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Sample records for endurance test monthly

  1. Testing of badminton specific endurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Møller; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance test (B-ENDURANCE) was developed and tested in elite (n=17) and skilled (n=9) badminton players as well as in age-matched physically active men (non-badminton players; n=8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility...... if the test is used for evaluation of longitudinal changes, e.g. tracking training effects....

  2. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or in...

  3. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of operation...

  4. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of operation...

  5. Testing of Badminton-Specific Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Christian M; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Madsen, CM, Højlyng, M, and Nybo, L. Testing of badminton-specific endurance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2582-2590, 2016-In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance (B-ENDURANCE) test was developed and tested in elite (n = 17) and skilled (n = 9) badminton players and in age-matched physically active men (nonbadminton players; n = 8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility was evaluated in 9 badminton players. The B-ENDURANCE test is an incremental test where each level consists of repeated sequences of badminton-specific actions toward the 4 corners of the court. The subject starts in the center of the court in front of a computer screen and within each sequence, he must, in a randomized order, complete 8 actions as dictated by the computer, providing the audiovisual input and verifying that the appropriate sensor is activated within the allocated time. Recovery time between each sequence is 10 seconds throughout the test, but the time to complete each sequence is gradually decreased until the subjects cannot follow the dictated tempo. The B-ENDURANCE test performance for elite players was better (p ≤ 0.05) compared with the skilled players and nonbadminton players. In addition, the B-ENDURANCE test performance correlated (r = 0.8 and p badminton-specific endurance but at least 1 familiarization trial is recommended if the test is used for evaluation of longitudinal changes, e.g., tracking training effects.

  6. A power recirculating test rig for ball screw endurance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giberti Hermes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual design of an innovative test rig for endurance tests of ball screws is presented in this paper. The test rig layout is based on the power recirculating principle and it also allows to overtake the main critical issues of the ball screw endurance tests. Among these there are the high power required to make the test, the lengthy duration of the same and the high loads between the screw and the frame that holds it. The article describes the test rig designed scheme, the kinematic expedients to be adopted in order to obtain the required performance and functionality and the sizing procedure to choose the actuation system.

  7. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  8. Static and Dynamic Handgrip Strength Endurance: Test-Retest Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Psychou, Dimitra; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the reliability of static and dynamic handgrip strength endurance using different protocols and indicators for the assessment of strength endurance. Forty young, healthy men and women (age, 18-22 years) performed 2 handgrip strength endurance protocols: a static protocol (sustained submaximal contraction at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) and a dynamic one (8, 10, and 12 maximal repetitions). The participants executed each protocol twice to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Total work and total time were used as indicators of strength endurance in the static protocol; the strength recorded at each maximal repetition, the percentage change, and fatigue index were used as indicators of strength endurance in the dynamic protocol. The static protocol showed high reliability irrespective of sex and hand for total time and work. The 12-repetition dynamic protocol exhibited moderate-high reliability for repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change; the 8- and 10-repetition protocols demonstrated lower reliability irrespective of sex and hand. The fatigue index was not a reliable indicator for the assessment of dynamic handgrip endurance. Static handgrip endurance can be measured reliably using the total time and total work as indicators of strength endurance. For the evaluation of dynamic handgrip endurance, the 12-repetition protocol is recommended, using the repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change as indicators of strength endurance. Practitioners should consider the static (50% maximal voluntary contraction) and dynamic (12 repeated maximal repetitions) protocols as reliable for the assessment of handgrip strength endurance. The evaluation of static endurance in conjunction with dynamic endurance would provide more complete information about hand function. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Changes in physical endurance following a 3-months' exam period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, E; Scheuch, K; Gruber, G; Pietruschka, W D

    1984-05-01

    The question was raised to what extent in the course of a three-month examination period as a time of increased psychic stress, depending upon the distinction of the personal peculiarity "fear of examinations" of the students, reductions of the physical efficiency develop. On the basis of the lactate efficiency curves a significant decrease in vitality after a three-month examination period was proved. The determination of the efficiency in the aerobic-anaerobic transitional zone renders possible an exact evidence, independent upon motivation. According to the results the formation of the curriculum has a determining influence on the physical efficiency, however, not the personal peculiarity "fear of examinations".

  10. CANFLEX fuel bundle cross-flow endurance test (test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Deok; Chung, C. H.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-04-01

    As part of the normal refuelling sequence of CANDU nuclear reactor, both new and irradiated bundles can be parked in the cross-flow region of the liner tubes. This situation occurs normally for a few minutes. The fuel bundle which is subjected to the cross-flow should be capable of withstanding the consequences of cross flow for normal periods, and maintain its mechanical integrity. The cross-flow endurance test was conducted for CANFLEX bundle, latest developed nuclear fuel, at CANDU-Hot Test Loop. The test was carried out during 4 hours at the inlet cross-flow region. After the test, the bundle successfully met all acceptance criteria after the 4 hours cross-flow test. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. A New Curl-Up Test of Abdominal Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Larry

    This study evaluates a new method of administering a trunk-curl test of abdominal muscular endurance and establishes a series of norms for college students and adults. The test utilizes a piece of cardboard that is cut out so that it can be held at the level of the navel of the testee and perpendicular to the floor. The test is administered with…

  12. The general endurance of children aged 8-12 years in the 12 min run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, J

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the level of general endurance and to suggest appropriate norms in this respect. The investigation was based on a sample of over 5000 children aged 8-12 years. Their endurance was examined by means of the 12 min run test which was preceded by two months of preparatory training. The results recorded turned out to improve with age. The results achieved by the boys were on average by 272 m better than these achieved by girls. The least sex determined differences in the 12 min run performance and in somatic characteristics were observed in children aged 12 years.

  13. Wheeled and Tracked Vehicle Endurance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    board power, and lift /tow (wreckers) to identify equipment damage or degradation. When establishing test mileage cycles, identify the number of...Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) throughout test operations. b. Maintain correct levels of standard military lubricants, hydraulic fluids...Trailer, Light and Medium 50 40 10 a - Wheeled Truck-Tractor and Trailer, Heavy 40 45 15 a - Motorcycle 10 10 50 30 Quad / All Terrain

  14. Mountain Bike Wheel Endurance Testing and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Mountain biking; wheels; failure testing 1. Introduction Mountain bike ( MTB ) wheels are subject to a wide range of...accumulates over the life of the wheel and leads to part failure. MTB wheels must be designed to withstand many miles of this loading before failure

  15. Analysis of Tests Evaluating Sport Climbers’ Strength and Isometric Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozimek Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and “conditioning” variables on the one hand, and climber’s performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades. The strongest correlations (Spearman’s rank were found between climber’s competence and the relative results of the finger strength test (r = 0.7; much lower, but still statistically significant coefficients were found between the level of competence and the results of the muscle endurance tests (r = 0.53 – 0.57. Climbers aspiring to attain an elite level must have strong finger and forearm muscles, but most of all, they must be capable of releasing their potential during specific motor capability tests engaging these parts of the body. The forearm muscles of elite climbers must also be very resistant to fatigue. Since highly trained athletes vary only slightly in body mass, this variable does not have a major effect on their performance during strength and endurance tests.

  16. Reliability of the endurance test for the erector spinae muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Pereira de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The low resistance of the erector spinae has been seen as a risk factor for developing chronic low back pain. The test of the erector spinae muscle endurance advocated by Biering-Sorensen has been used to assess the strength of the erector spinae muscle. Modifications of the measuring instrument require reliability studies. Objective: To evaluate the measurement of the erector spinae muscle endurance and the standard error of measurement (SEM of the modified Biering-Sorensen test of erector spinae in women with chronic low back pain. Methods: Forty-eight sedentary women, aged 52 ±7, suffering from chronic low back pain, were tested. The position adopted was the prone position without the trunk on the examining table. Fixations were performed with straps at the ankles, knees and pelvis. The patient was instructed to maintain the shoulder blades in contact with the stadiometer as long as possible. The measurement was repeated, with measures 15 minutes apart. Results: Considering the confidence limits of Bland & Altman, - 40 and 68 seconds, the SEM was13 seconds and SEM% was 22. The ICC = 0.87 with p = 0.001. The first test was equal to 54 ± 36 seconds, and the retest = 67 ± 40 seconds. Conclusion: The endurance test of the erector spinae showed moderate reliability. Therefore, we suggest that, despite its applicability in clinical practice, the results should be interpreted carefully because the differences in mean erector spinae endurance of up to 13 seconds may be related to measurement error.

  17. Validity, Reliability, and Sensitivity of a Volleyball Intermittent Endurance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; Medina-Carrillo, Javier; García-López, Juan; Morante, Juan C; Villa, José G; Foster, Carl

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the concurrent and construct validity of a volleyball intermittent endurance test (VIET). The VIET's test-retest reliability and sensitivity to assess seasonal changes was also studied. During the preseason, 71 volleyball players of different competitive levels took part in this study. All performed the VIET and a graded treadmill test with gas-exchange measurement (GXT). Thirty-one of the players performed an additional VIET to analyze the test-retest reliability. To test the VIET's sensitivity, 28 players repeated the VIET and GXT at the end of their season. Significant (P speed (r = .78) were observed. There were no significant differences between the VIET performance test and retest (1542.1 ± 338.1 vs 1567.1 ± 358.2 m). Significant (P volleyball players.

  18. The influence of intrinsic motivation on an endurance field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigilis, N

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of various aspects of intrinsic motivation on the levels of performance in an endurance field test. The sample of the study consisted of 144 undergraduate Physical Education students. A Greek version of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was administered to participants after the completion of the 20 m shuttle field test. The 20 m shuttle run test was significantly and positively associated with the interest-enjoyment, perceived competence and effort-importance subscales. Regression analysis showed that only the perceived competence subscale could significantly contribute to the prediction the 20 m shuttle run scores. It was concluded that the perceived competence subscale of the IMI significantly predicted 20 m shuttle run performance and thus could be used to explain an additional percent of the variation in the participants' performance scores.

  19. Critical evaluation of a badminton-specific endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Michael; Faude, Oliver; Wegmann, Melissa; Meyer, Tim

    2014-03-01

    To overcome the limitations of traditional 1-dimensional fitness tests in analyzing physiological properties of badminton players, a badminton-specific endurance test (BST) was created. This study aimed at analyzing the influence of various fitness dimensions on BST performance. 18 internationally competing male German badminton players (22.4 ± 3.2 y, 79.2 ± 7.7 kg, 1.84 ± 0.06 m, world-ranking position [WRP] 21-501) completed a straight-sprint test, a change-of-direction speed test, various jump tests (countermovement jump, drop jump, standing long jump), a multistage running test (MST), and the BST. During this on-court field test players have to respond to a computerized sign indicating direction and speed of badminton-specific movements by moving into the corresponding corners. Significant correlations were found between performance in MST and BST (individual anaerobic threshold [IAT], r = .63, P = .005; maximum velocity [Vmax], r = .60, P = .009). A negative correlation (r = -.59, P = .014) was observed between IAT in BST and drop-jump contact time. No further associations between performance indices could be detected. Apart from a small portion explained by MST results (IAT, R2 = .40; Vmax, R2 = .36), the majority of BST performance cannot be explained by the determined physiological correlates. Moreover, it was impossible to predict the WRP of a player on the basis of BST results (r = -.15, P = .55). Neither discipline-specific performance nor basic physiological properties were appropriately reflected by a BST in elite badminton players. This does not substantiate its validity for regular use as a testing tool. However, it may be useful for monitoring on-court training sessions.

  20. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance Tests used Pre- and Post-Spaceflight: Test-Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Amonette, William E.

    2009-01-01

    To assess changes in muscular strength and endurance after microgravity exposure, NASA measures isokinetic strength and endurance across multiple sessions before and after long-duration space flight. Accurate interpretation of pre- and post-flight measures depends upon the reliability of each measure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) isokinetic protocol. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 M/12 F, 32.0 +/- 5.6 years) volunteered to participate. Isokinetic knee, ankle, and trunk flexion and extension strength as well as endurance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using a Cybex NORM isokinetic dynamometer. The first weekly session was considered a familiarization session. Data were collected and analyzed for weeks 2-4. Repeated measures analysis of variance (alpha=0.05) was used to identify weekly differences in isokinetic measures. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (3,1). No significant differences were found between weeks in any of the strength measures and the reliability of the strength measures were all considered excellent (ICC greater than 0.9), except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion (ICC=0.67). Although a significant difference was noted in weekly endurance measures of knee extension (p less than 0.01), the reliability of endurance measure by week were considered excellent for knee flexion (ICC=0.97) and knee extension (ICC=0.96). Except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion, the isokinetic strength and endurance measures are highly reliable when following the NASA ISS protocol. This protocol should allow accurate interpretation isokinetic data even with a small number of crew members.

  1. A Submaximal Running Test With Postexercise Cardiac Autonomic and Neuromuscular Function in Monitoring Endurance Training Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari; Laine, Tanja; Hynynen, Esa; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-01-01

    Vesterinen, V, Nummela, A, Laine, T, Hynynen, E, Mikkola, J, and Häkkinen, K. A submaximal running test with postexercise cardiac autonomic and neuromuscular function in monitoring endurance training adaptation. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 233-243, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate whether a submaximal running test (SRT) with postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR), heart rate variability (HRV), and countermovement jump (CMJ) measurements could be used to monitor endurance training adaptation. Thirty-five endurance-trained men and women completed an 18-week endurance training. Maximal endurance performance and maximal oxygen uptake were measured every 8 weeks. In addition, SRTs with postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ measurements were carried out every 4 weeks. Submaximal running test consisted of two 6-minute stages at 70 and 80% of maximum heart rate (HRmax) and a 3-minute stage at 90% HRmax, followed by a 2-minute recovery stage for measuring postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ test. The highest responders according to the change of maximal endurance performance showed a significant improvement in running speeds during stages 2 and 3 in SRT, whereas no changes were observed in the lowest responders. The strongest correlation was found between the change of maximal endurance performance and running speed during stage 3, whereas no significant relationships were found between the change of maximal endurance performance and the changes of postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ. Running speed at 90% HRmax intensity was the most sensitive variable to monitor adaptation to endurance training. The present submaximal test showed potential to monitor endurance training adaptation. Furthermore, it may serve as a practical tool for athletes and coaches to evaluate weekly the effectiveness of training program without interfering in the normal training habits.

  2. Head posture influences low back muscle endurance tests in 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejanovic, Aleksandar; Balkovec, Christian; McGill, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Poor low back muscle endurance has been shown to be a predictor of chronic low back pain. While posture is a modulator of low back muscle endurance, it is unclear whether the phenomenon is neural or mechanical. This study examined low back muscle endurance with changing head and neck posture in a sample of 117 children using the Biering-Sørensen test. Each subject performed the test in a neutral posture followed by randomly selected flexed and extended head and neck positions. Head posture was found to significantly influence low back muscle endurance within subjects (p posture (boys = 171.3 ± 56.5 s; girls = 181.7 ± 57.3 s), and flexion (boys = 146.2 ± 63.8 s; girls = 159.8 ± 49.3 s). Given the minimal influence of changing moment from head and neck posture, it appears other mechanisms influence endurance score.

  3. Test of the classic model for predicting endurance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, James E; Howley, Edward T; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2010-05-01

    To compare the classic physiological variables linked to endurance performance (VO2max, %VO2max at lactate threshold (LT), and running economy (RE)) with peak treadmill velocity (PTV) as predictors of performance in a 16-km time trial. Seventeen healthy, well-trained distance runners (10 males and 7 females) underwent laboratory testing to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), RE, percentage of maximal oxygen uptake at the LT (%VO2max at LT), running velocity at LT, and PTV. Velocity at VO2max (vVO2max) was calculated from RE and VO2max. Three stepwise regression models were used to determine the best predictors (classic vs treadmill performance protocols) for the 16-km running time trial. Simple Pearson correlations of the variables with 16-km performance showed vVO2max to have the highest correlation (r = -0.972) and %VO2max at the LT the lowest (r = 0.136). The correlation coefficients for LT, VO2max, and PTV were very similar in magnitude (r = -0.903 to r = -0.892). When VO2max, %VO2max at LT, RE, and PTV were entered into SPSS stepwise analysis, VO2max explained 81.3% of the total variance, and RE accounted for an additional 10.7%. vVO2max was shown to be the best predictor of the 16-km performance, accounting for 94.4% of the total variance. The measured velocity at VO2max (PTV) was highly correlated with the estimated velocity at vVO2max (r = 0.8867). Among well-trained subjects heterogeneous in VO2max and running performance, vVO2max is the best predictor of running performance because it integrates both maximal aerobic power and the economy of running. The PTV is linked to the same physiological variables that determine vVO2max.

  4. Cerebral oxygenation and metabolism during exercise following three months of endurance training in healthy overweight males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T; Rasmussen, P; Brassard, P

    2009-01-01

    Endurance training improves muscular and cardiovascular fitness, but the effect on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism remains unknown. We hypothesized that 3 mo of endurance training would reduce cerebral carbohydrate uptake with maintained cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. Healthy...... overweight males were included in a randomized, controlled study (training: n = 10; control: n = 7). Arterial and internal jugular venous catheterization was used to determine concentration differences for oxygen, glucose, and lactate across the brain and the oxygen-carbohydrate index [molar uptake of oxygen...... with a lower plasma epinephrine concentration (P exercising at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (approximately 211 W). Before training, both OCI (3.9 +/- 0.9) and DeltaP(Mito)O(2) (-22 mmHg) decreased (P

  5. A 1-year study of endurance runners: training, laboratory tests, and field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Andy; Hopker, James; Cardinale, Marco; Cunniffe, Brian; Passfield, Louis

    2014-11-01

    To examine the training and concomitant changes in laboratory- and field-test performance of highly trained endurance runners. Fourteen highly trained male endurance runners (mean ± SD maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] 69.8 ± 6.3 mL · kg-1 · min-1) completed this 1-y training study commencing in April. During the study the runners undertook 5 laboratory tests of VO2max, lactate threshold (LT), and running economy and 9 field tests to determine critical speed (CS) and the modeled maximum distance performed above CS (D'). The data for different periods of the year were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. The influence of training on laboratory- and field-test changes was analyzed by multiple regression. Total training distance varied during the year and was lower in May-July (333 ± 206 km, P = .01) and July-August (339 ± 206 km, P = .02) than in the subsequent January-February period (474 ± 188 km). VO2max increased from the April baseline (4.7 ± 0.4 L/min) in October and January periods (5.0 ± 0.4 L/min, P ≤ .01). Other laboratory measures did not change. Runners' CS was lowest in August (4.90 ± 0.32 m/s) and highest in February (4.99 ± 0.30 m/s, P = .02). Total training distance and the percentage of training time spent above LT velocity explained 33% of the variation in CS. Highly trained endurance runners achieve small but significant changes in VO2max and CS in a year. Increases in training distance and time above LT velocity were related to increases in CS.

  6. Endurance and fatigue characteristics in the neck muscles during sub-maximal isometric test in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Marie; Abbott, Allan; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare myoelectric manifestation in neck muscle endurance and fatigue characteristics during sub-maximal isometric endurance test in patients with cervical radiculopathy and asymptomatic subjects. An additional aim was to explore associations between primary neck muscle endurance, myoelectric fatigability, and self-rated levels of fatigue, pain and subjective health measurements in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Muscle fatigue in the ventral and dorsal neck muscles was assessed in patients with cervical radiculopathy and in an asymptomatic group during an isometric neck muscle endurance test in prone and supine. 46 patients and 34 asymptomatic subjects participated. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid, cervical paraspinal muscles and upper and middle trapezius bilaterally during the endurance test. Subjective health measurements were assessed with questionnaires. The results showed altered neck muscle endurance in several of the muscles investigated with greater negative median frequency slope, greater variability, side imbalance, lower endurance time and higher experience of fatigue among the cervical radiculopathy patients compared with healthy subjects. Endurance times were significantly lower in both prone and in supine positions between the patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. During the neck muscle endurance test, fatigues in the upper trapezius muscles during the prone test and in the sternocleidomastoid muscles during the supine test were of more importance than self-perceived pain, fatigue, disability and kinesiophobia in predicting neck muscle endurance (NME). NME testing in the primary neck muscles seems to be an important factor to take into consideration in rehabilitation.

  7. Test-retest reliability of lower limb isokinetic endurance in COPD: A comparison of angular velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fernanda; Lépine, Pierre-Alexis; Garceau-Bolduc, Corine; Coats, Valérie; Allard, Étienne; Maltais, François; Saey, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the test-retest reliability of quadriceps isokinetic endurance testing at two knee angular velocities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After one familiarization session, 14 patients with moderate to severe COPD (mean age 65±4 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 55%±18% predicted) performed two quadriceps isokinetic endurance tests on two separate occasions within a 5-7-day interval. Quadriceps isokinetic endurance tests consisted of 30 maximal knee extensions at angular velocities of 90° and 180° per second, performed in random order. Test-retest reliability was assessed for peak torque, muscle endurance, work slope, work fatigue index, and changes in FEV1 for dyspnea and leg fatigue from rest to the end of the test. The intraclass correlation coefficient, minimal detectable change, and limits of agreement were calculated. High test-retest reliability was identified for peak torque and muscle total work at both velocities. Work fatigue index was considered reliable at 90° per second but not at 180° per second. A lower reliability was identified for dyspnea and leg fatigue scores at both angular velocities. Despite a limited sample size, our findings support the use of a 30-maximal repetition isokinetic muscle testing procedure at angular velocities of 90° and 180° per second in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Endurance measurement (total isokinetic work) at 90° per second was highly reliable, with a minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level of 10%. Peak torque and fatigue index could also be assessed reliably at 90° per second. Evaluation of dyspnea and leg fatigue using the modified Borg scale of perceived exertion was poorly reliable and its clinical usefulness is questionable. These results should be useful in the design and interpretation of future interventions aimed at improving muscle endurance in COPD.

  8. Validation of Criterion-Referenced Standards for Tests of Arm and Shoulder Girdle Strength and Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, William J.; Corbin, Charles B.

    1994-01-01

    This study established criterion-referenced standards for selected tests of arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance in college females. Tests of trained and untrained students using the contrasting groups method yielded criterion cutoff scores that classified subjects as trained or untrained based on upper arm and shoulder girdle resistance…

  9. Novel methods of inspiratory muscle training via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance (TIRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalin, Lawrence P; Arena, Ross

    2015-04-01

    The favorable effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in health and disease are becoming much more apparent. A variety of IMT methods exist, but few studies have compared IMT methods. The purpose of this article is to review the methods and outcomes of the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance (TIRE).

  10. Inspiratory Muscle Performance of Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Magno F; Campos, Michael A; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2018-01-01

    Smoking has potential deleterious effects on respiratory muscle function. Smokers may present with reduced inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. We compared inspiratory muscle performance of nonsmokers with that of former smokers without overt respiratory problems via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance. This study was performed on 42 healthy subjects between the ages of 30 and 79 y (mean ± SD of 56.5 ± 14.4 y). Fourteen male and 7 female former smokers were matched to nonsmokers based on sex, age, height, and weight. Subjects completed a questionnaire about their health and current smoking status. Testing included the best of 3 or more consistent trials. The Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance measurements included maximal inspiratory pressure measured from residual volume as well as sustained maximal inspiratory pressure and inspiratory duration measured from residual volume to total lung capacity during a maximal sustained inhalation. No significant difference in inspiratory performance of the entire group of former smokers compared with nonsmokers was found. However, separate sex analyses found a significant difference in sustained maximal inspiratory pressure between male former smokers and nonsmokers (518.7 ± 205.0 pressure time units vs 676.5 ± 255.2 pressure time units, P = .041). We found similar maximal inspiratory pressure between former smokers and nonsmokers via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance, but the significant difference in sustained maximal inspiratory pressure between male former smokers and nonsmokers suggests that the sustained maximal inspiratory pressure may have greater discriminatory ability in assessing the effects of smoking on inspiratory muscle performance. Further investigation of the effects of smoking on inspiratory performance via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance is warranted. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Reproducibility of an aerobic endurance test for nonexpert swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese da Costa, Adalberto; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Carlos, Daniel Medeiros; Guerra, Luis Marcos de Medeiros; Silva, Antônio José; Barbosa, Tiago Manoel Cabral Dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the reproduction of an aerobic test to determine nonexpert swimmers' resistance. The sample consisted of 24 male swimmers (age: 22.79 ± 3.90 years; weight: 74.72 ± 11.44 kg; height: 172.58 ± 4.99 cm; and fat percentage: 15.19% ± 3.21%), who swim for 1 hour three times a week. A new instrument was used in this study (a Progressive Swim Test): the swimmer wore an underwater MP3 player and increased their swimming speed on hearing a beep after every 25 meters. Each swimmer's heart rate was recorded before the test (BHR) and again after the test (AHR). The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and the number of laps performed (NLP) were also recorded. The sample size was estimated using G*Power software (v 3.0.10; Franz Faul, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany). The descriptive values were expressed as mean and standard deviation. After confirming the normality of the data using both the Shapiro-Wilk and Levene tests, a paired t-test was performed to compare the data. The Pearson's linear correlation (r) and intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) tests were used to determine relative reproducibility. The standard error of measurement (SEM) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to determine absolute reproducibility. The limits of agreement and the bias of the absolute and relative values between days were determined by Bland-Altman plots. All values had a significance level of P testing. The obtained values were r > 0.50 and ICC > 0.66. The SEM had a variation of ±2% and the CV was 0.90; SEM Test for nonexpert swimmers produces comparable results for noncompetitive swimmers with a favorable degree of reproducibility, thus presenting possible applications for researching the physiological performance of nonexpert swimmers.

  12. Endurance training

    OpenAIRE

    Borůvková, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Title: Endurance training Objectives: The aim of this research is to analyse the complexity of endurance growth for amateur cyclist. We will endeavour to suggest a suitable training plan for a 41 year old female. Method: All data was gained by collecting. The entry and final diagnostics were carried out by biomedical laboratory. A cycling ergometer was used in the maximum perseverance training test (spiroergometry). The maximum heart rate test was completed in the outdoor terrain. We also car...

  13. Tests for predicting endurance kayak performance | Olivier | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives : Previous studies investigating factors contributing to kayak performance have employed sophisticated physiological measures, and the use of specialised dynamometers, to simulate the kayak stroke. Such measures do not have general utility, and the aim of this study was to identify tests that could be performed ...

  14. Reproducibility of an aerobic endurance test for nonexpert swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronese da Costa A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adalberto Veronese da Costa,1,2 Manoel da Cunha Costa,3 Daniel Medeiros Carlos,1 Luis Marcos de Medeiros Guerra,1,2 Antônio José Silva,2 Tiago Manoel Cabral dos Santos Barbosa2,41Department of Physical Education, Bioscience Laboratory of Human Kinetics, Rio Grande do Norte State University, Mossoró, Brazil; 2Sport Sciences Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro University, Research Center in Sport, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal; 3Superior School of Physical Education, Human Performance Laboratory, Pernambuco State University, Recife, Brazil; 4National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, SingaporeBackground: This study aimed to verify the reproduction of an aerobic test to determine nonexpert swimmers' resistance.Methods: The sample consisted of 24 male swimmers (age: 22.79 ± 3.90 years; weight: 74.72 ± 11.44 kg; height: 172.58 ± 4.99 cm; and fat percentage: 15.19% ± 3.21%, who swim for 1 hour three times a week. A new instrument was used in this study (a Progressive Swim Test: the swimmer wore an underwater MP3 player and increased their swimming speed on hearing a beep after every 25 meters. Each swimmer's heart rate was recorded before the test (BHR and again after the test (AHR. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE and the number of laps performed (NLP were also recorded. The sample size was estimated using G*Power software (v 3.0.10; Franz Faul, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany. The descriptive values were expressed as mean and standard deviation. After confirming the normality of the data using both the Shapiro–Wilk and Levene tests, a paired t-test was performed to compare the data. The Pearson's linear correlation (r and intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC tests were used to determine relative reproducibility. The standard error of measurement (SEM and the coefficient of variation (CV were used to determine absolute reproducibility. The limits of agreement and the bias of the absolute and relative

  15. Repeatability of scores on a novel test of endurance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Ian; Williams, Clyde; Nevill, Alan

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the repeatability of a running endurance test using an automated treadmill system that requires no manual input to control running speed. On three separate occasions, 7 days apart, 10 experienced male endurance-trained runners (mean age 32 years, s = 10; VO2peak 61 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), s = 7) completed a treadmill time trial, in which they were instructed to run as far as possible in 60 min. The treadmill was instrumented with an ultrasonic feedback-controlled radar modulator that spontaneously regulated treadmill belt speed corresponding to the changing running speed of each runner. Estimated running intensity was 70% VO2peak (s = 11) and the distance covered 13.5 km (s = 2), with no difference in mean performances between trials. The coefficient of variation, estimated using analysis of variance, with participant and trial as main effects, was 1.4%. In summary, the use of an automated treadmill system improved the repeatability of a 60-min treadmill time trial compared with time trials in which speed is controlled manually. The present protocol is a reliable method of assessing endurance performance in endurance-trained runners.

  16. Cortisol awakening response and pain-related fear-avoidance versus endurance in patients six months after lumbar disc surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhaus, Sigrid; Möllenberg, Thomas; Plaas, Heike; Willburger, Roland; Schmieder, Kirsten; Hasenbring, Monika

    2012-06-01

    Recent research indicates that stress-induced, prolonged deviations in basal adrenocortical activity might contribute to ongoing/recurrent pain following lumbar disc surgery. Further, fear-avoidance and endurance responses to pain (FAR and ER) are regarded as important risk factors for pain after surgery. In patients with non-specific low back pain, FAR appear to possibly increase pain-related arousal, whereas ER may have an arousal-lowering effect, indicated by adrenocortical activity. The current study explores the relationship between basal adrenocortical activity and FAR and ER. Thirty-six patients 6 months after lumbar disc surgery participated. Basal adrenocortical activity was assessed through the cortisol awakening response (CAR), using salivary samples collected on two consecutive days. FAR and ER were estimated using questionnaires. While the ER variables pain-persistence behavior and positive mood despite pain showed negative associations with the CAR, the FAR variables fear-avoidance beliefs and avoidance of social activity were positively correlated with it. Additionally, higher CAR levels were found in patients with high versus patients with low fear-avoidance beliefs and, conversely, in patients with low versus high positive mood and pain persistence. These results indicate that FAR may increase the individuals' level of pain-related stress among patients after disc surgery, while ER may lower it.

  17. Validity of critical frequency test for measuring table tennis aerobic endurance through specific protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro M; Papoti, Marcelo; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate critical frequency specific test (critf) for the estimation of the aerobic endurance in table tennis players. Eight male international-level table tennis players participated of this study. Specific tests were applied by using a mechanical ball thrower to control the intensity of the exercise. The critf was determined by applying three or four series of exercises to exhaustion (Tlim). The critf was evaluated by using lactate steady state test (90, 100, and 106 % of critf intensity). The other specific test was an incremental protocol used to determine the anaerobic threshold (AnTBI) and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) using a ball thrower. The critf (39.87 ± 3.31 balls·min(-1)) was not significantly different among AnTBI (48.11 ± 7.36 balls·min(- 1)) and OBLA3.5 (49.36 ± 12.04 balls·min(-1)) frequencies and it was correlated with AnTBI parameter (r = 0.78). At frequencies of the 90 and 100% of critf a dynamic equilibrium was verified in lactate concentration between the eighth and twentieth minutes. However, this dynamic equilibrium was not found at 106% intensity. The data indicate that in table tennis the critf model can be used for measuring the aerobic endurance. Key pointsIn table tennis is need the use of a specific protocol for evaluation of the aerobic endurance.The critical frequency test in table tennis seems to represent the intensity of maximal equilibrium of lactatemia.The critical frequency test can be used for measuring table tennis aerobic endurance through specific protocol.

  18. Effect of 12-month resistance and endurance training on quality, quantity, and function of skeletal muscle in older adults requiring long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiko, Akito; Kaji, Takashi; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Koike, Teruhiko; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Akima, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Older adults requiring long-term care will experience age-associated deterioration of the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle if no interventions are performed. Long-term training is considered a typical intervention method and is effective for improvement of both muscle quantity and physical function. However, how such training affects muscle quality [i.e., fat-to-muscle ratio as determined by echo intensity (EI)] in older adults requiring long-term care remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-month physical training intervention on the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle, physical function, and blood chemistry in older adults requiring long-term care. Seventeen older adults requiring long-term care (Tr-group) and 15 healthy older adults (Cont-group) participated in this study. Patients in the Tr-group performed exercises consisting of resistance and endurance training once or twice a week for 12months. The EI and muscle thickness of the thigh were calculated from the rectus femoris and biceps femoris using B-mode transverse ultrasound images. Physical functions (isometric knee extension peak torque, sit-to-stand test, 5-m normal/maximal speed walking, handgrip strength, and timed up and go test) and blood lipid components including adipocytokines were measured at three points, i.e. baseline and 6 and 12months after. The thigh EI was significantly lower after 6months of training than baseline, and it returned to the initial level after 12months of training (baseline, 70.2±8.3a.u.; 6months, 64.1±11.2a.u.; 12months, 72.3±7.2a.u.). The thigh muscle thickness, 5-m maximal speed walking, and knee extension torque were significantly improved after 12months of training (Ptraining intervention contributes to improvement of muscle quantity and function with tentative changes in muscle quality but has no effect on blood chemistry in older adults requiring long-term care. We conclude that this type of training has the

  19. Performance and Endurance Tests of the Top-mounted CRDM for JRTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Yeong-Garp [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hyun [POSCO Plantec Co., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan-Hee [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The top-mounted CRDM driven by the stepping motor for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) with plate type fuels is under development in KAERI. Based on the proven technology of the design, operation and maintenance for the research reactor, HANARO, the CRDM for JRTR has been optimized by the design improvement from new experience and information [1-3]. The CRDM for JRTR is classified as a safety class 3, a quality class Q and a seismic category I with the role of the reactivity control and the reactor shutdown system. Thus, it is necessary to verify the performances and the structural integrity for active components. The impact values at the instant of damping are measured as maximum 4g for the full drop of 650mm. For the drop endurance test of 2000 times, the CRDM is satisfied with the structural integrity with good drop performance. From the results for the performance and endurance test of the stepping motor, it is found that the motor will work reliably without the malfunction between the input and output signals. Also any significant wears and damages for the CAR and CAR guide tube are not found after the performance and endurance tests.

  20. Reliability of Arm Curl and Chair Stand tests for assessing muscular endurance in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boneth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the test-retest reliability and level of agreement between measures of the 30 second (30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test in a sample of older adults from Bucaramanga. Materials and methods: a study of evaluation of diagnostic technology was done. Both tests were administered by the same evaluator to 111 adults older than 59 year-old (70,4 ± 7,3, on two occasions, with an interval of time between measures of 4 to 8 days. In the analysis, test-retest reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC= 2,1 with their confidence interval 95% (CI 95% respective. The agreement level was established by the Bland and Altman method. Results: the test-retest reproducibility of the 30-s Arm Curl test was very good ICC= 0,88 and to the Chair Stand test was good ICC= 0,78. The agreement was very good for both tests of muscle endurance. The CI 95% were between -3,8 and 3,2 stands to 30-s Chair Stand test and between -3,1 and 2,8 curls to 30-s Arm Curl test. Conclusion: the 30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test have good reliability and agreement to assess muscle endurance in older adults functionally independent.

  1. Validity and Reliability of Curl-Up Test on Assessing the Core Endurance for Kindergarten Children in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, CY; Lee, KY; Lams, MHS; Wu, CF; Peake, R; Flint, SW; Li, WHC; Ho, E

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and the criterion validity of a curlup test (CUT) as a measure of core stability, core endurance and dynamic stability in kindergarten children. CUT performance was also compared to half hold lying test (HHLT) and walking time on course (WTC) among without obstacle, with low obstacle and high obstacle measures of core stability, core endurance and dynamic stability. Methods: To estimate reliability, 33 males and 2...

  2. Hand grip endurance test relates to clinical state and prognosis in COPD patients better than 6-minute walk test distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovarik M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Miroslav Kovarik,1,2 Vera Joskova,1,2 Anna Patkova,1,2 Vladimir Koblizek,3 Zdenek Zadak,2 Miloslav Hronek1,2 1Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 2Department of Research and Development, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Purpose: Patients with COPD present peripheral muscle dysfunction and atrophy, expressed as muscle strength and endurance reduction. The goal of this study was direct dynamometric assessment of hand grip endurance and strength in relation to the stage of disease, multidimensional predictors of mortality, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous study determining these parameters.Patients and methods: In this observational study, 58 consecutive outpatients with stable COPD and 25 volunteers without respiratory problems were compared. All COPD subjects underwent a comprehensive examination to determine COPD severity, prognostic scales, and 6MWT. Body composition, basic spirometric parameters, and hand grip strength and endurance were determined in all study participants.Results: Patients in the COPD group had a 15% decrease in maximum strength (P=0.012 and a 28% decrease in area under the force/time curve (AUC of the endurance test (P<0.001 compared to the control group. Dynamometric parameters were significantly negatively associated with the stage of disease and values of multivariable prediction indexes, and positively associated with the results of 6MWT. In most cases, closer associations were found with AUC than with 6MWT and in the gender-specific groups.Conclusion: Both hand grip strength and endurance are impaired in COPD patients in comparison with the control group. In particular, AUC could be considered as an attractive option not only to

  3. Verification Testing to Confirm VO2max in Altitude-Residing, Endurance-Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherwax, R M; Richardson, T B; Beltz, N M; Nolan, P B; Dalleck, L

    2016-06-01

    We sought to explore the utility of the verification trial to confirm individual attainment of 'true' VO2max in altitude-residing, endurance-trained runners during treadmill exercise. 24 elite endurance-trained men and women runners (age=21.5±3.3 yr, ht=174.8±9.3 cm, body mass=60.5±6.7 kg, PR 800 m 127.5±13.1 s) completed a graded exercise test (GXT) trial (VO2max=60.0±5.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and returned 20 min after incremental exercise to complete a verification trial (VO2max=59.6±5.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) of constant load, supramaximal exercise. The incidence of 'true' VO2max confirmation using the verification trial was 24/24 (100%) with all participants revealing differences in VO2max≤3% (the technical error of our equipment) between the GXT and verification trials. These findings support use of the verification trial to confirm VO2max attainment in altitude-residing, endurance-trained runners. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. VALIDITY OF CRITICAL FREQUENCY TEST FOR MEASURING TABLE TENNIS AEROBIC ENDURANCE THROUGH SPECIFIC PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro M. Zagatto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate critical frequency specific test (critf for the estimation of the aerobic endurance in table tennis players. Methods: Eight male international-level table tennis players participated of this study. Specific tests were applied by using a mechanical ball thrower to control the intensity of the exercise. The critf was determined by applying three or four series of exercises to exhaustion (Tlim. The critf was evaluated by using lactate steady state test (90, 100, and 106 % of critf intensity. The other specific test was an incremental protocol used to determine the anaerobic threshold (AnTBI and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA using a ball thrower. Results: The critf (39.87 ± 3.31 balls·min-1 was not significantly different among AnTBI (48.11 ± 7.36 balls·min- 1 and OBLA3.5 (49.36 ± 12.04 balls·min-1 frequencies and it was correlated with AnTBI parameter (r = 0.78. At frequencies of the 90 and 100% of critf a dynamic equilibrium was verified in lactate concentration between the eighth and twentieth minutes. However, this dynamic equilibrium was not found at 106% intensity. Conclusion: The data indicate that in table tennis the critf model can be used for measuring the aerobic endurance

  5. Muscle Strength Endurance Testing Development Based Photo Transistor with Motion Sensor Ultrasonic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdiana, A.

    2017-03-01

    The endurance of upper-body muscles is one of the most important physical fitness components. As technology develops, the process of test and assessment is now getting digital; for instance, there are a sensor stuck to the shoe (Foot Pod, Polar, and Sunto), Global Positioning System (GPS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), radar, photo finish, kinematic analysis, and photocells. Those devices aim to analyze the performances and fitness of athletes particularly the endurance of arm, chest, and shoulder muscles. In relation to that, this study attempt to create a software and a hardware for pull-ups through phototransistor with ultrasonic motion sensor. Components needed to develop this device consist of microcontroller MCS-51, photo transistor, light emitting diode, buzzer, ultrasonic sensor, and infrared sensor. The infrared sensor is put under the buffer while the ultrasonic sensor is stuck on the upper pole. The components are integrated with an LED or a laptop made using Visual Basic 12 software. The results show that pull-ups test using digital device (mean; 9.4 rep) is lower than using manual calculation (mean; 11.3 rep). This is due to the fact that digital test requires the test-takers to do pull-ups perfectly.

  6. On-court endurance and performance testing in competitive male tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Vallejo, Lisímaco; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to establish a specific endurance test procedure for competitive tennis players, combining performance, physiological and technical parameters and (b) to determine the relationship between these parameters and their competitive levels. Thirty-eight competitive male tennis players (age, 18.2 ± 1.3 years; height, 180 ± 0.08 cm; body mass, 72.7 ± 8.6 kg; mean ± SD) performed a specific endurance field test. Performance (level achieved), physiological (heart rate, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2), and technical parameters (technical effectiveness [TE]) were assessed. Bivariate and multivariate models for predicting performance level were developed. Technical effectiveness was 63.1 ± 9.1%, with 3 identified phases throughout the test (adaptation, maximum effectiveness, and steady decline). Low to moderate correlations were found between performance (final stage), physiological (VT1, VT2) and TE, and competitive performance (r = 0.35-0.61; p = 0.038-0.000). Technical effectiveness explained 37% of variability in competitive performance (r = 0.61; p = 0.001). Using TE combined with VT2 or predictability increased explaining approximately 55% (p caliber tennis players, and VT2 values combined with TE were good predictors of tennis performance.

  7. The Impact of Listening to Music During a High-Intensity Exercise Endurance Test in People With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annemarie L; Dolmage, Thomas E; Rhim, Matthew; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina

    2017-12-16

    In people with COPD, dyspnea is the primary symptom limiting exercise tolerance. One approach to reducing dyspnea during exercise is through music listening. A constant speed endurance test reflects a high-intensity aerobic exercise training session, but whether listening to music affects endurance time is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of listening to music during a constant speed endurance test in COPD. Participants with COPD completed two endurance walk tests, one with and one without listening to self-selected music throughout the test. The primary outcome was the difference in endurance time between the two conditions. Heart rate, percutaneous oxygen saturation, dyspnea, and rate of perceived exertion were measured before and after each test. Nineteen participants (mean [SD]: age, 71 [8] years; FEV1, 47 [19] % predicted) completed the study. Endurance time was greater (1.10 [95% CI, 0.41-1.78] min) while listening to music (7.0 [3.1] min) than without (5.9 [2.6] min), and reduced end-test dyspnea (1.0 [95% CI, -2.80 to -1.80] units) (with music, 4.6 [1.7] units; vs without music, 5.6 [1.4] units, respectively). There was not a significant difference in heart rate, percutaneous oxygen saturation, or leg fatigue. There were no adverse events under either condition. In COPD, dyspnea was less while listening to music and was accompanied by an increased tolerance of high-intensity exercise demonstrated by greater endurance time. Practically, the effect was modest but may represent an aid for exercise training of these patients. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry; No. ACTRN12617001217392. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  9. Comparison of Level and Graded Treadmill Tests to Evaluate Endurance Mountain Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Balducci, Michel Clémençon, Baptiste Morel, Géraud Quiniou, Damien Saboul, Christophe A. Hautier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mountain endurance running has increased in popularity in recent years. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine if maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and energy cost of running (Cr measured during level and uphill running are associated. Ten high level male endurance mountain runners performed three maximal oxygen uptake tests at three slope conditions (0, 12.5 and 25%. Metabolic data, step frequency (SF and step length (SL were recorded. No significant differences were found in VO2max (63.29 (±3.84, 63.97 (±3.54 and 63.70 (±3.58 mlO2/kg-1/min-1 or associated metabolic data at 0, 12.5 and 25% slope respectively. High intra-individual correlations were found between metabolic data measured in the three conditions. The energy cost of running was significantly different between slopes (0.192 (±0.01, 0.350 (±0.029 and 0.516 (±0.035 mlO2/kg-1/min-1, p < 0.01, 0, 12.5 and 25% respectively. However, Cr0% was not correlated with either Cr25% or Cr12.5% (rs = 0.09 and rs = 0.10, in contrast, Cr25% and Cr12.5% were correlated (rs = 0.78. Step length was positively correlated with speed under the three slope conditions. Step frequency was significantly lower at 25 compared to 12.5 and 0% slope. We found that the maximum aerobic power did not differ between level and graded treadmill tests. However, the increase in Cr on the inclined versus level conditions varied between subjects. None of the measured anthropometric or kinematic variables could explain the higher increase in Cr of some subjects when running uphill. Thus, a short graded (5min at 12.5% running test should be performed at a submaximal velocity (around 40% of level vVO2max to enhance understanding of an endurance runner’s uphill capability.

  10. The triple-120 meter shuttle test: a sport-specific test for assessing anaerobic endurance fitness in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Kate M; Meir, Rudi A; Brooks, Lyndon O; Phillips, Cameron J

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to design a simple field test to measure the anaerobic endurance fitness of rugby league players, which is an important fitness quality in the game of rugby league. Twelve amateur football players with a mean (+/-SD) age of 21.5 years (+/-2.2) volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects completed 1 trial of the Wingate 60-second (W60) cycle test and 2 trials of the new Triple-120 meter shuttle (T120S) test. All trials were completed 4 days apart. The validity of the T120S was determined by comparing physiological responses (heart rate and blood lactate) and rating of perceived exertion to the all-out W60 cycle test. The results indicate there is a significant relationship between maximum heart rate (r = 0.63 and 0.71) for the 2 trials of the T120S and the W60 cycle test. There was no significant relationship between the 2 trials and the W60 cycle test for post 3 minute lactate (r = 0.112 and 0.101) and rating of perceived exertion (r = 0.94 and 0.161). However, the T120S test elicited greater mean values for these measures than the W60 cycle test. The results indicate that the T120S is a valid test of anaerobic endurance and represents a sports specific test of this quality that may provide useful information for players and coaches involved in the sport of rugby league.

  11. Design and Reliability of a Novel Heel Rise Test Measuring Device for Plantarflexion Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D. Sman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Plantarflexion results from the combined action of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the calf. The heel rise test is commonly used to test calf muscle endurance, function, and performance by a wide variety of professionals; however, no uniform description of the test is available. This paper aims to document the construction and reliability of a novel heel rise test device and measurement protocol that is suitable for the needs of most individuals. Methods. This device was constructed from compact and lightweight materials and is fully adjustable, enabling the testing of a wide variety of individuals. It is easy to assemble and disassemble, ensuring that it is portable for use in different settings. Findings. We tested reliability on 40 participants, finding excellent interrater reliability (ICC2,1 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.98. Limits of agreement were less than two repetitions in 90% of cases and the Bland-Altman plot showed no bias. Interpretation. We have designed a novel, standardized, simple, and reliable device and measurement protocol for the heel rise test which can be used by researchers and clinicians in a variety of settings.

  12. A 300-hour endurance test of an arcjet thruster at 1 kW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, G.; Deininger, W. D.

    1993-06-01

    A cyclic endurance test was performed to examine the behavior of a low-power arcjet over time and validate the BPD Facility VP-2 for long-term operations. The MOD-B arcjet was used for the test and had a constrictor with a diameter of 0.62 mm and a length of 0.67 mm. The test was voluntarily terminated after a total of 308.3 hr was accumulated using 35 on/off cycles. A 1:2 mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen (simulated hydrazine) was fed to the engine at a mass flow rate of 39 mg/s while the thruster operated at nominally 1000 W. Each cycle was an average of 8.8 hr long. The thrust was generally constant at 0.162 N for an average specific impulse of 425 s. The feed line pressure decreased from 3.56 to 2.15 bar over the duration of the test. Post-test engine inspection showed a gas leak on the gasket at the front of the engine. In addition, erosion was evident in the constrictor which resulted from engine operation during a low flow condition caused by a feed system anomaly early in the test. The measured cathode and anode mass losses were 5 x 10 exp -6 kg and 4 x 10 exp -6 kg, respectively. Flow system and water pump anomalies were corrected during the course of the test.

  13. Design and reliability of a novel heel rise test measuring device for plantarflexion endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sman, Amy D; Hiller, Claire E; Imer, Adam; Ocsing, Aldrin; Burns, Joshua; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    Plantarflexion results from the combined action of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the calf. The heel rise test is commonly used to test calf muscle endurance, function, and performance by a wide variety of professionals; however, no uniform description of the test is available. This paper aims to document the construction and reliability of a novel heel rise test device and measurement protocol that is suitable for the needs of most individuals. This device was constructed from compact and lightweight materials and is fully adjustable, enabling the testing of a wide variety of individuals. It is easy to assemble and disassemble, ensuring that it is portable for use in different settings. We tested reliability on 40 participants, finding excellent interrater reliability (ICC2,1 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.98). Limits of agreement were less than two repetitions in 90% of cases and the Bland-Altman plot showed no bias. We have designed a novel, standardized, simple, and reliable device and measurement protocol for the heel rise test which can be used by researchers and clinicians in a variety of settings.

  14. test to assess endurance with the ball in youth soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Zagatto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of aerobic endurance is important for training prescription in soccer, and is usually measured by straight running without the ball on a track or treadmill. Due to the ball control and technical demands during a specific soccer test, the running speeds are likely to be lower compared to a continuous incremental test. The aim of the present study was to compare the heart rate (HR, rating of perceived exertion (RPE and speeds corresponding to 2.0 mmol∙L-1, 3.5 mmol∙L-1, lactate threshold (Dmax method and peak lactate determined in the laboratory and in the Hoff circuit soccer-specific test. Sixteen soccer players (16±1 years underwent two incremental tests (laboratory and Hoff circuit tests. The speeds were significantly higher in the treadmill test than on the Hoff circuit (2.0 mmol∙L-1: 9.5±1.2 and 8.1±1.0 km∙h-1; 3.5 mmol∙L-1: 12.0±1.2 and 10.2±1.1 km∙h-1; Dmax: 11.4±1.4 and 9.3±0.4 km∙h-1; peak lactate: 14.9±1.6 and 10.9±0.8 km∙h-1. The HR corresponding to 3.5 mmol∙L-1 was significantly higher on the Hoff circuit compared to the laboratory test (187.5±18.0 and 178.2±17.6 bpm, respectively; P <0.001, while the RPE at the last incremental stage was lower on the Hoff circuit (P<0.01. The speeds during the Hoff specific soccer test and the HR corresponding to 2.0 mmol∙L-1, 3.5 mmol∙L-1 and Dmax/threshold were different compared with the laboratory test. The present study shows that it is possible to assess submaximal endurance related variables specifically in soccer players.

  15. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  16. A submaximal test for the assessment of knee extensor endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ruiter, Cornelis J; Mallee, Max I P; Leloup, Lara E C; De Haan, Arnold

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to develop an undemanding test for endurance capacity of the knee extensor muscles, which can also be applied to frail participants. We hypothesized 1) that the first objective indications for peripheral fatigue during incremental unilateral repetitive isometric knee extensor contractions could be used to assess a fatigue threshold (FT), 2) that torque at FT would depend on training status, and 3) that this torque could easily be sustained for 30 min. Five trained and five untrained participants performed 5-min bouts of 60 repetitive contractions (3-s on and 2-s off). Torque, set at 25% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), was increased by 5% MVC in subsequent bouts. The highest torque for which rectified surface EMG remained stable during the bout was defined as the FT. On separate occasions, 30-min bouts were performed at and above the FT to assess sustainable torque. Changes in gas exchange parameters, HR, and RPE were monitored to corroborate FT. At FT (RPE = 5.7 ± 1.7), torque was higher (P MVC) than in untrained participants (30.5% ± 1.8% MVC). Sustainable torque was ∼4% higher than (P MVC, significant increases in rectified surface EMG and V˙O2 were found. During incremental knee extensor contractions, FT could be assessed at a submaximal exercise intensity. FT was higher in trained than in untrained participants and was related to exercise sustainability. With the use of FT, changes in endurance capacity of single muscle groups can potentially also be determined in frail participants for whom exercise performed until exhaustion is unwarranted.

  17. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end...

  18. Validity of Alternative Fitnessgram Upper Body Tests of Muscular Strength and Endurance among Seventh and Eighth Grade Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobayan, Kalani; Patterson, Debra; Sherman, Clay; Wiersma, Lenny

    2014-01-01

    In a society in which obesity levels have tripled in the past 30 years, the importance of increased fitness levels within the academic setting has become even more critical. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of alternative Fitnessgram upper body tests of muscular strength and endurance among seventh and eighth grade males…

  19. DETERMINATION OF JUDO ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE USING THE UCHI - KOMI TECHNIQUE AND AN ADAPTED LACTATE MINIMUM TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H.S.M. Azevedo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the viability to use Uchi-komi (UK in the evaluation of the judo endurance performance and using lactate threshold the analysis of the blood lactate ([Lac] and heart rate (HR determined through a lactate minimum test. The subjects were a group of 6 male, volunteer judokas, from 25.17 ± 5.76 years old, weight 84.50 ± 23.78 kg and height 1.78 ± 0.10 m, competitors of different levels of performance (from regional to international competitions and match experience of (11 ± 6 years old. Three tests were performed: a 3000 m dash in track, b the adapted test of lactate minimum for running and c for UK, with execution of the blow ippon-seoi-nague. No significant difference was evident for the track tests and UK in relation to blood lactate and heart rate (p > 0.05 (3.87 ± 0.38 vs 4.17 ± 0.54 mmol·L-1 and 167 ± 2 vs 152 ± 7 b·min-1, respectively. In conclusion it is stressed that: 1 The specific test for lactate minimum in judo sport is a promising possibility of aerobic capacity evaluation and a instrument of intensity training control; 2 The metabolic profile in Vlm and UKlm is similar, because there are not differences in the [Lac] and in the HR at this intensity; 3 It is possible to estimate the training intensity through the determination of the lactate minimum intensity in running (Vlm and the Heart Rate associated (HR from the execution of ippon-seoi- nague (uchi-komi in judo training; 4 The Vlm for judo athletes is approximately 88% of the V3000

  20. Reliability, sensitivity and validity of the assistant referee intermittent endurance test (ARIET) - a modified Yo-Yo IE2 test for elite soccer assistant referees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagna, Carlo; Bendiksen, Mads; Impellizzeri, Franco M

    2012-01-01

    We examined the reliability and validity of the assistant referee intermittent endurance test (ARIET), a modified Yo-Yo IE2 test including shuttles of sideways running. The ARIET was carried out on 198 Italian (Serie A-B, Lega-Pro and National Level) and 47 Danish elite soccer assistant referees...... with aerobic power, intermittent shuttle running and sub-maximal ARIET heart rate loading provide evidence that ARIET is a relevant test for assessment of intermittent endurance capacity of soccer assistant referees....

  1. Reliability and validity of lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests in office workers with nonspecific subacute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Mocholi, Miguel H; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Parraca, Jose A; Adsuar, Jose C; Gusi, Narcis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of trunk endurance tests, the reliability and validity of these tests in office workers with subacute nonspecific low back pain are unknown. This cross-sectional study involved 190 subjects: 30 men and 42 women without low back pain and 47 men and 71 women with low back pain. All subjects underwent timed prone and supine isometric lumbar and abdominal trunk endurance tests that were performed until subjective fatigue occurred. All subjects also completed the Roland Morris and Oswestry self-reported disability questionnaires. A test-retest study (7 days) was conducted with 31 participants with low back pain from the study. For the abdominal trunk endurance test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 62.06 (36.87) and 46.06 (29.28) seconds, respectively, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. For the lumbar test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 79.57 (30.66) and 75.49 (28.97) seconds, respectively, again, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. The intraclass correlation coefficients of both tests exceeded 0.90 and the Kappa indices were excellent for both men and women. Receiver-operating curve analyses revealed areas under the curve very close to or exceeding 0.70 for both men and women for both tests. The lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests appeared to be reliable and valid measures in office workers with subacute low back pain.

  2. The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, P. S.; Bendiksen, Mads; Dellal, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to elite female soccer populations. Elite senior (n¿=¿92), youth (n¿=¿42), domestic (n¿=¿46) and sub-elite female soccer players (n¿=¿19) carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on numerous...... occasions across the season. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance in domestic female players was 4.5%. Elite senior female players' Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were better (P¿...

  3. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abreu

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min compared to the sedentary group (27th min. Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Ball-Sport Endurance and Sprint Test (BEAST90): validity and reliability of a 90-minute soccer performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeremy D; Abt, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of a 90-minute soccer performance test: Ball-sport Endurance and Sprint Test (BEAST90). Fifteen healthy male amateur soccer players participated and attended 5 testing sessions over a 10-day period to perform physiologic and soccer-specific assessments. This included familiarization sessions and 2 full trials of the BEAST90, separated by 7 days. The total 90-minute distance, mean percent peak heart rate (HRpeak), and estimated percent peak oxygen uptake of the BEAST90 were 8,097 ± 458 m, 85 ± 5% and 82 ± 14%, respectively. Measures obtained from trial 1 and trial 2 were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Reliability of measures over 90 minutes ranged from 0.9-25.5% (% typical error). The BEAST90 protocol replicated soccer match play in terms of time, movement patterns, physical demands (volume and intensity), distances, and mean and HRpeak values, as well as having an aerobic load similar to that observed during a soccer match. Reproducibility of key physical measures during the BEAST90 were mostly high, suggesting good reliability. The BEAST90 could be used in studies that wish to determine the effects of training or nutritional interventions on prolonged intermittent physical performance.

  5. Three months of strictly controlled daily endurance exercise reduces thrombin generation and fibrinolytic risk markers in younger moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Skov, Jane

    2015-01-01

    of 600 kcal/day (HIGH), 300 kcal/day (MOD), or to maintain their habitual lifestyle (CON). Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention and analysed for thrombin generation (endogenous thrombin potential, ETP) and concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t......-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). RESULTS: We observed significant within-group decreases in ETP (MOD 7 %; HIGH 6 %) and in t-PA (MOD 22 %; HIGH 21 %) and PAI-1 (MOD 16 %; HIGH 32 %) in both training groups, and no changes in the CON group. At 3 months, between...

  6. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed...

  7. The 6-min mastication test: a unique test to assess endurance of continuous chewing, normal values, reliability, reproducibility and usability in patients with mitochondrial disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Knuijt, S.; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Lagarde, M.L.J.; Groothuis, J.T.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Janssen, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    In patients with mitochondrial disease, fatigue and muscle problems are the most common complaints. They also experience these complaints during mastication. To measure endurance of continuous mastication in patients with mitochondrial diseases, the 6-min mastication test (6MMT) was developed. This

  8. Reliability of the chin tuck neck flexion test for assessing endurance of short neck flexors in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine of the intra-rater reliability of the chin tuck neck flexion (CTNF) test for assessing the endurance of neck flexors. The study was performed at the Cardiorespiratory laboratory of the Physiotherapy Department, School of Health and Caring Professions, TEI Lamia, Greece. Twenty healthy volunteers (males/females: 9/11, age: 22.2 ± 1.7 y ears) with no known musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological, or psychiatric disorder were recruited. The participants were positioned in a supine position and were asked to raise their head 2.5 cm above the plinth and to maintain this position for as long as possible without losing craniocervical or cervical flexion. This test was repeated three times with 5-min intervals between the trials. The results showed that this test could discriminate between neck flexor endurance in men and women. However, although the test seems to be highly reliable (ICC: 0.81-0.88), it presents unsatisfactory standard error of measurement (SEM: 10.7-14.7 s) and smallest detectable differences (SDD: 80.5-110.9%). Furthermore, subgroup analysis showed the test seems to be more reliable for women (ICC: 0.93-0.94) than for men (ICC: 0.68-0.8), but the SEM and SDD values for them remain unsatisfactory (SEM: 4.4-5.3 s, SDD: 57.5-63.99%). Due to high reproducibility and discriminant validity, clinicians and researchers might want to consider using the CTNF test for the assessment of neck flexor endurance. However, they should seek alternative measurement tools when they want to avoid a large measurement error.

  9. Cement/bentonite interaction. Results from 16 month laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, O. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The work concerns possible bentonite clay mineral alteration in constructions with bentonite in close contact with cement, and the effect of such changes on bentonite buffer properties. The investigation comprises a 16 months laboratory test series with hydrothermal cell tests, percolation tests and diffusion tests. MX-80 Wyoming bentonite was used in all tests. Two types of artificial cement pore water solutions were used in the percolation and diffusion tests. The swelling pressure and the hydraulic conductivity were measured continuously in the percolation tests. After termination, the clay was analyzed with respect to changes in element distribution, mineralogy and shear strength. The water solutions were analyzed with respect to pH, cations and major anions. The results concerning chemical and mineralogical changes are in summary: Ion exchange in the montmorillonite until equilibrium with cement pore-water ions was reached; Increase in cation exchange capacity; Dissolution of original cristobalite; Increase in quartz content; Minor increase in illite content; Minor formation of chlorite; Formation of CSH(I); Wash away of CSH-gel into surrounding water. A large decrease in swelling pressure and a moderate increase in hydraulic conductivity were recorded in the samples percolated by SULFACEM pore-water solution. The mineralogical alterations only concerned a minor part of the total bentonite mass and the changes in physical properties were therefore most likely due to the replacement of the original charge balancing cation by cement pore-water cations. Comparisons between the current test result and results from 4 month tests indicate that the rates of illite and chlorite formation were reduced during the tests. The presence of zeolites in the clay could not be ensured. However, the discovery of CSH material is important since CSH is expected to precede the formation of zeolites 5 refs, 48 figs, 11 tabs

  10. Enduring cognitive dysfunction in unipolar major depression: a test-retest study using the Stroop paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, Asa; Sørensen, Lin; Ardal, Guro; Oedegaard, Ketil Joachim; Kroken, Rune; Roness, Atle; Lund, Anders

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate automatic and effortful information processing with the Stroop paradigm in a long term perspective in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients were tested at two test occasions: at inclusion with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score >18, and after 6 months, when most patients had experienced symptom reduction. The Stroop paradigm is considered to measure aspects of attention and executive functioning and consists of three conditions/cards: naming the color of the patches (Color), reading of the color-words (Word) and naming the ink color of color-words (Color-Word). The Color-Word condition is proved to be the most cognitive demanding task and requires the proband to actively suppress interference and is therefore considered to require more effortful information processing, whereas naming the color of the patches and reading the color-words are expected to be more automatic and less cognitive demanding. A homogenous group of 19 patients with unipolar recurrent MDD according to DSM-IV and a HDRS score of >18 were included in the study. A control group was individually matched for age, gender and level of education. Depressed patients performed equal to the control group on the Color and Word cards at both test occasions. However, the patients were impaired compared with the control group on the Color-Word card task at both test occasions. Thus, the depressed patients showed no improvement of effortful attention/executive performance as a function of symptom reduction. The results indicate that the depressed patients showed impaired cognitive performance on cognitive demanding tasks when symptomatic and that this impairment prevailed after 6 months, despite significant improvement in their depressive symptoms.

  11. Can persistence hunting signal male quality? A test considering digit ratio in endurance athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Longman

    Full Text Available Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. 'Having' theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, 'getting' theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km, representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001 and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02. Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness.

  12. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness.

  13. Influence of CMV/EBV serostatus on respiratory infection incidence during 4 months of winter training in a student cohort of endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Shiun; Handzlik, Michal; Muhamad, Ayu; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of previous infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) or Epstein Barr virus (EBV) on the incidence, severity and duration of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in endurance athletes during a 4-month winter training period. Blood samples were obtained from 236 subjects (166 males and 70 females, aged 18-35 years) at the start of the study period. Plasma samples were analysed for CMV and EBV serostatus. Weekly training and daily illness logs were kept for the next 16 weeks. With regard to CMV/EBV serostatus, the results indicated that athletes with previous CMV infection (n = 58, 25 % of cohort) had significantly fewer URTI symptom days (median 2 vs. 4 days, p = 0.033) during the study period than those with no previous infection (n = 178, 75 %), whereas positive EBV serostatus (n = 197, 84 %) had no influence on URTI episode incidence, severity or duration. Moreover, we found that athletes with prior infection of both CMV and EBV (n = 50, 21 %) had 50 % fewer URTI episodes (p = 0.04) and symptom days (median 2 vs 8 days, p = 0.01) than athletes who were seronegative for both CMV and EBV (n = 31, 13 %). Previous coinfection with CMV and EBV might promote protective immune surveillance to lower the risk of URTI. Further research is required to clarify why previous CMV and EBV infection reduces the incidence of URTI.

  14. Ecological validity and reliability of an age-adapted endurance field test in young male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Carlo; Krustrup, Peter; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Pollastro, Carlo; Bernardini, Andrea; Araújo Póvoas, Susana Cristina

    2018-01-11

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and the association with relevant match activities (ecological validity) of an age-adapted field test for intermittent high-intensity endurance known as Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children test (YYIR1C) in young male soccer players. Twenty-eight young male outfield soccer players (age 11.1±0.9 years, height 142±4.4 cm, body mass 37.0±5.9 kg) with at least 2 years of experience in soccer competitions were tested twice using YYIR1C and an age-adapted competitive small-sided game (i.e., 9v9), 7 days apart in a random order. The YYIR1C performance showed an excellent relative (ICC=0.94) and a good absolute reliability (TEM as %CV=5.1%). Very large and significant associations were found between YYIR1C performance and match high-intensity activity (r=0.53). Large correlations were found between YYIR1C and match sprinting (r=0.42) and high-intensity metabolic power (r=0.46) distances. Match total distance was largely associated with YYIR1C (r=0.30). The results of this study showed that YYIR1C may be considered a valid and reliable field test for assessing intermittent high-intensity endurance in young male soccer players. Due to the relevance of aerobic fitness in youth soccer, future studies testing the sensitiveness of YYIR1C are necessary.

  15. Comparative endurance testing of the Biomet Matthews Nail and the Dynamic Compression Screw, in simulated condylar and supracondylar femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Benjamin M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic compression screw is a plate and screws implant used to treat fractures of the distal femur. The Biomet Matthews Nail is a new retrograde intramedullary nail designed as an alternative surgical option to treat these fractures. The objective of this study was to assess the comparative endurance of both devices. Method The dynamic compression screw (DCS and Biomet Matthews Nail (BMN were implanted into composite femurs, which were subsequently cyclically loaded using a materials testing machine. Simulated fractures were applied to each femur prior to the application of load. Either a Y type fracture or a transverse osteotomy was prepared on each composite femur using a jig to enable consistent positioning of cuts. Results The Biomet Matthews Nail demonstrated a greater endurance limit load over the dynamic compression screw in both fracture configurations. Conclusion The distal locking screws pass through the Biomet Matthews Nail in a unique "cruciate" orientation. This allows for greater purchase in the bone of the femoral condyle and potentially improves the stability of the fracture fixation. As these fractures are usually in weak osteoporotic bone, the Biomet Matthews Nail represents a favourable surgical option in these patients.

  16. Can the Critical Power Model Explain the Increased Peak Velocity/Power During Incremental Test After Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Benedito S; Greco, Camila C

    2017-08-01

    Denadai, BS and Greco, CC. Can the critical power model explain the increased peak velocity/power during incremental test after concurrent strength and endurance training? J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2319-2323, 2017-The highest exercise intensity that can be maintained at the end of a ramp or step incremental test (i.e., velocity or work rate at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max - Vpeak/Wpeak) can be used for endurance performance prediction and individualization of aerobic training. The interindividual variability in Vpeak/Wpeak has been attributed to exercise economy, anaerobic capacity, and neuromuscular capability, alongside the major determinant of aerobic capacity. Interestingly, findings after concurrent strength and endurance training performed by endurance athletes have challenged the actual contribution of these variables. The critical power model usually derived from the performance of constant-work rate exercise can also explain tolerance to a ramp incremental exercise so that, Vpeak/Wpeak can be predicted accurately. However, there is not yet discussion of possible concomitant improvements in the parameters of the critical power model and Vpeak/Wpeak after concurrent training and whether they can be associated with and therefore depend on different neuromuscular adaptations. Therefore, this brief review presents some evidence that the critical power model could explain the improvement of Vpeak/Wpeak and should be used to monitor aerobic performance enhancement after different concurrent strength- and endurance-training designs.

  17. Does core stability exercise improve lumbopelvic stability (through endurance tests) more than general exercise in chronic low back pain? A quasi-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Mohammad Bagher; Rezaei, Mandana; Zamanlou, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare core stability and general exercises (GEs) in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients based on lumbopelvic stability (LPS) assessment through three endurance core stability tests. There is a controversy about preference of core stability exercise (CSE) over other types of exercise for chronic LBP. Studies which have compared these exercises used other outcomes than those related to LPS. As it is claimed that CSE enhances back stability, endurance tests for LPS were used. A 16-session CSE program and a GE program with the same duration were conducted for two groups of participants. Frequency of interventions for both groups was three times a week. Forty-three people (aged 18-60 years) with chronic non-specific LBP were alternately allocated to core stability (n = 22) or GE group (n = 21) when admitted. The primary outcomes were three endurance core stability tests including: (1) trunk flexor; (2) trunk extensor; and (3) side bridge tests. Secondary outcomes were disability and pain. Measurements were taken at baseline and the end of the intervention. After the intervention, test times increased and disability and pain decreased within groups. There was no significant difference between two groups in increasing test times (p = 0.23 to p = 0.36) or decreasing disability (p = 0.16) and pain (p = 0.73). CSE is not more effective than GE for improving endurance core stability tests and reducing disability and pain in chronic non-specific LBP patients.

  18. Endurance Training - Science and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and cellular level. Coaches should not be put off by this, as the work is well written and presented in a logical manner. These chapters are essential to the understanding of an athlete's response to endurance training. Chapter 18 covers physiological testing and adaptation to endurance training. It was great to read a chapter ...

  19. Effectiveness of the modified progressive aerobic capacity endurance run test for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Marilynn H; Bush, Jill A; Olvera, Norma; Puyau, Maurice R; Butte, Nancy F

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the progressive aerobic capacity endurance run (PACER) and a newly designed modified PACER (MPACER) for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who are obese. Thirty-nine (aged 7-12 years) children who were considered obese (≥ 95 th body mass index [BMI] percentile) and 16 children who were considered normal weight (<85th BMI percentile) participated in this study. Performance outcomes included test duration (in minutes) and exercise heart rate (HR) (first-stage and peak HR) for each test. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals and independent t-tests were used to assess differences in primary outcomes. Mean PACER test duration was 1.6 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 1.3 minutes for children who were obese and normal weight, respectively. Modified PACER duration was higher than 3 minutes for the obese (3.6 ± 0.6 minutes) and normal weight (5.3 ± 1.2 minutes) groups. Children first-stage HR, expressed as a percent of peak HR, was above the predicted anaerobic threshold during the PACER, but below the anaerobic threshold during the MPACER. Relative first-stage HR was not significantly different between groups for the PACER, but they were significantly different between groups for the MPACER. In conclusion, the MPACER was a better alternative than the PACER for assessing aerobic fitness in Hispanic children who were normal weight and obese. When validated, this modified field test could be used to assess aerobic fitness in Hispanic children, particularly those who are overweight or obese. Additionally, the study provides evidence in which physical educators, personal trainers, and others most apt to assess aerobic fitness in children who are obese, should modify tests originally designed for the population who are normal weight.

  20. The 6-min mastication test: a unique test to assess endurance of continuous chewing, normal values, reliability, reproducibility and usability in patients with mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, L; Knuijt, S; van Gerven, M H J C; Lagarde, M L J; Groothuis, J T; de Groot, I J M; Janssen, M C H

    2017-03-01

    In patients with mitochondrial disease, fatigue and muscle problems are the most common complaints. They also experience these complaints during mastication. To measure endurance of continuous mastication in patients with mitochondrial diseases, the 6-min mastication test (6MMT) was developed. This study included the collection of normal data for the 6MMT in a healthy population (children and adults). During 6 min of continuous mastication on a chew tube chewing cycles per minute, total amount of chewing cycles and the difference between minute 1 (M1 ) and minute 6 (M2 ) were collected in 271 healthy participants (5-80 years old). These results were compared with those of nine paediatric and 25 adult patients with a mitochondrial disease. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were collected directly after the test and after 5 min. A qualitative rating was made on masticatory movements. The reproducibility of the 6MMT in the healthy population with an interval of approximately 2 weeks was good. The inter-rater reliability for the observations was excellent. The patient group demonstrated lower total amount of chewing cycles or had greater differences between M1 and M6 . The 6MMT is a reliable and objective test to assess endurance of continuous chewing. It demonstrates the ability of healthy children and adults to chew during 6 min with a highly stable frequency of mastication movements. The test may give an explanation for the masticatory problems in patient groups, who are complaining of pain and fatigue during mastication. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Model and Effectiveness of Endurance Exercise to Increase Physical Fitness in Intellectual Disability Subjects with Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Z Tamin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to design a model and assess the effectiveness of endurance exercise to increase physical fitness in intelectual disability (ID patients with obesity. Methods: a randomized-controlled clinical trial was performed in ID patients with obesity aged 10-30 years old from all Special School in DKI Jakarta, which were randomly allocated into 3 groups and then given 3 different type of exercises: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise for 20 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercise for 24-25 minutes (type I, lower extremity muscles endurance exercises for 10 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercises for 26-27 minutes (type II, and threw a tennis ball with 10 m distance for 10 minutes as control (type III. These program was performed 3 times a week for 4 months. Assesment of the exercise effectiveness was done by measuring maximum load that can be lifted and six-minutes walking test on rectangular track which was converted with the VO2 max prediction formula. Analysis was perfomed with Kruskal Wallis test. Results: two hundred and twelve (212 subjects were included in the study, randomly allocated into three types (I, II, and III of exercises groups. The type II of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing lower extremity muscles endurance level compared to type I and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Meanwhile, type I of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing cardiorespiratory endurance level compared to type II and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Conclusion: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise followed by a cardiorespiratory endurance exercise can be used to increase physical fitness in ID patients with obesity. Key words: intelectual disability patient, obesity, lower extremity muscles and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise, lower extremity muscles endurance level, cardiorespiratory endurance level.

  2. The application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 test to elite female soccer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P S; Bendiksen, M; Dellal, A; Mohr, M; Wilkie, A; Datson, N; Orntoft, C; Zebis, M; Gomez-Diaz, A; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to elite female soccer populations. Elite senior (n = 92), youth (n = 42), domestic (n = 46) and sub-elite female soccer players (n = 19) carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on numerous occasions across the season. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance in domestic female players was 4.5%. Elite senior female players' Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were better (P elite youth, domestic and sub-elite players (mean ± standard deviation; 1774 ± 532 vs 1490 ± 447, 1261 ± 449, and 994 ± 373 m). For elite senior female players, wide midfielders (2057 ± 550 m) had a higher Yo-Yo IE2 test performance (P elite senior soccer matches (r = 0.70; P elite youth female players (1767 ± 539 and 1742 ± 503 vs 1564 ± 504 m) and in elite senior female players, Yo-Yo IE2 test performance increased by 14% (P < 0.01) after completing 4 weeks of intense training prior to the FIFA Women's World Cup Finals (2049 ± 283 vs 1803 ± 342 m). The data demonstrate that the Yo-Yo IE2 test is reproducible and is an indicator of the match-specific physical capacity of female soccer players. Furthermore, the Yo-Yo IE2 test illustrates sensitivity by differentiating intermittent exercise performance of female players in various competitive levels, stages of the season and playing positions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. 210-HP Diesel Engine Endurance and Performance Testing with Fire Resistant Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    containing 10.4 percent volume water. The specific fuel comsumption increased to 23.91 percent when the engine ran at the end of the 400-hour test with...Motor The motor which drives the pumps is manufactured by Reliance Electric Company. The motor’s performance specifications are as follows: 1.5 hp...BARREL BARRELS ON-OFF MANUAL SHUT-OFF VALVES 11 /OF2WAE 1 1/2 HP PUMP PUMP SURFACTANT PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR 220/240 VAC 1 P M MICROMETER DIALS PRESSURE

  4. Influence of vitamin D status on respiratory infection incidence and immune function during 4 months of winter training in endurance sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Shiun; Handzlik, Michal; Fraser, William D; Muhamad, Ayu; Preston, Hannah; Richardson, Andrew; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of vitamin D status on mucosal and systemic immunity and the incidence, severity and duration of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) episodes in endurance athletes during a 16-week winter training period. Blood was collected from 225 subjects at the start of the study and plasma was analysed for total 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and cathelicidin concentration. Blood was also collected at the end of the study and analysed for 25(OH)D and antigen-stimulated cytokine production. Unstimulated saliva samples were obtained at the start and at 4-week intervals during the study period. Saliva samples were analysed for salivary antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs). Weekly training and daily illness logs were kept. At the start and end of the study 38% and 55%, respectively, of the athlete cohort had inadequate (plasma 25(OH)D 30-50 nmol/L) or deficient (plasma 25(OH)D vitamin D status. There was a significantly higher proportion of subjects who presented with symptoms of URTI in the vitamin D deficient status group (initial plasma 25(OH)D vitamin D group (> 120 nmol/L) and the total number of URTI symptom days and the median symptom-severity score in the vitamin D deficient group was signifi- cantly higher than in the other groups. The plasma cathelicidin concentration positively correlated with the plasma 25(OH)D concentration and the saliva secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) secretion rate in the optimal vitamin D status group was significantly higher than in the other groups. Low vitamin D status was associated with lower pro-inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes and lymphocytes. Low vitamin D status could be an important determinant of URTI risk in endurance athletes and mucosal as well as systemic immunity may be modified via vitamin D-dependent mechanisms.

  5. The Hoff circuit test is more specific than an incremental treadmill test to assess endurance with the ball in youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, A M; Papoti, M; Da Silva, Asr; Barbieri, R A; Campos, E Z; Ferreira, E C; Loures, J P; Chamari, K

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of aerobic endurance is important for training prescription in soccer, and is usually measured by straight running without the ball on a track or treadmill. Due to the ball control and technical demands during a specific soccer test, the running speeds are likely to be lower compared to a continuous incremental test. The aim of the present study was to compare the heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and speeds corresponding to 2.0 mmol∙L(-1), 3.5 mmol∙L(-1), lactate threshold (Dmax method) and peak lactate determined in the laboratory and in the Hoff circuit soccer-specific test. Sixteen soccer players (16±1 years) underwent two incremental tests (laboratory and Hoff circuit tests). The speeds were significantly higher in the treadmill test than on the Hoff circuit (2.0 mmol∙L(-1): 9.5±1.2 and 8.1±1.0 km∙h(-1); 3.5 mmol∙L(-1): 12.0±1.2 and 10.2±1.1 km∙h(-1); Dmax: 11.4±1.4 and 9.3±0.4 km∙h(-1); peak lactate: 14.9±1.6 and 10.9±0.8 km∙h(-1)). The HR corresponding to 3.5 mmol∙L-1 was significantly higher on the Hoff circuit compared to the laboratory test (187.5±18.0 and 178.2±17.6 bpm, respectively; P <0.001), while the RPE at the last incremental stage was lower on the Hoff circuit (P < 0.01). The speeds during the Hoff specific soccer test and the HR corresponding to 2.0 mmol∙L(-1), 3.5 mmol∙L(-1) and Dmax/threshold were different compared with the laboratory test. The present study shows that it is possible to assess submaximal endurance related variables specifically in soccer players.

  6. Testing for seasonal unit roots in monthly panels of time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Kunst (Robert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of testing for seasonal unit roots in monthly panel data. To this aim, we generalize the quarterly CHEGY test to the monthly case. This parametric test is contrasted with a new nonparametric test, which is the panel counterpart to the univariate RURS test that

  7. Accelerated endurance test of single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers under vacuum used for a scalar space magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmeier, M.; Hagen, C.; Piris, J.; Lammegger, R.; Jernej, I.; Woschank, M.; Magnes, W.; Murphy, E.; Pollinger, A.; Erd, C.; Baumjohann, W.; Windholz, L.

    2018-02-01

    We performed an endurance test with single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) under vacuum condition and increased operational parameters (laser current and laser temperature) to accelerate the aging of the lasers. During the endurance test the emitted polarization-dependent and polarization-independent optical light power from the lasers was detected. Additionally, electro-optical characterisations including measurements of the combination of laser current and laser temperature to excite the 87Rb D1 transition ( λ = 795 nm), the current and temperature tuning coefficients, laser line width, threshold current and the polarization ellipse were performed for the aged lasers. The test was started with a number of 12 VCSELs consisting of 4 lasers each from 3 different suppliers. The aging behaviour of VCSELs was investigated with respect to the development of a new optical magnetometer prototype for space missions with a mission duration of up to 17 years. Only a limited change of the electro-optical parameters can be tolerated by the instrument design over the mission duration. The endurance test and the electro-optical characterizations revealed clear differences in the aging behaviour of the three suppliers. Lasers from one supplier showed that they can be operated for more than 17 years under vacuum conditions without major degradation of their operational parameters.

  8. Design Of Mechanical Test Setup To Find The Endurance Limit Of CoilCompression SpringUsing Modified Slider-Crank Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Vispute

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- A spring is an elastic or resilient body whose function is to deflect or deform when a load is applied and recover its original shape when the load is removed. The important applications of springs are in application of a force clutches brakes etc. measurement of a force spring balance storing energy clocktoy springs and absorbing shocks and vibrations springs in vehicle suspension systems. Fatigue loads are generally cyclic and fluctuating in nature and are much less in magnitude than the yield strength of materials but they tend to have unpredictable behavior due to dissimilar and brutal fracture patterns. To avoid this determining the endurance limit becomes inevitability. The present paper aims to test the endurance limit of a wide range of coiledcompression springs in the smallest possible time frame using a screw-based modified slider-crank mechanism in a mechanical system.

  9. An FPGA-Based Test-Bed for Reliability and Endurance Characterization of Non-Volatile Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Patel, Jagdish; Patel, Janak; Namkung, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Memory technologies are divided into two categories. The first category, nonvolatile memories, are traditionally used in read-only or read-mostly applications because of limited write endurance and slow write speed. These memories are derivatives of read only memory (ROM) technology, which includes erasable programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically-erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), Flash, and more recent ferroelectric non-volatile memory technology. Nonvolatile memories are able to retain data in the absence of power. The second category, volatile memories, are random access memory (RAM) devices including SRAM and DRAM. Writing to these memories is fast and write endurance is unlimited, so they are most often used to store data that change frequently, but they cannot store data in the absence of power. Nonvolatile memory technologies with better future potential are FRAM, Chalcogenide, GMRAM, Tunneling MRAM, and Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (SONOS) EEPROM.

  10. Balance ability, not muscle strength and exercise endurance, determines the performance of hemiparetic subjects on the timed-sit-to-stand test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shamay

    2010-06-01

    To examine the contribution of balance ability, muscle strength, and exercise endurance to performance in the timed-sit-to-stand test among chronic hemiparetic subjects. A cross-sectional study with 68 community-dwelling stroke survivors. By using Pearson correlation coefficient, the five-times-sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test scores showed the highest negative correlation with Berg Balance Scale scores (r = -0.837, P test (r = -0.598, P Balance Scale scores only (r = -0.630, P balance confidence, showed that FTSTS scores were independently associated with Berg Balance Scale scores (beta = -0.630, P test were not significant predictors of FTSTS scores. The whole model could explain 71% of the variance in FTSTS scores. This is the first study documenting the importance of balance ability, not muscle strength and exercise endurance, as an important determinant of performance on the FTSTS test by community-dwelling stroke patients. These findings suggest that the FTSTS test may be a more appropriate proxy indicator of balance performance in chronic community-dwelling stroke subjects.

  11. Performance on the Green Word Memory Test following Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom-era military service: Test failure is related to evaluation context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cortney L; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; McDonald, Scott D; Campbell, Thomas C; Tupler, Larry A

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates prior reports of high neuropsychological symptom validity test (SVT) failure rates in post-deployed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) active and veteran military personnel, using a large, multi-site sample (N = 214) drawn from three levels of the Department of Defense/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma System of Care. The sample failure rate and its relationship to research versus dual research/clinical context of evaluation were examined, in addition to secondary variables explored in prior studies. Results yielded an overall failure rate of 25%, lower than prior reports describing OEF/OIF active-duty and veteran military personnel. Findings also supported the hypothesis that SVT failure rates would differ by context (dual > research). Participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) failed more frequently than those without TBI in the dual context but not in the research context. Secondary analyses revealed that failure rates increased in the presence of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and male sex but were unrelated to active versus veteran military status, service connection (SC) or percentage of SC, age, education, or ethnicity. Further research is required to elucidate the underpinnings of these findings in light of the limited literature and variability between OEF/OIF-related SVT studies, as well as the substantial diagnostic and treatment implications for VA.

  12. Effects of 6 months of endurance training on neutrophil functions to produce reactive oxygen species and mental states in male long-distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumae, Takashi; Suzukawa, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    To clarify changes of neutrophil functions, mental conditions and relationships among them, 19 male elite long-distance runners participated in this study for 6 months. Examinations, with informed consent, were carried out once a month. According to the results of physical characteristics, it was thought that training intensity was reduced after the main race, Hakone-Ekiden. Neutrophil functions were estimated by indices of reactive oxygen species production, determined by luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (LmCL and LgCL, respectively) and cytochrome c reduction methods. The peak times (PT) in LmCL and LgCL (LgPT) were most prolonged in January and December, respectively. The peak heights (PH) in LmCL (LmPH) were enhanced in February. Decreased levels of negative categories in the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire and the total mood state (TMS) of POMS were observed in February without significance. Correlation analysis using measured values revealed significant negative correlation between LmPH and negative categories in POMS; however, these correlations were possibly a mere appearance, caused by personal differences. After eliminating personal differences, LgPT correlated positively to depression (p< 0.05), anger (p< 0.05), fatigue (p < 0.01) and TMS (p< 0.05). These results suggest that the mean time from the recognition of foreign matter to the maximum production of superoxide from neutrophils is prolonged in the mentally suppressed conditions found under continuous physical training. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Comparing Motor Control Exercise and General Exercise on Lumbo-Pelvic Stability of Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain Sufferers Using Endurance Stability Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Shamsi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion Though it is claimed that MCE increases spinal stability, the lack of significant difference in the results of variables between the two groups may be due to our MCE not being specific for increasing spinal stability or equal effects of both interventions on increasing spinal stability and no preference of MCE. It may also be due to poor sensitivity of our outcome measures in detecting changes in spinal stability, especially with respect to the sample size. Based on these results, it could be concluded that MCE is not more effective than GE in improving endurance core stability tests and reducing disability and pain in chronic non-specific LBP patients.

  14. An examination about Endurance Test "5 Minutes Walk" : Comparison with "400m walk" and "500m walk"

    OpenAIRE

    草間, 益良夫; 松尾, 千秋

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine "5 minutes 400m walk" and "5 minutes 500m walk". The main results obtained were as follows: 1. The physique and flexibility and endurance of experimental group were the same as the national average. 2. The heart rate of "500m walk" was compared with "400m walk", and was high value while walking. 3. In "500m walk", the highest number of Heart Rate was "144.86 beats/minute", and the number of average Heart Rate was "132.77 beats/minute". 4. In "400m wa...

  15. THE EFFECTS OF A SIX-MONTH TRAINING PROGRAMME ON RUNNING ENDURANCE, MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACHERISTICS AND SOME AEROBIC ABILITY PARAMETERS OF ADULT WOMEN WITH DIFFERENT PHYSICAL ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Plevnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the results of a six-month training programme between a recreational group of previously physically inactive women (Group 1 and an already regularly active recreational group of female runners (Group 2. The sample consisted of 28 women, 13 in Group 1 (age (yr = 41.7 ± 14.3, BMI = 26.8 ± 3.4 and 15 in Group 2 (age (yr = 38.3 ± 7.8, BMI = 21.5 ± 1.7. Despite different initial values, the results in both groups showed an improvement in measured parameters that were more pronounced in Group 1; however, in comparisons carried out between the two groups, only Group 1 achieved a statistically significant improvement in relative maximal oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg. The results demonstrate that the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO, whose guidelines suggests at least 30 min of physical activity per day, are suitable for improving and maintaining functional abilities, including those of previously inactive groups (Group 1 as well as recreational groups (Group 2 of female runners.

  16. Sub-maximal and maximal Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2: heart rate response, reproducibility and application to elite soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Mohr, Magni; Bendiksen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the reproducibility of sub-maximal and maximal versions of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2 test), (2) assess the relationship between the Yo-Yo IE2 test and match performance and (3) quantify the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo IE2 te......) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and heart rate after 6 min were 3.9% (n = 37) and 1.4% (n = 32), respectively. Elite male senior and youth U19 players Yo-Yo IE2 performances were better (P ...

  17. Six minute walk test in type III spinal muscular atrophy: a 12month longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzone, E.; Bianco, F.; Main, M.; van den Hauwe, M.; Ash, M.; de Vries, R.; Fagoaga Mata, J.; Stein, S.; de Sanctis, R.; D'Amico, A.; Palermo, C.; Fanelli, L.; Scoto, M. C.; Mayhew, A.; Eagle, M.; Vigo, M.; Febrer, A.; Korinthenberg, R.; de Visser, M.; Bushby, K.; Muntoni, F.; Goemans, N.; Sormani, M. P.; Bertini, E.; Pane, M.; Mercuri, E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our longitudinal multicentric study was to establish the changes on the 6min walk test (6MWT) in ambulant SMA type III children and adults over a 12month period. Thirty-eight ambulant type III patients performed the 6MWT at baseline and 12months after baseline. The distance covered in

  18. The Effects of Low Dose Buccal Administered Caffeine on RPE and Pain during an Upper Body Muscle Endurance Test and Lower Body Anaerobic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, David M.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Kamimori, Gary H.; Glickman, Ellen L.

    2012-01-01

    To date there have been a number of studies that have assessed the effects of caffeine on Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Pain Scale scores during continuous exercise. Presently there is little information about the effects of caffeine on RPE and Pain Scale scores during short term, anaerobic and muscle endurance activity. The purpose of the…

  19. Specificity of Cardiovascular Endurance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Calberth B., Jr.; Johnson, James H.

    This study determined the specificity of cardiovascular endurance training on a bicycle ergometer. Eighteen male subjects were tested on a heart rate response test of 150 beats per minute on a bicycle ergometer at the pace of 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) and at 160 beats per minute at 60 and 80 rpm, with the resistance equal to the force of…

  20. Content Validity Index and Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a New Muscle Strength/Endurance Test Battery for Swedish Soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Larsson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. For the content validity investigation, thirty selected tests were those described in the literature and/or commonly used in the Nordic and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO countries. Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI was calculated for each work task. The result showed excellent CVI (≥0.78 for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Three of the tests; the functional lower-limb loading test (the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, and back extension, showed excellent content validity for four of the work tasks. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. The inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99 for all five tests. The intra-rater reliability was good to high (ICC3,1 0.82-0.96 with an acceptable standard error of mean (SEM, except for the side-bridge test (SEM%>15. Thus, the final suggested test battery for a valid and reliable evaluation of soldiers' muscle performance comprised the following four tests; the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and back extension test. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload.

  1. Specific balance training included in an endurance-resistance exercise program improves postural balance in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.

  2. Testing efficacy of monthly forecast application in agrometeorology: Winter wheat phenology dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalic, B.; Jankovic, D.; Dekic, Lj; Eitzinger, J.; Firanj Sremac, A.

    2017-02-01

    Use of monthly weather forecast as input meteorological data for agrometeorological forecasting, crop modelling and plant protection can foster promising applications in agricultural production. Operational use of monthly or seasonal weather forecast can help farmers to optimize field operations (fertilizing, irrigation) and protection measures against plant diseases and pests by taking full advantage of monthly forecast information in predicting plant development, pest and disease risks and yield potentials few weeks in advance. It can help producers to obtain stable or higher yield with the same inputs and to minimise losses caused by weather. In Central and South-Eastern Europe ongoing climate change lead to shifts of crops phenology dynamics (i.e. in Serbia 4-8 weeks earlier in 2016 than in previous years) and brings this subject in the front of agronomy science and practice. Objective of this study is to test efficacy of monthly forecast in predicting phenology dynamics of different winter wheat varieties, using phenological model developed by Forecasting and Warning Service of Serbia in plant protection. For that purpose, historical monthly forecast for four months (March 1, 2005 - June 30, 2005) was assimilated from ECMWF MARS archive for 50 ensemble members and control run. Impact of different agroecological conditions is tested by using observed and forecasted data for two locations - Rimski Sancevi (Serbia) and Groß-Enzersdorf (Austria).

  3. National STD Awareness Month and GYT: Get Yourself Tested PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-03

    April is National STD Awareness Month. In this PSA, native communities, especially adolescents and young adults, are encouraged to get educated, tested, and treated by visiting gytnow.org.  Created: 3/3/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 3/3/2011.

  4. endurance, resistance, concurrent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khalid Mohamadzadeh Salamat

    2016-01-23

    Jan 23, 2016 ... circuit resistance training don't change serum concentrations of cytokines (IL-1b, IL6, IL8, IL10 and TNF-a).8. Finally, exercise training, especially endurance type train- ing, can decrease some of inflammatory indices. Moreover, in this case endurance and somedeal concurrent training has more effects on ...

  5. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.

  6. Is tuberculin testing before BCG vaccination necessary for children over three months of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.

  7. Maintenance and improvement of interobserver reliability of osteopathic palpatory tests over a 4-month period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Brian F; Johnson, Jane C; Snider, Karen T; Snider, Eric J

    2010-10-01

    Few studies have shown that diagnostic palpation is reliable. No studies have shown that the reliability of diagnostic palpatory skills can be maintained and improved over time. To investigate whether the reliability of selected palpatory tests used to identify lumbar somatic dysfunction was maintained during a 4-month period as part of a clinical observational study. Participants with low back pain and participants without low back pain, recruited from a rural Midwestern community, were examined during 6 separate sessions over a 4-month period. During each data collection session, two blinded examiners, who had previously completed comprehensive consensus training, evaluated the lumbar region with four tests: static segmental positional asymmetry of the transverse processes in the horizontal plane, tissue texture abnormalities, resistance to anterior springing on the spinous processes, and tenderness induced by pressure on the spinous processes. Detailed protocols for each test were defined during a previous comprehensive consensus training period and were not revised during the current study. To verify that established interobserver reliability was maintained throughout the clinical study, quality control sampling was performed on all data. When findings were inconsistent between the two examiners, focused consensus training was performed as a means of recalibration to understand why assessments were inconsistent. Interobserver reliability for determining the presence or absence of somatic dysfunction was assessed using kappa coefficients. The study enrolled 64 participants, and 14 to 33 participants were examined per session. All four tests had acceptable interobserver reliability by the final data collection session. The test for static segmental positional asymmetry of the transverse processes in the horizontal plane had moderate to substantial reliability in all 6 sessions. The test for tissue texture abnormalities had moderate reliability in 5 of the 6

  8. Endurance ability characteristics of professional sportsmen

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenstoka, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Cycling and kettlebell sport are cyclic kinds of sport. For sport achievement is important the development of endurance ability. In kettlebell sport high performance is based on the strength endurance. One of the conditions for success in competition is sportsman’s high aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Complex cardiopulmonary exercise testing allows for simultaneous study of the responses of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to a stated physical load stress. There is direct correlation ...

  9. 6 Minute Walk Test in Duchenne MD Patients with Different Mutations: 12 Month Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena S.; Sormani, Maria Pia; Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Fanelli, Lavinia; Berardinelli, Angela; Torrente, Yvan; D'Amico, Adele; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; D'Ambrosio, Paola; Cavallaro, Filippo; Frosini, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Bonfiglio, Serena; Scalise, Roberta; De Sanctis, Roberto; Rolle, Enrica; Bianco, Flaviana; Van der Haawue, Marlene; Magri, Francesca; Palermo, Concetta; Rossi, Francesca; Donati, Maria Alice; Alfonsi, Chiara; Sacchini, Michele; Arnoldi, Maria Teresa; Baranello, Giovanni; Mongini, Tiziana; Pini, Antonella; Battini, Roberta; Pegoraro, Elena; Previtali, Stefano C.; Napolitano, Sara; Bruno, Claudio; Politano, Luisa; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bertini, Enrico; Morandi, Lucia; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Goemans, Nathalie; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the last few years some of the therapeutical approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are specifically targeting distinct groups of mutations, such as deletions eligible for skipping of individual exons. The aim of this observational study was to establish whether patients with distinct groups of mutations have different profiles of changes on the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) over a 12 month period. Methods The 6MWT was performed in 191 ambulant DMD boys at baseline and 12 months later. The results were analysed using a test for heterogeneity in order to establish possible differences among different types of mutations (deletions, duplications, point mutations) and among subgroups of deletions eligible to skip individual exons. Results At baseline the 6MWD ranged between 180 and 560,80 metres (mean 378,06, SD 74,13). The 12 month changes ranged between −325 and 175 (mean −10.8 meters, SD 69.2). Although boys with duplications had better results than those with the other types of mutations, the difference was not significant. Similarly, boys eligible for skipping of the exon 44 had better baseline results and less drastic changes than those eligible for skipping exon 45 or 53, but the difference was not significant. Conclusions even if there are some differences among subgroups, the mean 12 month changes in each subgroup were all within a narrow Range: from the mean of the whole DMD cohort. This information will be of help at the time of designing clinical trials with small numbers of eligible patients. PMID:24421885

  10. 6 Minute walk test in Duchenne MD patients with different mutations: 12 month changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Pane

    Full Text Available In the last few years some of the therapeutical approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD are specifically targeting distinct groups of mutations, such as deletions eligible for skipping of individual exons. The aim of this observational study was to establish whether patients with distinct groups of mutations have different profiles of changes on the 6 minute walk test (6MWT over a 12 month period.The 6MWT was performed in 191 ambulant DMD boys at baseline and 12 months later. The results were analysed using a test for heterogeneity in order to establish possible differences among different types of mutations (deletions, duplications, point mutations and among subgroups of deletions eligible to skip individual exons.At baseline the 6MWD ranged between 180 and 560,80 metres (mean 378,06, SD 74,13. The 12 month changes ranged between -325 and 175 (mean -10.8 meters, SD 69.2. Although boys with duplications had better results than those with the other types of mutations, the difference was not significant. Similarly, boys eligible for skipping of the exon 44 had better baseline results and less drastic changes than those eligible for skipping exon 45 or 53, but the difference was not significant.even if there are some differences among subgroups, the mean 12 month changes in each subgroup were all within a narrow Range: from the mean of the whole DMD cohort. This information will be of help at the time of designing clinical trials with small numbers of eligible patients.

  11. The Seasonal KPSS Test: Examining Possible Applications with Monthly Data and Additional Deterministic Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassen El Montasser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been notably less definitive in distinguishing between finite sample studies of seasonal stationarity than in seasonal unit root tests. Although the use of seasonal stationarity and unit root tests is advised to determine correctly the most appropriate form of the trend in a seasonal time series, such a use is rarely noted in the relevant studies on this topic. Recently, the seasonal KPSS test, with a null hypothesis of no seasonal unit roots, and based on quarterly data, has been introduced in the literature. The asymptotic theory of the seasonal KPSS test depends on whether data have been filtered by a preliminary regression. More specifically, one may proceed to extracting deterministic components, such as the mean and trend, from the data before testing. In this paper, we examine the effects of de-trending on the properties of the seasonal KPSS test in finite samples. A sketch of the test’s limit theory is subsequently provided. Moreover, a Monte Carlo study is conducted to analyze the behavior of the test for a monthly time series. The focus on this time-frequency is significant because, as we mentioned above, it was introduced for quarterly data. Overall, the results indicated that the seasonal KPSS test preserved its good size and power properties. Furthermore, our results corroborate those reported elsewhere in the literature for conventional stationarity tests. These subsequent results assumed that the nonparametric corrections of residual variances may lead to better in-sample properties of the seasonal KPSS test. Next, the seasonal KPSS test is applied to a monthly series of the United States (US consumer price index. We were able to identify a number of seasonal unit roots in this time series. [1] [1]    Table 1 in this paper is copyrighted and initially published by JMASM in 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp. 69–77, ISSN: 1538–9472, JMASM Inc., PO Box 48023, Oak Park, MI 48237, USA, ea@jmasm.com.

  12. Proximity, relationship closeness, and cognitive vulnerability: predicting enduring depressive reactions to a college campus tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Benjamin J; Haeffel, Gerald J

    2014-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that enduring depressive reactions to tragedy are due to a unique combination of three factors-close physical proximity to the event, close relationship with the victim(s), and high levels of cognitive vulnerability. Participants were 70 undergraduates (66% female; mean age = 18) from a midsized private university. Cognitive vulnerability and depressive symptoms were assessed 2 years before a college campus tragedy; physical proximity, relationship with the victim, and depressive symptoms were assessed 2 months after the tragedy. Individuals with a combination of high levels of cognitive vulnerability and close physical proximity to the event were at greater risk for enduring depression, but only if they did not have a very close relationship with the victim. This article puts forth a testable theory that helps to explain why some individuals are at risk for enduring depressive reactions to tragedy. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130–132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  14. 76 FR 73022 - Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet, VA Form 21... Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom service members who have at least six months remaining...

  15. False-negative post-18-month confirmatory HIV tests in HIV DNA PCR-positive children: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Prats, Anthony J; Draper, Heather R; Sanders, Jill E; Agrawal, Anurag K; Mohapi, Edith Q; Schutze, Gordon E

    2012-09-24

    The WHO guidelines for children less than 18 months old diagnosed with HIV based on presumptive clinical diagnosis or one virologic test recommend confirmatory HIV antibody testing after 18 months of age. This study describes post-18-month HIV test results following this WHO-recommended confirmatory testing strategy. Case series and retrospective review of routine program data. Children enrolled at the Baylor Children's Clinical Center of Excellence, a pediatric and family HIV clinic in Maseru, Lesotho from December 2005 through January 2009 with a positive HIV DNA PCR at less than 18 months of age and HIV rapid test results after 18 months of age were included. Post-18-month confirmatory HIV test results are described. Factors associated with non-positive confirmatory rapid tests were determined using binary logistic regression. Of the 109 children meeting inclusion criteria, 22 (20.2%) had negative and 27 (24.8%) discordant confirmatory rapid tests. Forty-six of these 49 were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Among these 49, 11 of 24 post-18-month HIV DNA PCRs were negative, whereas nine of 10 post-18-month HIV ELISAs were positive; 29 were definitively and 17 probably HIV-infected, two were uninfected, and one had undetermined status. Only age less than 9 months at ART initiation (odds ratio 4.25, P = 0.002) was associated with non-positive rapid tests. False-negative post-18-month confirmatory rapid tests and HIV DNA PCRs in children on ART are common, associated with early ART initiation, and may lead to inappropriate ART discontinuation and discharge from care of truly HIV-infected children.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF LAND BASED ENDURANCE TRAINING VERSUS AQUATIC BASED ENDURANCE TRAINING ON IMPROVING ENDURANCE IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Eunice Regima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently the exercises and fitness professionals have adopted water as an alternative medium for delivering programs to improve fitness and health. When exercise on dry land our skeletal muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory and other body systems are greatly affected by the forces of gravity. When exercise in water, the effects created by the gravitational pull on the body are attenuated. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of land based endurance training and aquatic based endurance training for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Methods: An experimental study design with 30 subjects healthy individuals between 20-30 years of both sexes currently were divided equally into 2 groups. Group A underwent land based exercises while Group B underwent aquatic based exercises. The outcome measures consist of RPP (rate pressure product, REC HR (recovery heart rate, RHR (resting heart rate and 6MWD (6 minute walking distance was measured before (pre-training and after four weeks of endurance training. Results: In this study, the mean improvement between the 2 groups of land and aquatic based endurance exercises were tested for significance using a dependent t test. The calculated t value were 43.550, 4.583, 16, 5.870 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively. For group B 25.922, 12.762, 27.495,19.236 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively with p<0.05. This clearly indicated that both land based exercises and aquatic based exercises will improve cardiovascular endurance significantly and there is no significant difference between land based exercises and aquatic based exercises for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Conclusion: It is concluded that both land based and aquatic based endurance exercises methods produce equivalent, if not same effect on the enhancement of aerobic endurance. There was no significant difference between these two exercising mediums. Nonetheless

  17. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  18. Erythropoiesis with endurance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, David; Breenfeldt-Andersen, Andreas; Oberholzer, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the progression of red blood cell volume (RBCV) expansion and potential volumetric and endocrine regulators of erythropoiesis during endurance training (ET). Nine healthy, untrained volunteers (age = 27 ± 4 yr) underwent supervised ET consisting...

  19. ANTHROPOLOGY DIMENSIONS AS INDEPENDENT AEROBIC ENDURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratko Pavlović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Endurance as human capability is treated in two ways. Some authors define it as mobility capability, while others deny this theory. The denying of this theory lies in attitude that endurance is saturated with psychological factors (motivation and cardio- vascular factors as well and is often identified with aero power, typical dimension of fun- ctional diagnostics. Having that in mind this research enabled the obtaining of necessary informations which could contribute to the clearing up of these uncoordinated opinions. The research included 110 student of the III year Phisical Education in East Sarajevo, male gender. Nine (9 predictors has been applied (4 variables for mobility space estima- te, 5 variables for morphology and functional space estimate and variable used for the estimate of endurance race 1500m. Obtained results confirmed statistical significance of two functional capability variable of Harvard step test, Margarija test and mobility variable race 4x15 meters with the race results.

  20. Histological analysis and identification of spermatogenesis-related genes in 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old sheep testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Man; Sun, Limin; Zhao, Jia; Xiang, Lujie; Cheng, Xiaoyin; Li, Jiarong; Jia, Chao; Jiang, Huaizhi

    2017-09-25

    Testis development and spermatogenesis are vital factors that influence male animal fertility. In order to identify spermatogenesis-related genes and further provide a theory basis for finding biomarkers related to male sheep fertility, 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old Small Tail Han Sheep testes were selected to investigate the dynamic changes of sheep testis development. Hematoxylin-eosin routine staining and RNA-Seq technique were used to perform histological and transcriptome analysis for these testes. The results showed that 630, 102, and 322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in 2- vs 6-month-old, 6- vs 12-month-old, and 2- vs 12-month-old testes, respectively. GO and KEGG analysis showed the following: DEGs in 2- vs 6-month-old testes were mainly related to the GO terms of sexual maturation and the pathways of multiple metabolism and biosynthesis; in 6- vs 12-month-old testes, most of the GO terms that DEGs involved in were related to metabolism and translation processes; the most significantly enriched pathway is the ribosome pathway. The union of DEGs in 2- vs 6-month-old, 6- vs 12-month-old, and 2- vs 12-month-old testes was categorized into eight profiles by series cluster. Subsequently, the eight profiles were classified into four model profiles and four co-expression networks were constructed based on the DEGs in these model profiles. Finally, 29 key regulatory genes related to spermatogenesis were identified in the four co-expression networks. The expression of 13 DEGs (CA3, APOH, MYOC, CATSPER4, SYT6, SERPINA10, DAZL, ADIPOR2, RAB13, CEP41, SPAG4, ODF1, and FRG1) was validated by RT-PCR.

  1. Histological analysis and identification of spermatogenesis-related genes in 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old sheep testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Man; Sun, Limin; Zhao, Jia; Xiang, Lujie; Cheng, Xiaoyin; Li, Jiarong; Jia, Chao; Jiang, Huaizhi

    2017-10-01

    Testis development and spermatogenesis are vital factors that influence male animal fertility. In order to identify spermatogenesis-related genes and further provide a theory basis for finding biomarkers related to male sheep fertility, 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old Small Tail Han Sheep testes were selected to investigate the dynamic changes of sheep testis development. Hematoxylin-eosin routine staining and RNA-Seq technique were used to perform histological and transcriptome analysis for these testes. The results showed that 630, 102, and 322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in 2- vs 6-month-old, 6- vs 12-month-old, and 2- vs 12-month-old testes, respectively. GO and KEGG analysis showed the following: DEGs in 2- vs 6-month-old testes were mainly related to the GO terms of sexual maturation and the pathways of multiple metabolism and biosynthesis; in 6- vs 12-month-old testes, most of the GO terms that DEGs involved in were related to metabolism and translation processes; the most significantly enriched pathway is the ribosome pathway. The union of DEGs in 2- vs 6-month-old, 6- vs 12-month-old, and 2- vs 12-month-old testes was categorized into eight profiles by series cluster. Subsequently, the eight profiles were classified into four model profiles and four co-expression networks were constructed based on the DEGs in these model profiles. Finally, 29 key regulatory genes related to spermatogenesis were identified in the four co-expression networks. The expression of 13 DEGs (CA3, APOH, MYOC, CATSPER4, SYT6, SERPINA10, DAZL, ADIPOR2, RAB13, CEP41, SPAG4, ODF1, and FRG1) was validated by RT-PCR.

  2. Veterinary problems of endurance horses in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Dyson, S J; Murray, J K

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB). A comprehensive online self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection (30th December 2015-29th February 2016) All members of Endurance GB who were the main rider of one or more endurance horses were eligible to participate. From the target population of 1209 horses, 190 questionnaires were completed by riders, resulting in a 15.7% response rate. The most common rider-reported veterinary problem was lameness, affecting 152/190 (80.0%) of endurance horses at some point during their careers and 101/190 (53.2%) of horses in the previous 12 months. Detailed information on the most recent episode of lameness was available for 147 horses. Seventy-six percent of these lameness episodes (112/147) had been initially identified by a veterinarian, but only 52% of these lameness episodes were investigated further by a veterinarian, despite the high proportion of horses affected by lameness and the proportion of horses with recurrent lameness episodes. The second most common veterinary problem was thoracolumbar region pain, followed by non-specific cough, skin disease and colic. Education of endurance riders may improve the number, quality and timing of veterinary investigations, especially for lameness and thoracolumbar region pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adherence to risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS requirements for monthly testing of liver function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Blanchette

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS, as mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for medications with the potential for harm, are increasingly incorporating rigid protocols for patient evaluation, but little is known about compliance with these programs. Despite the inherent limitations, data on administrative claims may provide an opportunity to investigate adherence to these programs. Methods: We assessed adherence to liver function test (LFT requirements included in the REMS program for bosentan through use of administrative claims. Patients observed in the Optum Research Database who were initiators of bosentan from November 20, 2001 to March 31, 2013 were included. Adherence to LFTs was calculated using pharmacy claims for bosentan dispensation and medical claims for laboratory services, and was assessed at the time of drug initiation and within specified time intervals throughout follow-up. Results: Of 742 patients, 523 (70.5% had ≥1 qualifying LFT. Among patients with ≥12 dispensations, claims for LFTs at individual dispensations were 53.2–64.0%. Median proportion of dispensations with ≥1 LFT was 0.8 among patients with ≥6 (interquartile range, 0.7–1.0 or ≥12 (0.7–0.9 dispensations. Adherence was 90–100% for 33.3% of all initiators, whereas 29.3% of initiators were non-adherent (defined as <50% of on-therapy LFTs. Conclusions: Analyses of administrative claims suggest that the REMS program for bosentan may not have adequately guaranteed adherence to the program’s monthly monitoring of LFTs. Such investigations of existing REMS programs may provide insight on how to accomplish more successful evaluation of REMS.

  4. Endurance exercise training to improve economy of movement of people with Parkinson disease: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkman, Margaret; Hall, Deborah; Kumar, Rajeev; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2008-01-01

    Even early in Parkinson disease (PD), individuals have reduced economy of movement. In this case report, the effects of endurance exercise training are examined on walking economy and other measures for 3 individuals in early and middle stages of PD. The patients were 1 woman and 2 men with PD, aged 52 to 72 years, classified at Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 to 2.5. Each patient completed 4 months of supervised endurance exercise training and 12 months of home exercise, with monthly clinic follow-up sessions. Strategies were included to enhance adherence to exercise. The main outcome measure was economy of movement (rate of oxygen consumption during gait) measured at 4 treadmill speeds. Secondary outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP), Functional Reach Test (FRT), and Functional Axial Rotation Test (FAR). Economy of movement improved for all 3 patients after 4 months of supervised exercise and remained above baseline at 16 months. Two patients also had scores that were above baseline for UPDRS total score, CS-PFP, FRT, and FAR, even at 16 months. : Evidence from these 3 individuals suggests that gains may occur with a treadmill training program that is coupled with specific strategies to enhance adherence to exercise.

  5. Reassessing the structure of enduring leisure involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; Symeon P. Vlachopoulos; Nicholas D. Theodorakis; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from U.S. and Greek respondents, we tested an alternate conceptualization of enduring leisure involvement where identity was considered a key driver of other affective and conative outcomes. Rather than existing on the same temporal plane, as has been the tradition in the leisure literature, we observed that identity was an antecedent of the other...

  6. Nutrition for endurance runners

    OpenAIRE

    Koukol, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Title: Nutrition for endurance runners Objective: The aim of this bachelor thesis is to explain the importance of training diet, particularly a diet for marathon runners in the age of 30 - 40 years. Proposal of diet composition for marathon runners. Methods: I conducted a literature research of czech and foreign sources regarding training diet to get relevant information. I also searched for scientific papers using the internet database EBSCO and Scorpus. Results: Recommended amount of carboh...

  7. [The effects of 6 months' multimodal training on functional performance, strength, endurance, and body mass index of older individuals. Are the benefits of training similar among women and men?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudlaugsson, Janus; Aspelund, Thor; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Olafsdottir, Anna Sigridur; Jonsson, Palmi V; Arngrimsson, Sigurbjorn Arni; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2013-07-01

    Good functional performance in elderly people greatly improves their changes of independence and well-being. Conversely, bad functional performance can impair their capability of managing the activities of daily life.. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a 6-months' multimodal training intervention on the physical performance of males and females, possible gender differences and the outcome 6 and 12 months after its completion. This study examined 71-90 year old healthy seniors (n=117) participating in the AGES Reykjavik Study. It was a randomized and controlled cross-over trial, conducted in three 6-months' phases (time-points). After enrollment and baseline assessments, the study group was divided in two. Group 1 received 6-months' training while group 2 served as a control. In the second 6 months' phase, group 1 received no formal training while group 2 did. In the third phase, neither group received training. The groups' physical conditions were assessed after each phase. After 6-months' training, 32% improvement was seen in physical activity among males (pbody mass index decreased by about 2% (p<0.001). No difference was seen between the sexes.in the training results. Both sexes retained long-term effects of the training on physical performance and dynamic balance for at least 12 months. Multimodal training intervention has positive effects on physical performance in older individuals, the sexes respond similarly to the training and retain achieved improvement for at least 12 months. The research indicates that moderate and systemic training for this age group could be a part of conventional health service for this age group.

  8. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Renae [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy and Sarah Robertson attended the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo in Anaheim, California, Nov. 10-13. ATR NSUF exhibited at the technology expo where hundreds of meeting participants had an opportunity to learn more about ATR NSUF. Dr. Kennedy briefed the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO) on the workings of the ATR NSUF. • Rory Kennedy, James Cole and Dan Ogden participated in a reactor instrumentation discussion with Jean-Francois Villard and Christopher Destouches of CEA and several members of the INL staff. • ATR NSUF received approval from the NE-20 office to start planning the annual Users Meeting. The meeting will be held at INL, June 22-25. • Mike Worley, director of the Office of Innovative Nuclear Research (NE-42), visited INL Nov. 4-5. Milestones Completed • Recommendations for the Summer Rapid Turnaround Experiment awards were submitted to DOE-HQ Nov. 12 (Level 2 milestone due Nov. 30). Major Accomplishments/Activities • The University of California, Santa Barbara 2 experiment was unloaded from the GE-2000 at HFEF. The experiment specimen packs will be removed and shipped to ORNL for PIE. • The Terrani experiment, one of three FY 2014 new awards, was completed utilizing the Advanced Photon Source MRCAT beamline. The experiment investigated the chemical state of Ag and Pd in SiC shell of irradiated TRISO particles via X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Upcoming Meetings/Events • The ATR NSUF program review meeting will be held Dec. 9-10 at L’Enfant Plaza. In addition to NSUF staff and users, NE-4, NE-5 and NE-7 representatives will attend the meeting. Awarded Research Projects Boise State University Rapid Turnaround Experiments (14-485 and 14-486) Nanoindentation and TEM work on the T91, HT9, HCM12A and 9Cr ODS specimens has been completed at

  9. Dumping symptoms and incidence of hypoglycaemia after provocation test at 6 and 12 months after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamargaritis, Dimitris; Koukoulis, George; Sioka, Eleni; Zachari, Eleni; Bargiota, Alexandra; Zacharoulis, Dimitris; Tzovaras, George

    2012-10-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that symptoms suggestive of dumping syndrome appear after a provocation test early after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in 45 % of patients, and these are mainly related to early dumping. The aim of this study is to evaluate the evolution of dumping symptoms during the first postoperative year. Twenty-five non-diabetic morbidly obese patients (6 male, 19 female) were evaluated with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) preoperatively, at 6 weeks and at 6 months postoperatively. In addition, 12 of them repeated the OGTT at 12 months after LSG. Sigstad score was used to separate dumpers from non-dumpers and Arts' questionnaire to differentiate between early and late dumping. Insulin and glucose levels were also measured. Sigstad score remained significantly elevated at 6 and 12 months postoperatively compared to preoperative values. Symptoms suggestive of dumping syndrome were recorded in 40 % of patients at 6 months and in 33 % at 12 months postoperatively. Arts' questionnaire demonstrated that early dumping score remained higher compared to baseline at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Late dumping scores increased gradually during the time and that difference was statistically significant at 12 months after LSG. Hypoglycaemia occurred at 33 % of patients both at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Symptoms suggestive of dumping syndrome after provocation still exist at 6 and 12 months in a significant proportion of patients after LSG and include both early and late dumping. These findings are consistent with the high incidence of hypoglycaemia after OGTT at 6 and 12 months after LSG.

  10. Measurement of cervical flexor endurance following whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Balsor, Brad; Parkinson, William L; Harding Bsckin, Peter; Bedard, Michel; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2005-07-22

    To investigate measurement properties of a practical test of cervical flexor endurance (CFE) in whiplash patients including inter-rater reliability, sensitivity to clinical change, criterion related validity against the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and discriminant validity for injured versus uninjured populations. Two samples were recruited, 81 whiplash patients, and a convenience sample of 160 subjects who were not seeking treatment and met criteria for normal pain and range of motion. CFE was measured using a stopwatch while the subject, in crook lying, held their head against gravity to fatigue. Inter-rater reliability in whiplash patients was in a range considered 'almost perfect' (Intraclass Correlation=0.96). CFE had greater inter-subject variability than the NDI or range of motion in any of three planes. However, the effect size for improvement in CFE over treatment was as large as the effect sizes for all of those measures. In multivariate regression, CFE changes accounted for changes on the NDI better than the three ranges of motion. CFE discriminated whiplash patients who were within six months of injury (n=71) from age and gender matched normals with high effect size (ES=1.5). These findings provide evidence of reliability and validity for CFE measurement, and demonstrate that CFE detects clinical improvements. Variance on CFE emphasizes the need to consider inter-, and intra-subject standard deviations to interpret scores.

  11. Thermal activation model of endurance limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Baotong; Zheng, Xiulin

    1992-09-01

    A thermal activation model of the endurance limit is proposed in the present study. It can quantitatively explain the effects of temperature and frequency on the endurance limit of metals at or below room temperature. Theoretical analysis indicates that the endurance limit, σac, which is considered as a parameter characterizing the resistance of metals to cyclic microplastic deformation, has the same thermally activated nature as the plastic flow stress has and it can be resolved into two independent components: the long-range internal stress (the athermal component), μ(ɛapc), and the short-range effective stress (the thermal component), σa *( T, ɛp). The former is considered as a material constant insensitive to temperature and strain rate (or frequency). The latter, the temperature- and strain rate-dependent part of the endurance limit, is approximately identical with the effective stress component of plastic flow stress (or cyclic yielding stress). In light of the thermal activation model, the temperature and strain-rate dependence of monotonic and cyclic flow stresses in a low alloy steel (16Mn) and a precipitation-hardening aluminum alloy (LY12CZ) were experimentally investigated. The results indicate that the effective stress components of monotonic and cyclic flow stresses are identical, if the temperature and strain rate are held unchanged, and that both of them are approximately independent of the magnitude of plastic strain. On the basis of the thermal activation model, an expression predicting the endurance limit below room temperature is offered. The predicted values of the endurance limit agree with the test data of steels and aluminum alloys available in literature.

  12. Endurance training in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Varady, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Adomßent, Björn; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to examine the feasibility of and adaptations to endurance training in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and to address the question whether the principles and beneficial effects of endurance training established in the healthy population apply also to patients with schizophrenia. In this controlled interventional study, 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed a standardized aerobic endurance training on bicycle ergometers over 12 weeks. Another group of 21 patients with schizophrenia played table soccer. Endurance capacity was measured with incremental cycle ergometry before and after the intervention and 3 months later. A specific set of outcome parameters was defined. The training stimuli can be assumed to be similar in both endurance groups. Endurance capacity improved significantly in the endurance groups, but not in the table soccer group. Patients and healthy controls showed comparable adaptations to endurance training, as assessed by physical working capacity and maximal achieved power. Differences were found in changes of performance at a lactate concentration of 3 mmol/l. Endurance training was feasible and effective in both groups. The principles and types of training that are usually applied to healthy controls need to be verified in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patients benefited from endurance training in terms of improvement of endurance capacity and reduction in the baseline deficit in comparison with healthy controls. Therefore, endurance training should be implemented in future therapy programs. These programs need to pay special attention to the differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

  13. Common problems in endurance athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cosca, DD

    2007-01-01

    .... Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar...

  14. Endurance training increases the efficiency of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Koziel, Agnieszka; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Celichowski, Jan; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-10-01

    Endurance training enhances mitochondrial oxidative capacity, but its effect on mitochondria functioning is poorly understood. In the present study, the influence of an 8-week endurance training on the bioenergetic functioning of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria under different assay temperatures (25, 35, and 42 °C) was investigated. The study was performed on 24 adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats, which were randomly assigned to either a treadmill training group (n = 12) or a sedentary control group (n = 12). In skeletal muscles, endurance training stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. In isolated mitochondria, endurance training increased the phosphorylation rate and elevated levels of coenzyme Q. Moreover, a decrease in mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed after training, which could explain the increased reactive oxygen species production (in nonphosphorylating mitochondria) and enhanced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. At all studied temperatures, endurance training significantly augmented H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in nonphosphorylating mitochondria and decreased H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in phosphorylating mitochondria. Endurance training magnified the hyperthermia-induced increase in oxidative capacity and attenuated the hyperthermia-induced decline in oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species formation of nonphosphorylating mitochondria via proton leak enhancement. Thus, endurance training induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in muscle mitochondria that are important for cell signaling as well as for maintaining muscle energy homeostasis, especially at high temperatures.

  15. Successful Word Recognition by 10-Month-Olds Given Continuous Speech Both at Initial Exposure and Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    Most words that infants hear occur within fluent speech. To compile a vocabulary, infants therefore need to segment words from speech contexts. This study is the first to investigate whether infants (here: 10-month-olds) can recognize words when both initial exposure and test presentation are in

  16. Prognostic factors for hereditary cancer distress six months after BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Tibben, Aad

    This study explored predictors for hereditary cancer distress six months after genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial BRCA1/2 or HNPCC related mutation, in order to gain insight into aspects relevant for the identification of individuals needing additional psychosocial support. Coping,

  17. Prognostic factors for hereditary cancer distress six months after BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Bröcker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Tibben, Aad

    2007-01-01

    This study explored predictors for hereditary cancer distress six months after genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial BRCA1/2 or HNPCC related mutation, in order to gain insight into aspects relevant for the identification of individuals needing additional psychosocial support. Coping,

  18. Prognostic factors for hereditary cancer distress six months after BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored predictors for hereditary cancer distress six months after genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial BRCA1/2 or HNPCC related mutation, in order to gain insight into aspects relevant for the identification of individuals needing additional psychosocial support. Coping,

  19. ENLUB - 12 Months Technical Report WP3: Development of simulative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi

    A draw bead test has been developed at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering, The Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the test equipment is to simulate an actual situation in industry where draw beads are applied to constrain movement of sheet material particular in stretch...... forming operation of non-cylindrical parts....

  20. Superior endurance performance in aging mountain runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Förster, Holger; Burtscher, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (VO(2)AT) is considered as the main determinant for endurance performance in humans. Endurance performance steeply decreases with aging but seems to be kept exceedingly high in elite mountain runners. To obtain the age- and gender-related upper limits of endurance performance in this sport, we analyzed the results of the World Masters Athletic Championships in Mountain Running 2007. Additionally, to investigate the relationship between the individual VO(2)AT values and running times, laboratory tests were performed in 10 mountain runners. The World Championships race times of the first 5 finishers of the 5-year age groups did not differ significantly from 35 to 49 years. The corresponding mean (+/- SD) values of the VO(2)AT were 68.0 +/- 1.7 ml/min/kg in males and 58.1 +/- 1.9 ml/min/kg in females. In the following age groups up to 70+ there was a decrease in the VO(2)AT of 29.1% in males and 33.9% in females. Thus, at the beginning of the 3rd millennium, elite mountain runners demonstrate that VO(2)AT and probably also VO(2max) may be held at top levels in humans up to the age of 45-49 years in both sexes. Despite the following decrease, endurance capacity remains about 3.5-fold higher in elite mountain runners up to 70+ years when compared to their untrained peers. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The testing effect on skills learning might last 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, C B; Bohnstedt, C; Jensen, M L

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study we found that testing as a final activity in a skills course increases the learning outcome compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing. Whether this testing effect measured as skills performance can be demonstrated on long-term basis is not known. The research...... question was: does testing as a final activity in a cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills course increase learning outcome when assessed after half a year, compared to spending an equal amount of time practicing? The study was an assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial. A convenient sample of 7......th semester medical students attending a mandatory CPR course was randomised to intervention course or control course. Participants were taught in small groups. The intervention course included 3.5 h skills training plus 30 min of skills testing. The practice-only control course lasted 4 h. Both...

  2. An eight month test campaign of the Qinetiq ZephIR system. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindler, D. [Windtest Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog GmbH (Germany); Oldroyd, A. [Oldbaum Services Ltd, Callander (United Kingdom); MacAskill, A. [Talisman Energy Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Finch, D. [Scottish and Southern Energy Ltd, Perth (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    The Beatrice Windfarm Demonstrator project is a major part of the European Union sponsored DOWNVInD programme (Distant Offshore Wind farms with No Visual Impact iN Demonstrator) that will install two multi megawatt wind turbines (of type REpower 5M) in the Moray Firth Scotland, adjacent to the Beatrice Alpha oil platform, owned and operated by Talisman Energy. As part of the project, a programme has been designed and instigated over the last eight months to thoroughly examine the performance and capabilities of the QinetiQ ZephIR LiDAR system as well as to establish its suitability for being the primary wind data acquisition instrument on the Beatrice project. This paper represents a first look at the results of this programme. (orig.)

  3. Preoperative hypoalgesia after cold pressor test and aerobic exercise is associated with pain relief six months after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Emmeluth, Claus

    2017-01-01

    investigated the association between exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and CPM on post-TKR pain relief. METHODS: Before and six months post-TKR, 14 patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis performed the cold pressor test on the non-affected leg and two exercise conditions (bicycling and isometric knee...... extension), randomized and counterbalanced. Before and during the cold pressor test and after exercises test-stimuli were applied to extract the pain sensitivity difference: Computer-controlled cuff inflation on the affected lower leg until the subjects detected the cuff pain threshold (c...... at the affected leg improved post-TKR compared with pre-TKR (P

  4. Females have a blunted cardiovascular response to one year of intensive supervised endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Erin J; Perhonen, Merja; Peshock, Ronald M; Zhang, Rong; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies in athletes suggest that endurance training augments cardiovascular structure and function with apparently different phenotypes in athletic males and females. It is unclear whether the longitudinal response to endurance training leads to similar cardiovascular adaptations between sexes. We sought to determine whether males and females demonstrate similar cardiovascular adaptations to 1 yr of endurance training, matched for training volume and intensity. Twelve previously sedentary males (26 ± 7, n = 7) and females (31 ± 6, n = 5) completed 1 yr of progressive endurance training. All participants underwent a battery of tests every 3 mo to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and left ventricle (LV) function and morphology (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Pulmonary artery catheterization was performed before and after 1 yr of training, and pressure-volume and Starling curves were constructed during decreases (lower-body negative pressure) and increases (saline infusion) in cardiac volume. Males progressively increased V̇o2max, LV mass, and mean wall thickness, before reaching a plateau from month 9 to 12 of training. In contrast, despite exactly the same training, the response in females was markedly blunted, with V̇o2max, LV mass, and mean wall thickness plateauing after only 3 mo of training. The response of LV end-diastolic volume was not influenced by sex (males +20% and females +18%). After training Starling curves were shifted upward and left, but the effect was greatest in males (interaction P = 0.06). We demonstrate for the first time clear sex differences in response to 1 yr of matched endurance training, such that the development of ventricular hypertrophy and increase in V̇o2max in females is markedly blunted compared with males. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY MONTHLY INFORMAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: MARCH 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astley, E. R.

    1969-04-07

    This report was prepared by Battelle-Northwest under Contract No. AT(4S-l)-1830 for the Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Reactor Development and Technology, to summarize technical progress made in the Fast Flux Test Facility Program during March 1969.

  6. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY MONTHLY INFORMAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT MAY 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astley, E. R.; Cabell, C. P.

    1969-06-06

    This report was prepared by Battelle-Northwest under Contract No. AT(45-1)-1830 for the Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Reactor Development and Technology, to summarize technical progress made in the Fast Flux Test Facility Program during May 1969 .

  7. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY MONTHLY INFORMAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT SEPTEMBER 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astely, E. R.; Cabell, C. P.

    1969-10-07

    This report was prepared by Battelle-Northwest under Contract No. AT(45-1)-1830 for the Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Reactor Development and Technology, to summarize technical progress made in the Fast Flux Test Facility Program during September 1969.

  8. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY MONTHLY INFORMAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT FEBRUARY 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astley, E. R.

    1969-03-07

    This report was prepared by Battelle-Northwest under Contract No. AT (45-1)-1830 for the Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Reactor Development and Technology, to summarize technical progress made in the Fast Flux Test Facility Program during February 1969.

  9. Evaluation of Relationship between Trunk Muscle Endurance and Static Balance in Male Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Amirhossein; Safarcherati, Afsaneh; Aghayari, Azar; Azizi, Faeze; Abbasi, Hamed

    2013-12-01

    Fatigue of trunk muscle contributes to spinal instability over strenuous and prolonged physical tasks and therefore may lead to injury, however from a performance perspective, relation between endurance efficient core muscles and optimal balance control has not been well-known. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of trunk muscle endurance and static balance. Fifty male students inhabitant of Tehran university dormitory (age 23.9±2.4, height 173.0±4.5 weight 70.7±6.3) took part in the study. Trunk muscle endurance was assessed using Sørensen test of trunk extensor endurance, trunk flexor endurance test, side bridge endurance test and static balance was measured using single-limb stance test. A multiple linear regression analysis was applied to test if the trunk muscle endurance measures significantly predicted the static balance. There were positive correlations between static balance level and trunk flexor, extensor and lateral endurance measures (Pearson correlation test, r=0.80 and Pstatic balance, the linear combination of trunk muscle endurance measures was significantly related to the static balance (F (3,46) = 66.60, Pstatic balance level. The regression model which included these factors had the sample multiple correlation coefficient of 0.902, indicating that approximately 81% of the variance of the static balance is explained by the model. There is a significant relationship between trunk muscle endurance and static balance.

  10. Three-Month Test-Retest Reliability of Center of Pressure Motion During Standing Balance in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Douglas A; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-01-01

    Balance impairment and an increased rate of falls are commonly reported in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Force platform-generated center of pressure (COP) metrics have previously been recommended as an outcome measure to quantify balance deficits and distinguish between fallers and nonfallers in MS. Information is limited regarding the preservation of postural control in individuals with MS over extended time frames in the absence of an intervention. This report examines the test-retest reliability and magnitude of change of COP motion during standing balance over 3 months. Twenty individuals with MS and a history of falling underwent testing on two occasions 3 months apart in the absence of an intervention. On both occasions, participants completed two 30-second trials of three conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, and eyes open with concurrent cognitive challenge (dual task). Measures of COP area, velocity, and temporal structure were calculated and included in the reliability analysis. The COP metrics displayed fair-to-excellent reliability over 3 months without an intervention. Reliability was maintained across the three commonly used balance conditions. These results offer insight into the reliability of COP measures over a 3-month period in MS and can inform the use of COP metrics for future study design (eg, sample size estimates) and balance outcome assessment during randomized controlled trials and fall-prevention studies in individuals with MS.

  11. Effects of Endurance Training Combined With Cognitive Remediation on Everyday Functioning, Symptoms, and Cognition in Multiepisode Schizophrenia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow, Berend; Keller, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Dörfler, Sebastian; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Honer, William G; Schulze, Thomas G; Niklas, Andree; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve symptoms in multiepisode schizophrenia, including cognitive impairments, but results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of an enriched environment paradigm consisting of bicycle ergometer training and add-on computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) training. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate such an enriched environment paradigm in multiepisode schizophrenia. Twenty-two multiepisode schizophrenia patients and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent 3 months of endurance training (30min, 3 times/wk); CACR training (30min, 2 times/wk) was added from week 6. Twenty-one additionally recruited schizophrenia patients played table soccer (known as "foosball" in the United States) over the same period and also received the same CACR training. At baseline and after 6 weeks and 3 months, we measured the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Social Adjustment Scale-II (SAS-II), schizophrenia symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), and cognitive domains (Verbal Learning Memory Test [VLMT], Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST], and Trail Making Test). After 3 months, we observed a significant improvement in GAF and in SAS-II social/leisure activities and household functioning adaptation in the endurance training augmented with cognitive remediation, but not in the table soccer augmented with cognitive remediation group. The severity of negative symptoms and performance in the VLMT and WCST improved significantly in the schizophrenia endurance training augmented with cognitive remediation group from week 6 to the end of the 3-month training period. Future studies should investigate longer intervention periods to show whether endurance training induces stable improvements in everyday functioning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Physical fitness differences of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine physical fitness differences in students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels, a study was conducted on a sample of students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education at the University of Nis. The sample was divided into two subsamples, where the first subsample comprised 27 female students and the other 35 male students. Physical fitness was assessed using eight tests from the Eurofit battery of tests: the single-leg balance test - for the assessment of general balance, plate tapping - for the assessment of speed of movement, sit-and-reach - for the assessment of flexibility, the standing broad jump - for the assessment of explosive strength, the handgrip test - for the assessment of static strength, sit-ups - for the assessment of repetitive trunk strength, the bent arm hang - for the assessment of muscular endurance and the 10x5 meter shuttle run - for the assessment of the speed/agility. Cardiorespiratory endurance was estimated with the aid of 20 m endurance shuttle-run test. Based on the level of cardiorespiratory endurance, the participants in each subsample, were divided into three groups using a cluster analysis: high (VKRI, average (PKRI and low level (NKRI. The physical fitness differences of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels were calculated using the one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that there were no differences in physical fitness of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels. Based on the results it can be concluded that the level of cardiorespiratory endurance does not affect the components of physical fitness among students of both sexes.

  13. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order and the permanent environmental effect (5th order. Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11 to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5. The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields.

  14. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Pickering, Michael A; Rhodes, Ryan E; Courneya, Kerry S; Spence, John C

    2010-05-03

    Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA) have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1) the first 6-months (i.e., initial change), (2) the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change), and (3) the entire 12-months (overall change) of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group). Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change) two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes), with very small effect sizes. However, these mediating

  15. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  16. Iron and the endurance athlete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance...

  17. The Relationship Between Endurance Of Periscapular Muscles, Anaerobic Performance And Agility In Professional Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Zorlular, Ali; ?obano?lu, Gamze; Keklik, Sinem Suner; G?kdo?an, ?a?atay M?slim; Akaras, Esedullah; Polat, Elif Ayg?n; Kafa, Nihan; G?zel, Nevin Atalay

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between endurance of periscapular muscle, anaerobic performance and agility in professional athletes. Methods: 70 professional basketball, volleyball, and handball players (male: 25 female: 45 age 20.41?5.72, BMI: 21.70?2.51) were included to this study. Anaerobic performance was assessed with vertical jump test. Periscapular muscles endurance was evaluated using scapular muscle endurance test and agility was measured hexagona...

  18. No harmful effect of different Coca-cola beverages after 6 months of intake on rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthová, Lubomíra; Hodosy, Július; Mettenburg, Kathryn; Fábryová, Helena; Wagnerová, Alexandra; Bábíčková, Janka; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Celec, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a 3-month exposure of rats to cola-like beverages induced sex hormone changes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of various types of Coca-cola intake with different composition for 6 months on oxidative status in testes and testosterone in adult male rats. Fifty adult male Wistar rats were divided into control group drinking water, and groups drinking different Coca-cola beverages (regular Coca-cola, Coca-cola caffeine-free, Coca-cola Light and Coca-cola Zero). Oxidative and carbonyl stress markers were measured in the testicular tissue to assess oxidative status together with testicular and plasma testosterone. StAR expression in testes as a marker of steroidogenesis was quantified. No significant differences were found between the groups in any of the measured parameters. In conclusion, oxidative and carbonyl stress in testicular tissue were not influenced by drinking any type of Coca-cola. Additionally, testosterone in testes and in plasma, as well as testicular StAR expression were comparable among the groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physiological benefits of a prolonged moderate intensity endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess the physiological changes that take place in patients with coronary artery disease after 6 and 18 months of moderate-intensity endurance training. Design. Prospective non-randomised controlled study. Setting. Joharmesburg Cardiac Rehabilitation Centre, a community-based phase ill cardiac ...

  20. The influence of a constraint and bimanual training program using a variety of modalities on endurance and on the cardiac autonomic regulation system of children with unilateral cerebral palsy: A self-control clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Holzer, Marilyn; Sorek, Gilad; Schweizer, Maayan; Katz-Leurer, Michal

    2017-01-01

    An intensive hybrid program, combining constraint with bimanual training, improves upper extremity function as well as walking endurance of children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP). Endurance improvement may be associated with the cardiac autonomic regulation system (CARS) adaptation, known to be impaired among these children. To examine the influence of an intensive hybrid program on CARS, walking endurance and the correlation with upper extremity function of children with UCP. Twenty-four children aged 6-10 years with UCP participated in a hybrid program, 10 days, 6 hours per day. Data were collected pre-, post- and 3-months post-intervention. Main outcome measures included the Polar RS800CX for heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) data, the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) for endurance, and the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) and Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function (JTTHF) for bimanual and unimanual function. A significant reduction in HR and an increase in HRV at post- and 3-month post-intervention was noted (χ22= 8.3, p = 0.016) along with a significant increase in 6MWT with a median increase of 81 meters (χ22= 11.0, p = 0.004) at the same interval. A significant improvement was noted in unimanual and bimanual performance following the intervention. An intensive hybrid program effectively improved CARS function as well as walking endurance and upper extremity function in children with UCP (213).

  1. Enduring somatic threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors of cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Laura; Alcántara, Carmela; Sumner, Jennifer A; Swan, Brendan; Chang, Bernard P; Edmondson, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder due to acute cardiovascular events may be uniquely defined by enduring perceptions of somatic threat. We tested whether post-traumatic stress disorder at 1 month post-acute coronary syndrome indeed required both high peritraumatic threat during the acute coronary syndrome and ongoing cardiac threat perceptions. We assessed peritraumatic threat during emergency department enrollment of 284 patients with a provisional acute coronary syndrome diagnosis and cardiac threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms 1 month post-discharge. In a multiple regression model with adjustment for important covariates, emergency department threat perceptions were associated with higher 1 month post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms only among those with high levels of ongoing cardiac threat.

  2. Concurrent strength and endurance training exercise sequence does not affect neuromuscular adaptations in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Rech, Anderson; Minozzo, Felipe; Botton, Cintia Ehlers; Radaelli, Regis; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Concurrent training is an effective method for increasing skeletal muscle performance in aging individuals, but controversy exists as to whether chronic neuromuscular and functional adaptations are affected by the intra-session exercise sequence. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training exercise sequence on muscular and functional adaptations of older participants. Thirty-six healthy older men not engaged in systematic exercise training programs for at least 6 months were divided into a control group (CON; 65.8±5.3 years), or in the training groups: endurance-strength (ES; 63.2±3.3 years), or strength-endurance (SE; 67.1±6.1 years). Training groups underwent 12 weeks of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training, starting every exercise session with either endurance (in ES) or strength (in SE) exercises. Measurements included knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), knee extension power, 30 second sit-to-stand test (30SS), maximum vastus lateralis surface electromyographic activity, and rectus femoris echo intensity (RFEI). Significant increases in maximal strength (ES +18±11.3%; SE +14.2±6.0%; p≤0.05), peak power (ES +22.2±19.4%; SE +26.3±31.3%; p≤0.05), and 30SS performance (ES +15.2±7.2%; SE +13.2±11.8%; p≤0.05) were observed only in the training groups, with no differences between ES and SE. Maximum muscular activity was greater after 12weeks at training groups (p≤0.05), and reductions in RFEI were found only in ES and SE (p≤0.05). These results demonstrate that concurrent strength and endurance training performed twice a week effectively increases muscular performance and functional capacity in older men, independent of the intra-session exercise sequence. Additionally, the RFEI decreases indicate an additional adaptation to concurrent training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal variation of speed and endurance in young elite soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Kunzmann, Egon

    2017-01-01

    Title: Seasonal variabilityof speed and endurance skills of young elite soccer players. Objectives: Comparison of variability in speed and endurance capabilities of young elite soccer players during one season in the U-12 category based on the results of a test battery consisting of 4 tests (30 m sprint test, Agility 505 Test, Illinois test and Yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1). Methods: Our thesis is characterized by using comparison and testing methods. We use the comparison method ...

  4. Análise de taxa metabólica basal e composição corporal de idosos do sexo masculino antes e seis meses após exercícios de resistência Análisis de la tasa metabolica de descanso y la composición corporal en veteranos hombres antes y despues de seis meses de ejercicio de endurance Analysis of resting metabolic rate and body composition in elderly males before and after six months of endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna K.M. Antunes

    2005-02-01

    3 veces por semana (60 minutos en días alternados por seis meses con intensidad prescrita referente a la frecuencia cardiaca del umbral ventilatorio I (VT-1. Los voluntarios fueron sometidos a una evaluación de la composición corporal (DEXA; calorimetría indirecta, análisis sanguíneo y test ergoespirométrico. Después del período de estudio, fue observado un decrecimiento significativo en las hormonas tiroideas y cambios en el metabolismo basal en ambos grupos, pero no fueron observadas alteraciones en la composición corporal. En tanto, el grupo experimental presentó un aumento significativo en el consumo de oxigeno pico y en la carga de trabajo referente a la intensidad del VT-1. Los datos sugieren que un programa de ejercicios aeróbicos en la intensidad del VT-1 no es suficiente para provocar alteraciones favorables en el metabolismo basal y en la composición corporal de añosos, así mismo promueva beneficios cardiovasculares.The aim of this study was to compare basal metabolic rate and body composition before and after an endurance-type physical fitness program. The study involved 46 sedentary aging males, aged 60-75 (66.97 ± 4.80 years, who were randomly allocated to two groups: 1 control group, which was asked not to change their daily routine or join a regular physical fitness program; and 2 experimental group, who took part in an aerobic fitness program consisting of working on cycle ergometer three times a week (60 minutes on alternate days for six months, at heart rate corresponding to ventilatory threshold 1 (VT-1 intensity. Subjects were submitted to measurement of body composition (DEXA; indirect calorimetry, blood analysis and ergospirometric testing. After the study period, the authors found a significant decrease in thyroid hormones as well as basal metabolism changes in both groups, but no changes in body composition. The experimental group, however, showed a significant increase in peak oxygen uptake and workload at VT-1 intensity. The

  5. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  6. Shoulder muscle function in frozen shoulder syndrome patients following manipulation under anesthesia: a 6-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokk, J; Gapeyeva, H; Ereline, J; Merila, M; Pääsuke, M

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluates changes in shoulder muscle function in patients with frozen shoulder syndrome (FSS) following manipulation under general anesthesia (MUA). Fifteen FSS patients with mean (±SD) age of 53.6±9.7 years were included in this study. Isometric endurance of the shoulder muscles was characterized by time and net impulse (NI), which were assessed with the patient holding a weight in the hand until exhaustion. Fatigability of the deltoid and trapezius muscles during isometric endurance test was assessed by electromyogram power spectrum median frequency (MF) slope per minute. Patients were also screened for daytime pain. Data were collected before MUA, and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. Six months postoperatively, the MF slope for the trapezius and deltoid muscles of the involved and uninvolved shoulders did not differ (P>0.05), whereas NI remained lower and endurance time was longer (PShoulder pain was reduced as compared to preoperative levels (on visual analog scale) 1 and 6 months postoperatively (Pshoulder muscle NI, fatigability and pain take place in the first month after MUA; 6 months after MUA, however, NI and endurance time remained impaired for the involved shoulder. Physiotherapy should pay more attention to muscle function recovery. Level III, prospective follow-up study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional connectivity between core and shoulder muscles increases during isometric endurance contractions in judo competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawczyński, Adam; Samani, Afshin; Mroczek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyogram (SEMG) changes within and between muscles of the torso and shoulder region during static endurance contraction in elite judokas. We hypothesized an increased functional connectivity of muscles from the shoulder and torso...... : We concluded that the increases in NMIs highlighted functional changes in the interplay between core and shoulder muscles during an endurance contraction in elite judokas....... endurance contraction consisting of bilateral arm abduction at 90°. The normalized mutual information (NMI) was computed between muscle pairs as an index indicating functional connectivity. Results: The NMIs increased significantly during endurance test for 10 of the 15 muscle pairs (P

  8. Strength and endurance training of an individual with left upper and lower limb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donachy, J E; Brannon, K D; Hughes, L S; Seahorn, J; Crutcher, T T; Christian, E L

    2004-04-22

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a strength and endurance training programme designed to prepare an individual with a left glenohumeral disarticulation and transtibial amputation for a bike trip across the USA. The subject was scheduled for training three times per week over a two-month period followed by two times per week for an additional two months. Training consisted of a resistance training circuit using variable resistance machines, cycling using a recumbent stationary bike, and core stability training using stability ball exercises. Changes in strength were assessed using 10 RM tests on the resistance machines and changes in peak VO(2) were monitored utilizing the Cosmed K4b pulmonary function tester. The subject demonstrated a 30.3% gain in peak VO(2). The subject's 10 RM for left single limb leg press increased 36.8% and gains of at least 7.7% were seen for all other muscle groups tested. The strength and endurance training programme adapted to compensate for this subject's limb losses was effective in increasing both strength and peak VO(2). Adapting exercise programmes to compensate for limb loss may allow individuals with amputations to participate in physically challenging activities that otherwise may not be available to them.

  9. 'Endurance' Courtesy of Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera to capture this false-color image of the interior of 'Endurance Crater' on the rover's 188th martian day (Aug. 4, 2004). The image data were relayed to Earth by the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The image was generated from separate frames using the cameras 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  10. Endurance Training - Science and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While this information may not equip the reader with enough knowledge or experience to prescribe a diet or dietary intervention, it should allow you to determine if your athletes are adopting good nutritional habits. The book also contains five chapters on endurance training and competition in challenging environments, ...

  11. Soccer Endurance Development in Professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roescher, C. R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Visscher, C.

    The development of intermittent endurance capacity, its underlying mechanisms and role in reaching professional level in soccer was investigated. The sample included 130 talented youth soccer players aged 14-18, who became professional (n = 53) or non-professional (n = 77) players in adulthood. In

  12. Predição da performance aeróbia por meio de testes de campo e de laboratório em corredores de endurance

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, George

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Desportos. Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação Física O objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar variáveis fisiológicas obtidas em testes progressivos máximos (TPM) em laboratório e campo; além de predizer a performance nas provas de 1,5 km, 5 km e 10 km. Dez corredores de meio-fundo e fundo (28,3 ± 6,8 anos e 10,6 ± 3,1% de gordura), de nível regional, realizaram um TPM na esteira, iniciando em 12 km.h-1 (1% de incli...

  13. Psychological demands experienced by recreational endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify psychological demands that are commonly experienced by endurance athletes so that these demands could inform the design of performance-enhancement psychological interventions for endurance athletes. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 recreational endurance athletes of various sports (running, cycling, and triathlon), distances, and competitive levels to explore the psychological demands of training, competition preparation, and competition participation...

  14. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Townsend, M.A.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) consumption during prolonged endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels was investigated. Eleven well-trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, followed by two experimental running trials in a randomized order. The two

  15. The Relationship Between Endurance Of Periscapular Muscles, Anaerobic Performance And Agility In Professional Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorlular, Ali; Çobanoğlu, Gamze; Keklik, Sinem Suner; Gökdoğan, Çağatay Müslim; Akaras, Esedullah; Polat, Elif Aygün; Kafa, Nihan; Güzel, Nevin Atalay

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between endurance of periscapular muscle, anaerobic performance and agility in professional athletes. Methods: 70 professional basketball, volleyball, and handball players (male: 25 female: 45 age 20.41±5.72, BMI: 21.70±2.51) were included to this study. Anaerobic performance was assessed with vertical jump test. Periscapular muscles endurance was evaluated using scapular muscle endurance test and agility was measured hexagonal obstacle test. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software SPSS 22. Results: Spearman correlation analysis results showed that there was positive significant correlation between anaerobic performance and endurance of periscapular muscles (pagility (pagility and endurance of periscapular muscles (pagility performance in sports.

  16. [Improved performance in endurance sports through acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Stefan; Benner, K

    2010-09-01

    In many years of experience in treating athletes with acupuncture, I often had the impression that athletes in endurance sports showed improved performances after such treatments. In order to scientifically verify these impressions, I performed a field test with three groups of runners of different performance levels preparing for a marathon. The first group was given acupuncture, the second a placebo, with the third being the control group. After their maximum pulse rates were recorded, the runners were asked to run 5000m four times in 4 weeks at 75 % of their maximum pulse rate. Their pulse rates were measured for each runner at the finish of the run, and subsequently, one, two and five minutes after the run. Based on these data, the complexity factor (running time multiplied by the respective pulse rate) was calculated for all four recorded pulse rates for each run and each runner. All groups showed statistically significant enhancements in their running times and their complexity factors, but in the case of the runners treated with acupuncture, the improvements were highly significant. Therefore, the field test proves that acupuncture has a significant impact on the performance of the athletes in endurance sports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effects of Temperature on Wrist Flexor Muscles Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsun Nodehi-Moghadam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely recognized that neuromuscular function is temperature sensitive. Changes in muscle temperature may affect muscle force development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature on wrist flexor muscles endurance. Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects (mean age 21.13±1.30 years participated in the present study. The wrist flexor muscles endurance was measured before and after applying ice and hot packs over the forearm for 15 minutes. Paired t tests were used to compare differences between pre and post intervention endurance. Results: The results showed a significant increase in wrist flexor muscles endurance after heating. (P=0.04. We also found that, cooling the forearm muscles leaded to significant decrease of wrist flexor muscles endurance (P=0.01. Conclusion: These results suggest that hand function is temperature sensitive. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of cold on muscular function in people working in workplaces with extreme temperature.

  18. Genetic Testing Confirmed the Early Diagnosis of X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets in a 7-Month-Old Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Siong Poon BSc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome (PHEX have been causally associated with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR. The early diagnosis of XLHR in infants is challenging when it is based solely on clinical features and biochemical findings. We report a 7-month-old boy with a family history of hypophosphatemic rickets., who demonstrated early clinical evidence of rickets, although serial biochemical findings could not definitively confirm rickets. A sequencing assay targeting the PHEX gene was first performed on the mother’s DNA to screen for mutations in the 5′UTR, 22 coding exons, and the exon-intron junctions. Targeted mutation analysis and mRNA studies were subsequently performed on the boys’ DNA to investigate the pathogenicity of the identified mutation. Genetic screening of the PHEX gene revealed a novel mutation, c.1080-2A>C, at the splice acceptor site in intron 9. The detection of an aberrant mRNA transcript with skipped (loss of exon 10 establishes its pathogenicity and confirms the diagnosis of XLHR in this infant. Genetic testing of the PHEX gene resulted in early diagnosis of XLHR, thus enabling initiation of therapy and prevention of progressive rachitic changes in the infant.

  19. Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ergogenic action via central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHO mouth rinse can lead to improved performance of cyclists, and this may be associated with the activation of brain areas linked to motivation and reward. These findings have already been replicated in other endurance modalities, such as running. This alternative seems to be an attractive nutritional tool to improve endurance exercise performance. PMID:20799963

  20. Changes in the endurance shuttle walk test in COPD patients with chronic respiratory failure after pulmonary rehabilitation: the minimal important difference obtained with anchor- and distribution-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, Wytske A; Duiverman, Marieke L; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; Kerstjens, Huib A M; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Wijkstra, Peter J; Wempe, Johan B

    2015-02-19

    Although the endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) has proven to be responsive to change in exercise capacity after pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) for COPD, the minimally important difference (MID) has not yet been established. We aimed to establish the MID of the ESWT in patients with severe COPD and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure following PR. Data were derived from a randomized controlled trial, investigating the value of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation added to PR. Fifty-five patients with stable COPD, GOLD stage IV, with chronic respiratory failure were included (mean (SD) FEV1 31.1 (12.0) % pred, age 62 (9) y). MID estimates of the ESWT in seconds, percentage and meters change were calculated with anchor based and distribution based methods. Six minute walking distance (6MWD), peak work rate on bicycle ergometry (Wpeak) and Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) were used as anchors and Cohen's effect size was used as distribution based method. The estimated MID of the ESWT with the different anchors ranged from 186-199 s, 76-82% and 154-164 m. Using the distribution based method the MID was 144 s, 61% and 137 m. Estimates of the MID for the ESWT after PR showed only small differences using different anchors in patients with COPD and chronic respiratory failure. Therefore we recommend using a range of 186-199 s, 76-82% or 154-164 m as MID of the ESWT in COPD patients with chronic respiratory failure. Further research in larger populations should elucidate whether this cut-off value is also valid in other COPD populations and with other interventions. ClinicalTrials.Gov (ID NCT00135538).

  1. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Ravnholt, Tanja; Dalsgaard, Sarah; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate (1 × week(-1)) intensity training with a reduction in total volume of ~58 %, whereas CON continued their training (~45 km week(-1)). In CSS, 400-m and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance was improved by 5 % (P endurance training, along with a reduced training volume, can improve short-term exercise capacity and induce muscular adaptations related to anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.

  2. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfarth, Bernd; Wang, Guan; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Boulay, Marcel R.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Eynon, Nir; Filipenko, Maxim L.; Garton, Fleur C.; Generozov, Edward V.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Houweling, Peter J.; Kawahara, Takashi; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Kulemin, Nickolay A.; Larin, Andrey K.; Maciejewska-Karłowska, Agnieszka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Muniesa, Carlos A.; Murakami, Haruka; Ospanova, Elena A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pavlenko, Alexander V.; Pyankova, Olga N.; Santiago, Catalina; Sawczuk, Marek; Scott, Robert A.; Uyba, Vladimir V.; Yvert, Thomas; Perusse, Louis; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rauramaa, Rainer; North, Kathryn N.; Lucia, Alejandro; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Bouchard, Claude

    2016-01-01

    There are strong genetic components to cardiorespiratory fitness and its response to exercise training. It would be useful to understand the differences in the genomic profile of highly trained endurance athletes of world class caliber and sedentary controls. An international consortium (GAMES) was established in order to compare elite endurance athletes and ethnicity-matched controls in a case-control study design. Genome-wide association studies were undertaken on two cohorts of elite endurance athletes and controls (GENATHLETE and Japanese endurance runners), from which a panel of 45 promising markers was identified. These markers were tested for replication in seven additional cohorts of endurance athletes and controls: from Australia, Ethiopia, Japan, Kenya, Poland, Russia and Spain. The study is based on a total of 1520 endurance athletes (835 who took part in endurance events in World Championships and/or Olympic Games) and 2760 controls. We hypothesized that world-class athletes are likely to be characterized by an even higher concentration of endurance performance alleles and we performed separate analyses on this subsample. The meta-analysis of all available studies revealed one statistically significant marker (rs558129 at GALNTL6 locus, p = 0.0002), even after correcting for multiple testing. As shown by the low heterogeneity index (I2 = 0), all eight cohorts showed the same direction of association with rs558129, even though p-values varied across the individual studies. In summary, this study did not identify a panel of genomic variants common to these elite endurance athlete groups. Since GAMES was underpowered to identify alleles with small effect sizes, some of the suggestive leads identified should be explored in expanded comparisons of world-class endurance athletes and sedentary controls and in tightly controlled exercise training studies. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the biology not only of world class endurance performance but

  3. Maximal fat oxidation rates in endurance trained and untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Anne Bach; Stougaard, Ole; Langfort, Josef

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in fat oxidation between endurance trained (ET) and untrained (UT) women. Eight ET and nine UT women performed a progressive cycle ergometer test until exhaustion. The rate of fat oxidation was similar at low work rates (...

  4. An Investigation into Submaximal Endurance in Children with Motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the submaximal endurance levels of children with motor difficulties, using the six-minute walk test (6MWT). A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted. Forty-eight children between ages seven and ten years were enrolled. They came from similar socio-economic backgrounds and attended ...

  5. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables, such as m...

  6. Comparison between two types of anaerobic speed endurance training in competitive soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and post-intervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance increased (ptraining were higher (pendurance production and maintenance training improves high-intensity exercise performance in competitive soccer players with superior effects of speed endurance production training. PMID:28149381

  7. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson

    2016-01-01

    (1 × week(-1)) intensity training with a reduction in total volume of ~58 %, whereas CON continued their training (~45 km week(-1)). RESULTS: In CSS, 400-m and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance was improved by 5 % (P ...PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were...... randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate...

  8. The limits of endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Timothy David

    2006-09-01

    A skeletal design which favours running and walking, including the greatest ratio of leg length to body weight of any mammal; the ability to sweat and so to exercise vigorously in the heat; and greater endurance than all land mammals other than the Alaskan Husky, indicates that humans evolved as endurance animals. The development of tools to accurately measure time and distance in the nineteenth century inspired some humans to define the limits of this special capacity. Beginning with Six-Day Professional Pedestrian Races in London and New York in the 1880s, followed a decade later by Six-Day Professional Cycling Races - the immediate precursor of the first six-day Tour de France Cycliste race in 1903, which itself inspired the 1928 and 1929 4,960 km "Bunion Derbies" between Los Angeles and New York across the breadth of the United States of America - established those unique sporting events that continue to challenge the modern limits of human endurance. But an analysis of the total energy expenditure achieved by athletes competing in those events establishes that none approaches those reached by another group - the explorers of the heroic age of polar exploration in the early twentieth century. Thus the greatest recorded human endurance performances occurred during the Antarctic sledding expeditions led by Robert Scott in 1911/12 and Ernest Shackleton in 1914/16. By man-hauling sleds for 10 hours daily for approximately 159 and 160 consecutive days respectively, members of those expeditions would have expended close to a total of 1,000,000 kcal. By comparison completing a Six-Day Pedestrian event (55,000 kcal) or the Tour de France (168,000 kcal), or cycling (180,000 kcal) or running (340,000 kcal) across America, requires a considerably smaller total energy expenditure. Thus the limits of human endurance were set at the start of the twentieth century and have not recently been approached. Given good health and an adequate food supply to prevent starvation and

  9. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Cardiorespiratory Endurance, Muscular Strength and Endurance, and Flexibility in Hong Kong Chinese Adults: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the effects of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults. Methods. 173 adults (aged 52.0 ± 7.5 years were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n=87 or the waitlist control group (n=86. 19 dropped out from the study. Primary outcomes were changes in cardiorespiratory endurance (resting heart rate (HR and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, muscular strength and endurance (curl-up and push-up tests, and lower back and hamstring flexibility (the modified back-saver sit-and-reach (MBS test. Results. Compared to controls, the yoga group achieved significant improvements in VO2max (P<0.01, curl-up (P<0.05 and push-up (P<0.001 tests, and the MBS left and right leg tests (both P<0.001 in both genders. Significant change was also found for resting HR between groups in women (P<0.05 but not in men. Further analysis comparing participants between younger and older subgroups yielded similar findings, except that the older participants in the yoga group failed to improve resting HR or the curl-up test versus control. Adherence (89% and attendance (94% were high. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion. A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention has favorable effects on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults.

  10. Effect of salt supplementation on the rate of inadequate sweat collection for infants less than 3 months of age referred for the sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Sweat testing in young infants (≤ 3 months) with a positive newborn screen for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) can yield higher rates of inadequate sweat collection. The role of salt supplements in improving sweat collection has not been studied before. All young infants referred to our CF center for sweat testing were randomized to either receive salt supplements {1/8th teaspoon salt (750 mg)} mixed in formula feeds 1 day prior to sweat testing (study group) or no salt supplement (controls). Of the 151 young infants that underwent sweat testing over 18 months, 75 received salt supplements, while 76 did not. A total of 9 (11.8%) infants in the salt supplement group had inadequate sweat collection, as compared to 4 (5.2%) infants in the control group (p = 0.16, Fisher's Exact Test). Oral salt supplementation for young infants prior to sweat testing does not help to reduce the rates of inadequate sweat collection.

  11. Independent effects of endurance training and weight loss on peak fat oxidation in moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil

    2015-01-01

    Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO...... corresponding to 600 kcal/day were comprised of endurance exercise for T and caloric restriction for D. T-iD completed similar training but was not in 600 kcal deficit because of dietary replacement. PFO and the exercise intensity at which this occurred (FatMax) were measured by a submaximal exercise test...... endurance training. In conclusion, endurance training per se increases PFO in moderately overweight men....

  12. EFFECTS OF 6-MONTHS TREATMENT WITH DONEPEZIL AND RIVASTIGMIN ON RESULTS OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS OF MMSE, NPI, CLOCK AND BENDER IN PATIENTS WITH ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abolfazli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common degenerative disease of brain. Nowadays, the most common treatment being used to slow down disease progression, include Donepezil , Rivastigmine and Galantamine, which all of them act as inhibitors of acetyl cholinesterase. General purpose of our study was to show effects of treatment with Donepezil and Rivastigmine, as two drugs that commonly used for treatment of AD in Iran and to compare these effects between two drugs. Samples selected from patients who had Alzheimer` disease with DSM IV criteria and were candidate of receiving Donepezil or Rivastigmine, as treatment of AD, for the first time. We used four neuropsychological tests including MMSE, NPI, Clock and Bender to assess patient's cognitive and behavioral changes during treatment with two drugs. Patients divided to two groups (each group 35 cases; Patients with plan of taking Donepezil entered into one of the groups and patients with plan of taking Rivastigmine entered into another. The four tests were completed once before starting treatment and then, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after treatment with Donepezil and Rivastigmine. MMSE, 6 months after treatment with Donepezil, improved from 20.63 before treatment to 21.83, which is statistically significant (P = 0.04. Also, MMSE, 6 months after treatment with Rivastigmine, improved from 20.03 before treatment to 22.71, which was statistically significant (P = 0.007. About Clock test, there was a significant improvement from 5.74 before treatment to 6.4 after 6 months of treatment with Rivastigmine; while this significant improvement was not seen in patients receiving Donepezil. In two other tests, no significant differences were seen before and after treatment. Also, No significant difference was detected between two groups and so no different effects on these tests between Donepezil and Rivastigmine in 6 months period of treatment.

  13. Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Vesterinen, Ville; Taipale, Ritva; Capostagno, Benoit; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nummela, Ari

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance training programme as a supplement to endurance training. Before and after the 8-week training period, maximal strength (one-repetition maximum), electromyographic activity of the leg extensors, countermovement jump height, maximal speed in the maximal anaerobic running test, maximal endurance performance, maximal oxygen uptake ([V·]O(₂max)), and running economy were assessed. Maximal strength improved in the heavy (P = 0.034, effect size ES = 0.38) and explosive resistance training groups (P = 0.003, ES = 0.67) with increases in leg muscle activation (heavy: P = 0.032, ES = 0.38; explosive: P = 0.002, ES = 0.77). Only the heavy resistance training group improved maximal running speed in the maximal anaerobic running test (P = 0.012, ES = 0.52) and jump height (P = 0.006, ES = 0.59). Maximal endurance running performance was improved in all groups (heavy: P = 0.005, ES = 0.56; explosive: P = 0.034, ES = 0.39; muscle endurance: P = 0.001, ES = 0.94), with small though not statistically significant improvements in [V·]O(₂max) (heavy: ES = 0.08; explosive: ES = 0.29; muscle endurance: ES = 0.65) and running economy (ES in all groups runners should include heavy resistance training in their training programmes to enhance endurance performance, such as improving sprinting ability at the end of a race.

  14. Glomerular filtration rate in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Franchini, Massimo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2008-05-01

    The interpretation of biochemical testing in sportsmen requires caution. Although creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) overcome some shortcomings of serum creatinine, there is scarce information on their use in endurance athletes. We evaluated GFR, estimated by the recommended Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation in athletes. Seventy-six professional male cyclists, 71 amateur male cyclists, and 65 healthy sedentary matched controls were included in the study. The mean serum creatinine level was significantly higher in the sedentary subjects (81 microM) than in amateur (75 microM; P intensity of daily physical exercise, but not the body mass index, was inversely associated with serum creatinine and positively associated with the estimated GFR. The MDRD equation should be used with caution in athletes, and it should consider intensity and type of physical exercise.

  15. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...... exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108...... ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (P exercise. Additionally, eight mice completed a 5-wk treadmill running training protocol that increased the BDNF mRNA expression...

  16. Peculiarities of endurance development for first year students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochernina A.G.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the dynamics of the specific endurance first-year students in the classroom of physical education. Material : the study involved 20 students. Conducted educational testing: seed of lifting in supine position, hang on bent arms, jumping from sitting up with the stop, run 30m, bending and straightening the arms in emphasis lying, tilt forward from a sitting position, shuttle run, broad jump start. Results : found that the passage of the training module volleyball observed development of specific endurance and all motor abilities. Established that the manifestation and development of motor skills are interrelated. Since force is a functional foundation for the development of other skills, flexibility - the foundation of all mechanical movements. Without the development of strength, speed, coordination abilities impossible to develop endurance. Therefore, it is inappropriate and incorrect receipt of unidirectional only specific endurance (dynamic power and static, speed-power. Conclusions: indicated the need to achieve functional specialization of the body in the direction which is necessary for high-level manifestation of certain motor skills.

  17. Peculiarities of endurance development for first year students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Pochernina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the dynamics of the specific endurance first-year students in the classroom of physical education. Material : the study involved 20 students. Conducted educational testing: seed of lifting in supine position, hang on bent arms, jumping from sitting up with the stop, run 30m, bending and straightening the arms in emphasis lying, tilt forward from a sitting position, shuttle run, broad jump start. Results : found that the passage of the training module volleyball observed development of specific endurance and all motor abilities. Established that the manifestation and development of motor skills are interrelated. Since force is a functional foundation for the development of other skills, flexibility - the foundation of all mechanical movements. Without the development of strength, speed, coordination abilities impossible to develop endurance. Therefore, it is inappropriate and incorrect receipt of unidirectional only specific endurance (dynamic power and static, speed-power. Conclusions: indicated the need to achieve functional specialization of the body in the direction which is necessary for high-level manifestation of certain motor skills.

  18. Endurance training induces structural and morphoquantitative changes in rat vagus nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pianca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Many nervous system tissues and cells suffers positive changes when faced to exercise training. However, data on vagus nerve adaptation from exercise-induced study is absent.Objective:To analyze the effect of an endurance training on the vagus nerve morphology of rats.Methods:Wistar rats (6 months of age were divided into two groups: control group (CG, n=8, and aerobic trained group (AT, n=8. AT was submitted to a treadmill training program of five times per week during 12 weeks. The maximum speed stipulated in the training protocol corresponded to 60% of the mean maximum intensity achieved by the group in the test of maximum effort.Results:Twelve weeks of treadmill training resulted in left ventricular hypertrophy in the AT group com-pared to CG. There was a significant increase in the area of both the myelinated and unmyelinated axons, and in the area of myelin sheath with training. The number of neurotubules and neurofilaments in myelinated fibers of aerobic trained group was significantly greater than CG (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Endurance training promoted significant increase in morphometric parameters of the vagus nerve in the same way it affect somatic nerves.

  19. Passion and Pacing in Endurance Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2017-01-01

    Endurance sports are booming, with sports passionates of varying skills and expertise battering city streets and back roads on their weekly or daily exercise rounds. The investments required for performing in endurance exercise are nevertheless considerable, and passion for their sport might explain

  20. Training-Load-Guided vs Standardized Endurance Training in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Moritz; Botella, Javier; Karavirta, Laura; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effects of a standardized endurance-training program with individualized endurance training modified based on the cumulative training load provided by the Polar training-load feature. After 12 wk of similar training, 24 recreationally endurance-trained men were matched to a training-load-guided (TL, n = 10) or standardized (ST, n = 14) group and continued training for 12 wk. In TL, training sessions were individually chosen daily based on an estimated cumulative training load, whereas in ST the training was standardized with 4-6 sessions/wk. Endurance performance (shortest 1000-m running time during an incremental field test of 6 × 1000 m) and heart-rate variability (HRV) were measured every 4 wk, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) was measured during an incremental treadmill test every 12 wk. During weeks 1-12, similar changes in VO 2 max and 1000-m time were observed in TL (+7% ± 4%, P = .004 and -6% ± 4%, P = .069) and ST (+5% ± 7%, P = .019 and -8% ± 5%, P training volume and frequency were observed. HRV remained statistically unaltered in both groups. The main finding was that training performed according to the cumulative training load led to improvements in endurance performance similar to those with standardized endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

  1. Neck muscle endurance and head posture: A comparison between adolescents with and without neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Carolina; Silva, Anabela G

    2016-04-01

    The main aims of this study were to compare the neck flexor and extensor endurance and forward head posture between adolescents with and without neck pain. The secondary aims were to explore potential associations between muscles endurance, head posture and neck pain characteristics and to assess intra-rater reliability of the measurements used. Adolescents with neck pain (n = 35) and age-matched asymptomatic adolescents (n = 35) had their forward head posture, neck flexor endurance and neck extensor endurance measured using clinical tests. Intra-rater reliability was also assessed. Forward head posture and neck flexor and extensor endurance tests showed moderate to almost perfect intra-rater reliability (ICC between 0.58 and 0.88). Adolescents with neck pain showed significantly less forward head posture (neck pain = 46.62 ± 4.92; asymptomatic = 44.18°± 3.64°, p > 0.05) and less neck flexor (neck pain = 24.50 ± 23.03s; asymptomatic = 35.89 ± 21.53s, p > 0.05) and extensor endurance (neck pain = 12.6.64 ± 77.94s; asymptomatic = 168.66 ± 74.77s, p > 0.05) than asymptomatic adolescents. Results suggest that changes in posture and neck muscle endurance are a feature of adolescents with neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Shoulder muscle endurance: the development of a standardized and reliable protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jean-Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder muscle fatigue has been proposed as a possible link to explain the association between repetitive arm use and the development of rotator cuff disorders. To our knowledge, no standardized clinical endurance protocol has been developed to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue on shoulder function. Such a test could improve clinical examination of individuals with shoulder disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a reliable protocol for objective assessment of shoulder muscle endurance. Methods An endurance protocol was developed on a stationary dynamometer (Biodex System 3. The endurance protocol was performed in isotonic mode with the resistance set at 50% of each subject's peak torque as measured for shoulder external (ER and internal rotation (IR. Each subject performed 60 continuous repetitions of IR/ER rotation. The endurance protocol was performed by 36 healthy individuals on two separate occasions at least two days apart. Maximal isometric shoulder strength tests were performed before and after the fatigue protocol to evaluate the effects of the endurance protocol and its reliability. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate the reduction in shoulder strength due to the protocol, while intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and minimal detectable change (MDC were used to evaluate its reliability. Results Maximal isometric strength was significantly decreased after the endurance protocol (P 0.84. Conclusions Changes in muscular performance observed during and after the muscular endurance protocol suggests that the protocol did result in muscular fatigue. Furthermore, this study established that the resultant effects of fatigue of the proposed isotonic protocol were reproducible over time. The protocol was performed without difficulty by all volunteers and took less than 10 minutes to perform, suggesting that it might be feasible for clinical practice. This protocol could be used to induce

  3. How Do Fugl-Meyer Arm Motor Scores Relate to Dexterity According to the Action Research Arm Test at 6 Months Poststroke?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhorst, M.H.; Nijland, R.H.; van den Berg, J.S.; Emmelot, C.H.; Kollen, B.J.; Kwakkel, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the optimal cutoff scores for the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) with regard to predicting no, poor, limited, notable, or full upper-limb capacity according to frequently used cutoff points for the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 6 months poststroke.

  4. How Do Fugl-Meyer Arm Motor Scores Relate to Dexterity According to the Action Research Arm Test at 6 Months Poststroke?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhorst, Maurits H.; Nijland, Rinske H.; van den Berg, Jan S.; Emmelot, Cornelis H.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Kwakkel, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the optimal cutoff scores for the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) with regard to predicting no, poor, limited, notable, or full upper-limb capacity according to frequently used cutoff points for the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 6 months poststroke.

  5. Measurement of talent in volleyball: 15-month follow-up of elite adolescent players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidor, R; Hershko, Y; Bilkevitz, A; Arnon, M; Falk, B

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: first, to examine the contribution of a battery of physical and motor tests to early phases of talent detection and early development in volleyball, and second, to differentiate between and compare the motor ability of 16-year-old starter (S) and non-starter (NS) volleyball players. Fifteen male adolescent volleyball players underwent assessment of physical and motor ability 6 times during a 15-month training program; however, not all of them took part in each testing phase. The battery was composed of 8 physical and motor tests and 2 skill tests. The physical and motor tests included 2 speed tests, an agility run, 4 explosive power tests, and an endurance test. The skill tests evaluated service accuracy at rest and following effort. All participants improved their results in all but 2 tests (endurance and skill tests) across testing phases. Comparisons between the S (n=8) and NS (n=7) revealed that only one physical explosive power test (vertical jump with approach), was found to be a good indicator for distinguishing between the 2 groups of players. It was concluded that the volleyball battery of tests was not sensitive enough to distinguish between the ''good'' and ''very good'' players suggesting that physical and motor tests do not reflect open skill ability in volleyball.

  6. Factors influencing oral hygiene behaviour and gingival outcomes 3 and 12 months after initial periodontal treatment: an exploratory test of an extended Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Birgitta; Baker, Sarah R; Lindberg, Per; Oscarson, Nils; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to empirically test the extended Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the prospective direct and indirect role of attitudes, beliefs, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and a cognitive behavioural intervention in adult's oral hygiene behaviour and gingival outcomes at 3- and 12-month follow-up. Data were derived from an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of oral hygiene educational programs integrated in non-surgical periodontal treatment (n = 113). Before baseline examination, participants completed a self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood estimation with bootstrapping was used to test the direct and indirect (mediated) pathways within the extended TRA model. The extended TRA model explained a large amount of variance in gingival outcome scores at 12 months (56%). A higher level of self-efficacy at baseline was associated with higher frequencies of oral hygiene behaviour at 3 months. Being female was linked to more normative beliefs that, in turn, related to greater behavioural beliefs and self-efficacy. Gender was also related to behavioural beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms. Both frequency of oral hygiene behaviour at 3 months and the cognitive behavioural intervention predicted gingival outcome at 12 months. The model demonstrated that self-efficacy, gender and a cognitive behavioural intervention were important predictors of oral hygiene behavioural change. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Negative results of a rapid antibody test for HIV in a 16-month-old infant with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Jiangrong; Wilson, Gregory J; Tang, Yi-Wei; Lu, Hong-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    In a 16-mo-old infant born to an HIV-infected mother, repeatedly negative results of a HIV rapid antibody test had been reported during the past 6 mo. The infant presented with several HIV-defining illnesses and HIV RT-PCR testing confirmed the presence of HIV infection. There are at least 2 possible explanations for the child's false-negative rapid HIV test results: First, his primary antibody production may have been suppressed by the presence of maternal IgG antibodies. Second, his mother was highly immunosuppressed, so that the low level of maternally derived IgG was only detected by HIV-EIA and Western blot. Our data suggest that the HIV rapid antibody test may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect HIV antibodies in infants aged <18 mo.

  8. APPENDIX TO THE MEASURING OF ENDURANCE OF CADETS IN HANDBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Dragan Martinović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available At the sample of 80 handball cadet contestants aged between 16-17, there has been done an endurance testing in the discipline of running on a track of total of 12 and 6 minutes. The endurance was estimated in meters of the distance run. The aim of this task was to determine coorelation of the results in running on 12 and 6 minutes. The outcome is a total coorelation between the two. Running of the du- ration of 6 minutes is recommended for the trainer`s practice. Testing is more rational. With the application of the regressive analyses it has been determined that there is depenndance between running time and variables: weight, height and BMI

  9. Avaliação da resistência de força explosiva em voleibolistas através de testes de saltos verticais Assessment of explosive strength-endurance in volleyball players through vertical jumping test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar a existência de diferenças entre o teste de salto vertical com natureza contínua de 60 segundos (TSVC e o teste de salto vertical com natureza intermitente de quatro séries de 15 segundos (TSVI. Os dados foram obtidos através de amostra composta por 10 voleibolistas do sexo masculino (19,01 ± 1,36 anos; 191,5 ± 5,36cm; e 81,74 ± 7,45kg, todos com participação voluntária. As variáveis estudadas foram: as estimativas do pico de potência (PP, potência média (PM e o índice de fadiga (IF. O desempenho estimado através dos testes TSVC, com duração de 60 segundos, e o TSVI foi determinado em quatro séries de 15 segundos, com 10 segundos de recuperação entre cada série. Os dados foram determinados através da estatística descritiva e do teste de Wilcoxon; o nível de significância utilizado foi de p The aim of this study was to verify the differences between the continuous jump test of 60 seconds (CJ60 sec and the intermittent jump test of 4 sets of 15 seconds (IJ4x15 sec. The sample was composed of 10 male volleyball players with 19.01 ± 1.36 years, 191.5 ± 5.36 cm height and 81.74 ± 7.45 of body mass, who participated in this research as volunteers. The variables studied were estimated as the peak power (PP, mean power (MP and fatigue index (FI. These performances were measured through tests of vertical jump with duration the 60 seconds and with the performance of 4 sets of 15 seconds with 10 seconds of recovery between the sets. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon test. The significance level was of p < 0.05. It was possible to analyze that the continuous and the intermittent jump test presented significant differences in MP (p < 0.05, FI (p < 0.01, and in the number of the vertical jump in 60 seconds (p < 0.01, and the height in 60 seconds exercise (p < 0.05. The MP found in IJ4x15sec was significantly higher than in the CJ60 sec in volleyball

  10. Comparison between two types of anaerobic speed endurance training in competitive soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and postintervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance......The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional...... during training were higher (ptraining improves high-intensity exercise performance in competitive soccer players with superior...

  11. Peculiarities of endurance development for first year students

    OpenAIRE

    Pochernina A.G.; Pochernina M.G.; Selivanov E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: to determine the dynamics of the specific endurance first-year students in the classroom of physical education. Material : the study involved 20 students. Conducted educational testing: seed of lifting in supine position, hang on bent arms, jumping from sitting up with the stop, run 30m, bending and straightening the arms in emphasis lying, tilt forward from a sitting position, shuttle run, broad jump start. Results : found that the passage of the training module volleyball observed ...

  12. Dehydration and endurance performance in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Eric D B

    2012-11-01

    The field of research examining the link between dehydration and endurance performance is at the dawn of a new era. This article reviews the latest findings describing the relationship between exercise-induced dehydration and endurance performance and provides the knowledge necessary for competitive, endurance-trained athletes to develop a winning hydration strategy. Acute, pre-exercise body weight loss at or above 3% may decrease subsequent endurance performance. Therefore, endurance athletes should strive to start exercise well hydrated, which can be achieved by keeping thirst sensation low and urine color pale and drinking approximately 5-10 mL/kg body weight of water 2 h before exercise. During exercise lasting 1 h or less, dehydration does not decrease endurance performance, but athletes are encouraged to mouth-rinse with sports drinks. During exercise lasting longer than 1 h, in which fluid is readily available, drinking according to the dictates of thirst maximizes endurance performance. In athletes whose thirst sensation is untrustworthy or when external factors such as psychological stress or repeated food intake may blunt thirst sensation, it is recommended to program fluid intake to maintain exercise-induced body weight loss around 2% to 3%. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. Core muscle strength and endurance measures in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donna K; Huang, Min; Rodda, Becky J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the test-retest reliability and validity of three core muscle strength tests in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-one ambulatory individuals with MS completed the curl-up, flexor endurance, and pelvic tilt stabilization tests of core muscle strength. They were retested 1-2 weeks after the first test. The sit-to-stand (STS) test was also conducted on the first test. Descriptive statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, SEM, and minimal detectable change (MDC) were calculated for each test. Pearson's correlations were calculated between all variables for the first test date. The curl-up test demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.995), requiring 3.4 additional repetitions in 60 s to demonstrate a detectable change. The curl-up test was moderately correlated with the STS. The flexor endurance and pelvic tilt stabilization tests demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability, with relatively large SEMs and MDCs and only a low correlation with the STS. The curl-up test is recommended as a valid and reliable test of core muscle strength in individuals with MS. The flexor endurance test and the pelvic tilt stabilization test of core muscle strength are not recommended due to large SEM and MDC scores. Further study of core muscle strength and endurance measures is indicated to seek additional tests that are valid and reliable in the MS population.

  14. HIV Drug Resistance Testing in a Resource Limited Setting with High Viral Diversity: The First Twenty Eight Months Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Malabo, Elodie Teclaire; Ngoupo, Paul Alain; Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Akongnwi, Emmanuel; Banaï, Robert; Ngono, Laure; Bilong-Bilong, Charles Felix; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Njouom, Richard

    2017-01-01

    First line antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting consists of nucleotide and non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Protease inhibitors are the hub of second line therapy. The decision to change antiretroviral therapy for a patient is frequently presumptive because of the lack of genotypic resistance tests in routine follow-up. We describe here the resistance profiles observed in patients with varying terms of antiretroviral therapy in Cameroon after implementation of HIV genotypic resistance testing in routine practice. HIV genotypic resistance testing was carried out on consecutive samples received between August 2013 and November 2015. Protease (Prot) and reverse transcriptase (Rt) genes of the HIV genome were amplified, sequenced and analyzed for drug resistance mutations following the algorithm set up by the French National Agency for research on HIV/AIDS and viral hepatitis. Specimens from a total of 167 patients infected with non-B HIV subtypes were received during the study period. Overall 61.7% patients had viral loads of more than 3log copies/ml, suggesting treatment failure. Among the 72 patients on first line, 56 (77.8%) were resistant to Lamivudine, 57 (79.1%) to Efavirenz and 58 (80.6%) to Nevirapine. Overall, more patients (75.0%) on first line antiretroviral therapy harbored multi-drug resistance compared to their counterparts on second line (25.8%). This study revealed that a group of patients with antiretroviral therapy failure harbored multi-drug resistance mutations related to the majority of drugs in the first line regimen. Therefore, HIV resistance testing could be a useful tool to improve HIV care in resource limited settings like Cameroon where treatment options are limited. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. The Effects of Preexercise Caffeinated Coffee Ingestion on Endurance Performance: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Simon; Straight, Chad R; Lewis, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    Endurance athletes commonly ingest caffeine as a means to enhance training intensity and competitive performance. A widely-used source of caffeine is coffee, however conflicting evidence exists regarding the efficacy of coffee in improving endurance performance. In this context, the aims of this evidence-based review were threefold: 1) to evaluate the effects of preexercise coffee on endurance performance, 2) to evaluate the effects of coffee on perceived exertion during endurance performance, and 3) to translate the research into usable information for athletes to make an informed decision regarding the intake of caffeine via coffee as a potential ergogenic aid. Searches of three major databases were performed using terms caffeine and coffee, or coffee-caffeine, and endurance, or aerobic. Included studies (n = 9) evaluated the effects of caffeinated coffee on human subjects, provided the caffeine dose administered, administered caffeine ≥ 45 min before testing, and included a measure of endurance performance (e.g., time trial). Significant improvements in endurance performance were observed in five of nine studies, which were on average 24.2% over controls for time to exhaustion trials, and 3.1% for time to completion trials. Three of six studies found that coffee reduced perceived exertion during performance measures significantly more than control conditions (p coffee as an ergogenic aid to improve performance in endurance cycling and running. Coffee providing 3-8.1 mg/kg (1.36-3.68 mg/lb) of caffeine may be used as a safe alternative to anhydrous caffeine to improve endurance performance.

  16. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of Chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M.E.; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months...... in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods: We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated...... chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results...

  17. The association between trunk muscle endurance and lumbo-pelvic stability in adolescent low back pain: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased trunk muscle endurance has been identified as a risk factor for adolescent LBP, and poor lumbo-pelvic stability has been found to be associated with LBP in the adult population. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between adolescent LBP, trunk muscle endurance and poor lumbo-pelvic stability. Design: A cross sectional study. Participants: 80 adolescents in grade 8 to grade 11, aged 12 to 17 years, at three high schools in Gauteng, who agreed to participate in the study. Method: Data was collected by means of a validated questionnaire and physical tests. The active straight leg raise test was used to record the lumbo-pelvic stabilising muscles. The Sorensen, Shirado and side-bridge tests were used to record trunk extensor, flexor and side flexor muscle endurance, respectively. Results: The results revealed a lifetime prevalence of LBP of 82.50%, one year prevalence of 78.80% and point prevalence of 23.80%. Adolescents with LBP demonstrated decreased trunk extensor muscle endurance but increased trunk flexor muscle endurance (p=0.044, compared to non-LBP adolescents. Poor lumbo-pelvic stability was not associated with adolescent LBP, but was associated with decreased extensor trunk muscle endurance (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was an association between trunk flexor muscle endurance and adolescent LBP, and between decreased trunk extensor muscle endurance and poor lumbo-pelvic stability. No association was found between LBP and poor lumbo-pelvic stability.

  18. Development of Picture Verb Test for 36-54 Month-Old Normal Persian-Speaking Children and Determination of Its Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Fakhrrahimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Verb is one of the most important aspects of a sentence, and verb deficit is a noticeable part of developmental language disorders. In Iran, there is no standard test for evaluatingthis aspect of language in children. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a picture verb test for 36-54 month-old normal Persian-speaking children, and assess its ability to differentiate between children.Methods: A list of verbs that could be depicted was collected and content validity was assessed by seven speech therapist. 55 verbs were selected. Then, three pictures were prepared for each verb andone of those pictures was chosen by the same seven specialists. 106 children aged 36-54 months participated in this study. They were divided into three groups (36-42, 42-48, and 48-54 months.Reliability of this test was assessed by Spearman’s correlation and internal consistency. Correlation between children’s scores and their age was calculated.Results: Content validity index of all verbs were 1. Spearman’s correlation of 0.89 and internal consistency of 0.60 was obtained. By deletion of item method, the Kuder-Richardson score wasenhanced to 0.71. There was a significant correlation between children’s ability to respond and their age (r=0.76, p < 0.001.Conclusion: This test is a suitable tool for assessment of verbs in 36-54 month-old Persian-speaking children and can differentiate between three groups under study.

  19. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Niamh; Gibbons, Helena; McNulty, Breige A.; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although imbalances in dietary intakes can have short and longer term influences on the health of preschool children, few tools exist to quickly and easily identify nutritional risk in otherwise healthy young children. Objectives: To develop and test the validity of a parent-administered questionnaire (NutricheQ) as a means of evaluating dietary risk in young children (12–36 months). Design: Following a comprehensive development process and internal reliability assessment, the Nut...

  20. Adaptations to speed endurance training in highly trained soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Fiorenza, Matteo; Lund, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined whether a period of additional speed endurance training would improve intense intermittent exercise performance in highly trained soccer players during the season and whether the training changed aerobic metabolism and the level of oxidative enzymes in type I...... and II muscle fibers. METHODS: During the last nine weeks of the season, thirteen semi-professional soccer players performed additional speed endurance training sessions consisting of 2-3 sets of 8 - 10 repetitions of 30 m sprints with 10 s of passive recovery (SET). Before and after SET, subjects......-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (YYIRT-1) was performed and a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest. RESULTS: YYIRT-1 performance was 11.6±6.4% (mean±SD) better (2803±330 vs. 3127±383 m, P

  1. Long Endurance Flight Schemes for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A system for autonomous detection and exploitation of weather phenomena for endurance or range enhancement for loitering unmanned air vehicles is presented. The...

  2. Long Endurance Flight Schemes for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method for providing endurance enhancement for unmanned aerial vehicles based on atmospheric phenomena is presented. The proposed method allows the UAV to sense...

  3. Study of speed endurance middle distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Golovaschenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To investigate the boost performance speed endurance runners who specialize in middle-distance running . Material and methods : The study involved team members Vinnytsia region in an amount of 44 people, whose average age was 20,2 ± 2,1 years. Classes are held during the 21-day mesocycle, 5 times a week, twice a day. Things were aimed at enhancing the development of indicators of special speed endurance. Results : The dynamics of the running speed of the model segments that characterize speed endurance athletes. Proved that the improved running 400 meter intervals helps reduce travel time competitive distance of 1500 meters. Conclusion : The use of the program contributes to higher speed endurance, which determines the result in the women's 1,500 meters.

  4. A single set of exhaustive exercise before local muscular endurance training improves quadriceps strength and endurance in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Sanches, Vanda Cristina; Pereira, Rafael Mendes; Da Silva Júnior, Rubens Alexandre; Januário, Renata Selvatici; Rabelo, Lucas Maciel; Dos Santos Silva, André Luís

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an additional set of exhaustive exercise before local muscular endurance (LME) training on maximal dynamic strength and endurance of quadriceps muscle in young men. Twenty-seven healthy men (age: 20.9±1.8 years) performed one repetition maximum (1RM), muscular endurance, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests on two separate occasions (before and after an 8-wk LME training program using a bilateral knee extensor machine). After baseline testing, the subjects were divided into three groups: untrained control (CO, N.=9), traditional training (TR, N.=9), and prior exhaustive training (PE, N.=9). Both the TR and PE groups trained using the same LME training protocol (2 d∙wk-1; 3 sets of 15-20 repetitions at 50% of 1RM) throughout the 8-wk experimental period; the only difference was that the PE group performed an additional set of exhaustive exercise at 80% of 1RM immediately before each training session. After 8 wk, the PE group experienced a greater (Pendurance, and work efficiency than the TR group. Additionally, no changes (P>0.05) in cross-sectional area (CSA), body mass and daily dietary intake were observed from pre- to post-test in either group. These results suggest that the inclusion of a single set of exhaustive exercise at 80% of 1RM immediately before LME training can be a suitable strategy for inducing additional beneficial effects on quadriceps strength and endurance in young men.

  5. Psychological Determinants of Whole-Body Endurance Performance

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2015-01-01

    Background No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. Objective A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affec...

  6. Test of an hypothesized structural model of the relationships between cognitive style and social anxiety: a 12-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díez, Zahira; Calvete, Esther; Riskind, John H; Orue, Izaskun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether social looming cognitive style accounts for the predictive association between early maladaptive schema domains and social anxiety. We predicted that early maladaptive schema domains would predict the increase of social anxiety over time and that social looming would act as a mediator between schema domains and social anxiety. A three-wave longitudinal design was used. The participants (N=471, 56.95% women) were Spanish adolescents and young adults aged between 16 and 25 years old (Mage=17.81, SD age=3.19). The results showed that three schema domains (impaired autonomy and performance, impaired limits, and other-directedness) predicted the increase in social anxiety and that LCS for social threat acted as a mediator between other-directedness and social anxiety at T3. These results are important to improve the knowledge of the cognitive mechanisms that are involved in the occurrence and development of social anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) for the Aerospace Systems Directorate. Delivery Order 0021: Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels, Subtask: T700 Biofuel Low Lubricity Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    release; distribution unlimited. 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report contains test results for the CT7/T700 Bio Fuel Low Lubricity Endurance Test...pass/fail criterion for a 400-hour low lubricity test. 2.3 Test Parameters 2.3.1 Test Procedure Bio Fuel Low Lubricity Endurance testing was...Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels Subtask: T700 Biofuel Low Lubricity Endurance Jeff Sympson

  8. The value of enduring environmental surrogates as predictors of estuarine benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildsmith, Michelle D.; Valesini, Fiona J.; Robinson, Samuel F.

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the extent to which spatial differences in the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of a temperate microtidal estuary were 'explained' by the enduring (biophysical) vs non-enduring (water and sediment quality) environmental attributes of a diverse range of habitats, and thus the potential of those environmental surrogates to support faunal prediction. Species composition differed significantly among habitats in each season, with the greatest differences occurring in winter and spring and the least in summer. The pattern of habitat differences, as defined by their enduring environmental characteristics, was significantly and well matched with that in the fauna in each season. In contrast, significant matches between the non-enduring environmental and faunal data were only detected in winter and/or spring, and to a lesser extent. Field validation of the faunal prediction capacity of the biophysical surrogate framework at various 'test' sites throughout the estuary showed good agreement between the actual vs predicted key species. These findings demonstrate that enduring environmental criteria, which can be readily measured from mapped data, provide a better and more cost-effective surrogate for explaining spatial differences in the invertebrate fauna of this system than non-enduring criteria, and are thus a promising basis for faunal prediction. The approaches developed in this study are also readily adapted to any estuary worldwide.

  9. Endurance of rockfall protection fences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, W.; Meyer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Research on rockfall protection systems usually focuses on the performance of flexible barriers regarding their limit or design energy retention capacity. This research increased the maximum retention by a factor 15 within the last 15-20 years. Today rockfall energies up to 5'000 kJ can be retained. But this is relevant only for actual projects and newly erected barriers. However, the majority of all barriers installed in the alpine area were built many years ago and there is little knowledge on their long-term performance. Among others this includes not only the consideration of maintenance works such as man and machine power as well as yearly costs, but also the endurance of such barriers over the years. Such information normally stays at the authority or institution that initiated the construction of a protection system and/or is responsible for the maintenance of the object. But even if an institution maintains a large number of barriers, there mostly does not exist a general inventory because the barriers were installed over a time period of sometimes more than 30 years enduring many changes in the inventory procedures, drawings and documentations. Therefore, an actual investigation of all rockfall barriers protecting a sector of the Swiss railways (SBB) was performed in order to obtain an overview of their conditions. This project delivers both a detailed analysis of more than 100 single barriers and a statistically evaluable overview. It also allows a comparison between different generations of barrier types, independently from the different producers of the barriers. In a first step existing catalogues and data belonging to the relevant barriers were evaluated, summarized and mapped into topographic maps using GIS allowing a proper planning of the field trip, optimised regarding route, time consumption and possibly necessary closures of rail tracks. During the field investigations each barrier was inspected and all details regarding structural system

  10. The Effects of Teacher and Teacher-librarian High-end Collaboration on Inquiry-based Project Reports and School Monthly Test Scores of Fifth-grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hon Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to establish the high level collaboration of integrated instruction model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian. The second purpose was to investigate the effects of high-end collaboration on the individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports, as well as monthly test scores of fifth-grade students. A quasi-experimental method was adopted, two classes of elementary school fifth graders in Tainan Municipal city, Taiwan were used as samples. Students were randomly assigned to experimental conditions by class. Twenty eight students of the experimental group were taught by the collaboration of social studies teacher and teacher-librarian; while 27 students of the controlled group were taught separately by teacher in didactic teaching method. Inquiry-Based Project Record, Inquiry-Based Project Rubrics, and school monthly test scores were used as instruments for collecting data. A t-test and correlation were used to analyze the data. The results indicate that: (1 High-end collaboration model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian was established and implemented well in the classroom. (2There was a significant difference between the experimental group and the controlled group in individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports. Students that were taught by the collaborative teachers got both higher inquiry-based project reports’ scores than those that were taught separately by the teachers. Experimental group’s students got higher school monthly test scores than controlled groups. Suggestions for teachers’ high-end collaboration and future researcher are provided in this paper.

  11. Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Testing 6 to 12 Months after ASCUS or LSIL Cytology in Organized Screening To Predict High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia between Screening Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøborg, Katrine D.; Nygård, Mari; Røysland, Kjetil; Campbell, Suzanne; Alfsen, G. Cecilie; Jonassen, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA (PreTect HPV-Proofer; NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway) and DNA (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) triage testing of women 6 to 12 months after atypical-squamous-cells-of-undetermined-significance (ASCUS) or low-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion (LSIL) cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) between screening rounds. Between January 2005 and April 2008, 692 study women with screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL cytology 6 to 12 months earlier returned for HPV mRNA and DNA testing and repeat cytology. The median follow-up time was 3 years, using existing health care facilities. Follow-up test results were available for 625 women. Of the 145 CIN2+ cases detected during the study period, 95 (65.5%) were HPV mRNA positive 6 to 12 months after screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL, 44 (30.4%) were HPV mRNA negative, and 6 (4.1%) were invalid. The corresponding HPV DNA results were 139 (95.9%), 5 (3.4%), and 1 (0.7%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after a negative HPV mRNA and DNA test were 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 13.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after positive HPV mRNA and DNA tests were 52.8% (95% CI, 40.1 to 60.1%) and 41.3% (95% CI, 35.5 to 46.6%), respectively. In conclusion, both positive HPV mRNA and DNA test results have a high enough long-term prediction of CIN2+ risk to consider referral to colposcopy as good practice when performed in delayed triage of women with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. In addition, the low CIN2+ risk among women with a negative Amplicor HPV test in our study confirms its safe use in a clinical setting. PMID:22518869

  12. The effect of 3 different exercise approaches on neck muscle endurance, kinesiophobia, exercise compliance, and patient satisfaction in chronic whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gunnel E; Landén Ludvigsson, Maria H; O'Leary, Shaun P; Dedering, Åsa M; Wallman, Thorne; Jönsson, Margaretha I N; Peolsson, Anneli L C

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different exercise approaches on neck muscle endurance (NME), kinesiophobia, exercise compliance, and patient satisfaction in patients with chronic whiplash. This prospective randomized clinical trial included 216 individuals with chronic whiplash. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 exercise interventions: neck-specific exercise (NSE), NSE combined with a behavioral approach (NSEB), or prescribed physical activity (PPA). Measures of ventral and dorsal NME (endurance time in seconds), perceived pain after NME testing, kinesiophobia, exercise compliance, and patient satisfaction were recorded at baseline and at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Compared with individuals in the prescribed physical activity group, participants in the NSE and NSEB groups exhibited greater gains in dorsal NME (P = .003), greater reductions in pain after NME testing (P = .03), and more satisfaction with treatment (P Kinesiophobia and exercise compliance did not significantly differ between groups (P > .07). Among patients with chronic whiplash, a neck-specific exercise intervention (with or without a behavioral approach) appears to improve NME. Participants were more satisfied with intervention including neck-specific exercises than with the prescription of general exercise. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Arterial Elasticity, Strength, Fatigue, and Endurance in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial health may influence muscle function in older adults. Study purpose was to determine whether arterial elasticity is related to strength, central and peripheral fatigue, fatigue at rest, and treadmill endurance. Subjects were 91 healthy women aged >60. Treadmill endurance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max were measured. Peripheral and central fatigue for the knee extensors were evaluated using two isometric fatigue tests (one voluntary and one adding electrical stimulation. Arterial elasticity was determined using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Linear multiple regression was used in statistical analysis. Large artery elasticity was associated with central fatigue (P<0.01 and treadmill endurance (P<0.02 after adjusting for VO2 max and knee extension strength. Subjective fatigue at rest was related to large artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin (<0.02. Strength was significantly related to small artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin, leg lean tissue, age, and blood pressure. Arterial elasticity is independently related to strength and fatigue in older women, especially in the central nervous system where arterial elasticity is independently related to perceptions of fatigue at rest and central fatigue. These results suggest that arterial health may be involved with the ability of the central nervous system to activate muscle in older women.

  14. Effects of endurance training on brain structures in chronic schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow, Berend; Keeser, Daniel; Keller, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Rauchmann, Boris-Stephan; Kimura, Hiroshi; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Dechent, Peter; Gruber, Oliver; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Honer, William G; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Schmitt, Andrea; Wobrock, Thomas; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study was to examine the effects of endurance training on hippocampal and grey matter volumes in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. 20 chronic schizophrenia patients and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent 3months of endurance training (30min, 3 times per week). 19 additionally recruited schizophrenia patients played table soccer ("foosball" in the USA) over the same period. MR imaging with 3D-volumetric T1-weighted sequences was performed on a 3T MR scanner at baseline, after 6weeks and after the 3-month intervention and 3 additional training-free months. In addition to voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we performed manual and automatic delineation of the hippocampus and its substructures. Endurance capacity and psychopathological symptoms were measured as secondary endpoints. No significant increases in the volumes of the hippocampus or hippocampal substructures were observed in schizophrenia patients or healthy controls. However, VBM analyses displayed an increased volume of the left superior, middle and inferior anterior temporal gyri compared to baseline in schizophrenia patients after the endurance training, whereas patients playing table soccer showed increased volumes in the motor and anterior cingulate cortices. After the additional training-free period, the differences were no longer present. While endurance capacity improved in exercising patients and healthy controls, psychopathological symptoms did not significantly change. The subtle changes in the left temporal cortex indicate an impact of exercise on brain volumes in schizophrenia. Subsequent studies in larger cohorts are warranted to address the question of response variability of endurance training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance in collegiate female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Mettinger, Lindsey M; Caswell, Shane V; Burtt, Andrea; Cortes, Nelson

    2014-10-01

    Lower extremity injuries such as Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tears remain a concern in collegiate female athletes. Core endurance and hip strength reportedly influence ACL and lower extremity injury risk. Good neuromuscular control, as measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) test is associated with decreased lower extremity injuries. The exact relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance (SEBT scores), and how they impact one another in the female collegiate athlete remain unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance in collegiate female athletes. Forty collegiate female athletes (19.6±1.1yrs, 163.1±7.8cm, 61.3±6.5kgs) performed the SEBT in anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial directions bilaterally (% leg length), McGill's anterior, posterior, and left and right plank core endurance tests (seconds), and hip abductor, flexor, extensor, and external rotator isometric strength tests bilaterally (N) using handheld dynamometry. Pearson's product moment correlations examined relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance. A linear regression analysis examined whether core endurance and hip strength influenced balance (p≤0.05). Anterior SEBT scores were fairly positively correlated with hip flexor and extensor strength. Posterolateral SEBT scores were fairly positively correlated with hip abductor, extensor, and flexor strength (p=0.02-to-0.004; r=0.26-to-0.45). Fair positive correlations existed between posterior core endurance and hip extensor strength bilaterally (right: p=0.02, r=0.37; left: p=0.003, r=0.47). Core endurance and SEBT scores were not correlated (p>0.05). Core endurance and hip strength did not influence SEBT scores (p=0.47). Overall, hip strength, but not core endurance was related to SEBT scores in collegiate female athletes. Females with greater hip flexor, extensor, and abductor strength also had better

  16. Cardiac remodeling in response to 1 year of intensive endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Perhonen, Merja; Howden, Erin; Peshock, Ronald M; Zhang, Rong; Adams-Huet, Beverly; Haykowsky, Mark J; Levine, Benjamin D

    2014-12-09

    It is unclear whether, and to what extent, the striking cardiac morphological manifestations of endurance athletes are a result of exercise training or a genetically determined characteristic of talented athletes. We hypothesized that prolonged and intensive endurance training in previously sedentary healthy young individuals could induce cardiac remodeling similar to that observed cross-sectionally in elite endurance athletes. Twelve previously sedentary subjects (aged 29±6 years; 7 men and 5 women) trained progressively and intensively for 12 months such that they could compete in a marathon. Magnetic resonance images for assessment of right and left ventricular mass and volumes were obtained at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of training. Maximum oxygen uptake ( max) and cardiac output at rest and during exercise (C2H2 rebreathing) were measured at the same time periods. Pulmonary artery catheterization was performed before and after 1 year of training, and pressure-volume and Starling curves were constructed during decreases (lower body negative pressure) and increases (saline infusion) in cardiac volume. Mean max rose from 40.3±1.6 to 48.7±2.5 mL/kg per minute after 1 year (Ptraining duration and intensity and reached levels similar to those observed in elite endurance athletes. In contrast, left ventricular volume did not change significantly until 6 months of training, although right ventricular volume increased progressively from the outset; Starling and pressure-volume curves approached but did not match those of elite athletes. One year of prolonged and intensive endurance training leads to cardiac morphological adaptations in previously sedentary young subjects similar to those observed in elite endurance athletes; however, it is not sufficient to achieve similar levels of cardiac compliance and performance. Contrary to conventional thinking, the left ventricle responds to exercise with initial concentric but not eccentric remodeling during

  17. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...

  18. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long...

  19. Isokinetic strength and endurance in proximal and distal muscles in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Lucas Caseri; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Menêses, Annelise Lins; D'Andréa Greve, Júlia Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Santarém, José Maria; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes; Puech-Leão, Pedro; Wolosker, Nelson

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the muscle strength and endurance of the proximal and distal lower-extremity muscles in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. Twenty patients with bilateral PAD with symptoms of intermittent claudication and nine control subjects without PAD were included in the study, comprising 40 and 18 legs, respectively. All subjects performed an isokinetic muscle test to evaluate the muscle strength and endurance of the proximal (knee extension and knee flexion movements) and distal (plantar flexion and dorsiflexion movements) muscle groups in the lower extremity. Compared with the control group, the PAD group presented lower muscle strength in knee flexion (-14.0%), dorsiflexion (-26.0%), and plantar flexion (-21.2%) movements (P strength in knee extension movements (P > 0.05). The PAD patients presented a 13.5% lower knee flexion/extension strength ratio compared with the control subjects (P lower muscle endurance in dorsiflexion (-28.1%) and plantar flexion (-17.0%) movements (P muscle endurance in knee flexion and knee extension movements was similar between PAD patients and the control subjects (P > 0.05). PAD patients present lower proximal and distal muscle strength and lower distal muscle endurance than control patients. Therefore, interventions to improve muscle strength and endurance should be prescribed for PAD patients. Copyright © 2012 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of core strength and endurance training on performance in college students: randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jim F; Murphy, Jeff C; Bonney, John R; Thich, Jacob L

    2013-07-01

    Core training continues to be emphasized with the proposed intent of improving athletic performance. The purpose of this investigation was to discover if core isometric endurance exercises were superior to core isotonic strengthening exercises and if either influenced specific endurance, strength, and performance measures. Ten untrained students were randomly assigned to core isometric endurance (n = 5) and core isotonic strength training (n = 5). Each performed three exercises, two times per week for six weeks. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the measurements for the dependent variables and significance by bonferroni post-hoc testing. The training protocols were compared using a 2 × 3 mixed model ANOVA. Improvement in trunk flexor and extensor endurance (p strength (p strength group. Improvement in trunk flexor and right lateral endurance (p strength in the squat (p < 0.05) were found with the endurance group. Neither training protocol claimed superiority and both were ineffective in improving performance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Contribution of ankle dorsiflexor strength to walking endurance in people with spastic hemiplegia after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shamay S; Hui-Chan, Christina W

    2012-06-01

    (1) To determine the relationships of ankle dorsiflexor strength, ankle plantarflexor strength, and spasticity of the ankle plantarflexors with walking endurance; (2) to determine whether affected ankle dorsiflexor strength makes an independent contribution to walking endurance; and (3) to quantify its relative contribution to the walking endurance of people with spastic hemiplegia after stroke. A cross-sectional study. University-based rehabilitation center. Subjects (N=62) with spastic hemiplegia. Not applicable. Walking endurance was measured by the distance covered in the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Ankle dorsiflexor and plantarflexor strength were measured using a load-cell mounted on a custom-built foot support. Plantarflexor spasticity was measured using the Composite Spasticity Scale. The six-minute walk distances showed stronger positive correlation with affected dorsiflexor strength (r=.793, P≤.000) when compared with affected plantarflexor strength (r=.349, P=.005). Results of the regression model showed that after adjusting for basic demographic and stroke-related impairments, affected ankle dorsiflexor strength remained independently associated with six-minute walk distance, accounting for 48.8% of the variance. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to document the importance of ankle dorsiflexor strength as an independent determinant of walking endurance in stroke survivors with spastic plantarflexors. Our findings suggest that stroke rehabilitation programs aiming to improve walking endurance should include strengthening exercises for the ankle dorsiflexors. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  3. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  4. Relationship between leg muscle endurance and (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saval, Matthew A; Kerrigan, Dennis J; Ophaug, Kristin M; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Keteyian, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    Ventilatory efficiency, as measured by the slope of the relationship between minute ventilation and carbon dioxide production ((.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope) during cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing, is an important prognostic measure in patients with heart failure (HF). An abnormal slope is linked to the skeletal muscle metaboreflex. In addition, skeletal muscle endurance is reduced in patients with HF. However, the relationship between (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope and skeletal muscle endurance is not known. This investigation tests the hypothesis that reduced knee extensor muscle endurance is inversely related to an elevated (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope during CPX testing in patients with HF and that these variables are not related in normal subjects. Patients with HF (n = 32) and 6 age-matched normal subjects performed CPX testing and isokinetic dynamometry to determine the (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope and knee extensor muscle endurance, respectively. The (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope and leg muscle endurance percentage were significantly related in patients with HF (r = -0.68, P slope. This finding helps explain, in part, the factors that influence an established prognostic indicator, elevated (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope. Future research is needed to determine whether the relationship between skeletal muscle dysfunction and ventilatory efficiency is directly mediated through the skeletal muscle ergoreflex.

  5. Effect of additional speed endurance training on performance and muscle adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Thomas; Christensen, Peter Møller; Holse, Kris

    2012-01-01

    intensity (speed endurance training; SET) a week for 5 weeks (SET-intervention). Before and after the SET-intervention the players carried out the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo- Yo IR2) test, a sprint test (10- and 30-m) and an agility test. In addition, seven of the players had a resting muscle......PURPOSE: The present study examined the effect of additional speed-endurance training during the season on muscle adaptations and performance of trained soccer players. METHODS: Eighteen sub-elite soccer players performed one session with 6-9 30-s intervals at an intensity of 90-95 % ofmaximal...

  6. Conditioning increases the gain of contraction-induced sarcolemmal substrate transport in ultra-endurance racing sled dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Davis

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise relies on transsarcolemmal flux of substrates in order to avoid depletion of intramuscular reserves. Previous studies of endurance trained sled dogs have shown a remarkable capacity of these dogs to adapt rapidly to endurance exercise by decreasing the utilization of intramuscular reserves. The current study tested the hypothesis that the dogs' glycogen-sparing phenotype is due to increased sarcolemmal transport of glucose and fatty acids. Basal and exercise-induced transport of glucose and fatty acids into sarcolemmal vesicles was evaluated in racing sled dogs prior to and after 7 months of exercise conditioning. Sarcolemmal substrate transport capacity was measured using sarcolemmal vesicles and radiolabelled substrates, and transporter abundance was measured using Western blot quantification in whole muscle homogenates and the sarcolemmal vesicle preparations. Conditioning resulted in increased basal and exercise-induced transport of both glucose and palmitate. Neither acute exercise nor conditioning resulted in changes in muscle content of GLUT4 or FAT/CD36, but conditioning did result in decreased abundance of both transporters in the sarcolemmal vesicles used for the basal transport assays, and this decrease was further amplified in the vesicles used for the exercise-induced transport assays. These results demonstrate conditioning-induced increases in sarcolemmal transport of oxidizable substrates, as well as increased gain of exercise-induced sarcolemmal transport of these substrates. These results further indicate that increased sarcolemmal transport of oxidizable substrates may be due to either an increased intrinsic capacity of the existing transporters or to a different population of transporters from those investigated.

  7. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    ... (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period...

  8. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbild, H L; Harsløf, L B S; Christensen, J H; Kannass, K N; Lauritzen, L

    2013-10-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval. 83 Danish 9-month-old infants were randomized to ±fish oil (FO) (3.4±1.1mL/d) for 3months and 61 of these completed the free-play-test before and after the intervention. Most of the free-play scores changed during the intervention, but the intervention affected only the number of looks away from the toy, which was increased in +FO and decreased in -FO (p=0.037). The increased numbers of looks away were associated with an increase in erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid (r=0.401, p=0.017, n=35) and were also associated with a decrease in systolic-BP (r=-0.511, p<0.001, n=52). The results indicate that n-3 fatty acid intake also in late infancy can influence brain development and that the cognitive and cardiovascular effects may be related. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvements in quadriceps force and work efficiency are related to improvements in endurance capacity following pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizono, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Osamu; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Tomoki; Kataoka, Kensuke; Ogawa, Tomoya; Watanabe, Fumiko; Nishimura, Koichi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tabira, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The endurance time has been reported to be the most sensitive measure of improved exercise capacity in response to a variety of interventions for COPD. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the improvements in quadriceps force and measures obtained from a symptom-limited maximal test contributed to the improvements in endurance time following pulmonary rehabilitation. Fifty-seven consecutive COPD subjects completed a 10-week pulmonary rehabilitation program. The subjects completed a symptom-limited incremental cycle ergometry test and a constant work rate test before and after pulmonary rehabilitation. Peripheral and respiratory muscle strength was also measured. The relationships between the change in endurance time and the changes obtained from the incremental test and muscle strength test were investigated. The endurance time showed the greatest improvement among the exercise capacity indices. The changes in endurance time were significantly correlated to changes in quadriceps force, peak work rate, anaerobic threshold and work efficiency on the incremental load test. In the multiple stepwise regression analysis, changes in quadriceps force and work efficiency measured on the maximal exercise test were selected. These findings suggest that the improvements in endurance time after pulmonary rehabilitation may be explained by increased quadriceps force and improvements in peak work rate and work efficiency.

  10. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, C; Otero, M; Badiola, A; Olasagasti, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Iturricastillo, A; Gil, SM

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were, firstly, to determine the reliability and reproducibility of an agility T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89 ± 21.71 kg and sitting body height 86.07 ± 6.82 cm) belonging to the national WB league participated in this study. Wheelchair sprint (5 and 20 m without ball, and 5 and 20 m with ball) agility (T-test and pick-up test) strength (handgrip and maximal pass) and endurance (Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test) were performed. T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test showed good reproducibility values (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.74-0.94). The WB players’ results in 5 and 20 m sprints without a ball were 1.87 ± 0.21 s and 5.70 ± 0.43 s and with a ball 2.10 ± 0.30 s and 6.59 ± 0.61 s, being better than those reported in the literature. Regarding the pick-up test results (16.05 ± 0.52 s) and maximal pass (8.39 ± 1.77 m), players showed worse values than those obtained in elite players. The main contribution of the present study is the characterization of the physical performance profile of WB players using a field test battery. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the agility T-test and the aerobic Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test are reliable; consequently they may be appropriate instruments for measuring physical fitness in WB. PMID:25729153

  11. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanci, J; Granados, C; Otero, M; Badiola, A; Olasagasti, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Iturricastillo, A; Gil, Sm

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the present study were, firstly, to determine the reliability and reproducibility of an agility T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89 ± 21.71 kg and sitting body height 86.07 ± 6.82 cm) belonging to the national WB league participated in this study. Wheelchair sprint (5 and 20 m without ball, and 5 and 20 m with ball) agility (T-test and pick-up test) strength (handgrip and maximal pass) and endurance (Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test) were performed. T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test showed good reproducibility values (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.74-0.94). The WB players' results in 5 and 20 m sprints without a ball were 1.87 ± 0.21 s and 5.70 ± 0.43 s and with a ball 2.10 ± 0.30 s and 6.59 ± 0.61 s, being better than those reported in the literature. Regarding the pick-up test results (16.05 ± 0.52 s) and maximal pass (8.39 ± 1.77 m), players showed worse values than those obtained in elite players. The main contribution of the present study is the characterization of the physical performance profile of WB players using a field test battery. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the agility T-test and the aerobic Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test are reliable; consequently they may be appropriate instruments for measuring physical fitness in WB.

  12. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Yanci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were, firstly, to determine the reliability and reproducibility of an agility T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89 ± 21.71 kg and sitting body height 86.07 ± 6.82 cm belonging to the national WB league participated in this study. Wheelchair sprint (5 and 20 m without ball, and 5 and 20 m with ball agility (T-test and pick-up test strength (handgrip and maximal pass and endurance (Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test were performed. T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test showed good reproducibility values (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.74-0.94. The WB players’ results in 5 and 20 m sprints without a ball were 1.87 ± 0.21 s and 5.70 ± 0.43 s and with a ball 2.10 ± 0.30 s and 6.59 ± 0.61 s, being better than those reported in the literature. Regarding the pick-up test results (16.05 ± 0.52 s and maximal pass (8.39 ± 1.77 m, players showed worse values than those obtained in elite players. The main contribution of the present study is the characterization of the physical performance profile of WB players using a field test battery. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the agility T-test and the aerobic Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test are reliable; consequently they may be appropriate instruments for measuring physical fitness in WB.

  13. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Same-Session Combined Endurance and Strength Training in Recreational Endurance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, M; Pelttari, P; Doma, K; Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, K

    2016-12-01

    This study examined neuromuscular adaptations in recreational endurance runners during 24 weeks of same-session combined endurance and strength training (E+S, n=13) vs. endurance training only (E, n=14). Endurance training was similar in the 2 groups (4-6x/week). Additional maximal and explosive strength training was performed in E+S always after incremental endurance running sessions (35-45 min, 65-85% HRmax). Maximal dynamic leg press strength remained statistically unaltered in E+S but decreased in E at week 24 (-5±5%, p=0.014, btw-groups at week 12 and 24, p=0.014 and 0.011). Isometric leg press and unilateral knee extension force, EMG of knee extensors and voluntary activation remained statistically unaltered in E+S and E. The changes in muscle cross-sectional (CSA) differed between the 2 groups after 12 (E+S+6±8%, E -5±6%, ptraining performed always after an endurance running session did not lead to increased maximal strength, CSA, EMG or voluntary activation. This possibly contributed to the finding of no endurance performance benefits in E+S compared to E. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Correlation between the cardiorespiratory endurance, dynamic postural control and thoracic kyphosis angle among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Saki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Any deviation in the normal spinal alignment can alter the cardiorespiratory endurance and the posture control. The aim of present study was to investigate the correlation between cardiorespiratory endurance, dynamic postural control and kyphosis angle among the students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on students (n=100; 48 girls and 52 boys selected randomly according to inclusion criteria. Cardiorespiratory endurance, postural control and kyphosis angle were assessed using shuttle run test, Y balance test and flexible ruler, respectively. Normal distribution of the data was assessed using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation product moment and linear regression (P≤0.05. Results: The results showed a significant negative correlation between the cardiorespiratory endurance and kyphosis angle (P=0.012, r=-0.3.3. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between the dynamic postural control and kyphosis angle (P=0.003, r=-0.254. Conclusion: According to our findings it seems mandatory for health and school's, sport coaches to screen the student's spinal deformities and evaluate its associated complications (e.g. decreased cardiorespiratory endurance and postural balance.

  15. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A; Langade, Deepak G

    2015-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. There was a greater increase from baseline (P Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.

  16. Trunk muscle endurance and low back pain in female dance students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Christopher; Redding, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is often cited as a common condition at all levels of dance. Evidence suggests that reduced endurance of the trunk muscles can predispose an individual to LBP. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in trunk muscle endurance in a sample of tertiary level dance students with and without LBP. Seventeen full-time female dance students were divided into two groups: dance students with LBP (N = 11), and without LBP (N = 6). All participants provided informed consent, and the study was approved by an institutional ethics review board. Participants performed four isometric tests that assess trunk muscle endurance: the right and left side plank, double straight leg raise (DSLR), and the Sorensen test. A modified version of the Osaka City University test was used to assess the presence of LBP. A significant difference (p students with LBP displayed lower levels of endurance compared to those without. No other significant differences were found. This study offers some evidence that reduced trunk muscle endurance is present among dancers with LBP and provides direction for future research into back health among dancers.

  17. Analysis of Performance on Cognitive Test Measures Before, During, and After 6 Months of Hearing Aid Use: A Single-Subject Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Jamie L

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the effect of hearing aid use on cognitive test performance using a single-subject treatment design. Six participants 54 to 64 years old with sensorineural hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Participants used the hearing aids for approximately 8 hr each day for the duration of the study. A battery of cognitive tests was administered to participants during baseline (pre-hearing aid fitting), treatment (hearing aid use), and withdrawal (post-hearing aid use) study phases over a period of 6 months of hearing aid use. All participants showed significant improvements in performance on the cognitive test measures with hearing aid use. The most significant treatment effects were evidenced at 2 to 4 weeks of hearing aid use on the Listening Span Test and an auditory selective attention task. In many cases, cognitive performance scores returned to baseline levels after the participant stopped using the hearing aids. The findings from this study are consistent with the hypothesis that hearing aid use may improve cognitive performance by improving audibility and decreasing the cognitive load of the listening task.

  18. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Weippert, Matthias; Wassermann, Franziska; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC) and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after 8 weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100, 100-200 ms) and iMVC of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave), peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that cycling endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue resistance.

  19. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBehrens

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after eight weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100, 100-200 ms and isometric maximum voluntary contraction of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave, peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that the endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue

  20. Endurance training significantly increases serum endocan but not osteoprotegerin levels: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponder, Michael; Campean, Ioana-Alexandra; Emich, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Litschauer, Brigitte; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Graf, Senta; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2017-01-05

    Endocan (EN) was suggested a potential inflammatory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) marker which might also be involved in renal failure and/or renal failure-associated vascular events. It is not clear whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a pro- or anti-atherogenic factor, however, it is agreed upon that OPG is elevated in subjects with increased calcification status. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of long-term physical activity on serum endocan (EN) and osteoprotegerin-levels. One hundred nine subjects were told to increase their amount of physical activity for 8 months by performing 150min/week moderate or 75min/week vigorous exercise. Incremental cycle ergometer tests were performed at the beginning and the end of the study to prove and quantify the performance gain. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 2 months for the determination of EN and OPG. To investigate the difference between baseline and 8 months levels of EN and OPG we used a paired sample t-test. To investigate the significance of the tendency of the progression (baseline/2 months/4 months/6 months/8 months) we used a Friedman test. Thirty-eight female and 60 male subjects completed the study. In the group of 61 subjects who had a performance gain by >4,9% EN-levels increased from 146 ± 110 to 196 ± 238 pg/ml (p = 0,036) equivalent to an increase of 33,5% but there was no significant change in OPG (4,4 ± 2,4 pmol/l vs. 4,3 ± 2,1 pmol/l; p = 0,668). Physical activity increases significantly EN-levels relativizing the status of EN as proinflammatory factor. EN should rather be considered as a mediator which is involved in several physiological (e.g., angiogenesis) but also pathological processes (e.g., CVD, tumour progression or endothelium-dependent inflammation) and whose expression can be significantly influenced by long term endurance training. Clinical trial registration number: NCT02097199 Date of trial registration at Clinical Trials

  1. Cluster immunotherapy with a glutaraldehyde-modified mixture of grasses results in an improvement in specific nasal provocation tests in less than 2.5 months of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiza, J; Feliú, A; Subiza, J L; Uhlig, J; Fernández-Caldas, E

    2008-06-01

    Cluster immunotherapy is becoming increasingly used. It allows for a rapid build up phase and the administration of higher doses of allergen in a shorter period of time. To evaluate the effect of short-term pre-seasonal immunotherapy using a glutaraldeyde-modified allergen vaccine in reducing specific nasal hyperreactivity in nasal challenge tests. Thirty-three patients were selected. All patients had a positive history of allergic rhinitis and skin tests to grass pollen, although most of them (72.7%) were sensitized to other allergens as well. The study was conducted outside of the pollen season and the patients did not receive any pharmacological treatment during this period of time. Two randomized groups of patients were established; Group A: 22 patients (13 females and nine males) and Group B, 11 control patients (seven females and four males). Patients in Group A received immunotherapy with a vaccine containing 50% of the wild grasses Trisetum paniceum and Dactylis glomerata. All patients underwent titrated nasal provocation tests (NPT) before and after completion of the study (2.3 and 2.8 months for Groups A and B, respectively). The administration schedule consisted of 0.1 and 0.2 mL at day 1, followed by 0.3 and 0.5 mL at day 7, 0.5 mL after 2 weeks followed by 0.5 mL monthly. A single vial was used containing an allergen concentration of 10 000 TU/mL (105 microg of total protein and 24.6 microg of Group 1 plus 5 allergens/mL). A mean of 6.5 injections were administered to Group A patients between NPTs. There were no significant differences between both groups at the beginning of the study (P=0.48). At the end, only Group A patients needed significant greater threshold concentrations for a positive NPT than at the beginning (P=0.002). A short-term cluster pre-seasonal inmunotherapy with a modified vaccine containing a mixture of grass pollen is effective as determined by an objective measure after only a mean 2.3 months of treatment.

  2. Do self-reported concussions have cumulative or enduring effects on drivers' anticipation of traffic hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Megan H W; Horswill, Mark S; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cumulative effect of multiple self-reported concussions and the enduring effect of concussion on drivers' hazard perception ability. It was hypothesized: (1) that individuals reporting multiple previous concussions would be slower to anticipate traffic hazards than individuals reporting either one previous concussion or none; and (2) that individuals reporting a concussion within the past 3 months would be slower to anticipate traffic hazards than individuals reporting either an earlier concussion or no prior concussion. Two hundred and eighty-two predominantly young drivers (nconcussed = 68, Mage = 21.57 years, SDage = 6.99 years, 66% female) completed a validated hazard perception test (HPT) and measures of emotional, cognitive, health and driving status. A one-way analysis of variance showed that there was no significant effect of concussion number on HPT response times. Similarly, pairwise comparisons showed no significant differences between the HPT response times of individuals reporting a concussion within the previous 3 months, individuals reporting an earlier concussion and the never concussed group. The findings suggest that previous concussions do not adversely affect young drivers' ability to anticipate traffic hazards; however, due to reliance on self-reports of concussion history, further prospective longitudinal research is needed.

  3. Isotretinoin treatment in patients with acne vulgaris: does it impact muscle strength, fatigue, and endurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldızgören, Mustafa Turgut; Rifaioğlu, Emine Nur; Demirkapı, Musa; Ekiz, Timur; Micooğulları, Ahmet; Şen, Tuğba; Turhanoğlu, Ayşe Dicle

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isotretinoin on muscle strength, fatigue, and endurance in patients with acne vulgaris. The study included 27 patients with acne vulgaris who underwent treatment with isotretinoin as well as 26 control patients for comparison. Participants in the treatment group received oral isotretinoin 0.5 mg/kg once daily for 1 month followed by an increased dose of 1 mg/kg once daily for 2 months. Isokinetic measurements were obtained from the hamstrings and quadriceps on the nondominant side of the body at baseline and 3-month follow-up using an isokinetic dynamometer. Results indicated that systemic isotretinoin did not significantly alter muscle strength, fatigue, and endurance.

  4. Diagnostic hearing testing of infants aged 0-36 months in 3 South African provinces - Comparison of audiology records to HPCSA guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Selvarani; Störbeck, Claudine

    2016-12-01

    Within the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) pathway, which includes the processes of screening, diagnosis and intervention for paediatric hearing loss, paediatric diagnostic audiology involves a battery of specific tests and procedures. International studies have highlighted a golden standard for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss as based on the Joint Committee of Infant Hearing (2007) diagnostic guidelines, closely resembling the HPCSA diagnostic guidelines. There are limited South African studies on the processes and protocols followed in diagnostic paediatric audiology. This study aims to provide a comparison for how the tests used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa (within both the public and private healthcare sectors) compare to the HPCSA recommended diagnostic guidelines. A retrospective record review of paediatric clients with hearing loss (recruited through nonprobability convenience sampling) was conducted. This study is part of a longitudinal study of 711 deaf or hard of hearing children referred to the HI HOPES early intervention programme from September 2006 to December 2011. Diagnostic data from audiology reports of 117 children between 0 and 36 months were coded and analysed. Large variation was found in the tests included in the diagnostic audiology reports. For 22 children (19%) a comprehensive test battery was used. Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) recommended guidelines for diagnostic testing were not followed in any of the records analysed. Components of the HPCSA recommended test battery most frequently omitted was bone conduction testing. For both electrophysiology and behavioural testing, there was limited frequency specificity information. This exclusion of information is evidence of deficiencies in data recording and management, as well as having an effect on accuracy of classification of degree and type of hearing loss. There are gaps in age-appropriate assessment protocols, which

  5. A method to estimate the environmental impact of an electric city car during six months of testing in an Italian city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donateo, T.; Ingrosso, F.; Licci, F.; Laforgia, D.

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation describes the results of a research project (P.R.I.M.E.) aimed at testing the performance and the environmental impact of an electric city car in Italian cities. The vehicle considered in the project is the Daimler AG Smart ForTwo Electric Drive. A Smart ED vehicle was tested at the University of Salento for six months over different driving conditions (routes, traffic, use of auxiliaries). A data acquisition system has been designed on purpose and assembled on board to provide information about driving cycle and energy flows. The system was also used to evaluate the losses of energy during recharges due to the battery cooling system. The experimental tests were used to identify the average, minimum and maximum consumption of electricity in the Smart ED in Lecce according to driving conditions and in particular according to the usage of auxiliaries. The measured data of electric consumption have been used to quantify the emissions of CO2 and pollution of the vehicle using information about the Italian electricity production mix of each recharging event and the emissions factors of the Italian power plants with an innovative and comprehensive methodology.

  6. Change in the level of strength and endurance development of 5-6 grades pupils under cheerleading exercises influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Bala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the degree of change in the level of strength and endurance development of 5-6 grades pupils under cheerleading exercises influence. Material and Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment and mathematical statistics methods. Results: parameters of strength and endurance development level are presented with their degree of change under cheerleading exercises influence for 5-6 grades pupils of secondary school. Conclusions: cheerleading exercises usage has positive influence on demonstrated strength and endurance degree of secondary school children by all investigated parameters.

  7. Exercise training improves aerobic endurance and musculoskeletal fitness in female cardiac transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warburton Darren

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Female cardiac transplant recipients' aerobic capacity is 60% lower than sex and age-predicted values. The effect of exercise training on restoring the impaired aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients is not known. This study examined the effect that aerobic and strength training have on improving aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients. Methods 20 female cardiac transplant recipients (51 ± 11 years participated in this investigation. The subjects performed a baseline six-minute walk test and a leg-press strength test when they were discharged following cardiac transplantation. The subjects then participated in a 12-week exercise program consisting of aerobic and lower extremity strength training. Baseline assessments were repeated following completion of the exercise intervention. Results At baseline, the cardiac transplant recipients' aerobic endurance was 50% lower than age-matched predicted values. The training program resulted in a significant increase in aerobic endurance (pre-training: 322 ± 104 m vs. post-training: 501 ± 99 m, p Conclusion Aerobic and strength training are effective interventions that can partially restore the impaired aerobic endurance and strength found in female cardiac transplant recipients.

  8. Endurance capacity, not body size, determines physical activity levels: role of skeletal muscle PEPCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen M Novak

    Full Text Available Some people remain lean despite pressure to gain weight. Lean people tend to have high daily activity levels, but the source of this increased activity is unknown. We found that leanness cannot be accounted for by increased weight-corrected food intake in two different types of lean rats. As previously reported in lean people, we found that lean rats had higher daily activity levels; lean rats also expended more energy. These lean rats were developed through artificial selection for high aerobic endurance capacity. To test whether our findings extended to a human population, we measured endurance capacity using a VO(2max treadmill test and daily activity in a group of non-exercising individuals. Similar to lean rats selectively bred for endurance capacity, our study revealed that people with higher VO(2max also spent more time active throughout the day. Hence, endurance capacity may be the trait that underlies both physical activity levels and leanness. We identified one potential mechanism for the lean, active phenotype in rats, namely high levels of skeletal muscle PEPCK. Therefore, the lean phenotype is characterized by high endurance capacity and high activity and may stem from altered skeletal muscle energetics.

  9. Endurance capacity, not body size, determines physical activity levels: role of skeletal muscle PEPCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Colleen M; Escande, Carlos; Gerber, Susan M; Chini, Eduardo N; Zhang, Minzhi; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Levine, James A

    2009-06-12

    Some people remain lean despite pressure to gain weight. Lean people tend to have high daily activity levels, but the source of this increased activity is unknown. We found that leanness cannot be accounted for by increased weight-corrected food intake in two different types of lean rats. As previously reported in lean people, we found that lean rats had higher daily activity levels; lean rats also expended more energy. These lean rats were developed through artificial selection for high aerobic endurance capacity. To test whether our findings extended to a human population, we measured endurance capacity using a VO(2max) treadmill test and daily activity in a group of non-exercising individuals. Similar to lean rats selectively bred for endurance capacity, our study revealed that people with higher VO(2max) also spent more time active throughout the day. Hence, endurance capacity may be the trait that underlies both physical activity levels and leanness. We identified one potential mechanism for the lean, active phenotype in rats, namely high levels of skeletal muscle PEPCK. Therefore, the lean phenotype is characterized by high endurance capacity and high activity and may stem from altered skeletal muscle energetics.

  10. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12-36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Niamh; Gibbons, Helena; McNulty, Breige A; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P

    2015-01-01

    Although imbalances in dietary intakes can have short and longer term influences on the health of preschool children, few tools exist to quickly and easily identify nutritional risk in otherwise healthy young children. To develop and test the validity of a parent-administered questionnaire (NutricheQ) as a means of evaluating dietary risk in young children (12-36 months). Following a comprehensive development process and internal reliability assessment, the NutricheQ questionnaire was validated in a cohort of 371 Irish preschool children as part of the National Preschool Nutrition Survey. Dietary risk was rated on a scale ranging from 0 to 22 from 11 questions, with a higher score indicating higher risk. Children with higher NutricheQ scores had significantly (pNutricheQ is a valid method of quickly assessing dietary quality in preschoolers and in identifying those at increased nutritional risk.

  11. Life-long endurance exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Couppé, C; Karlsen, A

    2013-01-01

    Human aging is associated with a loss of skeletal muscle and an increase in circulating inflammatory markers. It is unknown whether endurance training (Tr) can prevent these changes. Therefore we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young-Tr...

  12. Enduring Legacy? Charles Tilly and Durable Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Charles Tilly’s Durable Inequality and traces its influence. In writing Durable Inequality, Tilly sought to shift the research agenda of stratification scholars. But the book’s initial impact was disappointing. In recent years, however, its influence has grown, suggesting a more enduring legacy.

  13. Enduring Legacy? Charles Tilly and Durable Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kim

    2010-12-01

    This article assesses Charles Tilly's Durable Inequality and traces its influence. In writing Durable Inequality, Tilly sought to shift the research agenda of stratification scholars. But the book's initial impact was disappointing. In recent years, however, its influence has grown, suggesting a more enduring legacy.

  14. Monitoring endurance athletes : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, Tina Ardi

    2016-01-01

    Endurance athletes seek for the optimal balance in training stress and recovery so they can perform at their best and avoid injuries. The PhD thesis of Ruby Otter at the School of Sport Studies (Hanze University of Applied Sciences) and the Center of Human Movement Sciences (UMCG, University of

  15. Galectin-3 increase in endurance athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haettasch, Robert; Spethmann, Sebastian; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Ruifrok, Willem P. T.; Schattke, Sebastian; Wagner, Moritz; Schroeckh, Sabrina; Durmus, Tahir; Schimke, Ingolf; Sanad, Wasiem; Baumann, Gert; Borges, Adrian C.; Knebel, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Background Galectin-3 is a new and promising biomarker for heart failure and myocardial fibrosis. Although endurance exercise is a crucial element in cardiovascular disease prevention, the relationship between exercise and plasma levels of galectin-3 is still unknown. To date, the relationship

  16. Piaget's Enduring Contribution to Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, Harry

    1992-01-01

    Describes Jean Piaget's transformation of society's conception of childhood thought. Emphasizes the enduring contribution to developmental psychology of Piaget's constructivism, his description of developmental mechanisms, his cognitivism, his explication of structural and functional analysis, and his addressing of epistemological issues and…

  17. Reassessing the causal structure of enduring involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2009-01-01

    Guided by tenets of identity theory, we hypothesized a causal structure of enduring involvement suggesting that self-relevant components precede the other dimensions. We used Kyle et al.'s (2004a) Modified Involvement Scale, in which leisure involvement is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of identity affirmation, identity expression,...

  18. Effects of aerobic endurance, muscle strength, and motor control exercise on physical fitness and musculoskeletal injury rate in preprofessional dancers: an uncontrolled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistiaen, Wilhelm; Roussel, Nathalie A; Vissers, Dirk; Daenen, Liesbeth; Truijen, Steven; Nijs, Jo

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal injury rate and physical fitness before and 6 months after an endurance, strength, and motor control exercise program in preprofessional dancers. This uncontrolled trial was completed at a college offering a professional bachelor degree in dance. Forty preprofessional dancers underwent a test battery before and after a 6-month lasting exercise program in addition to their regular dance lessons. Physical fitness was evaluated by means of a submaximal exercise test with continuous physiological monitoring and by a field test for explosive strength. Anthropometric measurements were taken to analyze the influence of fitness training on body composition. Musculoskeletal injury incidence and quality of life were recorded during the 6-month lasting intervention. An intention-to-treat analysis ("last observation carried forward" method) was used with a Student t test for normally distributed variables. The Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney U tests were used as nonparametric tests. Physical fitness improved after the 6 months of additional training program (Pdancing. The combination of regular dance lessons with an additional exercise program resulted in improved physical fitness in preprofessional dancers, without affecting the aesthetical appearance. A relatively high injury rate was observed during the intervention period. These results suggest that a randomized, controlled trial should be performed to examine the effectiveness of additional exercise in dancers on physical fitness and musculoskeletal injury rate. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Static back endurance and the risk of low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaranta, H; Luoto, S; Heliövaara, M; Hurri, H

    1995-09-01

    Spinal physical capacity and in particular static back endurance were studied for their prediction of first-time experience of low-back pain. Of a total of 126 persons who were free from back complaints at entry, 33 developed low-back pain during a follow-up of 1 year. The static back endurance test was found to be the only physical capacity measurement that indicated an increased risk of low-back pain. Adjusted for age, sex, and occupation, the odds ratio of a new low-back pain in those with poor performance was 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-10.0) compared to those with medium or good performance. RELEVANCE--:The simple static back endurance test might have value in health examinations because of its strong predictive value of future low-back pain.

  20. No Superior Adaptations to Carbohydrate Periodization in Elite Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Thams, Line; Hansen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular...... content (18 ± 5%), CS activity (11 ± 5%) and pACC (38 ± 19%) (Prestriction to 4 weeks of regular endurance training had no superior effects on performance and muscle...

  1. Psychologically-Informed Methods of Enhancing Endurance Performance

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis was to determine psychologically-informed methods of enhancing endurance performance, particularly in endurance sport events. There were three main research aims. First, this thesis aimed to synthesise research conducted to date on the psychological determinants of endurance performance. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify psychological interventions that affect endurance performance in experimental research. Learning psychological skills, ve...

  2. Different endurance characteristics of female and male german soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, C; Hoppe, M W; Freiwald, J

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess gender differences regarding lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance in female and male soccer players as well as to investigate the relationships between both endurance characteristics in both genders. Fourteen female (1(st) division) and thirteen male (4(th) division) soccer players completed an incremental test (IT) to determine running velocities at 2 and 4 mmol · l(-1) blood lactate (v2 and v4) and maximum velocity (vmax) as well as an interval shuttle run test (ISRT) to determine running distance. Based on v2 and v4 and their percentages in relation to vmax, three intensity zones were calculated: a low lactate zone (v4). Female soccer players have a lower v4 (8.2%), vmax (11.3%) and ISRT distance (31.6%). No gender difference was found in v2. In contrast to males, ISRT distance correlates with vmax as well as with v2 and v4 in female soccer players. The intensity zones v4 differ between genders. The present study revealed that gender differences increase when the running performance is intermittent including change of directions. In both genders, different relationships between lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance exist. During incremental testing, the running performances of female and male players reflect different distributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The revealed gender differences should be considered for soccer endurance training.

  3. DIFFERENT ENDURANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE AND MALE GERMAN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgart

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess gender differences regarding lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance in female and male soccer players as well as to investigate the relationships between both endurance characteristics in both genders. Fourteen female (1st division and thirteen male (4th division soccer players completed an incremental test (IT to determine running velocities at 2 and 4 mmol · l-1 blood lactate (v2 and v4 and maximum velocity (vmax as well as an interval shuttle run test (ISRT to determine running distance. Based on v2 and v4 and their percentages in relation to vmax, three intensity zones were calculated: a low lactate zone (v4. Female soccer players have a lower v4 (8.2%, vmax (11.3% and ISRT distance (31.6%. No gender difference was found in v2. In contrast to males, ISRT distance correlates with vmax as well as with v2 and v4 in female soccer players. The intensity zones v4 differ between genders. The present study revealed that gender differences increase when the running performance is intermittent including change of directions. In both genders, different relationships between lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance exist. During incremental testing, the running performances of female and male players reflect different distributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The revealed gender differences should be considered for soccer endurance training.

  4. Enduring behavioral effects of early exposure to methylphenidate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlezon, William A; Mague, Stephen D; Andersen, Susan L

    2003-12-15

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a stimulant prescribed for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulant drugs can cause enduring behavioral adaptations, including altered drug sensitivity, in laboratory animals. We examined how early developmental exposure to stimulants affects behavior in several rodent models. Rats received MPH or cocaine during preadolescence (P20-35). Behavioral studies began during adulthood (P60). We compared how early exposure to MPH and cocaine affects sensitivity to the rewarding and aversive properties of cocaine using place conditioning. We also examined the effects of early exposure to MPH on depressive-like signs using the forced swim test, and habituation of spontaneous locomotion, within activity chambers. In place-conditioning tests, early exposure to MPH or cocaine each made moderate doses of cocaine aversive and high doses less rewarding. Early MPH exposure also caused depressive-like effects in the forced swim test, and it attenuated habituation to the activity chambers. Early exposure to MPH causes behavioral changes in rats that endure into adulthood. Some changes (reduced sensitivity to cocaine reward) may be beneficial, whereas others (increases in depressive-like signs, reduced habituation) may be detrimental. The effects of MPH on cocaine-related behaviors may be a general consequence of early stimulant exposure.

  5. Effectiveness of low-intensity endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T; Auracher, M; Heeg, K; Urhausen, A; Kindermann, W

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies point to the preventive efficacy of low-intensity endurance training in terms of cardiovascular risk factor modification and mortality reduction. In addition, it is frequently recommended as a means of stimulating fat metabolism. It was the intention of this study to clarify if endurance training effectiveness remains unimpaired when exercise intensity is reduced by a certain amount from "moderate" to "low", but total energy expenditure held constant. For this purpose, 39 healthy untrained subjects (44 +/- 7 yrs, 82 +/- 19 kg; 173 +/- 9 cm) were stratified for endurance capacity and sex and randomly assigned to 3 groups: "moderate intensity" (MOD, n = 13, 5 sessions per week, 30 min each, intensity 90 % of the anaerobic threshold [baseline lactate + 1.5 mmol/l]), "low intensity" (LOW, n = 13, 5 sessions per week, intensity 15 bpm below MOD, duration proportionally longer to arrive at the same total energy output as MOD), and control (CO, n = 13, no training). Training was conducted over 12 weeks and each session monitored by means of portable heart rate (HR) recorders. Identical treadmill protocols prior to and after the training program served for exercise prescription and documentation of endurance effects. VO (2max) improved similarly in both training groups (MOD + 1.5 ml x min (-1) x kg (-1); LOW + 1.7 ml x min (-1) x kg (-1); p = 0.97 between groups). Compared with CO (- 1.0 ml x min (-1) x kg (-1)) this effect was significant for LOW (p exercise decreased significantly by 9 bpm (MOD, p population of healthy untrained subjects, endurance training effectiveness might be slightly impaired when the training heart rate is chosen 15 bpm lower as compared to moderate intensity, but the total energy output held equal.

  6. Heart rate variability in prediction of individual adaptation to endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Hokka, L; Nummela, A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) can be used to predict changes in endurance performance during 28 weeks of endurance training. The training was divided into 14 weeks of basic training (BTP) and 14 weeks of intensive training periods (ITP). Endurance performance characteristics, nocturnal HRV, and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after both training periods in 28 recreational endurance runners. During the study peak treadmill running speed (Vpeak ) improved by 7.5 ± 4.5%. No changes were observed in HRV indices after BTP, but after ITP, these indices increased significantly (HFP: 1.9%, P=0.026; TP: 1.7%, P=0.007). Significant correlations were observed between the change of Vpeak and HRV indices (TP: r=0.75, Pendurance runners, it seems that moderate- and high-intensity training are needed. This study showed that recreational endurance runners with a high HRV at baseline improved their endurance running performance after ITP more than runners with low baseline HRV. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  8. Relation between cycling exercise capacity, fiber-type composition, and lower extremity muscle strength and muscle endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerström, Asa B; Holmbäck, Anna M; Hansson, Ola; Elgzyri, Targ; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Ringsberg, Karin; Groop, Leif; Wollmer, Per; Thorsson, Ola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relation between peak oxygen uptake V(O2)peak), peak work rate (WRpeak), fiber-type composition, and lower extremity strength and endurance during a maximal incremental cycle test. Thirty-nine healthy sedentary men, aged 30-46, participated in the study. Subjects performed a maximal incremental cycle test and isokinetic knee extension (KE) and flexion (KF) strength and endurance tests at velocities of 60 and 180° · s(-1). Muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis and analyzed for fiber-type composition. A significant correlation existed between KE strength and V(O2)peak and WRpeak. Also, KF endurance correlated significantly to V(O2)peak and WRpeak. The KE endurance correlated significantly to WRpeak (rp = 0.32, p strength, KF endurance, and the percentage of type I fibers could explain up to 40% of the variation in V(O2) and WRpeak. The performance of sedentary subjects in a maximal incremental cycle test is highly affected by knee muscle strength and endurance. Fiber-type composition also contributes but to a smaller extent.

  9. Development, reliability, and validity testing of Toddler NutriSTEP: a nutrition risk screening questionnaire for children 18-35 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall Simpson, Janis; Gumbley, Jillian; Whyte, Kylie; Lac, Jane; Morra, Crystal; Rysdale, Lee; Turfryer, Mary; McGibbon, Kim; Beyers, Joanne; Keller, Heather

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition is vital for optimal growth and development of young children. Nutrition risk screening can facilitate early intervention when followed by nutritional assessment and treatment. NutriSTEP (Nutrition Screening Tool for Every Preschooler) is a valid and reliable nutrition risk screening questionnaire for preschoolers (aged 3-5 years). A need was identified for a similar questionnaire for toddlers (aged 18-35 months). The purpose was to develop a reliable and valid Toddler NutriSTEP. Toddler NutriSTEP was developed in 4 phases. Content and face validity were determined with a literature review, parent focus groups (n = 6; 48 participants), and experts (n = 13) (phase A). A draft questionnaire was refined with key intercept interviews of 107 parents/caregivers (phase B). Test-retest reliability (phase C), based on intra-class correlations (ICC), Kappa (κ) statistics, and Wilcoxon tests was assessed with 133 parents/caregivers. Criterion validity (phase D) was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing scores on the Toddler NutriSTEP to a comprehensive nutritional assessment of 200 toddlers with a registered dietitian (RD). The Toddler NutriSTEP was reliable between 2 administrations (ICC = 0.951, F = 20.53, p Toddler NutriSTEP were correlated (r = 0.67, p Toddler NutriSTEP questionnaire is both reliable and valid for screening for nutritional risk in toddlers.

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND HANDGRIP STRENGTH AND HANDGRIP ENDURANCE AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has become a serious problem all over the world. Handgrip Strength (a form of isometric static contraction test, is an important test to evaluate the physical fitness and nutritional status of an individua l. A number of factors like a ge, gender, body size, effort, skeletal muscle bulk and contractility may affect the handgrip strength (HGS and handgrip endurance (HGE. AIM: This study was conducted to establish the possible correlation (if any between body mass index and handgrip str ength and endurance among young healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cross - sectional study comprising of 200 students (both male and female, age group - 18 - 22 yrs was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Jorhat Medical College. Anthropometric parameters like height and weight were taken to evaluate the BMI and handgrip strength and handgrip endurance were taken by using handgrip dynamometer. According to WHO classification of BMI, subjects were categorized into three groups as un derweight BMI ≤18.5 kg/m 2 , normal weight BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2 and overweight BMI≥ 24.9 kg/m 2 . Gender wise difference was analyzed by unpaired t test. Statistical analysis for correlation was done by using Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient denoted by(r. RESULT: Males had higher handgrip strength and handgrip endurance than females. Statistic ally significant correlation was found between BMI and handgrip strength & endurance in underweight & overweight subjects. Gender differences in correlation were observed in correlation between BMI & HGS and HGE. CONCLUSION: The observed influence of BMI a nd gender differences in correlation between BMI and HGS and HGE indicate that besides BMI several other factors like effort, strength, muscular contractility etc . affect muscular strength & endurance in young males and females.

  11. Impairments of postural stability, core endurance, fall index and functional mobility skills in patients with patello femoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Yelvar, Gul Deniz; Çirak, Yasemin; Dalkilinç, Murat; Demir, Yasemin Parlak; Baltaci, Gul; Kömürcü, Mahmut; Yelvar, Gul Deniz Yilmaz

    2016-06-30

    Postural control allows performance of daily and sports activities. The previous studies show that postural sway inceases in orthopaedic injuries such as osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty. To compare postural sway, risk of falling and function between individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFS). This study included 22 subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome, age-matched pain-free 22 females serving as a control group. Visual anolog scale and Kujala were used to evaluate the pain. Posturographic assesment was performed by Tetrax posturographic device. Biering Modified Sorenson test for extensor endurance and sit-up test for flexor endurance were used for the evaluation of trunk endurance. Timed get-up and go test was used for lower extremity function. The Student's t Test was used to compare variables between the groups. The Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to examine correlation between the quantitative variables. Postural sway included eyes open without pillow, eyes open on pillow, eyes closed on pillow, risk of falling, function and postural stabilization included flexor endurance, extansor endurance are impared in patient with patellofemoral pain syndrome when compare to controls. In subjects with PFPS increased postural sway significantly associated with body mass index (r= 0.52), pain duration (r= 0.43), postural control (extansor endurance) (r= -0.50) and risk of falling (r= 0.62) on pillow with open eyes. In addition we found function significantly related with postural control (extansor endurance and flexor endurance) (r= -0.59 and r= -0.59) and risk of falling (r= 0.77)CONCLUSIONS: Decreased neuromuscular control of the trunk core and increased postural sway and falling risk were found in patients with PFPS. Patients may be evaluated for deficits in postural control and falling risk before treatment.

  12. Concurrent training in elite male runners: the influence of strength versus muscular endurance training on performance outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Silvia; Marín, Pedro J; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Much recent attention has been given to the compatibility of combined aerobic and anaerobic training modalities. However, few of these studies have reported data related to well-trained runners, which is a potential limitation. Therefore, because of the limited evidence available for this population, the main aim was to determine which mode of concurrent strength-endurance training might be the most effective at improving running performance in highly trained runners. Eighteen well-trained male runners (age 23.7 ± 1.2 years) with a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) more than 65 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomly assigned into 1 of the 3 groups: Endurance-only Group (n = 6), who continued their usual training, which included general strength training with Thera-band latex-free exercise bands and endurance training; Strength Group (SG; n = 6) who performed combined resistance and plyometric exercises and endurance training; Endurance-SG (ESG; n = 6) who performed endurance-strength training with loads of 40% and endurance training. The study comprised 12 weeks of training in which runners trained 8 times a week (6 endurance and 2 strength sessions) and 5 weeks of detraining. The subjects were tested on 3 different occasions (countermovement jump height, hopping test average height, 1 repetition maximum, running economy (RE), VO2max, maximal heart rate [HRmax], peak velocity (PV), rating of perceived exertion, and 3-km time trial were measured). Findings revealed significant time × group interaction effects for almost all tests (p training for both SG and ESG groups led to improved maximal strength, RE, and PV with no significant effects on the VO2 kinetics pattern. The SG group also seems to show improvements in 3-km time trial tests.

  13. Physiological determinants of climbing-specific finger endurance and sport rock climbing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, D; Sutherland, D L; Buntin, L; Whitaker, A; Aitchison, T; Watt, I; Bradley, J; Grant, S

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine several physiological responses to a climbing-specific task to identify determinants of endurance in sport rock climbing. Finger strength and endurance of intermediate rock climbers (n = 11) and non-climbers (n = 9) were compared using climbing-specific apparatus. After maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) trials, two isometric endurance tests were performed at 40% (s = 2.5%) MVC until volitional exhaustion (continuous contractions and intermittent contractions of 10 s, with 3 s rest between contractions). Changes in muscle blood oxygenation and muscle blood volume were recorded in the flexor digitorum superficialis using near infra-red spectroscopy. Statistical significance was set at P climbing-specific endurance, was greater for climbers in the intermittent test (climbers: 51,769 N x s, s = 12,229; non-climbers: 35,325 N x s, s = 9724) but not in the continuous test (climbers: 21,043 N x s, s = 4474; non-climbers: 15,816 N x s, s = 6263). Recovery of forearm oxygenation during rest phases (intermittent test) explained 41.1% of the variability in the force-time integral. Change in total haemoglobin was significantly greater in non-climbers (continuous test) than climbers (P = 0.023--40% test timepoint, P = 0.014--60% test timepoint). Pressor responses were similar between groups and not related to the force-time integral for either test. We conclude that muscle re-oxygenation during rest phases is a predictor of endurance performance.

  14. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Niamh; Gibbons, Helena; McNulty, Breige A.; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J.; Nugent, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although imbalances in dietary intakes can have short and longer term influences on the health of preschool children, few tools exist to quickly and easily identify nutritional risk in otherwise healthy young children. Objectives To develop and test the validity of a parent-administered questionnaire (NutricheQ) as a means of evaluating dietary risk in young children (12–36 months). Design Following a comprehensive development process and internal reliability assessment, the NutricheQ questionnaire was validated in a cohort of 371 Irish preschool children as part of the National Preschool Nutrition Survey. Dietary risk was rated on a scale ranging from 0 to 22 from 11 questions, with a higher score indicating higher risk. Results Children with higher NutricheQ scores had significantly (pnutritional risk. In Context Analysis of data from national food and nutrition surveys typically identifies shortfalls in dietary intakes or quality of young children. This can relate to intakes of micronutrients such as iron or vitamin D as well as to the balance of macronutrients they consume (e.g. fat or sugar). Alongside this lie concerns regarding overweight and obesity and physical inactivity. This combination of risk factors has potential negative effects for both short and longer term health. Hence, screening tools, such as NutricheQ described here, offer an opportunity for early identification and subsequent appropriate timely intervention from 12 months of age. This paper describes the development and validation of NutricheQ, a short user-friendly questionnaire. Designed to be administered by parents or carers, it aims to help healthcare professionals identify children at risk based on known, evidence-based nutritional risk factors. It is hoped in the longer term that this tool can be adapted for use globally and improve child health through early identification, which can be followed up by targeted, cost-effective interventions. PMID:26058751

  15. The Effect of Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate Feeding with Different Glycemic Index on Endurance Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salarkia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is known that feeding with carbohydrate (CHO during exercise improves endurance performance, the effects of glycemic index (GI of carbohydrate intake are less clear. This study was carried out to assess the effect of glycemic index of pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding on endurance exercise capacity. In a randomized clinical trial 52 endurance – trained men with mean age 21.7 ± 3 years, weight 69.3 ± 9 kg, height 178.4 ± 2 cm and BMI 22.6 ± 2 were studied. Subjects performed exercise treadmill at 70% VO2max after ingestion: Lentil, a low glycemic index; potato, a high glycemic index; glucose and water (as a control one hour before exercise. Blood samples were collected before and one hour after test meal and 30 minutes after exercise. To assess aerobic capacity VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake was measured at the end of the exercise trial. Endurance time was found to be longer after lentil than after the potato, glucose and control respectively (P < 0.05. At the end of exercise, the glucose group and control both gave lower plasma glucose concentrations. Changes of VO2max in lentil. Potato, glucose and control group which were not statistically significant. This study showed that a low GI meal eaten before an event increases endurance capacity during exercise. Furthermore, the low GI meal was found to maintain glucose at higher concentrations during the later stages of exercise.

  16. Quickness and endurance fitness of pedagogic college girl students under influence of cheer-leading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masliak I.P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine dynamic of quickness and endurance indicators of pedagogic college girl students under influence of cheer-leading. Material: in the research 385 girl students participated, who composed three control and three experimental groups. Quickness fitness was registered by indicators of 60 meters’ run (sec.; latent time of motor response (msec.; run on the sport during 5 sec (quantity of steps; tapping test (quantity of points. Level of endurance fitness was registered by results of 2000 meters’ run (min. Results: the most effective cheer-leading exercises, which positively influence on girl students’ endurance, have been determined. The most favorable age periods for training of quickness and endurance under influence of cheer-leading exercises have been found. The higher increment in quickness indicators was registered in 15 years old girls. The most substantial increment of endurance was registered in 16 years old girls. Conclusions: it is recommended to include cheer-leading exercises: basic movements, jump elements, constants, in variable components of girl students’ academic training program.

  17. Aerobic endurance in HIV-positive young adults and HIV-negative controls in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisati, E M; Vasseljen, O

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic endurance is an important aspect of physical fitness that enables individuals living with HIV to endure in the work place as well as in agricultural operations in order to earn a living and improve their quality of life. However, despite high HIV prevalence rates, the aerobic endurance status of young Malawians living with HIV remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in VO2max between HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals in Blantyre, Malawi. Fifty five participants (17 males and 38 females) who have HIV and were not taking antiretroviral medication and 78 HIV-negative participants (45 males and 33 females) performed the Rockport submaximal treadmill exercise test. Measures of body weight, post-exercise heart rate and time to walk one mile were obtained and used to predict VO2max. Comparisons between groups were adjusted for age differences using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). VO2max was significantly lower in HIV-positive subjects [31.1, 28.7 - 33.5mL.kg-1.min-1(mean, 95% CI)] compared with HIV-negative subjects [56.2, 54.3 - 58.1mL.kg-1.min-1]. Aerobic endurance was markedly reduced in HIV-positive participants compared with HIV-negative participants. Findings of the current study implicate factors associated with the HIV infection as contributors to a decreased aerobic endurance in people living with HIV.

  18. The effects of neural mobilization on cervical radiculopathy patients' pain, disability, ROM, and deep flexor endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Gyu; Chung, Sin Ho; Jung, Ho Bal

    2017-09-22

    Cervical radiculopathy (CR) is a disease of the cervical spine and a space-occupying lesion that occurs because of pathological problems with cervical nerve roots. Nerve root injury to produce functional disability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of neural mobilization with manual cervical traction (NMCT) compared with manual cervical traction (MCT) on pain, functional disability, muscle endurance, and range of motion (ROM) in individuals with CR patients. A blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Thirty CR patients were divided into two groups - those who received NMCT and those who received MCT. The intervention was applied three times per week for eight weeks. It was measured in order to determine the pain and functional disability in patients with CR. The numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), neck disability index (NDI), ROM, and deep flexor endurance of patients were measured prior to the experiment, four weeks, and eight weeks after the experiment to compare the time points. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare differences within each group prior to the experiment. And Bonferroni test was performed to examine the significance of each time point. There were significant differences within each group prior to the intervention, four weeks after the intervention, and eight weeks after the intervention in NPRS, NDI, ROM, and deep flexor endurance (PROM and deep flexor endurance increased in the NMCT group than the MCT group (PROM, and deep flexor endurance for patients with CR.

  19. Correlation between Quadriceps Endurance and Adduction Moment in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Hyuck Lee

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the strength or endurance of thigh muscles (quadriceps and hamstring is positively or negatively correlated with the adduction moment of osteoarthritic knees. This study therefore assessed the relationships between the strength and endurance of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and adduction moment in osteoarthritic knees and evaluated predictors of the adduction moment. The study cohort comprised 35 patients with unilateral medial osteoarthritis and varus deformity who were candidates for open wedge osteotomy. The maximal torque (60°/sec and total work (180°/sec of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles and knee adduction moment were evaluated using an isokinetic testing device and gait analysis system. The total work of the quadriceps (r = 0.429, P = 0.037 and hamstring (r = 0.426, P = 0.045 muscles at 180°/sec each correlated with knee adduction moment. Preoperative varus deformity was positively correlated with adduction moment (r = 0.421, P = 0.041. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that quadriceps endurance at 180°/sec was the only factor independently associated with adduction moment (β = 0.790, P = 0.032. The adduction moment of osteoarthritic knees correlated with the endurance, but not the strength, of the quadriceps muscle. However, knee adduction moment did not correlate with the strength or endurance of the hamstring muscle.

  20. Effect of an Aquatic Endurance Exercise on Mental General Health in Male Elders

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    Seyyed Sadreddin Shojaeddin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aquatic exercise is one of the major activities that recommend to elderly people. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aquatic endurance exercise on the mental health, physical symptoms, social performance, anxiety and depression of the male elders. Methods & Materials: In this study, 30 male elders were selected and randomly divided into control and experimental groups. First, all subjects completed General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Then the experimental group received 6 weeks aquatic endurance exercise (three sessions per week for six weeks and the control group performed their daily routine activities. After the training intervention, both groups again completed the GHQ - 28. Data analysis with paired and independent samples t-test was performed. Results: The results showed that aquatic endurance exercise has significant effect on mental health (P=0.000, physical symptoms (P=0.000, social performance (P=0.000, anxiety (P=0.034 and depression (P=0.000 of the experimental groups, while in the control group who had not participated in aquatic endurance exercises, no significant changes were observed. The results also showed that there is a significant difference (P=0.001 between the average score of mental general health of experimental and control group after the exercise. Conclusion: Based on this study it can be concluded that aquatic endurance exercise has a positive impact to geriatric psychiatric assessment on the mental general health, physical symptoms, social performance, anxiety and depression.

  1. ENDURANCE TRAINING AND GLUTATHIONE-DEPENDENT ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE MECHANISM IN HEART OF THE DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Atalay

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It did not affect glutathione level in heart tissue at rest and also after exercise. On the other hand, endurance training decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in heart, while glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were not affected either by acute exhaustive exercise or endurance training. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels in blood were not affected by either training or acute exercise. Conjugated dienes levels in heart tissue were increased by acute exhaustive exercise and also 8 weeks treadmill training. Longer duration of exhaustion in trained group may have contributed to the increased conjugated dienes levels in heart after acute exercise. Our results suggest that endurance type exercise may make heart more susceptible to oxidative stress. Therefore it may be wise to combine aerobic exercise with insulin treatment to prevent its adverse effects on antioxidant defense in heart in patients with diabetes mellitus

  2. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanis Barnard

    Full Text Available A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli, potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  3. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs’ behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits ‘extroversion,’ (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and ‘neuroticism,’ (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an ‘amicability’ dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a ‘reservedness’ dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire. PMID:26977588

  4. Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuya Toda; Shoketsu Hitoe; Shogo Takeda; Hiroshi Shimoda

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) in black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) extract (KPE) increased energy production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 myoblasts. We herein evaluated the effects of KPE on physical fitness performance and muscular endurance in mice. Male mice were orally administered KPE for 4 weeks, and then forced swimming test, open-field test, inclined plane test, and wire hanging test were performed. KPE significantly increased ...

  5. [A cross-section study on physical endurance level in primary and middle school students in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, R; Wang, Z H; Dong, Y H; Yang, Z P; Ma, J

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand the physical endurance level of primary and middle school students in China in 2014, and identify the factors influencing students'physical endurance. Methods: Data were collected from"National School Student Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance in 2014" , a total of 142 708 primary and middle school students with complete information were included in the analysis. The age, gender and area specific failure rates of endurance running of students were analyzed, the differences were analyzed with χ(2) test, and the factors influencing students' physical endurance were identified with log-binomial regression model. Results: Among the 142 708 students, the failure rate of endurance running was 21.6% (30 867/142 708). The failure rate was 23.7% (16 891/71 388) in boys and 19.6% (13 976/71 320) in girls (χ(2)=347.73, Pfailure rate of endurance running showed an upward trend with age. Insufficient physical education class hour (OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.11-1.15), not taking breakfast daily (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.20-1.25), daily physical exercise time2 hours (OR=1.16, 95%CI: 1.14-1.19) and overweight or obesity (OR=1.90, 95%CI: 1.86-1.95) might be the risk factors for the failure of physical endurance. Conclusion: The physical endurance of primary and secondary students in China was not optimistic, and the factors influencing their physical endurance included gender, living area, physical education class time, daily homework time, breakfast, daily exercise time and nutrition status.

  6. Hybrid Control of Long-Endurance Aerial Robotic Vehicles for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective hybrid control approach for building stable wireless sensor networks between heterogeneous unmanned vehicles using long‐ endurance aerial robotic vehicles. For optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles in communication networks, a gradient climbing based self‐estimating control algorithm is utilized to locate the aerial platforms to maintain maximum communication throughputs between distributed multiple nodes. The autonomous aerial robots, which function as communication relay nodes, extract and harvest thermal energy from the atmospheric environment to improve their flight endurance within specified communication coverage areas. The rapidly‐deployable sensor networks with the high‐endurance aerial vehicles can be used for various application areas including environment monitoring, surveillance, tracking, and decision‐making support. Flight test and simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control technique for robust communication networks.

  7. Plutonium in an enduring fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles evolved over the past five decades have allowed many nations of the world to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy, while contributing to the sustainable consumption of the world`s energy resources. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production suffered many traumas since the 1970s because of perceived risks of proliferation of nuclear weapons. However, the experience of the past five decades has shown that the world community is committed to safeguarding all fissile materials and continuing the use of nuclear energy resources. Decisions of a few nations to discard spent nuclear fuels in geologic formations are contrary to the goals of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle and sustainable development being pursued by the world community. The maintenance of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including spent fuels.

  8. The Effects of Religion on Enduring Marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Mullins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article adds to recent literature in the study of religion and marriage by examining older couples’ use of religion as a cultural repertoire in enduring marriages. The study includes qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 43 married, Christian couples. Couples reported four predominant social contexts that gave sacred meanings to their marriage: prayer, worship services and sermons, first-rite rituals and communion. These social contexts magnify sacred meanings within religious cultural repertoires by enhancing older couples’ perceptions of their marriages as sacred through formal and public recognition of their marriage longevity, lauding their marriage longevity as a blessing from God to be emulated, promoting religious meanings of familism and giving positive marriage outcomes sacred meanings. Negative effects of religion on marriage outcomes occurred among older couples when lived experiences of religion conflicted with their cultural expectations for enduring marriages.

  9. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on insulin sensitivity in response to endurance exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Anders R; Åkerström, Thorbjörn

    2011-01-01

    ) group that both underwent a supervised intense endurance-training program, 5 times per week for 12 weeks. A 3-hour euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and maximal power output (P(max)) test, and body composition measurements (fat mass, fat-free mass) were performed...

  10. Comparison between two types of anaerobic speed endurance training in competitive soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohr Magni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional speed endurance production (SEP or speed endurance maintenance (SEM training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2 and a repeated sprint test (RST pre- and post-intervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance increased (p<0.001 by 50 ± 8% and 26 ± 5% in SEP and SEM, respectively, with greater (p=0.03 improvement in SEP. RST performance improved by 2.1 ± 0.3% and 1.3 ± 0.4% in SEP and SEM, respectively, while the RST fatigue index decreased (4.4 ± 0.8 to 3.4 ± 0.5%; p<0.04 in SEP only. Peak and average speed during training were higher (p<0.001 in SEP than in SEM (24.5 ± 0.3 vs 19.2 ± 0.3 and 15.5 ± 0.1 km·h-1 vs 9.4 ± 0.1 km·h-1. Additional in-season anaerobic speed endurance production and maintenance training improves high-intensity exercise performance in competitive soccer players with superior effects of speed endurance production training.

  11. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuan; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  12. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Tang

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  13. Arctigenin Efficiently Enhanced Sedentary Mice Treadmill Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases. PMID:21887385

  14. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

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    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  15. Concurrent strength and endurance training effects on running economy in master endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Maria Francesca; De Ioannon, Giulia; Comotto, Stefania; Spedicato, Alessandro; Vernillo, Gianluca; La Torre, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Running economy (RE) has been seen to improve with concurrent strength and endurance training in young and elite endurance athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 different strength training protocols on RE and strength parameters in a group of regularly training master marathon runners. Sixteen participants were randomly assigned to a maximal strength training program (MST; n = 6; 44.2 ± 3.9 years), a resistance training (n = 5; 44.8 ± 4.4 years), and a control group (n = 5; 43.2 ± 7.9 years). Before and after the experimental period, resting metabolic rate, body composition, 1 repetition maximum (1RM), squat jump, countermovement jump, and RE were evaluated. The MST group showed significant increases (p 0.05). Anthropometric data were unchanged after the training intervention (p > 0.05). Taken together, the results of this preliminary study indicate that master endurance athletes seem to benefit from concurrent strength and endurance training because the rate of force development may be crucial for RE improvement, one of the major determinants of endurance performance.

  16. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  17. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise. PMID:25713678

  18. Enhanced heat loss responses induced by short-term endurance training in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Hirata, Mari; Shamsuddin, A K M; Kondo, Narihiko

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of short-term endurance training and detraining on sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation during exercise in young women, taking into account changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Eleven untrained women participated in endurance training; cycle exercise at approximately 60% VO2max for 60 min day(-1), 4-5 days week(-1) (30 degrees C, 45% relative humidity) for three complete menstrual cycles. The standard exercise test consisted of exercise at 50% VO2max for 30 min (25 degrees C, 45% relative humidity), and was conducted before training (Pre), during training sessions (T1, T2 and T3) and after cessation of training (D1 and D2). Values of VO2max increased significantly from 32.7 +/- 1.2 to 37.8 +/- 1.2 ml min(-1) kg(-1) at the end of the training. Local sweat rate in the chest and thigh, but not in the back and forearm, were significantly greater during T1 and T2 only in women who started training from the midfollicular phase. Cutaneous blood flow did not change with training. The threshold oesophageal temperatures for heat loss responses were significantly decreased during T1 versus Pre (averaged values for each body site: sweating, 37.49 +/- 0.08 versus 37.22 +/- 0.12 degrees C; and cutaneous vasodilatation, 37.40 +/- 0.07 versus 37.17 +/- 0.10 degrees C) and maintained through T3; the sensitivities of heat loss responses were not altered. These changes returned to the Pre level by D1. Our data indicate that physical training improves heat loss responses by decreasing the threshold temperatures and that these effects occur within a month of training and disappear within a month after cessation of training. The degree of increase in sweating with training differs among body sites and might be affected by the phase of the menstrual cycle.

  19. Emotions and trait emotional intelligence among ultra-endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Wilson, Mathew

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between trait emotional intelligence and emotional state changes over the course of an ultra-endurance foot race covering a route of approximately 175 miles (282 km) and held in set stages over six days. A repeated measures field design that sought to maintain ecological validity was used. Trait emotional intelligence was defined as a relatively stable concept that should predict adaptive emotional states experienced over the duration of the race and therefore associate with pleasant emotions during a 6-stage endurance event. Thirty-four runners completed a self-report measure of trait emotional intelligence before the event started. Participants reported emotional states before and after each of the six races. Repeated measures ANOVA results showed significant variations in emotions over time and a main effect for trait emotional intelligence. Runners high in self-report trait emotional intelligence also reported higher pleasant and lower unpleasant emotions than runners low in trait emotional intelligence. Findings lend support to the notion that trait emotional intelligence associates with adaptive psychological states, suggesting that it may be a key individual difference that explains why some athletes respond to repeated bouts of hard exercise better than others. Future research should test the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance trait emotional intelligence and examine the attendant impact on emotional responses to intense exercise during multi-stage events. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Arterial elasticity, strength, fatigue, and endurance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Neumeier, William H; Bickel, C Scott; McCarthy, John P; Fisher, Gordon; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Glasser, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Arterial health may influence muscle function in older adults. Study purpose was to determine whether arterial elasticity is related to strength, central and peripheral fatigue, fatigue at rest, and treadmill endurance. Subjects were 91 healthy women aged >60. Treadmill endurance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) were measured. Peripheral and central fatigue for the knee extensors were evaluated using two isometric fatigue tests (one voluntary and one adding electrical stimulation). Arterial elasticity was determined using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Linear multiple regression was used in statistical analysis. Large artery elasticity was associated with central fatigue (P elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin (elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin, leg lean tissue, age, and blood pressure. Arterial elasticity is independently related to strength and fatigue in older women, especially in the central nervous system where arterial elasticity is independently related to perceptions of fatigue at rest and central fatigue. These results suggest that arterial health may be involved with the ability of the central nervous system to activate muscle in older women.

  1. Oxidative profiles of endurance horses racing different distances

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    R.F. Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress during prolonged endurance exercises may result in muscle damage, fatigue and decreased performance. An adequate stress response during training is critical to obtain improved results and high animal welfare standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the red blood cell haemolysate concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, reduced glutathione (GSH and catalase (CAT and the plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA from endurance horses in different distances at high speed in a tropical climate. Fifteen horses were tested; five at 160km (18.54 - 17.16km/h race speed, five at 120km (21.53 - 17km/h race speed and five at 80km (20.06 - 18.01km/h race speed. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately after and three hours after the horses left the final vet check and three, seven and fourteen days after the race. No significant increases (P > 0.05 in the levels of SOD, GPx, GSH, CAT or MDA were observed for any of the times or distances examined. Based on these observations, we conclude that reactive oxygen species (ROS formation during exercise evokes specific adaptations, such as increased antioxidant/oxidative damage-repairing enzyme activity, increased resistance to oxidative stress and lower levels of oxidative damage.

  2. Long endurance underwater power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    As part of DARPA's Artificial Gill program, Aquanautics is developing an underwater power source that uses an ambient pressure solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell with an artificial gill that extracts dissolved oxygen from seawater and an Alwatt aluminum corrosion cell that generates the hydrogen. The innovation in this concept is a direct carrier feed fuel cell (CFFC) process which allows the fuel cell to operate at ambient pressure without a costly deep water pressure vessel. Activities during this quarter include: direct feed of oxygen carrier into fuel cell; new batches of electrodes were ordered. These are with a different ion-exchange membrane called Nafion (manufactured by Dupont) as against Raipore (mfd. by RAI Research). There was some concern that hydrogen at high pressures would leak out through the membrane which led to calculation of the hydrogen leakage; it appears that at 6000 m, the loss will be around 20 percent. Eight rectangular membrane cartridges were ordered. The factors varied were type of membrane (solid vs. microporous) and fiber to fiber distance. Theoretical study for sizing of the gill and pumping power required was carried out. Integration of the gill and fuel cell was carried out where oxygen extracted from synthetic ocean water was used in the fuel cell. There was no unforeseen problem. Hydrogen generation using an Alwatt battery was obtained and tested.

  3. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

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    Niamh Rice

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although imbalances in dietary intakes can have short and longer term influences on the health of preschool children, few tools exist to quickly and easily identify nutritional risk in otherwise healthy young children. Objectives: To develop and test the validity of a parent-administered questionnaire (NutricheQ as a means of evaluating dietary risk in young children (12–36 months. Design: Following a comprehensive development process and internal reliability assessment, the NutricheQ questionnaire was validated in a cohort of 371 Irish preschool children as part of the National Preschool Nutrition Survey. Dietary risk was rated on a scale ranging from 0 to 22 from 11 questions, with a higher score indicating higher risk. Results: Children with higher NutricheQ scores had significantly (p<0.05 lower mean daily intakes of key nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, folate, phosphorous, potassium, carotene, retinol, and dietary fibre. They also had lower (p<0.05 intakes of vegetables, fish and fish dishes, meat and infant/toddler milks and higher intakes of processed foods and non-milk beverages, confectionery, sugars and savoury snack foods indicative of poorer dietary quality. Areas under the curve values of 84.7 and 75.6% were achieved for ‘medium’ and ‘high’ dietary risk when compared with expert risk ratings indicating good consistency between the two methods. Conclusion: NutricheQ is a valid method of quickly assessing dietary quality in preschoolers and in identifying those at increased nutritional risk.In ContextAnalysis of data from national food and nutrition surveys typically identifies shortfalls in dietary intakes or quality of young children. This can relate to intakes of micronutrients such as iron or vitamin D as well as to the balance of macronutrients they consume (e.g. fat or sugar. Alongside this lie concerns regarding overweight and obesity and physical inactivity. This combination of

  4. Are Ultrasonographic Measures of Cervical Flexor Muscles Correlated With Flexion Endurance in Chronic Neck Pain and Asymptomatic Participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamkhar, Leila; Kahlaee, Amir Hossein

    2017-12-01

    This study compared the relationship between some clinical factors and the size of neck flexors in participants with or without chronic neck pain. In this case-control study, the correlation between flexor endurance capacity as well as thickness, cross-section area, and shape ratio of longus colli/capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles were examined in 30 patients with chronic neck pain and 30 asymptomatic participants. The patients showed lower flexor endurance (P = 0.02), smaller thickness (P = 0.03), and cross-section area (P neck pain. In the control group, flexor endurance was negatively correlated with longus colli shape ratio (r = -0.45, P = 0.01) but positively correlated with longus capitis thickness (r = 0.45, P = 0.01) and cross-section area (r = 0.38, P = 0.03). Neck disability and pain intensity indices were not significantly correlated with either flexor muscles endurance or size. The ultrasonographic measures of the deep neck flexor muscles and the flexor endurance test, being associated with each other, could successfully differentiate patients with chronic neck pain from asymptomatic participants. However, the endurance test scores were not correlated with self-reported disability or pain intensity indices.

  5. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity, or high volume training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Sperlich, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT), “threshold-training” (THR), high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL). The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes, and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 62.6 ± 7.1 mL·min−1·kg−1) were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over 9 weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml·min·kg−1 or 11.7%, P HIIT (+5.6%, P HIIT, with no changes in the other groups. With the exception of slight improvements in work economy in THR, both HVT and THR had no further effects on measured variables of endurance performance (P > 0.05). Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables. PMID:24550842

  6. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

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    Huw J Griffiths

    Full Text Available Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura, and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW. Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the

  7. Alterations in redox homeostasis in the elite endurance athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan A; Howatson, Glyn; Morton, Katie; Hill, Jessica; Pedlar, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) is a fundamental feature of mammalian physiology, cellular respiration and cell signalling, and essential for muscle function and training adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise results in alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH) in untrained, trained and well trained athletes. Low to moderate doses of ROS and RNS play a role in muscle adaptation to endurance training, but an overwhelming increase in RNS and ROS may lead to increased cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, fatigued states and underperformance. The objectives of this systematic review are: (a) to test the hypotheses that ARH occur in elite endurance athletes; following an acute exercise bout, in an endurance race or competition; across a micro-, meso- or macro-training cycle; following a training taper; before, during and after altitude training; in females with amenorrhoea versus eumenorrhoea; and in non-functional over-reaching (NFOR) and overtraining states (OTS); (b) to report any relationship between ARH and training load and ARH and performance; and (c) to apply critical difference values for measures of oxidative stress/ARH to address whether there is any evidence of ARH being of physiological significance (not just statistical) and thus relevant to health and performance in the elite athlete. Electronic databases, Embase, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Only studies that were observational articles of cross-sectional or longitudinal design, and included elite athletes competing at national or international level in endurance sports were included. Studies had to include biomarkers of ARH; oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant vitamins and nutrients in urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs). A total of 3,057 articles were identified from the electronic searches. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria

  8. Moderate-intensity endurance training improves endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Kolodziejski, Leszek; Szymoniak-Chochol, Dorota; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? The main aim of the present study was to determine the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in humans. What is the main finding and its importance? We have shown, for the first time, a protective effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity, as judged by significantly lower basal and end-exercise serum concentrations of glycocalyx damage markers, i.e. syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate, accompanied by attenuation of oxidative stress and enhancement of antioxidant defence after training in previously untrained healthy young men. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 20 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise bout until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40 min sessions, mainly of moderate intensity (∼50% of maximal oxygen uptake), performed four times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were taken before and after the training. Endurance training resulted in a significant increase in physical capacity (P Training led to a decrease (P training did not induce a significant increase in basal nitrite/nitrate plasma concentration (P > 0.05). Moderate-intensity ET exerts a pronounced protective effect on endothelial glycocalyx integrity at rest and during exercise, probably through an improvement of antioxidant defence that may represent the vasoprotective mechanisms highly responsive to moderate-intensity endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology

  9. Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Endurance Performance Does Not Surpass Placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Carvalho, Jeann L; Lopes, Thiago R; Obeid-Freitas, Tiago; Ferreira, Thiago N; Succi, José E; Silva, Antônio C; Silva, Bruno M

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have reported ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can acutely improve endurance exercise performance in athletes. However, placebo and nocebo effects have not been sufficiently controlled, and the effect on aerobic metabolism parameters that determine endurance performance (e.g., oxygen cost of running, lactate threshold, and maximal oxygen uptake [V˙O2max]) has been equivocal. Thus, we circumvented limitations from previous studies to test the effect of IPC on aerobic metabolism parameters and endurance performance in well-trained runners. Eighteen runners (14 men/4 women) were submitted to three interventions, in random order: IPC; sham intervention (SHAM); and resting control (CT). Subjects were told both IPC and SHAM would improve performance compared to CT (i.e., similar placebo induction), and IPC would be harmless despite circulatory occlusion sensations (i.e., nocebo avoidance). Next, pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, blood lactate concentration, and perceived effort were measured during a discontinuous incremental test on a treadmill. Then, a supramaximal test was used to verify the V˙O2max and assess endurance performance (i.e., time to exhaustion). Ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, lactate concentration, and perceived effort were similar among IPC, SHAM, and CT throughout the discontinuous incremental test (P > 0.05). Oxygen cost of running, lactate threshold, and V˙O2max were also similar among interventions (P > 0.05). Time to exhaustion was longer after IPC (mean ± SEM, 165.34 ± 12.34 s) and SHAM (164.38 ± 11.71 s) than CT (143.98 ± 12.09 s; P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively), but similar between IPC and SHAM (P = 1.00). IPC did not change aerobic metabolism parameters, whereas improved endurance performance. The IPC improvement, however, did not surpass the effect of a placebo intervention.

  10. Sequencing of endurance and high-velocity strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G J; Petersen, S R; Quinney, H A; Wenger, H A

    1988-12-01

    To compare two sequences of endurance (E) and high-velocity resistance (HVR) training, sixteen male oarsmen were separated into Group ES which trained endurance prior to strength and Group SE which trained strength prior to endurance. The endurance program consisted of up to 60 min a session, five days a week for five weeks. HVR exercise was conducted on 12 stations of variable resistance hydraulic equipment, four sessions per week for five weeks. Endurance training significantly improved VO2max and submaximal heart rate and blood lactate responses in both groups regardless of the sequence followed. HVR training improved VO2max in group SE only and had no effect on submaximal response to exercise. Peak torque increases for knee extension and flexion with HVR training were greater in group SE than group ES. These results show that organizing strength and endurance training into sequential programs can influence the physiological adaptation to training.

  11. Fit elderly men can also stand: orthostatic tolerance and autonomic cardiovascular control in elderly endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellingsæter, Marte Rognstad; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2015-08-01

    Endurance training may reduce orthostatic tolerance. Elderly people are prone to orthostatic intolerance, but the impact of endurance training in old age has been insufficiently explored. 54 healthy men; 30 endurance athletes and 24 controls, free from medication and chronic diseases, were subjected to head-up tilt tests: 30º for 10 min and 70º for 40 min. Non-invasive recordings of blood pressures, heart rate, stroke volume, end diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability, blood pressure variability, and baroreflex sensitivity were obtained. We registered terminations of test due to frank syncope or unbearable presyncopal symptoms. Mean age 71 years (range 65-84); athletes had lower body mass index (23.4 versus 24.8, p elderly endurance athletes. Rather, there was a trend towards better orthostatic tolerance, which might be attributed to stronger parasympathetic cardiovascular control and larger blood volume. Better orthostatic tolerance might be an additional benefit of physical activity in older age.

  12. Psychological Determinants of Whole-Body Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2015-07-01

    No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affect endurance performance. Additional objectives were to evaluate the research practices of the included studies, to suggest theoretical and applied implications, and to guide future research. Electronic databases, forward-citation searches and manual searches of reference lists were used to locate relevant studies. Peer-reviewed studies were included when they chose an experimental or quasi-experimental research design; a psychological manipulation; endurance performance as the dependent variable; and athletes or physically active, healthy adults as participants. Consistent support was found for using imagery, self-talk and goal setting to improve endurance performance, but it is unclear whether learning multiple psychological skills is more beneficial than learning one psychological skill. The results also demonstrated that mental fatigue undermines endurance performance, and verbal encouragement and head-to-head competition can have a beneficial effect. Interventions that influenced perception of effort consistently affected endurance performance. Psychological skills training could benefit an endurance athlete. Researchers are encouraged to compare different practical psychological interventions, to examine the effects of these interventions for athletes in competition and to include a placebo control condition or an alternative control treatment. Researchers are also encouraged to explore additional psychological factors that could have a negative effect on endurance performance. Future research

  13. The effects of eight weeks of endurance training on BDNF, insulin and insulin resistance in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A zar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is one of the most important neurotrophin that it will lead to the development of metabolic syndrome. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor directly related to conditions such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's and depression. The purpose of this research was investigate effect of eight weeks endurance training on Neutrophic factor that derived from the rats' brain , Insulin and resistance to Insulin. Methods:  Statistical Society in this research consist of Male Sprague Dawley rats. Among them, 24 rats at 8 weeks of age and weight of 43/31 ± 72/280 grams were purchased from Pasteur Institute in Shiraz. Then transferred to the laboratory and randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups (endurance training. Also before the start of the study, the rats a period of one week to adapt to the new environment and the activities during the treadmill. During eight weeks the endurance exercise mice group running on treadmill machine without slope(zero percent slope with speeding 8 till 20 meter per minute and about 60 minute in each session and 3 session in a week. Control mice group during this time did not have any exercise activity. 24 hours after the last training session at the end of week the eighth, the rats sacrificed to measure the parameters studied until biochemical alterations resulting endurance investigate training effects. For analysis data, was used of independent T-test that was considered as significance level (a=0/05. Results: Analysis of the findings showed that Eight weeks of endurance training has not   significant effect on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rat(p=0/011. Eight weeks endurance training leads to a significant reduction on Insulin (p=0/005 and eight weeks endurance training leads to significant reduction resistance to Insulin (p=0/001.  Discussion: Hence get conclusion that endurance training have significant effect on reduction of Insulin and don

  14. Endurance Exercise Training and Male Sexual Libido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Oʼleary, Colin B

    2017-07-01

    This article aimed to study the associations between aspects of endurance exercise training and sexual libido in healthy men using a cross-sectional online survey study design. A developed online survey questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was based on preexisting validated questionnaires and was used to assess elements of physical characteristics, exercise training habits, and libido of participants (n = 1077). Three evidence-based categories were created for the primary outcome of total libido score and low, normal, and high-response category sets. The high and normal categories were combined to form a high/normal score group, and the low category formed a low score group. Odds ratio (OR) values were calculated to examine group categorization. Age, training intensity, and training duration of participants had significant (P training intensity (P training intensities (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.4-5.3) had greater odds of high/normal libido state than those with the highest training intensity. Participants with the shorter (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.6-10.0) and mid-range training durations (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3-4.8) at their current intensity also had greater odds of high/normal libido score than those with a greatest duration. Exposure to higher levels of chronic intense and greater durations of endurance training on a regular basis is significantly associated with a decreased libido scores in men. Clinicians who treat male patients for sexual disorders and/or council couples on infertility issues should consider the degree of endurance exercise training a man is performing as a potential complicating factor.

  15. Effects of endurance training on serum lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikenzer, Kati; Fikenzer, Sven; Laufs, Ulrich; Werner, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity is recommended as part of the lifestyle modification for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, however, the literature reports heterogeneous quantitative effects of exercise on serum lipids. We therefore reviewed the effects of aerobic exercise on serum lipids with special focus on the training effectiveness. Data regarding effects of endurance training (ET) on total Cholesterol (TC), LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were evaluated in a selective literature search. To account for the observed heterogeneity of the training interventions, studies were analyzed according to effectiveness (duration, intensity, frequency) of training. Unselected training intervention studies did not exert significant effects on serum LDL-C but showed minor positive effects on HDL-C and TG. Effective endurance training - defined as endurance training performed by an intensity of 65-75% of the heart rate reserve (corresponding to 75-85% maximum heart rate or 65-80% VO2max) for a duration of 40-50min per training unit on 3-4days/week over a period of 26-40weeks showed improvement of serum lipids. Effective training lowered TC by -3.75% (p=0.0006), LDL-C by -4.76% (p=0.0015), TG by -8.24% (p=0.0004) and increased HDL-C by +4.43% (p=0.0061). The analysis suggests that a minimum exercise threshold is necessary to produce effects on serum lipids. Overall, the quantitative effect of physical activity on serum lipids is small. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A.; Langade, Deepak G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. Aims: This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Materials and Methods: Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. Results: There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults. PMID:26730141

  17. Endurance training improves skeletal muscle electrical activity in active COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadège; Lambert, Karen; Poulain, Magali; Martin, Anne; Préfaut, Christian; Varray, Alain

    2003-12-01

    The effect of endurance training on muscle electrical activity during general exercise testing was investigated in physically active patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Before and after rehabilitation, patients performed identical incremental exercise tests. Pulmonary gas exchange, venous lactate and pyruvate concentrations, and the quadriceps electromyographic signal were sampled every minute throughout exercise testing. Three weeks of rehabilitation increased exercise capacity without modifying pulmonary function. M-wave amplitude, root mean square (RMS) of electromyographic activity, and RMS/oxygen uptake were increased significantly during post-rehabilitation testing at the same exercise intensity compared to pre-rehabilitation. Median frequency was significantly lower after training. These modifications reflect greater muscle excitability, greater muscle activation for the same level of exercise, and higher recruitment of slow-twitch fibers. Pulmonary rehabilitation in active COPD patients may normalize the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during incremental dynamic exercise. The electromyographic signal confirms neuromuscular changes after endurance training.

  18. [Analysis of influencing factors on physical endurance of Chinese primary and middle school students aged 10 to 17].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-hui; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-jun; Dong, Bin; Fu, Lian-guo; Song, Yi; Hu, Pei-jin; Yang, Yi-de; Wu, Li-jing; Meng, Xiang-rui

    2013-08-01

    To explore the influencing factors on physical endurance among Chinese primary and middle school students aged 10-17. Data was used from "2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance", from which 68 458 primary and middle school students with complete information were selected. Good physical endurance was defined as endurance running time ≤ P 25 of same gender and age, poor physical endurance as ≥ P 75 of same gender and age. Difference of endurance running time in different physical endurance groups was compared; chi-square test, logistic regression and multiple level model were used to analyze influence of region, BMI, diet, exercise and exercise willingness on physical endurance. There were 34 293 (50.0%) students of good physical endurance and 34 219 (50.0%) ones of poor physical endurance in 68 458 subjects. Percentage of good physical endurance was 53.8% (18 285/33 996) in rural students, higher than urban ones (46.3% (15 954/34 462)) (χ(2) = 384.16, P students, lower than normal (55.2% (28 183/51 028)), overweight (29.3% (2012/6874)) and emaciated ones (52.1% (3596/6896)) (χ(2) = 3840.08, P students having breakfast everyday, higher than ones never having breakfast or 1-2 times per week (41.3% (3209/7768))(χ(2) = 438.31, P students having milk everyday, slightly higher than ones never or sometimes having milk (49.2% (22 659/46 079)) (χ(2) = 39.84, P students with adequate physical education class, higher than ones with inadequate class (44.7% (15 278/34 144)) (χ(2) = 756.41, P students with one hour exercise or more per day, higher than ones with less than one hour exercise (47.4% (24 755/52 263)) (χ(2) = 619.82, P students who were "very willing" to take part in endurance running, higher than "generally willing" ones (45.4% (10 569/23 272)) and "not willing" ones (33.5% (4383/13 068)) (χ(2) = 2909.61, P students (OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.77-0.82) than urban ones. Risk in emaciated students (OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.05-1.17), overweight students

  19. Training of students’ special endurance in ping pong sport circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Grinko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urpose: to test experimentally influence of aerobic trainings (cross country training and basic aerobic on students’ special endurance in sport oriented groups (sport circles, ping pong. Material: 106 first year students (n=53 - control group and n=53 - experimental participated in experiment. For determination of temporal series’ trends R-S analysis was used. Prognostication of mistakes’ quantity per one set was fulfilled with the help of exponential smoothing method. Results: it was shown that exponential smoothing method permits to prognosticate by one set ahead with rather high accuracy. As initial predictor we found mean quantity of mistakes in all sets. It permits to average all internal and external factors, which influence on the next predicting indicators. Such approach increases confidence of mistakes’ calculation in prognostication. Criteria of prognostication methodic for possible indicators’ values were also determined. Conclusions: the recommended time distribution in program is as follows: ping pong - 75%; cross country training and basic aerobic - 25%.

  20. Implicit motives and basic need satisfaction in extreme endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Julia; Wegner, Mirko; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the effects of basic psychological needs on the flow experience in sports are moderated by implicit motives. However, so far, only leisure and health-oriented sports have been analyzed. In a pilot study and a main study (N = 29, 93), we tested whether the implicit achievement and affiliation motives interact with the need for competence and the need for social relatedness satisfaction, respectively, to predict flow experience and well-being in extreme endurance athletes. Results showed that highly achievement-motivated individuals benefited more from the need for competence satisfaction in terms of flow than individuals with a low achievement motive did. In addition, highly affiliation-motivated individuals whose need for social relatedness is satisfied reported higher positive affect and lower exercise addiction scores than athletes with a low motive. We discuss the differential effects of the interplay between the achievement and affiliation motives and basic needs on different outcome variables.

  1. TRAINING OF STUDENTS’ SPECIAL ENDURANCE IN PING PONG SPORT CIRCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinko V.M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urpose: to test experimentally influence of aerobic trainings (cross country training and basic aerobic on students’ special endurance in sport oriented groups (sport circles, ping pong. Material: 106 first year students (n=53 - control group and n=53 - experimental participated in experiment. For determination of temporal series’ trends R-S analysis was used. Prognostication of mistakes’ quantity per one set was fulfilled with the help of exponential smoothing method. Results: it was shown that exponential smoothing method permits to prognosticate by one set ahead with rather high accuracy. As initial predictor we found mean quantity of mistakes in all sets. It permits to average all internal and external factors, which influence on the next predicting indicators. Such approach increases confidence of mistakes’ calculation in prognostication. Criteria of prognostication methodic for possible indicators’ values were also determined. Conclusions: the recommended time distribution in program is as follows: ping pong - 75%; cross country training and basic aerobic - 25%.

  2. The influence of endurance training on multiple sprint cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Stone, Michael H; Stewart, Andrew M; Hughes, Michael G; Moir, Gavin L

    2007-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of endurance training on multiple sprint cycling performance and to evaluate the influence of recovery duration on the magnitude of those effects. Twenty-one physically active male university students were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n = 12) or a control (n = 9) group. The experimental group cycled for 20 minutes each day, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks at 70% of the power output required to elicit maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Multiple sprint performance was assessed using 2 maximal (20 x 5 seconds) sprint cycling tests with contrasting recovery periods (10 or 30 seconds). All tests were conducted on a friction-braked cycle ergometer. Relative to controls, training resulted in a 0.2 L.min(-1) increase in mean VO2max (95% likely range: -0.04 to 0.44 L.min(-1)). Changes in anaerobic capacity (determined by maximal accumulated oxygen deficit) over the same period were trivial (p = 0.96). After training, the experimental group showed significant improvements ( approximately 40 W), relative to controls, in multiple sprint measures of peak and mean power output. In contrast, training-induced reductions in fatigue were trivial (p = 0.63), and there were no significant between-protocol differences in the magnitude of any effects. In summary, 6 weeks of endurance training resulted in substantial improvements in multiple sprint cycling performance, the magnitude of the improvements being largely unaffected by the duration of the intervening recovery periods.

  3. Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high- vs moderate-intensity endurance training: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T J; Collett, J; Howells, K; Morris, M G

    2017-12-01

    High-intensity exercise induces significant central and peripheral fatigue; however, the effect of endurance training on these mechanisms of fatigue is poorly understood. We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. Twenty adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6-8×5 minutes at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~60-80 minutes at 90% lactate threshold). Two time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at 50%Δ were completed pre- and post-training to assess endurance capacity; the two post-training trials were completed at the pretraining 50%Δ (same absolute intensity) and the "new" post-training 50%Δ (same relative intensity). Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. HIIT resulted in greater increases in TTE at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with CONT (38% and -4%, respectively) (P≤.019). Compared with pre-training, HIIT increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (-34% vs -43%, respectively, P=.023) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (-7% vs -3%, respectively, P=.047) following the TTE trial at the same relative intensity. There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after HIIT by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Long-term endurance training increases serum cathepsin S levels in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponder, M; Minichsdorfer, C; Campean, I-A; Emich, M; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Litschauer, B; Strametz-Juranek, J

    2017-11-27

    Circulating cathepsin S (CS) has been associated with a lower risk for breast cancer in a large Swedish cohort. Long-term physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on the development of various cancer subtypes, in particular breast and colorectal cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term endurance sport on CS levels in females. Thirty-six of 40 subjects completed the study. Subjects were told to increase their activity pensum for 8 months reaching 150 min/week moderate or 75 min/week intense exercise. Ergometries were performed at the beginning and the end of the study to prove/quantify the performance gain. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 2 months. Serum CS levels were measured by ELISA. To analyse the change and the progression of CS, Wilcoxon rank sum and Friedman tests were used. The sportive group (performance gain by > 4.9%) showed a significant increase of CS levels from 3.32/2.73/4.09 to 4.00/3.09/5.04 ng/ml (p = 0.008) corresponding to an increase of 20.5%. We could show a significant increase of circulating CS levels in healthy female subjects induced by long-term physical activity. CS, occurring in the tumour microenvironment, is well-known to promote tumour growth, e.g. by ameliorating angiogenesis. However, the role of circulating CS in cancer growth is not clear. As physical activity is known as preventive intervention, in particular concerning breast and colorectal cancers, and long-term physical activity leads to an increase of CS levels in female subjects, circulating CS might even be involved in this protective effect. Clinical trial registration: NCT02097199.

  5. Repeated Ketamine Exposure Induces an Enduring Resilient Phenotype in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Eric M.; Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Warren, Brandon L.; Wright, Katherine N.; Hadad, Roey; Sial, Omar K.; Kroeck, Kyle G.; Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) afflicts up to 10% of adolescents. However, nearly 50% of those afflicted are considered non-responsive to available treatments. Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist has shown potential as a rapid-acting and long-lasting treatment for MDD in adults. Thus, the effectiveness and functional consequences of ketamine exposure during adolescence were explored. Methods Adolescent male rats (postnatal day [PD] 35) received two ketamine (0, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) injections, 4 hours apart, after exposure to day 1 of the forced swim test (FST). The next day, rats were re-exposed to the FST to assess ketamine-induced antidepressant-like responses. Separate groups were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to confirm findings from the FST. After these initial experiments, adolescent naïve rats were exposed to either 1 or 15 consecutive days (PD35–49) of ketamine (20 mg/kg) twice/daily. Ketamine's influence on behavioral reactivity to rewarding (i.e., sucrose preference) and aversive (i.e., elevated plus-maze, FST) circumstances was then assessed 2 months after treatment. To control for age-dependent effects, adult rats (PD75–89) were exposed to identical experimental conditions. Results Ketamine (20 mg/kg) reversed the CUS-induced depression-like behaviors in the FST. Repeated ketamine exposure resulted in anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like responses 2 months after drug exposure. None of the ketamine doses used were capable of inducing drug-seeking behaviors as measured by place preference conditioning. Conclusions Repeated ketamine exposure induces enduring resilient-like responses regardless of age of exposure. These findings point to ketamine, and its repeated exposure, as a potentially useful antidepressant during adolescence. PMID:23790225

  6. Increased risk of atrial fibrillation among elderly Norwegian men with a history of long-term endurance sport practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrstad, M; Løchen, M-L; Graff-Iversen, S; Gulsvik, A K; Thelle, D S; Stigum, H; Ranhoff, A H

    2014-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The prevalence increases with increasing age. In middle-aged men, endurance sport practice is associated with increased risk of AF but there are few studies among elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of long-term endurance sport practice as a risk factor for AF in elderly men. A cross-sectional study compared 509 men aged 65-90 years who participated in a long-distance cross-country ski race with 1768 men aged 65-87 years from the general population. Long-term endurance sport practice was the main exposure. Self-reported AF and covariates were assessed by questionnaires. Risk differences (RDs) for AF were estimated by using a linear regression model. After multivariable adjustment, a history of endurance sport practice gave an added risk for AF of 6.0 percent points (pp) (95% confidence interval 0.8-11.1). Light and moderate leisure-time physical activity during the last 12 months reduced the risk with 3.7 and 4.3 pp, respectively, but the RDs were not statistically significant. This study suggests that elderly men with a history of long-term endurance sport practice have an increased risk of AF compared with elderly men in the general population. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Endurance training remodels sperm-borne small RNA expression and methylation at neurological gene hotspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Lars R; Donkin, Ida; Fabre, Odile

    2018-01-01

    Remodeling of the sperm epigenome by lifestyle factors before conception could account for altered metabolism in the next generation offspring. Here, we hypothesized that endurance training changes the epigenome of human spermatozoa. Using small RNA (sRNA) sequencing and reduced representation...... bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), we, respectively, investigated sRNA expression and DNA methylation in pure fractions of motile spermatozoa collected from young healthy individuals before, after 6 weeks of endurance training and after 3 months without exercise. Expression of 8 PIWI interacting RNA were changed...... by exercise training. RRBS analysis revealed 330 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) after training and 303 DMRs after the detraining period, which were, in both conditions, enriched at close vicinity of transcription start sites. Ontology analysis of genes located at proximity of DMRs returned terms...

  8. Short term endurance results on a single cylinder diesel engine fueled with upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R.; Murugan, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper deliberates the endurance test outcomes obtained from a single cylinder, diesel engine fueled with an upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion. In this investigation a bio oil obtained by pyrolysis of woody biomass was upgraded with acid treatment. The resulted bio oil was emulsified with addition of biodiesel and suitable surfactant which is termed as ATJOE15. The main objective of the endurance test was to evaluate the wear characteristics of the engine components and lubrication oil properties, when the engine is fueled with the ATJOE15 emulsion. The photographic views taken before and after the end of 100 hrs endurance test, and visual inspection of the engine components, wear and carbon deposit results, are discussed in this paper.

  9. The effects of manual resistance training on improving muscular strength and endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; King, George A; Rice, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a manual resistance training (MRT) program on muscular strength and endurance and to compare these effects with those of an identically structured weight resistance training (WRT) program. To do this, 84 healthy college students were randomly assigned to either an MRT (n = 53, mean +/- SD: age 25.6 +/- 6.0 years, height 170.1 +/- 8.1 cm, body mass 73.9 +/- 16.0 kg, and body fat 24.6 +/- 8.7%) or WRT (n = 31, mean +/- SD: age 25.5 +/- 5.2 years; height 169.6 +/- 10.1 cm, body mass 75.0 +/- 17.4 kg, and body fat 24.7 +/- 8.5%) group and engaged in a 14-week training program. Each participant's performance was assessed before and immediately after the 14-week training period. Muscular strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test and the 1RM squat test. Muscular endurance was recorded as the maximum number of repetitions performed with 70% of pretraining 1RM for the bench press and squat exercises. There were no significant differences between the MRT and WRT groups at baseline for muscular strength (p > 0.36) or muscular endurance (p > 0.46). Compared with baseline values, the 14-week training programs produced significant (p 0.22) or for muscular endurance (p > 0.09) after training. The improvements in muscular strength and muscular endurance after a 14-week MRT program in the present study were similar to those produced by a WRT program, and well-designed MRT exercises seem to be effective for improving muscular fitness.

  10. Human torque velocity adaptations to sprint, endurance, or combined modes of training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, M. J.; Callister, R.; Dudley, G. A.; Fleck, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    We had groups of athletes perform sprint and endurance run training independently or concurrently for 8 weeks to examine the voluntary in vivo mechanical responses to each type of training. Pre- and posttraining angle-specific peak torque during knee extension and flexion were determined at 0, 0.84, 1.65, 2.51, 3.35, 4.19, and 5.03 radian.sec-1 and normalized for lean body mass. Knee extension torque in the sprint-trained group increased across all test velocities, the endurance-trained group increased at 2.51, 3.34, 4.19, and 5.03 radian.sec-1, and the group performing the combined training showed no change at any velocity. Knee flexion torque of the sprint and combined groups decreased at 0.84, 1.65, and 2.51 radian.sec-1. Knee flexion torque in the sprint-trained group also decreased at 0 radian.sec-1 and in the combined group at 3.34 radian.sec-1. Knee flexion torque in the endurance-trained group showed no change at any velocity of contraction. Mean knee flexion:extension ratios across the test velocities significantly decreased in the sprint-trained group. Knee extension endurance during 30 seconds of maximal contractions significantly increased in all groups. Only the sprint-trained group showed a significant increase in endurance of the knee flexors. These data suggest that changes in the voluntary in vivo mechanical characteristics of knee extensor and flexor skeletal muscles are specific to the type of run training performed.

  11. EFFECT OF THE CERVICAL ENDURANCE TRAINING PROGRAMME IN MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Gogoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical neck pain commonly arises insidiously and is generally multifactorial in origin. Regardless of the primary source of pain, the prognosis for individual experiencing chronic neck pain is poor. Exercise interventions are important for effective management of patients with neck pain.the objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of cervical endurance training programme with cervical isometric exercise in alleviating symptoms of mechanical neck pain. Methods: 40 subjects were assessed and identified with Mechanical Neck Pain and recruited for the study and were randomly divided into two groups. In one group endurance training for cervical muscles and in another group resisted isometric had been given for 3 weeks. The post treatment scores regarding endurance, pain intensity, disability, Range of motion and muscle power were compared with the pre treatment scores. Results: Paired‘t’ test was done to compare the pretreatment scores with the post treatment scores .Unpaired ‘t’ test was done to compare the post treatment scores of both the groups. The pain intensity, disability were found to be significantly decreased in experimental group than the control group (p<0.001. While the endurance was found to be significantly increased in experimental group than the control group (p < 0.001. The muscle power was found to be slightly increased in the control group than the experimental group .The post treatment cervical range of motion does not have significant difference in between the groups (Flexion- p=0.35 and Extension-p=0.40. Conclusion: This study showed that the progressive endurance exercise is beneficial in alleviating mechanical neck pain and should be incorporated along with the conventional physiotherapy treatment for mechanical neck pain.

  12. The effect of endurance exercise training on plasma lipoprotein AI and lipoprotein AI:AII concentrations in sedentary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilund, Kenneth R; Colvin, Perry L; Phares, Dana; Goldberg, Andrew P; Hagberg, James M

    2002-08-01

    The effect of 6 months of endurance exercise training on plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (Lp)AI and LpAI:AII was determined in 39 sedentary subjects (17 men, 22 women, average age, 57 years) with abnormal cholesterol concentrations (total cholesterol [TC] > 200 mg/dL, or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C] AII concentrations. The change in plasma LpAI concentration was positively correlated to changes in total HDL-C (r =.495, P =.001), the sum of HDL4-C(nmr) + HDL5-C(nmr) (r =.417, P =.008), and average HDL particle size (r =.415, P =.009), but not to changes in body composition or Vo2max. In the 8 subjects with the greatest change in LpAI concentration following training, the size distribution of LpAI and LpAI:AII particles in plasma also was measured before and after training. In these subjects, the size distribution of LpAI:AII particles did not change with training, but there was a significant increase (0.1 nm; P =.048) in the peak size of the "medium" (7.8 to 9.8 nm) LpAI particles after training. In 7 subjects who served as age- and weight-matched sedentary controls, plasma concentrations of total apo A-I, the LpAI and LpAI:AII subfractions, and plasma lipoprotein-lipids did not differ significantly between baseline and final testing. These data indicate that endurance exercise training increases the average size and plasma concentrations of LpAI, but not LpAI:AII, particles, which may represent possible enhancements of reverse cholesterol transport and may provide insight into the role that exercise plays in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  13. TRAINABILITY OF BODY COMPOSITION, AEROBIC POWER AND MUSCULAR ENDURANCE OF CADET WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Bahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the trainability of body composition, aerobic power and muscular endurance of cadet wrestlers. Material: Fifteen cadet wrestlers (age: 15.20±0.94 years participated in this study. Methods: The testing was conducted twice, before and after four-week training period. The physiological parameters included aerobic power, muscular endurance and body composition. Results: A significant decrease in the body fat was observed following the training (p0.05. In general, although a lot of factors including skill, mental, genetic and other fitness factors render some influences on a wrestler's success, improvement of physical fitness plays an important role in championship. Based on results of the present study more time is needed to improve muscular and cardiovascular endurance, therefore wrestling coaches and trainers are recommended to pay special attention to these factors. Conclusion: Our results indicated that wrestlers experienced significant changes in their body fat percentage during four-week training period. Cadet wrestlers’ aerobic power, muscular endurance and body composition are trainable, although these improvements may be less than what has been observed in junior and senior wrestlers.

  14. Vestibulo-cardiorespiratory responses at the onset of chair rotation in endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kohei; Katayama, Keisho; Katayama, Naomi; Hotta, Norio; Ishida, Koji; Miyamura, Miharu

    2005-02-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system has been reported to elicit ventilatory and circulatory changes in humans. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of vestibular-mediated ventilatory and circulatory responses in male endurance runners at the onset of passive chair rotation, which selectively stimulates the semicircular canals. Fourteen runners and 14 male untrained subjects participated. The vestibular stimulus test, which consists of 180 degrees chair rotations (left or right half-turns on an earth-vertical axis) for a duration of 2 s, was carried out on each subject. Inspiratory minute ventilation, tidal volume, respiratory frequency, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured by breath-by-breath and beat-to-beat techniques before, during, and after the chair rotation for a total of 60 s. It was found in this study that (i) the relative change of minute ventilation response in the endurance runners was significantly (P untrained subjects during and after the rotation, and that (ii) no significant group differences were observed in heart rate and mean blood pressure responses during and after the rotation. In conclusion, vestibular-mediated ventilatory response, but not circulatory response, at the onset of the chair rotation in the endurance runners was significantly greater than that in the untrained subjects. The results from the present study suggest that an increase in vestibulo-ventilatory response would be attributed to an adaptation to long-term endurance training.

  15. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, A; Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2016-03-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8) who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-week training periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-week training period HIGH group increased their VO2max (P = 0.005) more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039) and high-frequency power (HFP) increased (P = 0.003) in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in VO2max during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P endurance training.

  16. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8) who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-week training periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-week training period HIGH group increased their VO2max (P = 0.005) more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039) and high-frequency power (HFP) increased (P = 0.003) in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in VO2max during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training. PMID:26985128

  17. Reduced endurance of the cervical flexor muscles in patients with concurrent temporomandibular disorders and neck disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Fuentes, Jorge P; da Costa, Bruno R; Major, Paul W; Warren, Sharon; Thie, Norman M R; Magee, David J

    2010-12-01

    Subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) have been found to have clinical signs and symptoms of cervical dysfunction. Although many studies have investigated the relationship between the cervical spine and TMD, no study has evaluated the endurance capacity of the cervical muscles in patients with TMD. Thus the objective of this study was to determine whether patients with TMD had a reduced endurance of the cervical flexor muscles at any level of muscular contraction when compared with healthy subjects. One hundred and forty-nine participants provided data for this study (49 subjects were healthy, 54 had myogenous TMD, and 46 had mixed TMD). There was a significant difference in holding time at 25% MVC between subjects with mixed TMD when compared to subjects with myogenous TMD and healthy subjects. This implies that subjects with mixed TMD had less endurance capacity at a lower level of contraction (25% MVC) than healthy subjects and subjects with myogenous TMD. No significant associations between neck disability, jaw disability, clinical variables and neck flexor endurance test were found. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  19. Quantitative and Qualitative Criteria for Assessing Endurance in Women over 60 Years of Age – Findings from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortas Jakub

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. If it is to be effective, health training needs to be monitored based on regular and periodic assessment. The norms that have been proposed for standardised endurance tests for the 60-plus age group, particularly for women, still require evaluation. In light of the above, we have undertaken to design quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing the level of endurance. Such criteria are urgently needed by persons working with this age group. Material and methods. We developed a quantitative and qualitative system for evaluating endurance based on Zatsiorky’s model, and we verified it in a group of 90 women aged over 60 years. We analysed data measured directly during a 2-km walk test. Results. We developed a set of quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing endurance in women aged over 60 years based on the results of a 2-km walk test, measured on a scale ranging from 24:18 to 15:52 min:s. Conclusion. The pilot study has proven that a scale based on Zatsiorsky’s model can be an effective tool for assessing endurance in women aged over 60 years. We can thus recommend that it be widely used in practice. It is important to compare these results with the norms for the group in question and to establish comprehensive norms that could be useful for persons who organise physical activity for older adults.

  20. Does Effectiveness of Adolescent Smoking-Cessation Intervention Endure Into Young Adulthood? 7-Year Follow-Up Results from a Group-Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur V Peterson

    Full Text Available The Hutchinson Study of High School Smoking was the first randomized trial to show effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention on 6-months prolonged smoking abstinence at one year post-intervention in a large population-based sample of adolescent smokers. An important question remains: Do the positive effects from teen smoking cessation interventions seen at up to 12 months post-intervention endure into young adulthood? This study examines for the first time whether such positive early effects from teen smoking cessation intervention can endure into young adulthood in the absence of additional intervention.High school smokers (n = 2,151 were proactively recruited into the trial from fifty randomly selected Washington State high schools randomized to the experimental (Motivational Interviewing + Cognitive Behavioral Skills Training telephone counseling intervention or control (no intervention condition. These smokers were followed to 7 years post high school to ascertain rates of six-year prolonged smoking abstinence in young adulthood. All statistical tests are two-sided.No evidence of intervention impact at seven years post high school was observed for the main endpoint of six-year prolonged abstinence, neither among all smokers (14.2% in the experimental condition vs. 13.1% in the control condition, difference = +1.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI = -3.4 to 5.8, p = .61, nor among the subgroups of daily smokers and less-than-daily smokers, nor among other a priori subgroups. But, observed among males was some evidence of an intervention impact on two endpoints related to progress towards quitting: reduction in number of days smoked in the past month, and increase in the length of the longest quit attempt in the past year.There was no evidence from this trial among adolescent smokers that positive effectiveness of the proactive telephone intervention for smoking abstinence, observed previously at one year post-intervention, was sustained

  1. The estimate efficiency of techniques development special endurance wrestlers at the specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latyshev N.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work - experimentally to check up efficiency of method of development of the special endurance of sportsmen with the use of control-trainer devices. In an experiment took part 24 sportsmen in age 16 - 17 years. Reliable distinctions are exposed between the groups of sportsmen on indexes in tests on the special physical preparation (heat round hands and passage-way in feet, in a test on the special endurance (on all of indexes of test, except for the amount of the executed exercises in the first period and during work on control-trainer device (work on a trainer during 60 seconds and work on a trainer 3×120 seconds.

  2. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in s...

  3. Effects of a 6-month football intervention program on bone mass and physical fitness in overweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabra, André; Serra, Hugo; Seabra, Ana

    2016-01-01

    at school. Bone mass indicators included whole-boy and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). Physical fitness tests included 5- and 30-m sprints, countermovement jump (CMJ), and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1). Body composition was evaluated using dual......Introduction: Physical activity is an important medium for improving bone mass and physical fitness of children, and as such is often emphasized in intervention programs with overweight/obesity children. Only few studies have examined the impact of a specific team sport intervention on the bone...... mass and physical fitness in overweight children. This study examined the effects of a 6-month football intervention program in bone mass and physical fitness of overweight children. Methods: Nine boys (8-12 years; body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) participated in a structured 6-month football program...

  4. Limiar anaeróbio e velocidade crítica determinada com diferentes distâncias em nadadores de 10 a 15 anos: relações com a performance e a resposta do lactato sanguíneo em testes de endurance Anaerobic threshold and critical speed determined with different distances in swimmers aged 10 to 15 years: relationship with the performance and blood lactate response during endurance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Coelho Greco

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a velocidade crítica (VC determinada através de diferentes distâncias com o limiar anaeróbio (LAn e as velocidades máximas mantidas em testes de 20 (V20 e 30 (V30 minutos na natação, verificando se a idade cronológica em jovens nadadores interfere nessas relações. Participaram do estudo 31 nadadores (17 meninas e 14 meninos divididos segundo a idade cronológica em dois grupos: 10 a 12 anos e 13 a 15 anos. O LAn foi determinado como sendo a velocidade correspondente a 4mM de lactato sanguíneo. A VC1 (25/50/100m, VC2 (100/200/400m e a VC3 (50/100/200m foram calculadas através do coeficiente angular da reta de regressão linear entre as distâncias e seus respectivos tempos. As V20 e V30 foram determinadas através de três a seis repetições, com coletas de sangue no 10º minuto e ao final do tiro. Para o grupo de 10 a 12 anos, a VC1 (m/s (0,98 ± 0,17 e o LAn (0,97 ± 0,12 não foram diferentes entre si, sendo maiores do que a VC2 (0,92 ± 0,16, VC3 (0,89 ± 0,18, V20 (0,92 ± 0,11 e V30 (0,90 ± 0,11. Para o grupo de 13 a 15 anos, a VC1 (m/s(1,11 ± 0,11 foi maior do que o LAn (1,02 ± 0,07, V20 (0,99 ± 0,09, V30 (0,97 ± 0,09, VC2 (0,98 ± 0,11 e VC3 (1,00 ± 0,11. Pode-se concluir que a distância utilizada na determinação da VC interfere no valor obtido, independente da idade cronológica. A VC determinada com distâncias entre 50 e 400m pode ser utilizada na avaliação da capacidade aeróbia de crianças e adolescentes, substituindo os testes contínuos máximos com durações próximas a 20 ou 30 minutos.The objective of this study was to compare the critical speed (CS determined from different distances with the anaerobic threshold (AnT and the maximum speeds in tests of 20 (S20 and 30 (S30 minutes, and to check if the chronological age of young swimmers can influence these relations. 31 swimmers (17 girls and 14 boys participated in this study, divided by chronological age into two

  5. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Introduction. Strenuous endurance exercise and long-term endurance training are associated with muscle adaptations and dam- age, with reports of ultrastructural and morphological changes2,9,15 as well as a systemic inflammatory response.39. Research has reported mobilization and activation of neu- trophils,4,19.

  6. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  7. Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students

    OpenAIRE

    Iwańska Dagmara; Madej Anna; Urbanik Czesław

    2013-01-01

    Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

  8. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  9. Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwańska Dagmara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

  10. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Baranauskas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The diet of highly trained endurance athletes does not fully meet their requirements and in this situation cannot ensure maximum adaptation to very intense and/or long-duration physical loads. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes must be optimized, adjusted and individualized. Particular attention should be focused on female athletes.

  11. The human endurance athlete: heterogeneity and adaptability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic influences on these muscle characteristics have been indirectly investigated by comparing African endurance athletes, who dominate world-class events, to Caucasian endurance athletes. We have established that African runners have greater resistance to fatigue than Caucasians (p < 0.01) and 50% greater ...

  12. Talking yourself out of exhaustion : The effects of self-talk on endurance performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchfield, A.W.; Hardy, J.; de Morree, H.M.; Staiano, W.; Marcora, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that the perception of effort is the ultimate determinant of endurance performance. Therefore, any physiological or psychological factor affecting the perception of effort will affect endurance performance. Accordingly, this novel

  13. 76 FR 58565 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans regarding benefits. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation...

  14. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... facilities for returning Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families.... Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10...

  15. Prediction of voluntary activation, strength and endurance of elbow flexors in postpolio patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gabrielle M; Middleton, J; Katrak, P H; Lord, S R; Gandevia, S C

    2004-08-01

    To examine the long-term effects of polio, maximal voluntary strength and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles of 177 patients from a postpolio clinic were investigated using twitch interpolation. Muscle endurance was studied in 142 patients during 45 min of submaximal exercise, and predictors of impaired muscle performance were investigated. Twenty-nine of 177 patients (16.4%) had impaired voluntary drive to their elbow flexor muscles, but only 16 (9.0%) had markedly reduced elbow flexor strength, despite 74 (41.8%) reporting they were initially affected in their tested limb and 172 (97.2%) patients reporting new generalized symptoms. Seven patients had impaired muscle endurance in the tests of strength and voluntary drive. During the submaximal exercise, 16 patients (11.3%) had impaired peripheral muscle endurance with normal voluntary activation. These results confirm a low incidence of impaired upper-limb muscle performance in postpolio patients, despite many patients having subjective symptoms consistent with postpolio syndrome. There was an increased relative risk for impaired muscle function in those patients with a subjective decrease in strength in the tested limb, a recent decline in activities of daily living in their tested limb, and who used orthotic devices in their tested limb. Monitoring of function in prior-polio patients with impaired muscle performance may be useful, particularly when combined with investigation of other potential contributory factors to the functional impairment.

  16. Effects of muscular endurance training on musculoskeletal disorders in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Valevein Rodrigues

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Physical exercise is indicated to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms in teachers.Objective To evaluate the effects of muscular endurance training on muscle strength and musculoskeletal symptoms related to the lower limbs of public elementary school teachers.Materials and methods Thirty-one female teachers were divided into two groups: control (CG, n = 15 and muscular endurance training (TG, n = 16. The training consisted of two sets of 15 repetitions of exercises for quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups, twice a week, for 7 weeks, which were conducted with 50% of 10 repetition maximum(10RM (first to fourth week and 60% of 10 RM (fifth to seventh week. Musculoskeletal symptoms (Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, isometric peak torque (Load cell and muscle strength (10RM were assessed before and after intervention. ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey post hoc were used to analyse strength and peak torque of quadriceps and hamstrings and Chi-square goodness-of-fit test were used to analyse the frequency of occurrence of osteomuscular symptoms.Results The highest incidence of symptoms was found in the lumbar region in both groups. Training caused increased muscle strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings, but there were no significant differences in either the peak torque in the quadriceps and hamstrings or in the reduction of musculoskeletal symptoms.Conclusion The exercise program performed in this study increased the dynamic strength in the TG in relation to the CG, but did not alter the incidence of symptoms in the lumbar region and lower limbs in neither of the groups. Thus, results suggest that the duration of intervention may not have been enough to increase peak torque and decrease musculoskeletal symptoms.

  17. Effects of curative treatment emphasizing endurance training on the performance and blood pressure of hypertensive and normotensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worms, F.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of normal values of blood pressure after exercise taking into account the blood pressure at the end of the exercise test is discussed. Hypertensives showed a lower working capacity than normotensives. In normotensives, however, systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise correlated well with the working capacity. After the endurance cure submaximal blood pressure was markedly lower in hypertensives with a striking dependence on the level of initial values. Systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise test was not changed significantly. Most probably it is not possible to overcome this malregulation in hypertensives by endurance training alone.

  18. Endurance training and GH administration in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Lorentsen, J; Isaksson, F

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of endurance training alone and endurance training combined with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was investigated. Sixteen healthy women [age 75 +/- 2 yr (mean +/- SE)] underwent a 12-wk...... and after completion of the training program. Similarly, no effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was observed when combining endurance training with rhGH administration. However, in both the placebo and the GH groups, fat oxidation was significantly increased during exercise performed...... at the same absolute workload after completion of the training program. We conclude that the changed lipid metabolism during exercise observed after endurance training alone or after endurance training combined with rhGH administration is not due to alterations in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue...

  19. Impact of traditional Greek dancing on jumping ability, muscular strength and lower limb endurance in cardiac rehabilitation programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vordos, Zacharias; Kouidi, Evangelia; Mavrovouniotis, Fotios; Metaxas, Thomas; Dimitros, Eleftherios; Kaltsatou, Antonia; Deligiannis, Asterios

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a training programme based on traditional Greek dance on the jumping ability, muscle strength and lower limb endurance in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Forty Greek patients with CHF graded as NYHA ⩽ II and aged 73.2±4.7 years were randomly divided into two groups. Group A ( n=20) participated in a three-month physical rehabilitation programme based on Greek traditional dances, whereas group B ( n=20) remained untrained and served as the control group. All patients were studied before and after the 12-week exercise training programme. At baseline and follow-up the exercise capacity of the patients was evaluated by the six-minute walking test, their lower extremity muscle strength was evaluated by an isokinetic dynamometer and their jumping ability by the Myotest-Pro test, which includes three types of jumps (plyometric, countermovement and squat jumps). No significant difference was observed between the two groups at the baseline evaluation. At follow-up, group A showed significant improvements in walking distance calculated from the six-minute walking test (10.0% improvement; pGreek traditional dances in patients with CHF are both safe and effective in improving lower limb function.

  20. Contextual Responsiveness: An Enduring Challenge for Educational Assessment in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Serpell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies in Africa have found that indigenous conceptualization of intelligence includes dimensions of social responsibility and reflective deliberation, in addition to the dimension of cognitive alacrity emphasized in most intelligence tests standardized in Western societies. In contemporary societies undergoing rapid socio-cultural and politico-economic change, the technology of intelligence testing has been widely applied to the process of educational selection. Current applications in Zambia rely exclusively on Western style tests and fail to respond to some enduring cultural preoccupations of many parents, educators and policymakers. We discuss how recent and ongoing research addresses the challenges of eco-culturally responsive assessment with respect to assessment of intellectual functions in early childhood, monitoring initial literacy acquisition in middle childhood, and selection for admission to secondary and tertiary education. We argue that the inherent bias of normative tests can only be justified politically if a compelling theoretical account is available of how the construct of intelligence relates to learning and how opportunities for learning are distributed through educational policy. While rapid social change gives rise to demands for new knowledge and skills, assessment of intellectual functions will be more adaptive in contemporary Zambian society if it includes the dimensions of reflection and social responsibility.

  1. Regular moist snuff dipping does not affect endurance exercise performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Björkman

    Full Text Available Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG. A control group (CO of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1.4 ± 1.7 kg. Total cholesterol increased from 4.12 ± 0.54 (95% CI 3.89-4.35 to 4.46 ± 0.70 (95% CI 4.16-4.75 mM L-1 in SCG, due to increased LDL, and this change was significantly different from CO. Resting values of HDL, C-reactive protein, and free fatty acids (FFA remained unchanged in both groups. In SCG group, both HR and BP were reduced during a four-stage incremental cycling test (from 50 to 80% of VO2max and a prolonged cycling test (60 min at 50% of VO2max. Oxygen uptake (VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, blood lactate (bLa and blood glucose (bGlu concentration, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were unchanged. In CO group, all measurements were unchanged. During the prolonged cycling test, FFA was reduced, but with no significant difference between groups. During the maximal treadmill running test peak values of VO2, pulmonary ventilation (VE, time to exhaustion and bLa were unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, endurance exercise performance (VO2max and maximal endurance time does not seem to be affected by prolonged snuff use, while effects on cardiovascular risk factors are contradictory. HR and BP during rest and submaximal exercise are reduced after cessation of regular use of snuff. Evidently, the long-time adrenergic stress on circulation is reversible.

  2. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  3. Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    /or curcumin on lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups: 1) lead acetate, 2) curcumin, 3) endurance training, 4) training+curcumin, and 5) sham. The rats in the training groups performed treadmill running consisting of 15 to 22 m/min for 25...... to 64 min, 5 times a week for 8 weeks. All groups except sham received lead acetate (20 mg/kg), whereas the sham group received curcumin solvent. In addition, the curcumin and training+curcumin groups received curcumin solution (30mg/kg) intra peritoneally. Chronically administration of lead acetate...... resulted in a significantly increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, but not in hippocampus. In addition, it led to significantly decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels, as compared to sham group. Treadmill running, curcumin...

  4. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity or high volume training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eStöggl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  5. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity, or high volume training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Sperlich, Billy

    2014-01-01

    ENDURANCE ATHLETES INTEGRATE FOUR CONDITIONING CONCEPTS IN THEIR TRAINING PROGRAMS: high-volume training (HVT), "threshold-training" (THR), high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL). The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes, and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 62.6 ± 7.1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over 9 weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml·min·kg(-1) or 11.7%, P 0.05). POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  6. Aerobic exercise supplemented with muscular endurance training improves onset of blood lactate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, John W; Lantis, David J; Ade, Carl J; Cantrell, Greg S; Larson, Rebecca D

    2017-05-05

    Studies have shown that when aerobic exercise is supplemented with muscular endurance training metabolic adaptions occur that result in the delay of the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). However, previous studies have not explored any submaximal cardiorespiratory adaptations that may result from this training protocol. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with a muscular endurance training program on various cardiorespiratory and metabolic measurements. Fourteen aerobically active men performed an incremental exercise test to determine the OBLA, gas exchange threshold (GET), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Maximal strength was measured using 1-repetition max (1-RM) for leg press (LP), leg curl (LC), and leg extension (LE). Eight subjects supplemented their aerobic activity (EX group) with 8 weeks of muscular endurance training, while six continued their regular aerobic activity (CON group). No significant group differences were observed for all pretraining variables. Following eight weeks of training no significant differences in body mass, GET, and VO2max were observed for either group. However, the EX group showed a significant improvement for both absolute and relative VO2 at OBLA compared to the CON group. LC and LE 1-RM assessments for the EX group showed a significant improvement compared to CON group. Muscular endurance training did not improve GET and VO2max, but significantly increased VO2 at OBLA, LP, and LC. These findings suggest that this training protocol maybe useful in the development of submaximal aerobic performance and leg strength for endurance athletes.

  7. The effect of strength training on three-kilometer performance in recreational women endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cherina M; Burnett, Angus F; Newton, Michael J

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated whether a heavy strength training program, as an additive to an endurance running program, would cause significant improvements in 3-km run time in a group of recreationally fit women when compared with endurance-only (EO) training. Sixteen women aged between 18 and 27 years of age were randomly assigned to either an EO group (n = 9) or a concurrent strength and endurance (CSE) group (n = 7). A 10-week training program for both groups consisted of an endurance running program performed three afternoons per week. The CSE group also participated in strength training on the morning of each running session. Testing was conducted pre and post training in a 3-km time trial and measured VO2peak, running economy, muscular strength (1 repetition maximum), and body composition and girth. There was a trend (P = 0.07) toward greater improvement in 3-km performance time for the CSE group (106.7 +/- 91.4 seconds) when compared with the EO group (77.3 +/- 93.0 seconds). Further, the CSE group showed an increase in strength levels when compared with the EO group. The CSE group showed significant increases (P body strength for the bench press (11.9% increase) when compared with the EO group. There were no significant differences between the two groups for VO2peak, running economy, body composition, or girth measurements. This study found no negative or compatibility problems when heavy strength training was added to an endurance running program, and a nonsignificant increase in improvement for 3-km times was evident.

  8. Planning abilities of children aged 4 years and 9 months to 8 1/2 years: Effects of age, fluid intelligence and school type on performance in the Tower of London test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the relationship between age and one type of environmental factor, namely, type of school (i.e., private vs. public, and the development of mental planning ability, as measured by the Tower of London (TOL test. Methods: Participants comprised 197 public and 174 private school students, ranging in age from 4 years and 9 months to 8 years and 6 months. Besides the TOL test, students were administered Raven's Colored Matrices. Results: Results confirmed the findings of previous studies that both age and school type are important predictors of mental planning. Furthermore, results also suggest that the relationship between type of school and mental planning ability cannot be accounted for by differences in students' fluid intelligence. Conclusion: In the present study, the TOL test continued to differentiate public from private school students, even after we controlled for the effect of differences on the Raven test.

  9. The role of physique, strength and endurance in the achievements of elite climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozimek, Mariusz; Rokowski, Robert; Draga, Paweł; Ljakh, Vladimir; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Krawczyk, Marcin; Ręgwelski, Tomasz; Stanula, Arkadiusz; Görner, Karol; Jurczak, Adam; Mucha, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to determine the principal somatic and motor determinants for elite climbers. Twenty climbers were examined [age: 28.5±6.1 years].The runners were divided into two groups based on their climbing level, according to the International Rock Climbing Research Association (IRCRA). Elite climbers represented a 8b-8c Rotpunkt (RP) climbing level (n = 6), and advanced climbers represented an 7c+-8a RP level (n = 14). The following measurements were assessed: height, weight, lean body mass, upper limb length, arm span, and forearm, arm, thigh and calf circumference. The BMI, Rohrer ratio, and Ape Index were also measured. The following motor tests were assessed: a specific test for finger strength, an arm strength test, and a test of muscle endurance (hanging from 2.5 and 4 cm ledges). In addition, pull ups were used to measure muscle resistance to fatigue. Elite climbers recorded significantly higher values for finger strength than advanced climbers (129.08 vs. 111.54 kg; t(18) = 2.35, p = 0.03) and arm endurance (33.17 vs. 25.75 pull ups; t(18) = 2.54, p = 0.02). In addition, the calf circumference was significantly lower in elite climbers than that in advanced climbers (34.75 vs. 36.93 cm; t(18) = 3.50, p = 0.003). The results suggest that elite climbers have greater finger strength and arm endurance than advanced climbers.

  10. mDurance: A Novel Mobile Health System to Support Trunk Endurance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition. This disorder constitutes one of the most common causes of disability worldwide, and as a result, it has a severe socioeconomic impact. Endurance tests are normally considered in low back pain rehabilitation practice to assess the muscle status. However, traditional procedures to evaluate these tests suffer from practical limitations, which potentially lead to inaccurate diagnoses. The use of digital technologies is considered here to facilitate the task of the expert and to increase the reliability and interpretability of the endurance tests. This work presents mDurance, a novel mobile health system aimed at supporting specialists in the functional assessment of trunk endurance by using wearable and mobile devices. The system employs a wearable inertial sensor to track the patient trunk posture, while portable electromyography sensors are used to seamlessly measure the electrical activity produced by the trunk muscles. The information registered by the sensors is processed and managed by a mobile application that facilitates the expert’s normal routine, while reducing the impact of human errors and expediting the analysis of the test results. In order to show the potential of the mDurance system, a case study has been conducted. The results of this study prove the reliability of mDurance and further demonstrate that practitioners are certainly interested in the regular use of a system of this nature.

  11. Can endurance training improve physical capacity and quality of life in young Fontan patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Eva R; Lundell, Bo; Söderström, Liselott; Sjöberg, Gunnar

    2017-12-14

    Children after Fontan palliation have reduced exercise capacity and quality of life. Our aim was to study whether endurance training could improve physical capacity and quality of life in Fontan patients. Fontan patients (n=30) and healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects (n=25) performed a 6-minute walk test at submaximal capacity and a maximal cycle ergometer test. Quality of life was assessed with Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0 questionnaires for children and parents. All tests were repeated after a 12-week endurance training programme and after 1 year. Patients had decreased submaximal and maximal exercise capacity (maximal oxygen uptake 35.0±5.1 ml/minute per·kg versus 43.7±8.4 ml/minute·per·kg, ptraining, patients improved their submaximal exercise capacity in a 6-minute walk test (from 590.7±65.5 m to 611.8±70.9 m, ptraining. At follow-up, improvement of maximal exercise capacity was sustained. We believe that an individualised endurance training programme for Fontan patients improves submaximal exercise capacity and quality of life in Fontan patients and the effect on quality of life appears to be long-lasting.

  12. Muscular strength and endurance and cardio-metabolic health in disadvantaged Hispanic children from the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Burns

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and cardio-metabolic health, independent from aerobic fitness, is not clear in disadvantaged Hispanic children. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and clustered cardio-metabolic risk, controlling for aerobic fitness, in Hispanic children from low-income schools. Participants were 320 Hispanic children (Mean age = 10.1 ± 1.1 years; 164 girls, 156 boys recruited during the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 academic years from five low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Muscular strength and endurance was assessed using the push-up and curl-up tests and estimated VO2 Peak was calculated from the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run. A clustered metabolic syndrome composite score (MetS was calculated from cardio-metabolic health measurements consisting of HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood glucose, and mean arterial pressure (MAP. Multi-level general linear mixed effects models were used to examine the predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and MetS, controlling for the effect of aerobic fitness and the clustering of children within classrooms and schools. Children who were in the middle and upper tertiles for muscular strength and endurance associated with a lower (more favorable MetS score (middle tertile: β = −2.59, 95% C.I. [−4.23, −0.95], p < 0.05; upper tertile: β = −1.57, 95% C.I. [−3.20, −0.16], p < 0.05. The results suggest that higher levels of muscular strength and endurance relate to lower cardio-metabolic risk, independent of aerobic fitness, in Hispanic children from low-income schools.

  13. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Vikmoen

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors.Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8 or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11. The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4-10 repetition maximum (RM], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention.E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15% and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6% and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05. This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7% and fiber type II (31 ± 20% in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05, with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups.Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only.

  14. Relations between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eken, Maaike M; Houdijk, Han; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Kiezebrink, Francisca E M; van Bennekom, Coen A M; Harlaar, Jaap; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the relation between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and peers with typical development. In this case-control study, knee extensor muscle endurance was estimated from individual load-endurance curves as the load corresponding to a 15-repetition maximum in 17 adolescents with spastic CP (six males, 11 females; age 12-19y) and 18 adolescents with typical development (eight males, 10 females; age 13-19y). Questionnaires were used to assess subjectively reported fatigue (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale) and participation (Life-Habits questionnaire). Walking capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test. Relations were determined using multiple regression analyses. Muscle endurance related significantly to subjectively reported fatigue and walking capacity in adolescents with CP, while no relations were found for adolescents with typical development (subjectively reported fatigue: regression coefficient β [95% confidence intervals] for CP=23.72 [6.26 to 41.18], for controls=2.72 [-10.26 to 15.69]; walking capacity β for CP=125m [-87 to 337], for controls=2m [-86 to 89]). The 15-repetition maximum did not relate to participation in adolescents with CP. Subjectively reported fatigue and reduced walking capacity in adolescents with CP are partly caused by lower muscle endurance of knee extensors. Training of muscle endurance might contribute to reducing the experience of fatigue and improving walking capacity. Reduced muscle endurance seems to have no effect on participation. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  15. SOFC Systems with Improved Reliability and Endurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein [Fuelcell Energy, Incorporated, Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project was the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology suitable for ultra-efficient central power generation systems utilizing coal and natural gas fuels and featuring greater than 90% carbon dioxide capture. The specific technical objective of this project was to demonstrate, via analyses and testing, progress towards adequate stack life (≥ 4 years) and stack performance stability (degradation rate ≤ 0.2% per 1000 hours) in a low-cost SOFC stack design. This final technical report summarizes the progress made during the project period of 27 months. Significant progress was made in the areas of cell and stack technology development, stack module development, sub-scale module tests, and Proof-of-Concept Module unit design, fabrication and testing. The work focused on cell and stack materials and designs, balance-of-plant improvements, and performance evaluation covering operating conditions and fuel compositions anticipated for commercially-deployed systems. In support of performance evaluation under commercial conditions, this work included the design, fabrication, siting, commissioning, and operation of a ≥ 50 kWe proof-of-concept module (PCM) power plant, based upon SOFC cell and stack technology developed to date by FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) under the Office of Fossil Energy’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cells program. The PCM system was operated for at least 1000 hours on natural gas fuel at FCE’s facility. The factory cost of the SOFC stack was estimated to be at or below the DOE’s high-volume production cost target (2011 $).

  16. The relationships between inter-recti distance measured by ultrasound imaging and abdominal muscle function in postpartum women: a 6-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Liao, Chien-Fen; Liu, Mei-Fang; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2011-06-01

    A prospective longitudinal study. Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is defined as an increase in the inter-recti distance (IRD), or width of the linea alba. It is a common occurrence in women postpartum. Little information exists on the short- and long-term recovery of IRD and the relationship between changes in IRD and the functional performance of the abdominal muscles. To investigate the natural recovery of IRD and abdominal muscle strength and endurance in women between 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and to examine the relationship between IRD and abdominal muscle function. Forty postpartum (25-37 years of age) and 20 age-matched, nulliparous females participated. IRD was measured at 4 locations (upper and lower margin of the umbilical ring, and 2.5 cm above and below the umbilical ring) with a 7.5-MHz linear ultrasound transducer. Trunk flexion and rotation strength and endurance were measured with manual muscle testing and curl-ups. Evaluation was conducted at 4 to 8 weeks and 6 to 8 months after childbirth in postpartum women, and only once for the nulliparous female controls. During follow-up, the IRD at 2.5 cm above the umbilical ring and at the upper margin of the umbilical ring decreased (P = .013 and P = .002, respectively). The strength and static endurance of the abdominal muscles improved over time (P<.05). A negative correlation between IRD and abdominal muscle function at 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum was found (r = 0.34 to 0.51; P<.05, except for trunk flexion strength at 6 months postpartum [P = .064]). In addition, IRD changes between 7 weeks and 6 months postpartum were correlated with improvement in trunk flexion strength (Spearman rho = 0.38, P = .040). At 6 months after childbirth, postpartum women had greater mean ? SD IRDs at all 4 locations (from cranial to caudal: 1.80 ± 0.72, 2.13 ± 0.65, 1.81 ± 0.62, and 1.16 ± 0.58 cm) than those of nulliparous females (0.85 ± 0.26, 0.99 ± 0.31, 0.65 ± 0.23, and 0.43 ± 0.17 cm) (all P<.001

  17. HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention efficacy with South African adolescents over 54 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; O'Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Lewis, David A; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Icard, Larry D; Carty, Craig; Heeren, G Anita; Tyler, Joanne C; Makiwane, Monde B; Teitelman, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Little research has tested HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction interventions' effects on early adolescents as they age into middle and late adolescence. This study tested whether intervention-induced reductions in unprotected intercourse during a 12-month period endured over a 54-month period and whether the intervention reduced the prevalence of STIs, which increase risk for HIV. Grade 6 learners (mean age = 12.4 years) participated in a 12-month trial in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, in which 9 matched pairs of schools were randomly selected and within pairs randomized to a theory-based HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention or an attention-control intervention. They completed 42- and 54-month postintervention measures of unprotected intercourse (the primary outcome), other sexual behaviors, theoretical constructs, and, at 42- and 54-month follow-up only, biologically confirmed curable STIs (chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis) and herpes simplex virus 2. The HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention reduced unprotected intercourse averaged over the entire follow-up period (OR = 0.42, 95% CI [0.22, 0.84]), an effect not significantly reduced at 42- and 54-month follow-up compared with 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The intervention caused positive changes on theoretical constructs averaged over the 5 follow-ups, although most effects weakened at long-term follow-up. Although the intervention's main effect on STIs was nonsignificant, an Intervention Condition × Time interaction revealed that it significantly reduced curable STIs at 42-month follow-up in adolescents who reported sexual experience. These results suggest that theory-based behavioral interventions with early adolescents can have long-lived effects in the context of a generalized severe HIV epidemic. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  19. Differential modulation of motor cortex plasticity in skill- and endurance-trained athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpulainen, Susanne; Avela, Janne; Gruber, Markus; Bergmann, Julian; Voigt, Michael; Linnamo, Vesa; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    PurposeExtensive evidence exists that regular physical exercise offers neuroplastic benefits to the brain. In this study, exercise-specific effects on motor cortex plasticity were compared between 15 skilled and 15 endurance trained athletes and 8 controls.MethodsPlasticity was tested with a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. PAS is a non-invasive stimulation method developed to induce bidirectional changes in the excitability of the cortical projections to the target muscles. Mot...

  20. Reproducibility of endurance performance on a treadmill using a preloaded time trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ryan D; Redmann, Stephen M; Ravussin, Eric; Hunter, Gary R; Larson-Meyer, D Enette

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a highly reproducible test to measure endurance performance in runners. We evaluated the reproducibility of endurance performance during a 10-km time trial performed on a treadmill after a 90-min preload run at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake VO2max). After screening and a practice test, eight endurance runners (4 men, 4 women, 33.4 +/- 10.1 yr, VO2max = 60.3 +/- 6.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) in men and 51.8 +/- 2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) in women, mean +/- SD) completed two preloaded time trial tests spaced 3-4 wk apart in men and one menstrual cycle apart in women. A high-carbohydrate diet (15% protein, 10% fat, 75% carbohydrate) was provided the day before both tests. Runners completed time trial 1 and time trial 2 in 45:41 +/- 4:45 and 45:24 +/- 5:03 min:s, respectively (43:29 +/- 5:02 and 43:12 +/- 5:14 min:s for men and 47:53 +/- 3:47 and 47:35 +/- 4:23 min:s for women, trials 1 and 2, respectively). The within-subject coefficient of variation for 10-km time was 1.00% +/- 0.25% (point estimate +/- estimated standard error) (0.54% +/- 0.19% for men and 1.26% +/- 0.45% for women). These results suggest that performance measured as time to complete a 10-km time trial on a treadmill after a 90-min preload is extremely reliable and may be useful for future research assessing the effect of diet, ergogenic substances, or training methods on endurance running performance.

  1. The Metabolic and Performance Effects of Caffeine Compared to Coffee during Endurance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Adrian B.; Randell, Rebecca K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2013-01-01

    There is consistent evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of caffeine for endurance based exercise. However, whether caffeine ingested through coffee has the same effects is still subject to debate. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the performance enhancing effects of caffeine and coffee using a time trial performance test, while also investigating the metabolic effects of caffeine and coffee. In a single-blind, crossover, randomised counter-balanced study design, eight tra...

  2. Fire development and wall endurance in sandwich and wood-frame structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton A. Holmes; Herbert W. Eickner; John J. Brenden; Curtis C. Peters; Robert H. White

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale fire tests were conducted on seven 16- by 24-foot structures. Four of these structures were of sandwich construction with cores of plastic or paper honeycomb and three were of wood-frame construction. The wasss were loaded to a computer design loading, and the fire endurance determined under a fire exposure from a typical building contents loading of 4-1/2...

  3. Endurance training is feasible in severely disabled patients with progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerbæk, Ag; Næsby, M; Lützen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether upper-body endurance training (ET) is feasible and can be performed at sufficient intensity to induce cardiovascular adaptations in severely disabled patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Eleven progressive MS patients (6.5 ≤ EDSS ≤ 8.0) scheduled for a four...... was seen for VO2peak (p = 0.06). ET is feasible in severely disabled patients with progressive MS and it can probably be performed at sufficient intensity to induce cardiovascular adaptations....

  4. Innovative Operations Measures and Nutritional Support for Mass Endurance Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiampas, George T; Goyal, Anita V

    2015-11-01

    Endurance and sporting events have increased in popularity and participation in recent years worldwide, and with this comes the need for medical directors to apply innovative operational strategies and nutritional support to meet such demands. Mass endurance events include sports such as cycling and running half, full and ultra-marathons with over 1000 participants. Athletes, trainers and health care providers can all agree that both participant outcomes and safety are of the utmost importance for any race or sporting event. While demand has increased, there is relatively less published guidance in this area of sports medicine. This review addresses public safety, operational systems, nutritional support and provision of medical care at endurance events. Significant medical conditions in endurance sports include heat illness, hyponatraemia and cardiac incidents. These conditions can differ from those typically encountered by clinicians or in the setting of low-endurance sports, and best practices in their management are discussed. Hydration and nutrition are critical in preventing these and other race-related morbidities, as they can impact both performance and medical outcomes on race day. Finally, the command and communication structures of an organized endurance event are vital to its safety and success, and such strategies and concepts are reviewed for implementation. The nature of endurance events increasingly relies on medical leaders to balance safety and prevention of morbidity while trying to help optimize athlete performance.

  5. Effect of sex and menstrual cycle in women on starting speed, anaerobic endurance and muscle power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecek, M; Szymura, J; Maciejczyk, M; Cempla, J; Szygula, Z

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the indicators of starting speed, anaerobic endurance and power in women as well as men, and to investigate whether the values of these indicators differ in women during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The studied group included 16 men and 16 women. The subjects performed the 20-second maximal cycling sprint test. The men performed the test twice at 14-day intervals. The women undertook the test 4 times: twice during the middle of follicular phase and twice in the middle of luteal phase in separate menstrual cycles. Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle do not influence anaerobic performance, starting speed or anaerobic endurance in women. Anaerobic performance in men is higher than in women with similar aerobic performance expressed as VO2max/LBM (lean body mass). A lower power decrease with time was noted for women than men, with a similar time of maintaining power in both groups. This is evidence of women's better anaerobic endurance compared to men. At the same time, the men had significantly better starting speed rates than women.

  6. Combined speed endurance and endurance exercise amplify the exercise-induced PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA response in trained human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Brandt, Nina; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA response related to mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and myogenesis in trained human skeletal muscle to speed endurance exercise (S), endurance exercise (E), and speed endurance followed by endurance exercise (S + E). Seventeen...... trained male subjects (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 57.2 ± 3.7 (mean ± SD) mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed S (6 × 30 sec all-out), E (60 min ~60% VO2-max), and S + E on a cycle ergometer on separate occasions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 1, 2, and 3 h after the speed endurance exercise (S...... that in trained subjects, speed endurance exercise provides a stimulus for muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, substrate regulation, and angiogenesis that is not evident with endurance exercise. These responses are reinforced when speed endurance exercise is followed by endurance exercise....

  7. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony William Blanchfield

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effect of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks is however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effect of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces revealed that individuals cycled for significantly longer (178 s, p = .04 when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 x 5 (condition x iso-time ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the time to exhaustion (TTE test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = .04. In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer (399 s, p = .04 TTE in comparison to inaction words (p = .04. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = .03. These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise.

  8. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

  9. Effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekendiz, Betül; Cuğ, Mutlu; Korkusuz, Feza

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on trunk extensor (abdominal)/flexor (lower back) and lower limb extensor (quadriceps)/flexor (hamstring) muscular strength, abdominal, lower back and leg endurance, flexibility and dynamic balance in sedentary women (n = 21; age = 34 ± 8.09; height = 1.63 ± 6.91 cm; weight = 64 ± 8.69 kg) trained for 45 minutes, 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Results of multivariate analysis revealed significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between pre and postmeasures of 60 and 90° s trunk flexion/extension, 60 and 240° s-1 lower limb flexion/extension (Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer), abdominal endurance (curl-up test), lower back muscular endurance (modified Sorensen test), lower limb endurance (repetitive squat test), lower back flexibility (sit and reach test), and dynamic balance (functional reach test). The results support the fact that Swiss-ball core strength training exercises can be used to provide improvement in the aforementioned measures in sedentary women. In conclusion, this study provides practical implications for sedentary individuals, physiotherapists, strength and conditioning specialists who can benefit from core strength training with Swiss balls.

  10. Effect of thyme extract supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, PGC-1α content and endurance exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Mostafa; Motamedi, Pezhman; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Dabagh Nikukheslat, Saeed; Karimi, Pouran

    2017-01-01

    Athletes have a large extent of oxidant agent production. In the current study, we aimed to determine the influence of thyme extract on the endurance exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant status in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups receiving either normal drinking water (non-supplemented group, n  = 10) or thyme extract, 400 mg/kg, (supplemented group, n  = 10). Rats in both groups were subjected to endurance treadmill training (27 m/min, 10% grade, 60 min, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Finally, to determine the endurance capacity, time to exhaustion treadmill running at 36 m/min speed was assessed. At the end of the endurance capacity test, serum and soleus muscle samples were collected and their superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured. Protein expression of PGC-1α, as a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis, was also determined in the soleus muscle tissue by immunoblotting assay. Findings revealed that the exhaustive running time in the treatment group was significantly ( p  thyme extract supplemented group (t 18  = 8.11, p  thyme supplementation significantly ( p  Thyme extract supplementation increased endurance exercise tolerance in intact animals, although decrease of oxidative stress and regulation of the PGC-1α protein expression are not considered as underlying molecular mechanisms.

  11. The effect of Endurance Exercise on myh6 Gene Expression and Structural and Functional Changes of Left Ventricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Endurance exercise induces cardiac remodeling. Also, myh6 gene is affected by cardiac remodeling. This study was performed with the objective of determining the effect of endurance activity on cardiac myh6 gene expression.   Methods: In this study, 14 rats (weight, 231±24g, after familiarization with endurance trainings, were randomly divided into two groups of control and experimental (7 animals each. The experimental group performed a training program (30m/min, 50min/session, and 6 session/week, for 14 weeks on treadmill. Forty-eight hours after the end of the last session, the animals of the experimental and control groups were anesthetized and anatomized, then, the heart and subsequently the left ventricle, were removed. Real time PCR and sonography methods were, respectively, used to assess the expression levels of myh6 gene and structural changes in left ventricle. Data were analyzed using t-test.   Results: In this study, endurance exercise significantly increased heart weight to body surface area ratio (p=0.002, also final diastolic diameter increased (p=0.008 in experimental group compared to control group. The results showed 124 fold and significant (p=0.011 increase in myh6 gene expression in the experimental group compared to control group.   Conclusion: According to the results of this study, endurance exercise along with structural and functional changes in the left ventricle, induces changes at the gene level and thereby increases heart contractility power.

  12. The Effect of a Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Upper-Body Muscular Strength and Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, James E; Phillips, Shaun M

    2017-07-01

    Dunkin, JE and Phillips, SM. The effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on upper-body muscular strength and endurance. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1948-1953, 2017-Carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinsing rapidly increases corticomotor output and maximal muscle force production, which could enhance muscular strength and endurance during resistance exercise. However, previous research has found no effect of CHO rinsing on muscular strength or endurance. The current study altered the CHO rinse composition and frequency and the muscular endurance test to further investigate the effects of a CHO mouth rinse on upper-body muscular strength and endurance. Twelve recreationally resistance-trained men (mean ± SD age 22 ± 1 year, height 179.2 ± 1.8 cm, body mass 80.9 ± 6.1 kg) completed a bench press protocol (1 repetition maximum [RM] test followed by repetitions to failure at 40% of 1RM) on 3 occasions. Subjects rinsed 25 ml of an 18% CHO solution or a placebo for 10 seconds before 1RM and repetitions to failure and completed a no-rinse control condition. Felt arousal (FA) was measured before and after each rinse, heart rate (HR) was measured before and after both exercise protocols, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded after repetitions to failure. Rinsing did not influence 1RM (p = 0.680, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.03), repetitions to failure (p = 0.677, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.04), or exercise volume (load × reps; p = 0.600, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.05). There were no significant treatment effects on heart rate (p = 0.677, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.04), FA (p = 0.674, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.04) or rating of perceived exertion (p = 0.604, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.05). A CHO mouth rinse does not improve upper-body muscular strength or endurance.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION TRAINING ON ABDOMINAL STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, AND SELECTED ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kernozek

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of self-administered neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES on changes in strength, endurance, selected anthropometric measures, and subject's perceived shape and satisfaction of the abdominal wall. Twenty-four adults (experimental group stimulated their abdominals 5 days per week (20-40 minutes per session for 8 weeks and refrained from engaging in any additional exercise during the study. A control group (N=16 refrained from exercising the abdominals or engaging in any other exercise training during the study. Subjects were tested at the beginning, mid-point, and end of the study. Isometric strength of the abdominal muscles was tested using a isokinetic dynamometer, endurance was measured using the ACSM curl-up test, abdominal circumference was measured using a steel tape measure, and body shape and satisfaction were assessed via questionnaire. The stimulation group had a 58% increase in abdominal strength, whereas the control group did not change. The stimulation group also had a 100% increase in abdominal endurance versus a 28% increase in the control group. Waist circumference decreased by of 3.5 cm in the stimulation group compared to no significant change in the control group. All 24 subjects in the stimulation group felt that their midsections were more "toned" and "firmed" and 13/24 (54% felt that their posture had improved as a result of the stimulation. None of the control group subjects reported changes in these parameters. There were no significant differences in body weight, BMI, or skinfold thickness over the course of the study in either group. NMES, as used in the current study, resulted in significant improvements in the muscular strength and endurance of the abdominal region, as well as subject's perceived shape and satisfaction of the mid-section.

  14. Training effects on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise: comparison between continuous and interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisho, Kei; Hirakawa, Kazufumi

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 different training regimens, continuous (CT) and interval (IT), on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. Eighteen lacrosse players were divided into CT (n = 6), IT (n = 6), and nontraining (n = 6) groups. Both training groups trained for 3 days per week for 15 weeks using bicycle ergometers. Continuous training performed continuous aerobic training for 20-25 minutes, and IT performed high-intensity pedaling comprising 10 sets of 10-second maximal pedaling with 20-second recovery periods. Maximal anaerobic power, maximal oxygen uptake (V(O2max)), and intermittent power output were measured before and after the training period. The intermittent exercise test consisted of a set of ten 10-second maximal sprints with 40-second intervals. Maximal anaerobic power significantly increased in IT (p training groups (p intermittent exercise test, the average of the total mean power output (1-10 sets) increased in both training groups (p training reduced lactate production and increased the mean power output, but there was little effect on high-power endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. In contrast, although lactate production did not decrease, IT improved fatigability and mean power output in the last stage. These results indicated that the endurance capacities for maximal intermittent and continuous exercises were not identical. Ball game players should therefore improve their endurance capacity with high-intensity intermittent exercise, and it is insufficient to assess their capacity with only V(O2max) or continuous exercise tests.

  15. Impact of 8-week endurance training on qualitative and quantitative parameters of stroke volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Pustivšek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dynamics of stroke volume during increasing progressive load varies widely among individuals. The data of current studies describing the impact of long-term endurance training on the dynamics of cardiac stroke volume are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 8-week endurance training on the dynamics of stroke volume and some quantitative features of cardiac function in recreational female runners.Methods: Measurements were performed in the physiological laboratory at the Institute of Sport, Faculty of Sport in Ljubljana. CosmedK4b2 equipment that allows continuous “on-line”, “breath-by-breath” monitoring of oxygen consumption and gases in exhaled air was used. Cardiac output was calculated by the method described by Stringer et al.Results: The results showed a significant increase in stroke volume at rest and during the first two minutes of the test. Maximum stroke volume did not increase, but there was a decrease in heart rate during maximal stroke volume from 126.65 (± 27.14 to 120.15 (± 26.56 beats per minute. The dynamics of stroke volume in a majority of participants did not change. The most common dynamics of stroke volume before and after test was plateau dynamics. The training resulted in an increase in running endurance and the average increase in running speed during the final test by 4.41 % (± 4.62.Conclusion: The exercise resulted in minimal changes in cardiac function and a significant improvement in endurance parameters.

  16. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING AND CONTINUOUS ENDURANCE TRAINING ON AEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE RUNNERS

    OpenAIRE

    Kuno Hottenrott; Sebastian Ludyga; Stephan Schulze

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention...

  17. Impact of childbirth and mode of delivery on vaginal resting pressure and on pelvic floor muscle strength and endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Gunvor; Stær-Jensen, Jette; Siafarikas, Franziska; Engh, Marie Ellström; Brækken, Ingeborg Hoff; Bø, Kari

    2013-01-01

    We sought to study impact of delivery mode on vaginal resting pressure (VRP) and on pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and endurance, and whether these measurements differed in women with and without urinary incontinence. We conducted a cohort study following 277 nulliparous women from midpregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum. Manometer was used for PFM measurements; differences were analyzed by t test (within groups) and analysis of variance (between groups). Only VRP changed significantly (10% reduction, P = .001) after emergency cesarean section. After normal and instrumental vaginal delivery, VRP was reduced by 29% and 30%; PFM strength by 54% and 66%; and endurance by 53% and 65%, respectively. Significant differences for all PFM measures (P VRP and in PFM strength and endurance were found after vaginal delivery. Continent women were stronger than incontinent counterparts. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  19. Metabolic Response to Four Weeks of Muscular Endurance Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Farrell III

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous investigations have shown that muscular endurance resistance training (MERT is conducive in improving the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. However, the metabolic response and time course for adaption is still unclear. Objective: The aims of the current study were to evaluate and track the metabolic response to an individual session of MERT as well as to assess performance adaptations of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with four weeks of MERT. Methods: Seventeen aerobically active men were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX or control group (CON, 9 EX and 8 CON. Baseline measures included a graded exercise test (GXT and 1-repetition maximum (1RM testing for leg press (LP, leg curl (LC, and leg extension (LE. CON continued their regular aerobic activity while the EX supplemented their regular aerobic exercise with 4 weeks of MERT. Results: No significant group differences were observed for all pre-training variables. Following four weeks of training no significant differences in cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables were observed for either group. However, significant improvements in LC and LE 1-RM were observed in EX compared to CON. Substantial accumulations in blood lactate were observed following each MERT session. Conclusion: Four weeks of MERT did not improve cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables, but did significantly improve LC and LE. MERT was also observed to induce a blood lactate response similar to that of HIIT. These findings suggest greater than four weeks is need to see metabolic adaptations conducive for improved aerobic performance using MERT.

  20. Upper-Body Muscular Endurance Training Improves Performance Following 50 min of Double Poling in Well-Trained Cross-Country Skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børve, Jørgen; Jevne, Steffen N; Rud, Bjarne; Losnegard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of muscular endurance training on O2-cost and performance in double poling (DP) on a rollerski treadmill. Twenty-two well-trained cross-country skiers (31 ± 4 years, 77 ± 9 kg, 181 ± 8 cm, VO2max running: 64 ± 5 mL·kg-1·min-1) were counter-balanced to either a combined muscular endurance and running interval training group [MET; n = 11 (♂ = 9, ♀ = 2)], or an endurance running interval training group [ET; n = 11 (♂ = 9, ♀ = 2)]. Both groups continued their normal low-and moderate intensity training, but replaced 2 weekly high intensity-training sessions with two project-specific sessions for 6 weeks. In these sessions, MET combined upper-body muscular endurance training (4 × 30 repetitions, 90 s rest between sets) and running intervals (3 × 4 or 2 × 6 min, 3 min rest), while ET performed running intervals only (6 × 4 or 4 × 6 min, 3 min rest). The DP test-protocol consisted of 50 min submaximal poling for O2-cost measurement, followed by a self-paced 1,000-m performance test. In addition, subjects performed a VO2max test in running. MET increased muscular endurance (P endurance training increased both muscular endurance and 1RM in simulated DP. Further, specific upper-body muscular endurance training improved DP performance and thus, seems as a promising training model to optimize performance in well-trained cross-country skiers.

  1. One-legged endurance training: leg blood flow and oxygen extraction during cycling exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Foss, O; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: As a consequence of enhanced local vascular conductance, perfusion of muscles increases with exercise intensity to suffice the oxygen demand. However, when maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) and cardiac output are approached, the increase in conductance is blunted. Endurance training increases...... muscle metabolic capacity, but to what extent that affects the regulation of muscle vascular conductance during exercise is unknown. Methods: Seven weeks of one-legged endurance training was carried out by twelve subjects. Pulmonary VO(2) during cycling and one-legged cycling was tested before and after...... training, while VO(2) of the trained leg (TL) and control leg (CL) during cycling was determined after training. Results: VO(2) max for cycling was unaffected by training, although one-legged VO(2) max became 6.7 (2.3)% (mean ± SE) larger with TL than with CL. Also TL citrate synthase activity was higher...

  2. The Effects of Acoustic Disturbance on Anaerobic Endurance in Female Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sienkiewicz-Dianzenza Edyta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of the study was to assess anaerobic endurance in volleyball players through repeated vertical jump performance under quiet and noisy conditions. Methods. A group of 12 female players aged 19-28 year completed six sets of eight standing vertical jump jumps; jump height and heart rate before and after the protocol were measured in quiet and noisy (fan cheering conditions. Results. Maximum and minimum vertical jump heights were higher and intragroup differences were smaller in noisy than quiet conditions. Conclusions. Vertical jump testing, a measure of physical activity typical of volleyball, is suitable for monitoring training effects. The influence of noise typical during volleyball matches had a positive effect on player performance and anaerobic endurance.

  3. Blood Volume: Its Adaptation to Endurance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Expansion of blood volume (hypervolemia) has been well documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as a consequence of endurance exercise training. Plasma volume expansion can account for nearly all of the exercise-induced hypervolemia up to 2-4 wk; after this time expansion may be distributed equally between plasma and red cell volumes. The exercise stimulus for hypervolemia has both thermal and nonthermal components that increase total circulating plasma levels of electrolytes and proteins. Although protein and fluid shifts from the extravascular to intravascular space may provide a mechanism for rapid hypervolemia immediately after exercise, evidence supports the notion that chronic hypervolemia associated with exercise training represents a net expansion of total body water and solutes. This net increase of body fluids with exercise training is associated with increased water intake and decreased urine volume output. The mechanism of reduced urine output appears to be increased renal tubular reabsorption of sodium through a more sensitive aldosterone action in man. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia appears to be universal among most animal species, although the mechanisms may be quite different. The hypervolemia may provide advantages of greater body fluid for heat dissipation and thermoregulatory stability as well as larger vascular volume and filling pressure for greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise.

  4. Effects of submaximal and supramaximal interval training on determinants of endurance performance in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, M; Le Blanc, O; Lucas, S J E; Thibault, G; Bailey, D M; Brassard, P

    2017-03-01

    We compared the effects of submaximal and supramaximal cycling interval training on determinants of exercise performance in moderately endurance-trained men. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ), peak power output (Ppeak ), and peak and mean anaerobic power were measured before and after 6 weeks (3 sessions/week) of submaximal (85% maximal aerobic power [MP], HIIT85 , n = 8) or supramaximal (115% MP, HIIT115 , n = 9) interval training to exhaustion in moderately endurance-trained men. High-intensity training volume was 47% lower in HIIT115 vs HIIT85 (304 ± 77 vs 571 ± 200 min; P training was generally associated with increased VO2max (HIIT85 : +3.3 ± 3.1 mL/kg/min; HIIT115 : +3.3 ± 3.6 ml/kg/min; Time effect P = 0.002; Group effect: P = 0.95), Ppeak (HIIT85 : +18 ± 9 W; HIIT115 : +16 ± 27 W; Time effect P = 0.045; Group effect: P = 0.49), and mean anaerobic power (HIIT85 : +0.42 ± 0.69 W/kg; HIIT115 : +0.55 ± 0.65 W/kg; Time effect P = 0.01; Group effect: P = 0.18). Six weeks of submaximal and supramaximal interval training performed to exhaustion seems to equally improve VO2max and anaerobic power in endurance-trained men, despite half the accumulated time spent at the target intensity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Endurance training and GH administration in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Lorentsen, J; Isaksson, F

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of endurance training alone and endurance training combined with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was investigated. Sixteen healthy women [age 75 +/- 2 yr (mean +/- SE)] underwent a 12-wk...... endurance training program on a cycle ergometer. rhGH was administered in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was estimated by means of microdialysis combined with measurements of subcutaneous abdominal......% of pretraining peak oxygen uptake. Endurance training alone did not affect subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis either at rest or during exercise, as reflected by identical levels of interstitial adipose tissue glycerol, subcutaneous abdominal ATBF, and plasma nonesterified fatty acids before...

  6. Specific descriptions of functional providing of the special endurance of boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprich S.B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the specific characteristics of functional and metabolic support of special endurance of qualified boxers. Material: in research took part 16 boxers of high qualification at the age of 19-26 years. To estimate special endurance is used technique of detection the basic parameters of performance boxers "Spuderg-10." To estimate the response of cardiorespiratory system during the test "3x3" is used portable ergo-spirometry complex «Meta Max 3B» (Cortex, Germany. Results: It is shown that the range of individual distinctions of indexes of capacity and functional providing of the special endurance increased in every round under act of accumulation of fatigue. It is related to distinctions of kinetics of the cardiorespiratory system (by the increase of pulmonary ventilation in the first round, by the consumption of О 2 (by a capacity for the achievement of VO 2 max - in the second and by power of reaction of respiratory indemnification of metabolic acidosis - in the third. These distinctions are registered in default of reliable distinctions of quantitative descriptions of acidemic changes in an organism, increasing in the process of the test job processing. Conclusions: in different periods (rounds in boxers high grade found differences of manifestation and combinations of properties features of functional readiness.

  7. The Diurnal Variation on Cardiovascular Endurance Performance of Secondary School Athlete Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chun-Yip; Chow, Gary Chi-Ching; Hung, Kwong-Chung; Kam, Lik-Hang; Chan, Ka-Chun; Mok, Yuen-Ting; Cheng, Nga-Mei

    2015-06-01

    The previous investigations in diurnal variation of endurance sports performance did not reach a consensus and have been limited. This study would be a valuable resource for endurance sports trainers and event managers to plan their training and competition in a specific time of day. The aim of this study is to find out the diurnal variation in cardiovascular endurance performance in the young athletes. Thirty five athlete students (15.17 ± 1.62 years) participated in this study. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), post-exercise percentage of maximal heart rate (MHR% post-ex), post-exercise body temperature (BTemppost-ex), and post exercise blood lactic acid level (LApost-ex) were measured in this study. Three non-consecutive testings: A) Morning (09:00-10:00; AM), B) Noon (12:00-13:00; NN) and C) Afternoon (16:00-17:00; PM) were conducted. Participants were required to follow the meal plan and resting schedule for all testing days. VO2max was significantly higher at NN (F2. 68 = 3.29, P performance was found and the highest exercise VO2max was identified at noon. Secondary school students or young athletes are recommended to have sports training related to VO2max at noon for the purpose of maximizing training effectiveness.

  8. Heart rate at 4 s after the onset of exercise in endurance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniqueli, Divanei; Morra, Elis Aguiar; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Carletti, Luciana; Perez, Anselmo José; Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Mill, José Geraldo

    2014-06-01

    It has been suggested that the increase in heart rate (HR) at the onset of exercise is caused by vagal withdrawal. In fact, endurance runners show a lower HR in maximum aerobic tests. However, it is still unknown whether endurance runners have a lower HR at 4 s after the onset of exercise (4th-sec-HR). We sought to measure the HR at the onset of the 4 s exercise test (4-sET), clarifying its relationship to heart rate variability (HRV), spectral indices, and cardiac vagal index (CVI) in endurance runners (ER) and healthy untrained controls (CON). HR at 4th-sec-HR, CVI, and percent HR increase during exercise were analyzed in the 4-sET. High frequency spectrum (HF-nu), low frequency spectrum (LF-nu), and low frequency/high frequency band ratio (LF/HF) were analyzed from the HRV. ER showed a significantly higher HF, and both a lower LF and LF/HF ratio compared with the CON. ER presented a significantly lower 4th-sec-HR, although neither CVI nor HR increases during exercise were statistically different from the CON. In conclusion, ER presented a lower 4th-sec-HR secondary to increased vagal influence over the sinus node. CVI seems to be too weak to use for discriminating individuals with respect to the magnitude of HR vagal control.

  9. Effects of eight-week supplementation of Ashwagandha on cardiorespiratory endurance in elite Indian cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shweta; Chaskar, Udesh; Sandhu, Jaspal S; Paadhi, Madan Mohan

    2012-10-01

    Cycling is an endurance sport relying mainly on aerobic capacity to provide fuel during long-duration cycling events. Athletes are constantly searching for new methods to improve this capacity through various nutritional and ergogenic aids.s The aim of the study was to find out the effect of Ashwagandha on the cardiorespiratory endurance capacity, that is, aerobic capacity of elite Indian cyclists. Forty elite (elite here refers to the participation of the athlete in at least state-level events) Indian cyclists were chosen randomly and were equally divided into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 500 mg capsules of aqueous roots of Ashwagandha twice daily for eight weeks, whereas the placebo group received starch capsules. The baseline treadmill test for the cyclists were performed to measure their aerobic capacity in terms of maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2) max), metabolic equivalent, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and total time for the athlete to reach his exhaustion stage. After eight weeks of supplementation, the treadmill test was again performed and results were obtained. There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, whereas the placebo group did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, namely, VO(2) max (t = 5.356; P Ashwagandha improved the cardiorespiratory endurance of the elite athletes.

  10. Effects of Yoga on Low Back Stability, Strength and Endurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Anuj D

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the effects of Yoga on improving low back stability (threshold of stability, and mean total velocity of center of pressure), trunk strength (isometric strength in extension and flexion), and back endurance (isometric endurance in extension, flexion, and side laterals). METHODS: A pretest posttest control group experimental design was used. Sixteen participants, 10 females and 6 males, without a history of low back pain, and no prior experience of Yoga, were recruited. ...

  11. Evaluation nutrition of representative and recreational endurance runners

    OpenAIRE

    Jančová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focused on the comparison nutrition of representative and recreational endurance runners. First part is theoretical. It deals with general concepts which are very important for understanding entire work. From general concepts it goes to specific sport nutrition focused on endurance. Practical part evaluates results, which were obtained from respondents. This is an analysis of four-day diet in two groups of people, followed by comparison and evaluation. Respondents from fi...

  12. Kinesio taping and the circulation and endurance ratio of the gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedge, Hannah L; Kroskie, Ryan M; Docherty, Carrie L

    2012-01-01

    Kinesio Tex tape is a therapeutic tape that is applied with the Kinesio-taping (KT) method and is theorized to increase circulation and subsequently improve muscle function. However, little research has been conducted to determine how KT affects performance. To determine the effect of KT on muscular endurance ratio, blood flow, circumference, and volume of the gastrocnemius muscle. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-one healthy, active people (23 men, 38 women; age = 19.99 ± 8.01 years, height = 169.42 ± 23.62 cm, mass = 71.53 ± 36.77 kg) volunteered to participate. They were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: treatment KT, sham KT, and control. Tape was applied based on group assignment. The treatment KT group received the ankle-tape technique as described in the KT manual. The sham KT group received 1 strip of Kinesio Tex tape around the circumference of the proximal gastrocnemius muscle. The control group did not receive tape application. The dependent variables were blood flow in blood perfusion units, volume of water displacement in milliliters, circumference of the gastrocnemius muscle in centimeters, and endurance ratio in joules measured before, 24 hours after, and 72 hours after the intervention. Separate repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted for each dependent variable. We found no group-by-test day interaction for endurance ratios (F(4,116) = 1.99, P = .10). Blood flow, circumference, and volume measurements also yielded no differences among groups (F(2,58) range, 0.02-0.51; P > .05) or test days (F(2,116) range, 0.05-2.33; P > .05). We found KT does not enhance anaerobic muscle function measured by endurance ratio. The KT also did not affect circulation or volume of the gastrocnemius muscle in a healthy population.

  13. Endurance Exercise Training in Young Adults with Barth Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, W Todd; Reeds, Dominic N; Peterson, Linda R; Bohnert, Kathryn L; Tinius, Rachel A; Benni, Paul B; Byrne, Barry J; Taylor, Carolyn L

    2017-01-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked disorder that is characterized by mitochondrial abnormalities, cardio-skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and premature mortality. The effect on endurance exercise training on exercise tolerance, cardio-skeletal function, and quality of life in BTHS is unknown. Four young adults (23 ± 5 years, n = 4) with BTHS participated in a 12-week, supervised, individualized endurance exercise training program. Exercise training was performed on a cycle ergometer for 30-45' three times per week at a moderate intensity level. Exercise tolerance was measured by graded exercise testing and peak oxygen consumption, heart function via two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography, skeletal muscle function by near-infrared spectroscopy, and quality of life through the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire. There were no adverse events during exercise testing or training for any participant. Peak oxygen consumption modestly (~5%) improved in three or four participants. Mean quality of life questions regarding dyspnea and side effects from medications significantly improved following exercise training. Mean resting heart function or skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during exercise did not improve after exercise training. Endurance exercise training is safe and appears to modestly improve peak exercise tolerance and certain measures of quality of life in young adults with BTHS. However, compared to improvements resulting from endurance exercise training seen in other non-BTHS mitochondrial myopathies and heart failure, these improvements appear blunted. Further research into the most beneficial mode, intensity and frequency of exercise training in BTHS is warranted.

  14. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    Endurance sports are increasing in popularity and athletes at all levels are looking for ways to optimize their performance by training and nutrition. For endurance exercise lasting 30 min or more, the most likely contributors to fatigue are dehydration and carbohydrate depletion, whereas gastrointestinal problems, hyperthermia, and hyponatraemia can reduce endurance exercise performance and are potentially health threatening, especially in longer events (>4 h). Although high muscle glycogen concentrations at the start may be beneficial for endurance exercise, this does not necessarily have to be achieved by the traditional supercompensation protocol. An individualized nutritional strategy can be developed that aims to deliver carbohydrate to the working muscle at a rate that is dependent on the absolute exercise intensity as well as the duration of the event. Endurance athletes should attempt to minimize dehydration and limit body mass losses through sweating to 2-3% of body mass. Gastrointestinal problems occur frequently, especially in long-distance races. Problems seem to be highly individual and perhaps genetically determined but may also be related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, hyperosmotic drinks, as well as the intake of fibre, fat, and protein. Hyponatraemia has occasionally been reported, especially among slower competitors with very high intakes of water or other low sodium drinks. Here I provide a comprehensive overview of recent research findings and suggest several new guidelines for the endurance athlete on the basis of this. These guidelines are more detailed and allow a more individualized approach.

  15. Master athletes are extending the limits of human endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Lepers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased participation of master athletes (i.e. > 40 years old in endurance and ultra-endurance events (> 6h duration over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Ageing does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented. The relative stability of gender differences observed across the ages suggests that the age-related declines in physiological function did not differ between males and females. Among the main physiological determinants of endurance performance, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max appears to be the parameter that is most altered by age. Exercise economy and the exercise intensity at which a high fraction of VO2max can be sustained (i.e. lactate threshold, seem to decline to a lesser extent with advancing age. The ability to maintain a high exercise-training stimulus with advancing age is emerging as the single most important means of limiting the rate of decline in endurance performance. By constantly extending the limits of (ultra-endurance, master athletes therefore represent an important insight into the ability of humans to maintain physical performance and physiological function with advancing age.

  16. TEI Index in elite sprinters and endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, N; Ergün, M; Alioğlu, E; Edem, E; Tengiz, I; Aytemiz, F; Ercan, E; İşleğen, Ç

    2015-09-01

    Aerobic training has been reported to have a positive effect on myocardial performance index. The aim of the present study was to examine the myocardial performance index (MPI) in sprinters and endurance athletes. A total of 66 elite male athletes (36 sprinter and 30 endurance athletes) and 33 agematched sedentary controls voluntarily participated in the study. The echocardiographic evaluation was performed and TEI index was measured as a marker of myocardial performance index in all groups. Demographic features, training ages and weekly exercise volumes were similar in sprinters and endurance athletes. There were no significant differences in terms of diastolic parameters and among the groups. In sprinters, isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) and isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) were significantly shorter than in controls. In endurance athletes, IVCT was significantly shorter than in controls. Both sprinters and endurance athletes had longer ET compared with controls. TEI Index was significantly lower in sprinters and endurance athletes than in controls. Our results suggest that both aerobic and anaerobic training seem to have a positive effect on myocardial performance. This comparable effect might be a result of frequently exercising, especially aerobic exercising in sprinters' training programs.

  17. A prospective randomised longitudinal MRI study of left ventricular adaptation to endurance and resistance exercise training in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Angela L; Naylor, Louise H; Carter, Howard H; Buck, Christopher L; Dembo, Lawrence; Murray, Conor P; Watson, Philip; Oxborough, David; George, Keith P; Green, Daniel J

    2011-11-15

    The principle that 'concentric' cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to strength training, whilst 'eccentric' hypertrophy results from endurance exercise has been a fundamental tenet of exercise science. This notion is largely based on cross-sectional comparisons of athletes using echocardiography. In this study, young (27.4 ± 1.1 years) untrained subjects were randomly assigned to supervised, intensive, endurance (END, n = 10) or resistance (RES, n = 13) exercise and cardiac MRI scans and myocardial speckle tracking echocardiography were performed at baseline, after 6 months of training and after a subsequent 6 weeks of detraining. Aerobic fitness increased significantly in END (3.5 to 3.8 l min(-1), P fitness, LV mass and wall thickness in END (P < 0.05), whereas LVEDV remained elevated. This study is the first to use MRI to compare LV adaptation in response to intensive supervised endurance and resistance training. Our findings provide some support for the 'Morganroth hypothesis', as it pertains to LV remodelling in response to endurance training, but cast some doubt over the proposal that remodelling occurs in response to resistance training.

  18. Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems: Project status report for the months of October and November, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report describes a project to develop tools for evaluating solar heating and cooling systems. Current work on this project has been to validate the Florida Solar Energy Center`s (FSEC) models of the Solahart 302K and 302K-AS systems to prepare a rating for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s rebate program for solar domestic hot water heaters. A preliminary rating has been issued by FSEC and updated ratings will be released as necessary. Two of the problems that were mentioned in the August/September report are addressed and a tank heat loss test is discussed. Work continues on improving and validating the models.

  19. Predictors of individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Laine, T; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Nummela, A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that can predict individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training. After the first 8-week preparation period, 37 recreational endurance runners were matched into the high-volume training group (HVT) and high-intensity training group (HIT). During the next 8-week training period, HVT increased their running training volume and HIT increased training intensity. Endurance performance characteristics, heart rate variability (HRV), and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after the training periods. While HIT improved peak treadmill running speed (RSpeak ) 3.1 ± 2.8% (P endurance training in recreational runners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Fatigue Induced by Physical and Mental Exertion Increases Perception of Effort and Impairs Subsequent Endurance Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to per...

  1. Post-ride inflammatory markers in endurance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Farinelli de Siqueira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The acute phase reaction occurs in response to diseases, surgical trauma and can happen after strenuous exercise, like long distance events. This study aimed to evaluate the Serum Amyloid A (SAA, pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-1β and TNFα and creatine phosphokinase (CK after free speed races like physical stress markers in endurance horses. Blood of 21 trained horses that competed in tests of 80, 120 and 160km, was taken before and after race. There was a significant increase in CK and SAA after the race in all horses, as well as the anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-10. But when results were compared between the groups, only the SAA was different, being higher in 160km horses. There was no change in pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-1β and TNFα before and after the event; however, the TNFα was higher in 160km horses after the race. Based on data obtained in this study it was concluded that stress is more dependent on the distance than speed imposed and that SAA is a good marker of physical effort, since it is accompanied by other markers well established as CK. Interleukins are not a good markers since they did not change significantly.

  2. The enduring impact of violence against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Susan D; Mercy, James A; Saul, Janet R

    2017-04-01

    More than one billion children - half of all children in the world - are exposed to violence every year. The violence children are exposed to includes both direct experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, as well as indirectly witnessing violence in their homes, schools, and communities. What these various forms of violence share, based on a review of the literature, is their enduring potential for life-long consequences. These consequences include increases in the risks of injury, HIV, sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, reproductive health problems, and non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes. Studies addressing biologic underpinnings of such consequences demonstrate that violence-associated toxic stress may cause damage to the nervous, endocrine, circulatory, musculo-skeletal, reproductive, respiratory, and immune systems. Furthermore, rigorous economic evaluations suggest that costs associated with the consequences of violence against children exceed $120 billion in the U.S. and account for up to 3.5% of the GDP in sub-regions of East Asia. The expanding literature confirming the mechanisms of consequences and the associated costs of violence against children has been accompanied by growing evidence on effective approaches to prevention. Moreover, the expanding evidence on prevention has been accompanied by a growing determination on the part of global leaders to accelerate action. Thus, as part of the Post-2015 Sustainable Development agenda, the UN has issued a call-to-action: to eliminate violence against children. This unprecedented UN call may foster new investments, to fuel new progress for protecting children around the world from violence and its preventable consequences.

  3. The Effects of Eight Weeks of Resistance versus Endurance Training on Plasma Visfatin level in Middle-Aged Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammadi Damieh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Visfatin is a newly discovered adipokine which increases with obesity. It is not clear whether resistance versus endurance training which induces changes in adipose tissue and blood lipids might decrease the plasma level of visfatin. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of eight weeks of resistance versus endurance training on plasma level of visfatin in middle-aged men. Materials & Methods: This clinical-trial study was conducted in 2010, in Ghachsaran, Iran. Twenty eight healthy middle-aged men (aged 38.3 ± 4.7 years height 173.5 ± 5.9 cm BMI 25.9 ± 2.9 kg/m2 were the subjects of this study. The subjects were randomly assigned into resistance training group (n=9, endurance training group (n=9 or control group (n=10. Resistance training performed 3 d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65–80% of one-repetition maximum, 8-12 repetitions and 2-4 sets for 8 weeks. Endurance training group underwent an 8-week intervention with a frequency of 3 d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65 – 80% maximum heart rate for 20 – 34 minutes. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.5 software using t-test. Results: The results showed that the body fat percent, WHR and plasma visfatin were decreased after resistance and endurance training (P<0.05. Maximum oxygen consumption, on the other hand, increases significantly in the two training groups compared with the control group (P<0.05. Plasma visfatin levels at baseline were positively correlated with body fat percent and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that eight weeks of resistance and endurance training induces change in adipose tissue, and also decreases the plasma visfatin level in middle-aged men.

  4. Effect of endurance training on expiratory flow limitation and dynamic hyperinflation in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Chen, R; Chen, X; Chen, L

    2014-08-01

    Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is the primary pathophysiological hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the effect of lower-extremity endurance training alone on EFL in patients with COPD remains largely unknown. This study aims to determine the effects of endurance training on EFL and dynamic hyperinflation in patients with stable COPD. This was a prospective, single-blinded, non-randomised controlled 12-week study recruiting Chinese patients with stable COPD in an endurance training group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 13). Before and at the end of the study, we measured the EFL, pulmonary function, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP); moreover, the patients underwent a constant work rate exercise test in which Borg dyspnoea scale, tidal breathing flow volume curves and inspiratory capacity (IC) were determined every other minute. Exercise training significantly improved the exercise endurance time (7.00 ± 3.05 vs 18.13 ± 6.44 min, P training had decreased breathing frequency (26.26 ± 7.13 vs 23.15 ± 5.34 breaths/min, P = 0.002), minute ventilation (30.28 ± 7.52 vs 26.85 ± 4.17 L, P = 0.013), tidal peak expiratory flow (1.53 ± 0.22 vs 1.32 ± 0.20 L/s, P = 0.006), mean expiratory flow (0.87 ± 0.19 vs 0.68 ± 0.15 L/s, P = 0.011) and Borg dyspnoea score (7.20 ± 1.15 vs 3.93 ± 1.39, P Endurance training may benefit stable COPD patients in improving exercise endurance, inspiratory muscle strength, ventilatory requirements, exercise-induced hyperinflation and exertional dyspnoea. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short intervention period.

  6. Effects of endurance exercises on microarchitecture of proximal tibia in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiollah Dabidy Roshan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate endurance exercise can change bone mass density and strength of weight-bearing bones in both animals and humans, but its effects on the microstructure are not known. This study aimed to determine skeletal changes induced by the treadmill running endurance in ovariectomized adult mice.Methods: twenty-seven adult female rats were divided into experimental and control groups.(Each group consisted of 9 rats and 9 rats were killed to determine baseline values. Experimental group performed the progressive running exercise for 8 weeks, 12 to 20 m/min, 10 to 59 min, 5 times per week. Microarchitecture of dense and spongy bone tissues in the proximal tibia epiphysis were measured by using a semi-automated image analysis system. Data was analyzed using t-student tests (P<0.05.Results: Running on treadmill causes a significant increase in the thickness and volume of spongy tissue and bone tissue was dense and spongy epiphysis upper tibia (P<0.05. Compared to control, treadmill running group showed significant difference in trabecular thickness and separation. Conclusion: Ovariectomy may decrease the microarchitecture properties of cortical tissue and especially, trabecular tissue in weight-bearing bones. Increasing bone strength induced by endurance exercise is mediated by changes in bon microarchitecture.

  7. Single and concurrent effects of endurance and resistance training on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Maryam; Tayebi, Seyed Morteza; Safari, Hamed

    2013-04-01

    As not only few evidences but also contradictory results exist with regard to the effects of resistance training (RT) and resistance plus endurance training (ERT) on respiratory system, so the purpose of this research was therefore to study single and concurrent effects of endurance and resistance training on pulmonary function. Thirty seven volunteer healthy inactive women were randomly divided into 4 groups: without training as control (C), Endurance Training (ET), RT, and ERT. A spirometry test was taken 24 hrs before and after the training course. The training period (8 weeks, 3 sessions/week) for ET was 20-26 min/session running with 60-80% maximum heart rate (HR max); for RT two circuits/session, 40-60s for each exercise with 60-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and 1 and 3 minutes active rest between exercises and circuits respectively; and for ERT was in agreement with either ET or RT protocols, but the times of running and circuits were half of ET and RT. ANCOVA showed that ET and ERT increased significantly (P0.05) on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio. In conclusion, ET combined with RT (ERT) has greater effect on VC, FVC, FEF rating at25%-75%, and also on PEF except MVV, rather than RT, and just ET has greater effect rather than ERT.

  8. Improved tolerance of peripheral fatigue by the central nervous system after endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghal, F; Cottin, F; Kenoun, I; Rebaï, H; Moalla, W; Dogui, M; Tabka, Z; Martin, V

    2015-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effect of endurance training on central fatigue development and recovery. A control group was compared to a training group, which followed an 8-week endurance-training program, consisting in low-force concentric and isometric contractions. Before (PRE) and after (POST) the training period, neuromuscular function of the knee extensor (KE) muscles was evaluated before, immediately after and during 33 min after an exhausting submaximal isometric task at 15 % of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. After training, the trained group performed another test at iso-time, i.e., with the task maintained until the duration completed before training was matched (POST2). The evaluation of neuromuscular function consisted in the determination of the voluntary activation level during MVCs, from peripheral nerve electrical (VAPNS) and transcranial magnetic stimulations (VATMS). The amplitude of the potentiated twitch (Pt), the evoked [motor evoked potentials, cortical silent period (CSP)] and voluntary EMG activities were also recorded on the KE muscles. Before training, the isometric task induced significant reductions of VAPNS, VATMS and Pt, and an increased CSP. The training period induced a threefold increase of exercise duration, delayed central fatigue appearance, as illustrated by the absence of modification of VAPNS, VATMS and CSP after POST2. At POST, central fatigue magnitude and recovery were not modified but Pt reduction was greater. These results suggest that central fatigue partially adapts to endurance training. This adaptation principally translates into improved tolerance of peripheral fatigue by the central nervous system.

  9. Electromyographic fatigue in neck/shoulder muscles and endurance in women with repetitive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, G A; Strömberg, U; Larsson, B; Ohlsson, K; Balogh, I; Moritz, U

    1992-11-01

    EMG was recorded with surface electrodes from the trapezius and deltoid muscles during a static endurance test at approximately 20% of maximal voluntary contraction. Objective parameters for localized muscular fatigue were derived from the time course of the root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) of the EMG recordings. Isotonic regression is introduced as a tool for assessment of such parameters. The most pronounced sign of fatigue for trapezius was an increase in the RMS values, while for deltoid it was a decrease in the MPF values. This could be explained by the different functions of the two muscles. The endurance time for a group of 11 women in industrial work with repetitive short-cycled work tasks who were diagnosed with neck/shoulder disorders (tension neck) was significantly shorter (p less than 0.05) than for a group with the same work, but without neck/shoulder disorders (n = 11), and shorter than for a control group (n = 11). Regarding the EMG fatigue measures, there were no significant differences between the three groups. We did not find any relationships between endurance time and the EMG parameters. The results indicate that neck/shoulder disorders were not associated with divergent mechanisms for developing fatigue in the muscles, as recorded with surface EMG.

  10. Breath holding endurance: stability over time and relationship with self-assessed persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy G.Y. Thompson-Lake

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Breath holding (BH endurance has been suggested as a measure of the distress tolerance that could predict the outcome of attempts to implement behavior changes, such as stopping smoking or illicit substance use. It is not known however, to what degree BH endurance is a variable trait that may vary depending on situational context, or a stable state characteristic. We measured BH in two groups of participants at baseline and 22 and 89 days (N = 62 and N = 41 post-baseline and in a third group at multiple times points across a 5-week period (N = 44. Participants also filled out a questionnaire created to assess their perceived persistence compared to peers. Correlations were found between baseline and final BH measures (r’s > 0.67, p’s < 0.0001 at all time points. When groups were combined, regardless of time point, Spearman’s rank correlation showed a strong positive correlation (rs = 0.66, p < 0.0001. Self-assessed persistence was not related to BH endurance. This study provides evidence of the stability of BH across time when tested under the same conditions in young adults. Further research is needed to clarify whether BH is linked to behavioral outcomes.

  11. The evaluation of cardiac changes following endurance training in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad Fathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was accurate evaluation of cardiac responses to endurance training using two presented methods of m-mode and weigh in rats, and also evaluation of training induced changes in heart and left ventricular in the proporation of body weight, tibia length and body surface area. Materials and Methods: 20 male Wistar rats (209–231 g were selected they were randomly divided into two groups, and housed in a standard condition. Trained group completed an endurance protocol (14 weeks. The dimensions and weight of heart were measured by ultrasound and balance respectively and were relatively evaluated based on tibia length, body surface area and body weight. Statistical differences between the groups were calculated by independent t test, and the minimal significance level was established at P ≤ .05. Results: The left ventricular end diastole diameter in trained group was significantly more than control group, in compounded parameters, only the FS and SV were significantly different. With normalizing, the differences have become more marked. Conclusion: It seems to assess cardiac adaptations induced by endurance activities, m-mode method is more reliable, in addition to normalization of weight indexes, body weight and BSA which are associated with the energy consumption are proposed.

  12. Muscle mechanical properties of strength and endurance athletes and changes after one week of intensive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Álvaro; Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The study investigates whether tensiomyography (TMG) is sensitive to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue after either one week of intensive strength (ST) or endurance (END) training. Fourteen strength (24.1±2.0years) and eleven endurance athletes (25.5±4.8years) performed an intensive training period of 6days of ST or END, respectively. ST and END groups completed specific performance tests as well as TMG measurements of maximal radial deformation of the muscle belly (Dm), deformation time between 10% and 90% Dm (Tc), rate of deformation development until 10% Dm (V10) and 90% Dm (V90) before (baseline), after training period (post1), and after 72h of recovery (post2). Specific performance of both groups decreased from baseline to post1 (Ptraining, Dm, V10, and V90 were reduced in the ST (Pendurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue and recovery especially in strength training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Strength and endurance training reduces the loss of eccentric hamstring torque observed after soccer specific fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Martyn J; Heron, Kate; Todd, Stefanie; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jones, Paul; Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel D

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of two hamstring training protocols on eccentric peak torque before and after soccer specific fatigue. Twenty-two university male soccer players. Isokinetic strength tests were performed at 60°/s pre and post fatigue, before and after 2 different training interventions. A 45-min soccer specific fatigue modified BEAST protocol (M-BEAST) was used to induce fatigue. Players were randomly assigned to a 4 week hamstrings conditioning intervention with either a maximum strength (STR) or a muscle endurance (END) emphasis. The following parameters were evaluated: Eccentric peak torque (EccPT), angle of peak torque (APT), and angle specific torques at knee joint angles of 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, 60°, 70°, 80° and 90°. There was a significant effect of the M-BEAST on the Eccentric torque angle profile before training as well as significant improvements in post-fatigue torque angle profile following the effects of both strength and muscle endurance interventions. Forty-five minutes of simulated soccer activity leads to reduced eccentric hamstring torque at longer muscle lengths. Short-term conditioning programs (4-weeks) with either a maximum strength or a muscular endurance emphasis can equally reduce fatigue induced loss of strength over this time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Respiratory muscle endurance is limited by lower ventilatory efficiency in post-myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. T. Neves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduced respiratory muscle endurance (RME contributes to increased dyspnea upon exertion in patients with cardiovascular disease. Objective: The objective was to characterize ventilatory and metabolic responses during RME tests in post-myocardial infarction patients without respiratory muscle weakness. Method: Twenty-nine subjects were allocated into three groups: recent myocardial infarction group (RG, n=9, less-recent myocardial infarction group (LRG, n=10, and control group (CG, n=10. They underwent two RME tests (incremental and constant pressure with ventilatory and metabolic analyses. One-way ANOVA and repeated measures one-way ANOVA, both with Tukey post-hoc, were used between groups and within subjects, respectively. Results: Patients from the RG and LRG presented lower metabolic equivalent and ventilatory efficiency than the CG on the second (50± 06, 50± 5 vs. 42± 4 and third part (50± 11, 51± 10 vs. 43± 3 of the constant pressure RME test and lower metabolic equivalent during the incremental pressure RME test. Additionally, at the peak of the incremental RME test, RG patients had lower oxygen uptake than the CG. Conclusions : Post-myocardial infarction patients present lower ventilatory efficiency during respiratory muscle endurance tests, which appears to explain their inferior performance in these tests even in the presence of lower pressure overload and lower metabolic equivalent.

  15. The effect of Sub-maximal exercise-rehabilitation program on cardio-respiratory endurance indexes and oxygen pulse in patients with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Izadi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical or cardio-respiratory fitness are of the best important physiological variables in children with cerebral palsy (CP, but the researches on exercise response of individuals with CP are limited. Our aim was to determine the effect of sub-maximal rehabilitation program (aerobic exercise on maximal oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse and cardio- respiratory physiological variables of children with moderate to severe spastic cerebral palsy diplegia and compare with able-bodied children. Methods: In a controlled clinical trial study, 15 children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy, were recruited on a voluntarily basis (experimental group and 18 subjects without neurological impairments selected as control group. In CP group, aerobic exercise program performed on the average of exercise intensity (144 beat per minute of heart rate, 3 times a week for 3 months. The time of each exercise session was 20-25 minutes. Dependent variables were measured in before (pretest and after (post test of rehabilitation program through Mac Master Protocol on Tantories cycle ergometer in CP group and compared with the control group. Results: The oxygen pulse (VO2/HR during ergometery protocol was significantly lower in CP group than normal group (P<0.05. No significant statistical difference in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max was found between groups. The rehabilitation program leads to little increase of this variable in CP group. After sub-maximal exercise in pretest and post test, the heart rate of patient group was greater than control group, and aerobic exercise leads to significant decrease in heart rate in CP patients(P<0.05. Conclusion: The patients with spastic cerebral palsy, because of high muscle tone, severe spasticity and involuntarily movements have higher energy cost and lower aerobic fitness than normal people. The rehabilitation exercise program can improve physiological function of muscle and cardio-respiratory endurance in these

  16. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MUSCLE FATIGUE CHARACTERISTICS AND MARKERS OF ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn G. Morris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of a range of in-vivo whole muscle characteristics to determinants of endurance performance. Eleven healthy males completed a cycle ergometer step test to exhaustion for the determination of the lactate threshold, gross mechanical efficiency, peak power and VO2max. On two separate occasions, contractile and fatigue characteristics of the quadriceps femoris were collected using a specially designed isometric strength-testing chair. Muscle fatigue was then assessed by stimulating the muscle for 3 minutes. Force, rate of force development and rates of relaxation were calculated at the beginning and end of the 3 minute protocol and examined for reliability and in relation to lactate threshold, VO2max, gross mechanical efficiency and peak power. Muscle characteristics, rate of force development and relaxation rate were demonstrated to be reliable measures. Force drop off over the 3 minutes (fatigue index was related to lactate threshold (r = -0.72 p < 0.01 but not to VO2max. The rate of force development related to the peak power at the end of the cycle ergometer test (r = -0.75 p < 0.01. Rates of relaxation did not relate to any of the performance markers. We found in-vivo whole muscle characteristics, such as the fatigue index and rate of force development, relate to specific markers of peripheral, but not to central, fitness components. Our investigation suggests that muscle characteristics assessed in this way is reliable and could be feasibly utilised to further our understanding of the peripheral factors underpinning performance

  17. Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruo-ming; Sun, Yan-yan; Zhou, Ting-ting; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Zhuang, Jing-jing; Tang, Xuan; Chen, Jing; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2014-10-01

    Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of arctigenin in rats. Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line was exposed to H2O2 (700 μmol/L), and ROS level was assayed using DCFH-DA as a probe. Male SD rats were injected with arctigenin (15 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 6 weeks, and then the weight-loaded forced swimming test (WFST) was performed to evaluate their endurance. The levels of antioxidant-related genes in L6 cells and the skeletal muscles of rats were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Incubation of L6 cells with arctigenin (1, 5, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the H2O2-induced ROS production. WFST results demonstrated that chronic administration of arctigenin significantly enhanced the endurance of rats. Furthermore, molecular biology studies on L6 cells and skeletal muscles of the rats showed that arctigenin effectively increased the expression of the antioxidant-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin (Txn) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), through regulation of two potential antioxidant pathways: AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα in mitochondria and AMPK/p53/Nrf2 in the cell nucleus. Arctigenin efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases.

  18. Short Trail Running Race: Beyond the Classic Model for Endurance Running Performance.

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    Ehrström, Sabine; Tartaruga, Marcus P; Easthope, Christopher S; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Vercruyssen, Fabrice

    2017-10-26

    To examine the extent to which the classical physiological variables of endurance running performance [VO2max, %VO2max at ventilatory threshold (VT), and running economy (RE)], but also muscle strength factors contribute to short trail running (TR) performance. A homogeneous group of nine highly-trained trail runners performed an official TR race (27-km) and laboratory-based sessions to determine VO2max, %VO2max at VT, level RE (RE0%) and RE on a +10% slope (RE+10%), voluntary concentric and eccentric knee extension torques (MVCCon and MVCEcc, respectively), local endurance assessed by a fatigue index (FI) and a time to exhaustion at 87.5% of the velocity associated with VO2max. A simple regression method and commonality analysis identifying unique and common coefficients of each independent variable were used to determine the best predictors for the TR race time (dependent variable). Pearson correlations showed that FI and VO2max had the highest correlations (r = 0.91 and r = -0.76, respectively) with TR performance. The other selected variables were not significantly correlated with TR performance. The analysis of unique and common coefficients of relative VO2max, %VO2max at VT and RE0% provides a low prediction of TR performance (R = 0.48). However, adding FI and RE+10% (instead of RE0%) markedly improved the predictive power of the model (R = 0.98). FI and VO2max showed the highest unique (respectively 49.7 and 21.0% of total effect) and common (27.0% of total effect) contributions to the regression equation. The classic endurance running model does not allow meaningful prediction of short TR performance. Incorporating more specific factors to TR such as local endurance and gradient-specific RE testing procedures should be considered to better characterize short TR performance.

  19. Effect of respiratory muscle training on pulmonary function and aerobic endurance in soccer players.

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    Ozmen, Tarik; Gunes, Gokce Y; Ucar, Ilyas; Dogan, Hanife; Gafuroglu, Tuba U

    2017-05-01

    Few studies investigated the effects of the respiratory muscle training (RMT) in soccer although exhaustive high intensity exercise is known to lead to muscle fatigue in respiratory muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RMT on pulmonary function and aerobic endurance in soccer players. Eighteen male soccer players (mean age 22.2±1.4 years) participated in this study. Participants were assigned randomly to either an RMT or a control (CON) group. The RMT group performed a 15-minute endurance training of respiratory muscles twice a week for 5 weeks. The CON group did not receive RMT during this period. All participants were evaluated for aerobic endurance using 20-meter shuttle run test (20-MST), pulmonary function, maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory mouth pressure (MEP) using spirometry. There was a significant improvement in RMT group (14%) as compared to CON group (4%) in MIP measurement (P=0.04). No significant differences were observed in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and MEP after a five week of RMT (P>0.05). Similarly, there was no difference in 20-MST in the RMT group compared to CON group (P>0.05). We concluded that a five week of RMT increased MIP, but FVC, FEV1, MVV, MEP and aerobic endurance did not improve in soccer players. The RMT in addition to soccer training may improve MIP but not the tolerance to high intensity exercise.

  20. Muscle Deoxygenation and Its Heterogeneity Changes After Endurance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Takagi, Shun; Fuse, Sayuri; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the time course of muscle deoxygenation and its heterogeneity changes through endurance training. Nine healthy untrained male participated in this study. The subjects performed a ramp incremental cycle exercise protocol to estimate VO2peak and muscle tissue oxygen saturation (SmO2) distribution in the VL muscle before and after 3 (3 wk-T) and 6 weeks of endurance training (6 wk-T). The probe of multi-channel near infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy was attached to the left vastus lateralis muscle along the direction of the long axis. The subjects performed cycle exercise at 60 % of VO2peak for 30 min/day, 3 days/week as the endurance training. After the training, VO2peak at 3 wk-T and 6 wk-T were significantly increased compared to pre-training (Pre-T) and VO2peak at 6 wk-T was significantly increased compared to 3 wk-T. Mean SmO2 within measurement sites at VO2peak was significantly decreased after 3 wk-T and 6 wk-T compared to Pre-T, but mean SmO2 was not significantly different between 3 wk-T and 6 wk-T. Conversely, the heterogeneity of the SmO2 during exercise was not significantly changed through endurance training. A significantly negative correlation was found between ΔVO2 and ΔSmO2 after the first 3 weeks of endurance training. In contrast, no correlation was found betweenΔVO2 and ΔSmO2 after the last 3 weeks of endurance training. These results suggest that the enhanced muscle O2 availability may be one of the primary factors in increasing VO2peak after the first 3 weeks of endurance training.

  1. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

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    Marius Schild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.

  2. β-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Craig; Hill, Chester A; Ponte, James; Harris, Roger C

    2012-06-14

    We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg), matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6) or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks) supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET) to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2%) and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9%) following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11) = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11) = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05). There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels.

  3. β-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sale Craig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Methods Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg, matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6 or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2% and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9% following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11 = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11 = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels.

  4. Satellite cell response to erythropoietin treatment and endurance training in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hansen, Mette; Schjerling, Peter; Farup, Jean

    2016-02-01

    treatment led to elevated haematocrit, whereas endurance training increased V̇O2, max. Endurance training led to an increase in SCs associated with type II fibres (P endurance training increased Pax7(+)/MyoD(+) cells, whereas only ESA treatment increased the total content of MyoD(+) cells. Epo-R mRNA presence in adult SC was tested with real-time RT-PCR using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (CD56(+)/CD45(-)/CD31(-)) to isolate cells from a human rectus abdominis muscle and was found to be considerably higher than in whole muscle. In conclusion, endurance training and ESA treatment may separately stimulate SC commitment to the myogenic program. Furthermore, ESA-treatment may alter SC activity by direct interaction with the Epo-R expressed on SCs. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  5. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  6. Does continuous endurance exercise in water elicit a higher release of ANP and BNP and a higher plasma concentration of FFAs in pre-obese and obese men than high intensity intermittent endurance exercise? - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner-Rezek, Klaus; Knechtle, Beat; Fenzl, Matthias; Gredig, Joeri; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-10-10

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) and Brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) stimulate fat cell plasma membrane receptors. They are potent lipolytic agents on isolated fat cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue. The physiological effects of continuous endurance exercise on ANP release and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations have been well described. The enhancement of fat metabolism using high intensity intermittent exercise protocols has been assessed in more recent investigations. The combined effects of endurance exercise and water immersion on ANP and FFA plasma concentration and the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) might be further enhanced by choosing the most effective exercise protocol. Exercise modalities may play a significant role in the future prevention and treatment of obesity. The two testing trials will be performed according to a randomized and cross-over design. Twenty healthy sedentary pre-obese and obese class-1 men will be scrutinized with regard to their metabolic responses to continuous exercise in water and to high intensity endurance exercise in water. Both trials will be matched for energy expenditure. After preliminary testing, the tests will be conducted as repeated measurements. The two different exercise protocols will be compared. The aims of the study are to investigate (1) whether continuous endurance exercise or high intensity intermittent endurance exercise in water elicits both a higher release of ANP and BNP and a higher plasma concentration of glycerol and (2) to determine whether continuous endurance exercise in water or a high intensity intermittent endurance exercise in water would lead to a more pronounced short term (two hours) EPOC effect. If our hypothesis would be confirmed, the most effective exercise protocol based on the combined effects of high intensity endurance exercise and water immersion on ANP and BNP release and glycerol plasma concentrations can be identified. Moreover, the

  7. Does cumulating endurance training at the weekends impair training effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tim; Auracher, Markus; Heeg, Katrin; Urhausen, Axel; Kindermann, Wilfried

    2006-08-01

    Due to occupational restrictions many people's recreational endurance activities are confined to the weekends. We intended to clarify if cumulating the training load in such a way diminishes endurance gains. We conducted a longitudinal study comparing training-induced changes within three independent samples. Thirty-eight healthy untrained participants (45+/-8 years, 80+/-18 kg; 172+/-9 cm) were stratified for endurance capacity and sex and randomly assigned to three groups: 'weekend warrior' (n=13, two sessions per week on consecutive days, 75 min each, intensity 90% of the anaerobic threshold; baseline lactate+1.5 mmol/l), regular training (n=12, five sessions per week, 30 min each, same intensity as weekend warrior), and control (n=13, no training). Training was conducted over 12 weeks and monitored by means of heart rate. Identical graded treadmill protocols before and after the training program served for exercise prescription and assessment of endurance effects. VO2max improved similarly in weekend warrior (+3.4 ml/min per kg) and register training (+1.5 ml/min per kg; P=0.20 between groups). Compared with controls (-1.0 ml/min per kg) this effect was significant for weekend warriors (Pexercise decreased significantly by 11 beats/min (weekend warriors, Ppopulation of healthy untrained subjects, cumulating the training load at the weekends does not lead to an impairment of endurance gains in comparison with a smoother training distribution.

  8. Comparison of muscle buffer capacity and repeated-sprint ability of untrained, endurance-trained and team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edg E, Johann; Bishop, David; Hill-Haas, Stephen; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel

    2006-02-01

    We measured the muscle buffer capacity (betam) and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) of young females, who were either team-sport athletes (n = 7), endurance trained (n = 6) or untrained but physically active (n = 8). All subjects performed a graded exercise test to determine VO(2peak) followed 2 days later by a cycle test of RSA (5 x 6 s, every 30 s). Resting muscle samples (Vastus lateralis) were taken to determine betam. The team-sport group had a significantly higher betam than either the endurance-trained or the untrained groups (181+/- 27 vs. 148 +/- 11 vs. 122 +/- 32 micromol H(+) g dm(-1) pH(-1) respectively; P < 0.05). The team-sport group also completed significantly more relative total work (299 +/- 27 vs. 263 +/- 31 vs. 223 +/- 21 J kg(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) and absolute total work (18.2 +/- 1.6 vs. 14.6 +/- 2.4 vs. 13.0 +/- 1.9 kJ, respectively; P < 0.05) than the endurance-trained or untrained groups during the RSA test. The team-sport group also had a greater post-exercise blood lactate concentration, but not blood pH. There was a significant correlation between betam and RSA (r = 0.67; P < 0.05). Our findings show that young females competing in team sports have a larger betam than either endurance-trained or untrained females. This may be the result of the intermittent, high-intensity activity during training and the match play of team-sport athletes. The team-sport athletes also had a greater RSA than either the endurance-trained or untrained subjects. The greater total work by team-sport athletes was predominantly due to a better performance during the early sprints of the repeated-sprint bout.

  9. Consumo de aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada não afeta o desempenho de endurance Branched-chain amino acids ingestion does not affect endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carlos Uchida

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A suplementação com aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada (BCAA é uma das manipulações dietéticas mais populares entre atletas engajados em atividades de endurance. Entretanto, o papel ergogênico destes aminoácidos ainda não está totalmente estabelecido. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do consumo de BCAA sobre o exercício de endurance realizado até a exaustão. A fim de provocar redução do estoque de glicogênio muscular e, por conseguinte, maximizar a utilização dos BCAA, os sujeitos (n=17 foram submetidos a uma sessão prévia de exercício (corrida realizada a 75% do VO2max por 40 min seguida por 2 tiros a 90% do VO2max por 10 min cada um. Subseqüentemente, após o consumo aleatório de BCAA (77 mg.kg-1 ou placebo, seguindo modelo duplo cego cruzado, os participantes executaram um teste para determinação da capacidade de endurance (corrida a 90% do Limiar anaeróbio até a exaustão. Ambos os experimentos, BCAA e placebo, foram separados por uma semana. Com relação ao tempo até a exaustão e a distância percorrida, nenhuma diferença foi detectada entre as condições experimentais. (Placebo: 50,1±8,9 vs BCAA: 52,4±4,5 min, respectivamente (Placebo: 8,8±1,3 vs BCAA: 9,1±0,6 km, respectivamente. Além disto, também não foi evidenciada diferença na concentração plasmática de glicose, de lactato e de amônia entre ambas condições experimentais. Em conclusão, a suplementação de BCAA não afetou o desempenho de endurance em um teste de corrida até a exaustão.Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplementation is one of the most popular dietary manipulations used by endurance athletes. However, the ergogenic role of these amino acids in endurance exercise is not well established yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of BCAA supplementation upon endurance exercise performed until exhaustion. In order to induce glycogen supply reduction, and thus maximize BCAA

  10. Sodium nitrate supplementation does not enhance performance of endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescós, Raúl; Ferrer-Roca, Ventura; Galilea, Pedro A; Roig, Andreu; Drobnic, Franchek; Sureda, Antoni; Martorell, Miquel; Cordova, Alfredo; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2012-12-01

    Supplementation with inorganic nitrate has been suggested to be an ergogenic aid for athletes as nitric oxide donor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of inorganic sodium nitrate benefits well-trained athletes performing a 40-min exercise test in laboratory conditions. In addition, we investigated the effect of this supplement on plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and in nitrated proteins. Thirteen trained athletes participated in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They performed a 40-min cycle ergometer distance-trial test after two 3-d periods of dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (10 mg·kg of body mass) or placebo. Concentration of plasma nitrate (256 ± 35 μM) and nitrite (334 ± 86 nM) increased significantly (P nitrate supplementation compared with placebo (nitrate: 44 ± 11 μM; nitrite: 187 ± 43 nM). In terms of exercise performance, there were no differences in either the mean distance (nitrate: 26.4 ± 1.1 km; placebo: 26.3 ± 1.2 km; P = 0.61) or mean power output (nitrate: 258 ± 28 W; placebo: 257 ± 28 W; P = 0.89) between treatments. Plasma ET-1 increased significantly (P nitrate (4.0 ± 0.8 pg·mL) and placebo (2.4 ± 0.4 pg·mL) conditions. This increase was significantly greater (P nitrate group. Levels of nitrated proteins did not differ between treatments (nitrate: preexercise, 91% ± 23%; postexercise, 81% ± 23%; placebo: preexercise, 95% ± 20%; postexercise, 99% ± 19%). Sodium nitrate supplementation did not improve a 40-min distance-trial performance in endurance athletes. In addition, concentration of plasma ET-1 increased significantly after exercise after supplementation with sodium nitrate.

  11. LATIHAN ENDURANCE MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS HIDUP LEBIH BAIK DARI PADA LATIHAN PERNAFASAN PADA PASIEN PPOK DI BP4 YOGYAKARTA

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    Siti Khotimah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is an individual state within the scope of capabilities, limitations, symptoms, and psychosocial natures to function in the desired range of roles in society and feel satisfied with that role. Quality of life of COPD patient’s considered very important because it relates directly to the symptoms experienced. In COPD patients increased work causes shortness of breath so that the patients had decreased quality of life. There  has been indication that endurance exercise and breathing exercise improve quality of life in COPD patient. This study was aimed at testing endurance exercise in improving the quality of life of COPD patients. The study is a quasi experiment with pre-test and post-test control group design. The experiment was conducted in BP4 Yogyakarta. The number of samples was 22 patients with COPD who experienced of reducing quality of life. Quality of life in COPD patients measured by SGRQ questionnaires. The number of study subjects were then grouped at random into two groups. Control group one was given diaphragmatic breathing exercise and pursed lip breathing three times a week. Treatment group two was given endurance exercise three times a week. The study was conducted for 12 weeks. SGRQ total value of the data was measured before and after treatment. All data in the analysis using SPSS version 16. Data are destributed normal and homogen, a decrease in the total SGRQ meaningful on breathing exercises and endurance training with a value of p = 0.000 (p <0.05. This means that breathing exercises and endurance exercises at same time can significantly improve the quality of life. The mean total SGRQ values ??after treatment in group one and group two significantly different, where the value of p <0.05, namely p = 0.000, a decrease of group two’s SGRQ total value greater than group one. This means that endurance exercise improves quality of life better than breathing exercises in COPD patients in BP4 Yogyakarta. It is

  12. Acute effect of two aerobic exercise modes on maximum strength and strength endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Eduardo Oliveira; Tricoli, Valmor; Franchini, Emerson; Paulo, Anderson Caetano; Regazzini, Marcelo; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 modes of aerobic exercise (continuous or intermittent) on maximum strength (1 repetition maximum, 1RM) and strength endurance (maximum repetitions at 80% of 1RM) for lower- and upper-body exercises to test the acute hypothesis in concurrent training (CT) interference. Eight physically active men (age: 26.9 +/- 4.2 years; body mass: 82.1 +/- 7.5 kg; height: 178.9 +/- 6.0 cm) were submitted to: (a) a graded exercise test to determine V(.-)O2max (39.26 +/- 6.95 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and anaerobic threshold velocity (3.5 mmol x L(-1)) (9.3 +/- 1.27 km x h(-1)); (b) strength tests in a rested state (control); and (c) 4 experimental sessions, at least 7 days apart. The experimental sessions consisted of a 5-kilometer run on a treadmill continuously (90% of the anaerobic threshold velocity) or intermittently (1:1 minute at V(.-)O2max). Ten minutes after the aerobic exercise, either a maximum strength or a strength endurance test was performed (leg press and bench press exercises). The order of aerobic and strength exercises followed a William's square distribution to avoid carryover effects. Results showed that only the intermittent aerobic exercise produced an acute interference effect on leg strength endurance, decreasing significantly (p exercise mode. In conclusion, the acute interference hypothesis in concurrent training seems to occur when both aerobic and strength exercises produce significant peripheral fatigue in the same muscle group.

  13. HIV risk perception and testing behaviours among men having sex with men (MSM reporting potential transmission risks in the previous 12 months from a large online sample of MSM living in Germany

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    Ulrich Marcus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing and serostatus awareness are essential to implement biomedical strategies (treatment as prevention; oral chemoprophylaxis, and for effective serostatus-based behaviours (HIV serosorting; strategic positioning. The analysis focuses on the associations between reported sexual risks, the perceived risk for HIV infection, and HIV testing behaviour in order to identify the most relevant barriers for HIV test uptake among MSM living in Germany. Methods MSM were recruited to a nationwide anonymous online-survey in 2013 on MSM social networking/dating sites. Questions covered testing behaviours, reasons for testing decisions, and HIV risk perception (5-point scale. Additional questions addressed arguments in favour of home/ home collection testing (HT. Using descriptive statistics and logistic regression we compared men reporting recent HIV testing (RT; previous 12 month with men never tested (NT in a subsample not previously diagnosed with HIV and reporting ≥2 episodes of condomless anal intercourse (CLAI with a non-steady partner of unknown HIV serostatus in the previous 12 months. Results The subsample consisted of 775 RT (13 % of RT and 396 NT (7 % of NT. The number of CLAI episodes in the last 12 months with non-steady partners of unknown HIV status did not differ significantly between the groups, but RT reported significantly higher numbers of partners (>5 AI partners: 65 vs. 44 %. While perceived risks regarding last AI were comparable between the groups, 49vs. 30 % NT were <30 years, lived more often in towns/villages <100,000 residents (60 vs. 39 %, were less out-particularly towards care providers-about being attracted to men (aOR 10.1; 6.9–14.8, more often identified as bisexual (aOR 3.5; 2.5–4.8, and reported lower testing intentions (aOR 0.08; 0.06–0.11. Perceived risks (67 % and routine testing (49 % were the most common testing reasons for RT, while the strong belief not to be infected

  14. Endurance training: is it bad for you?

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    Giuseppe Morici

    2016-06-01

    Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol­ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes. Conversely, elite athletes of both summer and winter sports show increased susceptibility to development of asthma, possibly related to environmental exposures to allergens or poor conditioning of inspired air, so that a distinct phenotype of “sports asthma” has been proposed to characterise such athletes, who more often practise aquatic and winter sports. Overall, endurance training is good for health but may become deleterious when performed at high intensity or volume.

  15. Effects of resistance training combined with moderate-intensity endurance or low-volume high-intensity interval exercise on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Katharine D; Bailey, Kaitlyn J; Jung, Mary E; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effects of resistance training combined with either moderate-intensity endurance or low-volume high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular risk profiles in patients with coronary artery disease. Factorial repeated-measures study design. Nineteen patients were randomized into moderate-intensity endurance (n = 10) or high-intensity interval (n = 9) groups, and attended 2 supervised exercise sessions a week for 6-months. The first 3-months involved exclusive moderate-intensity endurance or high-intensity interval exercise, after which progressive resistance training was added to both groups for the remaining 3-months. Fitness (VO(2)peak), blood pressure and heart rate, lipid profiles and health related quality of life assessments were performed at pretraining, 3 and 6-months training. VO(2)peak increased from pretraining to 3-months in both groups (moderate-intensity endurance: 19.8 ± 7.3 vs. 23.2 ± 7.4 ml kg(-1)min(-1); high-intensity interval: 21.1 ± 3.3 vs. 26.4 ± 5.2 ml kg(-1)min(-1), phigh-density lipoprotein were increased following 6-months of moderate-intensity endurance exercise, while all remaining indices were unchanged. Low-volume high-intensity interval exercise did not elicit improvements in lipids or health related quality of life. Blood pressures and heart rates were unchanged with training in both groups. Findings from our pilot study suggest improvements in fitness occur within the first few months of training in patients with coronary artery disease, after which the addition of resistance training to moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity interval exercise elicited no further improvements. Given the importance of resistance training in cardiac rehabilitation, additional research is required to determine its effectiveness when combined with high-intensity interval exercise. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The use of Saildrones as Long Endurance, Ocean Research Platforms in Remote and Extreme Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R.; Peacock, D.; Jones, E.

    2016-02-01

    The world's oceans are experiencing significant change, which will have a profound impact on ecosystems, fish stocks and climate. Furthermore, the areas where some of the biggest changes are occurring are also some of the least measured and understood. This is largely due to their remote location and/or harsh environment, where the cost of deploying sensors is significant. New technologies are required to supplement ships and mooring data to meet the demand for longer, more economical deployments with the ability for real-time data and adaptive sampling. The Saildrone was designed to meet this need, providing the ability to reach almost any part of the world's oceans, without requiring a ship. Deployed from the dock, the unmanned Saildrone navigates autonomously to the area of interest, where it operates for extended periods before returning to shore for servicing and subsequent re-deployment. The Saildrone is propelled by wind power from a 4 m solid wing. Stability is provided by static weight in the keel and outrigger hulls. The 5.8 m hull includes several payload bays, with a payload capacity of 100 kg. Working with the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), under a collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the Saildrone platform was equipped with a suite of meteorological and oceanographic sensors that would enable a wide variety of ocean research missions to be undertaken. After field tests in San Francisco Bay, a 3 month mission was conducted in the eastern Bering Sea in spring 2015. The mission included rough sea-trials, sensor comparisons in coordination with the NOAAS Oscar Dyson, and a survey of the northern Bering Sea shortly after ice retreat. The mission was completed as planned, with the two Saildrones (SD-126 & SD-128) returning to the dock from which they were deployed after 97 days and each completing 4400 nautical miles. During the second half of 2015, two subsequent missions were conducted in the Gulf of Mexico. Two

  17. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  18. Effects of endurance and resistance exercises on bone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporotic male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banparvari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoporosis is a complex disease characterized by  loss of bone mass, resulting in bone weakness and an increase in susceptibility to fractures. The aim of the current study was to determine skeletal changes induced by two progressive loading training programs on the bone properties of osteoporotic male rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was done on 30 Wistar male rats having mean weight of 180-200 g. They were divided into .5 equal groups. In the experimental group, osteoporosis was induced through intraperitoneal injection of 20% ethanol solution (3g/kg/day for four consecutive days for 3 weeks. The rest of the groups were  baseline group (pre test, resistance training, endurance training, and the control. The two training groups completed 12 five-day weeks of training program. according to resistance or endurance protocols. The other 6 rats were considered as the healthy group without any intervention . At the end of the intervention, the animals were killed and their bone mineral density (BMD of the femur and  L4, L5 were measured. Tensile max load of the left tibia and compression of the L5 vertebra were measured using mechanical tests. Results: The endurance (P= 0.035 and resistance (P= 0.001 groups femur BMD had significantly increased compared to that of the control . L4, L5 BMD in resistance training and control was significantly greater than that of endurance group (P= 0.001,P= 0.001. The tensile maximum load of the tibia and compression of the L5 in the resistance group was significantly greater than the control (P=0.01,P=0.03. Conclusion: Resistance training, compared to endurance training, can induce more effective favourable changes in bone mineral status and bone strength.

  19. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  20. STD Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-19

    April is National STD Awareness Month. STDs can affect anyone. Many STDs don't have symptoms so it's important to get tested.  Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  1. Effects of 12 weeks of Nordic Walking and XCO Walking training on the endurance capacity of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Tobias; Krueger, Jenny; Gaedtke, Angus; Preuss, Manuela; Latsch, Joachim; Predel, Hans-Georg

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have already examined the positive effects of various forms of endurance training in patient groups and in healthy adults up to 60 years old. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of Nordic Walking (NW) and XCO Walking (XCO) training on endurance capacity in healthy older adults, aged 60 years and older. Twenty-three older participants (mean age: 69.9 ± 5.4 years) were randomly assigned to either the NW group or the XCO group. All participants were measured before and after the 12 weeks of endurance training (2 sessions/week) to examine oxygen uptake (VO2) and energy consumption during an outdoor field test. In addition, heart rates were recorded and lactate samples were collected. NW mainly demonstrated some significant (p training increase the efficiency of the cardio-vascular system in older subjects. Both training approaches are suitable options for endurance training, which may serve to counteract age- and inactivity-related decreases in cardio-vascular functioning as well as aid in maintaining overall performance in older adults.

  2. Effects of acute supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate on endurance and sprint performance in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Silvana Bucher; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Peacock, Oliver; James, Philip; Welde, Boye; Stokes, Keith; Böhlke, Nikolai; Tjønna, Arnt Erik

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of acute supplementation with L-arginine and nitrate on running economy, endurance and sprint performance in endurance-trained athletes. In a randomised cross-over, double-blinded design we compared the effects of combined supplementation with 6 g L-arginine and 614 mg nitrate against 614 mg nitrate alone and placebo in nine male elite cross-country skiers (age 18 ± 0 years, VO2max 69.3 ± 5.8 ml ⋅ min(-1) ⋅ kg(-1)). After a 48-hour standardisation of nutrition and exercise the athletes were tested for plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure, submaximal running economy at 10 km ⋅ h(-1) and 14 km ⋅ h(-1) at 1% incline and 180 m as well as 5-km time-trial running performances. Plasma nitrite concentration following L-arginine + nitrate supplementation (319 ± 54 nmol ⋅ L(-1)) did not differ from nitrate alone (328 ± 107 nmol ⋅ L(-1)), and both were higher than placebo (149 ± 64 nmol ⋅ L(-1), p supplementation of L-arginine + nitrate and with nitrate alone compared to placebo, but no additional effect was revealed when L-arginine was added to nitrate. Still, there were no effects of supplementation on exercise economy or endurance running performance in endurance-trained cross-country skiers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between cough-specific quality of life and abdominal muscle endurance, fatigue, and depression in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Hulya; Savci, Sema; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Saglam, Melda; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Coplu, Lutfi

    2015-01-01

    Cough is a prevalent symptom that impacts quality of life in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cough-specific quality of life, abdominal muscle endurance, fatigue, and depression in stable patients with COPD. Twenty-eight patients with COPD (mean age 60.6±8.7 years) referred for pulmonary rehabilitation participated in this cross-sectional study. Sit-ups test was used for assessing abdominal muscle endurance. Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to evaluate symptom-specific quality of life. Fatigue perception was evaluated with Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for assessing depression level. The LCQ total score was significantly associated with number of sit-ups; BDI score; FIS total; physical, cognitive, and psychosocial scores (Pfatigue and decrease abdominal muscle endurance in patients with COPD. Decreased cough-related quality of life is related with increased level of depression in COPD patients. Effects of increased abdominal muscle endurance and decreased fatigue in COPD patients with chronic cough need further investigation.

  4. Wind-shear endurance capability for powered-lift aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Toshio; Tanaka, Keiji; Hynes, Charles S.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1993-01-01

    The present treatment of safety margin considerations for powered-lift (upper wing surface blowing) STOL aircraft emphasizes wind shear endurance, in order to establish safety margin criteria for such aircraft that are equivalent to those of conventional transport aircraft. The simulation results obtained show that a 6.6 deg climb gradient at V(app) for STOL aircraft is required for equivalent shear endurance in approaching a long STOL airport runway, if the STOL aircraft is equipped with an elaborate control/display system and is permitted a change in configuration.

  5. Effects of caloric restriction and overnight fasting on cycling endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lisa M; Rossi, Kelly A; Ward, Emily; Jadwin, Emily; Miller, Todd A; Miller, Wayne C

    2009-03-01

    In addition to aerobic endurance and anaerobic capacity, high power-to-weight ratio (PWR) is important for cycling performance. Cyclists often try to lose weight before race season to improve body composition and optimize PWR. Research has demonstrated body fat-reducing benefits of exercise after fasting overnight. We hypothesized that fasted-state exercise in calorie-res