameters in microstructural computations. FEM meshes were constructed on top of microstructural images. From these computations, the effective thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline structure was determined.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.
2010-01-01
and nickel electrodeposits was achieved by time-resolved X-ray diffraction line profile analysis and crystallographic texture analysis during room temperature storage and during isothermal annealing at elevated temperatures. These in-situ studies with unique time resolution allowed quantification of the self-annealing......Electrodeposition results in a non-equilibrium state of the as-deposited nanocrystalline microstructure, which evolves towards an energetically more favorable state as a function of time and/or temperature upon deposition. Real-time investigation of the evolving microstructure in copper, silver...... kinetics of copper and silver electrodeposits as well as the annealing kinetics of electrodeposited nickel. Similarities and characteristic differences of the kinetics and mechanisms of microstructure evolution in the various electrodeposits are discussed and the experimental results are attempted...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.
2010-01-01
Electrodeposition results in a non-equilibrium state of the as-deposited nanocrystalline microstructure, which evolves towards an energetically more favorable state as a function of time and/or temperature upon deposition. Real-time investigation of the evolving microstructure in copper, silver and nickel electrodeposits was achieved by time-resolved X-ray diffraction line profile analysis and crystallographic texture analysis during room temperature storage and during isothermal annealing at elevated temperatures. These in-situ studies with unique time resolution allowed quantification of the self-annealing kinetics of copper and silver electrodeposits as well as the annealing kinetics of electrodeposited nickel. Similarities and characteristic differences of the kinetics and mechanisms of microstructure evolution in the various electrodeposits are discussed and the experimental results are attempted to be interpreted in terms of recovery, recrystallization and grain growth.
Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas
Sharma, A Surjalal
2005-01-01
The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.
Nonequilibrium quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemi, A.J.
1988-01-01
Combining the Feynman-Vernon influence functional formalism with the real-time formulation of finite-temperature quantum field theories we present a general approach to relativistic quantum field theories out of thermal equilibrium. We clarify the physical meaning of the additional fields encountered in the real-time formulation of quantum statistics and outline diagrammatic rules for perturbative nonequilibrium computations. We derive a generalization of Boltzmann's equation which gives a complete characterization of relativistic nonequilibrium phenomena. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burck, Andreas
2008-01-01
This thesis describes the development of large-area magnetic calorimeters which could for example be used for the investigation of the dissociative recombination or the measurement of the Lamb-shift for hydrogenlike heavy ions. The detectors consist of two meandershaped niobium thin film pickup coils and a paramagnetic sensor. The deposition of energy in the sensor results in a temperature change and therefore in a change of magnetisation of the sensor, which can be measured by a SQUID-magnetometer with high precision. As sensormaterials a dilute alloy of gold-erbium (Au:Er) as well as silver-erbium (Ag:Er) were used. Whereas the Ag:Er-sensor was glued on the pickup coil the Au:Er-sensor was for the first time microstructured by a novel microstructuring process established in this thesis. For the characterisation of the detectors and the sensormaterials a fluorescence source and a 55 Fe source were used. The thermodynamic properties of the Au:Er-sensors thereby show promising results, as the magnetisation shows bulk properties down to 20 mK. The measurements of the signalize and the magnetisation with the detector which was equipped with a Ag:Er-sensor showed that the thermodynamic properties of the Ag:Eralloy could be fully described. Furthermore the shape of the pulses, the noise and the energy resolution of both detectors will be discussed. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium statistical physics
Röpke, Gerd
2013-01-01
Authored by one of the top theoretical physicists in Germany, and a well-known authority in the field, this is the only coherent presentation of the subject suitable for masters and PhD students, as well as postdocs in physics and related disciplines.Starting from a general discussion of the nonequilibrium state, different standard approaches such as master equations, and kinetic and linear response theory, are derived after special assumptions. This allows for an insight into the problems of nonequilibrium physics, a discussion of the limits, and suggestions for improvements. Applications
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation
Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L.M.C.
2014-01-01
We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2012-01-01
This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy
Statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium liquids
Evans, Denis J; Craig, D P; McWeeny, R
1990-01-01
Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory,
Wu, S. T.; Dejager, C.; Dennis, B. R.; Hudson, H. S.; Simnett, G. M.; Strong, K. T.; Bentley, R. D.; Bornmann, P. L.; Bruner, M. E.; Cargill, P. J.
1986-01-01
In this investigation of flare energetics, researchers sought to establish a comprehensive and self-consistent picture of the sources and transport of energy within a flare. To achieve this goal, they chose five flares in 1980 that were well observed with instruments on the Solar Maximum Mission, and with other space-borne and ground-based instruments. The events were chosen to represent various types of flares. Details of the observations available for them and the corresponding physical parameters derived from these data are presented. The flares were studied from two perspectives, the impulsive and gradual phases, and then the results were compared to obtain the overall picture of the energics of these flares. The role that modeling can play in estimating the total energy of a flare when the observationally determined parameters are used as the input to a numerical model is discussed. Finally, a critique of the current understanding of flare energetics and the methods used to determine various energetics terms is outlined, and possible future directions of research in this area are suggested.
Nonequilibrium effects in Isoscaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorso, C. O.; Lopez, J. A.
2007-01-01
In this work we study within a simple model different properties of the system that allow us to understand the properties of the isoscaling observable. We first show that isoscaling is a general property of fragmenting systems. We show this by using a simple generalized percolation model. We show that the usual isoscaling property can be obtained in the case of bond percolation in bichromatic lattices with any regular topology. In this case the probabilities of each color (isospin) are independent. We then explore the effect of introducing 'non-equilibrium' effects
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics
De Groot, Sybren Ruurds
1984-01-01
The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn
The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1992-03-01
MOLECULAR DYNAMICS has been generalized in order to simulate a variety of NONEQUILIBRIUM systems. This generalization has been achieved by adopting microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress. Some of the problems already treated include rapid plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, strong shockwaves simulation, and far-from-equilibrium phase transformations. Continuing advances in technique and in the modeling of interatomic forces, coupled with qualitative improvements in computer hardware, are enabling such simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments
Instabilities and nonequilibrium structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tirapegui, E.; Villarroel, D.
1987-01-01
Physical systems can be studied both near to and far from equilibrium where instabilities appear. The behaviour in these two regions is reviewed in this book, from both the theoretical and application points of view. The influence of noise in these situations is an essential feature which cannot be ignored. It is therefore discussed using phenomenological and theoretical approaches for the numerous problems which still remain in the field. This volume should appeal to mathematicians and physicists interested in the areas of instability, bifurcation theory, dynamical systems, pattern formation, nonequilibrium structures and statistical mechanics. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katalin Martinás
2007-02-01
Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.
Definition of Nonequilibrium Entropy of General Systems
Mei, Xiaochun
1999-01-01
The definition of nonequilibrium entropy is provided for the general nonequilibrium processes by connecting thermodynamics with statistical physics, and the principle of entropy increment in the nonequilibrium processes is also proved in the paper. The result shows that the definition of nonequilibrium entropy is not unique.
Microstructure of irradiated materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robertson, I.M.
1995-01-01
The focus of the symposium was on the changes produced in the microstructure of metals, ceramics, and semiconductors by irradiation with energetic particles. the symposium brought together those working in the different material systems, which revealed that there are a remarkable number of similarities in the irradiation-produced microstructures in the different classes of materials. Experimental, computational and theoretical contributions were intermixed in all of the sessions. This provided an opportunity for these groups, which should interact, to do so. Separate abstracts were prepared for 58 papers in this book
Enrique, R A; Averback, R S; Bellon, P
2003-01-01
Alloys under irradiation are continuously driven away from equilibrium: Every time an external particle interacts with the atoms in the solid, a perturbation very localized in space and time is produced. Under this external forcing, phase and microstructural evolution depends ultimately on the dynamical interaction between the external perturbation and the internal recovery kinetics of the alloy. We consider the nonequilibrium steady state of an immiscible binary alloy subject to mixing by heavy-ion irradiation. It has been found that the range of the forced atomic relocations taking place during collision cascades plays an important role on the final microstructure: when this range is large enough, it can lead to the spontaneous formation of compositional patterns at the nanometer scale. These results were rationalized in the framework of a continuum model solved by deriving a nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential. Here we derive the nonequilibrium structure factor by including the role of fluctuations. In ...
Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor
Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.
2018-02-01
We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven
2009-01-01
This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of dilute polymer solutions in flow.
Latinwo, Folarin; Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Schroeder, Charles M
2014-11-07
Modern materials processing applications and technologies often occur far from equilibrium. To this end, the processing of complex materials such as polymer melts and nanocomposites generally occurs under strong deformations and flows, conditions under which equilibrium thermodynamics does not apply. As a result, the ability to determine the nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties of polymeric materials from measurable quantities such as heat and work is a major challenge in the field. Here, we use work relations to show that nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities such as free energy and entropy can be determined for dilute polymer solutions in flow. In this way, we determine the thermodynamic properties of DNA molecules in strong flows using a combination of simulations, kinetic theory, and single molecule experiments. We show that it is possible to calculate polymer relaxation timescales purely from polymer stretching dynamics in flow. We further observe a thermodynamic equivalence between nonequilibrium and equilibrium steady-states for polymeric systems. In this way, our results provide an improved understanding of the energetics of flowing polymer solutions.
Evolution of phase microstructure during irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiedersich, H.
1985-11-01
The phase microstructure of alloys is frequently severely altered during irradiation. Sluggish precipitation reactions including precipitation coarsening are accelerated by irradiation-enhanced diffusion. Radiation-induced segregation redistributes existing precipitate phases within the microstructure, induces precipitation of nonequilibrium phases and affects the composition of phases in multicomponent alloys. The displacement process causes disordering of ordered alloys and frequently amorphization, especially in intermetallic compounds, at low temperature. Although a good qualitative understanding of the basic process involved, i.e., displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation exists, methods for detailed quantitative modeling of the evolution of the microstructure of alloys remain to be developed
Open problems in non-equilibrium physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusnezov, D.
1997-01-01
The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions
Open problems in non-equilibrium physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kusnezov, D.
1997-09-22
The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.
Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States
Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.
2017-08-01
Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.
Energetics Conditioning Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...
Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.
Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M
2017-09-18
Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.
Rheology via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1982-10-01
The equilibrium molecular dynamics formulated by Newton, Lagrange, and Hamilton has been modified in order to simulate rheologial molecular flows with fast computers. This modified Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) has been applied to fluid and solid deformations, under both homogeneous and shock conditions, as well as to the transport of heat. The irreversible heating associated with dissipation could be controlled by carrying out isothermal NEMD calculations. The new isothermal NEMD equations of motion are consistent with Gauss' 1829 Least-Constraint principle as well as certain microscopic equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical formulations due to Gibbs and Boltzmann. Application of isothermal NEMD revealed high-frequency and high-strain-rate behavior for simple fluids which resembled the behavior of polymer solutions and melts at lower frequencies and strain rates. For solids NEMD produces plastic flows consistent with experimental observations at much lower strain rates. The new nonequilibrium methods also suggest novel formulations of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium systems and shed light on the failure of the Principle of Material Frame Indifference
Microstructure of rapidly solidified materials
Jones, H.
1984-07-01
The basic features of rapidly solidified microstructures are described and differences arising from alternative processing strategies are discussed. The possibility of achieving substantial undercooling prior to solidification in processes such as quench atomization and chill block melt spinning can give rise to striking microstructural transitions even when external heat extraction is nominally Newtonian. The increased opportunity in laser and electron beam surface melting for epitaxial growth on the parent solid at an accelerating rate, however, does not exclude the formation of nonequilibrium phases since the required undercooling can be locally attained at the solidification front which is itself advancing at a sufficiently high velocity. The effects of fluid flow indicated particularly in melt spinning and surface melting are additional to the transformational and heat flow considerations that form the present basis for interpretation of such microstructural effects.
Non-Equilibrium Solidification of Undercooled Metallic Melts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dieter M. Herlach
2014-06-01
Full Text Available If a liquid is undercooled below its equilibrium melting temperature an excess Gibbs free energy is created. This gives access to solidification of metastable solids under non-equilibrium conditions. In the present work, techniques of containerless processing are applied. Electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation enable to freely suspend a liquid drop of a few millimeters in diameter. Heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is completely avoided leading to large undercoolings. The freely suspended drop is accessible for direct observation of rapid solidification under conditions far away from equilibrium by applying proper diagnostic means. Nucleation of metastable crystalline phases is monitored by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation during non-equilibrium solidification. While nucleation preselects the crystallographic phase, subsequent crystal growth controls the microstructure evolution. Metastable microstructures are obtained from deeply undercooled melts as supersaturated solid solutions, disordered superlattice structures of intermetallics. Nucleation and crystal growth take place by heat and mass transport. Comparative experiments in reduced gravity allow for investigations on how forced convection can be used to alter the transport processes and design materials by using undercooling and convection as process parameters.
Nonequilibrium mesoscopic transport: a genealogy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Mukunda P; Green, Frederick
2012-01-01
Models of nonequilibrium quantum transport underpin all modern electronic devices, from the largest scales to the smallest. Past simplifications such as coarse graining and bulk self-averaging served well to understand electronic materials. Such particular notions become inapplicable at mesoscopic dimensions, edging towards the truly quantum regime. Nevertheless a unifying thread continues to run through transport physics, animating the design of small-scale electronic technology: microscopic conservation and nonequilibrium dissipation. These fundamentals are inherent in quantum transport and gain even greater and more explicit experimental meaning in the passage to atomic-sized devices. We review their genesis, their theoretical context, and their governing role in the electronic response of meso- and nanoscopic systems. (topical review)
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics ensemble method
Eu, Byung Chan
1998-01-01
In this monograph, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is developed by means of ensemble methods on the basis of the Boltzmann equation, the generic Boltzmann equations for classical and quantum dilute gases, and a generalised Boltzmann equation for dense simple fluids The theories are developed in forms parallel with the equilibrium Gibbs ensemble theory in a way fully consistent with the laws of thermodynamics The generalised hydrodynamics equations are the integral part of the theory and describe the evolution of macroscopic processes in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics of systems far removed from equilibrium Audience This book will be of interest to researchers in the fields of statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, gas dynamics, fluid dynamics, rheology, irreversible thermodynamics and nonequilibrium phenomena
Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of work.
Allahverdyan, A E
2014-09-01
The concept of work is basic for statistical thermodynamics. To gain a fuller understanding of work and its (quantum) features, it needs to be represented as an average of a fluctuating quantity. Here I focus on the work done between two moments of time for a thermally isolated quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. I formulate two natural conditions needed for the fluctuating work to be physically meaningful for a system that starts its evolution from a nonequilibrium state. The existing definitions do not satisfy these conditions due to issues that are traced back to noncommutativity. I propose a definition of fluctuating work that is free of previous drawbacks and that applies for a wide class of nonequilibrium initial states. It allows the deduction of a generalized work-fluctuation theorem that applies for an arbitrary (out-of-equilibrium) initial state.
Computer simulation of nonequilibrium processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallace, D.C.
1985-07-01
The underlying concepts of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, and of irreversible thermodynamics, will be described. The question at hand is then, how are these concepts to be realize in computer simulations of many-particle systems. The answer will be given for dissipative deformation processes in solids, on three hierarchical levels: heterogeneous plastic flow, dislocation dynamics, an molecular dynamics. Aplication to the shock process will be discussed
Non-equilibrium fluctuation-induced interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dean, David S
2012-01-01
We discuss non-equilibrium aspects of fluctuation-induced interactions. While the equilibrium behavior of such interactions has been extensively studied and is relatively well understood, the study of these interactions out of equilibrium is relatively new. We discuss recent results on the non-equilibrium behavior of systems whose dynamics is of the dissipative stochastic type and identify a number of outstanding problems concerning non-equilibrium fluctuation-induced interactions.
Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merzhanov, A.G.
1995-01-01
The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes [ru
Non-equilibrium phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken
Non-dissipative effects in nonequilibrium systems
Maes, Christian
2018-01-01
This book introduces and discusses both the fundamental aspects and the measurability of applications of time-symmetric kinetic quantities, outlining the features that constitute the non-dissipative branch of non-equilibrium physics. These specific features of non-equilibrium dynamics have largely been ignored in standard statistical mechanics texts. This introductory-level book offers novel material that does not take the traditional line of extending standard thermodynamics to the irreversible domain. It shows that although stationary dissipation is essentially equivalent with steady non-equilibrium and ubiquitous in complex phenomena, non-equilibrium is not determined solely by the time-antisymmetric sector of energy-entropy considerations. While this should not be very surprising, this book provides timely, simple reminders of the role of time-symmetric and kinetic aspects in the construction of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.
INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas
Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana
2009-07-01
This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early
Non-equilibrium synthesis of alloys using lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazumder, J.; Choi, J.; Ribaudo, C.; Wang, A.; Kar, A.
1993-01-01
This paper discusses microstructure and properties of alloys, produced by laser alloying and cladding technique, for various applications. These include Fe-Cr-W-C alloys for wear resistance, Ni-Cr-Al-Hf alloys for high temperature oxidation resistance and Mg-Al alloys for corrosion resistance. Also a mathematical model will be presented for the prediction of the composition of the metastable phases produced by laser synthesis. Microstructure was characterized using various electron optical techniques such as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). Wear properties were characterized by a line contact Block on Cylinder method. High temperature oxidation properties were characterized by using Perkin-Elmer Thermo-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) where dynamic weight change were monitored at 1,200 C. Corrosion properties were evaluated by a potentio-dynamic method using a computer controlled Potentiostat manufactured by EG ampersand G. A non-equilibrium M 6 C type carbide was found to be responsible for the improved wear resistance. Increased solid-solubility of Hf was found to be a major factor in improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of the Ni-Cr-Al-Hf alloys. Micro-Crystalline phases were observed in Mg-Al alloys. The rapid solidification was modeled using heat transfer in the liquid pool and the solid substrate and mass transfer in the liquid pool. Non-equilibrium partition coefficient was introduced through the boundary condition at the liquid-solid interface. A good correlation was observed between the prediction and the experimental data. 54 refs
Energetic certification in Europe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-01-01
At community level the problem of energy quality control in a building was introduced by EEC recommendation n. 93/76 in 1993. In this item are reported some notes on energetic certification in European countries [it
Energetics Laboratory Facilities
Federal Laboratory Consortium — These energetic materials laboratories are equipped with explosion proof hoods with blow out walls for added safety, that are certified for safe handling of primary...
Statistical thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes
Keizer, Joel
1987-01-01
The structure of the theory ofthermodynamics has changed enormously since its inception in the middle of the nineteenth century. Shortly after Thomson and Clausius enunciated their versions of the Second Law, Clausius, Maxwell, and Boltzmann began actively pursuing the molecular basis of thermo dynamics, work that culminated in the Boltzmann equation and the theory of transport processes in dilute gases. Much later, Onsager undertook the elucidation of the symmetry oftransport coefficients and, thereby, established himself as the father of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Com bining the statistical ideas of Gibbs and Langevin with the phenomenological transport equations, Onsager and others went on to develop a consistent statistical theory of irreversible processes. The power of that theory is in its ability to relate measurable quantities, such as transport coefficients and thermodynamic derivatives, to the results of experimental measurements. As powerful as that theory is, it is linear and...
Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor.
Garnier, N; Ciliberto, S
2005-06-01
In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I, and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P = R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs' symmetries.
Link prediction based on nonequilibrium cooperation effect
Li, Lanxi; Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui
2018-04-01
Link prediction in complex networks has become a common focus of many researchers. But most existing methods concentrate on neighbors, and rarely consider degree heterogeneity of two endpoints. Node degree represents the importance or status of endpoints. We describe the large-degree heterogeneity as the nonequilibrium between nodes. This nonequilibrium facilitates a stable cooperation between endpoints, so that two endpoints with large-degree heterogeneity tend to connect stably. We name such a phenomenon as the nonequilibrium cooperation effect. Therefore, this paper proposes a link prediction method based on the nonequilibrium cooperation effect to improve accuracy. Theoretical analysis will be processed in advance, and at the end, experiments will be performed in 12 real-world networks to compare the mainstream methods with our indices in the network through numerical analysis.
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: The first 25 years
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1992-08-01
Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics has been generalized to simulate Nonequilibrium systems by adding sources of thermodynamic heat and work. This generalization incorporates microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress, and augments atomistic forces with special boundary, constraint, and driving forces capable of doing work on, and exchanging heat with, an otherwise Newtonian system. The underlying Lyapunov instability of these nonequilibrium equations of motion links microscopic time-reversible deterministic trajectories to macroscopic time-irreversible hydrodynamic behavior as described by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Green-Kubo linear-response theory has been checked. Nonlinear plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, shockwave propagation, and nonequilibrium phase transformation have all been simulated. The nonequilibrium techniques, coupled with qualitative improvements in parallel computer hardware, are enabling simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments
Non-equilibrium dog-flea model
Ackerson, Bruce J.
2017-11-01
We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.
Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... of the injected electrons that maximizes the growth rate increases with increasing | q |. We compare the range and strength of the instability in graphene to that of two- and three-dimensional parabolic band systems....
Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael
2015-02-27
We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit.
Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma
Blankson, Isaiah M.
2016-01-01
Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).
Role of Sink Density in Nonequilibrium Chemical Redistribution in Alloys
Martínez, Enrique; Senninger, Oriane; Caro, Alfredo; Soisson, Frédéric; Nastar, Maylise; Uberuaga, Blas P.
2018-03-01
Nonequilibrium chemical redistribution in open systems submitted to external forces, such as particle irradiation, leads to changes in the structural properties of the material, potentially driving the system to failure. Such redistribution is controlled by the complex interplay between the production of point defects, atomic transport rates, and the sink character of the microstructure. In this work, we analyze this interplay by means of a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) framework with an underlying atomistic model for the Fe-Cr model alloy to study the effect of ideal defect sinks on Cr concentration profiles, with a particular focus on the role of interface density. We observe that the amount of segregation decreases linearly with decreasing interface spacing. Within the framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, a general analytical model is derived and assessed against the KMC simulations to elucidate the structure-property relationship of this system. Interestingly, in the kinetic regime where elimination of point defects at sinks is dominant over bulk recombination, the solute segregation does not directly depend on the dose rate but only on the density of sinks. This model provides new insight into the design of microstructures that mitigate chemical redistribution and improve radiation tolerance.
Photoactive energetic materials
Chavez, David E.; Hanson, Susan Kloek; Scharff, Robert Jason; Veauthier, Jacqueline Marie; Myers, Thomas Winfield
2018-02-27
Energetic materials that are photoactive or believed to be photoactive may include a conventional explosive (e.g. PETN, nitroglycerine) derivatized with an energetic UV-absorbing and/or VIS-absorbing chromophore such as 1,2,4,5-tetrazine or 1,3,5-triazine. Absorption of laser light having a suitably chosen wavelength may result in photodissociation, decomposition, and explosive release of energy. These materials may be used as ligands to form complexes. Coordination compounds include such complexes with counterions. Some having the formula M(L).sub.n.sup.2+ were synthesized, wherein M is a transition metal and L is a ligand and n is 2 or 3. These may be photoactive upon exposure to a laser light beam having an appropriate wavelength of UV light, near-IR and/or visible light. Photoactive materials also include coordination compounds bearing non-energetic ligands; in this case, the counterion may be an oxidant such as perchlorate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrico Sciubba
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses how the two thermodynamic properties, energy (U and exergy (E, can be used to solve the problem of quantifying the entropy of non-equilibrium systems. Both energy and exergy are a priori concepts, and their formal dependence on thermodynamic state variables at equilibrium is known. Exploiting the results of a previous study, we first calculate the non-equilibrium exergy En-eq can be calculated for an arbitrary temperature distributions across a macroscopic body with an accuracy that depends only on the available information about the initial distribution: the analytical results confirm that En-eq exponentially relaxes to its equilibrium value. Using the Gyftopoulos-Beretta formalism, a non-equilibrium entropy Sn-eq(x,t is then derived from En-eq(x,t and U(x,t. It is finally shown that the non-equilibrium entropy generation between two states is always larger than its equilibrium (herein referred to as “classical” counterpart. We conclude that every iso-energetic non-equilibrium state corresponds to an infinite set of non-equivalent states that can be ranked in terms of increasing entropy. Therefore, each point of the Gibbs plane corresponds therefore to a set of possible initial distributions: the non-equilibrium entropy is a multi-valued function that depends on the initial mass and energy distribution within the body. Though the concept cannot be directly extended to microscopic systems, it is argued that the present formulation is compatible with a possible reinterpretation of the existing non-equilibrium formulations, namely those of Tsallis and Grmela, and answers at least in part one of the objections set forth by Lieb and Yngvason. A systematic application of this paradigm is very convenient from a theoretical point of view and may be beneficial for meaningful future applications in the fields of nano-engineering and biological sciences.
Forecast of nuclear energetics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sikora, W
1976-01-01
The forecast concerning the development of nuclear energetics is presented. Some information on economics of nuclear power plants is given. The nuclear fuel reserves are estimated on the background of power resources of the world. The safety and environment protection problems are mentioned.
Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.
Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin
2016-03-01
Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.
Shock interactions with heterogeneous energetic materials
Yarrington, Cole D.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Damm, David L.
2018-03-01
The complex physical phenomenon of shock wave interaction with material heterogeneities has significant importance and nevertheless remains little understood. In many materials, the observed macroscale response to shock loading is governed by characteristics of the microstructure. Yet, the majority of computational studies aimed at predicting phenomena affected by these processes, such as the initiation and propagation of detonation waves in explosives or shock propagation in geological materials, employ continuum material and reactive burn model treatment. In an effort to highlight the grain-scale processes that underlie the observable effects in an energetic system, a grain-scale model for hexanitrostilbene (HNS) has been developed. The measured microstructures were used to produce synthetic computational representations of the pore structure, and a density functional theory molecular dynamics derived equation of state (EOS) was used for the fully dense HNS matrix. The explicit inclusion of the microstructure along with a fully dense EOS resulted in close agreement with historical shock compression experiments. More recent experiments on the dynamic reaction threshold were also reproduced by inclusion of a global kinetics model. The complete model was shown to reproduce accurately the expected response of this heterogeneous material to shock loading. Mesoscale simulations were shown to provide a clear insight into the nature of threshold behavior and are a way to understand complex physical phenomena.
Energetics in a model of prebiotic evolution
Intoy, B. F.; Halley, J. W.
2017-12-01
Previously we reported [A. Wynveen et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 022725 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.022725] that requiring that the systems regarded as lifelike be out of chemical equilibrium in a model of abstracted polymers undergoing ligation and scission first introduced by Kauffman [S. A. Kauffman, The Origins of Order (Oxford University Press, New York, 1993), Chap. 7] implied that lifelike systems were most probable when the reaction network was sparse. The model was entirely statistical and took no account of the bond energies or other energetic constraints. Here we report results of an extension of the model to include effects of a finite bonding energy in the model. We studied two conditions: (1) A food set is continuously replenished and the total polymer population is constrained but the system is otherwise isolated and (2) in addition to the constraints in (1) the system is in contact with a finite-temperature heat bath. In each case, detailed balance in the dynamics is guaranteed during the computations by continuous recomputation of a temperature [in case (1)] and of the chemical potential (in both cases) toward which the system is driven by the dynamics. In the isolated case, the probability of reaching a metastable nonequilibrium state in this model depends significantly on the composition of the food set, and the nonequilibrium states satisfying lifelike condition turn out to be at energies and particle numbers consistent with an equilibrium state at high negative temperature. As a function of the sparseness of the reaction network, the lifelike probability is nonmonotonic, as in our previous model, but the maximum probability occurs when the network is less sparse. In the case of contact with a thermal bath at a positive ambient temperature, we identify two types of metastable nonequilibrium states, termed locally and thermally alive, and locally dead and thermally alive, and evaluate their likelihood of appearance, finding maxima at an optimal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.
2004-01-01
Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows
Mauri, Roberto
2013-01-01
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...
Nonequilibrium statistical physics a modern perspective
Livi, Roberto
2017-01-01
Statistical mechanics has been proven to be successful at describing physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most natural phenomena occur in nonequilibrium conditions, the present challenge is to find suitable physical approaches for such conditions: this book provides a pedagogical pathway that explores various perspectives. The use of clear language, and explanatory figures and diagrams to describe models, simulations and experimental findings makes the book a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, and also for lecturers organizing teaching at varying levels of experience in the field. Written in three parts, it covers basic and traditional concepts of nonequilibrium physics, modern aspects concerning nonequilibrium phase transitions, and application-orientated topics from a modern perspective. A broad range of topics is covered, including Langevin equations, Levy processes, directed percolation, kinetic roughening and pattern formation.
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics theory, algorithms and applications
Todd, Billy D
2017-01-01
Written by two specialists with over twenty-five years of experience in the field, this valuable text presents a wide range of topics within the growing field of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). It introduces theories which are fundamental to the field - namely, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics - and provides state-of-the-art algorithms and advice for designing reliable NEMD code, as well as examining applications for both atomic and molecular fluids. It discusses homogenous and inhomogenous flows and pays considerable attention to highly confined fluids, such as nanofluidics. In addition to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, the book covers the themes of temperature and thermodynamic fluxes and their computation, the theory and algorithms for homogenous shear and elongational flows, response theory and its applications, heat and mass transport algorithms, applications in molecular rheology, highly confined fluids (nanofluidics), the phenomenon of slip and...
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines
Salazar, Domingos S. P.
2017-08-01
In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines.
Salazar, Domingos S P
2017-08-01
In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.
Linking Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Glass-Forming Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mauro, John C.; Guo, Xiaoju; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup
, we show that the nonequilibrium glassy dynamics are intimately connected with the equilibrium liquid dynamics. This is accomplished by deriving a new functional form for the thermal history dependence of nonequilibrium viscosity, which is validated against experimental measurements of industrial...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1999-01-01
Physics knowledge (theory and experiment) in energetic particles relevant to design of a reactor scale tokamak is reviewed, and projections for ITER are provided in this Chapter of the ITER Physics Basis. The review includes single particle effects such as classical alpha particle heating and toroidal field ripple loss, as well as collective instabilities that might be generated in ITER plasmas by energetic alpha particles. The overall conclusion is that fusion alpha particles are expected to provide an efficient plasma heating for ignition and sustained burn in the next step device. The major concern is localized heat loads on the plasma facing components produced by alpha particle loss, which might affect their lifetime in a tokamak reactor. (author)
Canonical operator formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehrafarin, M.
1992-09-01
A novel formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is proposed which emphasises the fundamental role played by the Boltzmann constant k in fluctuations. The equivalence of this and the stochastic formulation is demonstrated. The k → 0 limit of this theory yields the classical deterministic description of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The new formulation possesses unique features which bear two important results namely the thermodynamic uncertainty principle and the quantisation of entropy production rate. Such a theory becomes indispensable whenever fluctuations play a significant role. (author). 7 refs
Nonideal plasmas as non-equilibrium media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, I V; Norman, G E; Valuev, A A; Valuev, I A
2003-01-01
Various aspects of the collective behaviour of non-equilibrium nonideal plasmas are studied. The relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method for two-component non-degenerate strongly non-equilibrium plasmas. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration and the subsequent exponential stage of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of ion charge, nonideality parameter and ion mass. A simulation model of the nonideal plasma excited by an electron beam is proposed. An approach is developed to calculate the dynamic structure factor in non-stationary conditions. Instability increment is obtained from MD simulations
On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timofeev, A. V.
2012-01-01
The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.
Characterization of nonequilibrium states of trapped Bose–Einstein condensates
Yukalov, V. I.; Novikov, A. N.; Bagnato, V. S.
2018-06-01
The generation of different nonequilibrium states in trapped Bose–Einstein condensates is studied by numerically solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Inducing nonequilibrium states by shaking a trap creates the following states: weak nonequilibrium, the state of vortex germs, the state of vortex rings, the state of straight vortex lines, the state of deformed vortices, vortex turbulence, grain turbulence, and wave turbulence. A characterization of nonequilibrium states is advanced by introducing effective temperature, Fresnel number, and Mach number.
Quantum distribution function of nonequilibrium system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogo, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Yasushi.
1990-03-01
A path integral representation is derived for the Wigner distribution function of a nonequilibrium system coupled with heat bath. Under appropriate conditions, the Wigner distribution function approaches an equilibrium distribution, which manifests shifting and broadening of spectral lines due to the interaction with heat bath. It is shown that the equilibrium distribution becomes the quantum canonical distribution in the vanishing coupling constant limit. (author)
Nonequilibrium Molecular Energy Coupling and Conversion Mechanisms
2016-08-28
resolved temperature measurements, by pure rotational picosecond broadband Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy ( CARS ), and kinetic modeling...rotational ps CARS for thermometry measurements in highly transient nonequilibrium plasmas. Rotational-translational temperatures are measured for time...primarily on localized flow heating on sub-acoustic time scale, and for assessing feasibility of high-speed aerodynamic flow control by vibrational
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics
Bikkin, Halid
2014-01-01
This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field.
Introduction to the nonequilibrium functional renormalization group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berges, J.; Mesterházy, D.
2012-01-01
In these lectures we introduce the functional renormalization group out of equilibrium. While in thermal equilibrium typically a Euclidean formulation is adequate, nonequilibrium properties require real-time descriptions. For quantum systems specified by a given density matrix at initial time, a generating functional for real-time correlation functions can be written down using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path. This can be used to construct a nonequilibrium functional renormalization group along similar lines as for Euclidean field theories in thermal equilibrium. Important differences include the absence of a fluctuation-dissipation relation for general out-of-equilibrium situations. The nonequilibrium renormalization group takes on a particularly simple form at a fixed point, where the corresponding scale-invariant system becomes independent of the details of the initial density matrix. We discuss some basic examples, for which we derive a hierarchy of fixed point solutions with increasing complexity from vacuum and thermal equilibrium to nonequilibrium. The latter solutions are then associated to the phenomenon of turbulence in quantum field theory.
Generators of nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dautov, G.Yu.
1988-01-01
Results are described of a study and of the characteristics of sources of a non-equilibrium gas-discharge plasma. The plasma generators considered include glow, high frequency, and arc discharge generators. Thermodynamic, ionic, and electronic processes occurring in the plasmas are evaluated
Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation
Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R
1997-01-01
There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase
Evolution and non-equilibrium physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Becker, Nikolaj; Sibani, Paolo
2014-01-01
We argue that the stochastic dynamics of interacting agents which replicate, mutate and die constitutes a non-equilibrium physical process akin to aging in complex materials. Specifically, our study uses extensive computer simulations of the Tangled Nature Model (TNM) of biological evolution...
Enhancing Reactivity in Structural Energetic Materials
Glumac, Nick
2017-06-01
In many structural energetic materials, only a small fraction of the metal oxidizes, and yet this provides a significant boost in the overall energy release of the system. Different methodologies to enhance this reactivity include alloying and geometric modifications of microstructure of the reactive material (RM). In this presentation, we present the results of several years of systematic study of both chemical (alloy) and mechanical (geometry) effects on reactivity for systems with typical charge to case mass ratios. Alloys of aluminum with magnesium and lithium are considered, as these are common alloys in aerospace applications. In terms of geometric modifications, we consider surface texturing, inclusion of dense additives, and inclusion of voids. In all modifications, a measurable influence on output is observed, and this influence is related to the fragment size distribution measured from the observed residue. Support from DTRA is gratefully acknowledged.
Energetics of bacterial photosynthesis.
Lebard, David N; Matyushov, Dmitry V
2009-09-10
We report the results of extensive numerical simulations and theoretical calculations of electronic transitions in the reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic bacterium. The energetics and kinetics of five electronic transitions related to the kinetic scheme of primary charge separation have been analyzed and compared to experimental observations. Nonergodic formulation of the reaction kinetics is required for the calculation of the rates due to a severe breakdown of the system ergodicity on the time scale of primary charge separation, with the consequent inapplicability of the standard canonical prescription to calculate the activation barrier. Common to all reactions studied is a significant excess of the charge-transfer reorganization energy from the width of the energy gap fluctuations over that from the Stokes shift of the transition. This property of the hydrated proteins, breaking the linear response of the thermal bath, allows the reaction center to significantly reduce the reaction free energy of near-activationless electron hops and thus raise the overall energetic efficiency of the biological charge-transfer chain. The increase of the rate of primary charge separation with cooling is explained in terms of the temperature variation of induction solvation, which dominates the average donor-acceptor energy gap for all electronic transitions in the reaction center. It is also suggested that the experimentally observed break in the Arrhenius slope of the primary recombination rate, occurring near the temperature of the dynamical transition in proteins, can be traced back to a significant drop of the solvent reorganization energy close to that temperature.
Energetic cost of communication.
Stoddard, Philip K; Salazar, Vielka L
2011-01-15
Communication signals may be energetically expensive or inexpensive to produce, depending on the function of the signal and the competitive nature of the communication system. Males of sexually selected species may produce high-energy advertisement signals, both to enhance detectability and to signal their size and body condition. Accordingly, the proportion of the energy budget allocated to signal production ranges from almost nothing for many signals to somewhere in excess of 50% for acoustic signals in short-lived sexually selected species. Recent data from gymnotiform electric fish reveal mechanisms that regulate energy allocated to sexual advertisement signals through dynamical remodeling of the excitable membranes in the electric organ. Further, males of the short-lived sexually selected species, Brachyhypopomus gauderio, trade off among different metabolic compartments, allocating energy to signal production while reducing energy used in other metabolic functions. Female B. gauderio, by contrast, do not trade off energy between signaling and other functions. To fuel energetically expensive signal production, we expect a continuum of strategies to be adopted by animals of different life history strategies. Future studies should explore the relation between life history and energy allocation trade-offs.
Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...
Effect of the microstructure on electrical properties of high-purity germanium
Podkopaev, O. I.; Shimanskii, A. F.; Molotkovskaya, N. O.; Kulakovskaya, T. V.
2013-05-01
The interrelation between the electrical properties and the microstructure of high-purity germanium crystals has been revealed. The electrical conductivity of polycrystalline samples increases and the life-time of nonequilibrium charge carriers in them decreases with a decrease in the crystallite sizes.
Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave
Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans
2010-02-01
The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].
Lattice Boltzmann approach for complex nonequilibrium flows.
Montessori, A; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S
2015-10-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann realization of Grad's extended hydrodynamic approach to nonequilibrium flows. This is achieved by using higher-order isotropic lattices coupled with a higher-order regularization procedure. The method is assessed for flow across parallel plates and three-dimensional flows in porous media, showing excellent agreement of the mass flow with analytical and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation across the full range of Knudsen numbers, from the hydrodynamic regime to ballistic motion.
Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Pankaj; Polkovnikov, Anatoli
2013-01-01
We analyze the efficiency of thermal engines (either quantum or classical) working with a single heat reservoir like an atmosphere. The engine first gets an energy intake, which can be done in an arbitrary nonequilibrium way e.g. combustion of fuel. Then the engine performs the work and returns to the initial state. We distinguish two general classes of engines where the working body first equilibrates within itself and then performs the work (ergodic engine) or when it performs the work before equilibrating (non-ergodic engine). We show that in both cases the second law of thermodynamics limits their efficiency. For ergodic engines we find a rigorous upper bound for the efficiency, which is strictly smaller than the equivalent Carnot efficiency. I.e. the Carnot efficiency can be never achieved in single reservoir heat engines. For non-ergodic engines the efficiency can be higher and can exceed the equilibrium Carnot bound. By extending the fundamental thermodynamic relation to nonequilibrium processes, we find a rigorous thermodynamic bound for the efficiency of both ergodic and non-ergodic engines and show that it is given by the relative entropy of the nonequilibrium and initial equilibrium distributions. These results suggest a new general strategy for designing more efficient engines. We illustrate our ideas by using simple examples. -- Highlights: ► Derived efficiency bounds for heat engines working with a single reservoir. ► Analyzed both ergodic and non-ergodic engines. ► Showed that non-ergodic engines can be more efficient. ► Extended fundamental thermodynamic relation to arbitrary nonequilibrium processes
Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions Associated with DNA Replication
2011-02-11
polymerases) catalyzing the growth of a DNA primer strand (the nascent chain of nucleotides complementary to the template strand) based on the Watson ...the fraction (error rate) of monomers for which y, where y is the correct Watson - Crick complementary base of , can be obtained by ¼ X...Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions Associated with DNA Replication Hyung-June Woo* and Anders Wallqvist Biotechnology High Performance Computing
Nonequilibrium statistical averages and thermo field dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinaro, A.; Scarpetta, Q.
1984-01-01
An extension of thermo field dynamics is proposed, which permits the computation of nonequilibrium statistical averages. The Brownian motion of a quantum oscillator is treated as an example. In conclusion it is pointed out that the procedure proposed to computation of time-dependent statistical average gives the correct two-point Green function for the damped oscillator. A simple extension can be used to compute two-point Green functions of free particles
About Russian nuclear energetic perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laletin, N.I.
2003-01-01
My particular view about Russian nuclear energetics perspectives is presented. The nearest and the further perspectives are considered. The arguments are adduced that the most probable scenario of nuclear energetic development is its stabilization in the near future. Fur further development the arguments of supporters and opponents of nuclear energetics are analyzed. Three points of view are considered. The first point of view that there is not alternative for nuclear energetics. My notes are the following ones. a) I express a skeptic opinion about a statement of quick exhaustion of fossil organic fuel recourses and corresponding estimations are presented. b) It is expressed skeptic opinion about the statement that nuclear energetics can have a visual influence on ''steam effect''. c) I agree that nuclear energetics is the most ecological technology for normal work but however we can't disregard possibilities of catastrophic accidents. The second point of view that the use of nuclear energetics can't have the justification. I adduce the arguments contrary to this statement. The third point of view that nuclear energetics is a usual technology and the only criteria for discussions about what dimension and where one ought develop it is total cost of its unit. Expressed an opinion that the deceived for the choose of a way the skill of the estimate correctly and optimized so named the external parts of the unit energy costs for different energy technologies. (author)
Rural energetic development: cuban experience
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilera Barciela, M.
1994-01-01
The development of electro energetic national system in Cuba has been directed to the following objectives: to brake the rural population's exodus toward the cities, electrification of dairy farm, interconnection to the system electro energetic of all the sugar central production, these improves the rural population's conditions life
Economical aspects of nuclear energetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celinski, Z.
2000-01-01
The economical aspects of nuclear power generation in respect to costs of conventional energetics have been discussed in detail. The costs and competitiveness of nuclear power have been considered on the base of worldwide trends taking into account investment and fuel costs as well as 'social' costs being result of impact of different types of energetics on environment, human health etc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levitan, Yu.L.; Sobol', I.M.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Chechetkin, V.M.
1988-01-01
The mathematical model of the process of light-element (D and 3 He) production due to disintegration of 4 He nuclei, induced by nonequilibrium processes of production of energetic antiprotons in the early Universe is suggested. Numerical calculations show that formation of the nucleon cascade induced by antiproton slowing down increases the D and 3 He yield due to the growth of probability of disintegration of several 4 He nuclei by a single antiproton and due to disintegration of such nuclei by cascade protons. Restraints on the concentration of possible sources of energetic antiprotons in the early Universe are strengthened respectively
Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method and Generalized Kinetic Equations
Kuzemsky, A. L.
2018-01-01
We consider some principal problems of nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics in the framework of the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator approach. We present a brief comparative analysis of some approaches to describing irreversible processes based on the concept of nonequilibrium Gibbs ensembles and their applicability to describing nonequilibrium processes. We discuss the derivation of generalized kinetic equations for a system in a heat bath. We obtain and analyze a damped Schrödinger-type equation for a dynamical system in a heat bath. We study the dynamical behavior of a particle in a medium taking the dissipation effects into account. We consider the scattering problem for neutrons in a nonequilibrium medium and derive a generalized Van Hove formula. We show that the nonequilibrium statistical operator method is an effective, convenient tool for describing irreversible processes in condensed matter.
On nonequilibrium many-body systems. 1: The nonequilibrium statistical operator method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Algarte, A.C.S.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.; Sampaio, A.J.C.
1985-01-01
The theoretical aspects involved in the treatment of many-body systems strongly departed from equilibrium are discussed. The nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method is considered in detail. Using Jaynes' maximum entropy formalism complemented with an ad hoc hypothesis a nonequilibrium statistical operator is obtained. This approach introduces irreversibility from the outset and we recover statistical operators like those of Green-Mori and Zubarev as particular cases. The connection with Generalized Thermodynamics and the construction of nonlinear transport equations are briefly described. (Author) [pt
Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film
Tringe, Joseph W.; Gash, Alexander E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.
2010-03-30
A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, M.
1975-01-01
In this review, some of the important aspects of energetic solar particles and their relation to solar physics are discussed. The major aspects of solar cosmic ray studies currently under investigation are identified and attention is focussed on the problems of the physical processes in the sun which may be responsible for these phenomena. The studies of the composition and energy spectra of solar cosmic ray nuclei are related to the basic problem of particle acceleration process in sun and to the composition of elements in solar atmosphere. The composition of higher energy (>20 MeV/amu) multiply charged nuclei of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe give information on the abundance of elements in the solar atmosphere. At lower energies (approximately 1-10 MeV/amu), the abundances of these elements show enhancements relative to solar abundances and these enhancements are believed to be due to particle acceleration mechanisms operative in the sun which are not fully understood at present. Studies of the relative abundances of H 2 , H 3 and He 3 isotopes and Li, Be, B nuclei in the solar cosmic rays can also be studied. The question of the relationship of the accelerated particles in the sun to the optical flare phenomena is discussed. Further studies of different aspects of these phenomena may give important clues to a wide ranging phenomena in the active sun. The observational methods employed for these studies are mentioned. (A.K.)
Analysis of the energetic sector through the national energetic matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garzon Lozano, Enrique
2007-01-01
The author shows the results of the national energetic balance 1975-2005, through the energetic matrix of the country, giving an annual growth of 5.1% in this period of offer of primary energy, where the mineral coal participates with 9,6%, the hydraulic energy with 4,8%, natural gas with 4,2%, trash with 2,4% and petroleum with 2,2%, while the firewood fell in 0,5%
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2008-01-01
This power point exhibition shows the following topics: energy analysis, production and use, supply and demand, consumption, energy sources, energetic prospective of Uruguay country, medium and long term perspectives.
Simple models of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebowitz, J.L.
1987-01-01
This volume consists of two chapters of particular interest to researchers in the field of statistical mechanics. The first chapter is based on the premise that the best way to understand the qualitative properties that characterize many-body (i.e. macroscopic) systems is to study 'a number of the more significant model systems which, at least in principle are susceptible of complete analysis'. The second chapter deals exclusively with nonequilibrium phenomena. It reviews the theory of fluctuations in open systems to which they have made important contributions. Simple but interesting model examples are emphasised
Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruschke, Jens
2010-01-01
The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio
Universality in Nonequilibrium Lattice Systems Theoretical Foundations
Ódor, Géza
2008-01-01
Universal scaling behavior is an attractive feature in statistical physics because a wide range of models can be classified purely in terms of their collective behavior due to a diverging correlation length. This book provides a comprehensive overview of dynamical universality classes occurring in nonequilibrium systems defined on regular lattices. The factors determining these diverse universality classes have yet to be fully understood, but the book attempts to summarize our present knowledge, taking them into account systematically.The book helps the reader to navigate in the zoo of basic m
Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pruschke, Jens
2010-06-16
The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio
A Lagrangian formalism for nonequilibrium ensembles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobouti, Y.
1989-08-01
It is suggested to formulate a nonequilibrium ensemble theory by maximizing a time-integrated entropy constrained by Liouville's equation. This leads to distribution functions of the form f = Z -1 exp(-g/kT), where g(p,q,t) is a solution of Liouville's equation. A further requirement that the entropy should be an additivie functional of the integrals of Liouville's equation, limits the choice of g to linear superpositions of the nonlinearly independent integrals of motion. Time-dependent and time-independent integrals may participate in this superposition. (author). 14 refs
Origins of scaling relations in nonequilibrium growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escudero, Carlos; Korutcheva, Elka
2012-01-01
Scaling and hyperscaling laws provide exact relations among critical exponents describing the behavior of a system at criticality. For nonequilibrium growth models with a conserved drift, there exist few of them. One such relation is α + z = 4, found to be inexact in a renormalization group calculation for several classical models in this field. Herein, we focus on the two-dimensional case and show that it is possible to construct conserved surface growth equations for which the relation α + z = 4 is exact in the renormalization group sense. We explain the presence of this scaling law in terms of the existence of geometric principles dominating the dynamics. (paper)
Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, P.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Nordblad, P.
2000-01-01
Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle sample, exhibiting a low-temperature spin-glass-like phase, has been studied by low-frequency ac susceptibility and magnetic relaxation experiments. The nonequilibrium behavior shows characteristic spin-glass features, but some qualitative...
Non-equilibrium spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnov, V M
2009-01-01
In superconductors, recombination of two non-equilibrium quasiparticles into a Cooper pair results in emission of excitation that mediates superconductivity. This is the basis of the proposed new type of 'non-equilibrium' spectroscopy of high T c superconductors, which may open a possibility for direct and unambiguous determination of the coupling mechanism of high T c superconductivity. In case of low T c superconductors, the feasibility of such the non-equilibrium spectroscopy was demonstrated in classical phonon generation-detection experiments almost four decades ago. Recently it was demonstrated that a similar technique can be used for high T c superconductors, using natural intrinsic Josephson junctions both for injection of non-equilibrium quasiparticles and for detection of the non-equilibrium radiation. Here I analyze theoretically non-equilibrium phenomena in intrinsic Josephson junctions. It is shown that extreme non-equilibrium state can be achieved at bias equal to integer number of the gap voltage, which can lead to laser-like emission from the stack. I argue that identification of the boson type, constituting this non-equilibrium radiation would unambiguously reveal the coupling mechanism of high Tc superconductors.
Exploring Chemical and Thermal Non-equilibrium in Nitrogen Arcs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghorui, S; Das, A K
2012-01-01
Plasma torches operating with nitrogen are of special importance as they can operate with usual tungsten based refractory electrodes and offer radical rich non-oxidizing high temperature environment for plasma chemistry. Strong gradients in temperature as well as species densities and huge convective fluxes lead to varying degrees of chemical non-equilibrium in associated regions. An axi-symmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model of a nitrogen plasma torch has been developed to understand the effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium in arcs. A 2-D finite volume CFD code in association with a non-equilibrium property routine enabled extraction of steady state self-consistent distributions of various plasma quantities inside the torch under various thermal and chemical non-equilibrium conditions. Chemical non-equilibrium has been incorporated through computation of diffusive and convective fluxes in each finite volume cell in every iteration and associating corresponding thermodynamic and transport properties through the scheme of 'chemical non-equilibrium parameter' introduced by Ghorui et. al. Recombination coefficient data from Nahar et. al. and radiation data from Krey and Morris have been used in the simulation. Results are presented for distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity, current density, electric potential, species densities and chemical non-equilibrium effects. Obtained results are compared with similar results under LTE.
Non-equilibrium many body dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.
1997-01-01
This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckstein, Martin
2009-12-21
The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eckstein, Martin
2009-01-01
The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate
Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.
2013-11-01
In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.
Phase transitions in nonequilibrium traffic theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, H.M.
2000-02-01
This paper uses the center difference scheme of Lax-Friedrichs to numerically solve a newly developed continuum traffic flow theory and the kinematic theory of Lighthill and Whitham, and Richards, and it studies the flow-concentration phase transitions in flow containing both shock and rarefaction waves. A homogeneous road with finite length was modeled by both theories. Numerical simulations show that both theories yield nearly identical results for two representative Riemann problems--one has a shock solution and the other a rarefaction wave solution. Their phase transition curves, however, are different: those derived from the new theory have two branches--one for acceleration flow and one for deceleration flow, whereas those derived from the LWR theory comprise a single curve--the equilibrium curve. The phase transition curves in the shock case agree well with certain experimental observations but disagree with others. This disagreement may be resolved by studying transitions among nonequilibrium states, which awaits further development of a more accurate finite difference approximation of the nonequilibrium theory.
Non-equilibrium many body dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.
1997-09-22
This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.
Fusion zone microstructure of laser beam welded directionally solidified Ni3Al-base alloy IC6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding, R.G.; Ojo, O.A.; Chaturvedi, M.C.
2006-01-01
The fusion zone microstructure of laser welded alloy IC6 was examined. Extensive weld-metal cracking was observed to be closely associated with non-equilibrium eutectic-type microconstituents identified as consisting of γ, γ' and NiMo (Y) phases. Their formation has been related to modification of primary solidification path due to reduced solutal microsegregation
Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under non-equilibrium conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberthur, R.C.
1984-01-01
The use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) for the study of systems under non-equilibrium conditions is illustrated by three types of experiments in the field of polymer research: - the relaxation of a system from an initial non-equilibrium state towards equilibrium, - the cyclic or repetitive installation of a series of non-equilibrium states in a system, - the steady non-equilibrium state maintained by a constant dissipation of energy within the system. Characteristic times obtained in these experiments with SANS are compared with the times obtained from quasi-elastic neutron and light scattering, which yield information about the equilibrium dynamics of the system. The limits of SANS applied to non-equilibrium systems for the measurement of relaxation times at different length scales are shown and compared to the limits of quasielastic neutron and light scattering
Musical Tasks and Energetic Arousal.
Lim, Hayoung A; Watson, Angela L
2018-03-08
Music is widely recognized as a motivating stimulus. Investigators have examined the use of music to improve a variety of motivation-related outcomes; however, these studies have focused primarily on passive music listening rather than active participation in musical activities. To examine the influence of participation in musical tasks and unique participant characteristics on energetic arousal. We used a one-way Welch's ANOVA to examine the influence of musical participation (i.e., a non-musical control and four different musical task conditions) upon energetic arousal. In addition, ancillary analyses of participant characteristics including personality, age, gender, sleep, musical training, caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol revealed their possible influence upon pretest and posttest energetic arousal scores. Musical participation yielded a significant relationship with energetic arousal, F(4, 55.62) = 44.38, p = .000, estimated ω2 = 0.60. Games-Howell post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed statistically significant differences between five conditions. Descriptive statistics revealed expected differences between introverts' and extraverts' energetic arousal scores at the pretest, F(1, 115) = 6.80, p = .010, partial η2= .06; however, mean differences failed to reach significance at the posttest following musical task participation. No other measured participant characteristics yielded meaningful results. Passive tasks (i.e., listening to a story or song) were related to decreased energetic arousal, while active musical tasks (i.e., singing, rhythm tapping, and keyboard playing) were related to increased energetic arousal. Musical task participation appeared to have a differential effect for individuals with certain personality traits (i.e., extroverts and introverts).
Non-equilibrium dynamics due to moving deflagration front at RDX/HTPB interface
Chaudhuri, Santanu; Joshi, Kaushik; Lacevic, Naida
Reactive dissipative particle dynamics (DPD-RX), a promising tool in characterizing the sensitivity and performance of heterogeneous solid propellants like polymer bonded explosives (PSXs), requires further testing for non-equilibrium dynamics. It is important to understand detailed atomistic chemistry for developing coarse grain reactive models needed for the DPD-RX. In order to obtain insights into combustion chemistry of RDX/HTPB binder, we used reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) to obtain energy up-pumping and reaction mechanisms at RDX/HTPB interface when exposed to a self-sustaining deflagration front. Hot spots are ignited near and away from the heterogeneous interface using the thermal pulse. The results show that the hot spot near interface significantly delays the transition from ignition to deflagration. We will present the mechanical response and the combustion chemistry of HTPB when the propagating deflagration front hits the polymer binder. We will discuss our efforts to incorporate this RMD based chemistry into the DPD-RX which will enable us to perform such non-equilibrium dynamics simulations on large-length scale with microstructural heterogeneities. Funding from DTRA Grant Number HDTRA1-15-1-0034 is acknowledged.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubinko, V.I.; Klepikov, V.F.
2007-01-01
In the conventional theory of radiation damage, it is assumed that the main effect of irradiation is due to formation of Frenkel pairs of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and their clusters. The difference in absorption of vacancies and SIAs by primary or radiation-induced extended defects (EDs) is thought to be the main reason of microstructural evolution under irradiation. On the other hand, the recovery of radiation damage is thought to be driven exclusively by thermal fluctuations resulting in the vacancy evaporation from voids (void annealing) or dislocations (thermal creep) and in the fluctuation-driven overcoming of obstacles by gliding dislocations (plastic strain). However, these recovery mechanisms can be efficient only at sufficiently high temperatures. At lower irradiation temperatures, the main driving force of the recovery processes may be due to nonequilibrium fluctuations of energy states of the atoms surrounding EDs arising as a result of scattering of radiation-induced excitations of atomic and electronic structure at EDs. In the present paper, the mechanisms of nonequilibrium fluctuations that result in such phenomena as the void shrinkage under irradiation at low temperatures (or high dose rates), irradiation creep and irradiation-induced increase of plasticity under sub-threshold irradiation was considered
Second School of Nuclear Energetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-01-01
At 3-5 Nov 2009 Institute of Nuclear Energy POLATOM, Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP) and Polish Nuclear Society have organized Second School of Nuclear Energetics. 165 participants have arrived from all Poland and represented both different central institutions (e.g. ministries) and local institutions (e.g. Office of Technical Inspection, The Voivodship Presidential Offices, several societies, consulting firms or energetic enterprises). Students from the Warsaw Technical University and Gdansk Technical University, as well as the PhD students from the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw) attended the School. 20 invited lectures presented by eminent Polish specialists concerned basic problems of nuclear energetics, nuclear fuel cycle and different problems of the NPP construction in Poland. [pl
Non-equilibrium effects in the plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Einfeld, D.
1975-01-01
Radial dependences of non-equilibrium effects of a He plasma were studied in a wall-stabilized short-time discharge. The electron density (nsub(e) = 2.5 x 10 22 m -3 ), the electron temperature and the equilibrium shift were determined by calculations of the continuum beam density and the beam densities of one He-I and one He-II line, respectively. In the discharge axis, the overpopulation factors of the ground state of He-I and He-II are about 75. As the distance to the axis increases, they increase for He-I and decrease for He-II. Except for the usual errors of measurement, the overpopulation factors found here correspond to those calculated from the balance equations (Drawin). (orig./AK) [de
Non-equilibrium in flowing atmospheric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, J.C.M. de.
1986-01-01
This thesis deals with the fundamental aspects of two different plasmas applied in technological processes. The first one is the cesium seeded argon plasma in a closed cycle Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, the second is the thermal argon plasma in a cascade arc with an imposed flow. In Chapter 2 the influence of non-equilibrium on the mass and energy balances of a plasma is worked out. The general theory presented there can be applied to both the plasma in an MHD generator and to the cascade arc with imposed flow. Introductions to these plasmas are given in the Chapters 3 and 6 respectively. These chapters are both followed by two chapters which treat the theoretical and the experimental investigations. The results are summarized in Chapter 9. (Auth.)
Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wreszinski, Walter F.
2015-01-01
We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system
Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines
Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David
2015-11-01
Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound.
Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki
2013-01-01
We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Driven Disordered Materials
Bouchbinder, Eran
2011-03-01
We present a nonequilibrium thermodynamic framework for describing the dynamics of driven disordered solids (noncrystalline solids near and below their glass temperature, soft glassy materials such as colloidal suspensions and heavily dislocated polycrystalline solids). A central idea in our approach is that the set of mechanically stable configurations, i.e. the part of the system that is described by inherent structures, evolves slowly as compared to thermal vibrations and is characterized by an effective disorder temperature. Our thermodynamics-motivated equations of motion for the flow of energy and entropy are supplemented by coarse-grained internal variables that carry information about the relevant microscopic physics. Applications of this framework to amorphous visco-plasticity (Shear-Transformation-Zone theory), glassy memory effects (the Kovacs effect) and dislocation-mediated polycrystalline plasticity will be briefly discussed.
Nonequilibrium Chromosome Looping via Molecular Slip Links
Brackley, C. A.; Johnson, J.; Michieletto, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Nicodemi, M.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.
2017-09-01
We propose a model for the formation of chromatin loops based on the diffusive sliding of molecular slip links. These mimic the behavior of molecules like cohesin, which, along with the CTCF protein, stabilize loops which contribute to organizing the genome. By combining 3D Brownian dynamics simulations and 1D exactly solvable nonequilibrium models, we show that diffusive sliding is sufficient to account for the strong bias in favor of convergent CTCF-mediated chromosome loops observed experimentally. We also find that the diffusive motion of multiple slip links along chromatin is rectified by an intriguing ratchet effect that arises if slip links bind to the chromatin at a preferred "loading site." This emergent collective behavior favors the extrusion of loops which are much larger than the ones formed by single slip links.
Magnetic polarons in a nonequilibrium polariton condensate
Mietki, Paweł; Matuszewski, Michał
2017-09-01
We consider a condensate of exciton polaritons in a diluted magnetic semiconductor microcavity. Such a system may exhibit magnetic self-trapping in the case of sufficiently strong coupling between polaritons and magnetic ions embedded in the semiconductor. We investigate the effect of the nonequilibrium nature of exciton polaritons on the physics of the resulting self-trapped magnetic polarons. We find that multiple polarons can exist at the same time, and we derive a critical condition for self-trapping that is different from the one predicted previously in the equilibrium case. Using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approximation, we calculate the excitation spectrum and provide a physical explanation in terms of the effective magnetic attraction between polaritons, mediated by the ion subsystem.
Anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrante, G; Zarcone, M; Uryupin, S A
2005-01-01
A concise overview of a number of anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas is given. The possibility of quasistationary megagauss magnetic field generation due to Weibel instability is discussed for plasmas created in atom tunnel ionization. The collisionless absorption and reflection of a test electromagnetic wave normally impinging on the plasma with two-temperature bi-maxwellian electron velocity distribution function are studied. Due to the wave magnetic field influence on the electron kinetics in the skin layer the wave absorption and reflection significantly depend on the degree of the electron temperature anisotropy. The linearly polarized impinging wave during reflection transforms into an elliptically polarized one. The problem of transmission of an ultrashort laser pulse through a layer of dense plasma, formed as a result of ionization of a thin foil, is considered. It is shown that the strong photoelectron distribution anisotropy yields an anomalous penetration of the wave field through the foil
Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David
2015-01-01
Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound. (paper)
MMS two-phase nonequilibrium pressurizer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, S.J.; Sursock, J.P.
1987-01-01
The pressurizer of a nuclear steam supply system establishes and maintains the nuclear plant primary loop pressure within the prescribed limit. It is a vertical cylindrical vessel which provides a water reserve and a steam surge chamber to accommodate coolant density changes during operation. To adjust the pressure to a desired value, electric heaters are provided in its lower section and the spray nozzles are provided in its upper section. Also, to protect against the buildup of the excess pressure, the pressurizer has two different types of relief valves, i.e., power operated relief valve and the safety relief valve. The pressurizer model implemented to the MMS is described in detail. In particular, the handling of the nonequilibrium condition, surgeline CCFL (Counter-current Flooding Limitation), and the level tracking model are described in detail. Next, the simulation of the Shippingport pressurizer load drop test is reported
Stochastic approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics.
Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J
2015-04-01
We develop the stochastic approach to thermodynamics based on stochastic dynamics, which can be discrete (master equation) and continuous (Fokker-Planck equation), and on two assumptions concerning entropy. The first is the definition of entropy itself and the second the definition of entropy production rate, which is non-negative and vanishes in thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on these assumptions, we study interacting systems with many degrees of freedom in equilibrium or out of thermodynamic equilibrium and how the macroscopic laws are derived from the stochastic dynamics. These studies include the quasiequilibrium processes; the convexity of the equilibrium surface; the monotonic time behavior of thermodynamic potentials, including entropy; the bilinear form of the entropy production rate; the Onsager coefficients and reciprocal relations; and the nonequilibrium steady states of chemical reactions.
The Principle of Energetic Consistency
Cohn, Stephen E.
2009-01-01
A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of
Non-equilibrium synergistic effects in atmospheric pressure plasmas.
Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian; Li, He-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken
2018-03-19
Non-equilibrium is one of the important features of an atmospheric gas discharge plasma. It involves complicated physical-chemical processes and plays a key role in various actual plasma processing. In this report, a novel complete non-equilibrium model is developed to reveal the non-equilibrium synergistic effects for the atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (AP-LTPs). It combines a thermal-chemical non-equilibrium fluid model for the quasi-neutral plasma region and a simplified sheath model for the electrode sheath region. The free-burning argon arc is selected as a model system because both the electrical-thermal-chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions are involved simultaneously in this arc plasma system. The modeling results indicate for the first time that it is the strong and synergistic interactions among the mass, momentum and energy transfer processes that determine the self-consistent non-equilibrium characteristics of the AP-LTPs. An energy transfer process related to the non-uniform spatial distributions of the electron-to-heavy-particle temperature ratio has also been discovered for the first time. It has a significant influence for self-consistently predicting the transition region between the "hot" and "cold" equilibrium regions of an AP-LTP system. The modeling results would provide an instructive guidance for predicting and possibly controlling the non-equilibrium particle-energy transportation process in various AP-LTPs in future.
Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, Sanjiv; Goodson, Kenneth E.
2004-01-01
Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal
Nanostructured energetic materials derived from sol-gel chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, R L; Tillotson, T M; Hrubesh, L W; Gash, A E
2000-01-01
Initiation and detonation properties are dramatically affected by an energetic material's microstructural properties. Sol-gel chemistry allows intimacy of mixing to be controlled and dramatically improved over existing methodologies. One material goal is to create very high power energetic materials which also have high energy densities. Using sol-gel chemistry we have made a nanostructured composite energetic material. Here a solid skeleton of fuel, based on resorcinol-formaldehyde, has nanocrystalline ammonium perchlorate, the oxidizer, trapped within its pores. At optimum stoichiometry it has approximately the energy density of HMX. Transmission electron microscopy indicated no ammonium perchlorate crystallites larger than 20 nm while near-edge soft x-ray absorption microscopy showed that nitrogen was uniformly distributed, at least on the scale of less than 80 nm. Small-angle neutron scattering studies were conducted on the material. Those results were consistent with historical ones for this class of nanostructured materials. The average skeletal primary particle size was on the order of 2.7 nm, while the nanocomposite showed the growth of small 1 nm size crystals of ammonium perchlorate with some clustering to form particles greater than 10 nm
Heliospheric Observations of Energetic Particles
Summerlin, Errol J.
2011-01-01
Heliospheric observations of energetic particles have shown that, on long time averages, a consistent v^-5 power-law index arises even in the absence of transient events. This implies an ubiquitous acceleration process present in the solar wind that is required to generate these power-law tails and maintain them against adiabatic losses and coulomb-collisions which will cool and thermalize the plasma respectively. Though the details of this acceleration process are being debated within the community, most agree that the energy required for these tails comes from fluctuations in the magnetic field which are damped as the energy is transferred to particles. Given this source for the tail, is it then reasonable to assume that the turbulent LISM should give rise to such a power-law tail as well? IBEX observations clearly show a power-law tail of index approximately -5 in energetic neutral atoms. The simplest explanation for the origins of these ENAs are that they are energetic ions which have charge-exchanged with a neutral atom. However, this would imply that energetic ions possess a v^-5 power-law distribution at keV energies at the source of these ENAs. If the source is presumed to be the LISM, it provides additional options for explaining the, so called, IBEX ribbon. This presentation will discuss some of these options as well as potential mechanisms for the generation of a power-law spectrum in the LISM.
About the wind energetics development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strebkov, D.S.; Kharitonov, V.P.; Murugov, V.P.; Sokol'skij, A.K.
1996-01-01
The review of wind power energetics state in USA, Europe, Russia is given. The data of EC on wind power plants production in different periods are presented. The directions of scientific-research works with the purpose of increasing the level of wind power industry of Russia corresponding to economics demands were elaborated. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs
Introduction to global energetic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gicquel, R.
1992-01-01
This book gives a view on global energetic problems and proposes a thorough economic analysis on principle aspects taken into account: energy supply, depending energy sources and available technologic channels, relationships between macro-economy and energy demand, new size of energy problems (environmental effects, overcosts of renewable energy sources, necessity of an high technologic development...). 38 refs
On energetics of hydrocarbon chemical reactions by ionizing irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaykin, Yu.A.; Zaykina, R.F.; Mirkin, G.
2002-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The present global energy crisis requires the industry to look for technologies that are more effective and, particularly, less energy consuming. The hydrocarbon processing technology based on the electron radiation-induced thermal chemical conversion has a great potential. Comparing the presently predominant thermocatalytic processing, it is much more energy efficient, because chemical conversions go at a minimal processing temperature and pressure. To compare energy consumption by electron irradiation with thermal and thermocatalytic technologies of hydrocarbon processing one must see major differences between them. While traditional thermocatalytic processes are equilibrium and their energetics can be evaluated based on principles of classic thermodynamics, HEET processing is non-equilibrium and this evaluation approach is not valid for it. However, a theoretical description of radiation-chemical conversion using reaction rate constants determined in thermally equilibrium systems is approximately adequate to radiation processes by substituting equilibrium concentrations of reacting particles as their non-equilibrium concentrations under irradiation. In particular, description of radical reactions initiated by radiation requires substitution of thermally equilibrium radical concentration by much higher concentration defined by the dynamic equilibrium of radical radiation generation and their recombination. The paper presents the comparative analysis of energy consumption in different stages of hydrocarbon processing using classic thermal cracking by heating versus radiation induced cracking. It is shown that in the most energy-consuming stage of processing - the chain reaction initiation necessary for concentration of active radicals, irradiation processing has the great advantage compared to thermal cracking by heating and allows cutting down the total energy consumption by approximately 40%
Energetic consumption levels and human development indexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boa Nova, Antonio Carlos
1999-01-01
The article overviews the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes. The human development indexes are described based on the United Nations Development Programme. A comparison between the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes is also presented
Rate of tunneling nonequilibrium quasiparticles in superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansari, Mohammad H
2015-01-01
In superconducting qubits the lifetime of quantum states cannot be prolonged arbitrarily by decreasing temperature. At low temperature quasiparticles tunneling between the electromagnetic environment and superconducting islands takes the condensate state out of equilibrium due to charge imbalance. We obtain the tunneling rate from a phenomenological model of non-equilibrium, where nonequilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling stimulates a temperature-dependent chemical potential shift in the superconductor. As a result we obtain a non-monotonic behavior for relaxation rate as a function of temperature. Depending on the fabrication parameters for some qubits, the lowest tunneling rate of nonequilibrium quasiparticles can take place only near the onset temperature below which nonequilibrium quasiparticles dominate over equilibrium one. Our theory also indicates that such tunnelings can influence the probability of transitions in qubits through a coupling to the zero-point energy of phase fluctuations. (paper)
Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim
2005-01-01
Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how...
Nonequilibrium constitutive models for RELAP5/MOD2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, J.C.; Trapp, J.A.; Riemke, R.A.; Ransom, V.H.
1983-01-01
RELAP5/MOD2 is a new version of RELAP5 containing improved modeling features that provide a generic pressurized-water transient simulation capability. In particular, the nonequilibrium modeling capability has been generalized to include conditions that occur in operational transients including repressurization and emergency-feed-water injection with loss-of-coolant accidents. The improvements include addition of a second energy equation to the hydrodynamic model, addition of nonequilibrium heat-transfer models, and the associated nonequilibrium vapor-generation models. The objective of this paper is to describe these models and to report the developmental assessment results obtained from similar of several separate effects experiments. The assessment shows that RELAP5 calculated results are in good agreement with data and the nonequilibrium phenomena are properly modeled
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Self-Replicating Protocells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fellermann, Harold; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hansen, Per Lyngs
2018-01-01
We provide a non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of the life-cycle of a droplet based, chemically feasible, system of protocells. By coupling the protocells metabolic kinetics with its thermodynamics, we demonstrate how the system can be driven out of equilibrium to ensure protocell growth...... and replication. This coupling allows us to derive the equations of evolution and to rigorously demonstrate how growth and replication life-cycle can be understood as a non-equilibrium thermodynamic cycle. The process does not appeal to genetic information or inheritance, and is based only on non......-equilibrium physics considerations. Our non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of simple, yet realistic, processes of protocell growth and replication, represents an advance in our physical understanding of a central biological phenomenon both in connection to the origin of life and for modern biology....
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in arcs and torches
Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.
2000-01-01
A general treatment of non-equilibrium plasma aspects is obtained by relating transport fluxes to equilibrium restoring processes in so-called disturbed Bilateral Relations. The (non) equilibrium stage of a small microwave induced plasma serves as case study.
Electrolytes: transport properties and non-equilibrium thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, D.G.
1980-12-01
This paper presents a review on the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to transport in electrolyte solutions, and some recent experimental work and results for mutual diffusion in electrolyte solutions
Foundations of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas
Bruggeman, Peter J.; Iza, Felipe; Brandenburg, Ronny
2017-12-01
Non-equilibrium plasmas have been intensively studied over the past century in the context of material processing, environmental remediation, ozone generation, excimer lamps and plasma display panels. Research on atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas intensified over the last two decades leading to a large variety of plasma sources that have been developed for an extended application range including chemical conversion, medicine, chemical analysis and disinfection. The fundamental understanding of these discharges is emerging but there remain a lot of unexplained phenomena in these intrinsically complex plasmas. The properties of non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure span over a huge range of electron densities as well as heavy particle and electron temperatures. This paper provides an overview of the key underlying processes that are important for the generation and stabilization of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas. The unique physical and chemical properties of theses discharges are also summarized.
Some recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
: ... This canonical prescription is the starting point for studying a system in ... abilistic approach to non-equilibrium dynamics by treating the case of Markovian ..... equation in this network between the incoming flux and the outgoing flux at each.
Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandbyge, Mads; Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.
2002-01-01
the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green's function expressions to the more transparent scheme...... wires connected to aluminum electrodes with extended or finite cross section, (ii) single atom gold wires, and finally (iii) large carbon nanotube systems with point defects....
Non-equilibrium dynamics from RPMD and CMD.
Welsch, Ralph; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang; Althorpe, Stuart C; Miller, Thomas F
2016-11-28
We investigate the calculation of approximate non-equilibrium quantum time correlation functions (TCFs) using two popular path-integral-based molecular dynamics methods, ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). It is shown that for the cases of a sudden vertical excitation and an initial momentum impulse, both RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs for linear operators that are exact for high temperatures, in the t = 0 limit, and for harmonic potentials; the subset of these conditions that are preserved for non-equilibrium TCFs of non-linear operators is also discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that for these non-equilibrium initial conditions, both methods retain the connection to Matsubara dynamics that has previously been established for equilibrium initial conditions. Comparison of non-equilibrium TCFs from RPMD and CMD to Matsubara dynamics at short times reveals the orders in time to which the methods agree. Specifically, for the position-autocorrelation function associated with sudden vertical excitation, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 4 ) and O(t 1 ), respectively; for the position-autocorrelation function associated with an initial momentum impulse, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 5 ) and O(t 2 ), respectively. Numerical tests using model potentials for a wide range of non-equilibrium initial conditions show that RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs with an accuracy that is comparable to that for equilibrium TCFs. RPMD is also used to investigate excited-state proton transfer in a system-bath model, and it is compared to numerically exact calculations performed using a recently developed version of the Liouville space hierarchical equation of motion approach; again, similar accuracy is observed for non-equilibrium and equilibrium initial conditions.
Carbon nanostructure formation driven by energetic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Zhiyuan; Gong Jinlong; Zhu Dezhang
2006-01-01
-treatment of multiwalled CNTs. A core-sheath structure of the diamond nanorods were identified, with the inner core being diamond crystal and outer shell being amorphous carbon. The diamond nanorods grow along diamond [110] direction. A growth mechanism was proposed. Under irradiation of 60 keV N + and Si + beams at room temperatures, we found that CNTs undergo a non-equilibrium amorphization with ion-generated displacement atoms jumping ballistically from graphite phase to amorphous phase. At high temperature (800 degree C), the recombination of vacancies and interstitials would repair the CNT structure and prevent the CNTs from amorphization. Furthermore, due to vacancy-mending in the graphitic shells, hence decreased shell diameter, and due to growing concentration of carbon atoms in the interior of the tube, the pressure in the inner parts of the system increases. However, unlike interstitials in spherical onions, carbon interstitials in CNTs can easily migrate away from regions with elevated pressure. Thus, radiation generated CNT amorphization can rarely be observed. By irradiating pre-amorphized carbon nanowires at high temperatures, the formation of carbon onions was clearly evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Such a two-step transformation model, i.e., amorphization at room temperatures and transformation from amorphous carbon to onion-like structure at high temperatures, demonstrated the structural evolution before early nucleation of diamond under energetic particles. A congruous designed compromise between nuclear and electron stopping power makes the diamond nucleation possible in carbon onions. The interconnected CNT networks have fundamental importance in nanoelectronics, integrated circuit connection and reinforcement of composite materials. At room temperatures, the morphological and structural evolution of CNT films under Si + ion beam (60 keV) irradiation was observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission
Complex Dynamics in Nonequilibrium Economics and Chemistry
Wen, Kehong
Complex dynamics provides a new approach in dealing with economic complexity. We study interactively the empirical and theoretical aspects of business cycles. The way of exploring complexity is similar to that in the study of an oscillatory chemical system (BZ system)--a model for modeling complex behavior. We contribute in simulating qualitatively the complex periodic patterns observed from the controlled BZ experiments to narrow the gap between modeling and experiment. The gap between theory and reality is much wider in economics, which involves studies of human expectations and decisions, the essential difference from natural sciences. Our empirical and theoretical studies make substantial progress in closing this gap. With the help from the new development in nonequilibrium physics, i.e., the complex spectral theory, we advance our technique in detecting characteristic time scales from empirical economic data. We obtain correlation resonances, which give oscillating modes with decays for correlation decomposition, from different time series including S&P 500, M2, crude oil spot prices, and GNP. The time scales found are strikingly compatible with business experiences and other studies in business cycles. They reveal the non-Markovian nature of coherent markets. The resonances enhance the evidence of economic chaos obtained by using other tests. The evolving multi-humped distributions produced by the moving-time -window technique reveal the nonequilibrium nature of economic behavior. They reproduce the American economic history of booms and busts. The studies seem to provide a way out of the debate on chaos versus noise and unify the cyclical and stochastic approaches in explaining business fluctuations. Based on these findings and new expectation formulation, we construct a business cycle model which gives qualitatively compatible patterns to those found empirically. The soft-bouncing oscillator model provides a better alternative than the harmonic oscillator
Nonequilibrium emergent phenomena in organic molecular solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitrano, Matteo
2015-07-15
The manipulation of matter with ultrashort laser pulses is a relevant research field from both a fundamental and an applied perspective, owing to the efficient coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom on femtosecond timescales and the ability to induce transient phases that cannot be realized in equilibrium scenarios. Strongly correlated materials are a natural environment for the observation of such novel and emergent out-of-equilibrium physics because small modifications to the electron-electron interactions can induce transitions between remarkably different macroscopic phases. One of the most effective means of modifying the effective electron-electron interactions is to perturb the crystal structure through pressure, strain or even light. However, it remains largely unexplored how perturbing the structural degrees of freedom affects the electron dynamics of the transiently driven states and how the interplay of correlations and electron-lattice interactions determine the intrinsic timescales of these nonequilibrium states. This thesis investigates how to control the light-induced nonequilibrium electronic properties in strongly correlated organics, that are highly tunable with moderate variations of external parameters, by perturbing their structural degrees of freedom, either via static pressures or vibrational excitation. We study the role of correlations in determining the relaxation rate of holes (holons) and double occupancies (doublons) in a solid state Mott insulator, the ET-F{sub 2}TCNQ, driven across a transient insulator-to-metal transition. By mapping holon-doublon lifetimes onto the ground-state electronic interactions, we found that the decay rate of the photoinjected quasiparticles depends on the degree of correlation between carriers and is affected by the presence of a competition between local recombination and delocalization of holon-doublon pairs. By optically controlling the effective correlations in organic molecular crystals through
Achieving Radiation Tolerance through Non-Equilibrium Grain Boundary Structures.
Vetterick, Gregory A; Gruber, Jacob; Suri, Pranav K; Baldwin, Jon K; Kirk, Marquis A; Baldo, Pete; Wang, Yong Q; Misra, Amit; Tucker, Garritt J; Taheri, Mitra L
2017-09-25
Many methods used to produce nanocrystalline (NC) materials leave behind non-equilibrium grain boundaries (GBs) containing excess free volume and higher energy than their equilibrium counterparts with identical 5 degrees of freedom. Since non-equilibrium GBs have increased amounts of both strain and free volume, these boundaries may act as more efficient sinks for the excess interstitials and vacancies produced in a material under irradiation as compared to equilibrium GBs. The relative sink strengths of equilibrium and non-equilibrium GBs were explored by comparing the behavior of annealed (equilibrium) and as-deposited (non-equilibrium) NC iron films on irradiation. These results were coupled with atomistic simulations to better reveal the underlying processes occurring on timescales too short to capture using in situ TEM. After irradiation, NC iron with non-equilibrium GBs contains both a smaller number density of defect clusters and a smaller average defect cluster size. Simulations showed that excess free volume contribute to a decreased survival rate of point defects in cascades occurring adjacent to the GB and that these boundaries undergo less dramatic changes in structure upon irradiation. These results suggest that non-equilibrium GBs act as more efficient sinks for defects and could be utilized to create more radiation tolerant materials in future.
The location of energetic compartments affects energetic communication in cardiomyocytes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rikke eBirkedal
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The heart relies on accurate regulation of mitochondrial energy supply to match energy demand. The main regulators are Ca2+ and feedback of ADP and Pi. Regulation via feedback has intrigued for decades. First, the heart exhibits a remarkable metabolic stability. Second, diffusion of ADP and other molecules is restricted specifically in heart and red muscle, where a fast feedback is needed the most. To explain the regulation by feedback, compartmentalization must be taken into account. Experiments and theoretical approaches suggest that cardiomyocyte energetic compartmentalization is elaborate with barriers obstructing diffusion in the cytosol and at the level of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM. A recent study suggests the barriers are organized in a lattice with dimensions in agreement with those of intracellular structures. Here, we discuss the possible location of these barriers. The more plausible scenario includes a barrier at the level of MOM. Much research has focused on how the permeability of MOM itself is regulated, and the importance of the creatine kinase system to facilitate energetic communication. We hypothesize that at least part of the diffusion restriction at the MOM level is not by MOM itself, but due to the close physical association between the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR and mitochondria. This will explain why animals with a disabled creatine kinase system exhibit rather mild phenotype modifications. Mitochondria are hubs of energetics, but also ROS production and signaling. The close association between SR and mitochondria may form a diffusion barrier to ADP added outside a permeabilised cardiomyocyte. But in vivo, it is the structural basis for the mitochondrial-SR coupling that is crucial for the regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+-transients to regulate energetics, and for avoiding Ca2+-overload and irreversible opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.
SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Linghua [Institute of Space Physics and Applied Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Gang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Shih, Albert Y. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Lin, Robert P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F., E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, University of Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)
2014-10-01
Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellar hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.
Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks.
Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin
2013-11-05
The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape-flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments.
Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks
Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin
2013-01-01
The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape–flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments. PMID:24145451
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikhov, E.P.; Golubev, V.S.; Dykhne, A.M.
1976-01-01
The paper assesses the position in 1975 of theoretical and experimental work on the physics of a magnetohydrodynamic generator with non-equilibrium plasma conductivity. This research started at the beginning of the 1960s; as work on the properties of thermally non-equilibrium plasma in magnetic fields and also in MHD generator ducts progressed, a number of phenomena were discovered and investigated that had either been unknown in plasma physics or had remained uninvestigated until that time: ionization instability and ionization turbulence of plasma in a magnetic field, acoustic instability of a plasma with anisotropic conductivity, the non-equilibrium ionization wave and the energy balance of a non-equilibrium plasma. At the same time, it was discovered what physical requirements an MHD generator with non-equilibrium conductivity must satisfy to achieve high efficiency in converting the thermal or kinetic energy of the gas flow into electric energy. The experiments on MHD power generation with thermally non-equilibrium plasma carried out up to 1975 indicated that it should be possible to achieve conversion efficiencies of up to 20-30%. (author)
Very energetic photons at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bawa, A.C.; Krawczyk, M.
1991-01-01
We show that every energetic photons in the backward direction can be produced in deep inelastic Compton scattering at HERA. Assuming a fixed energy of 9 GeV for the initial photons and 820 GeV for the protons a high rate is found for the production of final photons with a transverse momentum equal to 5 GeV/c and energy between 40 GeV and 300 GeV. These energetic photons arise mainly from the scattering of the soft gluonic constituents of the initial photon with quarks from the proton. They are produced in the backward direction in coincidence with a photon beam jet of energy ∝ 9 GeV in the forward direction. (orig.)
Sensitivity Characterization of Pressed Energetic Materials using Flyer Plate Mesoscale Simulations
Rai, Nirmal; Udaykumar, H. S.
Heterogeneous energetic materials like pressed explosives have complicated microstructure and contain various forms of heterogeneities such as pores, micro-cracks, energetic crystals etc. It is widely accepted that the presence of these heterogeneities can affect the sensitivity of these materials under shock load. The interaction of shock load with the microstructural heterogeneities may leads to the formation of local heated regions known as ``hot spots''. Chemical reaction may trigger at the hot spot regions depending on the hot spot temperature and the duration over which the temperature can be maintained before phenomenon like heat conduction, rarefaction waves withdraws energy from it. There are different mechanisms which can lead to the formation of hot spots including void collapse. The current work is focused towards the sensitivity characterization of two HMX based pressed energetic materials using flyer plate mesoscale simulations. The aim of the current work is to develop mesoscale numerical framework which can perform simulations by replicating the laboratory based flyer plate experiments. The current numerical framework uses an image processing approach to represent the microstructural heterogeneities incorporated in a massively parallel Eulerian code SCIMITAR3D. The chemical decomposition of HMX is modeled using Henson-Smilowitz reaction mechanism. The sensitivity characterization is aimed towards obtaining James initiation threshold curve and comparing it with the experimental results.
The energetic significance of cooking.
Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W
2009-10-01
While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.
Life cycles of energetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adnot, Jerome; Marchio, Dominique; Riviere, Philippe; Duplessis, B.; Rabl, A.; Glachant, M.; Aggeri, F.; Benoist, A.; Teulon, H.; Daude, J.
2012-01-01
This collective publication aims at being a course for students in engineering of energetic systems, i.e. at learning how to decide to accept or discard a project, to select the most efficient system, to select the optimal system, to select the optimal combination of systems, and to classify independent systems. Thus, it presents methods to analyse system life cycle from an energetic, economic and environmental point of view, describes how to develop an approach to the eco-design of an energy consuming product, how to understand the importance of hypotheses behind abundant and often contradicting publicised results, and to be able to criticise or to put in perspective one's own analysis. The first chapters thus recall some aspects of economic calculation, introduce the assessment of investment and exploitation costs of energetic systems, describe how to assess and internalise environmental costs, present the territorial carbon assessment, discuss the use of the life cycle assessment, and address the issue of environmental management at a product scale. The second part proposes various case studies: an optimal fleet of thermal production of electric power, the eco-design of a refrigerator, the economic and environmental assessment of wind farms
Energetic charged particles above thunderclouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fullekrug, Martin; Diver, Declan; Pincon, Jean-Louis; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Phelps, Alan D.R.; Bourdon, Anne; Helling, Christiane; Blanc, Elisabeth; Honary, Farideh; Kosch, Mike; Harrison, Giles; Sauvaud, Jean-Andre; Lester, Mark; Rycroft, Michael; Kosch, Mike; Horne, Richard B.; Soula, Serge; Gaffet, Stephane
2013-01-01
The French government has committed to launch the satellite TARANIS to study transient coupling processes between the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. The prime objective of TARANIS is to detect energetic charged particles and hard radiation emanating from thunderclouds. The British Nobel prize winner C. T. R. Wilson predicted lightning discharges from the top of thunderclouds into space almost a century ago. However, new experiments have only recently confirmed energetic discharge processes which transfer energy from the top of thunderclouds into the upper atmosphere and near-Earth space; they are now denoted as transient luminous events, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and relativistic electron beams. This meeting report builds on the current state of scientific knowledge on the physics of plasmas in the laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas in the Earth's atmosphere to propose areas of future research. The report specifically reflects presentations delivered by the members of a novel Franco-British collaboration during a meeting at the French Embassy in London held in November 2011. The scientific subjects of the report tackle ionization processes leading to electrical discharge processes, observations of transient luminous events, electromagnetic emissions, energetic charged particles and their impact on the Earth's atmosphere. The importance of future research in this area for science and society, and towards spacecraft protection, is emphasized. (authors)
Non-equilibrium transport in the quantum dot: quench dynamics and non-equilibrium steady state
Culver, Adrian; Andrei, Natan
We present an exact method of calculating the non-equilibrium current driven by a voltage drop across a quantum dot. The system is described by the two lead Anderson model at zero temperature with on-site Coulomb repulsion and non-interacting, linearized leads. We prepare the system in an initial state consisting of a free Fermi sea in each lead with the voltage drop given as the difference between the two Fermi levels. We quench the system by coupling the dot to the leads at t = 0 and following the time evolution of the wavefunction. In the long time limit a new type of Bethe Ansatz wavefunction emerges, which satisfies the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with the two Fermi seas serving as the boundary conditions. This exact, non-perturbative solution describes the non-equilibrium steady state of the system. We describe how to use this solution to compute the infinite time limit of the expectation value of the current operator at a given voltage, which would yield the I-V characteristic of the dot. Research supported by NSF Grant DMR 1410583.
Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere
Kharchenko, Vasili; Dalgarno, A.
2005-01-01
This report summarizes our research performed under NASA Grant NAG5-11857. The three-year grant have been supported by the Geospace Sciences SR&T program. We have investigated the energetic metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the terrestrial stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. Hot atoms in the atmosphere are produced by solar radiation, the solar wind and various ionic reactions. Nascent hot atoms arise in ground and excited electronic states, and their translational energies are larger by two - three orders of magnitude than the thermal energies of the ambient gas. The relaxation kinetics of hot atoms determines the rate of atmospheric heating, the intensities of aeronomic reactions, and the rate of atom escape from the planet. Modeling of the non-Maxwellian energy distributions of metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms have been focused on the determination of their impact on the energetics and chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere between 25 and 250 km . At this altitudes, we have calculated the energy distribution functions of metastable O and N atoms and computed non-equilibrium rates of important aeronomic reactions, such as destruction of the water molecules by O(1D) atoms and production of highly excited nitric oxide molecules. In the upper atmosphere, the metastable O(lD) and N(2D) play important role in formation of the upward atomic fluxes. We have computed the upward fluxes of the metastable and ground state oxygen atoms in the upper atmosphere above 250 km. The accurate distributions of the metastable atoms have been evaluated for the day and night-time conditions.
Effect of energetic electrons on combustion of premixed burner flame
Sasaki, Koichi
2011-10-01
In many studies of plasma-assisted combustion, authors superpose discharges onto flames to control combustion reactions. This work is motivated by more fundamental point of view. The standpoint of this work is that flames themselves are already plasmas. We irradiated microwave power onto premixed burner flame with the intention of heating electrons in it. The microwave power was limited below the threshold for a discharge. We obtained the enhancement of burning velocity by the irradiation of the microwave power, which was understood by the shortening of the flame length. At the same time, we observed the increases in the optical emission intensities of OH and CH radicals. Despite the increases in the optical emission intensities, the optical emission spectra of OH and CH were not affected by the microwave irradiation, indicating that the enhancement of the burning velocity was not attributed to the increase in the gas temperature. On the other hand, we observed significant increase in the optical emission intensity of the second positive system of molecular nitrogen, which is a clear evidence for electron heating in the premixed burner flame. Therefore, it is considered that the enhancement of the burning velocity is obtained by nonequilibrium combustion chemistry which is driven by energetic electrons. By irradiating pulsed microwave power, we examined the time constants for the increases and decreases in the optical emission intensities of N2, OH, CH, and continuum radiation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burck, Andreas
2008-11-04
This thesis describes the development of large-area magnetic calorimeters which could for example be used for the investigation of the dissociative recombination or the measurement of the Lamb-shift for hydrogenlike heavy ions. The detectors consist of two meandershaped niobium thin film pickup coils and a paramagnetic sensor. The deposition of energy in the sensor results in a temperature change and therefore in a change of magnetisation of the sensor, which can be measured by a SQUID-magnetometer with high precision. As sensormaterials a dilute alloy of gold-erbium (Au:Er) as well as silver-erbium (Ag:Er) were used. Whereas the Ag:Er-sensor was glued on the pickup coil the Au:Er-sensor was for the first time microstructured by a novel microstructuring process established in this thesis. For the characterisation of the detectors and the sensormaterials a fluorescence source and a {sup 55}Fe source were used. The thermodynamic properties of the Au:Er-sensors thereby show promising results, as the magnetisation shows bulk properties down to 20 mK. The measurements of the signalize and the magnetisation with the detector which was equipped with a Ag:Er-sensor showed that the thermodynamic properties of the Ag:Eralloy could be fully described. Furthermore the shape of the pulses, the noise and the energy resolution of both detectors will be discussed. (orig.)
A constitutive rheological model for agglomerating blood derived from nonequilibrium thermodynamics
Tsimouri, Ioanna Ch.; Stephanou, Pavlos S.; Mavrantzas, Vlasis G.
2018-03-01
Red blood cells tend to aggregate in the presence of plasma proteins, forming structures known as rouleaux. Here, we derive a constitutive rheological model for human blood which accounts for the formation and dissociation of rouleaux using the generalized bracket formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Similar to the model derived by Owens and co-workers ["A non-homogeneous constitutive model for human blood. Part 1. Model derivation and steady flow," J. Fluid Mech. 617, 327-354 (2008)] through polymer network theory, each rouleau in our model is represented as a dumbbell; the corresponding structural variable is the conformation tensor of the dumbbell. The kinetics of rouleau formation and dissociation is treated as in the work of Germann et al. ["Nonequilibrium thermodynamic modeling of the structure and rheology of concentrated wormlike micellar solutions," J. Non-Newton. Fluid Mech. 196, 51-57 (2013)] by assuming a set of reversible reactions, each characterized by a forward and a reverse rate constant. The final set of evolution equations for the microstructure of each rouleau and the expression for the stress tensor turn out to be very similar to those of Owens and co-workers. However, by explicitly considering a mechanism for the formation and breakage of rouleaux, our model further provides expressions for the aggregation and disaggregation rates appearing in the final transport equations, which in the kinetic theory-based network model of Owens were absent and had to be specified separately. Despite this, the two models are found to provide similar descriptions of experimental data on the size distribution of rouleaux.
Energetics of the built environment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeang, K
1974-07-01
Energetics, the study of energy transformations within ecosystems, provide a useful framework for examining the relationships between the built environment (a manmade ecosystem) and the natural environment. Values are provided for using energy indices in modeling, comparing design alternatives, improving designed systems, conserving nonrenewable resources, comparing impacts, and studying energy utilization patterns as a whole. The accounting of the energy cost of a proposed project would provide additional criteria for evaluating the impact of human developments on the natural environment. (3 diagrams, 12 tables)
Energetic particles in the heliosphere
Simnett, George M
2017-01-01
This monograph traces the development of our understanding of how and where energetic particles are accelerated in the heliosphere and how they may reach the Earth. Detailed data sets are presented which address these topics. The bulk of the observations are from spacecraft in or near the ecliptic plane. It is timely to present this subject now that Voyager-1 has entered the true interstellar medium. Since it seems unlikely that there will be a follow-on to the Voyager programme any time soon, the data we already have regarding the outer heliosphere are not going to be enhanced for at least 40 years.
Thermal-spectrum recriticality energetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwinkendorf, K.N.
1993-12-01
Large computer codes have been created in the past to predict the energy release in hypothetical core disruptive accidents (CDA), postulated to occur in liquid metal reactors (LMR). These codes, such as SIMMER, are highly specific to LMR designs. More recent attention has focused on thermal-spectrum criticality accidents, such as for fuel storage basins and waste tanks containing fissile material. This paper resents results from recent one-dimensional kinetics simulations, performed for a recriticality accident in a thermal spectrum. Reactivity insertion rates generally are smaller than in LMR CDAs, and the energetics generally are more benign. Parametric variation of input was performed, including reactivity insertion and initial temperature
Active interrogation using energetic protons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morris, Christopher L.; Chung, Kiwhan; Greene, Steven J.; Hogan, Gary E.; Makela, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha; Milner, Edward C.; Murray, Matthew; Saunders, Alexander; Spaulding, Randy; Wang, Zhehui; Waters, Laurie; Wysocki, Frederick
2010-01-01
Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.
Structural energetics of noble metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mujibur Rahman, S.M.
1982-06-01
Structural energetics of the noble metals, namely Cu, Ag, and Au are investigated by employing a single-parameter pseudopotential. The calculations show that the lowest energy for all of these metals corresponds to FCC - their observed crystal structure. The one-electron contribution to the free energy is found to dominate the structural prediction for these metals. The present investigation strongly emphasizes that the effects due to band hybridization and core-core exchange play a significant role on the structural stability of the noble metals. (author)
Adiabatic Hamiltonian deformation, linear response theory, and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1980-01-01
Although Hamiltonians of various kinds have previously been used to derive Green-Kubo relations for the transport coefficients, the particular choice described is uniquely related to thermodynamics. This nonequilibrium Hamiltonian formulation of fluid flow provides pedagogically simple routes to nonequilibrium fluxes and distribution functions, to theoretical understanding of long-time effects, and to new numerical methods for simulating systems far from equilibrium. The same methods are now being applied to solid-phase problems. At the relatively high frequencies used in the viscous fluid calculations described, solids typically behave elastically. Lower frequencies lead to the formation of dislocations and other defects, making it possible to study plastic flow. A property of the nonequilibrium equations of motion which might be profitably explored is their effective irreversibility. Because only a few particles are necessary to generate irreversible behavior, simulations using adiabatic deformations of the kind described here could perhaps elucidate the instability in the equations of motion responsible for irreversibility
Bose, Deepak
2012-01-01
The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and fluctuation relations for small systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Liang; Ke Pu; Qiao Li-Yan; Zheng Zhi-Gang
2014-01-01
In this review, we give a retrospect of the recent progress in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in small dynamical systems. For systems with only a few number of particles, fluctuations and nonlinearity become significant and contribute to the nonequilibrium behaviors of the systems, hence the statistical properties and thermodynamics should be carefully studied. We review recent developments of this topic by starting from the Gallavotti—Cohen fluctuation theorem, and then to the Evans—Searles transient fluctuation theorem, Jarzynski free-energy equality, and the Crooks fluctuation relation. We also investigate the nonequilibrium free energy theorem for trajectories involving changes of the heat bath temperature and propose a generalized free-energy relation. It should be noticed that the non-Markovian property of the heat bath may lead to the violation of the free-energy relation. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in complex plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suetterlin, K R; Raeth, C; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Khrapak, S; Zhdanov, S; Rubin-Zuzic, M; Morfill, G E; Wysocki, A; Loewen, H; Goedheer, W J; Fortov, V E; Lipaev, A M; Molotkov, V I; Petrov, O F
2010-01-01
Complex plasma being the 'plasma state of soft matter' is especially suitable for investigations of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can manifest in dissipative structures or self-organization. Two specific examples are lane formation and phase separation. Using the permanent microgravity laboratory PK-3 Plus, operating onboard the International Space Station, we performed unique experiments with binary mixtures of complex plasmas that showed both lane formation and phase separation. These observations have been augmented by comprehensive numerical and theoretical studies. In this paper we present an overview of our most important results. In addition we put our results in context with research of complex plasmas, binary systems and non-equilibrium phase transitions. Necessary and promising future complex plasma experiments on phase separation and lane formation are briefly discussed.
Pavlos, G. P.; Malandraki, O.; Khabarova, O.; Livadiotis, G.; Pavlos, E.; Karakatsanis, L. P.; Iliopoulos, A. C.; Parisis, K.
2017-12-01
In this work we study the non-extensivity of Solar Wind space plasma by using electric-magnetic field data obtained by in situ spacecraft observations at different dynamical states of solar wind system especially in interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), Interplanetary shocks, magnetic islands, or near the Earth Bow shock. Especially, we study the energetic particle non extensive fractional acceleration mechanism producing kappa distributions as well as the intermittent turbulence mechanism producing multifractal structures related with the Tsallis q-entropy principle. We present some new and significant results concerning the dynamics of ICMEs observed in the near Earth at L1 solar wind environment, as well as its effect in Earth's magnetosphere as well as magnetic islands. In-situ measurements of energetic particles at L1 are analyzed, in response to major solar eruptive events at the Sun (intense flares, fast CMEs). The statistical characteristics are obtained and compared for the Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) originating at the Sun, the energetic particle enhancements associated with local acceleration during the CME-driven shock passage over the spacecraft (Energetic Particle Enhancements, ESPs) as well as the energetic particle signatures observed during the passage of the ICME. The results are referred to Tsallis non-extensive statistics and in particular to the estimation of Tsallis q-triplet, (qstat, qsen, qrel) of electric-magnetic field and the kappa distributions of solar energetic particles time series of the ICME, magnetic islands, resulting from the solar eruptive activity or the internal Solar Wind dynamics. Our results reveal significant differences in statistical and dynamical features, indicating important variations of the magnetic field dynamics both in time and space domains during the shock event, in terms of rate of entropy production, relaxation dynamics and non-equilibrium meta-stable stationary states.
Inviscid flux-splitting algorithms for real gases with non-equilibrium chemistry
Shuen, Jian-Shun; Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram
1990-01-01
Formulations of inviscid flux splitting algorithms for chemical nonequilibrium gases are presented. A chemical system for air dissociation and recombination is described. Numerical results for one-dimensional shock tube and nozzle flows of air in chemical nonequilibrium are examined.
Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation: Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufty, James W.
2007-01-01
This is the Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-2ER54677 award 'Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation - Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas'. Research has focused on the nonequilibrium dynamics of electrons in the presence of ions, both via basic quantum theory and via semi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In addition, fundamental notions of dissipative dynamics have been explored for models of grains and dust, and for scalar fields (temperature) in turbulent edge plasmas. The specific topics addressed were Quantum Kinetic Theory for Metallic Clusters, Semi-classical MD Simulation of Plasmas , and Effects of Dissipative Dynamics.
Introduction to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kita, Takafumi
2010-01-01
In this article, we present a concise and self-contained introduction to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with quantum field theory by considering an ensemble of interacting identical bosons or fermions as an example. Readers are assumed to be familiar with the Matsubara formalism of equilibrium statistical mechanics such as Feynman diagrams, the proper self-energy, and Dyson's equation. The aims are threefold: (1) to explain the fundamentals of nonequilibrium quantum field theory as simple as possible on the basis of the knowledge of the equilibrium counterpart; (2) to elucidate the hierarchy in describing nonequilibrium systems from Dyson's equation on the Keldysh contour to the Navier-Stokes equation in fluid mechanics via quantum transport equations and the Boltzmann equation; (3) to derive an expression of nonequilibrium entropy that evolves with time. In stage (1), we introduce nonequilibrium Green's function and the self-energy uniquely on the round-trip Keldysh contour, thereby avoiding possible confusions that may arise from defining multiple Green's functions at the very beginning. We try to present the Feynman rules for the perturbation expansion as simple as possible. In particular, we focus on the self-consistent perturbation expansion with the Luttinger-Ward thermodynamic functional, i.e., Baym's Φ-derivable approximation, which has a crucial property for nonequilibrium systems of obeying various conservation laws automatically. We also show how the two-particle correlations can be calculated within the Φ-derivable approximation, i.e., an issue of how to handle the 'Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvons (BBGKY) hierarchy'. Aim (2) is performed through successive reductions of relevant variables with the Wigner transformation, the gradient expansion based on the Groenewold-Moyal product, and Enskog's expansion from local equilibrium. This part may be helpful for convincing readers that nonequilibrium systems can be handled microscopically with
Limiting processes in non-equilibrium classical statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jancel, R.
1983-01-01
After a recall of the basic principles of the statistical mechanics, the results of ergodic theory, the transient at the thermodynamic limit and his link with the transport theory near the equilibrium are analyzed. The fundamental problems put by the description of non-equilibrium macroscopic systems are investigated and the kinetic methods are stated. The problems of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics are analyzed: irreversibility and coarse-graining, macroscopic variables and kinetic description, autonomous reduced descriptions, limit processes, BBGKY hierarchy, limit theorems [fr
Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects
Straughan, Brian
2015-01-01
This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.
Forces and energy dissipation in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poluehktov, Yu.M.; Slezov, V.V.
1987-01-01
The phenomenological theory of volume forces and dissipation processes in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors near temperature transition from the normal to superconducting state is constructed. The approach is based on application of dynamic equations of superconductivity formulated on the basis of the Lagrangian formalism. These equations are generalized the Ginzburg-Landau theory in the nonstationary non-equilibrium case for ''foul'' superconductors. The value estimations of volume forces arising in inhomogeneities during relaxation of an order parameter and when the electrical field is penetrated into the superconductor, are given
Experimental approaches for studying non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shashurin, A., E-mail: ashashur@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Keidar, M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States)
2015-12-15
This work reviews recent research efforts undertaken in the area non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets with special focus on experimental approaches. Physics of small non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets operating in kHz frequency range at powers around few Watts will be analyzed, including mechanism of breakdown, process of ionization front propagation, electrical coupling of the ionization front with the discharge electrodes, distributions of excited and ionized species, discharge current spreading, transient dynamics of various plasma parameters, etc. Experimental diagnostic approaches utilized in the field will be considered, including Rayleigh microwave scattering, Thomson laser scattering, electrostatic streamer scatterers, optical emission spectroscopy, fast photographing, etc.
Energetic Techniques For Planetary Defense
Barbee, B.; Bambacus, M.; Bruck Syal, M.; Greenaugh, K. C.; Leung, R. Y.; Plesko, C. S.
2017-12-01
Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose heliocentric orbits tend to approach or cross Earth's heliocentric orbit. NEOs of various sizes periodically collide with Earth, and efforts are currently underway to discover, track, and characterize NEOs so that those on Earth-impacting trajectories are discovered far enough in advance that we would have opportunities to deflect or destroy them prior to Earth impact, if warranted. We will describe current efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to assess options for energetic methods of deflecting or destroying hazardous NEOs. These methods include kinetic impactors, which are spacecraft designed to collide with an NEO and thereby alter the NEO's trajectory, and nuclear engineering devices, which are used to rapidly vaporize a layer of NEO surface material. Depending on the amount of energy imparted, this can result in either deflection of the NEO via alteration of its trajectory, or robust disruption of the NEO and dispersal of the remaining fragments. We have studied the efficacies and limitations of these techniques in simulations, and have combined the techniques with corresponding spacecraft designs and mission designs. From those results we have generalized planetary defense mission design strategies and drawn conclusions that are applicable to a range of plausible scenarios. We will present and summarize our research efforts to date, and describe approaches to carrying out planetary defense missions with energetic NEO deflection or disruption techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Wallace, Ronald S.; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Collins, Eric S.
2016-11-01
An energetic material comprising an elemental fuel, an oxidizer or other element, and a carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods, where the carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods are substantially homogeneously dispersed in the energetic material. Methods of tailoring the electrostatic discharge sensitivity of an energetic material are also disclosed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haschke, J.M.; Siekhaus, W.J.
2009-01-01
Static concentrations of plutonium oxidation states in solution and at surfaces in oxide-water systems are identified as non-equilibrium steady states. These kinetically controlled systems are described by redox cycles based on irreversible disproportionation of Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI) in OH-bridged intermediate complexes and at OH-covered oxide surfaces. Steady state is fixed by continuous redox cycles driven by radioactivity-promoted electron-transfer and energetically favorable reactions of Pu(III) and Pu(VII) disproportionation products with H2O. A model based on the redox cycles accounts for the high steady-state (Pu) coexisting with Pu(IV) hydrous oxide at pH 0-15 and for predominance of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) in solution. The steady-state (Pu) depends on pH and the surface area of oxide in solution, but not on the initial Pu oxidation state. PuO 2+x formation is attributed to high Pu(V) concentrations existing at water-exposed oxide surfaces. Results infer that migration of Pu in an aqueous environment is controlled by kinetic factors unique to that site and that the predominant oxidation states in solution are Pu(V) and Pu(VI)
Energetic evolution of cellular Transportomes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Darbani, Behrooz; Kell, Douglas B.; Borodina, Irina
2018-01-01
of the transition from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The transportome analysis also indicated seven bacterial species, including Neorickettsia risticii and Neorickettsia sennetsu, as likely origins of the mitochondrion in eukaryotes, based on the phylogenetically restricted presence therein of clear homologues......) than in primitive eukaryotes (13%), algae and plants (10%) and in fungi and animals (5–6%). This decrease is compensated by an increased occurrence of secondary transporters and ion channels. The share of ion channels is particularly high in animals (ca. 30% of the transportome) and algae and plants...... of modern mitochondrial solute carriers. Conclusions: The results indicate that the transportomes of eukaryotes evolved strongly towards a higher energetic efficiency, as ATP-dependent transporters diminished and secondary transporters and ion channels proliferated. These changes have likely been important...
Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass
Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M
The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.
Energetic model of metal hardening
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ignatova O.N.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Based on Bailey hypothesis on the link between strain hardening and elastic lattice defect energy this paper suggests a shear strength energetic model that takes into consideration plastic strain intensity and rate as well as softening related to temperature annealing and dislocation annihilation. Metal strain hardening was demonstrated to be determined only by elastic strain energy related to the energy of accumulated defects. It is anticipated that accumulation of the elastic energy of defects is governed by plastic work. The suggested model has a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data for copper up to P = 70 GPa , for aluminum up to P = 10 GPa and for tantalum up to P = 20 GPa.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamic fluctuations and phase transition in black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, R.; Cai, R.; Yu, P.K.N.
1994-01-01
Landau nonequilibrium fluctuation and phase transition theory is applied to the discussion of the phase transition of black holes. Some second moments of relevant thermodynamical quantities for Kerr-Newman black holes are estimated. A theorem governing the divergence of some second moments and the occurrence of the phase transition in black holes is given
D.C.-arc plasma generator for nonequilibrium plasmachemical processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kvaltin, J.
1990-06-01
The analysis is made of the conditions for generation of nonequilibrium plasma in a plasmachemical reactor, and the design is described of a d.c. arc plasma generator based on the integral criterion. Results of measuring potentials on the plasma column of this generator are presented. (author)
SRB states and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium
Gallavotti, Giovannni; Ruelle, David
1996-01-01
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium is studied using SRB states and a formula for their derivatives with respect to parameters. We write general expressions for the thermodynamic fluxes (or currents) and the transport coefficients, generalizing previous results. In this framework we give a general proof of the Onsager reciprocity relations.
Non-equilibrium microwave plasma for efficient high temperature chemistry
van den Bekerom, D.C.M.; den Harder, N.; Minea, T.; Palomares Linares, J.M.; Bongers, W.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.; van Rooij, G.J.
2017-01-01
This article describes a flowing microwave reactor that is used to drive efficient non-equilibrium chemistry for the application of conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. The goal of the procedure described here is to measure the in situ gas temperature and gas
Complex temporal and spatial patterns in nonequilibrium processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swinney, H.L.
1992-01-01
We have used dynamical systems methods to study and characterize bifurcations and pattern formation in a variety of nonequilibrium systems. In this paper we describe our work on dynamical systems, chemical oscillations and chaos, chemical spatial patterns, instabilities in fluid dynamics, electrodeposition clusters, the ballast resistor, and crack propagation
Nonlinear and Nonequilibrium Spin Injection in Magnetic Tunneling Junctions
Guo, Hong
2007-03-01
Quantitative analysis of charge and spin quantum transport in spintronic devices requires an atomistic first principles approach that can handle nonlinear and nonequilibrium transport conditions. We have developed an approach for this purpose based on real space density functional theory (DFT) carried out within the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF). We report theoretical analysis of nonlinear and nonequilibrium spin injection and quantum transport in Fe/MgO/Fe trilayer structures as a function of external bias voltage. Devices with well relaxed atomic structures and with FeO oxidization layers are investigated as a function of external bias voltage. We also report calculations of nonequilibrium spin injection into molecular layers and graphene. Comparisons to experimental data will be presented. Work in collaborations with: Derek Waldron, Vladimir Timochevski (McGill University); Ke Xia (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China); Eric Zhu, Jian Wang (University of Hong Kong); Paul Haney, and Allan MacDonald (University of Texas at Austin).
Effects of vacancies on overshooting in nonequilibrium ordering processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1996-01-01
The effects of annealed site dilution on the nonequilibrium ordering process in the two-dimensional Ising model with a nonconserved order parameter have been studied using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the transient development of a local order that is larger than the equilibrium order...
Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2002-01-01
The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...
Supersymmetric Field Theory of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic System
Olemskoi, Alexander I.; Brazhnyi, Valerii A.
1998-01-01
On the basis of Langevin equation the optimal SUSY field scheme is formulated to discribe a non-equilibrium thermodynamic system with quenched disorder and non-ergodicity effects. Thermodynamic and isothermal susceptibilities, memory parameter and irreversible response are determined at different temperatures and quenched disorder intensities.
Fluctuation and dissipation in nonequilibrium quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, Rudnei O.
1994-01-01
The nonequilibrium dynamics of a scalar field is studied using perturbation theory and a real time finite temperature formulation. The evolution equation for the scalar field is explicitly obtained, and terms responsible for noise (fluctuations) and dissipation are identified and studied in the high temperature limit. (author)
Nonequilibrium Enhances Adaptation Efficiency of Stochastic Biochemical Systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Jia
Full Text Available Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. Early work has shown that some influential equilibrium models can achieve accurate adaptation. However, recent studies indicate that there are close relationships between adaptation and nonequilibrium. In this paper, we provide an explanation of these two seemingly contradictory results based on Markov models with relatively simple networks. We show that as the nonequilibrium driving becomes stronger, the system under consideration will undergo a phase transition along a fixed direction: from non-adaptation to simple adaptation then to oscillatory adaptation, while the transition in the opposite direction is forbidden. This indicates that although adaptation may be observed in equilibrium systems, it tends to occur in systems far away from equilibrium. In addition, we find that nonequilibrium will improve the performance of adaptation by enhancing the adaptation efficiency. All these results provide a deeper insight into the connection between adaptation and nonequilibrium. Finally, we use a more complicated network model of bacterial chemotaxis to validate the main results of this paper.
Applications of non-equilibrium plasma in chemical processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patino, P.; Castro, A.
2003-01-01
By means of optical emission spectroscopy the population of O( 3 P) in a non-equilibrium, high voltage, oxygen plasma, and O( 3 P), H and OH in another of steam in radio frequency, have been followed. Reactions of both plasmas with liquid hydrocarbons have produced oxidation and/or hydrogenation, depending on the conditions of each one. (Author)
Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. Non-equilibrium ... Introduction. Study of organic conductors and semiconductors continues to generate interest with the ... Band tailing reduces band gap or the acti- ..... (9), we can identify Eg(0) with the focal point and is proportional to P2. 1 .
Measures of trajectory ensemble disparity in nonequilibrium statistical dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crooks, Gavin E; Sivak, David A
2011-01-01
Many interesting divergence measures between conjugate ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories can be experimentally determined from the work distribution of the process. Herein, we review the statistical and physical significance of several of these measures, in particular the relative entropy (dissipation), Jeffreys divergence (hysteresis), Jensen–Shannon divergence (time-asymmetry), Chernoff divergence (work cumulant generating function), and Rényi divergence
Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule
Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin
2018-03-01
We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.
Nonequilibrium two-dimensional Ising model with stationary uphill diffusion
Colangeli, Matteo; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; Vernia, Cecilia
2018-03-01
Usually, in a nonequilibrium setting, a current brings mass from the highest density regions to the lowest density ones. Although rare, the opposite phenomenon (known as "uphill diffusion") has also been observed in multicomponent systems, where it appears as an artificial effect of the interaction among components. We show here that uphill diffusion can be a substantial effect, i.e., it may occur even in single component systems as a consequence of some external work. To this aim we consider the two-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model in contact with two reservoirs that fix, at the left and the right boundaries, magnetizations of the same magnitude but of opposite signs.We provide numerical evidence that a class of nonequilibrium steady states exists in which, by tuning the reservoir magnetizations, the current in the system changes from "downhill" to "uphill". Moreover, we also show that, in such nonequilibrium setup, the current vanishes when the reservoir magnetization attains a value approaching, in the large volume limit, the magnetization of the equilibrium dynamics, thus establishing a relation between equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties.
Electron systems out of equilibrium: nonequilibrium Green's function approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Špička, Václav; Velický, Bedřich; Kalvová, Anděla
2014-01-01
Roč. 28, č. 23 (2014), "1430013-1"-"1430013-103" ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium statistical physics * transients * quantum transport the ory Subject RIV: BE - The oretical Physics Impact factor: 0.937, year: 2014
Fluctuation theorems and orbital magnetism in nonequilibrium state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study Langevin dynamics of a driven charged particle in the presence as well as in the absence of magnetic field. We discuss the validity of various work fluctuation theorems using different model potentials and external drives. We also show that one can generate an orbital magnetic moment in a nonequilibrium state ...
On the forces and fluxes in non-equilibrium thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitahara, Kazuo
1986-01-01
A formulation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of continuum systems based on local equilibrium assumption is reported. Thermodynamic forces are defined from a generalized local entropy and irreversible fluxes are defined as non-advective parts of fluxes of conservative quantities. The validity of the general evolution criterion and its generalization is discussed. (author)
Continuous media with microstructure
2010-01-01
This book discusses the extension of classical continuum models. To the first class addressed belong various thermodynamic models of multicomponent systems, and to the second class belong primarily microstructures created by phase transformations.
Optics of dielectric microstructures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Thomas
2002-01-01
From the work carried out within the ph.d. project two topics have been selected for this thesis, namely emission of radiation by sources in dielectric microstructures, and planar photonic crystal waveguides. The work done within the first topic, emission of radiation by sources in dielectric...... microstructures, will be presented in the part I of this thesis consisting of the chapters 2-5. An introductions is given in chapter 2. In part I three methods are presented for calculating spontaneous and classical emission from sources in dielectric microstructures. The first method presented in chapter 3...... is based on the Fermi Golden Rule, and spontaneous emission from emitters in a passive dielectric microstructure is calculated by summing over the emission into each electromagnetic mode of the radiation field. This method is applied to investigate spontaneous emission in a two-dimensional photonic crystal...
Ecological problems of thermonuclear energetics. Review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sivintsev, Yu V
1980-01-01
A review of preliminary quantitative estimates of radiation hazard of thermonuclear reactors is presented. Main attention is given to three aspects: nonradiation effect on environment, radionuclide blow-ups at normal operation and emergency situations with their consequences. The given data testify to great radiological advantages of thermonuclear energetics as compared with the modern nuclear energetics with thermal and prospective fast reactors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Sabra, Mads Christian; Mouritsen, Ole G.
2000-01-01
The nonequilibrium, steady-state phase transitions and the structure of the different phases of a two-dimensional system with two thermodynamic temperatures are studied via a simple lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities ("hot/cold spots'') whose activity is controlled by an external drive...... on the temperatures, microstructured phases of both lamellar and droplet symmetry arise, described by a length scale that is determined by the characteristic temperature controlling the diffusive motion of the active impurities....
Zirconium microstructures: uncharted possibilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samajdar, I.; Kumar, Gulshan; Singh, Jaiveer; Lodh, Arijit; Srivastava, D.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.; Saibaba, N.
2015-01-01
The 'conventional' Zirconium microstructures can be significantly extended with information on: (i) microtexture, (ii) residual stresses and (iii) local mechanical properties. Though these involve different tools, but a consolidated microstructure can be crated. This is the theme of this presentation. Examples of this consolidated picture will be made from deformation twinning, recovery-recrystallization, burst ductility and orientation versus solid solution hardening. (author)
Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber
Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw
2014-01-01
A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693
Imaging brain tumour microstructure.
Nilsson, Markus; Englund, Elisabet; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Sundgren, Pia C
2018-05-08
Imaging is an indispensable tool for brain tumour diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up. Definite diagnosis, however, often demands histopathological analysis of microscopic features of tissue samples, which have to be obtained by invasive means. A non-invasive alternative may be to probe corresponding microscopic tissue characteristics by MRI, or so called 'microstructure imaging'. The promise of microstructure imaging is one of 'virtual biopsy' with the goal to offset the need for invasive procedures in favour of imaging that can guide pre-surgical planning and can be repeated longitudinally to monitor and predict treatment response. The exploration of such methods is motivated by the striking link between parameters from MRI and tumour histology, for example the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient and cellularity. Recent microstructure imaging techniques probe even more subtle and specific features, providing parameters associated to cell shape, size, permeability, and volume distributions. However, the range of scenarios in which these techniques provide reliable imaging biomarkers that can be used to test medical hypotheses or support clinical decisions is yet unknown. Accurate microstructure imaging may moreover require acquisitions that go beyond conventional data acquisition strategies. This review covers a wide range of candidate microstructure imaging methods based on diffusion MRI and relaxometry, and explores advantages, challenges, and potential pitfalls in brain tumour microstructure imaging. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Stochastic Effects in Microstructure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glicksman M.E.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We are currently studying microstructural responses to diffusion-limited coarsening in two-phase materials. A mathematical solution to late-stage multiparticle diffusion in finite systems is formulated with account taken of particle-particle interactions and their microstructural correlations, or "locales". The transition from finite system behavior to that for an infinite microstructure is established analytically. Large-scale simulations of late-stage phase coarsening dynamics show increased fluctuations with increasing volume fraction, Vv, of the mean flux entering or leaving particles of a given size class. Fluctuations about the mean flux were found to depend on the scaled particle size, R/, where R is the radius of a particle and is the radius of the dispersoid averaged over the population within the microstructure. Specifically, small (shrinking particles tend to display weak fluctuations about their mean flux, whereas particles of average, or above average size, exhibit strong fluctuations. Remarkably, even in cases of microstructures with a relatively small volume fraction (Vv ~ 10-4, the particle size distribution is broader than that for the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov limit predicted at zero volume fraction. The simulation results reported here provide some additional surprising insights into the effect of diffusion interactions and stochastic effects during evolution of a microstructure, as it approaches its thermodynamic end-state.
On microscopic stress nonequilibrium: Application to the magnetopause
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Z.J.
1986-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to propose the concept of microscopic stress nonequilibrium (or simply micro-nonequilibrium) in plasma physics. This concept arises as a consequence of the insolubility of the steady-state Vlasov-Maxwell equations (or the kinetic-field equations in general) under certain conditions. In what follows: (1) A general stress equilibrium condition for tangential plasma discontinuities is derived from the Maxwell tensor and the plasma stress tensor. (2) An equivalent equilibrium condition, which takes the form of equations of motion of a ''fictitious particle'', is also derived from the above condition. (3) A general solution of the distribution functions is derived according to Jeans's theorem or Liouville's theorem for the solar wind particles in a tangential magnetopause. (4) This solution is applied to the equilibrium condition to investigate the equilibrium state of the tangential magnetopause. Both Parker's tail-region and Wu's dawn-side ''nonequilibria''are confirmed to be micro-nonequilibria because of the violation of the above equilibrium condition. (5) The effects of various factors in micro-nonequilibria are discussed. It is found that randomly trapped particles and inwards electric field in the magnetopause layer generally cannot relieve the dawn-side or tail-region micro-nonequilibria; and that a northward magnetic field in the solar wind generally can suppress the dawn-side nonequilibrium, while a southward field can jeopardize a dusk-side Vlasov equilibrium. (6) Discussion: The concept of ''micro-nonequilibrium'' may become of importance in basic plasma dynamics. It is also possible that the micro-nonequilibrium may play a fundamental role in solar wind particles entering the magnetopause and in magnetospheric substorms
Design and Synthesis of Nonequilibrium Systems.
Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R; Stoddart, J Fraser; Astumian, R Dean
2015-09-22
The active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes is essential to creating the concentration gradients that sustain life in all living organisms, be they bacteria, fungi, plants, animals or Homo sapiens. Nature uses active transport everywhere for everything. Molecular biologists have long been attracted to the study of active transport and continue to this day to investigate and elucidate the tertiary structures of the complex motor proteins that sustain it, while physicists, interested in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, have developed theoretical models to describe the driven ratcheting motions that are crucial to its function. The increasingly detailed understanding that contemporary science has acquired relating to active transport, however, has yet to lead to the design and construction of artificial molecular motors capable of employing ratchet-driven motions that can also perform work against concentration gradients. Mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) in the form of pseudo- and semirotaxanes are showing some encouraging signs in meeting these goals. This review summarizes recent progress in making artificial molecular motors that can perform work by "pumping" tetracationic rings into high-energy states. The launching pad is a bistable [2]rotaxane whose dumbbell component contains two electron-donating recognition sites, one, a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit, which interacts more strongly with the ring component, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), containing two electron-accepting bipyridinium units, than does the other 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) unit. Switching can be induced electrochemically by oxidizing the TTF unit to a TTF(•+) radical cation, whereupon Coulombic repulsion takes care of moving the ring to the DNP unit. Reduction of the radical cation resets the switch. Molecular switches operate at, or close to, equilibrium. Any work done during one switching event is undone during the reset. Molecular motors, on the
ENERGETIC FERMI/LAT GRB 100414A: ENERGETIC AND CORRELATIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urata, Yuji; Tsai, Patrick P.; Huang, Kuiyun; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Tashiro, Makoto S.
2012-01-01
This study presents multi-wavelength observational results for energetic GRB 100414A with GeV photons. The prompt spectral fitting using Suzaku/WAM data yielded spectral peak energies of E src peak of 1458.7 +132.6 –106.6 keV and E iso of 34.5 +2.0 –1.8 × 10 52 erg with z = 1.368. The optical afterglow light curves between 3 and 7 days were effectively fitted according to a simple power law with a temporal index of α = –2.6 ± 0.1. The joint light curve with earlier Swift/UVOT observations yields a temporal break at 2.3 ± 0.2 days. This was the first Fermi/LAT detected event that demonstrated the clear temporal break in the optical afterglow. The jet opening angle derived from this temporal break was 5. 0 8, consistent with those of other well-observed long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The multi-wavelength analyses in this study showed that GRB 100414A follows E src peak -E iso and E src peak -E γ correlations. The late afterglow revealed a flatter evolution with significant excesses at 27.2 days. The most straightforward explanation for the excess is that GRB 100414A was accompanied by a contemporaneous supernova. The model light curve based on other GRB-SN events is marginally consistent with that of the observed light curve.
GLOBAL ENERGETICS OF SOLAR FLARES. IV. CORONAL MASS EJECTION ENERGETICS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aschwanden, Markus J.
2016-01-01
This study entails the fourth part of a global flare energetics project, in which the mass m cme , kinetic energy E kin , and the gravitational potential energy E grav of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is measured in 399 M and X-class flare events observed during the first 3.5 years of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission, using a new method based on the EUV dimming effect. EUV dimming is modeled in terms of a radial adiabatic expansion process, which is fitted to the observed evolution of the total emission measure of the CME source region. The model derives the evolution of the mean electron density, the emission measure, the bulk plasma expansion velocity, the mass, and the energy in the CME source region. The EUV dimming method is truly complementary to the Thomson scattering method in white light, which probes the CME evolution in the heliosphere at r ≳ 2 R ⊙ , while the EUV dimming method tracks the CME launch in the corona. We compare the CME parameters obtained in white light with the LASCO/C2 coronagraph with those obtained from EUV dimming with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the SDO for all identical events in both data sets. We investigate correlations between CME parameters, the relative timing with flare parameters, frequency occurrence distributions, and the energy partition between magnetic, thermal, nonthermal, and CME energies. CME energies are found to be systematically lower than the dissipated magnetic energies, which is consistent with a magnetic origin of CMEs.
Energetics of glucose metabolism: a phenomenological approach to metabolic network modeling.
Diederichs, Frank
2010-08-12
A new formalism to describe metabolic fluxes as well as membrane transport processes was developed. The new flux equations are comparable to other phenomenological laws. Michaelis-Menten like expressions, as well as flux equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, can be regarded as special cases of these new equations. For metabolic network modeling, variable conductances and driving forces are required to enable pathway control and to allow a rapid response to perturbations. When applied to oxidative phosphorylation, results of simulations show that whole oxidative phosphorylation cannot be described as a two-flux-system according to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, although all coupled reactions per se fulfill the equations of this theory. Simulations show that activation of ATP-coupled load reactions plus glucose oxidation is brought about by an increase of only two different conductances: a [Ca(2+)] dependent increase of cytosolic load conductances, and an increase of phosphofructokinase conductance by [AMP], which in turn becomes increased through [ADP] generation by those load reactions. In ventricular myocytes, this feedback mechanism is sufficient to increase cellular power output and O(2) consumption several fold, without any appreciable impairment of energetic parameters. Glucose oxidation proceeds near maximal power output, since transformed input and output conductances are nearly equal, yielding an efficiency of about 0.5. This conductance matching is fulfilled also by glucose oxidation of β-cells. But, as a price for the metabolic mechanism of glucose recognition, β-cells have only a limited capability to increase their power output.
A phase-field model for non-equilibrium solidification of intermetallics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assadi, H.
2007-01-01
Intermetallics may exhibit unique solidification behaviour-including slow growth kinetics, anomalous partitioning and formation of unusual growth morphologies-because of departure from local equilibrium. A phase-field model is developed and used to illustrate these non-equilibrium effects in solidification of a prototype B2 intermetallic phase. The model takes sublattice compositions as primary field variables, from which chemical long-range order is derived. The diffusive reactions between the two sublattices, and those between each sublattice and the liquid phase are taken as 'internal' kinetic processes, which take place within control volumes of the system. The model can thus capture solute and disorder trapping effects, which are consistent-over a wide range of the solid/liquid interface thickness-with the predictions of the sharp-interface theory of solute and disorder trapping. The present model can also take account of solid-state ordering and thus illustrate the effects of chemical ordering on microstructure formation and crystal growth kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, J.; Sommer, W.F.; Bradbury, J.N.
1986-01-01
Microstructural evolution in metals under particle irradiation is described by a non-equilibrium statistics method. This method gives a set of equations for the evolution of bubbles and an approximate solution for a distribution function of bubble size as a function of fluence and temperature. The distribution function gives the number of bubbles of radius r at time t, N(r,t)dr, as a function of size, r/r 0 (r 0 is the radius of a bubble nucleus). It is found that N(r,t)dr increases with fluence. Also, the peak value of N(r,t)dt shifts to higher r/r 0 with increasing fluence. Nucleation depends mainly on helium concentration and defect cluster concentration while bubble growth is controlled mainly by the vacancy concentration and a fluctuation coefficient. If suitable material parameters are chosen, a reasonable distribution function for bubble size is obtained. The helium diffusion coefficient is found to be less than that for vacancies by five orders of magnitude. The fraction of helium remaining in matrix is less than 10 -2 ; the majority of the helium is associated with the bubbles
Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cantor, B.; Chang, I.T.H.; Knight, P.; Vincent, A.J.B.
2004-01-01
Multicomponent alloys containing several components in equal atomic proportions have been manufactured by casting and melt spinning, and their microstructures and properties have been investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffractrometry and microhardness measurements. Alloys containing 16 and 20 components in equal proportions are multiphase, crystalline and brittle both as-cast and after melt spinning. A five component Fe 20 Cr 20 Mn 20 Ni 20 Co 20 alloy forms a single fcc solid solution which solidifies dendritically. A wide range of other six to nine component late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys exhibit the same majority fcc primary dendritic phase, which can dissolve substantial amounts of other transition metals such as Nb, Ti and V. More electronegative elements such as Cu and Ge are less stable in the fcc dendrites and are rejected into the interdendritic regions. The total number of phases is always well below the maximum equilibrium number allowed by the Gibbs phase rule, and even further below the maximum number allowed under non-equilibrium solidification conditions. Glassy structures are not formed by casting or melt spinning of late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys, indicating that the confusion principle does not apply, and other factors are more important in promoting glass formation
Optimization of some eco-energetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purica, I.; Pavelescu, M.; Stoica, M.
1976-01-01
An optimization problem of two eco-energetic systems is described. The first one is close to the actual eco-energetic system in Romania, while the second is a new one, based on nuclear energy as primary source and hydrogen energy as secondary source. The optimization problem solved is to find the optimal structure of the systems so that the objective functions adopted, namely unitary energy cost C and total pollution P, to be minimum at the same time. The problem can be modelated with a bimatrix cooperative mathematical game without side payments. We demonstrate the superiority of the new eco-energetic system. (author)
Fracture mechanics and microstructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gee, M.G.; Morrell, R.
1986-01-01
The influence of microstructure on defects in ceramics, and the consequences of their presence for the application of fracture mechanics theories are reviewed. The complexities of microstructures, especially the multiphase nature, the crystallographic anisotropy and the resultant anisotropic physical properties, and the variation of microstructure and surface finish from point to point in real components, all lead to considerable uncertainties in the actual performance of any particular component. It is concluded that although the concepts of fracture mechanics have been and will continue to be most useful for the qualitative explanation of fracture phenomena, the usefulness as a predictive tool with respect to most existing types of material is limited by the interrelation between material microstructure and mechanical properties. At present, the only method of eliminating components with unsatisfactory mechanical properties is to proof-test them, despite the fact that proof-testing itself is limited in ability to cope with changes to the component in service. The aim of the manufacturer must be to improve quality and consistency within individual components, from component to component, and from batch to batch. The aim of the fracture specialist must be to study longer-term properties to improve the accuracy of behaviour predictions with a stronger data base. Materials development needs to concentrate on obtaining defect-free materials that can be translated into more-reliable products, using our present understanding of the influence of microstructure on strength and toughness
ENERGETIC FERMI/LAT GRB 100414A: ENERGETIC AND CORRELATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urata, Yuji; Tsai, Patrick P. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuiyun [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yamaoka, Kazutaka [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1, Fuchinobe, Sayamihara 229-8558 (Japan); Tashiro, Makoto S., E-mail: urata@astro.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)
2012-03-20
This study presents multi-wavelength observational results for energetic GRB 100414A with GeV photons. The prompt spectral fitting using Suzaku/WAM data yielded spectral peak energies of E{sup src}{sub peak} of 1458.7{sup +132.6}{sub -106.6} keV and E{sub iso} of 34.5{sup +2.0}{sub -1.8} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 52} erg with z = 1.368. The optical afterglow light curves between 3 and 7 days were effectively fitted according to a simple power law with a temporal index of {alpha} = -2.6 {+-} 0.1. The joint light curve with earlier Swift/UVOT observations yields a temporal break at 2.3 {+-} 0.2 days. This was the first Fermi/LAT detected event that demonstrated the clear temporal break in the optical afterglow. The jet opening angle derived from this temporal break was 5.{sup 0}8, consistent with those of other well-observed long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The multi-wavelength analyses in this study showed that GRB 100414A follows E{sup src}{sub peak}-E{sub iso} and E{sup src}{sub peak}-E{sub {gamma}} correlations. The late afterglow revealed a flatter evolution with significant excesses at 27.2 days. The most straightforward explanation for the excess is that GRB 100414A was accompanied by a contemporaneous supernova. The model light curve based on other GRB-SN events is marginally consistent with that of the observed light curve.
Hülsenberg, Dagmar; Bismarck, Alexander
2008-01-01
As microstructured glass becomes increasingly important for microsystems technology, the main application fields include micro-fluidic systems, micro-analysis systems, sensors, micro-actuators and implants. And, because glass has quite distinct properties from silicon, PMMA and metals, applications exist where only glass devices meet the requirements. The main advantages of glass derive from its amorphous nature, the precondition for its - theoretically - direction-independent geometric structurability. Microstructuring of Glasses deals with the amorphous state, various glass compositions and their properties, the interactions between glasses and the electromagnetic waves used to modify it. Also treated in detail are methods for influencing the geometrical microstructure of glasses by mechanical, chemical, thermal, optical, and electrical treatment, and the methods and equipment required to produce actual microdevices.
Force-dominated non-equilibrium oxidation kinetics of tantalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kar, Prasenjit; Wang, Ke; Liang, Hong
2008-01-01
Using a combined electrochemical and mechanical manipulation technique, we compared the equilibrium and non-equilibrium oxidation processes and states of tantalum. Experimentally, a setup was developed with an electrochemical system attached to a sliding mechanical configuration capable of friction force measurement. The surface chemistry of a sliding surface, i.e., tantalum, was modified through the electrolyte. The mechanically applied force was fixed and the dynamics of the surface was monitored in situ through a force sensor. The formation of non-equilibrium oxidation states of tantalum was found in oxidation limiting environment of acetic acid. An oxidative environment of deionized water saturated with KCl was used as comparison. We proposed a modified Arrhenius-Eyring equation in which the mechanical factor was considered. We found that the mechanical energy induced the non-stable-state reactions leading to metastable oxidation states of tantalum. This equation can be used to predict mechanochemical reactions that are important in many industrial applications
On Equivalence of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic and Statistical Entropies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Purushottam D. Gujrati
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We review the concept of nonequilibrium thermodynamic entropy and observables and internal variables as state variables, introduced recently by us, and provide a simple first principle derivation of additive statistical entropy, applicable to all nonequilibrium states by treating thermodynamics as an experimental science. We establish their numerical equivalence in several cases, which includes the most important case when the thermodynamic entropy is a state function. We discuss various interesting aspects of the two entropies and show that the number of microstates in the Boltzmann entropy includes all possible microstates of non-zero probabilities even if the system is trapped in a disjoint component of the microstate space. We show that negative thermodynamic entropy can appear from nonnegative statistical entropy.
Phase transition universality classes of classical, nonequilibrium systems
Ódor, G
2004-01-01
In the first chapter I summarize the most important critical exponents and relations used in this work. In the second chapter I briefly address the question of scaling behavior at first order phase transitions.In chapter three I review dynamical extensions of basic static classes, show the effect of mixing dynamics and percolation behavior. The main body of this work is given in chapter four where genuine, dynamical universality classes specific to nonequilibrium systems are introduced. In chapter five I continue overviewing such nonequilibrium classes but in coupled, multi-component systems. Most of known transitions in low dimensional systems are between active and absorbing states of reaction-diffusion type systems, but I briefly introduce related classes that appear in interface growth models in chapter six. Some of them are related to critical behavior of coupled, multi-component systems. Finally in chapter seven I summarize families of absorbing state system classes, mean-field classes and the most freq...
Analysis of Atomic Electronic Excitation in Nonequilibrium Air Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Xin; Jia Hong-Hui; Yin Hong-Wei; Zhang Hai-Liang; Chang Sheng-Li; Yang Jun-Cai; Dang Wei-Hua
2014-01-01
Electronic excitation of atoms is studied in nonequilibrium air plasmas with the electronic temperature between 8000 K and 20000 K. By using the modified Saha—Boltzmann equation, our simplified method takes into account significant radiative processes and strong self-absorption of the vacuum ultraviolet lines. Calculations are carried out at three trajectory points of the Fire II flight experiment. Good agreement with the detailed collisional-radiative model is obtained, and the performance of this method in applications to highly nonequilibrium conditions is better than Park's quasi-steady-state model and Spradian-9.0. A short discussion on the influence of optical thickness of the vacuum ultraviolet radiation is also given. It costs about 2.9 ms on the average to solve one cell of the shock layer on a low cost computer, which shows that the present method is fast and efficient. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Non-equilibrium Dynamics, Thermalization and Entropy Production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinrichsen, Haye; Janotta, Peter; Gogolin, Christian
2011-01-01
This paper addresses fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics such as the motivation of a classical state space with spontaneous transitions, the meaning of non-equilibrium in the context of thermalization, and the justification of these concepts from the quantum-mechanical point of view. After an introductory part we focus on the problem of entropy production in non-equilibrium systems. In particular, the generally accepted formula for entropy production in the environment is analyzed from a critical perspective. It is shown that this formula is only valid in the limit of separated time scales of the system's and the environmental degrees of freedom. Finally, we present an alternative simple proof of the fluctuation theorem.
Crossover from equilibration to aging: Nonequilibrium theory versus simulations.
Mendoza-Méndez, P; Lázaro-Lázaro, E; Sánchez-Díaz, L E; Ramírez-González, P E; Pérez-Ángel, G; Medina-Noyola, M
2017-08-01
Understanding glasses and the glass transition requires comprehending the nature of the crossover from the ergodic (or equilibrium) regime, in which the stationary properties of the system have no history dependence, to the mysterious glass transition region, where the measured properties are nonstationary and depend on the protocol of preparation. In this work we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to test the main features of the crossover predicted by the molecular version of the recently developed multicomponent nonequilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory. According to this theory, the glass transition involves the abrupt passage from the ordinary pattern of full equilibration to the aging scenario characteristic of glass-forming liquids. The same theory explains that this abrupt transition will always be observed as a blurred crossover due to the unavoidable finiteness of the time window of any experimental observation. We find that within their finite waiting-time window, the simulations confirm the general trends predicted by the theory.
Supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis, nonequilibrium field theory and quantum Boltzmann equations
Riotto, Antonio
1998-01-01
The closed time-path (CPT) formalism is a powerful Green's function formulation to describe nonequilibrium phenomena in field theory and it leads to a complete nonequilibrium quantum kinetic theory. In this paper we make use of the CPT formalism to write down a set of quantum Boltzmann equations describing the local number density asymmetries of the particles involved in supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis. These diffusion equations automatically and self-consistently incorporate the CP-violating sources which fuel baryogenesis when transport properties allow the CP-violating charges to diffuse in front of the bubble wall separating the broken from the unbroken phase at the electroweak phase transition. This is a significant improvement with respect to recent approaches where the CP-violating sources are inserted by hand into the diffusion equations. Furthermore, the CP-violating sources and the particle number changing interactions manifest ``memory'' effects which are typical of the quantum transp ort t...
Nonequilibrium Green function techniques applied to hot electron quantum transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jauho, A.P.
1989-01-01
During the last few years considerable effort has been devoted to deriving quantum transport equations for semiconductors under extreme conditions (high electric fields, spatial quantization in one or two directions). Here we review the results obtained with nonequilibrium Green function techniques as formulated by Baym and Kadanoff, or by Keldysh. In particular, the following topics will be discussed: (i) Systematic approaches to reduce the transport equation governing the correlation function to a transport equation for the Wigner function; (ii) Approximations reducing the nonmarkovian quantum transport equation to a numerically tractable form, and results for model semiconductors; (iii) Recent progress in extending the formalism to inhomogeneous systems; and (iv) Nonequilibrium screening. In all sections we try to direct the reader's attention to points where the present understanding is (at best) incomplete, and indicate possible lines for future work. (orig.)
Non-equilibrium statistical physics with application to disordered systems
Cáceres, Manuel Osvaldo
2017-01-01
This textbook is the result of the enhancement of several courses on non-equilibrium statistics, stochastic processes, stochastic differential equations, anomalous diffusion and disorder. The target audience includes students of physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and engineering at undergraduate and graduate level with a grasp of the basic elements of mathematics and physics of the fourth year of a typical undergraduate course. The little-known physical and mathematical concepts are described in sections and specific exercises throughout the text, as well as in appendices. Physical-mathematical motivation is the main driving force for the development of this text. It presents the academic topics of probability theory and stochastic processes as well as new educational aspects in the presentation of non-equilibrium statistical theory and stochastic differential equations.. In particular it discusses the problem of irreversibility in that context and the dynamics of Fokker-Planck. An introduction on fluc...
Investigation of Non-Equilibrium Radiation for Earth Entry
Brandis, A. M.; Johnston, C. O.; Cruden, B. A.
2016-01-01
For Earth re-entry at velocities between 8 and 11.5 km/s, the accuracy of NASA's computational uid dynamic and radiative simulations of non-equilibrium shock layer radiation is assessed through comparisons with measurements. These measurements were obtained in the NASA Ames Research Center's Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility. The experiments were aimed at measuring the spatially and spectrally resolved radiance at relevant entry conditions for both an approximate Earth atmosphere (79% N2 : 21% O2 by mole) as well as a more accurate composition featuring the trace species Ar and CO2 (78.08% N2 : 20.95% O2 : 0.04% CO2 : 0.93% Ar by mole). The experiments were configured to target a wide range of conditions, of which shots from 8 to 11.5 km/s at 0.2 Torr (26.7 Pa) are examined in this paper. The non-equilibrium component was chosen to be the focus of this study as it can account for a significant percentage of the emitted radiation for Earth re-entry, and more importantly, non-equilibrium has traditionally been assigned a large uncertainty for vehicle design. The main goals of this study are to present the shock tube data in the form of a non-equilibrium metric, evaluate the level of agreement between the experiment and simulations, identify key discrepancies and to examine critical aspects of modeling non-equilibrium radiating flows. Radiance pro les integrated over discreet wavelength regions, ranging from the Vacuum Ultra Violet (VUV) through to the Near Infra-Red (NIR), were compared in order to maximize both the spectral coverage and the number of experiments that could be used in the analysis. A previously defined non-equilibrium metric has been used to allow comparisons with several shots and reveal trends in the data. Overall, LAURA/HARA is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 40% and over-predict by as much as 12% depending on the shock speed. DPLR/NEQAIR is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 50% and over-predict by as much as 20% depending
Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick R Zulkowski
Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.
Linear response in the nonequilibrium zero range process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maes, Christian; Salazar, Alberto
2014-01-01
We explore a number of explicit response formulæ around the boundary driven zero range process to changes in the exit and entrance rates. In such a nonequilibrium regime kinetic (and not only thermodynamic) aspects make a difference in the response. Apart from a number of formal approaches, we illustrate a general decomposition of the linear response into entropic and frenetic contributions, the latter being realized from changes in the dynamical activity at the boundaries. In particular in this way one obtains nonlinear modifications to the Green–Kubo relation. We end by bringing some general remarks about the situation where that nonequilibrium response remains given by the (equilibrium) Kubo formula such as for the density profile in the boundary driven Lorentz gas
14th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors
Saraniti, M; Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors
2006-01-01
International experts gather every two years at this established conference to discuss recent developments in theory and experiment in non-equilibrium transport phenomena. These developments have been the driving force behind the spectacular advances in semiconductor physics and devices over the last few decades. Originally known as "Hot Carriers in Semiconductors," the 14th conference in the series covered a wide spectrum of traditional topics dealing with non-equilibrium phenomena, ranging from quantum transport to optical phenomena in mesoscopic and nano-scale structures. Particular attention was given this time to emerging areas of this rapidly evolving field, with many sessions covering terahertz devices, high field transport in nitride semiconductors, spintronics, molecular electronics, and bioelectronics applications.
The entropy concept for non-equilibrium states.
Lieb, Elliott H; Yngvason, Jakob
2013-10-08
In earlier work, we presented a foundation for the second law of classical thermodynamics in terms of the entropy principle. More precisely, we provided an empirically accessible axiomatic derivation of an entropy function defined on all equilibrium states of all systems that has the appropriate additivity and scaling properties, and whose increase is a necessary and sufficient condition for an adiabatic process between two states to be possible. Here, after a brief review of this approach, we address the question of defining entropy for non-equilibrium states. Our conclusion is that it is generally not possible to find a unique entropy that has all relevant physical properties. We do show, however, that one can define two entropy functions, called S - and S + , which, taken together, delimit the range of adiabatic processes that can occur between non-equilibrium states. The concept of comparability of states with respect to adiabatic changes plays an important role in our reasoning.
Non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natrual gas processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shair, F.H.; Ravimohan, A.L.
1974-01-01
A non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natural gas processing into ethane and ethylene comprising means of producing a non-equilibrium chemical plasma wherein selective conversion of the methane in natural gas to desired products of ethane and ethylene at a pre-determined ethane/ethylene ratio in the chemical process may be intimately controlled and optimized at a high electrical power efficiency rate by mixing with a recycling gas inert to the chemical process such as argon, helium, or hydrogen, reducing the residence time of the methane in the chemical plasma, selecting the gas pressure in the chemical plasma from a wide range of pressures, and utilizing pulsed electrical discharge producing the chemical plasma. (author)
Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.
van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard
2017-08-01
A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.
Ordered phase and non-equilibrium fluctuation in stock market
Maskawa, Jun-ichi
2002-08-01
We analyze the statistics of daily price change of stock market in the framework of a statistical physics model for the collective fluctuation of stock portfolio. In this model the time series of price changes are coded into the sequences of up and down spins, and the Hamiltonian of the system is expressed by spin-spin interactions as in spin glass models of disordered magnetic systems. Through the analysis of Dow-Jones industrial portfolio consisting of 30 stock issues by this model, we find a non-equilibrium fluctuation mode on the point slightly below the boundary between ordered and disordered phases. The remaining 29 modes are still in disordered phase and well described by Gibbs distribution. The variance of the fluctuation is outlined by the theoretical curve and peculiarly large in the non-equilibrium mode compared with those in the other modes remaining in ordinary phase.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper the author presents an overview on his own research works. More than ten years ago, we proposed a new fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics in place of the present Liouville equation. That is the stochastic velocity type’s Langevin equation in 6N dimensional phase space or its equivalent Liouville diffusion equation. This equation is time-reversed asymmetrical. It shows that the form of motion of particles in statistical thermodynamic systems has the drift-diffusion duality, and the law of motion of statistical thermodynamics is expressed by a superposition of both the law of dynamics and the stochastic velocity and possesses both determinism and probability. Hence it is different from the law of motion of particles in dynamical systems. The stochastic diffusion motion of the particles is the microscopic origin of macroscopic irreversibility. Starting from this fundamental equation the BBGKY diffusion equation hierarchy, the Boltzmann collision diffusion equation, the hydrodynamic equations such as the mass drift-diffusion equation, the Navier-Stokes equation and the thermal conductivity equation have been derived and presented here. What is more important, we first constructed a nonlinear evolution equation of nonequilibrium entropy density in 6N, 6 and 3 dimensional phase space, predicted the existence of entropy diffusion. This entropy evolution equation plays a leading role in nonequilibrium entropy theory, it reveals that the time rate of change of nonequilibrium entropy density originates together from its drift, diffusion and production in space. From this evolution equation, we presented a formula for entropy production rate (i.e. the law of entropy increase) in 6N and 6 dimensional phase space, proved that internal attractive force in nonequilibrium system can result in entropy decrease while internal repulsive force leads to another entropy increase, and derived a common expression for this entropy decrease rate or
Hydro energetic inventory study from Chapecozinho river
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pimenta, S.C.; Sureck, M.A.A.; Nascimento, P.R.; Kawasaki, M.; Silva Felipe, R. da.
1990-01-01
The Hydro energetic Inventory Study in Chapecozinho River Basin, Brazil is described, comparing the proposed results in 1979 with the actual review in 1989. An analysis for solution the socio-economic and environment problems is also presented. (author)
Energetic particle observations at the subsolar magnetopause
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Eccles
Full Text Available The pitch-angle distributions (PAD of energetic particles are examined as the ISEE-1 satellite crosses the Earth’s magnetopause near the subsolar point. The investigation focuses on the possible existence of a particular type of distribution that would be associated with a source of energetic particles in the high-latitude magnetosphere. PADs, demonstrating broad, persistent field-aligned fluxes filling a single hemisphere (upper/northern or lower/southern, were observed just sunward of the magnetopause current layer for an extended period of many minutes. These distributions are a direct prediction of a possible source of energetic particles located in the high altitude dayside cusp and we present five examples in detail of the three-dimensional particle distributions to demonstrate their existence. From these results, other possible causes of such PADs are examined.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics
Global Positioning System (GPS) Energetic Particle Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Energetic particle data from the CXD and BDD instrument on the GPS constellation are available to the space weather research community. The release of these data...
Modeling Thermal Ignition of Energetic Materials
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gerri, Norman J; Berning, Ellen
2004-01-01
This report documents an attempt to computationally simulate the mechanics and thermal regimes created when a threat perforates an armor envelope and comes in contact with stowed energetic material...
Organization of the national energetic institutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltenberg, D.A.M.
1983-01-01
This text broaches, in a critical pourt of view, the organization of national energetic institutions, the need of a law revision, the problem of the rising of tariff and shows the decisions of GC01 [pt
Molecular-Based Optical Diagnostics for Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows
Danehy, Paul; Bathel, Brett; Johansen, Craig; Winter, Michael; O'Byrne, Sean; Cutler, Andrew
2015-01-01
This presentation package consists of seven different talks rolled up into one. These talks are all invited orals presentations in a special session at the Aviation 2015 conference and represent contributions that were made to a recent AIAA book that will be published entitled 'Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows: Fundamentals and Recent Advances'. Slide 5 lists the individual presentations that will be given during the special session.
Non-equilibrium quasiparticle processes in superconductor tunneling structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perold, W.J.
1990-01-01
A broad overview is presented of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The tunneling of quasiparticles in superconducter-insulator structures is described. Related non-equilibrium processes, such as superconductor bandgap suppresion, quasiparticle diffusion and recombination, and excess quasiparticle collection are discussed. The processes are illustrated with numerical computer simulation data. The importance of the inter-relationship between these processes in practical multiple tunneling junction superconducting device structures is also emphasized. 14 refs., 8 figs
Ward identity for non-equilibrium Fermi systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav
2008-01-01
Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 041201/1-041201/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green’s functions * quantum transport equations * Ward identity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008
Crossover from Nonequilibrium Fractal Growth to Equilibrium Compact Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Fogedby, Hans C.; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1988-01-01
Solidification controlled by vacancy diffusion is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model defined by a Hamiltonian which models a thermally driven fluid-solid phase transition. The nonequilibrium morphology of the growing solid is studied as a function of time as the s...... as the system relaxes into equilibrium described by a temperature. At low temperatures the model exhibits fractal growth at early times and crossover to compact solidification as equilibrium is approached....
Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2017-01-01
We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...
Non-Equilibrium Modeling of Inductively Coupled RF Plasmas
2015-01-01
wall can be approximated with the expression for an infinite solenoid , B(r = R) = µ0NIc, where quan- tities N and Ic are the number of turns per unit...Modeling of non-equilibrium plasmas in an induc- tively coupled plasma facility. AIAA Paper 2014– 2235, 2014. 45th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers ...1993. 24th Plas- madynamics and Laser Conference, Orlando, FL. [22] M. Capitelli, I. Armenise, D. Bruno, M. Caccia- tore, R. Celiberto, G. Colonna, O
On nonequilibrium many-body systems III: nonlinear transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luzzi, R.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Algarte, A.C.S.
1986-01-01
A nonlinear transport theory for many-body systems arbitrarily away from equilibrium, based on the nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method, is presented. Nonlinear transport equations for a basis set of dynamical quantities are derived using two equivalent treatments that may be considered far reaching generalizations of the Hilbert-Chapman-Enskog method and Mori's generalized Langevin equations method. The first case is considered in some detail and the general characteristics of the theory are discussed. (Author) [pt
Safer energetic materials by a nanotechnological approach
Siegert, Benny; Comet, Marc; Spitzer, Denis
2011-09-01
Energetic materials - explosives, thermites, populsive powders - are used in a variety of military and civilian applications. Their mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity is high in many cases, which can lead to accidents during handling and transport. These considerations limit the practical use of some energetic materials despite their good performance. For industrial applications, safety is one of the main criteria for selecting energetic materials. The sensitivity has been regarded as an intrinsic property of a substance for a long time. However, in recent years, several approaches to lower the sensitivity of a given substance, using nanotechnology and materials engineering, have been described. This feature article gives an overview over ways to prepare energetic (nano-)materials with a lower sensitivity.Energetic materials - explosives, thermites, populsive powders - are used in a variety of military and civilian applications. Their mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity is high in many cases, which can lead to accidents during handling and transport. These considerations limit the practical use of some energetic materials despite their good performance. For industrial applications, safety is one of the main criteria for selecting energetic materials. The sensitivity has been regarded as an intrinsic property of a substance for a long time. However, in recent years, several approaches to lower the sensitivity of a given substance, using nanotechnology and materials engineering, have been described. This feature article gives an overview over ways to prepare energetic (nano-)materials with a lower sensitivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details for the preparation of the V2O5@CNF/Al nanothermite; X-ray diffractogram of the V2O5@CNF/Al combustion residue; installation instructions and source code for the nt-timeline program. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10292c
Nuclear energetics all over the world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wojcik, T.
2000-01-01
The actual state and tendencies of nuclear power further development for different world regions have been presented and discussed. The problem of safety of energetic nuclear reactors, radioactive waste management and related problems have been discussed in respect of regulations in different countries. The economical aspects of nuclear energetics in comparison with different fossil fuel power plants exploitation costs has been presented as well. The official state of international organizations (IAEA, WANO, HASA etc.) have been also shown in respect to subject presented
Aeroacoustic and aerodynamic applications of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics
Horne, W. Clifton; Smith, Charles A.; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty
1991-01-01
Recent developments in the field of nonequilibrium thermodynamics associated with viscous flows are examined and related to developments to the understanding of specific phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. A key element of the nonequilibrium theory is the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady dissipative processes near equilibrium, and variational calculus is used to apply this principle to several examples of viscous flow. A review of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its role in fluid motion are presented. Several formulations are presented of the local entropy production rate and the local energy dissipation rate, two quantities that are of central importance to the theory. These expressions and the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady viscous flows are used to identify parallel-wall channel flow and irrotational flow as having minimally dissipative velocity distributions. Features of irrotational, steady, viscous flow near an airfoil, such as the effect of trailing-edge radius on circulation, are also found to be compatible with the minimum principle. Finally, the minimum principle is used to interpret the stability of infinitesimal and finite amplitude disturbances in an initially laminar, parallel shear flow, with results that are consistent with experiment and linearized hydrodynamic stability theory. These results suggest that a thermodynamic approach may be useful in unifying the understanding of many diverse phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.
Choking flow modeling with mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, H.J.; Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2006-01-15
The mechanistic model, which considers the mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium, is described for two-phase choking flow. The choking mass flux is obtained from the momentum equation with the definition of choking. The key parameter for the mechanical non-equilibrium is a slip ratio. The dependent parameters for the slip ratio are identified. In this research, the slip ratio which is defined in the drift flux model is used to identify the impact parameters on the slip ratio. Because the slip ratio in the drift flux model is related to the distribution parameter and drift velocity, the adequate correlations depending on the flow regime are introduced in this study. For the thermal non-equilibrium, the model is developed with bubble conduction time and Bernoulli choking model. In case of highly subcooled water compared to the inlet pressure, the Bernoulli choking model using the pressure undershoot is used because there is no bubble generation in the test section. When the phase change happens inside the test section, two-phase choking model with relaxation time calculates the choking mass flux. According to the comparison of model prediction with experimental data shows good agreement. The developed model shows good prediction in both low and high pressure ranges. (author)
Non-equilibrium Quasi-Chemical Nucleation Model
Gorbachev, Yuriy E.
2018-04-01
Quasi-chemical model, which is widely used for nucleation description, is revised on the basis of recent results in studying of non-equilibrium effects in reacting gas mixtures (Kolesnichenko and Gorbachev in Appl Math Model 34:3778-3790, 2010; Shock Waves 23:635-648, 2013; Shock Waves 27:333-374, 2017). Non-equilibrium effects in chemical reactions are caused by the chemical reactions themselves and therefore these contributions should be taken into account in the corresponding expressions for reaction rates. Corrections to quasi-equilibrium reaction rates are of two types: (a) spatially homogeneous (caused by physical-chemical processes) and (b) spatially inhomogeneous (caused by gas expansion/compression processes and proportional to the velocity divergency). Both of these processes play an important role during the nucleation and are included into the proposed model. The method developed for solving the generalized Boltzmann equation for chemically reactive gases is applied for solving the set of equations of the revised quasi-chemical model. It is shown that non-equilibrium processes lead to essential deviation of the quasi-stationary distribution and therefore the nucleation rate from its traditional form.
Structure of Energetic Particle Mediated Shocks Revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.
2017-01-01
The structure of collisionless shock waves is often modified by the presence of energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions [PUIs] and solar energetic particles [SEPs]). This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM), where observations of shock waves (e.g., in the inner heliosphere) show that both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure are less than the energetic particle component pressures. Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI-mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model, we note that the presence of viscosity, at least formally, eliminates the need for a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the HTS, we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1 . We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.
Structure of Energetic Particle Mediated Shocks Revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Webb, G. M. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)
2017-05-20
The structure of collisionless shock waves is often modified by the presence of energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions [PUIs] and solar energetic particles [SEPs]). This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM), where observations of shock waves (e.g., in the inner heliosphere) show that both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure are less than the energetic particle component pressures. Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI-mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model, we note that the presence of viscosity, at least formally, eliminates the need for a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the HTS, we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1 . We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.
Dual-sided microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (DSMSNDs)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fronk, Ryan G.; Bellinger, Steven L.; Henson, Luke C.; Ochs, Taylor R.; Smith, Colten T.; Kenneth Shultis, J.; McGregor, Douglas S.
2015-01-01
Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (MSNDs) have in recent years received much interest as high-efficiency replacements for thin-film-coated thermal neutron detectors. The basic device structure of the MSND involves micro-sized trenches that are etched into a vertically-oriented pvn-junction diode that are backfilled with a neutron converting material. Neutrons absorbed within the converting material induce fission of the parent nucleus, producing a pair of energetic charged-particle reaction products that can be counted by the diode. The MSND deep-etched microstructures produce good neutron-absorption and reaction-product counting efficiencies, offering a 10× improvement in intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency over thin-film-coated devices. Performance of present-day MSNDs are nearing theoretical limits; streaming paths between the conversion-material backfilled trenches, allow a considerable fraction of neutrons to pass undetected through the device. Dual-sided microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (DSMSNDs) have been developed that utilize a complementary second set of trenches on the back-side of the device to count streaming neutrons. DSMSND devices are theoretically capable of greater than 80% intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency for a 1-mm thick device. The first such prototype DSMSNDs, presented here, have achieved 29.48±0.29% nearly 2× better than MSNDs with similar microstructure dimensions.
Temperature control in molecular dynamic simulations of non-equilibrium processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toton, Dawid; Lorenz, Christian D; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Martsinovich, Natalia; Kantorovich, Lev
2010-01-01
Thermostats are often used in various condensed matter problems, e.g. when a biological molecule undergoes a transformation in a solution, a crystal surface is irradiated with energetic particles, a crack propagates in a solid upon applied stress, two surfaces slide with respect to each other, an excited local phonon dissipates its energy into a crystal bulk, and so on. In all of these problems, as well as in many others, there is an energy transfer between different local parts of the entire system kept at a constant temperature. Very often, when modelling such processes using molecular dynamics simulations, thermostatting is done using strictly equilibrium approaches serving to describe the NVT ensemble. In this paper we critically discuss the applicability of such approaches to non-equilibrium problems, including those mentioned above, and stress that the correct temperature control can only be achieved if the method is based on the generalized Langevin equation (GLE). Specifically, we emphasize that a meaningful compromise between computational efficiency and a physically appropriate implementation of the NVT thermostat can be achieved, at least for solid state and surface problems, if the so-called stochastic boundary conditions (SBC), recently derived from the GLE (Kantorovich and Rompotis 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 094305), are used. For SBC, the Langevin thermostat is only applied to the outer part of the simulated fragment of the entire system which borders the surrounding environment (not considered explicitly) serving as a heat bath. This point is illustrated by comparing the performance of the SBC and some of the equilibrium thermostats in two problems: (i) irradiation of the Si(001) surface with an energetic CaF 2 molecule using an ab initio density functional theory based method, and (ii) the tribology of two amorphous SiO 2 surfaces coated with self-assembled monolayers of methyl-terminated hydrocarbon alkoxylsilane molecules using a classical atomistic
Nonequilibrium states of high tc YBCO superconductors under tunnel injection of quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, I.; Wang, Q.; Lee, K.; Yoshida, K.
1995-01-01
The nonequilibrium states of high Tc superconductors are investigated by means of tunnel injection of quasiparticles using Pb(or Au)/MgO/YBCO tunnel junctions. The effective critical-current reduction due to tunnel injection is observed, whose behaviour is different from simple heating. The observed results suggest that the resultant nonequilibrium states may also differ from those described by conventional nonequilibrium models
Thermal and microstructural analysis of alloys of Al-Mg-Li system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ovsyannikov, B.V.; Zamaytin, V.M.; Smirnov, V.L.; Mushnikov, V.S.
2008-01-01
By means of the thermal analysis one investigated into melting and solidification of Al-Mg-Li system 1420, 1421 and 1424 aluminum-lithium alloys. One determined the temperature values of the nonequilibrium and the equilibrium solidus, the initiation of the liquidus linear shrinkage of the listed alloys. Making use of a scanning electron microscope with a microanalyser unit one studied the microstructure of the alloys and determined the local chemical composition of the phases unsoluble under homogenization of ingots along the aluminum matrix grain boundaries [ru
Fabrication, microstructure and stress effects in sputtered TiNi thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grummon, D.S.
2000-01-01
Sputtered thin films of equiatomic TiNi and TiNiX ternary alloys have excellent mechanical properties and exhibit robust shape-memory and transformational superelasticity. Furthermore, the energetic nature of the sputter deposition process allows the creation of highly refined microstructures that are difficult to achieve by melt-solidification. The present paper will present recent work on the relationship between processing, microstructure and properties of binary TiNi thin films, focusing primarily on residual stresses, kinetics of stress-relaxation and crystallization, and fine grain sizes achievable using hot-substrate direct crystallization. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.Kostrobii
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Nonequilibrium properties of an inhomogeneous electron gas are studied using the method of the nonequilibrium statistical operator by D.N. Zubarev. Generalized transport equations for the mean values of inhomogeneous operators of the electron number density, momentum density, and total energy density for weakly and strongly nonequilibrium states are obtained. We derive a chain of equations for the Green's functions, which connects commutative time-dependent Green's functions "density-density", "momentum-momentum", "enthalpy-enthalpy" with reduced Green's functions of the generalized transport coefficients and with Green's functions for higher order memory kernels in the case of a weakly nonequilibrium spatially inhomogeneous electron gas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jepps, Owen G; Rondoni, Lamberto
2010-01-01
Deterministic 'thermostats' are mathematical tools used to model nonequilibrium steady states of fluids. The resulting dynamical systems correctly represent the transport properties of these fluids and are easily simulated on modern computers. More recently, the connection between such thermostats and entropy production has been exploited in the development of nonequilibrium fluid theories. The purpose and limitations of deterministic thermostats are discussed in the context of irreversible thermodynamics and the development of theories of nonequilibrium phenomena. We draw parallels between the development of such nonequilibrium theories and the development of notions of ergodicity in equilibrium theories. (topical review)
Criticality conditions of heterogeneous energetic materials under shock loading
Nassar, Anas; Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Sen, Oishik; Udaykumar, H. S.
2017-06-01
Shock interaction with the microstructural heterogeneities of energetic materials can lead to the formation of locally heated regions known as hot spots. These hot spots are the potential sites where chemical reaction may be initiated. However, the ability of a hot spot to initiate chemical reaction depends on its size, shape and strength (temperature). Previous study by Tarver et al. has shown that there exists a critical size and temperature for a given shape (spherical, cylindrical, and planar) of the hot spot above which reaction initiation is imminent. Tarver et al. assumed a constant temperature variation in the hot spot. However, the meso-scale simulations show that the temperature distribution within a hot spot formed from processes such as void collapse is seldom constant. Also, the shape of a hot spot can be arbitrary. This work is an attempt towards development of a critical hot spot curve which is a function of loading strength, duration and void morphology. To achieve the aforementioned goal, mesoscale simulations are conducted on porous HMX material. The process is repeated for different loading conditions and void sizes. The hot spots formed in the process are examined for criticality depending on whether they will ignite or not. The metamodel is used to obtain criticality curves and is compared with the critical hot spot curve of Tarver et al.
Quantum Coherent Dynamics Enhanced by Synchronization with Nonequilibrium Environments
Ishikawa, Akira; Okada, Ryo; Uchiyama, Kazuharu; Hori, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
2018-05-01
We report the discovery of the anomalous enhancement of quantum coherent dynamics (CD) due to a non-Markovian mechanism originating from not thermal-equilibrium phonon baths but nonequilibrium coherent phonons. CD is an elementary process for quantum phenomena in nanosystems, such as excitation transfer (ET) in semiconductor nanostructures and light-harvesting systems. CD occurs in homogeneous nanosystems because system inhomogeneity typically destroys coherence. In real systems, however, nanosystems behave as open systems surrounded by environments such as phonon systems. Typically, CD in inhomogeneous nanosystems is enhanced by the absorption and emission of thermal-equilibrium phonons, and the enhancement is described by the conventional master equation. On the other hand, CD is also enhanced by synchronization between population dynamics in nanosystems and coherent phonons; namely, coherent phonons, which are self-consistently induced by phase matching with Rabi oscillation, are fed back to enhance CD. This anomalous enhancement of CD essentially originates from the nonequilibrium and dynamical non-Markovian nature of coherent phonon environments, and the enhancement is firstly predicted by applying time-dependent projection operators to nonequilibrium and dynamical environments. Moreover, CD is discussed by considering ET from a donor to an acceptor. It is found that the enhancement of ET by synchronization with coherent phonons depends on the competition between the output time from a system to an acceptor and the formation time of coherent phonons. These findings in this study will stimulate the design and manipulation of CD via structured environments from the viewpoint of application to nano-photoelectronic devices.
Energetic particle pressure in intense ESP events
Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.
2015-09-01
We study three intense energetic storm particle (ESP) events in which the energetic particle pressure PEP exceeded both the pressure of the background thermal plasma Pth and the pressure of the magnetic field PB. The region upstream of the interplanetary shocks associated with these events was characterized by a depression of the magnetic field strength coincident with the increase of the energetic particle intensities and, when plasma measurements were available, a depleted solar wind density. The general feature of cosmic-ray mediated shocks such as the deceleration of the upstream background medium into which the shock propagates is generally observed. However, for those shocks where plasma parameters are available, pressure balance is not maintained either upstream of or across the shock, which may result from the fact that PEP is not included in the calculation of the shock parameters.
Biogas - energetical and environmental point of view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skele, A.; Upitis, A.; Kristapsons, M.; Goizevskis, O.; Ziemelis, I.
2003-01-01
Energy sector has been one of the most important priorities since reestablishment of independence of Latvia. The deficiency of energy resources in Latvia has created a need to assess all the possibilities to utilise all possibilities to utilise all the energy resources, including the biological ones, to motivate the trends in the development of energetic in Latvia. A huge non-utilised reserve in Latvia is methane fermentation of organic agricultural and municipal residue and sewage from food industry. The organic mass of solid and liquid waste of different origin and its energetic potential for rural region have been investigated. The work deals with an integrated system of the utilisation of agricultural waste with the anaerobic (biogas) and the thermal processes. Presently the anaerobic waste utilisation, in combination with the production of biogas and organic fertiliser, is considered as one of the energetically most efficient and environment-friendly ways of organic fertiliser utilisation (authors)
Identification of microstructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padilha, A.F.; Ambrozio Filho, F.
1984-01-01
The identification of phases in a material can require the utilization of several techniques. The most used technique and discussed are: optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and 'in-situ' chemical analysis of the phases. The microstructures were classified, in according to the size and phase volumetric fraction, in four types. For each type the most appropriate techniques for identifying the phases are discussed. (E.G.) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snezhko, Alexey
2011-01-01
Colloidal dispersions of interacting particles subjected to an external periodic forcing often develop nontrivial self-assembled patterns and complex collective behavior. A fundamental issue is how collective ordering in such non-equilibrium systems arises from the dynamics of discrete interacting components. In addition, from a practical viewpoint, by working in regimes far from equilibrium new self-organized structures which are generally not available through equilibrium thermodynamics can be created. In this review spontaneous self-assembly phenomena in magnetic colloidal dispersions suspended at liquid-air interfaces and driven out of equilibrium by an alternating magnetic field are presented. Experiments reveal a new type of nontrivially ordered self-assembled structures emerging in such systems in a certain range of excitation parameters. These dynamic structures emerge as a result of the competition between magnetic and hydrodynamic forces and have complex unconventional magnetic ordering. Nontrivial self-induced hydrodynamic fields accompany each out-of-equilibrium pattern. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of the self-induced surface flows leading to a formation of self-propelled microstructures has been discovered. Some features of the self-localized structures can be understood in the framework of the amplitude equation (Ginzburg-Landau type equation) for parametric waves coupled to the conservation law equation describing the evolution of the magnetic particle density and the Navier-Stokes equation for hydrodynamic flows. To understand the fundamental microscopic mechanisms governing self-assembly processes in magnetic colloidal dispersions at liquid-air interfaces a first-principle model for a non-equilibrium self-assembly is presented. The latter model allows us to capture in detail the entire process of out-of-equilibrium self-assembly in the system and reproduces most of the observed phenomenology. (topical review)
Towards a nonequilibrium quantum field theory approach to electroweak baryogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riotto, A.
1996-01-01
We propose a general method to compute CP violating observables from extensions of the standard model in the context of electroweak baryogenesis. It is an alternative to the one recently developed by Huet and Nelson and relies on a nonequilibrium quantum field theory approach. The method is valid for all shapes and sizes of the bubble wall expanding in the thermal bath during a first-order electroweak phase transition. The quantum physics of CP violation and its suppression coming from the incoherent nature of thermal processes are also made explicit. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium solvation and solute electronic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H.J.; Hynes, J.T.
1990-01-01
When a molecular solute is immersed in a polar and polarizable solvent, the electronic wave function of the solute system is altered compared to its vacuum value; the solute electronic structure is thus solvent-dependent. Further, the wave function will be altered depending upon whether the polarization of the solvent is or is not in equilibrium with the solute charge distribution. More precisely, while the solvent electronic polarization should be in equilibrium with the solute electronic wave function, the much more sluggish solvent orientational polarization need not be. We call this last situation non-equilibrium solvation. We outline a nonlinear Schroedinger equation approach to these issues
Complex temporal and spatial patterns in nonequilibrium processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
Dynamical systems methods have been used to study bifurcations and pattern formation in nonequilibrium systems. Accomplishments during this period include: information-theoretic methods for analyzing chaos, chemical reactors for studying sustained reaction-diffusion patterns, a reactor exploiting pattern formation to extract short- lived intermediate species, observation of bifurcation from periodic to quasiperiodic rotating chemical spiral patterns, observation of a Turing bifurcation (transition from uniform state to a stationary chemical pattern), method for extracting noise strength in ramped convection, self-similar fractal structure of Zn clusters in electrodeposition, and dynamical instability in crack propagation
Cumulants in perturbation expansions for non-equilibrium field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fauser, R.
1995-11-01
The formulation of perturbation expansions for a quantum field theory of strongly interacting systems in a general non-equilibrium state is discussed. Non-vanishing initial correlations are included in the formulation of the perturbation expansion in terms of cumulants. The cumulants are shown to be the suitable candidate for summing up the perturbation expansion. Also a linked-cluster theorem for the perturbation series with cumulants is presented. Finally a generating functional of the perturbation series with initial correlations is studied. We apply the methods to a simple model of a fermion-boson system. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and stochastic thermodynamics of small systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tu Zhanchun
2014-01-01
Thermodynamics is an old subject. The research objects in conventional thermodynamics are macroscopic systems with huge number of particles. In recent 30 years, thermodynamics of small systems is a frontier topic in physics. Here we introduce nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and stochastic thermodynamics of small systems. As a case study, we construct a Canot-like cycle of a stochastic heat engine with a single particle controlled by a time-dependent harmonic potential. We find that the efficiency at maximum power is 1 - √T c /T h , where Tc and Th are the temperatures of cold bath and hot bath, respectively. (author)
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fine Eugene J
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its
Non-equilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional Bose gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langen, T.
2013-01-01
Understanding the non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems is an open problem on vastly different energy, length, and time scales. Examples range from the dynamics of the early universe and heavy-ion collisions to the subtle coherence and transport properties in condensed matter physics. However, realizations of such quantum many-body systems, which are both well isolated from the environment and accessible to experimental study are scarce. This thesis presents a series of experiments with ultracold one-dimensional Bose gases. These gases combine a nearly perfect isolation from the environment with many well-established methods to manipulate and probe their quantum states. This makes them an ideal model system to explore the physics of quantum many body systems out of equilibrium. In the experiments, a well-defined non-equilibrium state is created by splitting a single one-dimensional gas coherently into two parts. The relaxation of this state is probed using matter-wave interferometry. The Observations reveal the emergence of a prethermalized steady state which differs strongly from thermal equilibrium. Such thermal-like states had previously been predicted for a large variety of systems, but never been observed directly. Studying the relaxation process in further detail shows that the thermal correlations of the prethermalized state emerge locally in their final form and propagate through the system in a light-cone-like evolution. This provides first experimental evidence for the local relaxation conjecture, which links relaxation processes in quantum many-body systems to the propagation of correlations. Furthermore, engineering the initial state of the evolution demonstrates that the prethermalized state is described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble, an observation which substantiates the importance of this ensemble as an extension of standard statistical mechanics. Finally, an experiment is presented, where pairs of gases with an atom
Energy flow in non-equilibrium conformal field theory
Bernard, Denis; Doyon, Benjamin
2012-09-01
We study the energy current and its fluctuations in quantum gapless 1d systems far from equilibrium modeled by conformal field theory, where two separated halves are prepared at distinct temperatures and glued together at a point contact. We prove that these systems converge towards steady states, and give a general description of such non-equilibrium steady states in terms of quantum field theory data. We compute the large deviation function, also called the full counting statistics, of energy transfer through the contact. These are universal and satisfy fluctuation relations. We provide a simple representation of these quantum fluctuations in terms of classical Poisson processes whose intensities are proportional to Boltzmann weights.
Nonequilibrium Microscopic Distribution of Thermal Current in Particle Systems
Yukawa, Satoshi
2009-02-15
A nonequilibrium distribution function of microscopic thermal current is studied by a direct numerical simulation in a thermal conducting steady state of particle systems. Two characteristic temperatures of the thermal current are investigated on the basis of the distribution. It is confirmed that the temperature depends on the current direction; Parallel temperature to the heat-flux is higher than antiparallel one. The difference between the parallel temperature and the antiparallel one is proportional to a macroscopic temperature gradient. ©2009 The Physical Society of Japan.
Conserving GW scheme for nonequilibrium quantum transport in molecular contacts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Rubio, Angel
2008-01-01
We give a detailed presentation of our recent scheme to include correlation effects in molecular transport calculations using the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. The scheme is general and can be used with any quasiparticle self-energy, but for practical reasons, we mainly specialize to the so......-called GW self-energy, widely used to describe the quasiparticle band structures and spectroscopic properties of extended and low-dimensional systems. We restrict the GW self-energy to a finite, central region containing the molecule, and we describe the leads by density functional theory (DFT). A minimal...
Free energy surfaces from nonequilibrium processes without work measurement
Adib, Artur B.
2006-04-01
Recent developments in statistical mechanics have allowed the estimation of equilibrium free energies from the statistics of work measurements during processes that drive the system out of equilibrium. Here a different class of processes is considered, wherein the system is prepared and released from a nonequilibrium state, and no external work is involved during its observation. For such "clamp-and-release" processes, a simple strategy for the estimation of equilibrium free energies is offered. The method is illustrated with numerical simulations and analyzed in the context of tethered single-molecule experiments.
Non-exponential dynamic relaxation in strongly nonequilibrium nonideal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, I V; Norman, G E
2003-01-01
Relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics method for nonideal two-component non-degenerate plasmas. Three limiting examples of initial states of strongly nonequilibrium plasma are considered: zero electron velocities, zero ion velocities and zero velocities of both electrons and ions. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration τ nB and subsequent exponential stages of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of the nonideality parameter and the ion mass
Bona Fide Thermodynamic Temperature in Nonequilibrium Kinetic Ising Models
Sastre, Francisco; Dornic, Ivan; Chaté, Hugues
2003-01-01
We show that a nominal temperature can be consistently and uniquely defined everywhere in the phase diagram of large classes of nonequilibrium kinetic Ising spin models. In addition, we confirm the recent proposal that, at critical points, the large-time ``fluctuation-dissipation ratio'' $X_\\infty$ is a universal amplitude ratio and find in particular $X_\\infty \\approx 0.33(2)$ and $X_\\infty = 1/2$ for the magnetization in, respectively, the two-dimensional Ising and voter universality classes.
Two-phase flow model with nonequilibrium and critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sureau, H.; Houdayer, G.
1976-01-01
The model proposed includes the three conservation equations (mass, momentum, energy) applied to the two phase flows and a fourth partial derivative equation which takes into account the nonequilibriums and describes the mass transfer process. With this model, the two phase critical flow tests performed on the Moby-Dick loop (CENG) with several geometries, are interpreted by a unique law. Extrapolations to industrial dimension problems show that geometry and size effects are different from those obtained with earlier models (Zaloudek, Moody, Fauske) [fr
The non-equilibrium nature of culinary evolution
Kinouchi, Osame; Diez-Garcia, Rosa W.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Zambianchi, Pedro; Roque, Antonio C.
2008-07-01
Food is an essential part of civilization, with a scope that ranges from the biological to the economic and cultural levels. Here, we study the statistics of ingredients and recipes taken from Brazilian, British, French and Medieval cookery books. We find universal distributions with scale invariant behaviour. We propose a copy-mutate process to model culinary evolution that fits our empirical data very well. We find a cultural 'founder effect' produced by the non-equilibrium dynamics of the model. Both the invariant and idiosyncratic aspects of culture are accounted for by our model, which may have applications in other kinds of evolutionary processes.
Extended irreversible thermodynamics and non-equilibrium temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Casas-Vazquez, Jose'
2008-02-01
Full Text Available We briefly review the concept of non-equilibrium temperature from the perspectives of extended irreversible thermodynamics, fluctuation theory, and statistical mechanics. The relations between different proposals are explicitly examined in two especially simple systems: an ideal gas in steady shear flow and a forced harmonic oscillator in a thermal bath. We examine with special detail temperatures related to the average molecular kinetic energy along different spatial directions, to the average configurational energy, to the derivative of the entropy with respect to internal energy, to fluctuation-dissipation relation and discuss their measurement.
Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters.
Mansfield, Marc L; Douglas, Jack F
2013-07-28
It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other
Nonequilibrium effects on shock-layer radiometry during earth entry.
Arnold, J. O.; Whiting, E. E.
1973-01-01
Radiative enhancement factors for the CN violet and N2(+) first negative band systems caused by nonequilibrium thermochemistry in the shock layer of a blunt-nosed vehicle during earth entry are reported. The results are based on radiometric measurements obtained with the aid of a combustion-driven shock tube. The technique of converting the shock-tube measurements into predictions of the enhancement factors for the blunt-body case is described, showing it to be useful for similar applications of other shock-tube measurements.
Nonequilibrium Microscopic Distribution of Thermal Current in Particle Systems
Yukawa, Satoshi; Shimada, Takashi; Ogushi, Fumiko; Ito, Nobuyasu
2009-01-01
A nonequilibrium distribution function of microscopic thermal current is studied by a direct numerical simulation in a thermal conducting steady state of particle systems. Two characteristic temperatures of the thermal current are investigated on the basis of the distribution. It is confirmed that the temperature depends on the current direction; Parallel temperature to the heat-flux is higher than antiparallel one. The difference between the parallel temperature and the antiparallel one is proportional to a macroscopic temperature gradient. ©2009 The Physical Society of Japan.
Neutron scattering on equilibrium and nonequilibrium phonons, excitons and polaritons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broude, V.L.; Sheka, E.F.
1978-01-01
A number of problems of solid-state physics representing interest for neutron spectroscopy of future is considered. The development of the neutron inelastic scattering spectroscopy (neutron spectroscopy of equilibrium phonons) is discussed with application to nuclear dynamics of crystals in the thermodynamic equilibrium. The results of high-flux neutron source experiments on molecular crystals are presented. The advantages of neutron inelastic scattering over optical spectroscopy are discussed. The spectroscopy of quasi-equilibrium and non-equilibrium quasi-particles is discussed. In particular, the neutron scattering on polaritons, excitons in thermal equilibrium and production of light-excitons are considered. The problem of the possibility of such experiments is elucidated
Model of opacity and emissivity of non-equilibrium plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Politov V Y
2008-01-01
In this work the model describing absorption and emission properties of the non-equilibrium plasma is presented. It is based on the kinetics equations for populations of the ground, singly and doubly excited states of multi-charged ions. After solving these equations, the states populations together with the spectroscopic data, supplied in the special database for a lot ionization stages, are used for building the spectral distributions of plasma opacity and emissivity in STA approximation. Results of kinetics simulation are performed for such important X-ray converter as gold, which is investigated intensively in ICF-experiments
Nonequilibrium Electron Transport Through a Quantum Dot from Kubo Formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lue Rong; Zhang Guangming
2005-01-01
Based on the Kubo formula for an electron tunneling junction, we revisit the nonequilibrium transport properties through a quantum dot. Since the Fermi level of the quantum dot is set by the conduction electrons of the leads, we calculate the electron current from the left side by assuming the quantum dot coupled to the right lead as another side of the tunneling junction, and the other way round is used to calculate the current from the right side. By symmetrizing these two currents, an effective local density states on the dot can be obtained, and is discussed at high and low temperatures, respectively.
External non-white noise and nonequilibrium phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sancho, J.M.; San Miguel, M.
1980-01-01
Langevin equations with external non-white noise are considered. A Fokker Planck equation valid in general in first order of the correlation time tau of the noise is derived. In some cases its validity can be extended to any value of tau. The effect of a finite tau in the nonequilibrium phase transitions induced by the noise is analyzed, by means of such Fokker Planck equation, in general, for the Verhulst equation under two different kind of fluctuations, and for a genetic model. It is shown that new transitions can appear and that the threshold value of the parameter can be changed. (orig.)
Integer channels in nonuniform non-equilibrium 2D systems
Shikin, V.
2018-01-01
We discuss the non-equilibrium properties of integer channels in nonuniform 2D electron (hole) systems in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The results are applied to a qualitative explanation of the Corbino disk current-voltage characteristics (IVC) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. Special consideration is paid to the so-called "QHE breakdown" effect, which is readily observed in both the Hall bar and Corbino geometries of the tested cells. The QHE breakdown is especially evident in the Corbino samples, allowing for a more in-depth study of these effects.
Microstructural characterization of second phase regions in cast stainless steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoelzer, D.; Kenik, E.A.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Busby, J.; Vitek, J.M.
2007-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Cast austenitic stainless steels offer the possibility of directly producing large and/or relatively complex structures, such as the first wall shield modules or the divertor cassette for the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER). Unfortunately, one of the inherent problems associated with casting stainless steel, especially large castings, is the formation of coarse dendrites with possibly inhomogeneously distributed second phases separated by up to several hundred microns in the microstructure. These microstructural features result from temperature and composition gradients that develop during solidification and subsequent cooling. However, detailed characterization of the second phase regions in the cast microstructures can be quite challenging to techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which is useful for phase identification. furthermore, the information about the phases that may be present in the cast microstructures, both equilibrium and nonequilibrium, is important as input as well as for confirming predictions made by computational thermodynamics and solidification modeling. In this study, the investigation of second phase regions that formed in a large cast of a 316 stainless steel (equivalent to CF3M) will be presented and compared to simulations of the phases predicted by computational thermodynamic modeling of the solidification process. The preliminary TEM investigation of the cast microstructure was performed with specimens that were prepared by jet-polishing of 3 mm diameter discs. Although this approach allowed for the identification of the sigma and chi phases, which was consistent with the simulations, it was not suitable for detailed analysis of the second phase regions since these specimens often contained only grains of the gamma austenite phase. A better approach for preparing TEM specimens consisted of strategically lifting small sections of material from second phase regions
Sawteeth stabilization by energetic trapped ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samain, A.; Edery, D.; Garbet, X.; Roubin, J.P.
1991-01-01
The analysis of a possible stabilization of sawteeth by a population of energetic ions is performed by using the Lagrangian of the electromagnetic perturbation. It is shown that the trapped component of such a population has a small influence compared to that of the passing component. The stabilization threshold is calculated assuming a non linear regime in the q=1 resonant layer. The energetic population must create a stable tearing structure if the average curvature effect on thermal particles in the layer is small. However, this effect decreases the actual threshold
Prediction of Thermal Transport Properties of Materials with Microstructural Complexity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Youping
2017-10-10
This project aims at overcoming the major obstacle standing in the way of progress in dynamic multiscale simulation, which is the lack of a concurrent atomistic-continuum method that allows phonons, heat and defects to pass through the atomistic-continuum interface. The research has led to the development of a concurrent atomistic-continuum (CAC) methodology for multiscale simulations of materials microstructural, mechanical and thermal transport behavior. Its efficacy has been tested and demonstrated through simulations of dislocation dynamics and phonon transport coupled with microstructural evolution in a variety of materials and through providing visual evidences of the nature of phonon transport, such as showing the propagation of heat pulses in single and polycrystalline solids is partially ballistic and partially diffusive. In addition to providing understanding on phonon scattering with phase interface and with grain boundaries, the research has contributed a multiscale simulation tool for understanding of the behavior of complex materials and has demonstrated the capability of the tool in simulating the dynamic, in situ experimental studies of nonequilibrium transient transport processes in material samples that are at length scales typically inaccessible by atomistically resolved methods.
On the definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems
Akimoto, Takuma
2008-01-01
We propose a definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems on the basis of the time average. We show numerically that there exists a non-equilibrium non-stationary state in the coupled modified Bernoulli map lattice.
A new algorithm for extended nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of mixed flow
Hunt, T.A.; Hunt, Thomas A.; Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B.D.
2010-01-01
In this work, we develop a new algorithm for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of fluids under planar mixed flow, a linear combination of planar elongational flow and planar Couette flow. To date, the only way of simulating mixed flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics techniques was to impose
Coherent application of a contact structure to formulate Classical Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics
Knobbe, E; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.
2017-01-01
This contribution presents an outline of a new mathematical formulation for
Classical Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics (CNET) based on a contact
structure in differential geometry. First a non-equilibrium state space is introduced as the third key element besides the first and second law of
Non-equilibrium turbulence scalings in turbulent planar jets
Cafiero, Gioacchino; Vassilicos, John Christos; Turbulence, Mixing; Flow Control Group Team
2017-11-01
A revised version of the Townsend George theory, as proposed by Dairay et al. 2015, is applied to the study of turbulent planar jets (Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017). Requiring the self-similarity of only few quantities along with the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling law (Vassilicos 2015), it implies new mean flow and jet width scalings. In particular, the ratio of characteristic cross-stream to centreline streamwise velocities decays as the -1/3 power of streamwise distance in the region where the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling holds. In the definition of Cɛ both in Dairay et al. 2015 and in Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017 the local Reynolds number is based on the local flow width rather than on the integral lengthscale. We verify that the ratio of the integral lengthscale to the flow width is constant, thus enabling the use of the integral flow width in place of the integral lengthscale for defining Cɛ. The importance of this result is twofold: firstly it further strengthens the scalings obtained in the works of Dairay et al. 2015 and Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017; secondly the flow width is immediately accessible by any mean flow measurement, whereas the estimation of the integral lengthscale often requires an additional hypothesis. ERC Advanced Grant 320560.
The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems
Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.
2012-09-01
Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.
Nozzle Flow with Vibrational Nonequilibrium. Ph.D. Thesis
Landry, John Gary
1995-01-01
Flow of nitrogen gas through a converging-diverging nozzle is simulated. The flow is modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations that have been modified for vibrational nonequilibrium. The energy equation is replaced by two equations. One equation accounts for energy effects due to the translational and rotational degrees of freedom, and the other accounts for the affects due to the vibrational degree of freedom. The energy equations are coupled by a relaxation time which measures the time required for the vibrational energy component to equilibrate with the translational and rotational energy components. An improved relaxation time is used in this thesis. The equations are solved numerically using the Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method and the Implicit MacCormack method. The results show that uniform flow is produced outside of the boundary layer. Nonequilibrium exists in both the converging and diverging nozzle sections. The boundary layer region is characterized by a marked increase in translational-rotational temperature. The vibrational temperature remains frozen downstream of the nozzle, except in the boundary layer.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Non-equilibrium blunt body flows in ionized gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishida, Michio
1981-01-01
The behaviors of electrons and electronically excited atoms in non-equilibrium and partially ionized blunt-body-flows are described. Formulation has been made separately in a shock layer and in a free stream, and then the free stream solution has been connected with the shock layer solution by matching the two solutions at the shock layer edge. The method of this matching is described here. The partially ionized gas is considered to be composed of neutral atoms, ions and electrons. Furthermore, the neutral atoms are divided into atoms in excited levels. Therefore, it is considered that electron energy released due to excitation, and that gained due to de-excitation, contribute to electron energy. Thus, the electron energy equation including these contributions is solved, coupled with the continuity equations of the excited atoms and the electrons. An electron temperature distribution from a free stream to a blunt body wall has been investigated for a case when the electrons are in thermal non-equilibrium with heavy particles in the free stream. In addition, the distributions of the excited atom density are discussed in the present analysis. (author)
Amplitude oscillations in a non-equilibrium polariton condensate
Brierley, Richard; Littlewood, Peter; Eastham, Paul
2011-03-01
Like cold atomic gases, semiconductor nanostructures provide new opportunities for exploring non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. In semiconductor microcavities the strong coupling between trapped photons and excitons produces new quasiparticles, polaritons, which can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. Quantum quenches can be realised by rapidly creating cold exciton populations with a laser [Eastham and Phillips, PRB 79 165303 (2009)]. The mean field theory of non-equilibrium polariton condensates predicts oscillations in the condensate amplitude due to the excitation of a Higgs mode. These oscillations are the analogs of those predicted in quenched cold atomic gases and may occur in the polariton system after performing a quench or by direct excitation of the amplitude mode. We have studied the stability of these oscillations beyond mean field theory. We show that homogeneous amplitude oscillations are unstable to decay into lower energy phase modes at finite wavevectors, suggesting the onset of chaotic behaviour. The resulting hierarchy of decay processes can be understood by analogy to optical parametric oscillators in microcavities. Polariton systems thus provide an interesting opportunity to study the dynamics of Higgs-like modes in a solid state system.
Nonequilibrium Equation of State in Suspensions of Active Colloids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Félix Ginot
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Active colloids constitute a novel class of materials composed of colloidal-scale particles locally converting chemical energy into motility, mimicking micro-organisms. Evolving far from equilibrium, these systems display structural organizations and dynamical properties distinct from thermalized colloidal assemblies. Harvesting the potential of this new class of systems requires the development of a conceptual framework to describe these intrinsically nonequilibrium systems. We use sedimentation experiments to probe the nonequilibrium equation of state of a bidimensional assembly of active Janus microspheres and conduct computer simulations of a model of self-propelled hard disks. Self-propulsion profoundly affects the equation of state, but these changes can be rationalized using equilibrium concepts. We show that active colloids behave, in the dilute limit, as an ideal gas with an activity-dependent effective temperature. At finite density, increasing the activity is similar to increasing adhesion between equilibrium particles. We quantify this effective adhesion and obtain a unique scaling law relating activity and effective adhesion in both experiments and simulations. Our results provide a new and efficient way to understand the emergence of novel phases of matter in active colloidal suspensions.
Light-induced electronic non-equilibrium in plasmonic particles.
Kornbluth, Mordechai; Nitzan, Abraham; Seideman, Tamar
2013-05-07
We consider the transient non-equilibrium electronic distribution that is created in a metal nanoparticle upon plasmon excitation. Following light absorption, the created plasmons decohere within a few femtoseconds, producing uncorrelated electron-hole pairs. The corresponding non-thermal electronic distribution evolves in response to the photo-exciting pulse and to subsequent relaxation processes. First, on the femtosecond timescale, the electronic subsystem relaxes to a Fermi-Dirac distribution characterized by an electronic temperature. Next, within picoseconds, thermalization with the underlying lattice phonons leads to a hot particle in internal equilibrium that subsequently equilibrates with the environment. Here we focus on the early stage of this multistep relaxation process, and on the properties of the ensuing non-equilibrium electronic distribution. We consider the form of this distribution as derived from the balance between the optical absorption and the subsequent relaxation processes, and discuss its implication for (a) heating of illuminated plasmonic particles, (b) the possibility to optically induce current in junctions, and (c) the prospect for experimental observation of such light-driven transport phenomena.
Understanding Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics Foundations, Applications, Frontiers
Jou, David; Lebon, Georgy
2007-01-01
This book offers a homogeneous presentation of the many faces of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part is devoted to a description of the nowadays thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory of non-equilibrium processes. This part of the book may serve as a basis to an introductory course dedicated to first-year graduate students in sciences and engineering. The classical description can however not be complete, as it rests on the hypothesis of local equilibrium. This has fostered the development of many theories going beyond local equilibrium and which cannot be put aside. The second part of the book is concerned with these different approaches, and will be of special interest for PhD students and researchers. For the sake of homogeneity, the authors have used the general structure and methods presented in the first part. Indeed, besides their differences, all these formalisms are not closed boxes but present some overlappings and parallelisms which are emphasized in this book. For pe...
Non-Equilibrium Turbulence and Two-Equation Modeling
Rubinstein, Robert
2011-01-01
Two-equation turbulence models are analyzed from the perspective of spectral closure theories. Kolmogorov theory provides useful information for models, but it is limited to equilibrium conditions in which the energy spectrum has relaxed to a steady state consistent with the forcing at large scales; it does not describe transient evolution between such states. Transient evolution is necessarily through nonequilibrium states, which can only be found from a theory of turbulence evolution, such as one provided by a spectral closure. When the departure from equilibrium is small, perturbation theory can be used to approximate the evolution by a two-equation model. The perturbation theory also gives explicit conditions under which this model can be valid, and when it will fail. Implications of the non-equilibrium corrections for the classic Tennekes-Lumley balance in the dissipation rate equation are drawn: it is possible to establish both the cancellation of the leading order Re1/2 divergent contributions to vortex stretching and enstrophy destruction, and the existence of a nonzero difference which is finite in the limit of infinite Reynolds number.
Phase separation in the nonequilibrium Verwey transition in magnetite
Randi, F.; Vergara, I.; Novelli, F.; Esposito, M.; Dell'Angela, M.; Brabers, V. A. M.; Metcalf, P.; Kukreja, R.; Dürr, H. A.; Fausti, D.; Grüninger, M.; Parmigiani, F.
2016-02-01
We present equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium studies of the Verwey transition in magnetite. In the equilibrium optical conductivity, we find a steplike change at the phase transition for photon energies below about 2 eV. The possibility of triggering a nonequilibrium transient metallic state in insulating magnetite by photo excitation was recently demonstrated by an x-ray study. Here we report a full characterization of the optical properties in the visible frequency range across the nonequilibrium phase transition. Our analysis of the spectral features is based on a detailed description of the equilibrium properties. The out-of-equilibrium optical data bear the initial electronic response associated to localized photoexcitation, the occurrence of phase separation, and the transition to a transient metallic phase for excitation density larger than a critical value. This allows us to identify the electronic nature of the transient state, to unveil the phase transition dynamics, and to study the consequences of phase separation on the reflectivity, suggesting a spectroscopic feature that may be generally linked to out-of-equilibrium phase separation.
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2018-03-01
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I.
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T
2018-03-28
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Variational discretization of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple systems
Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki
2018-04-01
In this paper, we develop variational integrators for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple closed systems. These integrators are obtained by a discretization of the Lagrangian variational formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics developed in (Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017a J. Geom. Phys. part I 111 169–93 Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017b J. Geom. Phys. part II 111 194–212) and thus extend the variational integrators of Lagrangian mechanics, to include irreversible processes. In the continuous setting, we derive the structure preserving property of the flow of such systems. This property is an extension of the symplectic property of the flow of the Euler–Lagrange equations. In the discrete setting, we show that the discrete flow solution of our numerical scheme verifies a discrete version of this property. We also present the regularity conditions which ensure the existence of the discrete flow. We finally illustrate our discrete variational schemes with the implementation of an example of a simple and closed system.
Homogeneous non-equilibrium two-phase critical flow model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, J.J.; Vuxuan, N.
1987-01-01
An important aspect of nuclear and chemical reactor safety is the ability to predict the maximum or critical mass flow rate from a break or leak in a pipe system. At the beginning of such a blowdown, if the stagnation condition of the fluid is subcooled or slightly saturated thermodynamic non-equilibrium exists in the downstream, e.g. the fluid becomes superheated to a degree determined by the liquid pressure. A simplified non-equilibrium model, explained in this report, is valid for rapidly decreasing pressure along the flow path. It presumes that fluid has to be superheated by an amount governed by physical principles before it starts to flash into steam. The flow is assumed to be homogeneous, i.e. the steam and liquid velocities are equal. An adiabatic flow calculation mode (Fanno lines) is employed to evaluate the critical flow rate for long pipes. The model is found to satisfactorily describe critical flow tests. Good agreement is obtained with the large scale Marviken tests as well as with small scale experiments. (orig.)
Non-equilibrium magnetic interactions in strongly correlated systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brener, S.; Lichtenstein, A.I. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universitat Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I. [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2013-06-15
We formulate a low-energy theory for the magnetic interactions between electrons in the multi-band Hubbard model under non-equilibrium conditions determined by an external time-dependent electric field which simulates laser-induced spin dynamics. We derive expressions for dynamical exchange parameters in terms of non-equilibrium electronic Green functions and self-energies, which can be computed, e.g., with the methods of time-dependent dynamical mean-field theory. Moreover, we find that a correct description of the system requires, in addition to exchange, a new kind of magnetic interaction, that we name twist exchange, which formally resembles Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya coupling, but is not due to spin–orbit, and is actually due to an effective three-spin interaction. Our theory allows the evaluation of the related time-dependent parameters as well. -- Highlights: •We develop a theory for magnetism of strongly correlated systems out of equilibrium. •Our theory is suitable for laser-induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics. •We write time-dependent exchange parameters in terms of electronic Green functions. •We find a new magnetic interaction, a “twist exchange”. •We give general expressions for magnetic noise in itinerant-electron systems.
Non-equilibrium theory of arrested spinodal decomposition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olais-Govea, José Manuel; López-Flores, Leticia; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)
2015-11-07
The non-equilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of irreversible relaxation [P. E. Ramŕez-González and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 82, 061503 (2010); 82, 061504 (2010)] is applied to the description of the non-equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermodynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, at lower temperature intersects the spinodal curve and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line, we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of various physical properties. We interpret these two domains as corresponding to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions and to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition. The resulting theoretical scenario is consistent with the corresponding experimental observations in a specific colloidal model system.
New Physics with Energetic Top Quarks
Andeen, Timothy; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
Many theories beyond the Standard Model predict new phenomena which decay to energetic top quarks. Searches for such new physics models are performed using the ATLAS experiment at the LHC using proton-proton collision data collected in 2015 and 2016 with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Selected recent results will be discussed.
Energetic utilisation of biomass in Hungary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barotfi, I.
1994-01-01
Energetic utilisation of biomass has been known since prehistoric times and was only pushed into the background by the technological developments of the last century. The energy crisis and, more recently, environmental problems have now brought it back to the fore, and efforts are being made worldwide to find modern technical applications for biomass and contribute to its advance. (orig.) [de
Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs
Rijnen, M.M.J.A.
2003-01-01
The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and
Radiation hormesis: an ecological and energetic perspective.
Parsons, P A
2001-09-01
Organisms in natural habitats are exposed to an array of environmental stresses, which all have energetic costs. Under this ecological scenario, hormesis for ionizing radiation becomes an evolutionary expectation at exposures substantially exceeding background. This conclusion implies that some relaxation of radiation protection criteria is worthy of serious consideration. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility
Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.
2014-01-01
Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.
Capturing the most energetic cosmic rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mantsch, P.
1999-01-01
The methods of energy measurement applied to the most energetic cosmic rays are described. The rays are so rare that two gigantic systems of detectors are proposed to detect at least some of them (the Pierre Auger Project ). (Z.J.)
Physics with energetic radioactive ion beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henning, W.F.
1996-01-01
Beams of short-lived, unstable nuclei have opened new dimensions in studies of nuclear structure and reactions. Such beams also provide key information on reactions that take place in our sun and other stars. Status and prospects of the physics with energetic radioactive beams are summarized
ENERGETIC CHARGE OF AN INFORMATION PROCESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Popova T.M.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Main laws of technical thermodynamics are universal and could be applied to processes other than thermodynamic ones. The results of the comparison of peculiarities of irreversible informational and thermodynamic processes are presented in the article and a new term “Infopy” is used. A more precise definition of “infopy” as an energetic charge is given in the article.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vivek Sinha
Full Text Available Oxime drugs translocate through the 20 Å active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase in order to liberate the enzyme from organophosphorus compounds' (such as tabun conjugation. Here we report bidirectional steered molecular dynamics simulations of oxime drug (Ortho-7 translocation through the gorge of tabun intoxicated enzyme, in which time dependent external forces accelerate the translocation event. The simulations reveal the participation of drug-enzyme hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and water bridges between them. Employing nonequilibrium theorems that recovers the free energy from irreversible work done, we reconstruct potential of mean force along the translocation pathway such that the desired quantity represents an unperturbed system. The potential locates the binding sites and barriers for the drug to translocate inside the gorge. Configurational entropic contribution of the protein-drug binding entity and the role of solvent translational mobility in the binding energetics is further assessed.
Microstructure taxonomy based on spatial correlations: Application to microstructure coarsening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fast, Tony; Wodo, Olga; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Kalidindi, Surya R.
2016-01-01
To build materials knowledge, rigorous description of the material structure and associated tools to explore and exploit information encoded in the structure are needed. These enable recognition, categorization and identification of different classes of microstructure and ultimately enable to link structure with properties of materials. Particular interest lies in the protocols capable of mining the essential information in large microstructure datasets and building robust knowledge systems that can be easily accessed, searched, and shared by the broader materials community. In this paper, we develop a protocol based on automated tools to classify microstructure taxonomies in the context of coarsening behavior which is important for long term stability of materials. Our new concepts for enhanced description of the local microstructure state provide flexibility of description. The mathematical description of microstructure that capture crucial attributes of the material, although central to building materials knowledge, is still elusive. The new description captures important higher order spatial information, but at the same time, allows down sampling if less information is needed. We showcase the classification protocol by studying coarsening of binary polymer blends and classifying steady state structures. We study several microstructure descriptions by changing the microstructure local state order and discretization and critically evaluate their efficacy. Our analysis revealed the superior properties of microstructure representation is based on the first order-gradient of the atomic fraction.
VLSI electronics microstructure science
1982-01-01
VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 4 reviews trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the silicon-on-insulator for VLSI and VHSIC, X-ray lithography, and transient response of electron transport in GaAs using the Monte Carlo method. The technology and manufacturing of high-density magnetic-bubble memories, metallic superlattices, challenge of education for VLSI, and impact of VLSI on medical signal processing are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the impact of VLSI t
VLSI electronics microstructure science
1981-01-01
VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 3 evaluates trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the impact of VLSI on computer architectures; VLSI design and design aid requirements; and design, fabrication, and performance of CCD imagers. The approaches, potential, and progress of ultra-high-speed GaAs VLSI; computer modeling of MOSFETs; and numerical physics of micron-length and submicron-length semiconductor devices are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the optical linewi
Recent progress of hybrid simulation for energetic particles and MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todo, Y.
2013-01-01
Several hybrid simulation models have been constructed to study the evolution of Alfven eigenmodes destabilized by energetic particles. Recent hybrid simulation results of energetic particle driven instabilities are presented in this paper. (J.P.N.)
Advances in magnetospheric physics, 1971--1974: energetic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, H.I. Jr.
1974-12-01
An account is given of energetic particle research in magnetospheric physics for the time period 1971--1974. Emphasis is on relating the various aspects of energetic particles to magnetospheric processes. 458 refs. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Haifeng; Kuang, Wangwang; Zhang, Jianbao
2017-01-01
Modeling of non-equilibrium solidification in multi-component alloys is of singular importance in microstructure control, which however owing to the complex systems with complex additional constraints is still an open problem. In this work, the thermodynamic extremal principle was applied to solve the complex additional constraints self-consistently in thermodynamics. Consequently, short-range solute redistribution and long-range solute diffusion that share the same mobility are integrated naturally into the solute diffusion equations, thus avoiding the introduction of additional kinetic coefficients (e.g. interface permeability) to describe solute redistribution. Application to the non-equilibrium solidification of Al-Si-Cu alloys shows that anomalous solute trapping and anomalous solute profiles within the diffuse interface could occur, thus highlighting the important effect of the interaction among the component elements on the interface kinetics. The current phase-field model might be preferred for simulations not only because of its simplest form of evolution equations but also its feasibility to increase the simulation efficiency by the “thin interface limit” analysis.
Marshall Mccall, Patrick
turnover on the steady-state properties of collections of filaments remained unclear. Here, I reconstituted tunable, non-equilibrium actin turnover dynamics in entangled solutions of actin filaments as a model of the actin cortex of living cells. We found that this non-equilibrium turnover decouples solution mechanics from microstructure, enabling structurally indistinguishable materials to behave effectively as either viscous fluids or elastic gels. Additionally, we employed computer simulations to identify the dynamical regime in which actin turnover controls the effective viscosity of 2D cross-linked actin networks in the presence of motors. Additionally, I examine in this thesis the localization and self-assembly of actin filaments in condensed liquid phases called polyelectrolyte coacervates as a model membrane-less organelle. We find that concentration of actin through spontaneous partitioning preferentially to the coacervate phase accelerates the assembly of filaments. These filaments then localize to the coacervate-bulk interface, generating particles with visco-elastic shells surrounding liquid cores. In this case, the properties of the condensed phase enable regulation of actin assembly dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dowell, F.
1987-01-01
A summary of results from a unique statistical-physics theory to predict and explain competing interactions and resulting microstructures in some partially-ordered [in this case, liquid-crystalline (LC)] phases is presented. The static aspects of both partial orientational and partial positional ordering of the molecules into various microstructures in these phases (including the incommensurate smectic-Ad phase) can be understood in terms of various competing interactions (both entropic and energetic) involved in the packing together of the different molecular sub-units at given pressures and temperatures. These microstructures are predicted and explained (using no ad hoc or arbitrarily adjustable parameter) as a function of molecule chemical structure [including lengths and shapes (from bond lengths and angles), intramolecular rotations, site-site polarizabilities and pair potentials, dipole moments, etc]. Theoretical results are presented for the nematic, re-entrant nematic, smectic-Ad, and smectic-Al LC phases and the isotropic phase
Assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fauske, H.K.
1977-01-01
An assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents is given with emphasis on the generic issues of energetic recriticality and energetic fuel-coolant interaction events. Application of a few general behavior principles to the oxide-fueled system suggests that such events are highly unlikely following a postulated core meltdown event
Influence of processing variations on microstructure and properties in Fe/Co/2--3%V alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinnel, M.R.; Bennett, J.E.
1974-01-01
A microstructural evaluation was used to provide the key to the understanding of the numerous phase changes which occur in this alloy and their influence on drawability and magnetic properties. Samples of two compositions (2.5 percent V and 3.0 percent V) were given the standard processing sequence used in the production of remanent reed electrical contacts with selected alterations in annealing temperatures at several stages. Microstructures were characterized following each step by light microscopy on lightly etched sections using differential interference contrast and were correlated with the appropriate ternary equilibrium diagram. Results indicate that the typical hot rolled (1200 0 C) and air cooled structure is composed of a nonequilibrium, vanadium supersaturated, bcc phase produced by a massive transformation during cooling and is also subject to an ordering transformation. The resultant microstructure is too brittle to be drawn into wire. This can be modified by more rapid cooling. However, the hot rolled and ice brine quenched structure which is more martensitic in character and a totally disordered, nonequilibrium, bcc phase provides only modest improvement in ductility. (U.S.)
Microstructured hollow fibers for ultrafiltration
Culfaz, Pmar Zeynep; Culfaz, P.Z.; Rolevink, Hendrikus H.M.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias
2010-01-01
Hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a corrugated outer microstructure were prepared from a PES/PVP blend. The effect of spinning parameters such as air gap, take-up speed, polymer dope viscosity and coagulation value on the microstructure and membrane characteristics was investigated. Fibers
Applications of nonequilibrium melting concept to damage-accumulation processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.
1998-01-01
The authors recent study of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation led to the successful development of a unified thermodynamic description of disorder-induced amorphization and heat-induced melting, based on a generalized version of the Lindemann melting criterion. The generalized criterion requires that the melting temperature of a defective crystal decreases with increasing static atomic disorder. Hence, any crystal can melt at temperatures below the melting point of its perfect crystalline state when driven far from equilibrium by introducing critical amounts of misfitting solute atoms and lattice imperfections, radiation damage, and/or tensile stresses. This conceptual approach to nonequilibrium melting provides new insight into long-standing materials problems such as brittle fracture, embrittlement, and environmentally-induced cracking, for example irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking
Nonequilibrium Transport through a Spinful Quantum Dot with Superconducting Leads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Brian Møller; Flensberg, Karsten; Koerting, Verena
2011-01-01
We study the nonlinear cotunneling current through a spinful quantum dot contacted by two superconducting leads. Applying a general nonequilibrium Green function formalism to an effective Kondo model, we study the rich variation in the IV characteristics with varying asymmetry in the tunnel...... coupling to source and drain electrodes. The current is found to be carried, respectively, by multiple Andreev reflections in the symmetric limit, and by spin-induced Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states in the strongly asymmetric limit. The interplay between these two mechanisms leads to qualitatively different...... IV characteristics in the crossover regime of intermediate symmetry, consistent with recent experimental observations of negative differential conductance and repositioned conductance peaks in subgap cotunneling spectroscopy....
The effect of pure state structure on nonequilibrium dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, C M; Stein, D L
2008-01-01
Motivated by short-range Ising spin glasses, we review some rigorous results and their consequences for the relation between the number/nature of equilibrium pure states and nonequilibrium dynamics. Two of the consequences for spin glass dynamics following an instantaneous deep quench to a temperature with broken spin flip symmetry are: (1) almost all initial configurations lie on the boundary between the basins of attraction of multiple pure states; (2) unless there are uncountably many pure states with almost all pairs having zero overlap, there can be no equilibration to a pure state as time t → ∞. We discuss the relevance of these results to the difficulty of equilibration of spin glasses. We also review some results concerning the 'nature versus nurture' problem of whether the large-t behavior of both ferromagnets and spin glasses following a deep quench is determined more by the initial configuration (nature) or by the dynamics realization (nurture)
Majorana fermion modulated nonequilibrium transport through double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Ming-Xun; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Ai, Bao-Quan; Yang, Mou; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhong, Qing-Hu; Wang, Guang-Hui
2014-01-01
Nonequilibrium electronic transports through a double-QD-Majorana coupling system are studied with a purpose to extract the information to identify Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that MBSs can help form various transport processes, including the nonlocal crossed Andreev reflection, local resonant Andreev reflection, and cotunneling, depending on the relative position of two dot levels. These processes enrich the signature of average currents and noise correlations to probe the nature of MBSs. We further demonstrate the switching between the current peaks of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling, which is closely related to the nonlocal nature of Majorana fermions. We also propose effective physical pictures to understand these Majorana-assisted transports. - Highlights: • Majorana fermions are characterized in the signature of currents and noises. • Three types of tunneling mechanisms are realized separately. • The switching of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling is realized. • Concrete physical pictures are proposed to understand Majorana-assisted transports
Exactly solvable nonequilibrium Langevin relaxation of a trapped nanoparticle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salazar, Domingos S P; Lira, Sérgio A
2016-01-01
In this work, we study the nonequilibrium statistical properties of the relaxation dynamics of a nanoparticle trapped in a harmonic potential. We report an exact time-dependent analytical solution to the Langevin dynamics that arises from the stochastic differential equation of our system’s energy in the underdamped regime. By utilizing this stochastic thermodynamics approach, we are able to completely describe the heat exchange process between the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. As an important consequence of our results, we observe the validity of the heat exchange fluctuation theorem in our setup, which holds for systems arbitrarily far from equilibrium conditions. By extending our results for the case of N noninterating nanoparticles, we perform analytical asymptotic limits and direct numerical simulations that corroborate our analytical predictions. (paper)
Nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics including dissipation and noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nahrgang, Marlene; Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Leupold, Stefan
2011-01-01
We present a consistent theoretical approach for the study of nonequilibrium effects in chiral fluid dynamics within the framework of the linear σ model with constituent quarks. Treating the quarks as an equilibrated heat bath, we use the influence functional formalism to obtain a Langevin equation for the σ field. This allows us to calculate the explicit form of the damping coefficient and the noise correlators. For a self-consistent derivation of both the dynamics of the σ field and the quark fluid, we have to employ the 2PI (two-particle irreducible) effective action formalism. The energy dissipation from the field to the fluid is treated in the exact formalism of the 2PI effective action where a conserved energy-momentum tensor can be constructed. We derive its form and comment on approximations generating additional terms in the energy-momentum balance of the entire system.
Non-equilibrium dilepton production in hadronic transport approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staudenmaier, Jan; Weil, Janus; Petersen, Hannah
2017-01-01
In this work the non-equilibrium dilepton production from a hadronic transport approach (SMASH) is presented. The dilepton emission from the hadronic stage is of interest for current HADES results measured at GSI in the beam energy range from 1.25 - 3.5 GeV. Also at high collision energies (RHIC/LHC) the later dilute stages of the reaction are dominated by hadronic dynamics. The newly developed hadronic transport approach called SMASH (=Simulating Many Accelerated Strongly-interacting Hadrons) is introduced first. After explaining the basic interaction mechanisms, a comparison of elementary cross sections for pion production to experimental data is shown. The dilepton production within SMASH is explained in detail. The main contribution to the dilepton spectra in the low energy regime of GSI/FAIR/RHIC-BES originates from resonance decays. Results of the dilepton production with SMASH such as invariant mass spectra are shown. (paper)
Nonequilibrium quark production in the expanding QCD plasma
Tanji, Naoto; Berges, Jürgen
2018-02-01
We perform real-time lattice simulations of nonequilibrium quark production in the longitudinally expanding QCD plasma. Starting from a highly occupied gluonic state with vacuum quark sector, we extract the time evolution of quark and gluon number densities per unit transverse area and rapidity. The total quark number shows after an initial rapid increase an almost linear growth with time. Remarkably, this growth rate appears to be consistent with a simple kinetic theory estimate involving only two-to-two scattering processes in small-angle approximation. This extends previous findings about the role of two-to-two scatterings for purely gluonic dynamics in accordance with the early stages of the bottom-up thermalization scenario.
Decay of non-equilibrium polariton condensate in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beloussov, I.V.; Shvera, Y.M.
1993-08-01
Excitation dynamics of polariton quantum fluctuations arising in direct-gap semi-conductor as a result of parametric decay of non-equilibrium polariton condensate with non-zero wave vector is studied. The predominant mechanism of polariton scattering is supposed to be exciton-exciton interaction. Steady state which corresponds to the case of dynamic equilibrium between the polariton condensate and quantum fluctuations is obtained. Distribution functions of non-condensate polaritons are localized in the resonant regions, corresponding to two-particle excitation of polaritons from the condensate. The spectrum of elementary excitations in steady state coincides with usual polariton energy with the shift proportional to initial density of polariton condensate. (author). 25 refs
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics
1985-01-01
Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...
Nonequilibrium fluctuations in micro-MHD effects on electrodeposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aogaki, Ryoichi; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Asanuma, Miki
2010-01-01
In copper electrodeposition under a magnetic field parallel to electrode surface, different roles of two kinds of nonequilibrium fluctuations for micro-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are discussed; symmetrical fluctuations are accompanied by the suppression of three dimensional (3D) nucleation by micro-MHD flows (the 1st micro-MHD effect), whereas asymmetrical fluctuations controlling 2D nucleation yield secondary nodules by larger micro-MHD flows (the 2nd micro-MHD effect). Though the 3D nucleation with symmetrical fluctuations is always suppressed by the micro-MHD flows, due to the change in the rate-determining step from electron transfer to mass transfer, the 2D nucleation with asymmetrical fluctuations newly turns unstable, generating larger micro-MHD flows. As a result, round semi-spherical deposits, i.e., secondary nodules are yielded. Using computer simulation, the mechanism of the 2nd micro-MHD effect is validated.
Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics
Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon
2013-01-01
The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...
Non-equilibrium dynamics near a quantum multicritical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patra, Ayoti; Mukherjee, Victor; Dutta, Amit
2011-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quantum system close to a quantum multi-critical point (MCP) using the example of a one-dimensional spin-1/2 transverse XY spin chain. We summarize earlier results of defect generenation and fidelity susceptibility for quenching through MCP and close to the MCP, respectively. For a quenching scheme which enables the system to hit the MCP along different paths, we emphasize the role of path on exponents associated with quasicritical points which appear in the scaling relations. Finally, we explicitly derive the scaling of concurrence and negativity for two spin entanglement generated following a slow quenching across the MCP and enlist the results for different quenching schemes. We explicity show the dependence of the scaling on the quenching path and dicuss the limiting situations.
Chaotic Dynamical Ferromagnetic Phase Induced by Nonequilibrium Quantum Fluctuations
Lerose, Alessio; Marino, Jamir; Žunkovič, Bojan; Gambassi, Andrea; Silva, Alessandro
2018-03-01
We investigate the robustness of a dynamical phase transition against quantum fluctuations by studying the impact of a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin interaction in one spatial dimension on the nonequilibrium dynamical phase diagram of the fully connected quantum Ising model. In particular, we focus on the transient dynamics after a quantum quench and study the prethermal state via a combination of analytic time-dependent spin wave theory and numerical methods based on matrix product states. We find that, upon increasing the strength of the quantum fluctuations, the dynamical critical point fans out into a chaotic dynamical phase within which the asymptotic ordering is characterized by strong sensitivity to the parameters and initial conditions. We argue that such a phenomenon is general, as it arises from the impact of quantum fluctuations on the mean-field out of equilibrium dynamics of any system which exhibits a broken discrete symmetry.
Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gedik, N.; Orenstein, J.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D.A.; Hardy, W.N.
2003-01-01
We report a transport study of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a high-transition-temperature cuprate superconductor using the transient grating technique. Low-intensity laser excitation (at a photon energy of 1.5 electron volts) was used to introduce a spatially periodic density of quasi-particles into a high-quality untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O6.5. Probing the evolution of the initial density through space and time yielded the quasi-particle diffusion coefficient and the inelastic and elastic scattering rates. The technique reported here is potentially applicable to precision measurements of quasi-particle dynamics not only in cuprate superconductors but in other electronic systems as well
Sampling rare events in nonequilibrium and nonstationary systems.
Berryman, Joshua T; Schilling, Tanja
2010-12-28
Although many computational methods for rare event sampling exist, this type of calculation is not usually practical for general nonequilibrium conditions, with macroscopically irreversible dynamics and away from both stationary and metastable states. A novel method for calculating the time-series of the probability of a rare event is presented which is designed for these conditions. The method is validated for the cases of the Glauber-Ising model under time-varying shear flow, the Kawasaki-Ising model after a quench into the region between nucleation dominated and spinodal decomposition dominated phase change dynamics, and the parallel open asymmetric exclusion process. The method requires a subdivision of the phase space of the system: it is benchmarked and found to scale well for increasingly fine subdivisions, meaning that it can be applied without detailed foreknowledge of the physically important reaction pathways.
Nonequilibrium synthesis of Nb-Al alloys by laser processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tewari, S.K.; Mazumder, J.
1993-01-01
The technique of laser surface modification provides a unique means of synthesizing novel nonequilibrium materials in near net shape. Claddings of several NbAl 3 alloys with Ti, B and Hf as a ternary alloy addition were prepared using a CW CO 2 laser. Isothermal oxidation behavior of the clads were examined in air. Oxidation tests at 800, 1,200 and 1,400 C. Alternating layers of alumina and NbAlO 4 were not observed in any of the samples as reported in literature for conventionally processed NbAl 3 oxidized under similar conditions. The parabolic rate constants for all the alloys, except 0 B, were comparable to that for isothermal oxidation of β-NiAl, at 1,200 and 1,400 C in 0.1 atm oxygen, which is a known alumina former. Ternary alloying additions for improved oxidation resistance at 1,400 C accompanied with improved ductility were identified
Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.
1998-01-01
The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton's method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton's method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step
Non-equilibrium spin and charge transport in superconducting heterojunctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thalmann, Marcel; Rudolf, Marcel; Braun, Julian; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheer, Elke [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78464 Konstanz (Germany)
2015-07-01
Ferromagnet Superconductance (F/S) junctions are rich in exciting quantum-physical-phenomena, which are still poorly understood but may provide bright prospects for new applications. In contrast to conventional normal-metal proximity systems, Andreev reflection is suppressed for singlet cooper pairs in F/S heterostructures. However, long-range triplet pairing may be observed in S/F systems with non-collinear magnetization or spin-active interfaces. Herein, we investigate non-equilibrium transport properties of lateral S/F heterojunctions, defined via electron beam lithography. In particular we focus microwave- and magneto-transport spectroscopy on conventional type-I (Al, Pb, Zn) and type-II (Nb) superconductors in combination with strong transition metal ferromagnets (Ni, Co, Fe). A cryogenic HF readout platform and advanced electronic filtering is developed and results on Al-based heterojunctions are shown.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamic potentials for continuous-time Markov chains.
Verley, Gatien
2016-01-01
We connect the rare fluctuations of an equilibrium (EQ) process and the typical fluctuations of a nonequilibrium (NE) stationary process. In the framework of large deviation theory, this observation allows us to introduce NE thermodynamic potentials. For continuous-time Markov chains, we identify the relevant pairs of conjugated variables and propose two NE ensembles: one with fixed dynamics and fluctuating time-averaged variables, and another with fixed time-averaged variables, but a fluctuating dynamics. Accordingly, we show that NE processes are equivalent to conditioned EQ processes ensuring that NE potentials are Legendre dual. We find a variational principle satisfied by the NE potentials that reach their maximum in the NE stationary state and whose first derivatives produce the NE equations of state and second derivatives produce the NE Maxwell relations generalizing the Onsager reciprocity relations.
Thermal Non-equilibrium Consistent with Widespread Cooling
Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Mok, Y.
2014-01-01
Time correlation analysis has been used to show widespread cooling in the solar corona; this cooling has been interpreted as a result of impulsive (nanoflare) heating. In this work, we investigate wide-spread cooling using a 3D model for a solar active region which has been heated with highly stratified heating. This type of heating drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions, meaning that though the heating is effectively steady, the density and temperature in the solution are not. We simulate the expected observations in narrowband EUV images and apply the time correlation analysis. We find that the results of this analysis are qualitatively similar to the observed data. We discuss additional diagnostics that may be applied to differentiate between these two heating scenarios.
Time-dependent perturbation theory for nonequilibrium lattice models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, I.; Dickman, R.
1993-01-01
The authors develop a time-dependent perturbation theory for nonequilibrium interacting particle systems. They focus on models such as the contact process which evolve via destruction and autocatalytic creation of particles. At a critical value of the destruction rate there is a continuous phase transition between an active steady state and the vacuum state, which is absorbing. They present several methods for deriving series for the evolution starting from a single seed particle, including expansions for the ultimate survival probability in the super- and subcritical regions, expansions for the average number of particles in the subcritical region, and short-time expansions. Algorithms for computer generation of the various expansions are presented. Rather long series (24 terms or more) and precise estimates of critical parameters are presented. 45 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs
Eu, Byung Chan
2016-01-01
This book presents the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics for nonlinear transport processes in gases and liquids, as well as for generalized hydrodynamics extending the classical hydrodynamics of Navier, Stokes, Fourier, and Fick. Together with its companion volume on relativistic theories, it provides a comprehensive picture of the kinetic theory formulated from the viewpoint of nonequilibrium ensembles in both nonrelativistic and, in Vol. 2, relativistic contexts. Theories of macroscopic irreversible processes must strictly conform to the thermodynamic laws at every step and in all approximations that enter their derivation from the mechanical principles. Upholding this as the inviolable tenet, the author develops theories of irreversible transport processes in fluids (gases or liquids) on the basis of irreversible kinetic equations satisfying the H theorem. They apply regardless of whether the processes are near to or far removed from equilibrium, or whether they are linear or nonlinear with respe...
Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States
Komatsu, Teruhisa S.; Nakagawa, Naoko; Sasa, Shin-ichi; Tasaki, Hal; Ito, Nobuyasu
2010-01-01
We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.
Non-equilibrium dissipative supramolecular materials with a tunable lifetime
Tena-Solsona, Marta; Rieß, Benedikt; Grötsch, Raphael K.; Löhrer, Franziska C.; Wanzke, Caren; Käsdorf, Benjamin; Bausch, Andreas R.; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Lieleg, Oliver; Boekhoven, Job
2017-07-01
Many biological materials exist in non-equilibrium states driven by the irreversible consumption of high-energy molecules like ATP or GTP. These energy-dissipating structures are governed by kinetics and are thus endowed with unique properties including spatiotemporal control over their presence. Here we show man-made equivalents of materials driven by the consumption of high-energy molecules and explore their unique properties. A chemical reaction network converts dicarboxylates into metastable anhydrides driven by the irreversible consumption of carbodiimide fuels. The anhydrides hydrolyse rapidly to the original dicarboxylates and are designed to assemble into hydrophobic colloids, hydrogels or inks. The spatiotemporal control over the formation and degradation of materials allows for the development of colloids that release hydrophobic contents in a predictable fashion, temporary self-erasing inks and transient hydrogels. Moreover, we show that each material can be re-used for several cycles.
Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium States in Microfluidic Double Emulsions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pannacci, N.; Bruus, Henrik; Bartolo, D.
2008-01-01
We describe experimental and theoretical studies dedicated to establishing the physics of formation of double droplets in microfluidic systems. We show that the morphologies (complete engulfing, partial engulfing, and nonengulfing) obtained at late times minimize the interfacial energy of the sys......We describe experimental and theoretical studies dedicated to establishing the physics of formation of double droplets in microfluidic systems. We show that the morphologies (complete engulfing, partial engulfing, and nonengulfing) obtained at late times minimize the interfacial energy...... of the system. We explain that nonequilibrium morphologies generated in the system can have long lifetimes. Remarkably, the physics of formation of the double droplets with microfluidics allows the synthesis of particles with new morphologies....
Non-equilibrium reaction rates in chemical kinetic equations
Gorbachev, Yuriy
2018-05-01
Within the recently proposed asymptotic method for solving the Boltzmann equation for chemically reacting gas mixture, the chemical kinetic equations has been derived. Corresponding one-temperature non-equilibrium reaction rates are expressed in terms of specific heat capacities of the species participate in the chemical reactions, bracket integrals connected with the internal energy transfer in inelastic non-reactive collisions and energy transfer coefficients. Reactions of dissociation/recombination of homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules are considered. It is shown that all reaction rates are the complex functions of the species densities, similarly to the unimolecular reaction rates. For determining the rate coefficients it is recommended to tabulate corresponding bracket integrals, additionally to the equilibrium rate constants. Correlation of the obtained results with the irreversible thermodynamics is established.
Nonequilibrium statistical operator in hot-electron transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xing, D.Y.; Liu, M.
1991-09-01
The Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator method developed by Zubarev is generalized and applied to the study of hot-electron transport in semiconductors. The steady-state balance equations for momentum and energy are derived to the lowest order in the electron-lattice coupling. We show that the derived balance equations are exactly the same as those obtained by Lei and Ting. This equivalence stems from the fact that to the linear order in the electron-lattice coupling, two statistical density matrices have identical effect when they are used to calculate the average value of a dynamical operator. The application to the steady-state and transient hot-electron transport in multivalley semiconductors is also discussed. (author). 28 refs, 1 fig
Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malte Henkel
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
Majorana fermion modulated nonequilibrium transport through double quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Ming-Xun [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Rui-Qiang, E-mail: rqwanggz@163.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ai, Bao-Quan; Yang, Mou; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhong, Qing-Hu [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Guang-Hui [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2014-06-13
Nonequilibrium electronic transports through a double-QD-Majorana coupling system are studied with a purpose to extract the information to identify Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that MBSs can help form various transport processes, including the nonlocal crossed Andreev reflection, local resonant Andreev reflection, and cotunneling, depending on the relative position of two dot levels. These processes enrich the signature of average currents and noise correlations to probe the nature of MBSs. We further demonstrate the switching between the current peaks of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling, which is closely related to the nonlocal nature of Majorana fermions. We also propose effective physical pictures to understand these Majorana-assisted transports. - Highlights: • Majorana fermions are characterized in the signature of currents and noises. • Three types of tunneling mechanisms are realized separately. • The switching of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling is realized. • Concrete physical pictures are proposed to understand Majorana-assisted transports.
Modeling Inflation Using a Non-Equilibrium Equation of Exchange
Chamberlain, Robert G.
2013-01-01
Inflation is a change in the prices of goods that takes place without changes in the actual values of those goods. The Equation of Exchange, formulated clearly in a seminal paper by Irving Fisher in 1911, establishes an equilibrium relationship between the price index P (also known as "inflation"), the economy's aggregate output Q (also known as "the real gross domestic product"), the amount of money available for spending M (also known as "the money supply"), and the rate at which money is reused V (also known as "the velocity of circulation of money"). This paper offers first a qualitative discussion of what can cause these factors to change and how those causes might be controlled, then develops a quantitative model of inflation based on a non-equilibrium version of the Equation of Exchange. Causal relationships are different from equations in that the effects of changes in the causal variables take time to play out-often significant amounts of time. In the model described here, wages track prices, but only after a distributed lag. Prices change whenever the money supply, aggregate output, or the velocity of circulation of money change, but only after a distributed lag. Similarly, the money supply depends on the supplies of domestic and foreign money, which depend on the monetary base and a variety of foreign transactions, respectively. The spreading of delays mitigates the shocks of sudden changes to important inputs, but the most important aspect of this model is that delays, which often have dramatic consequences in dynamic systems, are explicitly incorporated.macroeconomics, inflation, equation of exchange, non-equilibrium, Athena Project
Nonequilibrium forces following quenches in active and thermal matter
Rohwer, Christian M.; Solon, Alexandre; Kardar, Mehran; Krüger, Matthias
2018-03-01
Nonequilibrium systems with conserved quantities like density or momentum are known to exhibit long-ranged correlations. This, in turn, leads to long-ranged fluctuation-induced (Casimir) forces, predicted to arise in a variety of nonequilibrium settings. Here, we study such forces, which arise transiently between parallel plates or compact inclusions in a gas of particles, following a change ("quench") in temperature or activity of the medium. Analytical calculations, as well as numerical simulations of passive or active Brownian particles, indicate two distinct forces: (i) The immediate effect of the quench is adsorption or desorption of particles of the medium to the immersed objects, which in turn initiates a front of relaxing (mean) density. This leads to time-dependent density-induced forces. (ii) A long-term effect of the quench is that density fluctuations are modified, manifested as transient (long-ranged) (pair-)correlations that relax diffusively to their (short-ranged) steady-state limit. As a result, transient fluctuation-induced forces emerge. We discuss the properties of fluctuation-induced and density-induced forces as regards universality, relaxation as a function of time, and scaling with distance between objects. Their distinct signatures allow us to distinguish the two types of forces in simulation data. Our simulations also show that a quench of the effective temperature of an active medium gives rise to qualitatively similar effects to a temperature quench in a passive medium. Based on this insight, we propose several scenarios for the experimental observation of the forces described here.
Renormalisation of Nonequilibrium Phonons Under Strong Perturbative Influences.
Mehta, Sushrut Madhukar
Effects of strong perturbative influences, namely the presence of a narrow distribution of acoustic phonons, and the presence of an electron plasma, on the dynamics of nonequilibrium, near zone center, longitudinal optical phonons in GaP have been investigated in two separate experiments. The study of the effects of the interaction between the LO phonons and a heavily populated, narrow distribution of acoustic phonons lead to the observation of a new optically driven nonequilibrium phonon state. Time Resolved Coherent Antistokes Raman Scattering (TR-CARS), with picosecond resolution, was used to investigate the new mode. In order to achieve high occupation numbers in the acoustic branch, the picosecond laser pulses used were amplified up to 1.0 GW/cm^2 peak power per laser beam. An important characteristic property of the new state which differentiates it from the well known LO phonon state is the fact that rather than having the single decay rate observed under thermal equilibrium, the new state has two decay rates. Moreover, these two decay rates depend strongly on the distribution of the acoustic phonon occupation number. The coupling of the LO phonons with an electron plasma, on the other hand, was investigated by measurements of the shape of the Raman scattered line associated with the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. The plasma was generated by thermal excitation of carriers in doped samples. It was possible to study a large variety of plasma excitations by controlling the concentration of the dopant and the ambient temperature. A complete, self consistant model based on standard dielectric response theory is presented, and applied to the measurements of the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. It is possible to recover, via this model, the effective coupled mode damping rate, the plasma damping rate, and the plasma frequency as functions of ambient temperature, or the carrier concentration.
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics of soft sphere fluids.
Ding, Yajun; Mittal, Jeetain
2015-07-14
We use computer simulations to test the freezing-point scaling relationship between equilibrium transport coefficients (self-diffusivity, viscosity) and thermodynamic parameters for soft sphere fluids. The fluid particles interact via the inverse-power potential (IPP), and the particle softness is changed by modifying the exponent of the distance-dependent potential term. In the case of IPP fluids, density and temperature are not independent variables and can be combined to obtain a coupling parameter to define the thermodynamic state of the system. We find that the rescaled coupling parameter, based on its value at the freezing point, can approximately collapse the diffusivity and viscosity data for IPP fluids over a wide range of particle softness. Even though the collapse is far from perfect, the freezing-point scaling relationship provides a convenient and effective way to compare the structure and dynamics of fluid systems with different particle softness. We further show that an alternate scaling relationship based on two-body excess entropy can provide an almost perfect collapse of the diffusivity and viscosity data below the freezing transition. Next, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the shear-dependent viscosity and to identify the distinct role of particle softness in underlying structural changes associated with rheological properties. Qualitatively, we find a similar shear-thinning behavior for IPP fluids with different particle softness, though softer particles exhibit stronger shear-thinning tendency. By investigating the distance and angle-dependent pair correlation functions in these systems, we find different structural features in the case of IPP fluids with hard-sphere like and softer particle interactions. Interestingly, shear-thinning in hard-sphere like fluids is accompanied by enhanced translational order, whereas softer fluids exhibit loss of order with shear. Our results provide a systematic evaluation
Nonequilibrium 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid monolayers: effect of electrolytes.
Lendrum, Conrad D; Ingham, Bridget; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Toney, Michael F; McGrath, Kathryn M
2011-04-19
2-Hydroxyacids display complex monolayer phase behavior due to the additional hydrogen bonding afforded by the presence of the second hydroxy group. The placement of this group at the position α to the carboxylic acid functionality also introduces the possibility of chelation, a utility important in crystallization including biomineralization. Biomineralization, like many biological processes, is inherently a nonequilibrium process. The nonequilibrium monolayer phase behavior of 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid was investigated on each of pure water, calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate crystallizing subphases as a precursor study to a model calcium carbonate biomineralizing system, each at a pH of ∼6. The role of the bicarbonate co-ion in manipulating the monolayer structure was determined by comparison with monolayer phase behavior on a sodium chloride subphase. Monolayer phase behavior was probed using surface pressure/area isotherms, surface potential, Brewster angle microscopy, and synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity. Complex phase behavior was observed for all but the sodium chloride subphase with hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and steric effects defining the symmetry of the monolayer. On a pure water subphase hydrogen bonding dominates with three phases coexisting at low pressures. Introduction of calcium ions into the aqueous subphase ensures strong cation binding to the surfactant head groups through chelation. The monolayer becomes very unstable in the presence of bicarbonate ions within the subphase due to short-range hydrogen bonding interactions between the monolayer and bicarbonate ions facilitated by the sodium cation enhancing surfactant solubility. The combined effects of electrostatics and hydrogen bonding are observed on the calcium carbonate crystallizing subphase. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Energetic particles at venus: galileo results.
Williams, D J; McEntire, R W; Krimigis, S M; Roelof, E C; Jaskulek, S; Tossman, B; Wilken, B; Stüdemann, W; Armstrong, T P; Fritz, T A; Lanzerotti, L J; Roederer, J G
1991-09-27
At Venus the Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) on the Galileo spacecraft measured the differential energy spectra and angular distributions of ions >22 kiloelectron volts (keV) and electrons > 15 keV in energy. The only time particles were observed by EPD was in a series of episodic events [0546 to 0638 universal time (UT)] near closest approach (0559:03 UT). Angular distributions were highly anisotropic, ordered by the magnetic field, and showed ions arriving from the hemisphere containing Venus and its bow shock. The spectra showed a power law form with intensities observed into the 120- to 280-keV range. Comparisons with model bow shock calculations show that these energetic ions are associated with the venusian foreshock-bow shock region. Shock-drift acceleration in the venusian bow shock seems the most likely process responsible for the observed ions.
Energetics of edge oxidization of graphene nanoribbons
Yasuma, Airi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu
2018-06-01
On the basis of the density functional theory, we studied the geometries and energetics of O atoms adsorbed on graphene edges for simulating the initial stage of the edge oxidization of graphene. Our calculations showed that oxygen atoms are preferentially adsorbed onto the graphene edges with the zigzag portion, resulting in a large adsorption energy of about 5 eV. On the other hand, the edges with armchair shape are rarely oxidized, or the oxidization causes substantial structural reconstructions, because of the stable covalent bond at the armchair edge with the triple bond nature. Furthermore, the energetics sensitively depends on the edge angles owing to the inhomogeneity of the charge density at the edge atomic sites.
Green colorants based on energetic azole borates.
Glück, Johann; Klapötke, Thomas M; Rusan, Magdalena; Stierstorfer, Jörg
2014-11-24
The investigation of green-burning boron-based compounds as colorants in pyrotechnic formulations as alternative for barium nitrate, which is a hazard to health and to the environment, is reported. Metal-free and nitrogen-rich dihydrobis(5-aminotetrazolyl)borate salts and dihydrobis(1,3,4-triazolyl)borate salts have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and vibrational spectroscopy. Their thermal and energetic properties have been determined as well. Several pyrotechnic compositions using selected azolyl borate salts as green colorants were investigated. Formulations with ammonium dinitramide and ammonium nitrate as oxidizers and boron and magnesium as fuels were tested. The burn time, dominant wavelength, spectral purity, luminous intensity, and luminous efficiency as well as the thermal and energetic properties of these compositions were measured. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The composition of corotating energetic particle streams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGuire, R.E.; von Rosenvinge, T.T.; McDonald, F.B.
1978-01-01
The relative abundances of 1.5--23 MeV per nucleon ions in corotating nucleon streams are compared with ion abundances in particle events associated with solar flares and with solar and solar wind abundances. He/O and C/O ratios are found to be a factor of the order 2--3 greater in corotating streams than in flare-associated events. The distribution of H/He ratios in corotating streams is found to be much narrower and of lower average value than in flare-associated events. H/He in corotating energetic particle streams compares favorably in both lack of variability and numerical value with H/He in high-speed solar wind plasma streams. The lack of variability suggests that the source population for the corotating energetic particles is the solar wind, a suggestion consistent with acceleration of the corotating particles in interplanetary space
Energetic Particle Estimates for Stellar Flares
Youngblood, Allison; Chamberlin, Phil; Woods, Tom
2018-01-01
In the heliosphere, energetic particles are accelerated away from the Sun during solar flares and/or coronal mass ejections where they frequently impact the Earth and other solar system bodies. Solar (or stellar) energetic particles (SEPs) not only affect technological assets, but also influence mass loss and chemistry in planetary atmospheres (e.g., depletion of ozone). SEPs are increasingly recognized as an important factor in assessing exoplanet habitability, but we do not yet have constraints on SEP emission from any stars other than the Sun. Until indirect measurements are available, we must assume solar-like particle production and apply correlations between solar flares and SEPs detected near Earth to stellar flares. We present improved scaling relations between solar far-UV flare flux and >10 MeV proton flux near Earth. We apply these solar scaling relations to far-UV flares from exoplanet host stars and discuss the implications for modeling chemistry and mass loss in exoplanet atmospheres.
Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.
1984-03-01
The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly
Energetic Issues Concerning the Content of Money
Negoescu Gheorghe; Radu Riana Iren
2012-01-01
In full times of crisis, money has become increasingly more important. We put the issue to analyze whether money can be considered a form of energy. The article is taking into consideration the conservation of energy and for money is due to kinetic energy during the boom and to potential energy during the crisis. In the article is also made an illustration of the energetic content of money at a company’s level.
Estimating Instantaneous Energetic Cost During Gait Adaptation
2014-08-31
energetic cost. Its 327 accuracy benefits from a personalized model for each subject, but for some situations, it may suffice to 328 use the...Activity 380 Patterns During Robotic - and Therapist-Assisted Treadmill Walking in Individuals With 381 Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury. Phys Ther 86...of level walking with powered ankle 410 exoskeletons . Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 1402–1413, 2008. 411 25. Schmalz T, Blumentritt S
Multiphase Combustion of Metalized Nanocomposite Energetic Materials
2014-12-19
on thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient for consolidated aluminum nanoparticles, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, (06...28. Stacy, S.C., Zhang, X., Pantoya, M.L., Weeks, B., Effect of Density on Thermal Conductivity and Absorption Coefficient for Consolidated Aluminum...energetic powder to ESD stimuli generated from a piezo electric crystal ( PZT ). Results show that a high PZT dielectric strength leads to faster
Problems Of Transport Energetics In Lithuania
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambrazevicius, A.; Baublys, J.
2001-01-01
Lithuania has more than one million of transport means, the thermal capacity of which is about 50 mill. kW, i.e. 10 times more than the capacity of all thermal power stations. In the 21st century electrical energy will be used for transport means instead of petrol, and new capacities of electric stations in Lithuania will be necessary. All perspective transport means are described and conclusions for Lithuanian energetics are presented. (author)
The energetic alpha particle transport method EATM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirkpatrick, R.C.
1998-02-01
The EATM method is an evolving attempt to find an efficient method of treating the transport of energetic charged particles in a dynamic magnetized (MHD) plasma for which the mean free path of the particles and the Larmor radius may be long compared to the gradient lengths in the plasma. The intent is to span the range of parameter space with the efficiency and accuracy thought necessary for experimental analysis and design of magnetized fusion targets
Computational Chemistry Toolkit for Energetic Materials Design
2006-11-01
industry are aggressively engaged in efforts to develop multiscale modeling and simulation methodologies to model and analyze complex phenomena across...energetic materials design. It is hoped that this toolkit will evolve into a collection of well-integrated multiscale modeling methodologies...Experimenta Theoreticala This Work 1-5-Diamino-4- methyl- tetrazolium nitrate 8.4 41.7 47.5 1-5-Diamino-4- methyl- tetrazolium azide 138.1 161.6
Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saida, Hiromi
2007-01-01
We consider a black hole in a heat bath, and the whole system which consists of the black hole and the heat bath is isolated from outside environments. When the black hole evaporates, the Hawking radiation causes an energy flow from the black hole to the heat bath. Therefore, since no energy flow arises in an equilibrium state, the thermodynamic state of the whole system is not in equilibrium. That is, in a region around the black hole, the matter field of Hawking radiation and that of heat bath should be in a nonequilibrium state due to the energy flow. Using a simple model which reflects the nonequilibrium nature of energy flow, we find the nonequilibrium effect on a black hole evaporation as follows: if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is not so large, the evaporation time scale of a black hole in a heat bath becomes longer than that in an empty space (a situation without heat bath), because of the incoming energy flow from the heat bath to the black hole. However, if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is sufficiently large, the evaporation time scale in a heat bath becomes shorter than that in an empty space, because a nonequilibrium effect of the temperature difference between the black hole and heat bath appears as a strong energy extraction from the black hole by the heat bath. Further, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon is found: a quasi-equilibrium evaporation stage under the nonequilibrium effect proceeds abruptly to a quantum evaporation stage at a semi-classical level (at black hole radius R g > Planck length) within a very short time scale with a strong burst of energy. (Contrarily, when the nonequilibrium effect is not taken into account, a quasi-equilibrium stage proceeds smoothly to a quantum stage at R g < Planck length without so strong an energy burst.) That is, the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to make a black hole evaporation process more dynamical and to accelerate that process. Finally, on the final fate
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic Chemistry and the Composition of the Atmosphere of Mars
Levine, J. S.; Summers, M. E.
2003-01-01
A high priority objective of the Mars Exploration Program is to Determine if life exists today (MEPAG Goal I, Objective A). The measurement of gases of biogenic origin may be an approach to detect the presence of microbial life on the surface or subsurface of Mars. Chemical thermodynamic calculations indicate that on both Earth and Mars, certain gases should exist in extremely low concentrations, if at all. Microbial metabolic activity is an important non-equilibrium chemistry process on Earth, and if microbial life exists on Mars, may be an important nonequilibrium chemistry process on Mars. The non-equilibrium chemistry of the atmosphere of Mars is discussed in this paper.
Flux-split algorithms for flows with non-equilibrium chemistry and vibrational relaxation
Grossman, B.; Cinnella, P.
1990-01-01
The present consideration of numerical computation methods for gas flows with nonequilibrium chemistry thermodynamics gives attention to an equilibrium model, a general nonequilibrium model, and a simplified model based on vibrational relaxation. Flux-splitting procedures are developed for the fully-coupled inviscid equations encompassing fluid dynamics and both chemical and internal energy-relaxation processes. A fully coupled and implicit large-block structure is presented which embodies novel forms of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms valid for nonequilibrium flow; illustrative high-temperature shock tube and nozzle flow examples are given.
Modeling of two-phase flow with thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houdayer, G.; Pinet, B.; Le Coq, G.; Reocreux, M.; Rousseau, J.C.
1977-01-01
To improve two-phase flow modeling by taking into account thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium a joint effort on analytical experiment and physical modeling has been undertaken. A model describing thermal non-equilibrium effects is first presented. A correlation of mass transfer has been developed using steam water critical flow tests. This model has been used to predict in a satisfactory manner blowdown tests. It has been incorporated in CLYSTERE system code. To take into account mechanical non-equilibrium, a six equations model is written. To get information on the momentum transfers special nitrogen-water tests have been undertaken. The first results of these studies are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, S.R.; Nelson, R.A.; Sullivan, L.H.
1980-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of considering thermal nonequilibrium effects in computer simulations of the refill and reflood portions of pressurized water reactor (PWR) loss-of-coolnat accident (LOCA) transients. Although RELAP4 assumes thermodynamic equilibrium between phases, models that account for the nonequilibrium phenomena associated with the mixing of subcooled emergency cooling water with steam and the superheating of vapor in the presence of liquid droplets have recently been incorporated into the code. Code calculated results, both with and without these new models, have been compared with experimental test data to assess the importance of including thermal nonequilibrium phenomena in computer code simulations
Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai Xiyao; Zhang Zhitao; Bai Mindong; Zhu Qiaoying
2000-01-01
A review is presented of research and development of gas discharge and non-equilibrium plasma including, new ideas of non-equilibrium plasma at high gas pressure. With special technology, strong electric fields (>400 Td) can be achieved by which electrons are accelerated suddenly, becoming high energy electrons (> 10 eV) at high pressure. On impact with the electrons, the gas molecules dissociate into ions, atomic ions, atoms and free radicals, and new substances or molecules can be synthesized through custom design. Chemical reaction difficult to achieve by conventional method can be realized or accelerated. Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure has wide application prospects
Optical orientation of the homogeneous nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons
Korenev, V. L.
2012-07-01
A simple model, describing the steady state of the nonequilibrium polarization of a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons, is considered. It explains the suppression of spin splitting of a nonequilibrium polariton condensate in an external magnetic field, the linear polarization, the linear-to-circular polarization conversion, and the unexpected sign of the circular polarization of the condensate all on equal footing. It is shown that inverse effects are possible, to wit, spontaneous circular polarization and the enhancement of spin splitting of a nonequilibrium condensate of polaritons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masaaki Suzuki; Shinsuke Mori; Noritaka Matsumoto; Hiroshi Akatsuka
1999-01-01
The local separation factor and the local nonequilibrium degree just behind the plasma region were obtained. The plasma gas compositions measured by the enthalpy probe system were substantially thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions, when the input energy was 4 J/cm 3 . The measured maximum value of the separation factor was 1.01, although it changed locally. The measured separation factor and its nonequilibrium condition were discussed. Anyway, the only small value obtained in this experiments is similar to the recent data obtained by Kurchatov group and is less than published data, which is measured spectroscopically [ru
Nonequilibrium temperatures and second-sound propagation along nanowires and thin layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jou, D.; Cimmelli, V.A.; Sellitto, A.
2009-01-01
It is shown that the dispersion relation of heat waves along nanowires or thin layers could allow to compare two different definitions of nonequilibrium temperature, since thermal waves are predicted to propagate with different phase speed depending on the definition of nonequilibrium temperature being used. The difference is small, but it could be in principle measurable in nanosystems, as for instance nanowires and thin layers, in a given frequency range. Such an experiment could provide a deeper view on the problem of the definition of temperature in nonequilibrium situations.
A two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium modeling of DC arc plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian Haiyang; Wu Bin
2011-01-01
To a better understanding of non-equilibrium characteristics of DC arc plasma,a two-dimensional axisymmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium (2T-NCE) model is applied for direct current arc argon plasma generator with water-cooled constrictor at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the electron temperature and heavy particle temperature has a relationship under different working parameters, indicating that DC arc plasma has a strong non-equilibrium characteristic, and the variation is obvious. (authors)
Nuclear energy I, Non-energetic applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lartigue G, J.; Navarrete T, M.; Cabrera M, L.; Arandia, P.A.; Arriola S, H.
1986-01-01
The nuclear energy is defined as the energy produced or absorbed in the nuclear reactions, therefore, these are divided in endothermic and exothermic. The exothermic nuclear reactions present more interest from the point of view of its applications and they can show in four main forms: radioactivity (from 0 to 4 MeV/reaction; light nucleus fusion ( ∼ 20 MeV/reaction), heavy nucleus fusion (∼ 200 MeV/reaction) and nucleons annihilation ( ∼ 2000 MeV/reaction). Nowadays only the fission has reached the stage of profitable energetic application, finding the other three forms in research and development. The non-energetic applications of the nuclear energy are characterized by they do not require of prior conversion to another form of energy and they are made through the use of radioisotopes as well as through the use of endothermic reaction caused in particle accelerators. In this work are presented some of the non-energetic applications with its theoretical and experimental basis as well as its benefits of each one. (Author)
Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials
Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.
2005-05-17
Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.
Energetic Particles Dynamics in Mercury's Magnetosphere
Walsh, Brian M.; Ryou, A.S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Alexeev, I. I.
2013-01-01
We investigate the drift paths of energetic particles in Mercury's magnetosphere by tracing their motion through a model magnetic field. Test particle simulations solving the full Lorentz force show a quasi-trapped energetic particle population that gradient and curvature drift around the planet via "Shabansky" orbits, passing though high latitudes in the compressed dayside by equatorial latitudes on the nightside. Due to their large gyroradii, energetic H+ and Na+ ions will typically collide with the planet or the magnetopause and will not be able to complete a full drift orbit. These simulations provide direct comparison for recent spacecraft measurements from MESSENGER. Mercury's offset dipole results in an asymmetric loss cone and therefore an asymmetry in particle precipitation with more particles precipitating in the southern hemisphere. Since the planet lacks an atmosphere, precipitating particles will collide directly with the surface of the planet. The incident charged particles can kick up neutrals from the surface and have implications for the formation of the exosphere and weathering of the surface
Calculation of the energetics of chemical reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Harding, L.B.; Shepard, R.L.; Harrison, R.J.
1988-01-01
To calculate the energetics of chemical reactions we must solve the electronic Schroedinger equation for the molecular conformations of importance for the reactive encounter. Substantial changes occur in the electronic structure of a molecular system as the reaction progresses from reactants through the transition state to products. To describe these changes, our approach includes the following three elements: the use of multiconfiguration self-consistent field wave functions to provide a consistent zero-order description of the electronic structure of the reactants, transition state, and products; the use of configuration interaction techniques to describe electron correlation effects needed to provide quantitative predictions of the reaction energetics; and the use of large, optimized basis sets to provide the flexibility needed to describe the variations in the electronic distributions. With this approach we are able to study reactions involving as many as 5--6 atoms with errors of just a few kcal/mol in the predicted reaction energetics. Predictions to chemical accuracy, i.e., to 1 kcal/mol or less, are not yet feasible, although continuing improvements in both the theoretical methodology and computer technology suggest that this will soon be possible, at least for reactions involving small polyatomic species. 4 figs.
Study on penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment
Qiao, Xiangxin; Xu, Heyang
2017-09-01
In order to investigate penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment penetrating target, PTFE/Al (mass ratio 73.5/26.5) pressed and sintered into a Ф8mm × 8mm cylinder. To form energetic fragment, the cylinder was put into a closed container made by 35CrMnSiA. The container is 12mm long, 2mm thick. Energetic fragments were launched by a 14.5mm ballistic gun with a series of velocities and the penetrate process was simulated by AUTODYN-3D. The results show that the stress peak of energetic material exceed the initiation threshold, and energetic material will deflagrate, when energetic fragments impact velocity more than 800 m/s. The research results can provide reference for designs of energetic warhead.
Cizek, P.; Wynne, B. P.; Davies, C. H. J.; Hodgson, P. D.
2015-01-01
The present work investigates the transformation behavior of a low-carbon Mo-Nb linepipe steel and the corresponding transformation product microstructures using deformation dilatometry. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams have been constructed for both the fully recrystallized austenite and that deformed in uniaxial compression at 1148 K (875 °C) to a strain of 0.5 for cooling rates ranging from 0.1 to about 100 K/s. The obtained microstructures have been studied in detail using electron backscattered diffraction complemented by transmission electron microscopy. Heavy deformation of the parent austenite has caused a significant expansion of the polygonal ferrite transformation field in the CCT diagram, as well as a shift in the non-equilibrium ferrite transformation fields toward higher cooling rates. Furthermore, the austenite deformation has resulted in a pronounced refinement in both the effective grain (sheaf/packet) size and substructure unit size of the non-equilibrium ferrite microstructures. The optimum microstructure expected to display an excellent balance between strength and toughness is a mix of quasi-polygonal ferrite and granular bainite (often termed "acicular ferrite") produced from the heavily deformed austenite within a processing window covering the cooling rates from about 10 to about 100 K/s.
Lau, Y T; Lang, M A; Essig, A
1981-10-02
The effects of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on the rate of transepithelial active Na transport JaNa and the rate of suprabasal O2 consumption of Jsbr were studied in paired hemiskins of frog. Within some 30 min following administration of ADH both JaNa and Jsbr increased to near-maximal levels and then remained stable for at least an hour. On symmetric perturbation of the transepithelial electrical potential delta psi at 6-min intervals, the dependence of JaNa and Jsbr on delta psi was near-linear, both in control and experimental hemi-skins. The stability and near-linearity of the system permitted systematic analysis of the parameters of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamic (NET) and electrical equivalent circuit (EC) formulations. ADH (100 mU/ml) stimulated two of the three NET phenomenological L coefficients, as well as A, the affinity (negative Gibbs free energy) of a metabolic reaction driving transport. Observations at partially depressed levels of transport indicated that the effects of kinetic and energetic factors are to some extent discrete. EC analysis showed stimulation of the amiloride-sensitive conductance Ka, but not of the apparent electromitive force of Na transport 'ENa'. Similar effects were produced by 10 mU/ml of ADH or by 10 mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP, although less marked effects on the L coefficients were noted with the lower concentration of hormone. It is suggested that, in contrast to EC analysis, the NET formulation distinguishes between kinetic and energetic determinants of transport, supporting a dual mechanism of action of ADH.
Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.
2011-07-01
Soft matter is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field covering a range of subject areas including physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and engineering. Some of the important universal features of these materials are their mesoscopic structures and their dynamics. Due to the existence of such large-scale structures, which nevertheless exhibit interactions of the order of the thermal energy, soft matter can readily be taken out of equilibrium by imposing a weak external field such as an electric field, a mechanical stress or a shear flow. The importance of the coexistence of microscopic molecular dynamics and the mesoscopic/macroscopic structures and flows requires us to develop hierarchical approaches to understand the nonlinear and nonequilibrium phenomena, which is one of the central issues of current soft matter research. This special section presents selected contributions from the 'International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010' held from 17-20 August 2010 in Nara, Japan, which aimed to describe recent advances in soft matter research focusing especially on its nonequilibrium aspects. The topics discussed cover statics and dynamics of a wide variety of materials ranging from traditional soft matter like polymers, gels, emulsions, liquid crystals and colloids to biomaterials such as biopolymers and biomembranes. Among these studies, we highlighted the physics of biomembranes and vesicles, which has attracted great attention during the last decade; we organized a special session for this active field. The work presented in this issue deals with (1) structure formation in biomembranes and vesicles, (2) rheology of polymers and gels, (3) mesophases in block copolymers, (4) mesoscopic structures in liquid crystals and ionic liquids, and (5) nonequilibrium dynamics. This symposium was organized as part of a research project supported by the Grant-in-Aid for the priority area 'Soft Matter Physics' (2006-2010) from the Ministry of Education
Energetics of dislocation transformations in hcp metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Zhaoxuan; Yin, Binglun; Curtin, W.A.
2016-01-01
Dislocation core structures of hcp metals are highly complex and differ significantly among the hcp family. Some dislocations undergo unconventional transformations that have significant effects on the material plastic flow. Here, the energetics of dislocation dissociations are analyzed in a general anisotropic linear elastic theory framework for transformations in which changes in the partial Burgers vectors are small. Quantitative analyses on various transformations are made using DFT-computed stacking fault energies and partial Burgers vectors. Specifically, possible transformations of the mixed, edge, and screw 〈c+a〉 and screw 〈a〉 dislocations in 6 hcp metals (Mg, Ti, Zr, Re, Zn, Cd) are studied. Climb dissociation of mixed or edge 〈c+a〉 dislocations to the Basal plane is energetically favorable in all 6 metals and thus only limited by thermal activation. The 〈c+a〉 screw dislocation is energetically preferable on Pyramidal I for Ti, Zr, and Re, and on Pyramidal II for Zn and Cd. In Mg, the energy difference between screw 〈c+a〉 on Pyramidal I and II planes is small, suggesting relatively easy cross-slip. For the screw 〈a〉, Basal dissociation is energetically favorable in Mg, Re, Zn and Cd, while Prism dissociation is strongly favorable in Ti and Zr. Only Ti, Zr and Re show a metastable state for dissociation on the Prism plane, and the energy difference between screw 〈a〉 on the Prism and Pyramidal I planes is relatively small in all systems, suggesting relatively easy cross-slip of 〈a〉 in Ti and Zr. The elastic analysis thus provides a single framework able to capture the controlling energetics for different dissociations and slip systems in hcp metals. When the calculated energy differences are very small, the results point to the need for detailed modeling of the atomistic core structure. Moreover, the analyses rationalize broad experimental observations on dominant slip systems and dislocation behaviours, and provide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Urena, A.; Cobollo, M.; Barranco, V.; Alvarez, M.J.
1998-01-01
TIG welding of two different duplex stainless steels is carried out. Are-discharge on base-material plates by means of the TIG technique without filler metal and varying the energetic conditions (E.N.A.) has been performed. A comparative study concerning the microstructural evolution as well as mechanical properties is carried out. The relation between hardness profiles, the microstructural variations and the ferrite δ concentration is established. Further, the above mentioned properties are related to the E.N.A. for each welded joint. (Author) 8 refs
Semiconductors and semimetals epitaxial microstructures
Willardson, Robert K; Beer, Albert C; Gossard, Arthur C
1994-01-01
Newly developed semiconductor microstructures can now guide light and electrons resulting in important consequences for state-of-the-art electronic and photonic devices. This volume introduces a new generation of epitaxial microstructures. Special emphasis has been given to atomic control during growth and the interrelationship between the atomic arrangements and the properties of the structures.Key Features* Atomic-level control of semiconductor microstructures* Molecular beam epitaxy, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition* Quantum wells and quantum wires* Lasers, photon(IR)detectors, heterostructure transistors
Experimental microstructures MOX fuels elaboration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gotta, M.J.; Dubois, S.; Lechelle, J.; Sornay, P.
2000-01-01
In order to propose a new MOX fuel, owning higher combustion rate, studies are realized at the CEA in collaboration with Cogema, EDF and Framatome. New microstructures of MOX are looked for around two approaches: the grains size and the plutonium distribution. These approaches are presented and discussed in this paper. The first one develops big grains microstructures obtained, either with anionic (sulfur), or cationic (Cr 2 O 3 ) additives. The second one concerns the CER-CER type composite microstructures. (A.L.B.)
Scantlebury, David M; Mills, Michael G L; Wilson, Rory P; Wilson, John W; Mills, Margaret E J; Durant, Sarah M; Bennett, Nigel C; Bradford, Peter; Marks, Nikki J; Speakman, John R
2014-10-03
Population viability is driven by individual survival, which in turn depends on individuals balancing energy budgets. As carnivores may function close to maximum sustained power outputs, decreased food availability or increased activity may render some populations energetically vulnerable. Prey theft may compromise energetic budgets of mesopredators, such as cheetahs and wild dogs, which are susceptible to competition from larger carnivores. We show that daily energy expenditure (DEE) of cheetahs was similar to size-based predictions and positively related to distance traveled. Theft at 25% only requires cheetahs to hunt for an extra 1.1 hour per day, increasing DEE by just 12%. Therefore, not all mesopredators are energetically constrained by direct competition. Other factors that increase DEE, such as those that increase travel, may be more important for population viability. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Experimental study of nonequilibrium post-chf heat transfer in rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unal, C.; Tuzla, K.; Badr, O.; Neti, S.; Chen, J.
1986-01-01
Verifications and improvements of nonequilibrium heat transfer models, for post-critical-heat-flux convective boiling, has been greatly affected by the lack of experimental data regarding the degree of thermodynamic nonequilibrium. Recent studies had been successful in measuring vapor superheats in a vertical single tube. This paper extends the nonequilibrium convective boiling data to a rod bundle geometry. Vapor superheat measurements were obtained in a rod bundle with nine heated rods and a heated shroud. Tests were carried out with water at low mass fluxes with a wide range of dryout conditions. Significant nonequilibrium was observed, with vapor superheats of up to 600 0 C. Parametric effects of mass flux, heat flux and inlet conditions on vapor superheat are presented
Grossman, B.; Garrett, J.; Cinnella, P.
1989-01-01
Several versions of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms were compared with regard to general applicability and complexity. Test computations were performed using curve-fit equilibrium air chemistry for an M = 5 high-temperature inviscid flow over a wedge, and an M = 24.5 inviscid flow over a blunt cylinder for test computations; for these cases, little difference in accuracy was found among the versions of the same flux-split algorithm. For flows with nonequilibrium chemistry, the effects of the thermodynamic model on the development of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms were investigated using an equilibrium model, a general nonequilibrium model, and a simplified model based on vibrational relaxation. Several numerical examples are presented, including nonequilibrium air chemistry in a high-temperature shock tube and nonequilibrium hydrogen-air chemistry in a supersonic diffuser.
Nonequilibrium Contribution to the Rate of Reaction. III. Isothermal Multicomponent Systems
Shizgal, B.; Karplus, M.
1970-10-01
The nonequilibrium contribution to the reaction rate of an isothermal multicomponent system is obtained by solution of the appropriate Chapman-Enskog equation; the system is composed of reactive species in contact with a heat bath of inert atoms M.
Discussions on the non-equilibrium effects in the quantitative phase field model of binary alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhi-Jun, Wang; Jin-Cheng, Wang; Gen-Cang, Yang
2010-01-01
All the quantitative phase field models try to get rid of the artificial factors of solutal drag, interface diffusion and interface stretch in the diffuse interface. These artificial non-equilibrium effects due to the introducing of diffuse interface are analysed based on the thermodynamic status across the diffuse interface in the quantitative phase field model of binary alloys. Results indicate that the non-equilibrium effects are related to the negative driving force in the local region of solid side across the diffuse interface. The negative driving force results from the fact that the phase field model is derived from equilibrium condition but used to simulate the non-equilibrium solidification process. The interface thickness dependence of the non-equilibrium effects and its restriction on the large scale simulation are also discussed. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Glushak, P. A.; Markiv, B. B.; Tokarchuk, M. V.
2018-01-01
We present a generalization of Zubarev's nonequilibrium statistical operator method based on the principle of maximum Renyi entropy. In the framework of this approach, we obtain transport equations for the basic set of parameters of the reduced description of nonequilibrium processes in a classical system of interacting particles using Liouville equations with fractional derivatives. For a classical systems of particles in a medium with a fractal structure, we obtain a non-Markovian diffusion equation with fractional spatial derivatives. For a concrete model of the frequency dependence of a memory function, we obtain generalized Kettano-type diffusion equation with the spatial and temporal fractality taken into account. We present a generalization of nonequilibrium thermofield dynamics in Zubarev's nonequilibrium statistical operator method in the framework of Renyi statistics.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of radiation-induced processes in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurov, V.M.; Eshchanov, A.N.; Kuketaev, A.T.; Sidorenya, Yu.S.
2005-01-01
In the paper an item about a defect system response in solids on external action (temperature, pressure, light, etc.) from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics is considered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brinton, R.E.; Deshmukh, P.P.; Chen, A.; Davis, T.P.; Hsiao, S.; Yamamura, H.I.
1983-01-01
In this paper the authors report a highly-sensitive non-equilibrium RIA which can be performed within 24 h. To demonstrate the sensitivity of this RIA, brain regions from rat were examined for vasopressin content. (Auth.)
Numerical fluid dynamics calculations of nonequilibrium steam-water flows with entrained droplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, K.A.
1984-01-01
The present work has developed a computational fluid dynamics formulation that efficiently solves the conservation laws for a vapor field, a continuous liquid field, and two dispersed droplet fields. The thermal-hydraulic effects resulting from the exchange of mass, momentum and energy between the vapor and the dispersed droplet phases has been accurately modeled. This work is an advancement of the state-of-the-art for engineering analyses of nonequilibrium steam-water-droplet flows in heated channels. It is particularly applicable for boiling steam-water flows in which it is important to represent the effects of significant thermal nonequilibrium between the vapor and the liquid phases. This work was shown to be in good agreement with unique experimental measurements of significant thermal nonequilibrium between the vapor and dispersed droplets. The tests analyzed covered a range of mass fluxes and wall heating rates, and were all at low pressures where nonequilibrium effects are most pronounced
Fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD using closed-time path integral formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nayak, Gouranga C.
2009-01-01
In this paper we implement the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path integral formalism in non-equilibrium QCD in accordance to the definition of the Collins-Soper fragmentation function. We consider a high-p T parton in QCD medium at initial time τ 0 with an arbitrary non-equilibrium (non-isotropic) distribution function f(vector (p)) fragmenting to a hadron. We formulate the parton-to-hadron fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD in the light-cone quantization formalism. It may be possible to include final-state interactions with the medium via a modification of the Wilson lines in this definition of the non-equilibrium fragmentation function. This may be relevant to the study of hadron production from a quark-gluon plasma at RHIC and LHC. (orig.)
On nonequilibrium many-body systems 2: ultra fast relaxation phenomena in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Algarte, A.C.S.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.
1986-01-01
The application of the nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method to the study of the irreversible thermodynamics and optical responses of semiconductors probed by ultrafast laser spectroscopy is described. (Author) [pt
De Visser, P.J.; Goldie, D.J.; Diener, P.; Withington, S.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.
2014-01-01
In a superconductor, absorption of photons with an energy below the superconducting gap leads to redistribution of quasiparticles over energy and thus induces a strong nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distribution. We have measured the electrodynamic response, quality factor, and resonant
Non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations in binary liquids with realistic boundary conditions.
Ortiz de Zárate, J M; Kirkpatrick, T R; Sengers, J V
2015-09-01
Because of the spatially long-ranged nature of spontaneous fluctuations in thermal non-equilibrium systems, they are affected by boundary conditions for the fluctuating hydrodynamic variables. In this paper we consider a liquid mixture between two rigid and impervious plates with a stationary concentration gradient resulting from a temperature gradient through the Soret effect. For liquid mixtures with large Lewis and Schmidt numbers, we are able to obtain explicit analytical expressions for the intensity of the non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations as a function of the frequency ω and the wave number q of the fluctuations. In addition we elucidate the spatial dependence of the intensity of the non-equilibrium fluctuations responsible for a non-equilibrium Casimir effect.
Non-Equilibrium Heavy Flavored Hadron Yields from Chemical Equilibrium Strangeness-Rich QGP
Kuznetsova, Inga; Rafelski, Johann
2008-01-01
The yields of heavy flavored hadrons emitted from strangeness-rich QGP are evaluated within chemical non-equilibrium statistical hadronization model, conserving strangeness, charm, and entropy yields at hadronization.
Non-equilibrium reactive flux: A unified framework for slow and fast reaction kinetics.
Bose, Amartya; Makri, Nancy
2017-10-21
The flux formulation of reaction rate theory is recast in terms of the expectation value of the reactive flux with an initial condition that corresponds to a non-equilibrium, factorized reactant density. In the common case of slow reactive processes, the non-equilibrium expression reaches the plateau regime only slightly slower than the equilibrium flux form. When the reactants are described by a single quantum state, as in the case of electron transfer reactions, the factorized reactant density describes the true initial condition of the reactive process. In such cases, the time integral of the non-equilibrium flux expression yields the reactant population as a function of time, allowing characterization of the dynamics in cases where there is no clear separation of time scales and thus a plateau regime cannot be identified. The non-equilibrium flux offers a unified approach to the kinetics of slow and fast chemical reactions and is ideally suited to mixed quantum-classical methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz de la Rubia, T.
1989-01-01
The primary state of damage present in a solid as a result of particle irradiation has been a topic of interest to the physics and materials research community over the last forty years. Energetic displacement cascades resulting from the heavy ion irradiation of a solid play a prominent role in radiation damage and non-equilibrium processing of materials; however, their study has been hampered by the small size (∼10 -20 cm 3 ) and short lifetime (∼10 -11 s) as well as by their highly non-homogeneous nature. In this work, the molecular dynamics computer simulation technique is employed to study the structure and dynamics of energetic displacement cascades in Cu and Ni. The atomic interactions in Cu were described with the use of the Gibson II form of the Born-Mayer pair potential while for Ni the Johnson-Erginsoy pair potential was employed. Calculations were also carried out with the use of the embedded atom method many-body potentials. The results provide the first detailed microscopic description of the evolution of the cascade. The author shows for the first time, that a process akin to melting takes place in the core of the cascade. Atomic mixing, point defect production and point defect agglomeration, all processes directly related to the evolution of the cascade, are then explained in terms of a simple model in which the liquid-like nature of the cascade plays a dominant role in determining the primary state of damage
X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagler, S.E.
1990-01-01
We report on the progress of our project entitled ''X-ray Scattering of Non-Equilibrium Ordering Processes.'' During the past year we have made the first synchrotron measurements of ordering in Cu 3 Au have revealed the presence of an intermediate, non-equilibrium ordered state. Preliminary work involving x-ray magnetic scattering has been carried out. Work is continuing in these areas as well as on related problems. 5 refs
The behavior of matter under nonequilibrium conditions: Fundamental aspects and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prigogine, I.
1989-10-01
As in the previous period, our work has been concerned with the study of the properties of nonequilibrium systems and especially with the mechanism of self-organization. As is well-known, the study of self-organization began with the investigation of hydrodynamical or chemical instabilities studied from the point of view of macroscopic physics. The main outcome is that nonequilibrium generates spatial correlations of macroscopic physics. The main outcome is that nonequilibrium generates spatial correlations of macroscopic range whose characteristics length is an intrinsic property and whose amplitude is determined by nonequilibrium constraints. A survey of the macroscopic approach to nonequilibrium states is given in the paper ''Nonequilibrium States and Long Range Correlations in Chemical Dynamics,'' by G. Nicolis et al. However, over the last few years important progress has been made in the simulation of nonequilibrium situations using mainly molecular dynamics. It appears now that processes corresponding to self-organization as well as the appearance of long-range correlations can be obtained in this way starting from a program involving Newtonian dynamics (generally the laws of interaction correspond to hard spheres or hard disks). Examples of such types of studies leading to Benard instabilities, to chemical clocks, or to spatial structure formation are given in this report. As a result, we may now view self-organization as a direct expression of an appropriate microscopic dynamics. This is the reason why we have devoted much work to the study of large Poincare systems (LPS) involving continuous sets of resonances. These systems have been shown to lead, according to the constraints, either to equilibrium situations or to nonequilibrium states involving long range correlations. We discuss LPS in the frame of classical mechanics
Initial conditions of non-equilibrium quark-gluon plasma evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shmatov, S.V.
2002-01-01
In accordance with the hydrodynamic Bjorken limit, the initial energy density and temperature for a chemical non-equilibrium quark-gluon system formed in the heavy ion collisions at the LHC are computed. The dependence of this value on the type of colliding nuclei and the collision impact parameter is studied. The principle possibility of the non-equilibrium quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation in the light nuclei collisions is shown. The life time of QGP is calculated. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkhipov, V.I.; Rudenko, A.I.
1979-01-01
The effect of changes of radiation stimulation permittivity on nonequilibrium conductivity of dielectrics and high-resistance conductors in a radiation field has been studied theoretically. The plane-parallel sample under the constant voltage has been irradiated by penetrating radiation. The uniform radiation caused the transfer the current carriers from traps to the conduction band. The dependence of permittivity on charged traps concentration is shown to lead to negative nonequilibrium conductivity of high-resistance materials
Korenev, V. L.
2011-01-01
A simple model, describing the dynamics of the non-equilibrium pseudospin of a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons, has been formulated. It explains the suppression of spin splitting of a non-equilibrium polariton condensate in an external magnetic field, the optical alignment, and the conversion of alignment into orientation of polaritons. It has been shown that inverse effects are possible, to wit, the spontaneous circular polarization and the enhancement of spin spli...
Non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems and fluctuation-dissipation theorems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Špička, Václav; Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla
2017-01-01
Roč. 65, 6-8 (2017), s. 1-23, č. článku 1700032. ISSN 0015-8208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-equilibrium * fluctuation-dissipation theorems * non-equilibrium Greens function * transient and steady state magnetic current * molecular bridge Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2016
On non-equilibrium states in QFT model with boundary interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazhanov, Vladimir V.; Lukyanov, Sergei L.; Zamolodchikov, Alexander B.
1999-01-01
We prove that certain non-equilibrium expectation values in the boundary sine-Gordon model coincide with associated equilibrium-state expectation values in the systems which differ from the boundary sine-Gordon in that certain extra boundary degrees of freedom (q-oscillators) are added. Applications of this result to actual calculation of non-equilibrium characteristics of the boundary sine-Gordon model are also discussed
Inhomogeneous microstructural growth by irradiation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krishan, K.; Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben
1985-01-01
In the present paper we discuss the development of heterogeneous microstructure for uniform irradiation conditions. It is shown that microstructural inhomogeneities on a scale of 0.1 μm can develop purely from kinematic considerations because of the basic structure of the rate equations used...... to describe such evolution. Two aspects of the growth of such inhomogeneities are discussed. Firstly, it is shown that a local variation in the sink densities of the various microstructural defects will tend to enhance the inhomogeneity rather than remove it. Secondly, such inhomogeneities will lead to point...... defect fluxes that result in a spatial growth of the inhomogeneous region, which will be stopped only when the microstructural density around this region becomes large. The results have important implications in the formation of denuded zones and void formation in metals....
Modelling microstructural evolution under irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tikare, V.
2015-01-01
Microstructural evolution of materials under irradiation is characterised by some unique features that are not typically present in other application environments. While much understanding has been achieved by experimental studies, the ability to model this microstructural evolution for complex materials states and environmental conditions not only enhances understanding, it also enables prediction of materials behaviour under conditions that are difficult to duplicate experimentally. Furthermore, reliable models enable designing materials for improved engineering performance for their respective applications. Thus, development and application of mesoscale microstructural model are important for advancing nuclear materials technologies. In this chapter, the application of the Potts model to nuclear materials will be reviewed and demonstrated, as an example of microstructural evolution processes. (author)
Phase transitions, scaling and renormalisation in nonequilibrium systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanney, T.E.
2002-01-01
Nonequilibrium phase transitions and critical phenomena in simple lattice-based interacting particle models are considered. Specific models of interest are exclusion models in low dimensions, with particular reference to the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) which provides a testbed for many of the calculations. The aim of the thesis is to devise approximate scaling techniques for such models which account for fluctuations and which are more widely applicable than methods pursuing an exact solution. Scaling techniques which have been applied to models described by a linear equation of motion are extended to the case where the equation of motion is nonlinear. These methods capture the dynamic transition in the ASEP but fail to properly account for the nonlinearity in their predictions for the dynamic exponent, z. A new and widely applicable real space renormalisation group procedure is developed. It provides a direct and transparent scaling method to extract universal and non-universal properties of the steady state and dynamic critical behaviour in the boundary-driven ASEP in one dimension. In particular, we obtain a flow diagram for the problem from which we can interpret all the qualitative features of the (exactly known) steady state phase diagram and which predicts the exact value for the critical point. Further, the dynamic scaling is consistent with a crossover between diflusive behaviour near the zero current fixed point and z = 3/2 dynamics at the critical fixed point. Extensions to include disorder, to higher dimensions, and to other models are all possible using the method. Using the mapping between the Master equation and the Schroedinger equation in imaginary time, this scaling procedure is rephrased as a new blocking for quantum-spin systems. Existing methods of real space renormalisation for quantum-spin systems are applied to a variety of previously unconsidered exclusion models. In particular, it is shown how such techniques can be applied
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Le [Laboratory of Mathematics and Physics, Ecole Centrale de Pékin, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu, Ying [Laboratory of Mathematics and Physics, Ecole Centrale de Pékin, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Yangwei, E-mail: liuyangwei@126.com [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Lipeng [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)
2015-10-09
The non-equilibrium property in turbulence is a non-negligible problem in large-eddy simulation but has not yet been systematically considered. The generalization from equilibrium turbulence to non-equilibrium turbulence requires a clear recognition of the non-equilibrium property. As a preliminary step of this recognition, the present letter defines a typical non-equilibrium process, that is, the spectral non-equilibrium process, in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. It is then theoretically investigated by employing the skewness of grid-scale velocity gradient, which permits the decomposition of resolved velocity field into an equilibrium one and a time-reversed one. Based on this decomposition, an improved Smagorinsky model is proposed to correct the non-equilibrium behavior of the traditional Smagorinsky model. The present study is expected to shed light on the future studies of more generalized non-equilibrium turbulent flows. - Highlights: • A spectral non-equilibrium process in isotropic turbulence is defined theoretically. • A decomposition method is proposed to divide a non-equilibrium turbulence field. • An improved Smagorinsky model is proposed to correct the non-equilibrium behavior.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ziewiec A.
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The paper presents rezults of microstructure (LM, TEM investigation and hardness measurments of welded joints in martensitic precipitation hardened stainless steel containing copper, subjected to heat treatment. For the aging temperature up to 540 °C even for the very long times, the microstructure of the welded joints is similar to this one at lower temerature aging. After aging at 620 °C a distinct change of the microstructure was observed. Non-equilibrium solidification conditions of the weld metal, segregation and the diffusion of copper and the elements stablilizing the austenite cause the occurrence of the reverse transformation of the martensite into austenite as fast as just 1 hour at 620 °C. TEM investigations revealed the differences in dispersion of hardening copper precipitates after aging at temperature 620 °C for 1 and 4 hours.
Micromagnetism and the microstructure of ferromagnetic solids
Kronmüller, Helmut
2003-01-01
Here is a fundamental introduction to microstructure magnetic property relations where microstructures on atomic, nano- and micrometer scales are considered. The authors demonstrate that outstanding magnetic properties require an optimization of microstructural properties where the microstructures in crystalline materials are point defects and dislocations as well as grain and phase boundaries. In amorphous alloys the type of microstructures on atomic scales are defined and used to describe intrinsic and extrinsic properties.
Microstructures (clumps) in turbulent plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balescu, R.; Misguich, J.H.
1977-01-01
A general analysis of binary correlations in a turbulent plasma leads to a functional relation relating correlations to the one-particle distribution function. Such a relation allows to understand the mechanism of generation of the microstructures or clumps introduced by Dupree. The expressions introduced by this author appear as a lowest approximation of the general equation. The features and interpretation of these microstructures are briefly discussed [fr
Thermochemical nonequilibrium analysis of O2+Ar based on state-resolved kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jae Gang; Boyd, Iain D.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Thermochemical nonequilibrium studies for three lowest lying electronic states of O 2 . • The complete sets of the rovibrational state-to-state transition rates of O 2 +Ar. • Rovibrational relaxations and coupled chemical reactions of O 2 . • Nonequilibrium reaction rates of O 2 derived from the quasi-steady state assumption. - Abstract: The thermochemical nonequilibrium of the three lowest lying electronic states of molecular oxygen, O 2 (X 3 Σ g - ,a 1 Δ g ,b 1 Σ g + ), through interactions with argon is studied in the present work. The multi-body potential energy surfaces of O 2 +Ar are evaluated from the semi-classical RKR potential of O 2 in each electronic state. The rovibrational states and energies of each electronic state are calculated by the quantum mechanical method based on the present inter-nuclear potential of O 2 . Then, the complete sets of the rovibrational state-to-state transition rate coefficients of O 2 +Ar are calculated by the quasi-classical trajectory method including the quasi-bound states. The system of master equations constructed by the present state-to-state transition rate coefficients are solved to analyze the thermochemical nonequilibrium of O 2 +Ar in various heat bath conditions. From these studies, it is concluded that the vibrational relaxation and coupled chemical reactions of each electronic state needs to be treated as a separate nonequilibrium process, and rotational nonequilibrium needs to be considered at translational temperatures above 10,000 K
Solar Energetic Particle Studies with PAMELA
Bravar, U.; Christian, E. R.; deNolfo, Georgia; Ryan, J. M.; Stochaj, S.
2011-01-01
The origin of the high-energy solar energetic particles (SEPs) may conceivably be found in composition signatures that reflect the elemental abundances of the low corona and chromosphere vs. the high corona and solar wind. The presence of secondaries, such as neutrons and positrons, could indicate a low coronal origin of these particles. Velocity dispersion of different species and over a wide energy range can be used to determine energetic particle release times at the Sun. Together with multi-wavelength imaging, in- situ observations of a variety of species, and coverage over a wide energy range provide a critical tool in identifying the origin of SEPs, understanding the evolution of these events within the context of solar active regions, and constraining the acceleration mechanisms at play. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA)instrument, successfully launched in 2006 and expected to remain operational until at least the beginning of 2012, measures energetic particles in the same energy range as ground-based neutron monitors, and lower energies as well. It thus bridges the gap between low energy in-situ observations and ground-based Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) observations. It can measure the charge (up to Z=6) and atomic number of the detected particles, and it can identify and measure positrons and detect neutrons-an unprecedented array of data channels that we can bring to bear on the origin of high-energy SEPs. We present prelimiary results on the for the 2006 December 13 solar flare and GLE and the 2011 March 21 solar flare, both registering proton and helium enhancements in PAMELA. Together with multi- spacecraft contextual data and modeling, we discuss the PAMELA results in the context of the different acceleration mechanisms at play.
Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.
Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Kawase, H.; Nishitani, T.; Seki, R.; Osakabe, M.; LHD Experiment Group
2018-04-01
A deuterium experiment was initiated to achieve higher-temperature and higher-density plasmas in March 2017 in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The central ion temperature notably increases compared with that in hydrogen experiments. However, an energetic particle mode called the helically-trapped energetic-ion-driven resistive interchange (EIC) mode is often excited by intensive perpendicular neutral beam injections on high ion-temperature discharges. The mode leads to significant decrease of the ion temperature or to limiting the sustainment of the high ion-temperature state. To understand the effect of EIC on the energetic ion confinement, the radial transport of energetic ions is studied by means of the neutron flux monitor and vertical neutron camera newly installed on the LHD. Decreases of the line-integrated neutron profile in core channels show that helically-trapped energetic ions are lost from the plasma.
Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharapov, S.E.; Alper, B.; Challis, C.D.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Kiptily, V.G.; Voitsekhovich, I.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Borba, D.N.; Nabais, F.; Classen, I.G.J.; Edlund, E.M.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Fu, G.Y.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Podesta, M.; White, R.B.; Eriksson, J.; Hellesen, C.; Fasoli, A.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Lauber, P.; Thun, C. Perez von; Gassner, T.; Goloborodko, V.; Schoepf, K.; Yavorskij, V.; Hacquin, S.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Lilley, M.K.; Lisak, M.; Nyqvist, R.; Osakabe, M.; Todo, Y.; Toi, K.; Pinches, S.D.; Porkolab, M.; Shinohara, Koji; Van Zeeland, M.A.
2012-11-01
Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfvén instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discusses progress in interpreting the observed phenomena. A multi-machine comparison is presented giving information on the performance of both diagnostics and modelling tools for different plasma conditions outlining expectations for ITER based on our present knowledge. (author)
Solar energetic particles and radio burst emission
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Miteva, R.; Samwel, S. W.; Krupař, Vratislav
2017-01-01
Roč. 7 (2017), č. článku A37. ISSN 2115-7251 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06818Y Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar energetic particles * solar radio burst emission * solar cycle Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016 https://www.swsc-journal.org/ articles /swsc/abs/2017/01/swsc170028/swsc170028.html
Prebiotic organic microstructures.
Bassez, Marie-Paule; Takano, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kensei
2012-08-01
Micro- and sub-micrometer spheres, tubules and fiber-filament soft structures have been synthesized in our experiments conducted with 3 MeV proton irradiations of a mixture of simple inorganic constituents, CO, N(2) and H(2)O. We analysed the irradiation products, with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These laboratory organic structures produced a wide variety of proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous amino acids after HCl hydrolysis. The enantiomer analysis for D,L-alanine confirmed that the amino acids were abiotically synthesized during the laboratory experiment. We discuss the presence of CO(2) and the production of H(2) during exothermic processes of serpentinization and consequently we discuss the production of hydrothermal CO in a ferromagnesian silicate mineral environment. We also discuss the low intensity of the Earth's magnetic field during the Paleoarchaean Era and consequently we conclude that excitation sources arising from cosmic radiation were much more abundant during this Era. We then show that our laboratory prebiotic microstructures might be synthesized during the Archaean Eon, as a product of the serpentinization process of the rocks and of their mineral contents.
Capriz, Gianfranco
1989-01-01
This book proposes a new general setting for theories of bodies with microstructure when they are described within the scheme of the con tinuum: besides the usual fields of classical thermomechanics (dis placement, stress, temperature, etc.) some new fields enter the picture (order parameters, microstress, etc.). The book can be used in a semester course for students who have already followed lectures on the classical theory of continua and is intended as an introduction to special topics: materials with voids, liquid crystals, meromorphic con tinua. In fact, the content is essentially that of a series of lectures given in 1986 at the Scuola Estiva di Fisica Matematica in Ravello (Italy). I would like to thank the Scientific Committee of the Gruppo di Fisica Matematica of the Italian National Council of Research (CNR) for the invitation to teach in the School. I also thank the Committee for Mathematics of CNR and the National Science Foundation: they have supported my research over many years and given ...
Light Emission by Nonequilibrium Bodies: Local Kirchhoff Law
Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Bouchon, Patrick; Brucoli, Giovanni; Marquier, François
2018-04-01
The goal of this paper is to introduce a local form of Kirchhoff law to model light emission by nonequilibrium bodies. While absorption by a finite-size body is usually described using the absorption cross section, we introduce a local absorption rate per unit volume and also a local thermal emission rate per unit volume. Their equality is a local form of Kirchhoff law. We revisit the derivation of this equality and extend it to situations with subsystems in local thermodynamic equilibrium but not in equilibrium between them, such as hot electrons in a metal or electrons with different Fermi levels in the conduction band and in the valence band of a semiconductor. This form of Kirchhoff law can be used to model (i) thermal emission by nonisothermal finite-size bodies, (ii) thermal emission by bodies with carriers at different temperatures, and (iii) spontaneous emission by semiconductors under optical (photoluminescence) or electrical pumping (electroluminescence). Finally, we show that the reciprocity relation connecting light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells derived by Rau is a particular case of the local Kirchhoff law.
Controlling competing electronic orders via non-equilibrium acoustic phonons
Schuett, Michael; Orth, Peter; Levchenko, Alex; Fernandes, Rafael
The interplay between multiple electronic orders is a hallmark of strongly correlated systems displaying unconventional superconductivity. While doping, pressure, and magnetic field are the standard knobs employed to assess these different phases, ultrafast pump-and-probe techniques opened a new window to probe these systems. Recent examples include the ultrafast excitation of coherent optical phonons coupling to electronic states in cuprates and iron pnictides. In this work, we demonstrate theoretically that non-equilibrium acoustic phonons provide a promising framework to manipulate competing electronic phases and favor unconventional superconductivity over other states. In particular, we show that electrons coupled to out-of-equilibrium anisotropic acoustic phonons enter a steady state in which the effective electronic temperature varies around the Fermi surface. Such a momentum-dependent temperature can then be used to selectively heat electronic states that contribute primarily to density-wave instabilities, reducing their competition with superconductivity. We illustrate this phenomenon by computing the microscopic steady-state phase diagram of the iron pnictides, showing that superconductivity is enhanced with respect to the competing antiferromagnetic phase.
Foundations of modelling of nonequilibrium low-temperature plasmas
Alves, L. L.; Bogaerts, A.; Guerra, V.; Turner, M. M.
2018-02-01
This work explains the need for plasma models, introduces arguments for choosing the type of model that better fits the purpose of each study, and presents the basics of the most common nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma models and the information available from each one, along with an extensive list of references for complementary in-depth reading. The paper presents the following models, organised according to the level of multi-dimensional description of the plasma: kinetic models, based on either a statistical particle-in-cell/Monte-Carlo approach or the solution to the Boltzmann equation (in the latter case, special focus is given to the description of the electron kinetics); multi-fluid models, based on the solution to the hydrodynamic equations; global (spatially-average) models, based on the solution to the particle and energy rate-balance equations for the main plasma species, usually including a very complete reaction chemistry; mesoscopic models for plasma-surface interaction, adopting either a deterministic approach or a stochastic dynamical Monte-Carlo approach. For each plasma model, the paper puts forward the physics context, introduces the fundamental equations, presents advantages and limitations, also from a numerical perspective, and illustrates its application with some examples. Whenever pertinent, the interconnection between models is also discussed, in view of multi-scale hybrid approaches.
Non-Equilibrium Properties from Equilibrium Free Energy Calculations
Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.
2012-01-01
Calculating free energy in computer simulations is of central importance in statistical mechanics of condensed media and its applications to chemistry and biology not only because it is the most comprehensive and informative quantity that characterizes the eqUilibrium state, but also because it often provides an efficient route to access dynamic and kinetic properties of a system. Most of applications of equilibrium free energy calculations to non-equilibrium processes rely on a description in which a molecule or an ion diffuses in the potential of mean force. In general case this description is a simplification, but it might be satisfactorily accurate in many instances of practical interest. This hypothesis has been tested in the example of the electrodiffusion equation . Conductance of model ion channels has been calculated directly through counting the number of ion crossing events observed during long molecular dynamics simulations and has been compared with the conductance obtained from solving the generalized Nernst-Plank equation. It has been shown that under relatively modest conditions the agreement between these two approaches is excellent, thus demonstrating the assumptions underlying the diffusion equation are fulfilled. Under these conditions the electrodiffusion equation provides an efficient approach to calculating the full voltage-current dependence routinely measured in electrophysiological experiments.
Controlling Non-Equilibrium Structure Formation on the Nanoscale.
Buchmann, Benedikt; Hecht, Fabian Manfred; Pernpeintner, Carla; Lohmueller, Theobald; Bausch, Andreas R
2017-12-06
Controlling the structure formation of gold nanoparticle aggregates is a promising approach towards novel applications in many fields, ranging from (bio)sensing to (bio)imaging to medical diagnostics and therapeutics. To steer structure formation, the DNA-DNA interactions of DNA strands that are coated on the surface of the particles have become a valuable tool to achieve precise control over the interparticle potentials. In equilibrium approaches, this technique is commonly used to study particle crystallization and ligand binding. However, regulating the structural growth processes from the nano- to the micro- and mesoscale remains elusive. Here, we show that the non-equilibrium structure formation of gold nanoparticles can be stirred in a binary heterocoagulation process to generate nanoparticle clusters of different sizes. The gold nanoparticles are coated with sticky single stranded DNA and mixed at different stoichiometries and sizes. This not only allows for structural control but also yields access to the optical properties of the nanoparticle suspensions. As a result, we were able to reliably control the kinetic structure formation process to produce cluster sizes between tens of nanometers up to micrometers. Consequently, the intricate optical properties of the gold nanoparticles could be utilized to control the maximum of the nanoparticle suspension extinction spectra between 525 nm and 600 nm. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Unstable dynamics, nonequilibrium phases, and criticality in networked excitable media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franciscis, S. de; Torres, J. J.; Marro, J.
2010-01-01
Excitable systems are of great theoretical and practical interest in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. Here, we numerically study models of excitable media, namely, networks whose nodes may occasionally be dormant and the connection weights are allowed to vary with the system activity on a short-time scale, which is a convenient and realistic representation. The resulting global activity is quite sensitive to stimuli and eventually becomes unstable also in the absence of any stimuli. Outstanding consequences of such unstable dynamics are the spontaneous occurrence of various nonequilibrium phases--including associative-memory phases and one in which the global activity wanders irregularly, e.g., chaotically among all or part of the dynamic attractors--and 1/f noise as the system is driven into the phase region corresponding to the most irregular behavior. A net result is resilience which results in an efficient search in the model attractor space that can explain the origin of some observed behavior in neural, genetic, and ill-condensed matter systems. By extensive computer simulation we also address a previously conjectured relation between observed power-law distributions and the possible occurrence of a ''critical state'' during functionality of, e.g., cortical networks, and describe the precise nature of such criticality in the model which may serve to guide future experiments.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamic models and applications to hydrogen plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, K.Y.
1988-01-01
A generalized multithermal equilibrium (GMTE) thermodynamic model is developed and presented with applications to hydrogen. A new chemical equilibrium equation for GMTE is obtained without the ensemble temperature concept, used by a previous MTE model. The effects of the GMTE model on the derivation and calculation of the thermodynamic, transport, and radiative properties are presented and significant differences from local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and two temperature model are discussed. When the electron translational temperature (T e ) is higher than the translational temperature of the heavy particles, the effects of hydrogen molecular species to the properties are significant at high T e compared with LTE results. The density variations of minor species are orders of magnitude with kinetic nonequilibrium at a constant electron temperature. A collisional-radiative model is also developed with the GMTE chemical equilibrium equation to study the effects of radiative transfer and the ambipolar diffusion on the population distribution of the excited atoms. The nonlocal radiative transfer effect is parameterized by an absorption factor, which is defined as a ratio of the absorbed intensity to the spontaneous emission coefficient
Light Emission by Nonequilibrium Bodies: Local Kirchhoff Law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Jacques Greffet
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to introduce a local form of Kirchhoff law to model light emission by nonequilibrium bodies. While absorption by a finite-size body is usually described using the absorption cross section, we introduce a local absorption rate per unit volume and also a local thermal emission rate per unit volume. Their equality is a local form of Kirchhoff law. We revisit the derivation of this equality and extend it to situations with subsystems in local thermodynamic equilibrium but not in equilibrium between them, such as hot electrons in a metal or electrons with different Fermi levels in the conduction band and in the valence band of a semiconductor. This form of Kirchhoff law can be used to model (i thermal emission by nonisothermal finite-size bodies, (ii thermal emission by bodies with carriers at different temperatures, and (iii spontaneous emission by semiconductors under optical (photoluminescence or electrical pumping (electroluminescence. Finally, we show that the reciprocity relation connecting light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells derived by Rau is a particular case of the local Kirchhoff law.
Enforcing conservation laws in nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory
Gramsch, Christian; Potthoff, Michael
2017-05-01
Using the recently introduced time-local formulation of the nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory (CPT), we construct a generalization of the approach such that macroscopic conservation laws are respected. This is achieved by exploiting the freedom for the choice of the starting point of the all-order perturbation theory in the intercluster hopping. The proposed conserving CPT is a self-consistent propagation scheme which respects the conservation of energy, particle number, and spin, which treats short-range correlations exactly up to the linear scale of the cluster, and which represents a mean-field-like approach on length scales beyond the cluster size. Using Green's functions, conservation laws are formulated as local constraints on the local spin-dependent particle and the doublon density. We consider them as conditional equations to self-consistently fix the time-dependent intracluster one-particle parameters. Thanks to the intrinsic causality of the CPT, this can be set up as a step-by-step time propagation scheme with a computational effort scaling linearly with the maximum propagation time and exponentially in the cluster size. As a proof of concept, we consider the dynamics of the two-dimensional, particle-hole-symmetric Hubbard model following a weak interaction quench by simply employing two-site clusters only. Conservation laws are satisfied by construction. We demonstrate that enforcing them has strong impact on the dynamics. While the doublon density is strongly oscillating within plain CPT, a monotonic relaxation is observed within the conserving CPT.
Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems
Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.
2017-04-01
Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.
Nonequilibrium quantum solvation with a time-dependent Onsager cavity
Kirchberg, H.; Nalbach, P.; Thorwart, M.
2018-04-01
We formulate a theory of nonequilibrium quantum solvation in which parameters of the solvent are explicitly depending on time. We assume in a simplest approach a spherical molecular Onsager cavity with a time-dependent radius. We analyze the relaxation properties of a test molecular point dipole in a dielectric solvent and consider two cases: (i) a shrinking Onsager sphere and (ii) a breathing Onsager sphere. Due to the time-dependent solvent, the frequency-dependent response function of the dipole becomes time-dependent. For a shrinking Onsager sphere, the dipole relaxation is in general enhanced. This is reflected in a temporally increasing linewidth of the absorptive part of the response. Furthermore, the effective frequency-dependent response function shows two peaks in the absorptive part which are symmetrically shifted around the eigenfrequency. By contrast, a breathing sphere reduces damping as compared to the static sphere. Interestingly, we find a non-monotonous dependence of the relaxation rate on the breathing rate and a resonant suppression of damping when both rates are comparable. Moreover, the linewidth of the absorptive part of the response function is strongly reduced for times when the breathing sphere reaches its maximal extension.
A multifluid model extended for strong temperature nonequilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Chong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-08
We present a multifluid model in which the material temperature is strongly affected by the degree of segregation of each material. In order to track temperatures of segregated form and mixed form of the same material, they are defined as different materials with their own energy. This extension makes it necessary to extend multifluid models to the case in which each form is defined as a separate material. Statistical variations associated with the morphology of the mixture have to be simplified. Simplifications introduced include combining all molecularly mixed species into a single composite material, which is treated as another segregated material. Relative motion within the composite material, diffusion, is represented by material velocity of each component in the composite material. Compression work, momentum and energy exchange, virtual mass forces, and dissipation of the unresolved kinetic energy have been generalized to the heterogeneous mixture in temperature nonequilibrium. The present model can be further simplified by combining all mixed forms of materials into a composite material. Molecular diffusion in this case is modeled by the Stefan-Maxwell equations.
Manifest and Subtle Cyclic Behavior in Nonequilibrium Steady States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zia, R K P; Weiss, Jeffrey B; Mandal, Dibyendu; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
2016-01-01
Many interesting phenomena in nature are described by stochastic processes with irreversible dynamics. To model these phenomena, we focus on a master equation or a Fokker-Planck equation with rates which violate detailed balance. When the system settles in a stationary state, it will be a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS), with time independent probability distribution as well as persistent probability current loops. The observable consequences of the latter are explored. In particular, cyclic behavior of some form must be present: some are prominent and manifest, while others are more obscure and subtle. We present a theoretical framework to analyze such properties, introducing the notion of “probability angular momentum” and its distribution. Using several examples, we illustrate the manifest and subtle categories and how best to distinguish between them. These techniques can be applied to reveal the NESS nature of a wide range of systems in a large variety of areas. We illustrate with one application: variability of ocean heat content in our climate system. (paper)
Generalization of the nuclear equation of state to nonequilibrium states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neise, L.W.
1990-10-01
In this thesis it was shown, how the thermodynamic terms can be generalized, so that they are also still applicable in nonequilibrium states. Thereby the method with a generalized grand canonical potential presented here is also applicable to two mutually steadily streaming through parts of nuclear matter. The momentum anisotropy is described by a parameter which enters the equation of state quite similarly as for instance the temperature. While now in a purely position-dependent microscopical interaction a momentum anisotropy only means an additional additive kinetic energy, momentum-dependent forces, as they play a role in nucleus-nucleus collisions, lead to complicated connections, which were analyzed in this thesis. An important advance of the procedure presented here is the relativistic formulation, which allows to study also large momentum anisotropies respectively large relative flow velocities. It could be shown that the formation of delta matter is forced by a momentum anisotropy. Especially interesting is the influence of a momentum anisotropy on the phase transition between hadronic matter and a quark-gluon plasma. (orig./HSI) [de
A calculational scheme for nonequilibrium quantum field system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamanaka, Y.
1991-01-01
A new calculational scheme is presented for interacting nonequi-librium time dependent quantum field systems within the framework of thermo field dynamics (TFD), taking account of the fact that the thermal vacuum should go through many inequivalent state vector spaces. A para-meter parametrizing various state vector spaces has to be introduced and plays a role of new time-variable. Thus we have double-time TFD. The 2 requirements in this double-time TFD are imposed to establish a quasi-particle picture to get an attainable scheme of perturbative calculation : the existence of the spectral representation for the full propagator and the diagonalization of the quasi-particle Hamiltonian. The 1st condition turns out to amount to the existence of local-time tempera-ture. The 2nd condition leads to the master equation for the number density. This formalism is applied to high-energy heavy ion collision process. The very fundamental question is then how the thermodynamical properties such as heat and temperature appear in such an isolated system. This double-time TFD, suitable for isolated thermal systems of quantum fields, can handle the situation from the beginning of the process. (author). 24 refs.; 1 fig
Calculating zeros: Non-equilibrium free energy calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oostenbrink, Chris; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van
2006-01-01
Free energy calculations on three model processes with theoretically known free energy changes have been performed using short simulation times. A comparison between equilibrium (thermodynamic integration) and non-equilibrium (fast growth) methods has been made in order to assess the accuracy and precision of these methods. The three processes have been chosen to represent processes often observed in biomolecular free energy calculations. They involve a redistribution of charges, the creation and annihilation of neutral particles and conformational changes. At very short overall simulation times, the thermodynamic integration approach using discrete steps is most accurate. More importantly, reasonable accuracy can be obtained using this method which seems independent of the overall simulation time. In cases where slow conformational changes play a role, fast growth simulations might have an advantage over discrete thermodynamic integration where sufficient sampling needs to be obtained at every λ-point, but only if the initial conformations do properly represent an equilibrium ensemble. From these three test cases practical lessons can be learned that will be applicable to biomolecular free energy calculations
Nonequilibrium localization and the interplay between disorder and interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mascarenhas, Eduardo; Bragança, Helena; Aguiar, M C O; França Santos, M; Drumond, R
2016-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium interplay between disorder and interactions in a closed quantum system. We base our analysis on the notion of dynamical state-space localization, calculated via the Loschmidt echo. Although real-space and state-space localization are independent concepts in general, we show that both perspectives may be directly connected through a specific choice of initial states, namely, maximally localized states (ML-states). We show numerically that in the noninteracting case the average echo is found to be monotonically increasing with increasing disorder; these results are in agreement with an analytical evaluation in the single particle case in which the echo is found to be inversely proportional to the localization length. We also show that for interacting systems, the length scale under which equilibration may occur is upper bounded and such bound is smaller the greater the average echo of ML-states. When disorder and interactions, both being localization mechanisms, are simultaneously at play the echo features a non-monotonic behaviour indicating a non-trivial interplay of the two processes. This interplay induces delocalization of the dynamics which is accompanied by delocalization in real-space. This non-monotonic behaviour is also present in the effective integrability which we show by evaluating the gap statistics. (paper)
Nonequilibrium localization and the interplay between disorder and interactions.
Mascarenhas, Eduardo; Bragança, Helena; Drumond, R; Aguiar, M C O; França Santos, M
2016-05-18
We study the nonequilibrium interplay between disorder and interactions in a closed quantum system. We base our analysis on the notion of dynamical state-space localization, calculated via the Loschmidt echo. Although real-space and state-space localization are independent concepts in general, we show that both perspectives may be directly connected through a specific choice of initial states, namely, maximally localized states (ML-states). We show numerically that in the noninteracting case the average echo is found to be monotonically increasing with increasing disorder; these results are in agreement with an analytical evaluation in the single particle case in which the echo is found to be inversely proportional to the localization length. We also show that for interacting systems, the length scale under which equilibration may occur is upper bounded and such bound is smaller the greater the average echo of ML-states. When disorder and interactions, both being localization mechanisms, are simultaneously at play the echo features a non-monotonic behaviour indicating a non-trivial interplay of the two processes. This interplay induces delocalization of the dynamics which is accompanied by delocalization in real-space. This non-monotonic behaviour is also present in the effective integrability which we show by evaluating the gap statistics.
A non-equilibrium neutral model for analysing cultural change.
Kandler, Anne; Shennan, Stephen
2013-08-07
Neutral evolution is a frequently used model to analyse changes in frequencies of cultural variants over time. Variants are chosen to be copied according to their relative frequency and new variants are introduced by a process of random mutation. Here we present a non-equilibrium neutral model which accounts for temporally varying population sizes and mutation rates and makes it possible to analyse the cultural system under consideration at any point in time. This framework gives an indication whether observed changes in the frequency distributions of a set of cultural variants between two time points are consistent with the random copying hypothesis. We find that the likelihood of the existence of the observed assemblage at the end of the considered time period (expressed by the probability of the observed number of cultural variants present in the population during the whole period under neutral evolution) is a powerful indicator of departures from neutrality. Further, we study the effects of frequency-dependent selection on the evolutionary trajectories and present a case study of change in the decoration of pottery in early Neolithic Central Europe. Based on the framework developed we show that neutral evolution is not an adequate description of the observed changes in frequency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION PLASMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imada, S.; Shimizu, T.; Murakami, I.; Watanabe, T.; Hara, H.
2011-01-01
We have studied the effect of time-dependent ionization and the recombination processes on magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Petschek-type steady reconnection, in which the magnetic energy is mainly converted at the slow-mode shocks, was assumed. We carried out the time-dependent ionization calculation in the magnetic reconnection structure. We only calculated the transient ionization of iron; the other species were assumed to be in ionization equilibrium. The intensity of line emissions at specific wavelengths was also calculated for comparison with Hinode or other observations in future. We found the following: (1) iron is mostly in non-equilibrium ionization in the reconnection region; (2) the intensity of line emission estimated by the time-dependent ionization calculation is significantly different from that determined from the ionization equilibrium assumption; (3) the effect of time-dependent ionization is sensitive to the electron density in the case where the electron density is less than 10 10 cm –3 ; (4) the effect of thermal conduction lessens the time-dependent ionization effect; and (5) the effect of radiative cooling is negligibly small even if we take into account time-dependent ionization.
On the Occurrence of Thermal Nonequilibrium in Coronal Loops
Froment, C.; Auchère, F.; Mikić, Z.; Aulanier, G.; Bocchialini, K.; Buchlin, E.; Solomon, J.; Soubrié, E.
2018-03-01
Long-period EUV pulsations, recently discovered to be common in active regions, are understood to be the coronal manifestation of thermal nonequilibrium (TNE). The active regions previously studied with EIT/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and AIA/SDO indicated that long-period intensity pulsations are localized in only one or two loop bundles. The basic idea of this study is to understand why. For this purpose, we tested the response of different loop systems, using different magnetic configurations, to different stratifications and strengths of the heating. We present an extensive parameter-space study using 1D hydrodynamic simulations (1020 in total) and conclude that the occurrence of TNE requires specific combinations of parameters. Our study shows that the TNE cycles are confined to specific ranges in parameter space. This naturally explains why only some loops undergo constant periodic pulsations over several days: since the loop geometry and the heating properties generally vary from one loop to another in an active region, only the ones in which these parameters are compatible exhibit TNE cycles. Furthermore, these parameters (heating and geometry) are likely to vary significantly over the duration of a cycle, which potentially limits the possibilities of periodic behavior. This study also confirms that long-period intensity pulsations and coronal rain are two aspects of the same phenomenon: both phenomena can occur for similar heating conditions and can appear simultaneously in the simulations.
Non-equilibrium phenomena near vapor-liquid interfaces
Kryukov, Alexei; Puzina, Yulia
2013-01-01
This book presents information on the development of a non-equilibrium approach to the study of heat and mass transfer problems using vapor-liquid interfaces, and demonstrates its application to a broad range of problems. In the process, the following peculiarities become apparent: 1. At vapor condensation on the interface from gas-vapor mixture, non-condensable components can lock up the interface surface and condensation stops completely. 2. At the evolution of vapor film on the heater in superfluid helium (He-II), the boiling mass flux density from the vapor-liquid interface is effectively zero at the macroscopic scale. 3. In problems concerning the motion of He-II bridges inside capillaries filled by vapor, in the presence of axial heat flux the He-II bridge cannot move from the heater as would a traditional liquid, but in the opposite direction instead. Thus the heater attracts the superfluid helium bridge. 4. The shape of liquid-vapor interface at film boiling on the axis-symmetric heaters immersed in l...
Nonequilibrium Green's function method for quantum thermal transport
Wang, Jian-Sheng; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Huanan; Thingna, Juzar
2014-12-01
This review deals with the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method applied to the problems of energy transport due to atomic vibrations (phonons), primarily for small junction systems. We present a pedagogical introduction to the subject, deriving some of the well-known results such as the Laudauer-like formula for heat current in ballistic systems. The main aim of the review is to build the machinery of the method so that it can be applied to other situations, which are not directly treated here. In addition to the above, we consider a number of applications of NEGF, not in routine model system calculations, but in a few new aspects showing the power and usefulness of the formalism. In particular, we discuss the problems of multiple leads, coupled left-right-lead system, and system without a center. We also apply the method to the problem of full counting statistics. In the case of nonlinear systems, we make general comments on the thermal expansion effect, phonon relaxation time, and a certain class of mean-field approximations. Lastly, we examine the relationship between NEGF, reduced density matrix, and master equation approaches to thermal transport.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium metal-ceramic interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Y.; Merkle, K.L.
1992-01-01
Metal-ceramic interfaces in thermodynamic equilibrium (Au/ZrO 2 ) and non-equilibrium (Au/MgO) have been studied by TEM and HREM. In the Au/ZrO 2 system, ZrO 2 precipitates formed by internal oxidation of a 7%Zr-Au alloy show a cubic ZrO 2 phase. It appears that formation of the cubic ZrO 2 is facilitated by alignment with the Au matrix. Most of the ZrO 2 precipitates have a perfect cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the Au matrix. The large number of interfacial steps observed in a short-time annealing experiment indicate that the precipitates are formed by the ledge growth mechanism. The lowest interfacial energy is indicated by the dominance of closed-packed [111] Au/ZrO 2 interfaces. In the Au/MgO system, composite films with small MgO smoke particles embedded in a Au matrix were prepared by a thin film technique. HREM observations show that most of the Au/MgO interfaces have a strong tendency to maintain a dense lattice structure across the interfaces irrespective of whether the interfaces are incoherent or semi-coherent. This paper reports that this indicates that there may be a relatively strong bond between MgO and Au
Screening of a moving charge in a nonequilibrium plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippov, A. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.; Momot, A. I.; Pal', A. F.; Starostin, A. N.
2009-01-01
Based on the model of point sinks, we consider the problem on the screening of the charge of a moving macroparticle in a nonequilibrium plasma. The characteristic formation times of the polarization cloud around such a macroparticle have been determined by the method of a three-dimensional integral Fourier transformation in spatial variables and a Laplace transformation in time. The screening effect is shown to be enhanced with increasing macroparticle velocity. We consider the applicability conditions for the model of point sinks and establish that the domain of applicability of the results obtained expands with decreasing gas ionization rate and macroparticle size. We consider the problem of charge screening at low velocities and establish that the stationary potential of the moving charge has a dipole component that becomes dominant at large distances. We show that the direction of the force exerted on the dust particle by the induced charges generally depends on the relationship between the transport and loss coefficients of the plasma particles in a plasma. When the Langevin ion recombination coefficient β iL = 4πeμ i exceeds the electron-ion recombination coefficient β ei , this force will accelerate the dust particles in the presence of sinks. In the absence of sinks or when β ei > β iL , this force will be opposite in direction to the dust particle velocity. We also consider the problem on the energy and force of interaction between a moving charged macroparticle and the induced charges
Non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics of neutron gas in reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayasaka, Hideo
1977-01-01
The thermodynamic structures of non-equilibrium steady states of highly rarefied neutron gas in various media are considered for the irreversible processes owing to creative and destructive reactions of neutrons with nuclei of these media and supply from the external sources. Under the so-called clean and cold condition in reactor, the medium is regarded virtually as offering the different chemical potential fields for each subsystem of a steady neutron gas system. The fluctuations around a steady state are considered in a Markovian-Gaussian process. The generalized Einstein relations are derived for stationary neutron gas systems. The forces and flows of neutron gases in a medium are defined upon the general stationary solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. There exist the symmetry of the kinetic coefficients, and the minimum entropy production upon neutron-nuclear reactions. The distribution functions in various media are determined by each corresponding extremum condition under the vanishing of changes of the respective total entropies in the Gibbs equation. (auth.)
Nonequilibrium forces between neutral atoms mediated by a quantum field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behunin, Ryan O.; Hu, Bei-Lok
2010-01-01
We study forces between two neutral atoms, modeled as three-dimensional harmonic oscillators, arising from mutual influences mediated by an electromagnetic field but not from their direct interactions. We allow as dynamical variables the center-of-mass motion of the atom, its internal degrees of freedom, and the quantum field treated relativistically. We adopt the method of nonequilibrium quantum field theory which can provide a first-principles, systematic, and unified description including the intrinsic and induced dipole fluctuations. The inclusion of self-consistent back-actions makes possible a fully dynamical description of these forces valid for general atom motion. In thermal equilibrium we recover the known forces--London, van der Waals, and Casimir-Polder--between neutral atoms in the long-time limit. We also reproduce a recently reported force between atoms when the system is out of thermal equilibrium at late times. More noteworthy is the discovery of the existence of a type of (or identification of the source of some known) interatomic force which we call the ''entanglement force,'' originating from the quantum correlations of the internal degrees of freedom of entangled atoms.
Energetic Ion Loss Diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-AS Stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darrow, D. S.; Werner, A.; Weller, A.
2000-01-01
A diagnostic to measure the loss of energetic ions from the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator has been built. It is capable of measuring losses of both neutral beam ions and energetic ions arising from ion cyclotron resonant heating. The probe can measure losses of both clockwise and counterclockwise-going energetic ions simultaneously, and accepts a wide range of pitch angles in both directions. Initial measurements by the diagnostic are reported